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Sample records for los reartes sierra

  1. Study on the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M.; Kuijpers, N.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined

  2. Study on the Effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.; Kuijpers, N N; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART), a Dutch intervention for 16- to 21-year-old juveniles. Re-ART aims to decrease severe aggressive behavior using a cognitive behavioral approach combined

  3. Los recursos humanos en un espacio natural protegido: Sierra Nevada

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    Ma. Enriqueta Cózar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Nevada, como todas las áreas de montaña españolas y gran parte del territorio interior andaluz, ha experimentado durante el siglo XX un considerable retroceso demográfico. La población con la que llega al umbral del siglo XXI es una cuarta parte más pequeña que la registrada en 1900 y un tercio inferior a la de 1950. Diversos y complejos factores, tanto internos como externos al área de montaña, de carácter más económico que demográfico, fueron los desencadenantes de una fuerte emigración. La gran pérdida de población ha originado cambios trascendentales en la demografía y en la actividad económica de Sierra Nevada. En la actualidad, la población de este espacio protegido se caracteriza por una desequilibrada distribución en el territorio, un escaso crecimiento natural, un acelerado envejecimiento y una actividad mayoritariamente terciaria. La declaración, en Julio de 1989, como espacio natural protegido bajo la figura de Parque Natural, y la más reciente de Parque Nacional, apenas ha modificado la inercia demográfica regresiva de la mayor parte de sus municipios; tan sólo se ha podido apreciar una cierta tendencia a la estabilización demográfica de la población total del macizo

  4. Stratigraphy and Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Sierra Los Ajos and adjacent areas, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Iriondo, Alexander; Miggins, Daniel P.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Maldonado, Florian; Miller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the northern Sierra Los Ajos reveals new stratigraphic and structural data relevant to deciphering the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the range. The northern Sierra Los Ajos is cored by Proterozoic, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata, equivalent respectively to the Pinal Schist, Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone, Martin Formation, Escabrosa Limestone, and Horquilla Limestone. The Proterozoic–Paleozoic sequence is mantled by Upper Cretaceous rocks partly equivalent to the Fort Crittenden and Salero Formations in Arizona, and the Cabullona Group in Sonora, Mexico.Absence of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group below the Upper Cretaceous rocks and above the Proterozoic–Paleozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos was part of the Cananea high, a topographic highland during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Deposition of Upper Cretaceous rocks directly on Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos area had subsided as part of the Laramide Cabullona basin during Late Cretaceous time. Basal beds of the Upper Cretaceous sequence are clast-supported conglomerate composed locally of basement (Paleozoic) clasts. The conglomerate represents erosion of Paleozoic basement in the Sierra Los Ajos area coincident with development of the Cabullona basin.The present-day Sierra Los Ajos reaches elevations of greater than 2600 m, and was uplifted during Tertiary basin-and-range extension. Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed at higher elevations in the northern Sierra Los Ajos and represent an uplifted part of the inverted Cabullona basin. Tertiary uplift of the Sierra Los Ajos was largely accommodated by vertical movement along the north-to-northwest-striking Sierra Los Ajos fault zone flanking the west side of the range. This fault zone structurally controls the configuration of the headwaters of the San Pedro River basin, an important bi-national water resource in the US

  5. Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). The site.

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    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Gracia, A; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; García, N

    1997-01-01

    In this article a topographical description of the Cueva Mayor Cueva de Silo cave system is provided, including a more detailed topography of the Sala de los Ciclopes Sala de las Oseras-Sima de los Huesos sector. The history of the excavations and discoveries of human and carnivore fossils in Sima de los Huesos and adjacent passages is briefly reported, as well as the increase, throughout the succeeding field seasons, of the human collection and changes in the relative representation of the different skeletal elements and major biases. The carnivore assemblage structure is also considered. Examining the characteristics of the bone breccia, and the current and ancient karst topography, different alternative accesses are discussed for the accumulation of carnivores and humans in the Sima de los Huesos. Taking into account all the available information, an anthropic origin for the accumulation of human fossils seems to us to be the most likely explanation.

  6. Geology of the Sierra de los ajos (Laguna Merin basin, Rocha, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E.; Muzio, R.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2006-01-01

    The studied area is located between Lascano city and Sierra de los Ajos hills (department of Rocha, East Uruguay). It is represented by volcanic deposits correspondent to Puerto Gómez and Arequita Formations which are exposed as remarkable and preserved hills in areas recovered by Cenozoic sediments and wetlands. Detailed geological mapping allowed the descriptive characterization of eight volcanic facies: five coherent facies and three volcaniclastic facies. Several structural lineaments located in a constrictive framework, according to the transcurrent system represented by the northeastern portion of the Santa Lucía - Aiguá - Merín tectonic corridor (SaLAM), were identified. These lineaments (Bella Vista, India Muerta and Los Ajos) controlled the tecto-magmatic arrange in this portion of the basin, determining petrographic and structural differences in the area. Particularly, to the East of the India Muerta with structural trend Nº20 felsic lavas corrrespondent to the Sierra de los Ajos and related volcaniclastic deposits are present. On the other hand to the West, intermediate to felsic lavas occurred and no volcaniclastic deposits have been yet identified

  7. Las lecturas múltiples de una frontera: Huehuetenango y la Sierra de los Cuchumatanes

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    Alejandro Garay Herrera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende analizar la región de Huehuetenango en general, y la Sierra de los Cuchumatanes en particular, como una zona de múltiples transformaciones e identidades que se traslapan entre sí a lo largo del tiempo y el espacio. Al realizar diversas lecturas (históricas, culturales, lingüísticas de esta región, se constata que el concepto de frontera se puede aplicar en diferentes formas y momentos a este espacio geográfico, y no solo en referencia a la moderna frontera política que marca los límites entre dos estados soberanos, como son Guatemala y México.

  8. The Sima de los Huesos crania (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Gracia, A; Lorenzo, C

    1997-01-01

    The Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca) cranial remains found up to and including the 1995 field season are described and compared with other fossils in order to assess their evolutionary relationships. The phenetic affinities of the Sima de los Huesos crania and a large sample of Homo fossils are investigated through principal component analyses. Metrical comparisons of the Sima de los Huesos and other European and African Middle Pleistocene fossils with Neandertals are performed using Z-scores relative to the Neandertal sample statistics. The most relevant cranial traits are metrically and morphologically analyzed and cladistically evaluated. The Sima de los Huesos crania exhibit a number of primitive traits lost in Upper Pleistocene Neandertals (especially in the braincase, but also in the facial skeleton), as well as other traits that are transitional to the Neandertal morphology (particularly in the occipital bone), and features close to what is found in Neandertals (as the supraorbital morphology and midfacial prognathism). Different combinations of primitive and derived traits (shared with Neandertals) are also displayed by the other European Middle Pleistocene fossils. In conclusion, the Sima de los Huesos sample is evolutionarily related to Neandertals as well as to the other European Middle Pleistocene fossils. In our opinion, all the European Middle Pleistocene fossils belong to the Neandertal lineage, and none can be included in an Afroeuropean common ancestor of Neandertals and modern humans.

  9. Structural and lithological conditioning of the large karst systems of the Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba; Condicionantes estructurales y litologicas de los grandes sistemas karsticos de la Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba

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    Diaz Guanche, C.; Ramirez Hernandez, R.; Farfan Gonzalez, H.; Estevez Cruz, E.; Ordaz Hernandez, A.; Aldana Vilas, C.

    2016-07-01

    he karst, a complex phenomenon, is governed by a number of variables which dictate its genesis and evolution. Among these variables tectonic settings and lithology play the main role. In Cuba, approximately 65% of the territory is occupied by karst. The Sierra de los Organos, part of Cordillera de Guaniguanico, has some of the largest karstic systems in the country. With the aim of demonstrating the relationship between the spatial and morphological development of the underground karstic systems and the geological structure and lithology of the area, several structural and morphological measurements and field observations have been made. These measurements and observations allowing us to conclude that the karstic processes take place mainly in massive, relatively homogeneous and very thick limestone in the Sierra de los Organos. Moreover, these rocks are characterized by both low porosity and a high degree of fracturing. These karstic forms are also conditioned by the existence of various fracturing systems with general NE-SW and NW-SE orientations. Interception of these fracturing systems provides, as expected, areas with the largest volumes of karstic cavities. (Author)

  10. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently.

  11. Flora útil de los cafetales en la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México Useful plants of the Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico

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    Miguel Ángel Martínez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cafetales de la Sierra Norte de Puebla son agroecosistemas variados en composición y estructura, donde se pueden encontrar especies vegetales cultivadas y silvestres, nativas e introducidas, y cuya diversidad florística está estrechamente ligada a las condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas en las que se inserta la producción del café. En la última década el cultivo de esta planta ha estado en crisis debido a los bajos precios del producto; sin embargo,los agricultores mantienen los cafetales como fuente de ingreso adoptando nuevas estrategias para obtener recursos económicos mediante la introducción o incremento de cultivos de importancia económica, como pimienta, mamey o plantas medicinales, aprovechando la versatilidad y posibilidades de reorganización de estos agroecosistemas. En este trabajo se presenta el inventario de la flora útil encontrada en cafetales de la SNP. A la fecha están registradas 319 especies pertenecientes a 238 géneros y 99 familias; 90 especies son objeto de comercio y pueden representar nuevas fuentes de ingreso; 256 son nativas y 63 introducidas y se han agrupado en 13 categorías antropocéntricas, de las cuales las medicinales y comestibles son las más numerosas.Coffee plantations in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (SNP are agroecosystems with variable composition and structure. These agroecosystems include native and introduced plant species, as well as cultivated and wild ones. Plant diversity in coffee plantations is closely related to the social, economic, and ecological context into which coffee production is inserted. In the last decade, coffee cultivation has been in crisis due to low prices. Nevertheless, farmers of the SNP maintain their plantations as a source of income, with new strategies such as the introduction or increase of plants with economic value, like allspice (Pimenta dioica, mamey (Pouteria sapota, and medicinal plants, taking advantage of the versatility and possibilities

  12. Fossil hominin radii from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

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    Rodríguez, Laura; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Complete radii in the fossil record preceding recent humans and Neandertals are very scarce. Here we introduce the radial remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in the Sierra de Atapuerca between 1976 and 2011 and which have been dated in excess of 430 ky (thousands of years) ago. The sample comprises 89 specimens, 49 of which are attributed to adults representing a minimum of seven individuals. All elements are described anatomically and metrically, and compared with other fossil hominins and recent humans in order to examine the phylogenetic polarity of certain radial features. Radial remains from SH have some traits that differentiate them from those of recent humans and make them more similar to Neandertals, including strongly curved shafts, anteroposterior expanded radial heads and both absolutely and relatively long necks. In contrast, the SH sample differs from Neandertals in showing a high overall gracility as well as a high frequency (80%) of an anteriorly oriented radial tuberosity. Thus, like the cranial and dental remains from the SH site, characteristic Neandertal radial morphology is not present fully in the SH radii. We also analyzed the cross-sectional properties of the SH radial sample at two different levels: mid-shaft and at the midpoint of the neck length. When standardized by shaft length, no difference in the mid-shaft cross-sectional properties were found between the SH hominins, Neandertals and recent humans. Nevertheless, due to their long neck length, the SH hominins show a higher lever efficiency than either Neandertals or recent humans. Functionally, the SH radial morphology is consistent with more efficient pronation-supination and flexion-extension movements. The particular trait composition in the SH sample and Neandertals resembles more closely morphology evident in recent human males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Luchas y reivindicaciones de los Yanaconas en las haciendas de la sierra piurana en los años 1934-1945

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    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available LUTTES ET REVENDICATIONS DES YANACONAS DANS LES HACIENDAS DE LA SIERRA DE PIURA DE 1934 A 1945. En 1934 la lutte des yanaconas commence dans la sierra de Piura quand ils exigent une amélioration et une réglementation de leurs conditions de travail dans les haciendas. Des membres du Parti Socialiste du Pérou conseillent les colonos et appuient leurs revendications. Les paysans des haciendas dirigent leurs réclamations à l’Inspection Régionale du Travail pour obtenir une solution aux conflits entre colonos et propriétaire de l’hacienda. Les documents étudiés permettent de connaître le système laboral des haciendas serranas. En el año 1934 se inicia la lucha de los yanaconas de la sierra de Piura exigiendo el mejoramiento y la reglamentación de sus condiciones de trabajo en las haciendas. Miembros del Partido Socialista del Perú apoyan y asesoran a los colonos en sus reivindicaciones. Los campesinos de las haciendas dirigen sus quejas mediante pliegos de reclamos a la Inspección Regional de Trabajo para obtener una solución a los conflictos entre colonos y patrón de hacienda. El material analizado permite conocer el sistema laboral vigente en las haciendas serranas. STRUGGLES AND CLAIMS OF THE YANACONAS IN THE PIURAN HIGHLAND HACIENDAS DURING THE YEARS 1934-1945. During 1934, the yanacona struggle begins within the Piura Highlands, demanding labor improvement and a fair ruling of the working conditions in the haciendas of the area. Members of the peruvian socialist party supported and advised all peasants over their claims. These people address their complaints to the Regional Working Inspectory in order to obtain a final solution to their labor conflicts. The study of such documents let us learn about the working system in the Highland Haciendas at that time.

  14. The bony labyrinth of the middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

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    Quam, Rolf; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the bony labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm  PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm < FC3). Some variation is present within the Atapuerca (SH) sample, however, with a few individuals approaching the Neandertal condition more closely. In addition, the cochlear shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins is low, indicating a reduction in the height of the cochlea. Although the phylogenetic polarity of this feature is less clear, the low shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins may be a derived feature. Regardless, cochlear height subsequently increased in Neandertals. In contrast to previous suggestions, the expanded data in the present study indicate no difference across the genus Homo in the angle of inclination of the cochlear basal turn (COs < LSCm). Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not

  15. Three new human skulls from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain.

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    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Gracia, A; Carretero, J M; Carbonell, E

    1993-04-08

    Three important fossil hominids were found in July 1992 in the Middle Pleistocene cave site called Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Northern Spain). One is a complete calvaria (cranium 4), the second a virtually complete cranium (cranium 5), the third represents a more fragmentary cranium of an immature individual (cranium 6). There is a large difference in size between the two adult specimens (for example endocranial volume 1,125 cm3 versus 1,390 cm3). The Atapuerca human remains are dated to > 300,000 years. The Atapuerca cranial sample fits within the 'archaic Homo sapiens' group, but is well differentiated from the Asian Homo erectus group. The extensive Atapuerca human collection is the most complete sample of Middle Pleistocene humans yet discovered from one site, and appears to document an early stage in Neanderthal evolution.

  16. Human hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L; Quam, R; Carretero, J M; Gracia, A; Rodríguez, L

    2008-01-01

    This study describes and compares two hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain). The Atapuerca SH hyoids are humanlike in both their morphology and dimensions, and they clearly differ from the hyoid bones of chimpanzees and Australopithecus afarensis. Their comparison with the Neandertal specimens Kebara 2 and SDR-034 makes it possible to begin to approach the question of temporal variation and sexual dimorphism in this bone in fossil humans. The results presented here show that the degree of metric and anatomical variation in the fossil sample was similar in magnitude and kind to living humans. Modern hyoid morphology was present by at least 530 kya and appears to represent a shared derived feature of the modern human and Neandertal evolutionary lineages inherited from their last common ancestor.

  17. Morfología comparada de los dientes humanos fósiles de Ibeas (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos

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    Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a morphological and comparative study of 68 human fossil teeth recovered from the "Sima de los Huesos" site of the Cueva Mayor-Cueva del Silo karst system (Sierra de Atapuerca, Ibeas de Juarros, Burgos. The morphology of the Ibeas teeth conforms with a pattern of expansion of the anterior dentition characterizing all the Middle Pleistocene human populations, and with a pattern of structural reduction of the posterior teeth characterizing the European population of that period. The Ibeas teeth share several morphological traits with those of other European, North African and Asian Middle Pleistocene fossils. However, the tooth morphology of the European group, in which the Ibeas fossils are included, shows remarkable differences with that of the other groups. This fact permits to reinforce the thesis that a distinctive hominid lineage was established in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Ibeas teeth bring forward new evidence to support the hypothesis of a close filogenetic relationship between the Middle Pleistocene European population and the Nearderthals and, accordingly, of a local evolution during that period and the Early Upper Pleistocene.Este trabajo contiene el estudio morfológico comparado de un total de 68 dientes humanos fósiles recuperados en la Sima de los Huesos, yacimiento situado en el sistema kárstico Cueva Mayor-Cueva del Silo (Sierra de Atapuerca, Ibeas de Juarros, Burgos. La morfología de los dientes de Ibeas se ajusta a un modelo de expansión de la dentición anterior que caracteriza a todas las poblaciones humanas del Pleistoceno medio, y a un modelo de reducción estructural de la dentición posterior que caracteriza a la población europea de dicho periodo. Los dientes de Ibeas comparten diversos rasgos morfológicos con los dientes de otros fósiles mesopleistocenos de Europa, norte de Africa y este de Asia. Sin embargo, el grupo europeo, en el que se incluyen los f

  18. The nevado-filábride complex in the western part of Sierra de los Filabres (Betic Internal Zone), structure and lithologic succession

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    Sanz de Galdeano, C.; López Garrido, A.

    2016-07-01

    In the western part of Sierra de los Filabres (in the Nevado-Filábride Complex, within the Betic Internal Zone) several tectonic units have been described, in varying numbers depending on the author describing them. However, new cartographical data show that the limits of these units pass through the lithological formations without displacing them. Moreover, the rocks belonging to some units that are supposedly situated in a lower tectonic position really belong to higher formations. From bottom to top, these lithological formations are the following: (1) dark schists and quartzites; (2) quartzites, sandstones, sands, lutites, schists, and mica schists; (3) schists; (4) marbles, schists, and mica schists. High-angle reverse faults are associated with the great E-W anticline of Sierra de los Filabres. The existence of sands and apparent lutites visibly interlayered between rocks, such as schists and mica schists with garnets, poses a metamorphic problem that has not as yet been addressed. (Author)

  19. Afrontando el cambio climático y los riesgos contra la salud: respuestas en la Sierra Tarahumara

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    Teresa Elizabeth Cueva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura relacionada con el impacto del cambio climático empieza a dar cuenta de los diversos vgrados de vulnerabilidad de la población y de la capacidad de respuesta y de adaptación de distintos sectores sociales en el mundo. Sin embargo aún son pocos los estudios que, al analizar las respuestas alos riesgos para la salud derivados del cambio climático, señalen las limitaciones y oportunidades quedan forma a procesos de adaptación orientados a enfrentar los retos de salud. En este estudio se intenta avanzar por esa línea enfocándose en un sector pobre de la población indígena campesina mexicana. El artículo se basa en una investigación de hogares que se llevó a cabo de diciembre de 2006 a abril de 2007 en tres comunidades de la Sierra Tarahumara, ubicada al suroeste de Chihuahua. Los resultados revelan que incluso en un contexto de extrema pobreza y vulnerabilidad al cambio climático, la población desarrolla respuestas para afrontarlo y adaptarse. Así, los hogares tarahumaras han desarrollado tres tiPos de estrategias: a las basadas en sus usos y costumbres, b la utilización del sistema de salud que ofrecen las instituciones públicas y las organizaciones no gubernamentales, y c las prácticas sociales orientadas al exterior y la emigración a las zonas urbanas como canales de integración con la sociedad "occidental". También se advierte que varias políticas gubernamentales orientadas al desarrollo de las comunidades, con impacto en la salubridad de la población, presentan limitaciones por su falta de coordinación intersectorial; un caso peculiar en el cual se observa la generación de cierta sinergia es el del área de servicios de salud, donde se ha logrado retomar los usos y costumbres de la población valiéndose de representantes de las comunidades y de las ONG.

  20. PLANTAS MEDICINALES USADAS POR LOS COGUI EN EL RÍO PALOMINO, SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA (COLOMBIA

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    EDUINO CARBONÓ-DELAHOZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de registrar conocimientos tradicionales sobre plantas medicinales entre los Cogui o Kággaba en la cuenca del río Palomino, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia, se evaluó el uso de la flora con la aplicación de una técnica etnobotánica cuantitativa. Mediante entrevistas a mamos o sacerdotes-jefes, durante recorridos en áreas silvestres, cultivadas y huertos caseros en diferentes zonas climáticas de la cuenca, se obtuvo información de 189 especies utilizadas, incluidas en 162 géneros y 77 familias, así como el modo de uso y la forma de preparación para el tratamiento de enfermedades comunes. Las familias Asteraceae y Leguminosae registraron el mayor número de especies útiles. La evaluación con el índice de importancia relativa (IR permitió establecer que Ladenbergia moritziana (Rubiaceae, Stevia lucida (Asteraceae, Aniba sp. (Lauraceae, Erechtites hieracifolia (Asteraceae y Carex sp. (Cyperaceae son las especies con mayores valores de importancia. El 89 % de las plantas utilizadas es obtenido de espacios silvestres, lo que sugiere un conocimiento amplio de la diversidad vegetal local y el ejercicio de una práctica etnomédica.

  1. Calpionellid distribution and microfacies across the Jurassic/ Cretaceous boundary in western Cuba (Sierra de los Órganos)

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    López-Martínez, Rafael; Barragán, Ricardo; Reháková, Daniela; Cobiella-Reguera, Jorge Luis

    2013-06-01

    A detailed bed-by-bed sampled stratigraphic section of the Guasasa Formation in the Rancho San Vicente area of the "Sierra de los Órganos", western Cuba, provides well-supported evidence about facies and calpionellid distribution across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. These new data allowed the definition of an updated and sound calpionellid biozonation scheme for the section. In this scheme, the drowning event of a carbonate platform displayed by the facies of the San Vicente Member, the lowermost unit of the section, is dated as Late Tithonian, Boneti Subzone. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary was recognized within the facies of the overlying El Americano Member on the basis of the acme of Calpionella alpina Lorenz. The boundary is placed nearly six meters above the contact between the San Vicente and the El Americano Members, in a facies linked to a sea-level drop. The recorded calpionellid bioevents should allow correlations of the Cuban biozonation scheme herein proposed, with other previously published schemes from distant areas of the Tethyan Domain.

  2. Human calcanei from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Sala, Nohemi; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2014-11-01

    The existence of calcanei in the fossil record prior to modern humans and Neandertals is very scarce. This skeletal element is fundamental to understanding the evolution of the morphology of the foot in human evolution. Here we present and metrically and comparatively describe 29 calcaneus remains from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (SH) (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These calcanei belong to 15 individuals (nine adults, two adolescents and four immature individuals). The metric and morphological differences in the calcanei among Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins tend to be subtle. However, the calcanei from SH are broad and robust with large articular surfaces and most significantly, exhibit a very projected sustentaculum tali. A biomechanical and phylogenetic interpretation is proffered to explain the observed morphology of these calcanei. It has been possible to propose tentative sex assignments for the SH calcanei based on size, using methods similar to those used to establish sex from the talus bones from SH. The estimation of stature based on the calcaneus provides a mean of 175.3 cm for males and 160.6 for females, which is similar to that obtained using other skeletal parts from the site. In sum, the SH calcanei are robust with a proportionally long tubercle and a projected sustentaculum tali, which are traits shared by Neandertals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gracia, Ana; Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2013-07-01

    Here we present and describe comparatively 25 talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These tali belong to 14 individuals (11 adult and three immature). Although variation among Middle and Late Pleistocene tali tends to be subtle, this study has identified unique morphological characteristics of the SH tali. They are vertically shorter than those of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens, and show a shorter head and a broader lateral malleolar facet than all of the samples. Moreover, a few shared characters with Neanderthals are consistent with the hypothesis that the SH population and Neanderthals are sister groups. These shared characters are a broad lateral malleolar facet, a trochlear height intermediate between modern humans and Late Pleistocene H. sapiens, and a short middle calcaneal facet. It has been possible to propose sex assignment for the SH tali based on their size. Stature estimates based on these fossils give a mean stature of 174.4 cm for males and 161.9 cm for females, similar to that obtained based on the long bones from this same site. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Preliminary Survey of Terrestrial Plant Communities in the Sierra de los Valles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy G. Balice

    1998-10-01

    To more fully understand the species compositions and environmental relationships of high-elevation terrestrial plant communities in the Los Alamos region, 30 plots in randomly selected, upland locations were sampled for vegetation, topographic, and soils characteristics. The locations of these plots were constrained to be above 2,134 m (7,000 ft) above mean sea level. The field results were summarized, analyzed, and incorporated into a previously developed classification of vegetation and land cover types. The revised and updated discussions of the environmental relationships at these sites and their associated species compositions are included in this report. A key to the major land cover types in the Los Alamos region was also revised in accordance with the new information and included herein its entirety.

  5. Clavicles, scapulae and humeri from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, J M; Arsuaga, J L; Lorenzo, C

    1997-01-01

    The scapulae, clavicles and humeri recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site between 1976 and 1994 are studied. All elements are briefly described anatomically with metrics and compared with other fossil hominids in order to establish the morphological pattern of the SH hominids. A minimum of 13 individuals are represented by the humeri in the SH sample. Almost all of them can be classified as adolescents and young adults. The morphology of the SH hominid shoulder girdle and humeri indicates that much of the shoulder morphology recognized in the later true Neandertal was present in Europe long before they appeared. Thus, this morphological pattern is not exclusive to Neandertals alone. The SH clavicles, scapulae and humeri share with the Neandertals many traits usually considered to be Neandertal specializations. The comparative analysis of the SH evidence suggests that most of the SH and Neandertal shared traits are either primitive features within the genus Homo or even for all hominids, or display high variability within different hominid samples. These traits must be used with caution, or not used at all, in phylogenetic analysis. There are, however, traits that to date have only been detected in the SH hominids and the Neanderials, which could be exclusive to the European phyletic lineage (clade) of Homo.

  6. Estructura y organización de los ensambles de roedores de un bosque de la Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, México Structure and organization of rodent assembles of a forest of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETH E ARAGÓN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad biológica de los bosques templados en la región de montaña denominada "Sierra Madre Occidental», México, es rica. Esta zona se encuentra en la Zona de Transición, un área biogeográficamente importante de Norteamérica caracterizada por una gran heterogeneidad ambiental local. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la composición taxonómica y la organización de los mamíferos pequeños nativos y sobre la influencia de los factores ecológicos locales, en particular en tipos de vegetación diferentes. Por lo tanto, se estudió la composición de especies y la estructura de los ensambles de pequeños mamíferos de esta sierra y se proporcionó información sobre el nivel de anidamiento y la detección de patrones en su organización. El área de estudio fue el rancho "El Durangueño", Durango, México. Se muestrearon tres tipos de vegetación diferentes (pastizales y bosques de encino-pino y pino-encino por estación de 2005 y 2006. Los roedores fueron capturados, recapturados e identificados durante tres noches por sitio. Los resultados produjeron 520 individuos (386 capturas, 134 recapturas de 18 especies de mamíferos pequeños (14 ratones, cuatro ardillas de tamaños corporales diferentes, de afinidades neártica, neotropical o compartida; se encontraron endemismos y taxas en alguna categoría de riesgo de extinción. La riqueza y la equitabilidad fueron altas, la diversidad y los niveles poblacionales fueron moderados, a excepción de un bosque de encino-pino con densidad de pequeños mamíferos alta y la dominancia de alguna especie en el bosque de pino-encino, debido probablemente a perturbaciones. El patrón espacial de las especie de tamaño mediano no fue azaroso. El ensamblaje de especies no presentó anidamiento y tuvo una distribución log-normal, con cuatro especies comunes y de amplia distribución (Peromyscus truei, P. maniculatus, Reithrodontomys montanus y Sigmodon leucotis y siete de distribución restringida

  7. Comer y dar de comer a los dioses : conocimiento, el costumbre y la nutricion en La Sierra Huichola, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fajardo Santana, H.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis derives from a four-year period of anthropological research and practice as a medical doctor among the Huichol indigenous people in the western Sierra Madre of Mexico.

    The main focus is an analysis of contrasting (and often conflicting) knowledge and belief systems, as

  8. LA NOCIÓN DE PERSONA Y EL CONCEPTO DE IXTLAMATKI EN LA VISIÓN DEL MUNDO DE LOS NAHUAS DE LA SIERRA NEGRA DE PUEBLA

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    Laura Romero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En la cosmovisión de los nahuas de San Sebastián Tlacotepec, municipio perteneciente a la Sierra Negra de Puebla, la noción de persona es uno de los ejes vertebrales para entender la forma en que es concebido elixtlamatki, el que sabe ver, especialista ritual encargado de los problemas de salud originados por la pérdida del alma, el daño al animal compañero y la brujería. A partir del análisis de los atributos otorgados al ixtlamatki, mismos que lo definen como un ser humano “especial”, podemos entender su función como intermediario entre el mundo humano y el “mundo-otro”, sus capacidades como “recuperador” de almas, su capacidad de transformarse en animal, la fortaleza de sus entidades anímicas y su facultad de actuar a voluntad durante sus sueños.   ABSTRACT In the world view of the nahua population of San Sebastian Tlacotepec, a village localized in the region denominated Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, the “notion of person” is one of the principals elements necessary to understand the concept of ixtlamatki, “ the one who knows how to see”, ritual specialist in charge of health problems en cases like loss of soul, witchcraft or when the alter ego has been hurt. Beginning with the analysis of his attributes, which define him as special human being, we come closer to understand his function as intermediary between the human world and the “other world”; his power as “soul retriever” and other special abilities, for example, his capacity of transforming himself as well as his faculty to act intentionally in his dreams.

  9. Estudio de metales pesados y arsénico en los suelos de olivar de Sierra Mágina, Jaén (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Menjivar Flores

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En Sierra Mágina, Jaén (España fueron seleccionados 35 suelos dedicados al cultivo del olivar en los que se estudió la concentración de cromo (Cr, níquel (Ni, cobre (Cu, plomo (Pb, Zinc (Zn y arsénico (As a profundidades entre 0 - 20 y 20 - 40 cm. Estos suelos se desarrollan sobre materiales carbonatados, predominando Calcisoles pétricos y Regosoles calcáricos (FAO, 1999. La homogeneidad del material parental es responsable de la ausencia de variaciones significativas en las propiedades de los suelos a las profundidades estudiadas, así como en el contenido de metales pesados y arsénico. El Cu es el único elemento que varía con la profundidad (p < 0.01, presentando un valor promedio más elevado entre 0 y 20 cm debido a la aplicación de controles fitosanitarios en los cultivos de la región. En los suelos con texturas arcillosa y limosa se presentan concentraciones más altas de Cr y Ni, mientras que el resto de metales analizados y el As no presentan variaciones significativas con las principales propiedades físicas y químicas de los suelos. Los elementos estudiados no exceden el nivel de referencia establecido para suelos por la Junta de Andalucía y presentan concentraciones similares a las encontradas en rocas equivalentes y en suelos no contaminados. Los valores promedio en As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb y Zn están relacionados con las concentraciones heredadas del material litológico del que se derivan.

  10. Estudio de metales pesados y arsénico en los suelos de olivar de Sierra Mágina, Jaén (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar Flores Juan Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En Sierra Mágina, Jaén (España fueron seleccionados 35 suelos dedicados al cultivo del olivar en los que se estudió la concentración de cromo (Cr, níquel (Ni, cobre (Cu, plomo (Pb, Zinc (Zn y arsénico (As a profundidades entre 0 - 20 y 20 - 40 cm. Estos suelos se desarrollan sobre materiales carbonatados, predominando Calcisoles pétricos y Regosoles calcáricos (FAO, 1999. La homogeneidad del material parental es responsable de la ausencia de variaciones significativas en las propiedades de los suelos a las profundidades estudiadas, así como en el contenido de metales pesados y arsénico. El Cu es el único elemento que varía con la profundidad (p < 0.01, presentando un valor promedio más elevado entre 0 y 20 cm debido a la aplicación de controles fitosanitarios en los cultivos de la región. En los suelos con texturas arcillosa y limosa se presentan concentraciones más altas de Cr y Ni, mientras que el resto de metales analizados y el As no presentan variaciones significativas con las principales propiedades físicas y químicas de los suelos. Los elementos estudiados no exceden el nivel de referencia establecido para suelos por la Junta de Andalucía y presentan concentraciones similares a las encontradas en rocas equivalentes y en suelos no contaminados. Los valores promedio en As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb y Zn están relacionados con las concentraciones heredadas del material litológico del que se derivan.

  11. TEJIENDO ENTRE REDES DIVERSAS: REFLEXIONES A PARTIR DE UNA ETNOGRAFÍA MULTISITUADA CON LOS PUEBLOS INDÍGENAS DE LA SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Horta Prieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, es territorio de 4 pueblos indígenas: Kogui, Wiwa, Arhuaco y Kankuamo. Estos comparten la Ley de Sé, orden natural del universo, que en este trabajo se aborda como cosmopolitica (Stengers, a partir de la cual se gestiona la alteridad y se define la función de todos los seres existentes, desde una ontología animista (Descola. Los trabajos espirituales, entre los cuales se cuentan los pagamentos, son rituales en los que se realiza el tejido vital entre entidades, a partir del cual pueden circular los flujos energéticos y de pensamiento, que relacionan mamos (autoridades tradicionales, dueños de los existentes (Jaba y jate, y materiales sagrados, en una relación de intercambio que permite que las partes se reconfiguren y se apropien del sewá (conocimiento que cada uno posee. Algunos de estos materiales han sido removidos del territorio, frente a lo cual las organizaciones indígenas han comenzado un proceso de patrimonialización como estrategia de protección, interactuando con entidades del estado que tienen influencia en la configuración del mismo desde su dominio. En este marco, a partir de la categoría de cosmopolitica y del entendimiento del conocimiento indígena como epistemología, este trabajo reflexiona sobre el posicionamiento del antropóloga/o en ese ordenamiento desde donde se puede tejer entre redes de ontologías diferentes.

  12. Control estructural sobre el plutón Los Ratones y la mineralización de uranio en la Sierra de Fiambalá, Sierras Pampeanas, Catamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongn, F.; Kirschbaum, A.; Ferreira, L.; Morello, O.; Guidi, F.; Anesa, J.; Rubinstein, N.

    2010-01-01

    The Carboniferous Los Ratones pluton is composed by two main facies: equigranular and porphyric. The uranium mineralization hosted by the metamorphic rock on the NW border of the pluton is related to a fluor- rich greisen related to the equigranular facies. The detailed mapping of the pluton host rock and the uranium mineralization shows a well-defined structural control on both the granite emplacement, particularly on the porphyric facies, and on the migration of the mineralized fluids. Four sets of fractures participate on this control. The two main with N and NE trends coincide clearly with the west and northwest border of the pluton as well as with the high-grade uranium manifestations. The third and fourth ones respectively corresponds to E-W and NW striking fractures, which are less developed in relation to the main fractures considering their frequency and size. Fractures of the four sets are high dipping close to vertical, attitude corroborated by geophysical studies in the area where the NE fractures are the best developed. In addition to the mentioned features, granite-related acidic and basic dikes follow mainly these orientations. The fracture sets seem to be related to a high-east dipping meridian fault system with right horizontal main movement component and subordinate normal displacement. These faults partially reactivated heterogeneities of the metamorphic rocks, mainly the dominant foliation. Changes on the strike of these fractures formed dilatant zones where magmatism and related mineralization were concentrated. (authors) [es

  13. Historical Roots of the Spatial, Temporal, and Diversity Scales of Agricultural Decision-Making in Sierra de Santa Marta, Los Tuxtlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Blanco-Rosas, José Luis; Barois, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Land degradation is a serious problem in tropical mountainous areas. Market prices, technological development, and population growth are often invoked as the prime causes. Using historical agrarian documents, literature sources, and historical population data, we (1) provide quantitative and qualitative evidence that the land degradation present at Sierra de Santa Marta (Los Tuxtlas, Mexico) has involved a historical reduction in the temporal, spatial, and diversity scales, in which individual farmers make management decisions, and has resulted in decreased maize productivity; and (2) analyze how these three scalar changes can be linked to policy, population growth, and agrarian history. We conclude that the historical reduction in the scales of land use decision-making and practices constitutes a present threat to indigenous agricultural heritage. The long-term viability of agriculture requires that initiatives consider incentives for co-responsibility with an initial focus on self-sufficiency.

  14. Estructura, antiestructura y sistema-mundo en una comunidad alternativa. El caso de los “jipi-koguis” en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Sarrazin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando los conceptos de estructura , antiestructura , liminalidad y sistema-mundo , este ensayo analiza algunas representaciones a propósito de los “jipi-koguis”, nombre que le ha sido atribuido a una comunidad hippie en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Co - lombia, fundada a principios de la década de los setenta cerca de un asentamiento indígena kogui. Este tipo de grupos se plan - tean como proyectos “por fuera de la estructura”, “antisistémi - cos”, “alternativos”, lo cual es sometido acá a un análisis crítico, ya que los sujetos que hacen parte de estos grupos pueden ser claramente identificados a través de roles y posiciones dentro de una estructura social. Por otro lado, en su búsqueda de cambios y admiración por una cierta diferencia, este tipo de proyectos pretenden inspirarse en “otras culturas” ―en este caso la indíge - na―, presuponiendo equivocadamente que estas están radical - mente separadas del sistema moderno occidental. Se demuestra además que los discursos e intencionalidades de los sujetos que buscan salirse del sistema occidental y capitalista no pueden en - tenderse por fuera de ese mismo sistema. Finalmente, argumen - tamos que este tipo de comunidades, aunque dicen oponerse a la estructura social, tienden a estructurarse ellas mismas a medi - da que pasa el tiempo, generalmente por razones económicas y políticas.

  15. Estudio crítico de los índices de severidad y la superficie afectada por el incendio de Sierra de Luna (Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guillem-Cogollos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la determinación del área quemada y la severidad asociada del incendio de Sierra de Luna (Zaragoza, ocurrido el 4 de julio de 2015, se han calculado tres índices espectrales derivados de Landsat-8: NDVI, NBR y BAI. Comparando los resultados obtenidos por cada uno de ellos, en un incendio con extensas zonas de cultivo entre zonas arboladas, se ha determinado que la combinación de ΔNBR y BAI mejora sustancialmente la determinación del área realmente quemada, tanto en su perímetro exterior como en las zonas aisladas no quemadas de su interior. Para el cálculo de la severidad, se propone una metodología basada en el análisis de las diferencias de NBR, antes y después del incendio, y su combinación con el BAI, en función del valor previo al incendio de los índices NBR y de NDVI.

  16. Metric and morphological study of the upper cervical spine from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Carretero, José Miguel; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-García, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Martínez, Ignacio

    2007-07-01

    In this article, the upper cervical spine remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) middle Pleistocene site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) are described and analyzed. To date, this site has yielded more than 5000 human fossils belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals of the species Homo heidelbergensis. At least eleven individuals are represented by the upper cervical (C1 and C2) specimens: six adults and five subadults, one of which could represent an adolescent individual. The most complete adult vertebrae (three atlases and three axes) are described, measured, and compared with other fossil hominins and modern humans. These six specimens are associated with one another and represent three individuals. In addition, one of these sets of cervical vertebrae is associated with Cranium 5 (Individual XXI) from the site. The metric analysis demonstrates that the Sima de los Huesos atlases and axes are metrically more similar to Neandertals than to our modern human comparative sample. The SH atlases share with Neandertals a sagittally elongated canal. The most remarkable feature of the SH (and Neandertal) axes is that they are craniocaudally low and mediolaterally wide compared to our modern male sample. Morphologically, the SH sample shares with Neandertals a higher frequency of caudally projected anterior atlas arch, which could reflect greater development of the longus colli muscle. In other features, such as the frequency of weakly developed tubercles for the attachment of the transverse ligament of the atlas, the Sima de los Huesos fossils show intermediate frequencies between our modern comparative samples and the Neandertals, which could represent the primitive condition. Our results are consistent with the previous phylogenetic interpretation of H. heidelbergensis as an exclusively European species, ancestral only to H. neanderthalensis.

  17. ¿Trasplantes incaicos o etnogénesis poscolonial? El origen de los salasacas de la Sierra ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Corr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los salasacas son un grupo indígena con una historia de origen controversial. Muchos escritos declaran que descienden de una población trasplantada por los incas desde la actual Bolivia hasta su ubicación en lo que hoy es Ecuador. El artículo presenta una narrativa alternativa que identifica tres migraciones a Salasaca, de diferentes grupos indígenas, en el siglo XVI. Se demuestra que la nacionalidad moderna de Salasaca surgió a través de transformaciones coloniales y poscoloniales. Se argumenta que la distinción étnica de los salasacas se debe a que optaron por unificarse como un solo grupo étnico para permanecer como enclave indígena en una región que experimentó el blanqueamiento cultural o mestizaje.

  18. Stature estimation from complete long bones in the Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, José-Miguel; Rodríguez, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Gracia, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf

    2012-02-01

    Systematic excavations at the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) have allowed us to reconstruct 27 complete long bones of the human species Homo heidelbergensis. The SH sample is used here, together with a sample of 39 complete Homo neanderthalensis long bones and 17 complete early Homo sapiens (Skhul/Qafzeh) long bones, to compare the stature of these three different human species. Stature is estimated for each bone using race- and sex-independent regression formulae, yielding an average stature for each bone within each taxon. The mean length of each long bone from SH is significantly greater (p Huesos hominins nor the Neandertals should be considered 'short' people. In fact, the average stature within the genus Homo seems to have changed little over the course of the last two million years, since the appearance of Homo ergaster in East Africa. It is only with the emergence of H. sapiens, whose earliest representatives were 'very tall', that a significant increase in stature can be documented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Sierra Pena Blanca (Mexico) and the Meseta Los Frailes (Bolivia): the uranium concentration mechanisms in volcanic environment during hydrothermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, J.L.; Aniel, B.; Poty, B.

    1987-01-01

    Tertiary felsic volcanics of the Sierra Pena Blanca in Mexico host potentially economic uranium deposits, and of Meseta Los Frailes in Bolivia contain interesting U anomalies but no significant deposits. A comparative study of the two uranium districts reveals differences that may explain the different degrees of U concentration. The host ignimbrite in Mexico, namely the Nopal Formation dated at 44 Myr. ago, is potassic alkaline rhyolite which is poorly compacted and contains phenocrysts of quartz, orthoclase, ilmenite and magnetite, totalling 30% of the rock. Vapour phase crystallization is well developed in the Mexican tuff, and has led to a primary concentration of labile U not tied up in refractory accessory minerals, as shown by fission-track studies. The Bolivian tuffs lack such vapour phase primary concentration of U. Subsequent hydrothermal alteration, in particular kaolinization is intense in the Mexican district, but is relatively less intense in the Bolivian one. It is postulated that an intense hydrothermal activity, probably of prolonged duration, in rocks displaying primary enrichment of labile U, is essential to form volcanogenic U deposits of the type found in Mexico. 26 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 plates; 3 tabs

  20. Hidrodinámica de los acuíferos karsticos de las sierras de Urbión y Neila (Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Pérez, E.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available On the northern slopes of the Urbión and Neila Ridges there is a karstic system of Jurassic limestones and dolomites in a monoclinal arrangement, bounded above and below, respectively, by the impermeable series of the Keuper and Weald. Recharge is by infiltration of rain and meiting snow as well as from the outflow of numerous streams. Discharge flows towards the springs of the young Rivers Najerilla (198 l/s and Arlanza (500 l/s. An interesting point is an underground transfer at Urbión of 14 hm3/yr from the basin of the Ebro to that of the Duero. According to water-tracing tests, during low flow periods, the average water velocity in the aquifers is between 27 and 38 m/h, and 160 rn/h near the outlet. A simulation in 1990-1991 of the hydrographs of the springs using a rainfall runoff model provided a detailed hydrological balance in which the importance of upstream turbulent flow was evident. The net recharge of precipitation was 42-43 %, though this varied considerably with the seasons.En la vertiente septentrional de las Sierras de Urbión y Neila se presenta un desarrollado aparato kárstico constituido por calizas y dolomías del Jurásico, dispuestas monoclinalmente, y limitadas por arriba y por abajo por las series impermeables del Keuper y del Weald, respectivamente. La recarga se efectúa a través de la infiltración de las precipitaciones de lluvia y nieve, así como por las pérdidas de los arroyos en los numerosos sumideros existentes. La descarga se verifica hacia los manantiales de los nacimientos de los ríos Najerilla (198 l/s y Arlanza (500 l/s. Un aspecto significativo es la existencia de un trasvase subterráneo en Urbión de 14 hm3/a de la Cuenca del Ebro a la del Duero. Según las pruebas con trazadores realizadas se obtienen unas velocidades medias en los acuíferos y en aguas bajas o estiaje de 27-38 m/h, y de 160 rn/h en las proximidades de los exutorios. La simulación de los hidrogramas de los manantiales con un

  1. Incidencia de los actores internacionales no estatales en los conflictos internos. Estudio de caso: la participación de las empresas militares privadas “Executive Outcomes” y “Sandline International” en la guerra civil de Sierra Leona (1991-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Aragón, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    La Participación de las Empresas Militares Executive Outcomes y Sandline International en el conflicto de Sierra Leona fue una de las primeras veces en las que se vieron en escena a estos actores confluyendo en un nuevo orden internacional; y este estudio de caso busca determinar la manera de actuar de estas empresas y su incidencia en el conflicto. El caso de Sierra Leona es uno de los principales acercamientos a este nuevo fenómeno, que empezó a ejercer funciones que tradicionalmente le cor...

  2. El Conjunto Rupestre de Bacinete, Sierra del Niño, Los Barrios, Cádiz : primeros resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Solís Delgado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El conjunto de abrigos decorados con pinturas postpaleolíticas que componen Bacinete, pertenecientes al término municipal de Los Barrios, constituye una de las estaciones más importantes de toda la provincia de Cádiz. Por temática y estilo, se sitúa en un contexto postpaleolítico de primeros productores, y se adscribe estilísticamente al horizonte esquemático.The shelters decorated with postpalaeolithic paintings that are found in the village area of Los Barrios and that comprise Bacinete, it is a important station of this kind in the whole of Cádiz province. By its subject and style it is framed in a postpalaeolithic context of first producers and stylistically speaking it ascribes itself to the schematic horizon.

  3. Inventario y estrategias de mejora de los pastizales de los sistemas de producción de alpacas en la sierra central

    OpenAIRE

    Zarria Samanamud, Melody Rocio

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Se diseñó un estudio para evaluar el estado del manejo y la condición de los pastizales de tres sistemas típicos de producción de alpacas de la región de Pasco: Cooperativas Comunales (CC), Granjas Comunales (GC) y Asociaciones de Productores (AP). El estudio comprendió la realización de inventarios de pastizales, el análisis de las percepciones de los productores sobre el estado y requerimientos de ...

  4. Flora cactológica y especies asociadas en el área natural protegida Sierra Corral de los Bandidos, Nuevo León, México Cactus list and asociated plants of the protected natural area Sierra Corral de Los Bandidos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Carmona-Lara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El área natural protegida (ANP Sierra Corral de los Bandidos ubicada en la sierra Madre Oriental, al noroeste de Monterrey, sufre el impacto de actividades antropológicas asociadas al matorral submontano (ganadería, agricultura, colecta y urbanismo, disminuyendo sus recursos naturales y amenazando sus especies endémicas, principalmente cactáceas. El propósito del estudio fue conocer la diversidad de cactáceas y especies asociadas en zonas de amortiguamiento y núcleo. Para ello se determinaron índices de riqueza y similitud utilizando un muestreo estratificado con cuadrantes a lo largo de transectos orientados por gradientes altitudinales según su zonificación. En total se registraron 112 taxa (30 cactáceas, 87 (24 cactáceas en zona de amortiguamiento y 80 (19 cactáceas en zona núcleo. Por su densidad, frecuencia y abundancia sobresalieron Echinocereus stramineus (Engelm. Engelm. ex F. Seitz, Cylindropuntia leptocaulis F. M. Knuth in Backeb et F. M. Knuth, Mammillaria melanocentra Poselg., Neolloydia conoidea (DC Britton et Rose, (Cactaceae; Erioneuron avenaceum (H. B et K. Tateoka, (Poaceae; Viguiera stenoloba S. F. Blake; Zexmenia hispida (Kunth A. Gray, (Asteraceae y Agave lechuguilla Torr, (Agavaceae. Existe diferencia significativa entre las poblaciones de cactus de las zonas del ANP, según Jacquard (13%, Sörensen (38% y Morisita (0.44. Ocho cactáceas (7 endémicas están registradas en algún estatus de la NOM-ECOL-059, 2001.The Sierra Corral de los Bandidos is a natural protected area located in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range northwest of Monterrey city. This preserve suffers the impact of human activities in the form of cattle ranching, agriculture, harvest of wild plants, and urbanism, diminishing its natural resources and threatening its endemic species, especially from the cactaceae family. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the diversity of cacti and associated species in the buffer and

  5. The temporal bones from Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    Three well-preserved crania and 22 temporal bones were recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site up to and including the 1994 field season. This is the largest sample of hominid temporal bones known from a single Middle Pleistocene site and it offers the chance to characterize the temporal bone morphology of an European Middle Pleistocene population and to study the phylogenetic relationships of the SH sample with other Upper and Middle Pleistocene hominids. We have carried out a cladistic analysis based on nine traits commonly used in phylogenetic analysis of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominids: shape of the temporal squama superior border, articular eminence morphology, contribution of the sphenoid bone to the median glenoid wall, postglenoid process projection, tympanic plate orientation, presence of the styloid process, mastoid process projection, digastric groove morphology and anterior mastoid tubercle. We have found two autapomorphies on the Home erectus temporal bone: strong reduction of the postglenoid process and absence of the styloid process. Modern humans, Neandertals and the Middle Pleistocene fossils from Europe and Africa constitute a clade characterized by a convex superior border of the temporal squama. The European Middle Pleistocene fossils from Sima de los Huesos, Petralona, Steinheim, Bilzingsleben and Castel di Guido share a Neandertal apomorphy: a relatively flat articular eminence. The fossils from Ehringsdorf, La Chaise Suardi and Biache-Saint-Vaast also display another Neandertal derived trait: an anteriorly obliterated digastric groove. Modern humans and the African Middle Pleistocene fossils share a synapomorphy: a sagittally orientated tympanic plate.

  6. Non-masticatory uses of anterior teeth of Sima de los Huesos individuals (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Marina; Bermúdez de Castro, José M; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examine the labial and occlusal surfaces of incisors and canines of hominins recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH), middle Pleistocene site, in order to establish the possible extra-masticatory use of anterior teeth. We have compared the microwear of these fossils with microwear from the anterior teeth of Australian Aborigines, a population characterized by ethnographic evidence of the use of their teeth as a third hand. These two samples of teeth were microscopically analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Our results support the "cultural" origin of microwear observed on fossil teeth: we conclude that the SH hominins used their anterior teeth as a "third hand" for para- or extra-masticatory activities.

  7. On the age of the hominid fossils at the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain: paleomagnetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, J M; Pérez-González, A; Weil, A B; Arsuaga, J L

    2000-04-01

    We report new paleomagnetic data for the Middle Pleistocene hominid-bearing strata in the Sima de los Huesos, North Spain. Sediments (brown muds with human and bear fossils and the underlying sterile clayey and sandy unit) preserve both normal and reversed magnetic components. The sterile unit has exclusively reversed magnetization, dating back to the Matuyama Chron, and thus is Lower Pleistocene in age. The overlying fossiliferous muds have a dominant normal magnetization that overprints a partially resolved reversed magnetization. These data are compatible with one of the reversal events that occurred during the Brunhes Chron. Combined with the existing U-series dates and evidence from the macro- and microfauna, these paleomagnetic results suggest an age of the hominid fossils between 325 to 205 ka, whereas the underlying sand and silts are older than 780 ka. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Evolución metamórfica de los gabros coroníticos de El Arenal, faja máfica-ultramáfica El Destino-Las Águilas, sierra de San Luis Metamorphic evolution of the coronitic gabbrons of the El Arenal, El Destino-Las Aguilas, mafic-ultramafic belt, Sierra de San Luis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Brogioni; G. Cruciani; M. Franceschelli; O. Vaselli

    2007-01-01

    Las meta-melagabronoritas coroníticas se localizan en uno de los cuerpos de El Arenal, pertenecientes a la faja máfica-ultramáfica El Destino-Las Aguilas del flanco oriental de la sierra de San Luis. Son rocas de grano fino y representan fraccionados poco evolucionados, con alto contenido de Cr-Ni y [Mg/Mg+FeT++] comprendidas entre 0,72 y 0,75, derivados de un magma toleítico olivínico de bajo Ti, cuyo emplazamiento precedió a la deformación penetrativa y metamorfismo famatinianos. Las microe...

  9. Rates of anterior tooth wear in Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Martinón-Torres, M; Sarmiento, S; Lozano, M; Arsuaga, J L; Carbonell, E

    2003-10-14

    This study presents quantitative data on the rates of anterior tooth wear in a Pleistocene human population. The data were obtained for the hominin sample of the Sima de los Huesos site in Atapuerca, Spain. The fossil record belongs to a minimum of 28 individuals of the same biological population, assigned to the species Homo heidelbergensis. We have estimated the original and the preserved crown height of the mandibular incisors (I1 and I2) of 11 individuals, whose age at death can be ascertained from the mineralization stage and tooth eruption. Results provide a range of 0.276-0.348 and 0.288-0.360 mm per year for the mean wear rate of the mandibular I1 and I2, respectively, in individuals approximately 16-18 years old. These data suggest that incisors' crowns would be totally worn out toward the fifth decade of life. Thus, we expect the life expectancy of this population to be seriously limited. These data, which could be contrasted with results obtained on hominins at other sites, could be of interest for estimating the death age of adult individuals.

  10. Evolución metamórfica de los gabros coroníticos de El Arenal, faja máfica-ultramáfica El Destino-Las Águilas, sierra de San Luis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Brogioni; G. Cruciani; M. Franceschelli; O. Vaselli

    2007-01-01

    Las meta-melagabronoritas coroníticas se localizan en uno de los cuerpos de El Arenal, pertenecientes a la faja máfica-ultramáfica El Destino-Las Aguilas del flanco oriental de la sierra de San Luis. Son rocas de grano fino y representan fraccionados poco evolucionados, con alto contenido de Cr-Ni y [Mg/Mg+FeT++] comprendidas entre 0,72 y 0,75, derivados de un magma toleítico olivínico de bajo Ti, cuyo emplazamiento precedió a la deformación penetrativa y metamorfismo famatinianos. Las microe...

  11. FARMING AND CATASTROPHE AT LA JOYA: A CONSIDERATION OF AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION AND RISK IN THE FORMATIVE SIERRA DE LOS TUXTLAS (Agricultura y catástrofe en La Joya: un examen de la intensificación agrícola y riesgo en el período Formativo de la Sierra de los Tuxtlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. VanDerwarker

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the process of agricultural intensification as it occurred during the Formative period (1400 BC-AD 300 along the southern Gulf Coast of Mexico. Over the course of two millennia, rural villagers living in the Olmec hinterland of the Sierra de los Tuxtlas invested more time and labor into farming activities as they became increasingly sedentary and dealt with episodic volcanic eruptions and ash fall. This period of time witnessed the development of a regional political hierarchy in the Tuxtlas, which also had consequences for village-level subsistence. In examining agricultural intensification in the context of volcanic catastrophe and political development, I analyze archaeological plant and animal data from the site of La Joya, a farming village located in southern Veracruz, Mexico spanning the Formative period. The subsistence data indicate that maize intensification was a long, incremental process that began in the Middle Formative period, hundreds of years before political development and the establishment of a regional center. At the close of the Late Formative period, after the region's political consolidation, a severe volcanic eruption blanketed the region with ash, leading to significant, if temporary, environmental circumscription. La Joya villagers responded to this catastrophe by intensifying maize production on infields and expanding their hunting and fishing territories to exploit a wider range of animal prey. ESPAÑOL: Este estudio examina el proceso de sedentarización, intensificación agrícola y desarrollo de una jerarquía política regional durante el período Formativo (1400 a. C.-300 d. C. a lo largo de la costa meridional del Golfo de México, en la zona olmeca de la Sierra de los Tuxtlas. Los resultados obtenidos analizando los datos de animales y plantas provenientes del sitio de La Joya, un pueblo agrícola ubicado en el sur de Veracruz (México que abarca todo el Formativo, indican que la

  12. Quaternary environments in Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Marc; Gómez Ortiz, Antonio; Palacios Estremera, David; Salvador Franch, Ferran; Salvà Catarineu, Monserrat

    2016-01-01

    El conocimiento relativo a la evolución ambiental cuaternaria en las montañas de la Península Ibérica ha avanzado sustancialmente en las últimas décadas. Particularmente significativos son los progresos realizados en el macizo de Sierra Nevada, en el sur peninsular. En este caso, los investigadores se han servido de registros naturales y fuentes documentales para reconstruir la dinámica ambiental desde la Última Glaciación y posterior deglaciación del macizo hasta su evolución reciente. Los c...

  13. The scrub as protector of the land water resources in the Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Spain; El matorral como protector del suelo y los recursos hidricos en la Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Espana. Implicaciones economicas de su manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda, A.; Gimenez-Morera, A.; Bodi, M. B.

    2009-07-01

    John Thornes found that scrubland (matorral was a key factor to control soil erosion on Mediterranean mountains. His research works inspired many scientist that researched the impact of scrubland changes and management on semiarid ecosystems. An experiment carried out on the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera experimental station in 2004 show the erosion rates on a 30 years abandoned orchard with dense vegetation cover of Ulex parviflorus and Cistus albidus and a 20-year old fire affected Maquia with Quercus coccifera. Pistacia lentiscus and Juniperus oxycedrus. The 8 (4 at each treatment) plots (1,2,4 and 16 m{sup 2}) under 715 mm of natural rainfall contributed with low runoff, sediment concentration and soil erosion. These measurements confirm the John Thornes idea matorral is an efficient vegetation cover protection on Mediterranean ecosystems. (Author)

  14. Primera aproximacion a la Paleoentomología de los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, España: la fauna subfósil de Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo, J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atapuerca Quaternarian sites are of worldwide interest due to the presence of human remains belonging to the last million years. The oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida found in several archaeological samples extracted from the Atapuerca Quaternarian deposits, have been analyzed during the 2003 excavation campaign to study the Palaeoentomology of the site. The oribatid mite fauna consists of 7 individuals, 6 of which were obtained from Gran Dolina site (about 300.000 years old and belong to families Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae and Hemileiidae. Most of the taxa were identified to species level. The results obtained were used as a basis to reconstruct the paleo-environments of the site in correspondence with the biological and ecological preferences of the taxa.

    Los yacimientos cuaternarios de la Sierra de Atapuerca ofrecen interés mundial por haber hospedado varias especies de homínidos que vivieron en el último millón de años. En este contexto, durante la campaña de excavaciones de 2003 se realizó un muestreo puntual en algunos de sus yacimientos para obtener los primeros datos de restos de artrópodos que pudieran conservarse en los mismos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos de ácaros subfósiles pertenecientes al suborden de los oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida. Después de procesar los sedimentos, se obtuvieron un total de 7 individuos en el conjunto de los yacimientos muestreados, de los cuales 6 aparecieron en Gran Dolina en un nivel con datación en torno a los 300.000 años. Los ejemplares, identificados en su mayoría a nivel taxonómico de especie, pertenecen a las familias Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae y Hemileiidae. Dado el conocimiento que se dispone de la biología de los taxones encontrados, que pertenecen a géneros y especies presentes en la actualidad, se han realizado inferencias sobre los ambientes pretéritos en que los animales vivieron.

  15. Study of Photovoltaic Potential Over the Rooftops of the Town of Miraflores de la Sierra (Madrid); Estudio del Potencial Fotovoltaico sobre los Tejados del Núcleo Urbano de Miraflores de la Sierra (Madrid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín Ávila, A. Ma.; Berdugo Zamora, A.

    2015-07-01

    This report presents the main results of the study on the photovoltaic potential developed in the Madrid municipality of Miraflores de la Sierra (Spain). This study is part of the gSolarRoof project, development of a geographic model for the evaluation of solar potential on roofs in urban and suburban areas, where it has developed the first prototype model. Miraflores has a large PV potential capable of meeting, in for good measure, their electrical needs. The use of roof areas of urbanizations is potentially superior to those of the central part of the city, mainly due to shadow effects in the city center. The main value of the study is a series of thematic maps depicting the annual solar irradiation and the power and energy to the five major commercial PV technologies studied. These maps are complemented by a web mapping viewer that allows us to analyze the results at the building. This study is intended to be continuity in the development of new features for gSolarRoof model and applying it to other municipalities.

  16. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfl y Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones Preferencias alimentarias de la avispa sierra de los sauces Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae por clones de Salix comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Loetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae is a willow sawfly native to the Northern Hemisphere which became a serious defoliator in willow plantations (Salix spp. of the Southern Hemisphere after being introduced in the early 1980´s. Studies on host preferences provide useful information for the development of pest management strategies where the willow sawfly may produce tree damage and economic loss. Feeding preferences of N. oligospilus larvae were evaluated in laboratory trials by simultaneously offering leaves from four willow tree clones commonly used in commercial plantations in Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Larvae of N. oligospilus fed on leaves from the four clones. However, insects consumed a significantly higher proportion of S. babylonica var sacramenta leaves than of leaves from the other clones. Results indicate that all clones used in the trials were palatable to the insect, and that S. babylonica var sacramenta is the preferred host for larval herbivory.Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13

  17. Estudio de metales pesados y arsénico en los suelos de olivar de Sierra Mágina, Jaén (España Study of heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in olive farm soils, Sierra Mágina, Jaen, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Menjivar Flores

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En Sierra Mágina, Jaén (España fueron seleccionados 35 suelos dedicados al cultivo del olivar en los que se estudió la concentración de cromo (Cr, níquel (Ni, cobre (Cu, plomo (Pb, Zinc (Zn y arsénico (As a profundidades entre 0 - 20 y 20 - 40 cm. Estos suelos se desarrollan sobre materiales carbonatados, predominando Calcisoles pétricos y Regosoles calcáricos (FAO, 1999. La homogeneidad del material parental es responsable de la ausencia de variaciones significativas en las propiedades de los suelos a las profundidades estudiadas, así como en el contenido de metales pesados y arsénico. El Cu es el único elemento que varía con la profundidad (p The content of heavy metals and arsenic was studied in 35 soils under olive cultivation in the Sierra Mágina, Jaen, Spain. The concentrations of chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn and arsenic (As were determined at depths between 0 - 20 and 20- 40 cm. These soils developed on carbonate materials, predominantly Petric Calcisols and Calcaric Regosols (FAO, 1999. The homogeneity of parental material was responsible for the lack of significant variation seen in soil properties, and alsoheavy metal and arsenic content at the depths studied. Copper was the only element that varied over depth (p<0.01, with a higher mean value between 0 - 20 cm; a consequence of agrochemical applications in the region. Soils with a clay and silt texture had higher concentrations of Cr and Ni, while the rest of the metals, and As, did not present significant variation with the main physical chemical properties of the soil. The studied elements did not exceed the reference levels established by the Andalucia Authorities, presenting similar concentrations to those found in equivalent rocks and in non-contaminated soils. The mean values for As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were related to the concentrations inherited from the lithological material fromwhich the soils are derived

  18. Cueva Mayor y la Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos en un manuscrito de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid de 1795

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rilova Pérez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A finales del siglo XVIII, tras la emancipación de la Geografía de las Ciencias Matemáticas y la elevación de la Cartografía a la categoría de disciplina, comienzan a elaborarse mapas en España trazados con precisión y rigor, aunque todavía condicionados por la complementariedad de las fuentes informativas. Tomás López, geógrafo real, remitió un formulario al arzobispado de Burgos para la elaboración del mapa de la diócesis, que fue contestado por don Manuel Francisco de Paula, vicario de la Cuadrilla de Gamonal, quien señala como singularidad más destacable la Cueva Mayor de la Sierra de Atapuerca, a cuya descripción dedica casi la mitad de su exposición, y donde se mezclan al unísono, junto a la admiración y el asombro pertinentes, una gran precisión en la información, aunque todavía aderezada con las más peregrinas fabulaciones y quimeras.At the end of the XVIIIth century, after the emancipation of Geography from the Mathematical Sciences and the rise of Cartography to the category of a discipline, maps started to be drawn up in Spain with precision and accuracy, although still conditioned by complementary information sources. Tomás López, the Royal geographer, sent, to the Archbishopric of Burgos, a form for making a diocese map. This request was answered by don Manuel Francisco de Paula, vicar of the «Cuadrilla de Gamonal», who points out to «Cueva Mayor de la Sierra de Atapuerca» as the most outstanding place in the diocese. Almost one half of his statement was a detail description of it, mixing the relevant admiration and amazement with a great naivety, dressed up with the most bizarre fables and legends.

  19. Intrapopulational body size variation and cranial capacity variation in Middle Pleistocene humans: the Sima de los Huesos sample (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C; Carretero, J M; Arsuaga, J L; Gracia, A; Martínez, I

    1998-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism more marked than in living humans has been claimed for European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals and prehistoric modern humans. In this paper, body size and cranial capacity variation are studied in the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene sample. This is the largest sample of non-modern humans found to date from one single site, and with all skeletal elements represented. Since the techniques available to estimate the degree of sexual dimorphism in small palaeontological samples are all unsatisfactory, we have used the bootstraping method to asses the magnitude of the variation in the Sima de los Huesos sample compared to modern human intrapopulational variation. We analyze size variation without attempting to sex the specimens a priori. Anatomical regions investigated are scapular glenoid fossa; acetabulum; humeral proximal and distal epiphyses; ulnar proximal epiphysis; radial neck; proximal femur; humeral, femoral, ulnar and tibial shaft; lumbosacral joint; patella; calcaneum; and talar trochlea. In the Sima de los Huesos sample only the humeral midshaft perimeter shows an unusual high variation (only when it is expressed by the maximum ratio, not by the coefficient of variation). In spite of that the cranial capacity range at Sima de los Huesos almost spans the rest of the European and African Middle Pleistocene range. The maximum ratio is in the central part of the distribution of modern human samples. Thus, the hypothesis of a greater sexual dimorphism in Middle Pleistocene populations than in modern populations is not supported by either cranial or postcranial evidence from Sima de los Huesos.

  20. El municipio de Pajapan en la Sierra de Santa Marta (Veracruz, México: un caso de resistencia indígena en la defensa del territorio y los recursos naturales para la sustentabilidad de los pueblos originarios del Gran Caribe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Moreno Arriba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de Pajapan, en la Sierra de Santa Marta (Veracruz, México, representa un caso paradigmático en la lucha por la defensa de las tierras comunales de las comunidades indígenas campesinas del Gran Caribe, recurriendo a distintos mecanismos de resistencia. Además, desde la implementación de metodología de investigación cualitativa, como la revisión bibliográfica y documental del tema de estudio, este trabajo ha identificado y analizado diversos proyectos de gestión de recursos naturales en el entorno geográfico de Pajapan y la Sierra de Santa Marta. Estas emergentes experiencias no gubernamentales se presentan como un posible modelo de desarrollo alternativo para intentar contribuir a mejorar la precaria situación actual (ecológica, demográfica y socioeconómica de los territorios tropicales y pueblos indígenas mesoamericanos del Gran Caribe.

  1. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  2. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip; Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Miller, Joel D.

    2017-04-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  3. Cross-sectional properties of the lower limb long bones in the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos sample (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Laura; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2018-04-01

    The recovery to date of three complete and five partial femora, seven complete tibiae, and four complete fibulae from the Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos site provides an opportunity to analyze the biomechanical cross-sectional properties in this Middle Pleistocene population and to compare them with those of other fossil hominins and recent modern humans. We have performed direct comparisons of the cross-sectional geometric parameters and reduced major axis (RMA) regression lines among different samples. We have determined that Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH) fossils have significantly thicker cortices than those of recent modern humans for the three leg bones at all diaphyseal levels, except that of the femur at 35% of biomechanical length. The SH bones are similar to those of Neandertals and Middle Pleistocene humans and different from Homo sapiens in their diaphyseal cross-sectional shape and strength parameters. When standardized by estimated body size, both the SH and Neandertal leg bones have in general greater strength than those of H. sapiens from the early modern (EMH), Upper Paleolithic (UP), and recent populations (RH). The Sima de los Huesos human leg bones have, in general terms, an ancestral pattern similar to that of Pleistocene humans and differing from H. sapiens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paleopathological evidence of the cranial remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Description and preliminary inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, P J; Gracía, A; Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    The large Sima de los Huesos sample provides for the first time the opportunity of performing a paleopathological study of a Middle Pleistocene population. A high frequency of bilateral temporomandibular arthropathy has been observed. We found an ear hyperostosis in Cranium 4, that probably caused deafness that we consider to be of infectious origin. Three osteomata were found in the cranial collection. One severe trauma was evident on the left supraorbital torus of an immature individual. Many cranial vault erosions, mostly restricted to the external table, are found in the sample. Cranium 5 displays thirteen of these. Cranium 5 also shows an extensive maxillary osteitis associated with a dental apical abscess, as well as another dental apical abscess in its mandible. Most of the adult frontal bones show a worm-like pattern of vascular channelling in the orbital roof, also found in modern populations.

  5. Nonocclusal dental microwear analysis of 300,000-year-old Homo heilderbergensis teeth from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, A; Bermúdez De Castro, J M; Arsuaga, J L

    1999-04-01

    Casts of nonocclusal enamel surfaces of 190 teeth from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos have been micrographed by scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic analyses of striation density and length by orientation show distinct patterns of intrapopulation variability. Significant differences in the number and length of the striations by orientation are found between maxillary and mandibular teeth. This probably reflects differences in the mechanical forces involved in the process of chewing food. Significant differences are present between isolated and in situ teeth that could be caused by postdepositional processes differentially affecting the isolated teeth. In addition, a distinct and very unusual striation pattern is observed in a sample of teeth that can be explained only by a strong nondietary, most probably postmortem abrasion of the enamel surfaces. These teeth have a very high density of scratches, shorter in length than those found on other teeth, that are not indicative of dietary habits. No known depositional process may account for the presence of such postmortem wear since heavy transportation of materials within the clayish sediments has been discarded for the site. Despite this, a characteristic dietary striation pattern can be observed in most of the teeth analyzed. Most likely the diet of the Homo heidelbergensis hominids from Sima de los Huesos was highly abrasive, probably with a large dependence on hard, poorly processed plant foods, such as roots, stems, and seeds. A highly significant sex-related difference in the striation pattern can also be observed in the teeth analyzed, suggesting a differential consistency in the foods eaten by females and males.

  6. Geology and preliminary dating of the hominid-bearing sedimentary fill of the Sima de los Huesos Chamber, Cueva Mayor of the Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J L; Fitzpatrick, J A; León, L; Arsuagà, J L; Falgueres, C; Bahain, J J; Bullen, T

    1997-01-01

    Sediments of the Sima de los Huesos vary greatly over distances of a few meters. This is typical of interior cave facies, and caused by cycles of cut and fill. Mud breccias containing human bones, grading upwards to mud containing bear bones, fill an irregular surface cut into basal marks and sands. The lack of Bedding and the chaotic abundance of fragile speleothem clasts in the fossiliferous muds suggests that the deposit was originally a subterranean pond facies, and that after emplacement of the human remains, underwent vigorous post-depositional rotation and collapse and brecciation, caused by underlying bedrock dissolution and undermining. The fossiliferous deposits are capped by flowstone and guano-bearing muds which lack large-mammal fossils. U-series and radiocarbon dating indicates the capping flowstones formed from about 68 ka to about 25 ka. U-series analyses of speleothem clasts among the human fossils indicate that all are at, or close to, isotopic equilibrium (> 350 ka). The distribution of U-series dates for 25 bear bones (154 +/- 66 ka) and for 16 human bones (148 +/- 34 ka) is similar and rather broad. Because the human bones seem to be stratigraphically older than chose of the bears, the results would indicate that most of the bones have been accumulating uranium irregularly with time. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses of six selected bear bones indicates dates of 189 +/- 28 ka, for which each is cordant with their corresponding U-series date (181 +/- 41 ka). Combined ESR and U-series dates for these samples yielded 200 +/- 4 ka. Such agreement is highly suggestive that uranium uptake in these bones was close to the early-uptake (EU) model, and the dates are essentially correct. Another three selected samples yielded combined ESR U-series dates of 320 +/- 4 ka with a modeled intermediate-mode of uranium uptake. The dating results, therefore, seem to provide a firm minimum age of about 200 ka for the human entry: and suggestive evidence of

  7. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MHRL

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. (A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone). ©Sierra Leone Journal .... was used to. She seemed to have had a change of mind after ingesting.

  8. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  9. African Journals Online: Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical ...

  10. La participación como base del turismo comunitario y el manejo de los recursos de uso común. Sendero de Ritakuwas, Sierra Nevada de El Cocuy, Güicán y / o Chita. Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Calderón Ramírez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar el sendero que conduce al Ritakuwa Blanco, montaña de 5.330 m. s. n. m. ubicada en la Sierra Nevada de El Cocuy, Güicán y / o Chita, como un recurso de uso común (ruc. A través de este ruc se han establecido servicios turísticos y se han dado diferentes formas de participación por parte de las comunidades locales rurales, quienes lo usan y aprovechan. Por tanto, es necesaria una acción colectiva de los usuarios capaz de formular acuerdos o crear instituciones para el autogobierno y el uso sostenible del ruc, con el fin de evitar la tragedia de los bienes comunes2. Los prestadores de servicios turísticos decidieron participar en la planificación del ecoturismo debido a los estímulos y beneficios que pudieran llegar a recibir, como el fortalecimiento de la acción colectiva, la mayor autonomía y autogobierno para la sostenibilidad del sendero, la formalidad en la cadena de valor del turismo y la diversificación de los atractivos turísticos.

  11. Sierra Nevada Subregional Boundary - Sierra Nevada Conservancy [ds542

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Sierra Nevada Conservancy (SNC) boundary. The boundary was mapped to correspond with statute AB 2600 (2004) and as re-defined in AB 1201 (2005). Work on the boundary...

  12. Hacia una Estrategia de Desarrollo para la Sierra Rural en el Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.; Valdivia, L.

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es elaborar un documento que establezca los lineamientos de una política de desarrollo para la Sierra rural en el Perú e identificar los requerimientos institucionales y de investigación complementaria que se requerirían para la construcción de programas específicos que

  13. Pierre Charmoz : La montagne à seins nus, un roman érotique de montagne, ou de la destruction du mythe alpin par le langage Pierre Charmoz: La Montagne à seins nus, or, the Debunking of the Alpine Myth trough Language Pierre Charmoz, La Sierra de los pechos desnudos o la destrucción del mito alpino por el lenguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mestre

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available La Montagne à seins nus de Pierre Charmoz est l'un des rares romans de montagne dans lequel l'érotisme joue un rôle important. C'est également une tentative de remise en cause des mythologies sur lesquelles le roman de montagne s'appuie, pour n'en garder que l'aspect léger et humoristique.La Montagne à seins nus, by Pierre Charmoz, is one of these few mountain novels in which eroticism plays a major part, it is also an attempt at debunking the mythologies on which alpine novels traditionally rest. It keeps only laughter and a gentle spirit of derision from it.La Sierra de los pechos desnudos, de Pierre Charmoz, es una de las raras novelas de montaña en las cuales el erotismo ocupa un lugar preponderante. También se empeña en derribar los mitos sobre los cuales suelen construirse las novelas alpinas tradicionales. De éstos permanece la risa, y uno disfruta mientras se hace burla de ellos.

  14. Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

  15. Estudio de erosión hídrica en varias localizaciones de la Sierra de San Miguelito, SLP, México: Evaluación de erodibilidad de los suelos y modelado del proceso

    OpenAIRE

    Casabella González, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    El interés por la erosión hídrica que se muestra en este proyecto nace de la problemática existente en la actualidad en todos los ámbitos (civil, científico, político, ambiental, etc.) en torno a la conservación y protección de los principales recursos naturales esenciales, entre ellos el suelo, entendiendo al mismo como un sistema natural complejo y dinámico que cumple con determinados servicios ambientales indispensables para el sostenimiento tanto del ecosistema como de la vida h...

  16. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  17. El basamento de la sierra de San Luis: Nuevas evidencias magnéticas y sus implicancias tectónicas The basement of Sierra de San Luis: New magnetic evidence and tectonic implication

    OpenAIRE

    CJ Chernicoff; VA Ramos

    2003-01-01

    Los mapas aeromagnéticos disponibles de las sierras de San Luis y Comechingones en el sector sudoriental de las Sierras Pampeanas de Argentina, permiten examinar las características geológicas y estructurales de las unidades metamórficas e intrusivas del basamento de la región. A través de la aplicación del filtro de continuación ascendente a los datos del campo magnético total reducido al polo, se ha podido observar la configuración profunda de las distintas unidades. Entre ellas se destaca ...

  18. Ordenación y gestión del patrimonio cultural y el paisaje. La experiencia del Plan Especial de la Sierra de los Molinos en Campo de Criptana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mata Olmo

    2008-01-01

    su entorno. Para ello se ha redactado un instrumento urbanístico (Plan Especial, que aporta una aproximación al entorno patrimonial abierta al concepto territorial de paisaje. En este sentido,el Plan converge con los postulados del Convenio Europeo del Paisaje sobre la necesidad de aplicar políticas en materia de paisaje que establezcan instrumentos de intervención destinados a la protección, gestión y ordenación del paisaje.

  19. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  20. Ecología de la fauna silvestre de la sierra nevada y la Sierra del Ajusco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Granados Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre la fauna silvestre de la Sierra del Ajusco y la Sierra Nevada, localizadas dentro de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana (FVT, en la porción oriental del límite meridional de la Cuenca de México. La enorme riqueza biológica de esta zona que rodea la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México, uno de los mayores complejos urbanos del mundo, ha sobrevivido durante décadas al impacto de la urbanización de las áreas forestales, explotación de recursos naturales, contaminación, cacería, incendios y pastoreo. A pesar de esto, se desconocen muchos de los factores que regulan la dinámica de los ecosistemas en esta región. Con relación a la fauna silvestre la carencia de información es mucho más evidente, aspectos elementales como la diversidad de especies, las interacciones ecológicas, la función de los organismos en el ecosistema, las condiciones de estrés a que están sometidos, han sido poco explorados. En esta investigación se recurrió a observaciones de campo y a la consulta de diferentes fuentes bibliográficas para estimar la riqueza de especies de mamíferos, aves, reptiles y anfibios; las relaciones ecológicas entre los mismos y las consecuencias de la modificación de su hábitat producto de las actividades humanas.

  1. Structure of Sierra Blanca (Alpujarride Complex, west of the Betic Cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Blanca, situated in the SW of Málaga, forms part of the Blanca unit, belonging to the Alpujarride Complex of the Betic Cordillera. Its lithologic sequences are made up of a group of migmatites, gneisses and schists and an upper formation of marbles (white dolomitic and the bottom and blue calcareous towards the top, linked with a transitional contact. The structure of Sierra Blanca is comprised of folds, generally isoclinal, with reversed limbs and with important tectonic transpositions, the direction of which is approximately E-W in the eastern area and N-S and E-W in the West. In both areas the folds present opposing vergences, consistently towards the interior of the sierra. The origin of these structures is explained with a model of westerly movements of the Blanca unit, in relation to the Los Reales unit, with the formation of frontal and lateral folds. In its advancement, the western part of Sierra Blanca underwent an important anti-clockwise rotation responsible for the co-existence of folds in N-S and E-W directions. These structures occurred under ductile conditions, owing to the presence of important overthrusting peridotitic masses of the Los Reales unit. This model of westerly displacement is inserted in the process undergone by the Betic-Rif Internal Zones (with Blanca and Los Reales units included which occurred at the end of the Oligocene-Early Miocene when the Gibraltar arch began to be formed.Sierra Blanca, situada al SW de Málaga, forma parte de la unidad de Blanca que pertenece al complejo Alpujárride de la Cordillera Bética. Su secuencia litológica está compuesta por un conjunto inferior de migmatitas, gneises y esquistos, y por una formación superior de mármoles, blancos dolomíticos en la base y mármoles calizos azules hacia la parte superior, entre los que existe un tránsito gradual. La estructura de Sierra Blanca está formada por pliegues, generalmente isoclinales, con flancos invertidos que muestran

  2. Cranial discrete traits in the middle pleistocene humans from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Does hypostosis represent any increase in "ontogenetic stress" along the Neanderthal lineage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, G; Gracia, A; Arsuaga, J L

    2000-03-01

    Cranial discrete traits may be regarded as markers of dynamic responses to general and local perturbations of the morphogenetic pattern, particularly when they are viewed and examined in terms of hypostosis vs. hyperostosis. There are indications, in fact, that the variation between these two opposite conditions relates to mechanical stress suffered by the bony structures during early stages of growth and development. In a previous comparison between Neanderthals and modern humans, variable degrees and contrasting distribution patterns of hypostosis were found [Manzi et al. (1996), JHE30: 511-527]. In the present paper, the occurrence, expression and cranial distribution of 20 hypo-hyperostotic traits are examined in the Middle Pleistocene sample from Atapuerca - Sima de los Huesos (Spain), with the principal aim being to test whether or not the degree of cranial hypostosis increases during the evolution of the Neanderthals. Other Middle Pleistocene representatives of the genus Homo (Kabwe and Petralona), the Italian Neanderthals, and a large recent European sample are also considered. A general consistency between the gradual appearance and stabilization of the Neanderthal cranial features and the results of the present analysis is found and is interpreted as an indication that hypostosis does mark the occurrence of "ontogenetic stress". As suggested more than half a century ago by S. Sergi, an increase in "ontogenetic stress" in the Neanderthal lineage could result from the relationship between intracranial pressures and other (heterochronic) effects produced by the growth of a large brain (encephalization) and the ossification of an archaic (platycephalic) cranial vault. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Differential cooling and uplift of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenken, A; Martino, R.; Wemmer, K.; Siegesmund, S.; Drobe, M.; Lopez de Luchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampean as are constituted by the Neo proterozoic to early Cambrian basement of the Sierras de Cordoba, San Luis and eastern La Rioja (29grades 00seconds - 33grades 30seconds, 64grades 00seconds - 6 00W) outcropping in the east of the Chaco-Parana basin. High-grade metamorphic gneisses and schists dominate the basement. The intrusion of magmatic rocks took place during the Pampean, Famatinian and Achalian cycles. The basement is divided in different lithological and structural domains by N-S trending ductile shear-zones. The east-dipping compressive Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones at the western limit of the Sierras de Cordoba are the most important with respect to the exhumation history of the Sierras. An extensive survey on the cooling history by K/Ar biotite and muscovite dating of the basement rocks of the Sierras de Cordoba and San Luis was carried out and interpreted in terms of a differential exhumation history of the different blocks. Beginning of cooling in the Sierra de San Luis is documented by large muscovite booklets from pegmatites yielding ages between 438 Ma and 448 Ma. Slow cooling rates (3grades/Ma) led to a systematic reset of the K/Ar ages in the fine-grained muscovites forming two groups between 430 Ma and 410 Ma and 410 Ma and 380 Ma resulting from the Achalian deformation in the upper Silurian-Upper Devonian. In contrast to the Upper Ordovician/-Llandoverian cooling onset in the Sierra de San Luis, large pegmatitic muscovites from the Sierras de Cordoba record late Cambrian to Early Ordovician ages between 493 Ma and 474 Ma. The limit between those age domains is marked by the Los Tuneles and Guacha Corral shear-zones accommodating the vertical displacement responsible for the different ages. Cooling ages from the shear-zone rocks at 430 Ma define the upper limit for the contraction that is related to the collision with the Cuyania Terrane to the western outboard of Gondwana

  4. Monitoring lichens diversity and climatic change in Sierra Nevada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Calzado, M.ª R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are common organisms in high mountain zones, where they play an important role in ecosystem balance. In recent years, the increasing interest in understanding more about their interactions with abiotic factors has prompted several investigations, some of which have proved their value as bioindicators of climatic conditions. In this context, focusing on climatic change effects on high mountain vascular plants and supported by the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments project (GLORIA, we have monitored for the first time the lichens biodiversity in Sierra Nevada with the intention of studying the alterations caused by the process of climatic change. The aim of this paper is to explain the monitoring experience developed on the massif and contribute to the first results from the biodiversity and statistical analysis of the sampling data.Los líquenes son organismos comunes en las zonas de alta montaña donde juegan un importante papel en el equilibrio de los ecosistemas. En los últimos años, el creciente interés por entender más acerca de sus interacciones con los factores abióticos ha motivado diversas investigaciones, algunas de las cuales han demostrado su valor como bioindicadores de las condiciones climáticas. En este contexto, centrándonos en los efectos del cambio climático en plantas vasculares de alta montaña y respaldados por el proyecto “Iniciativa para la investigación y el seguimiento global de los ambientes alpinos (GLORIA”, se ha monitorizado por primera vez la diversidad de líquenes en Sierra Nevada con la intención de estudiar las posibles alteraciones que esta pueda sufrir causadas por el proceso de cambio climático. El objetivo de este artículo es el de dar a conocer la experiencia de seguimiento en el macizo y aportar los primeros resultados procedentes del análisis, tanto de la biodiversidad como estadístico, de los datos de muestreo.

  5. Hacha de bronce hallada en la sierra de Béjar (Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Carlos JIMÉNEZ GONZÁLEZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El útil objeto de nuestro estudio fue encontrado de manera casual durante el transcurso de las obras de construcción, a comienzos de los años ochenta, de un camino que enlaza la población de La Hoya con el sitio denominado «La Cobatilla» en plena Sierra de Béjar. El hacha fue encontrada por uno de los operarios aproximadamente a medio camino entre ambos lugares, durante los trabajos de terraplenado llevados a cabo por una máquina excavador

  6. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  7. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  8. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  9. Processing of Sierra Albarrana uranium ores; Tratamiento de los minerales de uranio de Sierra Albarrana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Jodra, L; Perez Luina, A; Perarnau, M

    1960-07-01

    Uranium recovery by hydrometallurgy from brannerite, found in Hornachuelos (Cordoba) is described. It has been studied the acid and alkaline leaching and salt roasting, proving as more satisfactory the acid leaching. Besides the uranium solubilization by acid leaching, is described the further process to obtain pure uranyl nitrate. (Author)

  10. Automatización del proceso de curvado de flejes de acero para el conformado de sierras de corona

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero González, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    El documento que se presenta a continuación es la Memoria del Proyecto de Final de Carrera titulado “Automatización del curvado de flejes de acero para el conformado de sierras de corona”. Proyecto solicitado por la empresa SAEGEN IBERICA, dedicada a la fabricación de coronas de sierra entre otros productos, y motivada por la incapacidad de su sistema productivo y de los procesos existentes, de alcanzar la calidad y la producción exigidas por el mercado. El proyecto queda enmarcado d...

  11. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.46 Example Problems Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Presented in this document are tests that exist in the Sierra/SolidMechanics example problem suite, which is a subset of the Sierra/SM regression and performance test suite. These examples showcase common and advanced code capabilities. A wide variety of other regression and verification tests exist in the Sierra/SM test suite that are not included in this manual.

  12. Sierra toolkit computational mesh conceptual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  13. Macronutrient cycling in mountain grasslands of Sierra de la Ventana, Argentina:

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Carolina Alejandra; Frangi, Jorge Luis

    2007-01-01

    Los pastizales serranos de Sierra de la Ventana no muestran variaciones en la productividad primaria neta (PPN) a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal a pesar de que la elevación determine condiciones de clima y suelos menos favorables para el crecimiento. No obstante, a lo largo de ese gradiente aumentan el cociente entre la biomasa subterránea y aérea, y la fracción de la PPN asignada a los tejidos subterráneos. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en determinar si la falta de variación de...

  14. Hongos asociados con el declinamiento de la manzanita Arctostaphylos pungens HBK en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes, México

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Rico, O.; Marmolejo-Monsivais, G.J.; Sánchez-Martínez, G.; Díaz-Moreno, R.; Luna-Ruíz, J.J.; Sosa-Ramírez, J.; Pérez-Hernández, K.J.; Moreno-Manzano, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    La manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens) es un arbusto que se encuentra con regularidad en la Sierra Fría del estado de Aguascalientes, México. Este arbusto, al igual que otras plantas silvestres, es afectado por factores bióticos, como las enfermedades, que pueden causar desde daños insignificantes hasta la muerte de las plantas. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1) identificar los hongos relacionados con el declinamiento de la manzanita en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes y 2) conocer la i...

  15. El basamento de la sierra de San Luis: Nuevas evidencias magnéticas y sus implicancias tectónicas

    OpenAIRE

    CJ Chernicoff; VA Ramos

    2003-01-01

    Los mapas aeromagnéticos disponibles de las sierras de San Luis y Comechingones en el sector sudoriental de las Sierras Pampeanas de Argentina, permiten examinar las características geológicas y estructurales de las unidades metamórficas e intrusivas del basamento de la región. A través de la aplicación del filtro de continuación ascendente a los datos del campo magnético total reducido al polo, se ha podido observar la configuración profunda de las distintas unidades. Entre ellas se destaca ...

  16. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  17. Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.: Maas (Zingiberaceae: planta comestible de la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macía, Manuel J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The edible fruits of Renealmia alpinia are highly valued in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México where they are managed at a household level. The plant is wild in the región, although a rare species. The aril of the fruit is the edible part. After harvesting, the aril is extracted fresh and processed for local consumption. Sometimes the fruits are commercialized in tradicional markets. Only 19% of the total weight of the fruits is used for food.Los frutos comestibles de Renealmia alpinia son muy apreciados en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, en donde son manejados a nivel familiar. La planta crece silvestre en la región, aunque es una especie poco frecuente. La parte comestible es el arilo de los frutos. Tras la cosecha, se extrae en fresco el arilo y se procesa para su consumo familiar. Ocasionalmente los frutos se comercializan en los mercados tradicionales. Solamente el 19 % del peso total de los frutos se aprovecha para alimentación.

  18. Present importance of coffe production in some coffe grower communities and indian comunities in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Importancia actual de la caficultora en algunas comunidades campesinas e indígenas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Rojas Gilberto

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffe production followed by coffe growers and indian groups in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, shows several differences regarding economical rationalityandtechnology. Coffe plays avery important role inthe economy and life quality ofthegrowers and indians. Traditional technology is generalized and has slowed down the deterioration of the Sierra, although life quality is very low.
    La caficultura que practican los campesinos y los grupos indlgenas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, tiene notables diferencias, tanto en la racionalidad económica, como en la lógica con la cual son atendidos los cultivos. El café juega un
    papel predominante en el sostenimiento de la economla
    y en la calidad de la vida de campecinos e indlgenas. La tecnologla tradicional, cuyo uso es generalizado, ha demorado el deterioro de ese inmenso maciso, aunuqe la calidad de la vida es bastante baja.

  19. Active deformation in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Alvarado, Patricia; Fosdick, Julie C.; Perucca, Laura; Saez, Mauro; Venerdini, Agostina

    2015-12-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas region in the San Juan Province is characterized by thick-skinned deformation with approximately N-S trending ranges of average heights of 2500 m and a high frequency occurrence of seismic activity. Its location to the east of the mainly thin-skinned tectonics of the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt suggests that at 30°S, deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone involving these two morphostructural units. In this paper, we present new apatite (U-Th)/He results (AHe) across the northern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil (around 30°S) and analyze them in a framework of thermochronologic available datasets. We found Pliocene AHe results for Carboniferous and Triassic strata in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with the hypothesis of recent cooling and inferred erosional denudation concentrated along the northern end of this mountain range. Our analysis shows that this northern region may have evolved under different conditions than the central part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil. Previous studies have observed AHe ages consistent with Permian through Cretaceous cooling, indicating the middle part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil remained near surface before the Pampean slab subduction flattening process. Those studies also obtained ˜5 My cooling ages in the southern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil, which are similar to our results in the northern end of the range. Taken together, these results suggest a pattern of young deformation in the northern and southern low elevation ends of the Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with regions of high seismic activity, and Quaternary active faulting along the western-bounding thrust fault of the Sierra de Valle Fértil.

  20. Avistamientos recientes de águila real (Aquila chrysaetos en la sierra El Mechudo, Baja California Sur, México Recent sightings of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos in the Sierra El Mechudo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Guerrero-Cárdenas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan nuevos avistamientos de águila real durante 3 años consecutivos (2007-2010 en 2 localidades de la sierra El Mechudo (El Saucito y las Tarabillas, Baja California Sur. Los avistamientos, se realizaron con cámaras-trampa y por observación directa. En BCS, los registros más recientes son de la sierra de la Laguna en el 2000. Se han detectado al menos 4 individuos diferentes, entre juveniles y adultos. La importancia de estos nuevos avistamientos reside en que por primera vez se registra la presencia del águila real en cuerpos de agua dulce.We report new sightings of Golden Eagle for 3 consecutive years (2007-2010 at 2 localities of the Sierra El Mechudo (El Saucito and Tarabillas, Baja California Sur. These sightings were recorded with camera traps and by direct observation. Most recent records from BCS are for the Sierra de la Laguna in 2000. At least 4 different individuals, both juveniles and adults, have been recorded. The importance of these new sightings is that for the first time we registered Golden Eagles infresh water wetlands.

  1. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  2. Late Quaternary offset of alluvial fan surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgette, Reed J.; Hanson, Austin; Scharer, Katherine M.; Midttun, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Fault is a reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. This study focuses on the Central Sierra Madre Fault (CSMF) in an effort to provide numeric dating on surfaces with ages previously estimated from soil development alone. We have refined previous geomorphic mapping conducted in the western portion of the CSMF near Pasadena, CA, with the aid of new lidar data. This progress report focuses on our geochronology strategy employed in collecting samples and interpreting data to determine a robust suite of terrace surface ages. Sample sites for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating techniques were selected to be redundant and to be validated through relative geomorphic relationships between inset terrace levels. Additional sample sites were selected to evaluate the post-abandonment histories of terrace surfaces. We will combine lidar-derived displacement data with surface ages to estimate slip rates for the CSMF.

  3. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  4. Rebellion and Agrarian Tensions in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which customary governance in Sierra Leone can be held responsible for an increasingly unstable two-class agrarian society. A case is made for regarding the civil war (1991–2002) as being an eruption of long-term, entrenched agrarian tensions exacerbated by chiefly

  5. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research (SLJBR) publishes papers in all ... An original article should give sufficient detail of experimental procedures for .... For references cited in a paper which has been accepted for publication but not ...

  6. Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakanda, R.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the

  7. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to Medicine, ...

  8. Comportamientos y actitudes linguisticas de los habitantes bilingues de la comunidad palenquera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Pabla Perez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El pueblo San Basilio de Palenque esta al pie de los montes de la Sierra de Maria a 50 kilometros aproximadamente de la ciudad de Cartagena.  La vida de los miembros de la comunidad palenquera se fundamentales: la vitalidad humana los ritos de la vida y muerte

  9. El paisaje vegetal de la Sierra de Juan Robre y Jana (Oriente de Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Fernández, Jesús

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at studying the vegetal formations found in a middle altitude ridge on Eastern Asturias. The characteristics and current distribution of these formations result from a combination of factors such as the climate, the relief, the soil and the systematic human action. Particularly relevant are the beech forests, the evergreen holm oak and the willow groves. Mixed forests of atlantic deciduous leaves species are properly represented, as well as chestnuts and oak groves. However, the most extended vegetal formations are heathers, gorses, ferns and pastures, as a consequence of traditional agricultural practices.

    Se estudian las formaciones vegetales existentes en una sierra de altitud media del oriente asturiano. Las características y la distribución actual de dichas formaciones son el resultado de la combinación de factores como el clima, el relieve, los suelos y la secular intervención humana. Por su elevado interés destacan formaciones como los hayedos, los encinares y las saucedas arbustivas. Los bosques mixtos de frondosas planocaducifolias también están bien representados, al igual que los castañedos y los robledales. No obstante las formaciones que más superficie ocupan son los brezales, los helechales, los aulagares y los pastizales, fruto de las prácticas desarrolladas al amparo del sistema de explotación agrario tradicional.

  10. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México Roost sites characteristics of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) in Sierra Fria, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Márquez-Olivas; Edmundo García-Moya; Carlos González-Rebeles Islas; Humberto Vaquera-Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana) en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos), en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3) de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el...

  11. Discovery of the Sierra Pintada uranium district, Mendoza Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, F.; Belluco, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1956, uranium-bearing minerals have been known to exist in Sierra Pintada, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Based on paragenetic considerations, a first radiometric prospection was carried out, leading to the discovery of two groups of anomalies (Puesto Agua del Toro and Cuesta de los Terneros), such as vein-type deposits, with uraninite and 'yellow minerals' and one sandstone-type deposit (Puesto La Josefa), related to sediments with carbon trash. Some recent geological research and surveys in the area, and a reduced drilling programme carried out on selected anomalies, led to reinterpretation of the potential of the area. Furthermore, and as a result of an airborne radiometric prospection performed in mid-1968, numerous anomalies have been discovered. The main constellation of anomalies, along the flanks of the El Tigre Brachyanticline, occurs in sandstones of Permian age. Explored by 80 000 m of drilling, they have shown the existence of several peneconcordant lens-shaped ore bodies of economic size, with uranophane on the surface and prevailing uraninite and some brannerite, coffinite and davidite below the water table. Reserves exceed 20 000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 . A new regional programme with a 4-km drill-grid initiated in 1978 led to the discovery of new ore bodies which are at present being evaluated. The alternatives and discontinuities during the development of the district, the prospecting and exploration techniques employed, and the results achieved in the different stages of the operation are discussed in detail. This case history attempts to illustrate the developing philosophy which was successfully applied in Sierra Pintada, with emphasis on the following points: (a) the need for adequate geological knowledge of the area; (b) the advantage of a massive survey (in this case, air survey); (c) the necessity for exploration (drilling) in order to define the anomalies and make their evaluation possible; and (d) the convenience of extending exploration

  12. Los Fósiles Humanos de Atapuerca (Burgos: Nota Preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano AGUIRRE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los restos cuyo estudio nos ocupa, han sido extraídos en la denominada «Sima de los Huesos» en la Cueva Mayor, situada en la Sierra de Atapuerca, en las cercanías del pueblo de Ibeas de Juarros, a 14 km. de Burgos, en la margen derecha del río Arlanzón. La Sierra de Atapuerca puede definirse geológicamente como un anticlinal de calizas y margas del cretácico superior, rodeado por terrenos neógenos que se apoyan con una fuerte discordancia angular.

  13. Diversidad de mamíferos de la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla, México Diversity of mammals in the Natural Reserve Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla (RNSN, por su extensión, es la segunda área natural protegida del Estado de México; sin embargo, se desconoce gran parte de su biodiversidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar su diversidad mastofaunística. Se utilizó el trampeo directo para la colecta de mamíferos pequeños y trampas-cámara para el estudio de los mamíferos medianos y grandes. Se calculó la diversidad a partir del índice de Margalef, y se evaluaron la dominancia y la equidad mediante los índices de Simpson y Shannon-Wiener, respectivamente. Se registraron 53 especies de mamíferos; 3 de ellas son el primer registro estatal, 10 son endémicas de México y 4 las considera en alguna categoría de vulnerabilidad el gobierno mexicano. En la zona habitan 5 de las 6 especies de felinos de México. La composición mastofaunística de la RNSN fue comparada con la de la sierra Purépecha, Michoacán, con la que comparte el 38% de las especies. De acuerdo con el índice de Jaccard, la similitud entre ambas es baja. Considerando los resultados, la importancia de la RNSN con respecto a su diversidad mastofaunística es evidente, así como la necesidad de delinear estrategias para su conservación.The Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (SNNR is the second largest natural protected area in the State of Mexico, however its biodiversity is largely unknown. The aim of this research was to estimate its mammalian diversity. Direct trapping was used to capture small mammals and camera-trapping for the study of medium and large mammals. Diversity was calculated from Margalef's index, dominance and equity were evaluated through Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indexes, respectively. Fifty three species were registered, 3 of them are the first record for the State of Mexico, 10 are endemic to Mexico and 4 are considered in some category of vulnerability by the Mexican government. The area is inhabited by 5 of the 6 Mexican felid species. The

  14. DATACIONES ARQUEOMAGNÉTICAS EN LA CIUDADELA DE TEOTIHUACAN, SIERRA DE LAS NAVAJAS Y XALASCO (Archaeomagnetic Datings in the Citadel of Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas, and Xalasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Gabriel Terán Guerrero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El control cronoestratigráfico es fundamental para el desarrollo del trabajo arqueológico, por ello el arqueomagnetismo se ha constituido como una gran herramienta para las dataciones. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de dataciones arqueomagnéticas mediante la determinación de la dirección de magnetización de pisos de estuco de tres sitios de la cultura teotihuacana: Ciudadela de Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas y Xalasco, Tlaxcala. Esta cultura se desarrolló en el centro de México a partir del año 1 d. C., teniendo su mayor esplendor durante los siglos IV al VI d. C. Tres etapas constructivas fueron muestreadas en la ciudadela de Teotihuacan: la preciudadela, la pirámide de Quetzalcóatl y la pirámide adosada. La Sierra de las Navajas en Hidalgo, a 50 km de Teotihuacan, era su principal proveedor de obsidiana, por lo que es de interés conocer sus periodos de ocupación. El motivo del análisis de los pisos de Xalasco, Tlaxcala, sitio de la cultura teotihuacana, es por encontrarse en la ruta de comunicación con la zona del Golfo de México. Utilizando la metodología y el programa de Pavón-Carrasco et al. (2014 se infieren intervalos de tiempo que nos permiten comprender la dinámica ocupacional de estos sitios. ENGLISH: The chronostratigraphic control is fundamental during any archaeological survey. Recent studies over the Americas showed that archaeomagnetism emerges as a great tool for absolute dating purposes. In this paper, we report new archaeomagnetic datings obtained from stucco floors belonging to three sites of Teotihuacan: the Citadel of Teotihuacan, Sierra de las Navajas and Xalasco, Tlaxcala. This culture developed in central Mexico from AD 1, having its greatest splendor during the 4th to 6th centuries AD. Three construction phases were sampled in the citadel of Teotihuacan: the pre-Citadel, the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl and the terraced pyramid. The Sierra de la Navajas in Hidalgo, located 50 km from

  15. Respuesta hidrológica en medios semiáridos: Las cuencas experimentales de la Sierra de El Picarcho, Murcia (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Sánchez, Victor Manuel; Gómez-Plaza, A.; Martínez-Mena García, M. Dolores; Albaladejo Montoro, Juan

    2000-01-01

    [ES] Las cuencas experimentales de la Sierra del Picarcho se establecieron en 1997 para estudiar los factores que controlan la generación de escorrentía en distintas escalas de trabajo, analizar la variabilidad de estos factores y desarrollar modelos hidrológicos de simulación adaptados a estos ambientes.

  16. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 Verification Tests Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    Presented in this document is a small portion of the tests that exist in the Sierra / SolidMechanics (Sierra / SM) verification test suite. Most of these tests are run nightly with the Sierra / SM code suite, and the results of the test are checked versus the correct analytical result. For each of the tests presented in this document, the test setup, a description of the analytic solution, and comparison of the Sierra / SM code results to the analytic solution is provided. Mesh convergence is also checked on a nightly basis for several of these tests. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems. Additional example problems are provided in the Sierra / SM Example Problems Manual. Note, many other verification tests exist in the Sierra / SM test suite, but have not yet been included in this manual.

  17. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S.; Calligaro, T.F.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Los Rios, M. de

    2009-01-01

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  18. Empresarios y negociantes en Bogotá 1900-1920: Pepe Sierra y Leo Kopp Elber Berdugo Cotera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elber Berdugo Cotera

    1998-02-01

    En este escrito sobre José María Sierra y Leo Kopp, se da cuenta de algunas de las numerosas y variadas actividades económicas que realizaron en el campo de los bienes raíces, y cuyos montos fueron de los más altos e importantes, si los comparamos con el resto de transacciones localizadas en el período de análisis. Una de las características que observamos en estos hombres de negocios, es su polivalencia. Por ejemplo, a Leo Kopp, generalmente se le asocia con el empresario, fundador de Bavaria y Fenicia fundamentalmente. Sin embargo, también fue un destacado comerciante y cubrí otros frentes como los arrendamientos, las hipotecas, la compra y venta de bienes inmuebles, la minería, entre otros. Así mismo a José María Sierra, lo hallamos en actividades como la arriería, el cultivo de la cada de azúcar, la ganadería, los remates de rentas de licores y degüello y los préstamos a los gobiernos. Fue también inversionista en bancos y creador de empresas como la de fabricación de hielo.

  19. Sierra Elvira limestone: petrophysical characteristics of an Andalusian heritage stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde, I.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Sierra Elvira stone” is one of the ornamental building stones most widely used in the historical monuments of eastern Andalusia. A Liassic age limestone, it appears in the central section of the Baetic Mountains and more specifically in the Middle Subbaetic domain. While the most common variety is a crinoid limestone, a micritic limestone of the same age has also been quarried, albeit in much smaller quantities. These stones form very thick beds, up to nearly 5 m deep, that run in consistently parallel lines and have a dip angle that facilitates quarrying.With petrographic, physical and mechanical properties that ensure stone strength and durability, it is a high quality building material suitable for both structural and ornamental purposes. These properties can be attributed to the minimal open porosity and concomitant excellent water resistance that characterize the stone, as well as to its high mechanical strength and low textural anisotropy, both elastic and mechanical. With such attributes, the stone can be successfully used for any number of purposes, including decorative stonework (portals, fountains, plinths, structural members (column shafts and bases or urban curbing and paving. Intervention on Sierra de Elvira limestone structures should be limited to cleaning or repair, for consolidating or protective materials are scantly effective.La “Piedra de Sierra Elvira” constituye una de las piedras ornamentales más significativas del Patrimonio Arquitectónico de Andalucía Oriental. Es una roca caliza del Lias que aflora en el Subbético Medio del sector central de las Cordilleras Béticas. El litotipo más explotado es una caliza con crinoides, en bastante menor importancia se ha extraído también otra caliza micrítica de la misma edad. Los bancos son muy potentes, en algunos casos de más de 5 m, con un paralelismo constante y un buzamiento que favorece su explotación en los frentes de cantera.Sus caracter

  20. Sierra Madre Oriental in Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This desolate landscape is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range, on the border between the Coahuila and Nuevo Leon provinces of Mexico. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on November 28, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  1. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.; Puebla-Olivares, F

    2014-01-01

    Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the...

  2. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  3. Espacio urbano, espacio del consumo en las crónicas norteamericanas de Justo Sierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Beatriz Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las crónicas de viaje de Justo Sierra, escritas en ocasión de su visita a los Estados Unidos a finales del siglo XIX, con énfasis en las dedicadas a la ciudad de Nueva York. En ellas, centramos nuestra atención en el registro textual de fenómenos relacionados con la forma en que Sierra percibe la modernidad norteamericana, especialmente significativa en lo que hace a la relación entre economía y sociedad. Por ello, atendemos particularmente la configuración del espacio urbano como un escenario del consumo, y procuramos demostrar cómo la constitución física y simbólica de las ciudades muestra rasgos de parentesco con esos eventos típicos de la época que fueron las ferias y exposiciones, las cuales también son objeto de la prosa de Sierra.

  4. Problemática indígena « el ", , " ,, declaración conjunta de las cuatro organizaciones indígenas de la sierra nevada de santa marta para la interlocución con el estado y la sociedad nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Organización Wiwa Yugumaitm Bunkwanarrwa (owybt); Organización Indígena Kankwama (aik); Cor.federoeion Indígena Tayrona (eít); Organízaeión Gonawindua Tayrona (ogt)

    2014-01-01

    Este documento responde a las preocupaciones comunes de las cuatro organiz"acio..: nes representativas de los pueblos indígenas de la Sierra Nevada (OWYBT, OIK, CIT, OGT), a la hora de trazar el futuro del territorio que desde los inicios del mundo  les fue encomendado por los Padres y Madresespirituales.

  5. Geology and petrography of basement in south extreme in Sierra Grande de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosini, A.; Ortiz Suarez, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the south of the Sierra de San Luis is recognized a basement composed by La Escalerilla and Los Puquios granites, accompanied by schist, mylonite s and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The schists, La Escalerilla granite and the mafic -ultramafic rocks are affected by a regional metamorphism in anphibolites facies, the two first present a N-S foliation di ping to east. The mylonite s correspond to a second event of deformation, distributed in thin belts of NNE-SSO direction and inclination to east, developed in green schist to anphibolites facies. Los Puquios granite represents the more young of the basement rocks and the intrusion was associated with a shear zone. Los Puquios granite forms dikes and small plutons cutting La Escalerilla granite and micas chits in high cortical levels

  6. IXTLAMATKI VERSUS NAHUALLI. CHAMANISMO, NAHUALISMO Y BRUJERÍA EN LA SIERRA NEGRA DE PUEBLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Fagetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características de ixtlamatki y nahualli, como agentes del bien y del mal en el imaginario de los nahuas de Tlacotepec de Díaz, Puebla, constituyen el punto de partida de la reflexión sobre las relaciones que privan entre el chamanismo, el nahualismo y la brujería, como parte del sistema simbólico-mágico-religioso implicado en la trama de la vida y la muerte. El caso de los nahuas de la Sierra Negra nos permite establecer un conjunto de homologías y diferencias entre estas tres grandes categorías y distinguir los rasgos que podrían guiar el estudio de las mismas en otros contextos culturales.   ABSTRACT The characteristics of ixtlamatki and nahualli, as agents of good and evil in the imaginary of the Nahua people from Tlacotepc de Díaz, Puebla, constitute the starting point for reflecting upon the relationships between shamanism, nahualism and witchcraft as part of the symbolic-magic-religious system in the web of life and death. The case of the Nahuas from the Sierra Negra allows us to establish a set of similarities and differences between these three major categories and to distinguish the features that can potentially guide their study in other cultural contexts.

  7. Desastres, desplazamiento interno y migración laboral en la Sierra de Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Velasco, Germán; López Ochoa, María Sonia; Álvarez Gordillo, Guadalupe; Schmook, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Derivado de un escenario global de cambio climático, el huracán Stan (2005) impactó severamente a la región Sierra en el estado de Chiapas y devino en el mayor desplazamiento interno de personas de la entidad. Una parte de la población de la región sufrió una repentina pérdida de sus bienes y fue reubicada en lugares circunvecinos en medio de acciones improvisadas por parte de organismos públicos, sin atender los protocolos internacionales en la materia. Para analizar el proceso de re...

  8. Desastres, desplazamiento interno y migración laboral en la Sierra de Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Germán MARTÍNEZ-VELASCO; María Sonia LOPEZ-OCHOA; Guadalupe ÁLVAREZ-GORDILLO; Birgit SCHMOOK

    2016-01-01

    Derivado de un escenario global de cambio climático, el huracán Stan (2005) impactó severa - mente a la región Sierra en el estado de Chiapas y devino en el mayor desplazamiento interno de personas de la entidad. Una parte de la población de la región sufrió una repentina pérdida de sus bienes y fue reubicada en lugares circunvecinos en medio de acciones improvisadas por parte de organismos públicos, sin atender los protocolos internacionales en la materia. Para analizar el proceso de reu...

  9. Human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and prevention practices among Sierra Sur, Oaxaca college students

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Ramos, Gisela Mayra; Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Tenahua-Quitl, Inés; Jiménez, Concepción; López Mendoza, Yarely

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El virus del papiloma humano (VPH) ocasiona la infección de transmisión sexual más importante en el mundo y se le considera como el principal agente para el desarrollo del cáncer cervicouterino. Los jóvenes constituyen la población más vulnerable debido al inicio de las  relaciones sexuales usualmente sin métodos de protección. Objetivos: Describir el conocimiento para la prevención del virus del papiloma humano en universitarios de la sierra sur, Oaxaca. Diseño: Estudio cuantit...

  10. Los pishtacos: degolladores degollados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PISHTACOS : ÉGORGEURS ÉGORGÉS. A partir de douze récits de la sierra centrale du Pérou, nous analysons les multiples représentations du Pishtaco. Il est significatif que dans cette région, ces personnages maléfiques soient toujours vaincus par les taureaux (représentation des Amarus, par les chiens et par les paysans pauvres qui utilisent diverses astuces. Nous faisons une étude comparative avec d’autres régions du pays à propos du cycle de la graisse et des méthodes permettant la délivrance. En résumé, le Pishtaco est un personnage fascinant qui synthétise un ensemble de symboles et de traditions hispaniques et andines. Tomando como base doce relatos de la sierra central del Perú, se analiza las múltiples representaciones del Pishtaco. Particularmente significativo resulta el hecho de que en esta zona estos personajes malignos son siempre derrotados. Sus vencedores son los toros (metamorfosis de los Amarus, los perros y campesinos pobres que se valen del ají, del chuño y otras tretas jocosas. En cuanto al ciclo de la grasa y las contraconjuras, se hacen referencias comparativas con otras áreas geográficas del país En suma, el Pishtaco es un personaje fascinante y sintetiza una serie de símbolos y tradiciones hispano andinas. THE PISHTACOS: THE SLAUGHTERS SLAUGHTED. On the base of twelve narrations from the central sierra of Peru, we analyze the multiples representations of the Pishtaco. The fact that in this region these malefic entities are always beaten by bulls (representations of amarus by dogs and by poor peasants using different artfulness. About the grease cycle and the means of delivery reference are made to other areas of the country. Resuming, the pishtaco is a fascinating entity syntheting a whole lot of symbols and spanish traditions.

  11. Invasive exotic plant species in Sierra Nevada ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Eric L. Berlow; Karen L. Haubensak

    2004-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada is a topographically and floristically diverse region of the western United States. While it comprises only a fifth of the total land area of California, half of the native plant species in the state occur within the range. In addition, more than 400 plant species are endemic to the Sierra Nevada and many of these are listed as threatened or have...

  12. Biosphere and atmosphere interactions in Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen H. Goldstein

    2004-01-01

    In the Sierra Nevada, studies are being conducted to assess the impacts of both anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbon emissions on regional tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol production. Impacts of ozone deposition and management practices on ecosystem health are also being studied. Human-induced changes in regional air quality have consequences for Sierra Nevada...

  13. Eight years of millimetric atmospheric opacity Measurements at San Pedro Mártin sierra in Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    David Hiriart

    2003-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de ocho a~nos de mediciones de la opacidad de la atm osfera a 210 GHz (1.4 mm) sobre la Sierra de San Pedro M artir B.C. Estos comprenden el periodo de 1995 a 2002, reportando mediciones de un total de 1570 d as. El valor medio de la opacidad al cenit obtenido fue de 0.23 nepers. Los valores de la opacidad al cenit durante el d a y la noche fueron 0.25 y 0.20 nepers, respectivamente. Durante el verano, se encontr o un marcado ascenso en la opacidad a...

  14. Micrometeorological Observations in a Sierra Nevada Meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, D. A.; Oliphant, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain meadows play important roles on watershed and ecosystem services, including improving water quality, moderating runoff and providing biodiversity hotspots. In the Sierra Nevada, mountain meadows are an integral part of the mountain ecosystem and watersheds that impact more than 20 million people. Grazing, logging and other forms of anthropogenic land use in the Sierra Nevada have degraded the functioning of meadows, by altering the morphology, hydrology and vegetation. Existing meandering stream networks become incised and straightened by increased runoff, which effectively lowers the water table and completely alters the ecosystem from moist meadow sedges, grasses, and herbs to dryland grass and shrubs. Given the large growth cycle in healthy meadows, it is also expected that they sequester a significant amount of carbon and enhance atmospheric humidity through evapotranspiration, but relatively little work has been done on the bio-micrometeorology of meadows. The purpose of this study is to assess the growing season carbon, water and energy budgets of a partly degraded meadow in the northern Sierra Nevada. Loney Meadow, located at nearly 2,000 m in the Tahoe National Forest, has been identified as a degraded meadow and is scheduled to undergo restoration work to raise the water table in 2017. A micrometeorological tower with eddy covariance instruments was deployed at the site for most of the snow-free period from May to October 2016. The measurements include: fluxes of CO2, water vapor, surface radiation and energy budget components; ancillary meteorological and soil data; and an automated camera capturing daily images of the meadow surface. The poster will present diurnal and seasonal CO2 on a daily basis with a very rapid increase at the onset of the growing season.

  15. Origen y decadencia del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra Crespo, Hernán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical path of gamonalismo in Ecuadorian highlands. Although it could be alike to Mexican caciquismo and Brazilian coronelismo, gamonalismo had its specific forms. In Ecuador it is possible to reconstruct its meaning in political terms, as a form of traditional domination. The use of this particular term is analyzed in different historical moments between the 18th and 20th century; focusing on the origin and decline of this local power. The aim is to build an interpretative frame in order to understand agrarian sources of Ecuadorian state development and ethnic domination.

    Este artículo analiza la trayectoria histórica del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana. Aunque homologado con el caciquismo mexicano y el coronelismo brasileño, tiene rasgos específicos. En el Ecuador es posible reconstruir el significado del gamonalismo en el lenguaje político y como modalidad de dominación tradicional. Por una parte, se realiza un rastreo y análisis del uso del término en distintos momentos históricos entre los siglos XVIII y XX. Por otra parte, se efectúa un abordaje del origen y declinación de esta forma de poder. Se aspira a construir un marco interpretativo que aporte a la comprensión de los fundamentos agrarios de la constitución del Estado ecuatoriano y las formas de dominación étnica.

  16. DE LOS CARBONEROS A LOS VENDIMIADORES: La Virgen de la Carrodilla y su historia

    OpenAIRE

    Dussel, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Desde su llegada a Cuyo en el siglo XVIII, la Virgen de la Carrodilla estuvo vinculada con los trabajadores rurales. Primero en las fiestas populares de los cosechadores y después en la Fiesta de la Vendimia con su incorporación al protocolo oficial; al tiempo que fue declarada “Patrona Celestial de los Viñedos” en 1938 por Monseñor Verdaguer. Este trabajo relata la historia de su devoción, que nace en España, en la sierra aragonesa, donde su imagen fue encontrada por unos carboneros en el si...

  17. Desastres, desplazamiento interno y migración laboral en la Sierra de Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán MARTÍNEZ-VELASCO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Derivado de un escenario global de cambio climático, el huracán Stan (2005 impactó severa - mente a la región Sierra en el estado de Chiapas y devino en el mayor desplazamiento interno de personas de la entidad. Una parte de la población de la región sufrió una repentina pérdida de sus bienes y fue reubicada en lugares circunvecinos en medio de acciones improvisadas por parte de organismos públicos, sin atender los protocolos internacionales en la materia. Para analizar el proceso de reubicación y sus consecuencias, se llevó a cabo un estudio de desplazados en dos co - munidades denominadas “fraccionamientos”. En los nuevos lugares de asentamiento, los medios de vida existentes fueron más precarios que los de los anteriores lugares de residencia, motivo por el cual los desplazados no han podido acceder a satisfactores de bienestar general ni man - tener el acostumbrado patrón de migración internacional que antes del desplazamiento tenían. En cambio, las actuales condiciones han propiciado una migración tipo commuter , situación que desde décadas atrás, esa misma población había superado.

  18. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  19. Estudio climático y bioclimático del Parque Natural Sierra de Grazalema

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo Barea, Alfonso Jesús

    2016-01-01

    El Parque Natural Sierra de Grazalema, uno de los ámbitos más interesantes desde el punto de vista climático y bioclimático de la península, no está lo suficientemente estudiado. Por ello, en primer lugar, afrontamos un estudio climático de detalle, donde se analizan en profundidad las dos variables climáticas más relevantes (temperatura y precipitación). En vista de que la cartografía climática pública es muy general, hemos elaborado, con los valores térmicos y pluviométricos anuales disponi...

  20. Plant endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Spain: taxonomic, distributional, and evolutionary aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    contacts or relatively recent range expansion of populations are the two most plausible interpretations in phylogeography of most taxa. Massive extinctions after glacial episodes may have been, in part, responsible for a limited number of endemics and genetic differentiation in Sierra de Gredos, which contrasts with high levels of endemicity in other areas (hotspots of the Mediterranean floristic region.Las causas del bajo número de endemismos de la Sierra de Gredos (centro de la Península Ibérica son poco conocidas. Aspectos taxonómicos, distribucionales y genéticos de los 12 taxones endémicos se discuten en este artículo. Nuevas poblaciones encontradas en los últimos años han resultado ser nuevas citas corológicas y nuevos táxones para la ciencia. En concreto, en este artículo ampliamos la distribución de Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii y describimos una nueva subespecie (Teucrium oxylepis subsp. Gredense. Niveles de variación genética han sido investigados por medio de la secuenciación de la región ITS (del inglés Internal Transcribed Sequence, que es una región de ADN nuclear ampliamente empleada para detectar divergencia genética significativa a nivel de poblaciones. A nivel específico, la presencia de solo ocho especies endémicas de este amplio territorio montañoso (c. 4.800 km2 indica escasos eventos de especiación seguidos por procesos de supervivencia de las especies nuevamente formadas, a pesar de la riqueza en especies de la flora de la Sierra de Gredos (>2.500. De acuerdo con los niveles de variación de secuencias ITS, un notable proceso de aislamiento debe haber precedido la divergencia del género monotípico Pseudomisopates de sus parientes más próximos (Misopates, Acanthorrhinum. El aislamiento de las otras siete especies de las especies más próximas ha sido un proceso más reciente tal y como interpretamos por la limitada variación nucleotídica de las secuencias. A nivel poblacional, comparaciones de secuencias ITS

  1. Projected treatment capacity needs in sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard A; MacDonald, Emily; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-30

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa requires immediate and sustained input from the international community in order to curb transmission. The CDC has produced a model that indicates that to end the outbreak by pushing the reproductive number below one, 25% of the patients must be placed in an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETC) and 45% must be isolated in community settings in which risk of disease transmission is reduced and safe burials are provided. In order to provide firmer targets for the international response in Sierra Leone, we estimated the national and international personnel and treatment capacity that may be required to reach these percentages. We developed a compartmental SEIR model that was fitted to WHO data and local data allowing the reproductive number to change every 8 weeks to forecast the progression of the EVD epidemic in Sierra Leone. We used the previously estimated 2.5x correction factor estimated by the CDC to correct for underreporting. Number of personnel required to provide treatment for the predicted number of cases was estimated using UNMEER and UN OCHA requests for resources required to meet the CDC target of 70% isolation. As of today (2014-12-04), we estimate that there are 810 (95% CI=646 to 973) EVD active cases in treatment, with an additional 3751 (95% CI=2778 to 4723) EVD cases unreported and untreated. To reach the CDC targets today, we need 1140 (95% CI=894 to 1387) cases in ETCs and 2052 (95% CI=1608 to 2496) at home or in a community setting with a reduced risk for disease transmission. In 28 days (2015-01-01), we will need 1309 (95% CI=804 to 1814) EVD cases in ETCs and 2356 (95% CI=1447 to 3266) EVD cases at reduced risk of transmission. If the current transmission rate is not reduced, up to 3183 personnel in total will be required in 56 days (2015-01-29) to operate ETCs according to our model. The current outbreak will require massive input from the international community in order to curb the

  2. Chemical and isotopic study of thermal springs and gas discharges from Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nencetti, A; Tassi, F; Vaselli, O [Department of Earth Sciences, Florence (Italy); Macias, J. L [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Magro, G [CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Capaccioni, B [Institute of Volcanology and Geochemistry, Urbino (Italy); Minissale, A [CNR-Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Florence (Italy); Mora, J. C [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    Thermal water and gas discharges south-east of El Chichon volcano, Mexico are associated mainly with NW-SE oriented fault systems. Spring discharges include i) waters with Na-Cl composition and TDS>3000 mg/L; ii) waters with Ca-SO{sub 4} composition and TDS values between 1400 and 2300 mg/L; iii) waters with Na-Cl composition and TDS of 800 to 2400 mg/L and sulphate content up to 650 mg/L and iv) waters with Ca-HCO{sub 3} composition and low salinity (TDS <250mg/L). Most of these waters are associated with free-gas discharges of N{sub 2} (up to 93 % by vol.), CO{sub 2} (2.4 to 31.2 % by vol.) and Ar (up to 1.25 % by vol.) with a predominant meteoric origin. H{sub 2}S is present only in gas samplers collected at El Azufre (up to 1.1 % by vol.). The {delta}13C CO{sub 2} values are always below -9.7% (PDB) and suggest a partially biogenic origin for CO{sub 2}. Chemical and isotopic features of spring discharges indicate that fluid circulation in the Sierra de Chiapas is mainly regulated by meteoric waters that tend to infiltrate the upper and middle-Cretaceous carbonate units up to the lower Cretaceous-upper Jurassic evaporitic formations (by Lopez-Ramos, 1982). The latter provide the main source of the species in solution. No evidence for high-to-medium enthalpy systems at depth beneath the Sierra de Chiapas has been found. [Spanish] La Sierra de Chiapas localizada en el Sureste de Mexico, se caracteriza por la presencia de descargas de gas y agua. La mayoria de los manantiales termales se asocian a rocas volcanicas Terciarias a lo largo de fallas regionales con orientacion NOSE. Las descargas termales se dividen en cuatro grupos: i) aguas con composicion Na-Cl y Solidos Disueltos Totales (SDT) >3000 mg/L; ii) aguas con composicion Ca-SO{sub 4} y valores de SDT entre 1400 y 2300 mg/L; iii) aguas con composicion Na-Cl, bajos contenidos de SDT (800 2400 mg/L) y un contenido de sulfato alto (hasta 650 mg/L) y iv) aguas con una composicion Ca-HCO{sub 3} y salinidad baja

  3. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  4. Geomagnetic Polarity Epochs: Sierra Nevada II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A; Doell, R R; Dalrymple, G B

    1963-10-18

    Ten new determinations on volcanic extrusions in the Sierra Nevada with potassium-argon ages of 3.1 million years or less indicate that the remanent magnetizations fall into two groups, a normal group in which the remanent magnetization is directed downward and to the north, and a reversed group magnetized up and to the south. Thermomagnetic experiments and mineralogic studies fail to provide an explanation of the opposing polarities in terms of mineralogic control, but rather suggest that the remanent magnetization reflects reversals of the main dipole field of the earth. All available radiometric ages are consistent with this field-reversal hypothesis and indicate that the present normal polarity epoch (N1) as well as the previous reversed epoch (R1) are 0.9 to 1.0 million years long, whereas the previous normal epoch (N2) was at least 25 percent longer.

  5. Sierra Toolkit Manual Version 4.48.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Toolkit Team

    2018-03-01

    This report provides documentation for the SIERRA Toolkit (STK) modules. STK modules are intended to provide infrastructure that assists the development of computational engineering soft- ware such as finite-element analysis applications. STK includes modules for unstructured-mesh data structures, reading/writing mesh files, geometric proximity search, and various utilities. This document contains a chapter for each module, and each chapter contains overview descriptions and usage examples. Usage examples are primarily code listings which are generated from working test programs that are included in the STK code-base. A goal of this approach is to ensure that the usage examples will not fall out of date. This page intentionally left blank.

  6. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. 3. Department of .... need, is a key part of planning for increasing surgical capacity. Limitations. As noted by Groen et al24 this data .... Emergency and surgery services of ...

  7. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    university hospital in southern Sierra Leone, a total of 66 (4.71±2.52) victims reported having been bitten by snakes in 11 ... social, economic, psychological and health impacts of snakebite ..... Epidemiological profile of snakebite cases from.

  8. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... disability associated with venomous snakebites result in lasting .... 1Mean ± Standard Error. 95% Confidence Limit. Community. Self. Reported.

  9. British Military Intervention into Sierra Leone: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberson, Walter G

    2007-01-01

    .... The successful British intervention led to the defeat of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and final peace accords, restored order to a failed state, and allowed the democratic restoration of the government of Sierra Leone...

  10. Population size, survival, growth, and movements of Rana sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Halstead, Brian J.; Link, William

    2013-01-01

    Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of R. sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K = 0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.

  11. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zackary Suleiman

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... Case Study ... Peri-operative management of patients with significant cardio-respiratory disease ... contribute to patient safety by preventing any.

  12. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  13. Sierra/SD User's Notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munday, Lynn Brendon; Day, David M.; Bunting, Gregory; Miller, Scott T; Crane, Nathan K

    2018-03-01

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  14. Preliminary flora of the Sierra Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; George M. Ferguson; George Yatskievych; Beatriz E. Loyola-Reina; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; John L. Anderson; Stephen F. Hale; Sky Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra Bacadéhuachi in east-central Sonora is the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), located east of Bacadéhuachi, Municipio de Bacadéhuachi, 34 km east of the Chihuahua border, and 165 km south of the Arizona border. The vegetation ranges from lowland foothills thornscrub up through desert grassland to oak woodland and pine-oak forest...

  15. Los Neutrinos Los Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Félix

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From all the proposals to understand the structure of matter, and the way the natural world is conformed, the one about neutrinos is the most enigmatic, abstract, and foreign to immediate experience; however, this is the one that has delved more deeply over the nearly eighty years since it was formulated by Wolfgang Pauli –in 1930- as a radical proposition to understand nucleon decay, and the decay of other particles, without the violation of the principle of conservation of energy and momentum at subatomic level. This proposition has evolved through the years, and from Pauli’s original idea only the basic elements remain.This article contains the tale of the hypothesis of neutrinos, its early history, its evolution up to present day, and the efforts done nowadays to study them. In summary, this is the physics of neutrinos. De todas las propuestas para entender la estructura de la materia, y la conformación del mundo natural, los neutrinos es la más enigmática, abstracta, y ajena a la experiencia inmediata; sin embargo, es la que más hondo ha ido calando a lo largo de los ya casi ochenta años de haber sido formulada por Wolfgang Pauli –en el año 1930- como una medida radical para entender el decaimiento de los nucleones, y otras partículas, sin que se violara el principio de la conservación de la energía y del momento a nivel subatómico. La propuesta ha evolucionado a lo largo de los años, y de la idea original de Pauli ya sólo lo básico permanece. En este artículo está el relato de la hipótesis de los neutrinos, su historia primera, su evolución hasta el presente, los esfuerzos que en la actualidad se realizan para estudiarlos. En breve, ésta es la física de los neutrinos.

  16. Factores de riesgo de violencia escolar (bullying) severa en colegios privados de tres zonas de la sierra del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Amemiya; Miguel Oliveros; Armando Barrientos

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo de violencia escolar (bullying) severa en alumnos de colegios privados de tres zonas de la sierra del Perú. Diseño: Estudio tipo encuesta. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Alumnos entre quinto de primaria y quinto de secundaria de colegios privados. Intervenciones: Una encuesta validada en estudios previos, para identificar violencia escolar (bullying), fue aplicada a 736 alumno...

  17. Ecofeminismo, mujeres y desarrollo sustentable: el caso de la Sierra de Santa Rosa en Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abril Saldaña Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available en este artículo se explora la participación de las mujeres en el Programa de Desarrollo Sustentable Sierra de Santa Rosa, en Guanajuato, de 2001 a 2011. Se expone la aportación del ecofeminismo para la noción de desarrollo sustentable, y para entender el vínculo entre la naturaleza y las mujeres. Se argumenta que la historia de la región, en específico el auge de la industria minera durante la Colonia, es un buen punto de partida para entender los problemas ambientales de la sierra y para visualizar el vínculo entre las estructuras que funcionan en detrimento del medio ambiente y de las mujeres. Así como también que dicho programa tuvo un efecto positivo en la participación social de las mujeres. Sin embargo, existen todavía retos importantes que se manifiestan en estructuras ideológicas, que impiden la participación de las mujeres como líderes y no sólo como trabajadoras, en las condiciones de pobreza que obstaculizan un verdadero compromiso con la sustentabilidad.

  18. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  19. Greisen deposits associated to carboniferous post-orogenic granites with mineralization potential, Sierra de Fiambala, Catamarca, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, A. S.; Rubinstein, N. R.; Avila, J. C.; Baez, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Fiambala range is located in the central south part of the province of Catamarca, Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. It is largely conformed by Precambrian metamorphic rocks, a Cambrian granitic intrusive, Ordovician basic and ultra basic rocks and epi zonal Carboniferous granites (Los Ratones, El Salto and Ayacucho Granites). The Carboniferous granites are sub alkaline, weakly peraluminous, high silica (except for the porphyritic facies of Los Ratones granite) and moderately enriched in K. Contents of trace elements and REE indicate that El S alto and Ayacucho granites and the granular facies of Los Ratones granite have characteristics of evolved and differentiated granite associated with hydrothermal systems. The variations of trace elements, particularly Sn, W, U, Rb, Ba, Zr and Sr suggest that they correspond to granites with mineralization potential. Genetically linked to these granites there are Sn, W, U and minor base metals greisen deposits. The hydrothermal process that yield to these deposits involved two main alteration stages, beginning with alkali metasomatism follow by greissenization. According to the isotopic ages the hydrothermal processes postdate about 1 Ma the magmatic activity. The analyses of the granites and the associated greisen deposits confirm that the post orogenic carboniferous magmatism is the major metallogenetic control of the ore deposits from the studied area. This metallogenetic control could be a useful tool in prospecting similar deposits in the rest of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. (Author)

  20. Registro de la perdiz veracruzana o Chivizcoyo (Dendrortyx barbatus Gould en la sierra norte de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio H. Aguilar-Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer registro de la Perdiz Veracruzana o Chivizcoyo (Dendrortyx barbatus en la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca. Los métodos usados para obtener su registro así como la vegetación del área son descritos. Se menciona el conocimiento local autóctono de ave y su importancia económica, pese a no haber sido anteriormente registrada por ornitólogos. Se discuten evidencias que agregan certeza al registro y se menciona la importancia de éste para la ampliación de su rango de distribución.

  1. FREQUENCY OF HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS IN JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS) IN A FISH FARM IN THE PERUVIAN CENTRAL SIERRA

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal N., Sandra; Sandoval C., Nieves; Gavidia C., César; Tabacchi N., Luis

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de lipidosis hepática en la trucha arcoíris (Oncorhynchus mykiss) de fase juvenil en base a lesiones anátomohistopatológicas en el hígado. Se trabajó con 58 peces de una piscigranja comercial de la sierra central del Perú. Los peces fueron clasificados como sanos (n=23) y enfermos (n=35) según el oscurecimiento de la piel y erosión de las aletas. Se colectaron muestras de hígado, que se fijaron en formol al 10% y fueron coloreadas con Hemat...

  2. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  3. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  4. Diversidad de maiz en la sierra sur de Oaxaca, México: conocimiento y manejo tradicional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Oaxaca representa un importante acervo de maíz en México. Estudios previos han indicado la presencia de muchas variedades locales y razas agronómicas en la Sierra Norte y Valles Centrales. La Sierra Sur ha sido poco estudiada a pesar de la presencia de comunidades indígenas zapotecas, las cuales cultivan maíz, entre otras especies, y han preservado las variedades locales. El presente estudio responde a las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuál es la diversidad de maíz en términos de variedades tradicionales y razas agronómicas en la región zapoteca de Los Loxicha?, ¿la diversidad de maíz sigue un patrón de distribución a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal?, ¿cuáles prácticas promueven y mantienen esta diversidad? Para contestar estas preguntas se realizó un estudio en cinco municipios de la Sierra Sur de Oaxaca. Durante 2007 se aplicaron entrevistas estructuradas a 930 agricultores para describir el proceso de manejo de semilla. La caracterización morfológica de las razas agronómicas se basó en muestras de mazorcas obtenidas en 375 milpas, con 20 plantas por milpa. Se encontraron altos niveles de diversidad local de maíz, con 36 variedades tradicionales correspondientes a 10 razas agronómicas. Las razas exhibieron diferencias en términos de variación fenotípica, distribución altitudinal y algunas muestran adaptación local. Los agricultores practican algunas formas de manejo ancestral para la selección de mazorcas y semillas, manteniendo, así, ciertos niveles de diferenciación entre las variedades y las razas agronómicas. Sin embargo, al sembrar diferentes variedades dentro de la misma parcela, se promueve el flujo génico y la introgresión entre ellas, manteniendo y promoviendo la diversidad fenotípica y genética.

  5. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully

  6. SIERRA - A 3-D device simulator for reliability modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jue-Hsien; Arledge, Lawrence A., Jr.; Yang, Ping; Maeda, John T.

    1989-05-01

    SIERRA is a three-dimensional general-purpose semiconductor-device simulation program which serves as a foundation for investigating integrated-circuit (IC) device and reliability issues. This program solves the Poisson and continuity equations in silicon under dc, transient, and small-signal conditions. Executing on a vector/parallel minisupercomputer, SIERRA utilizes a matrix solver which uses an incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioned conjugate gradient square (CGS, BCG) method. The ILU-CGS method provides a good compromise between memory size and convergence rate. The authors have observed a 5x to 7x speedup over standard direct methods in simulations of transient problems containing highly coupled Poisson and continuity equations such as those found in reliability-oriented simulations. The application of SIERRA to parasitic CMOS latchup and dynamic random-access memory single-event-upset studies is described.

  7. Diagnóstico socio-ambiental para un desarrollo sustentable de la Puna Meridional Argentina, Localidad de Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M. Manzi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un diagnóstico socio-ambiental realizado en la comunidad de Antofagasta de la Sierra, Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina, siendo tomados en consideración las unidades sociales de producción, los rebaños, las pasturas disponibles y los patrones de uso y tenencia de la tierra. Se pretende identificar y evaluar la incidencia del actual uso del espacio sobre el medio natural y discutir las iniciativas oficiales de desarrollo económico para este sector de la Puna argentina.

  8. Shallow Miocene basaltic magma reservoirs in the Bahia de Los Angeles basin, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; García-Abdeslem, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The basement in the Bahía de Los Angeles basin consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous granitoids. The Neogene stratigraphy overlying the basement is formed, from the base to the top, by andesitic lava flows and plugs, sandstone and conglomeratic horizons, and Miocene pyroclastic flow units and basaltic flows. Basaltic dikes also intrude the whole section. To further define its structure, a detailed gravimetric survey was conducted across the basin about 1 km north of the Sierra Las Flores. In spite of the rough and lineal topography along the foothills of the Sierra La Libertad, we found no evidence for large-scale faulting. Gravity data indicates that the basin has a maximum depth of 120 m in the Valle Las Tinajas and averages 75 m along the gravimetric profile. High density bodies below the northern part of the Sierra Las Flores and Valle Las Tinajas are interpreted to be part of basaltic dikes. The intrusive body located north of the Sierra Las Flores is 2.5 km wide and its top is about 500 m deep. The lava flows of the top of the Sierra Las Flores, together with the distribution of basaltic activity north of this sierra, suggests that this intrusive body continues for 20 km along a NNW-trending strike. Between the sierras Las Flores and Las Animas, a 0.5-km-wide, 300-m-thick intrusive body is interpreted at a depth of about 100 m. This dike could be part of the basaltic activity of the Cerro Las Tinajas and the small mounds along the foothills of western Sierra Las Animas. The observed local normal faulting in the basin is inferred to be mostly associated with the emplacement of the shallow magma reservoirs below Las Flores and Las Tinajas.

  9. Post-Palaeolithic - Palaeolithic pictorial sequences in the Sierra de San Pedro. International Tagus. Cáceres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The UAH team is developing successive projects of heritage evaluation in the International Tagus, focused on the megalithic culture. Our surveys, based on the theoretical statement of a predictive model that considers the presence of outdoor paintings, make the Sierra de San Pedro one of the most important schematic painting groups of the Iberian Peninsula. Its parallel development to the sites with outdoor engravings in the International Tagus draws a complex set of symbols with a major role in the definition of megalithic territories. The identification of Palaeolithic figures coincides with similar recurrences documented in outdoor sites of the western peninsula, pointing to the resort to the past as one of the arguments of vindication and use of traditional territories.

    El equipo de la UAH viene desarrollando sucesivos proyectos de valoración patrimonial en el Tajo Internacional centrados en la cultura megalítica. Nuestras prospecciones a partir de la exposición teórica de un modelo predictivo que considera la presencia de pinturas al aire libre, hacen de la Sierra de San Pedro uno de los más importantes conjuntos de la pintura esquemática de la Península Ibérica. Su desarrollo paralelo a los yacimientos con grabados al aire libre del Tajo Internacional dibuja un complejo entramado de símbolos con un importante papel en la definición de los territorios megalíticos. La identificación de figuras paleolíticas coincide con recurrencias similares documentadas en los yacimientos al aire libre del occidente peninsular, apuntando al recurso al pasado como uno de los argumentos de reivindicación y uso de territorios tradicionales.

  10. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  11. Sierra/Aria 4.48 Verification Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal Fluid Development Team

    2018-04-01

    Presented in this document is a portion of the tests that exist in the Sierra Thermal/Fluids verification test suite. Each of these tests is run nightly with the Sierra/TF code suite and the results of the test checked under mesh refinement against the correct analytic result. For each of the tests presented in this document the test setup, derivation of the analytic solution, and comparison of the code results to the analytic solution is provided. This document can be used to confirm that a given code capability is verified or referenced as a compilation of example problems.

  12. Problemática indígena « el ", , " ,, declaración conjunta de las cuatro organizaciones indígenas de la sierra nevada de santa marta para la interlocución con el estado y la sociedad nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Organización Wiwa Yugumaitm Bunkwanarrwa (owybt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este documento responde a las preocupaciones comunes de las cuatro organiz"acio..: nes representativas de los pueblos indígenas de la Sierra Nevada (OWYBT, OIK, CIT, OGT, a la hora de trazar el futuro del territorio que desde los inicios del mundo  les fue encomendado por los Padres y Madresespirituales.

  13. Gobernanza y gestión comunitaria de recursos naturales en la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gasca Zamora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available en la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca se ubican municipios que han desarrollado estrategias organizativas y producti - vas, donde los actores sociales y sus instancias de gobier - no comunal se han posicionado como agentes clave. Estas experiencias se llevan a cabo en territorios que, además de contar con recursos forestales, han “redescubierto” nue - vas formas de aprovechamiento de sus recursos hídricos y paisajísticos, entre otros. Se trata de espacios habitados principalmente por poblaciones de ascendencia indígena, que tienen regímenes comunales de tenencia de la tierra, y que mediante empresas comunitarias usan y usufructúan sus principales recursos naturales. En este trabajo se explo - ra el contexto en que surgió esta modalidad productiva, y se propone identificar y explicar los factores que intervie - nen en su funcionamiento. Sobre todo interesa destacar tres ejes: los espacios de gobernanza y gestión social de re - cursos; el trabajo cooperativo y las estrategias de reciproci -dad y la construcción de una racionalidad socioecológica, que prefigura determinadas estrategias de conservación en regiones de alto valor ambiental.

  14. Comparison of preliminary herpetofaunas of the Sierras la Madera (Oposura) and Bacadehuachi with the mainland Sierra Madre Occidental in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Erik F. Enderson; Dale S. Turner; Roberto A. Villa; Stephen F. Hale; George M. Ferguson; Charles. Hedgcock

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles were observed in the Sierra La Madera (59 species), an isolated Sky Island mountain range, and the Sierra Bacadéhuachi (30 species), the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) range in east-central Sonora. These preliminary herpetofaunas were compared with the herpetofauna of the Yécora area in eastern Sonora in the main...

  15. Comparison of the tropical floras of the Sierra la Madera and the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; Melissa Valenzuela-Yanez; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2013-01-01

    The floras of the tropical vegetation in the Sky Island Sierra la Madera (SMA) near Moctezuma in northeastern Sonora (30°00’N 109°18’W) and the Yécora (YEC) area in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) in eastern Sonora (28°25’N 109°15”W) were compared. The areas are 175 km apart. Tropical vegetation includes foothills thornscrub (FTS) in both areas and tropical deciduous...

  16. New foot remains from the Gran Dolina-TD6 Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and describes new foot fossils from the species Homo antecessor, found in level TD6 of the site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These new fossils consist of an almost complete left talus (ATD6-95) and the proximal three-quarters of a right fourth metatarsal (ATD6-124). The talus ATD6-95 is tentatively assigned to Hominin 10 of the TD6 sample, an adult male specimen with which the second metatarsal ATD6-70+107 (already published) is also tentatively associated. Analysis of these fossils and other postcranial remains has made possible to estimate a stature similar to those of the specimens from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). The morphology of the TD6 metatarsals does not differ significantly from that of modern humans, Neanderthals and the specimens from Sima de los Huesos. Talus ATD6-95, however, differs from the rest of the comparative samples in being long and high, having a long and wide trochlea, and displaying a proportionally short neck. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sierra/Solid Mechanics 4.48 User's Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merewether, Mark Thomas; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Gampert, Scott; Xavier, Patrick G.; Plews, Julia A.

    2018-03-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for finite element analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic, implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models with extensive contact subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and a large library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments enabling scalable solutions of extremely large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which facilitates coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input syntax for Sierra/SM.

  18. Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jesse David

    2011-10-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

  19. Comunidad, jóvenes y generación: disputando subjetividades en la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Aquino-Moreschi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos desde una perspectiva etnográfica, de qué forma se construye y experimenta la juventud en diferentes comunidades ayuujk y zapotecas de la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca, México. En el centro del análisis ubicamos los conflictos generacionales por la definición de subjetividades, en particular, las tensiones que tienen que ver con el cuerpo, las identidades y las apuestas de vida individuales y colectivas. A partir de material etnográfico y entrevistas en profundidad mostramos cómo, si bien los sujetos jóvenes son herederos de las luchas de sus predecesores y mantienen en su mayoría un fuerte compromiso comunitario, también están planteando otras formas de ser joven que desestabilizan las subjetividades y las prácticas establecidas al interior de sus pueblos.

  20. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  1. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  2. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...

  3. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra ... TESTING (VCT) FOR HIV AMONG NURSING STUDENTS IN ZAMBIA ... All students were aware of where to go for VCT, and 80% .... attitudes that assure patients that they will be .... them better practitioners, but their awareness of.

  4. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  5. Geology of Sierra de San Miguel area Rocha department (Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzio, R.; Veroslavsky, G.; Morales, E. . E mail: rossana@fcien.edu.uy

    2004-01-01

    This paper is part of a regional study about Mesozoic magmatism, tectonics and sedimentation in Uruguay. As a result of the geological studies carried out in Sierra de San Miguel area (Rocha department), lithological descriptions, their stratigraphic relationships and their petrographic characterization are presented [es

  6. Ecosystems and diversity of the Sierra Madre Occidental

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. S. Gonzalez-Elizondo; M. Gonzalez-Elizondo; L. Ruacho Gonzalez; I. L. Lopez Enriquez; F. I . Retana Renteria; J. A. Tena Flores

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is the largest continuous ignimbrite plate on Earth. Despite its high biological and cultural diversity and enormous environmental and economical importance, it is yet not well known. We describe the vegetation and present a preliminary regionalization based on physiographic, climatic, and floristic criteria. A confluence of three main...

  7. Diets of California spotted owls in the Sierra National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Munton; Kenneth D. Johnson; George N. Steger; Gary P. Eberlein

    2002-01-01

    From May 1987 through October 1992 and from July through August 1998, we studied diets of California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). Regurgitated pellets were collected at roost and nest sites between 1,000 and 7,600 ft elevation in the Sierra National Forest and were examined for remnant bones, feathers, and insect exoskeletons....

  8. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    recommendations to the health sector of Sierra Leone for it prevention. This retrospective .... pressure. 27% of the population is exposed to 3 to. 5 of these risk factors. According to .... Many studies have identified foot ulcer as the most common ...

  9. Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons from a Failed State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Larry J; Reese, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    This study by Larry J. Woods and Colonel Timothy R. Reese analyzes the massive turmoil afflicting the nation of Sierra Leone, 1993-2002, and the efforts by a variety of outside forces to bring lasting stability to that small country...

  10. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  11. Recurrencia histórica de peces invasores en la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Huautla, México Historical presence of invasive fish in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Mejía-Mojica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos de las especies invasoras en los ecosistemas nativos son variados, y estos se han vinculado con la desaparición o disminución de la fauna nativa, cambios en la estructura de la comunidad, modificación de los ecosistemas y como vectores de nuevas enfermedades y parásitos. El desarrollo del comercio de especies para uso ornamental ha contribuido significativamente a la importación e introducción de peces invasores en algunas áreas importantes para la conservación de la biodiversidad en México, pero la presencia de estas especies está escasamente documentada. En este estudio se analiza la comunidad de peces en la reserva de Biosfera Sierra de Huautla, registrando los cambios en la diversidad en los últimos 100 años. Con bases de datos de registros históricos y recientes colecciones para cinco sitios en el río Amacuzac, que cruza la zona de reserva de la Biosfera, se comparan los valores de similitud (índice de Jaccard entre cinco series de tiempo (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 y 2008-2009, así mismo, obtuvimos los valores de similitud (Bray-Curtis entre los cinco sitios analizados. En total hemos reconocido 19 especies para el área, diez nativas y nueve no nativas, de las cuales tres están extirpadas para el área, los valores de similitud entre los primeros registros y los actuales son muy bajos (0.27, los principales cambios en la composición de la fauna se han producido en los últimos 20 años. Los valores de abundancia, diversidad y similitud entre los sitios de muestreo, indican el predominio de especies no nativas. Discutimos el papel del comercio de peces ornamentales de la región como la principal causa de introducción de invasoras en el ecosistema, y los posibles efectos negativos que han tenido al menos cuatro especies en la fauna nativa y el ecosistema (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus y P. pardalis, se hace notar la ausencia de programas de

  12. Recurrencia histórica de peces invasores en la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Huautla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Mejía-Mojica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos de las especies invasoras en los ecosistemas nativos son variados, y estos se han vinculado con la desaparición o disminución de la fauna nativa, cambios en la estructura de la comunidad, modificación de los ecosistemas y como vectores de nuevas enfermedades y parásitos. El desarrollo del comercio de especies para uso ornamental ha contribuido significativamente a la importación e introducción de peces invasores en algunas áreas importantes para la conservación de la biodiversidad en México, pero la presencia de estas especies está escasamente documentada. En este estudio se analiza la comunidad de peces en la reserva de Biosfera Sierra de Huautla, registrando los cambios en la diversidad en los últimos 100 años. Con bases de datos de registros históricos y recientes colecciones para cinco sitios en el río Amacuzac, que cruza la zona de reserva de la Biosfera, se comparan los valores de similitud (índice de Jaccard entre cinco series de tiempo (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 y 2008-2009, así mismo, obtuvimos los valores de similitud (Bray-Curtis entre los cinco sitios analizados. En total hemos reconocido 19 especies para el área, diez nativas y nueve no nativas, de las cuales tres están extirpadas para el área, los valores de similitud entre los primeros registros y los actuales son muy bajos (0.27, los principales cambios en la composición de la fauna se han producido en los últimos 20 años. Los valores de abundancia, diversidad y similitud entre los sitios de muestreo, indican el predominio de especies no nativas. Discutimos el papel del comercio de peces ornamentales de la región como la principal causa de introducción de invasoras en el ecosistema, y los posibles efectos negativos que han tenido al menos cuatro especies en la fauna nativa y el ecosistema (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus y P. pardalis, se hace notar la ausencia de programas de

  13. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  14. Presa de San Esteban de la Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Aldea Pozas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    El principal objetivo del proyecto es dimensionar y valorar las obras necesarias para la construcción de una presa destinada a mejorar la regulación así como abastecer a los núcleos de población próximos. El volumen de agua embalsado por la construcción de dicha presa constituirá una reserva para futuros usos en la zona: abastecimiento y desarrollo de regadíos fundamentalmente.

  15. Subsistence fisheries in the Sierra Manantlán Biosphere Reserve (Jalisco/Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Mercado-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reservas de la biósfera enfrentan el doble objetivo de proteger ecosistemas ejemplares y proveer a las comunidades locales con oportunidades de desarrollo. Las pesquerías de subsistencia están presentes en muchas áreas protegidas en México, pero son poco conocidas. Los pescadores de subsistencia tienen pocas oportunidades para expresar sus opiniones acerca de la calidad de los ecosistemas de los cuales dependen para sobrevivir. Utilizamos encuestas para describir las pesquerías de subsistencia del Río Ayuquila, (Jalisco, Colima, México y documentar las perspectivas que los pescadores tienen de la calidad ambiental del río y el manejo que se le da al mismo. La pesquería de subsistencia en el Ayuquila tiene gran importancia para las comunidades rurales de la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Manantlán, pero está poco organizada, y es secundaria en importancia a actividades agropecuarias en la región. La pesquería ha sido afectada por la contaminación y la sobreexplotación, pero esfuerzos realizados por la dirección de la reserva y los gobiernos locales han resultado en mejoras a lo largo del tiempo. Estas mejoras se ven reflejadas en las opiniones que los pescadores tienen acerca de la situación ambiental actual del río, y de las instituciones que se encargan de darle manejo. Describimos cómo procesos regionales han afectado al manejo que se da al río e identificamos áreas donde es posible mejorar su situación. El empoderamiento de los pescadores de subsistencia es posible a través de su participación en encuestas como las que aquí presentamos y que pueden ser utilizadas por instituciones regionales para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los pobladores y las estrategias de conservación de recursos naturales.

  16. FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH THE DECLINE OF THE MANZANITA (ARCTOSTAPHYLOS PUNGENS HBK. IN THE SIERRA FRIA FROM AGUASCALIENTES STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Moreno-Rico

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens es un arbusto que se encuentra con regularidad en la Sierra Fría del estado de Aguascalientes, México. Este arbusto, al igual que otras plantas silvestres, es afectado por factores bióticos, como las enfermedades, que pueden causar desde daños insignificantes hasta la muerte de las plantas. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1 identificar los hongos relacionados con el declinamiento de la manzanita en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes y 2 conocer la incidencia y severidad de las enfermedades causadas por hongos que afectan tallos y ramas de la manzanita. En cada uno de los sitios visitados se realizó un transecto, de dimensiones variables, en una dirección determinada al azar, que incluyó 100 arbustos, para revisar y estimar: a el porcentaje de plantas sanas, enfermas y muertas, y b la incidencia, severidad y distribución de las enfermedades. Los fitopatógenos se identificaron con base en los síntomas y signos que causan comparándolos con lo reportado en la bibliografía. Las enfermedades más importantes resultaron las causadas por los hongos basidiomicetosInonotus aff. jamaicensisyPhellinus arctostaphyli,que causan pudrición blanca de la madera y cancrosis en la base del tallo y en ramas.Inonotus aff. jamaicensisse encontró en 20 de los 21 sitios muestreados variando su incidencia de 3 a 25%, mientras queP. arctostaphylise encontró en 17 de los 21 sitios muestreados variando su incidencia de 1 a 25%. La severidad de las cancrosis varió de 2 a 44 %. También, se identificaron manchas foliares causadas porHarknessia arctostaphyli,Coccomyces spp., yPassalora spp. Se reporta por primera ocasión la presencia dePhellinus arctostaphylien Aguascalientes. Se reporta por primera vez en México la presencia deInonotus aff. jamaicensis,Harknessia arctostaphyli,Coccomyces spp.yPassalora spp.

  17. El Cuaternario en el macizo de Sierra Nevada. Evolución paleoambiental y paisaje a partir de la interpretación de registros naturales y documentos de época

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Marc; Gómez Ortiz, Antonio; Palacios Estremera, David; Salvador Franch, Ferran; Salvà i Catarineu, Montse

    2014-01-01

    El conocimiento relativo a la evolución ambiental cuaternaria en las montañas de la Península Ibérica ha avanzado sustancialmente en las últimas décadas. Particularmente significativos son los progresos realizados en el macizo de Sierra Nevada, en el sur peninsular. En este caso, los investigadores se han servido de registros naturales y fuentes documentales para reconstruir la dinámica ambiental desde la Última Glaciación y posterior deglaciación del macizo hasta su evolución reciente. Los c...

  18. La potencialidad turística del patrimonio geológico-minero del Parque Natural Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche (Huelva. España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Garrido Morillo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia actual en la Unión Europea muestra la creciente puesta en valor de los espacios naturales protegidos como un elemento fundamental en los proyectos de desarrollo para el medio rural. Los Planes de Desarrollo Sostenible son ejemplos de estos elementos donde se trata de compaginar la conservación con el desarrollo de acuerdo con la tendencia actual de la Unión europea y la cumbre internacional de Río de Janeiro. El Parque Natural Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche posee múltiples recursos turísticos, tanto naturales como culturales, estos últimos en todas sus modalidades: arqueológicos, arquitectónicos, etnológicos, geológicos, mineros, etc. El proceso orogénicos de sierra Morena ha dado lugar a formaciones geológicas de importante carácter turístico, siendo la más destacada la Gruta de las Maravillas en Aracena, punto de concentración de la mayor parte del turismo del Parque. Cabe destacar también algunos afloramientos como los de la Peña de Arias Montano, pero existen otros puntos que requieren de su puesta en valor con fines turísticos

  19. Significado de las deformaciones internas en las peridotitas de Sierra Alpujata (Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubía, J. M.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ronda peridotites rest at the base of the Los Reales nappe (Alpujarride Complex, Betic Chain. Two successive plastic deformations are imprinted in the Sierra Alpujata peridotites. The first one is a high temperature (> 1000º C -low stress (0.3-0.5 Kb deformation as show by coarse-grained porphyroclastic lherzolites. This deformation can take place by mantle flow in a spreading zone related to continental rifting. The second deformation. at low temperature (~8000º C and high stress (1-2 Kb, erase the last one at the edge rones of the peridotite sheet, giving the mylonitisation of peridotites and the development of dynamothermal aureoles in the wall rocks, This deformation is due to the thrusting of a mantle slab over the continental crust. The kinematic analysis of the high and low-temperature ultrabasic tectonites provides, in the present position of the Betic Chain a N 70º E direction for the paleorift. The peridotite thrusting is practically realized in the same direction, from the WSW to the ENE.

    Las peridotitas de Ronda (Málaga forman la base del manto de Los Reales (Alpujárrides, Cordilleras Béticas. Las rocas ultrabásicas del macizo de Sierra Alpujata permiten reconocer dos deformaciones plásticas sucesivas. La primera es una deformación de altas temperaturas (> 1.000ºC y bajos esfuerzos (0.3-0.5 Kb que se conserva en lherzolitas con textura porfiroclástica de grano grueso. Esta deformación puede atribuirse al flujo del manto en una zona de expansión relacionada a procesos de "rifting" continental. La segunda deformación, de bajas temperaturas (~800ºC y altos esfuerzos (1-2 Kb, oblitera a la anterior en las zonas de borde de la lámina peridotítica, produciendo la milonitización de las peridotitas y el desarrollo de aureolas dinamotérmicas en los materiales encajantes. Esta deformación se debe al cabalgamiento de una escama del manto sobre la corteza continental. El análisis cinemático de las tectonitas

  20. Viajes comerciales de intercambio en el departamento de Antofagasta de la Sierra, Puna meridional argentina: pasado y presente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Silvia P.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Los viajes hacia valles interserranos a lomo de mula fueron una experiencia compartida por todos en esta región de la puna argentina, hasta hace veinte años. En este trabajo se relacionan los datos obtenidos a través de entrevistas a informantes en el departamento de Antofagasta de la Sierra, con los surgidos tras la consulta de las Actas del Registro Civil y se arriba a conclusiones respecto de los vínculos de parentesco que unieron a quienes comerciaban e intercambiaban mercaderías producidas en alturas diferentes. También se compara la situación de entonces con la actualidad. En la capital del departamento los viajes de intercambio han desaparecido casi en su totalidad, en cambio en otras poblaciones del mismo departamento se han modificado incluyendo en ellos a las mercaderías obtenidas por compra y utilizando la sal como principal elemento de canje.

  1. Las redes de drenaje de los rios Alberche y Guadarrama como indicadores estructurales del Sistema Central Espanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Escorza, C.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The network of the Alberche and Guadarrama rivers, obtained by a semicuantitative method, shows that on the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Spanish Central System exist circular alignments, until now detected by analysis of satellite image. Such alignments are located in the sub-geological system of the Sierra de Guadarrama, and they coexist with to already known rectilinear alignments. In the sub-westem system, Sierra de Gredos, are detected rectilinear alignments. The circular structures of Sierra de Guadarrarna would have a relationship to geological processes still unknown after the Hercynian Orogeny but before of the Oligocene.Utilizando una metodología semicuantitativa, las redes de drenaje de los ríos Alberche y Guadarrama ponen de manifiesto que existen alineaciones circulares sobre las rocas graníticas y metamórficas de la Cordillera Central, cuya presencia hasta ahora se había detectado por análisis de imagen de satélite. Tales alineaciones se sitúan en el subsistema geológico de la Sierra del Guadarrama, en donde coexisten con alineaciones rectas ya conocidas. En el subsistema occidental, la Sierra de Gredos, se detectan alineaciones rectas. Las estructuras circulares de la Sierra de Guadarrama tendrían su origen en relación con procesos geodinámicos todavía desconocidos, ocurridos con posterioridad a la Orogenia Hercínica, pero antes del Oligoceno.

  2. Los insomnios

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi Tan, Yuri; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    Los insomnios/El sueño normal/Otros trastornos de sueño que producen insomnio pero también hipersomnio (excesiva somnolencia diurna)/Manejo y tratamiento de los insomnios/Higiene del sueño/Instrucciones para la higiene del sueño/Técnicas conductuales/Terapia farmacológica.

  3. Nuevo yacimiento de flora Albense en la vertiente sur de la Sierra de Guadarrama. Soto del Real (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez, M. C.

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available A new superior Albian - Cenomanian fossil flore locality are described for the first time on. the Sierra Guadarrama (Madrid. Between all the numerous specimens there found. stand out, due to their abundancy, the ones belonging to various species of Cycadales and Coniferals, accompanied by the Filicales, Lycopodiales and the Angiosperms Monocotiledonae and Dicotilodenae of the Policarpicales and Rosales orders. Two species of the Filicales orderGleichenites giesekianus (Heer Seward and Gleichenites nordenskiöldi (Heer Seward are registred for the first time in Spain, also vue of the Rosales order: Leguminosites infracretaceus Saporta. The essentials phytopaleontological and paleoecological characteristics are also indicated.

    Se describe, por primera vez en la Sierra de Guadarrama, un yacimiento de flora fósil del Albense superior-Cenomacense. Entre los numerosos restos vegetales en él hallados destacan por su abundancia los pertenecientes a especies de Cicadales y Coniferales, acompañados por representantes de las Filicales, Licopodiales y de Angiospermas Monocotiledóneas y Dicotiledóneas de los órdenes Policarpiales y Rosales. Se citan por primera vez en España dos especies e Filicales: Gleichenites giesekianus (Heer Seward y Gleichenites nordenskiöldi (Heer Seward y una del Orden Rosales: Leguminosites infracretaceus Saporta, y se indican las principales características fitopaleontológicas y paleocológicas del nuevo yacimiento.

  4. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. Findings The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV ...

  5. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  6. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  7. Transient fuel rod behavior prediction with RODEX-3/SIERRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaux, M R; Shann, S H; Swam, L.F. Van [Siemens Power Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses some aspects of the fuel performance code SIERRA (SIEmens Rod Response Analysis). SIERRA, the latest version of the code RODEX-3, has been developed to improve the fuel performance prediction capabilities of the code, both at high burnup and during transient reactor conditions. The paper emphasizes the importance of the mechanical models of the cracked pellet and of the cladding, in the prediction of the transient response of the fuel rod to power changes. These models are discussed in detail. Other aspects of the modelling of high burnup effects are also presented, in particular the modelling of the rim effect and the way it affects the fuel temperature. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs.

  8. Diagnosis of Knowledge Management in the Brisas Sierra Mar hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Sosa-Piedra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was made in order to evaluate the Knowledge in the Management at Brisas Sierra Mar Hotel, Santiago de Cuba. Due to this, it is being value the actual approaches that was utilized in the existent methodologies for the measurement conduct of the knowledge in the Enterprise Organizations. To fulfill these results we utilized different methods, technical, abilities and scientific investigation tools, such as: analysis-method, synthesis, historical logical, and inducement; technical as a team work, expert judgments, interviews and first and second class information review, as well as the informatics decision programs for the selection and validations of the experts, the Statistic Program for Social Sciences for Windows (SPSS version 15.0 in indicting of the information. The investigation propitiated an evaluation of the actual situation of Brisas Sierra Mar Hotel, Santiago de Cuba and permitted to identify the stage of their main intellectual, placing them in an intermediate level.

  9. Transient fuel rod behavior prediction with RODEX-3/SIERRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, M.R.; Shann, S.H.; Swam, L.F. Van

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects of the fuel performance code SIERRA (SIEmens Rod Response Analysis). SIERRA, the latest version of the code RODEX-3, has been developed to improve the fuel performance prediction capabilities of the code, both at high burnup and during transient reactor conditions. The paper emphasizes the importance of the mechanical models of the cracked pellet and of the cladding, in the prediction of the transient response of the fuel rod to power changes. These models are discussed in detail. Other aspects of the modelling of high burnup effects are also presented, in particular the modelling of the rim effect and the way it affects the fuel temperature. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  10. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  11. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  12. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  13. Failure of Sierra White granite under general states of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.; Lee, M.; Holdman, O.; Cheung, C.; Haimson, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the intermediate principal stress on the failure of Sierra White granite was investigated by performing tests under true triaxial states of stress. Tests were performed under constant Lode angle conditions with Lode angles ranging from 0 to 30°, pure shear to axisymmetric compression. Results show that the failure of Sierra White granite is heavily dependent on the intermediate principal stress which became more dramatic as the mean stress increased. An analysis of the shear bands formed at failure was performed using an associated flow rule and the Rudnicki and Rice (1975) localization criteria. The localization analysis showed excellent agreement with experimental results. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  14. Courtright intrusive zone: Sierra National Forest, Fresno County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P.C.; Kistler, R.W.; DeGraff, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This is a field guide to a well-exposed area of plutonic and metamorphic rocks in the Sierra National Forest, Fresno County, California. The plutonic rocks, of which three major bodies are recognized, besides aplite and pegmatite dykes, range 103 to approx 90 m.y. in age. Points emphasized include cataclastic features within the plutonic rocks, schlieren and mafic inclusions. (M.A. 83M/0035).-A.P.

  15. Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Weiler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary are reported, a West-African river in the tropics. Because of the typical change between rainy season in the sommer months and dry season in winter time the research work has been adapted to these semi-annual changes. The collected data and results are given and discussed under this aspect of the seasonal fluctuations. (orig.) [de

  16. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  17. Global solar radiation in Sierra Leone (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaquoi, J.G.M.

    1987-09-01

    A correlation equation of the Angstrom type has been developed to predict the monthly average daily global solar irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Measurements of the global insolation have been compared with those predicted using the equation. A good agreement (greater than 95% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and the predicted ones. (author). 15 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Los Cactos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Paredes Antonio

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available El Cacto Cactus es uno de los géneros de plantas de la familia de las Cacteas Nopaleas que contiene muchas especies y variedades todas de formas extrañas, propias de la América intertropical y que habitan en los climas fríos y templados, en terrenos secos y estériles, desde el norte de Méjico hasta la Patagonia. Algunos cactos se cultivan por sus frutos que son sanosy sabrosos, otros como plantas ornamentales en los parques y jardines, otros como auxiliares para la industria, como los nopales en los que se cría la Cochinilla, insecto de la familia de los Hemípteros que produce la laca o carmín, materia colorante indispensable en la pintura al óleo y la acuarela, y por último, hoy están en moda y se cultivan con esmero una gran variedad de diminutos cactos exóticosque se mantienen sobre arena húmeda en pequeñas maceteras de porcelana, en los lugares más visibles de las habitaciones.

  1. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  2. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  3. El turismo comunitario en la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca: perspectiva desde las instituciones y la gobernanza en territorios indígenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Palomino Villavicencio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo comunitario representa una opción para el desarrollo económico y social de las zonas rurales de México habitadas por pueblos indígenas. Se trata de emprendimientos productivos que tienen una participación activa de las comunidades en la gestión y los beneficios se distribuyen esencialmente en su contexto local. El presente trabajo se propone explicar los principios del uso y gestión de bienes comunes a partir de la práctica del turismo comunitario. Para ello se identifican los casos registrados en el contexto nacional y se enfatiza en la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca, ámbito donde se ubican experiencias que aportan referentes para la compresión y desempeño de instituciones comunitarias y formas de gobernanza del patrimonio natural y cultural en este segmento.

  4. Enseñanza y aprendizaje en la antropología de contextos interculturales de la sierra Tarahumara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Julián Mancera Valencia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente es un informe de investigación realizado en septiembre del 2015 con docentes y alumnos de la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia del Norte de México (ENAHNM Campus Creel ubicado en la sierra Tarahumara. En el que se hace una evaluación psicopedagógica de la práctica docentes y el aprendizaje de alumnos de este espacio educativo. El Proyecto nace de la solicitud de la Subdirección Académica dela ENAHNM al Cuerpo Académico “Desarrollo y gestión intercultural en educación” (DGIE del Centro de Investigación y Docencia (CID, para identificar dificultades, en los ámbitos del currículo, la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y el contexto. Derivado de ello se presentan: 1 la interacción de la docencia y alumnado de la ENAENM-Creel, con las características contextuales; 2 el modelo de organización curricular y la innovación; y 3 los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje: las fortalezas y las debilidades, en dos ámbitos: a los estilos de enseñanza; y, b el modo de aprender de los alumnos.

  5. Modelo de sedimentación continental para el rift cretácico de la Argentina central: Ejemplo de la sierra de las Quijadas, San Luis

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rivarola; L. Spalletti

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudian las sedimentitas continentales cretácicas (Grupo del Gigante) en la sierra de las Quijadas, ubicada en el noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. La información se obtuvo mediante el relevamiento de 15 perfiles sedimentológicos de detalle que permitieron definir 21 facies sedimentarias y 12 asociaciones de facies. Las facies permitieron interpretar los principales procesos de acumulación sedimentaria, mientras que a partir de las asociaciones de facies se propusieron...

  6. Petrografía, caracterización geoquímica y análisis microestructural del granito del cerro Siempre Amigos, sierras de Azul, Tandilia

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletti, Melisa; Frisicale, María Cristina; Dimieri, Luis V

    2016-01-01

    El cerro Siempre Amigos integra las sierras de Azul, Tandilia, distante 28 km al sur de la ciudad de Azul y 3 km al norte de la megacizalla de Azul, zona de cizalla subvertical donde el basamento se encuentra deformado a milonitas y ultramilonitas. La litología predominante en el cerro Siempre Amigos es un granito paleoproterozoico deformado que en el centro y hacia los bordes se encuentra interdigitado con una roca gnéisica y cuerpos de anfibolitas subverticales de rumbo similar a la foliaci...

  7. Prevalence and determination of risk factors of hoof pathologies and their influence in milk production in Tandil mar and sierras basin

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, O.; Soraci, Alejandro L.; Passucci, J. A.; Rodriguez, E. M.; Becaluba, H. M.; Tapia, M. O.

    2008-01-01

    Las patologías podales que afectan a los bovinos, tienen particular importancia en el ganado lechero. Ante la falta de antecedentes en rodeos de la Cuenca Lechera Mar y Sierras, fue realizado un estudio para determinar la prevalencia, su clasificación y detectar factores de riesgo como también la implicancia de las mismas en la producción láctea. Fueron examinados 24 tambos pertenecientes a dicha cuenca entre marzo y diciembre del 2005.El test de locomoción de Sprecher, D. J. y col.(1997)8, f...

  8. Rendimiento hídrico en cuencas primarias bajo pastizales y plantaciones de pino de las sierras de Córdoba (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Jobbagy Gampel, Esteban Gabriel; Acosta, Ana Mariel; Nosetto, Marcelo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Los cambios en la cobertura vegetal pueden tener importantes efectos sobre el ciclo hidrológico, afectando la magnitud y distribución temporal del caudal de ríos y arroyos. Estos efectos cobran una relevancia especial en áreas montañosas de regiones secas dado su papel importante en la provisión de agua. Este es el caso de las laderas orientales de las sierras de Córdoba, en donde se establecieron ~35000 ha de plantaciones de pinos en reemplazo de pastizales naturales. Exploramos cómo esta tr...

  9. los aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Pérez Rivera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se presentan algunos resultados, obtenidos hasta el momento, de un estudio sobre las prácticas de evaluación de profesores universitarios. El propósito del estudio es participar en la búsqueda de las relaciones existentes entre los conceptos y las prácticas educativas, en este caso de evaluación. Se identifican las principales tendencias en cuanto a la concepción de la evaluación del aprendizaje y las funciones que se le otorgan, los propósitos con los que se evalúa, los objetos o contenidos a evaluar, las formas en que se lleva a cabo la evaluación y el uso que se da a los resultados. Identificar cuáles son las tendencias de las prácticas de evaluación en nuestras aulas universitarias representa un paso que puede ayudar a cuidar que este proceso tan importante recobre su papel formativo para todos aquellos quienes participamos en los procesos educativos; además, representa la posibilidad de construir formas para lograr mejorar nuestra labor docente en general, y en particular, nuestra práctica evaluativa.

  10. Los documentos notariales como fuente para la historia empresarial: un ejemplo de aproximación empírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Alvarez .

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ilustra el potencial de las fuentes notariales para conformación de la historia empresarial colombiana. El seguimiento minucioso que el autor hace de connotados empresarios colombianos, como José María "Pepe" Sierra a través de notarías de diferentes ciudades colombianas permite desentrañar los modelos de gerencia y administración que los líderes empresariales colombianos aplicaron

  11. Fitogeografía de la Sierra Monte Grande, Charcas, San Luis Potosí, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Agüero J. Antonio

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Monte Grande is a small (41.8 km mountain range located at the southernmost part of the northern plateau of Mexico. It has a dry climate and its vegetation is characterized by pinyon woodland, oak scrub and three kinds of xerophytic scrub. Based on its flora of 397 species, we analyzed the historie phytogeography of Monte Grande, using only the taxa (families, genera and species that have a restricted distribution. At the family level, we identified three patterns of distribution: 1 from North America to northern South America; 2 mostly in the American continent; 3 families related to the Mediterranean region. At the genus level, five patterns were identified: 1 endemic of arid and semiarid lands of Mexico and adjacent regions of the United States; 2 from southern United States to Central America; 3 broadly distributed, but highly related to the Antillean region; 4 with Mediterranean relations; 5 disjunct or vicariant between the arid lands of North and South America. At the species level, nine patterns of distribution were identified: 1 septentrional plateau; 2 meridional plateau; 3 all plateaus and adjacent regions; 4 all plateaus-Sierra Madre de Oaxaca; 5 all plateaus-northwestern coast plain; 6 all plateaus-both coastal plains; 7 all plateaus-northeastern coastal plain; 8 Mexican xerophytic region; 9 all plateaus-both sierras Madre. These patterns are unlikely to be accidental, as they agree with recent theories about the process that led to the present landform configuration of the American Continent. On the basis of this interpretation, we postulate a major role of the Caribbean and the Former Mediterranean in the florigenesis of present linages of the arid and semiarid lands of Mexico.La sierra Monte Grande, con una extensión de 41.8 km, se localiza en el sur de la altiplanicie septentrional de México. Tiene un clima seco (8So y en ella prevalecen los matorrales xerófilos, piñonares y encinares. A partir de su flora, compuesta por 397

  12. Pobreza, migración y desempleo: mujeres en la sierra tepehua de Hidalgo, México Pobreza, migración y desempleo: mujeres en la sierra tepehua de Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vargas González

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the State of Hidalgo has been considered as an entity with deep social inequalities and scant social, economic and political development. As a result, there are conditions of exclusion, marginalization, racial discrimination and unequal access to the fundamental rights of its citizens; which are still present in the population census data published by Inegi 2000 and 2005.In the State of Hidalgo there are more than 4596 localities, of which 96% are less than 2500 inhabitants; the great majority of them are located in marginal «municipios» and regions and therefore they do not have the minimum indispensable conditions of welfare. But it is not only poverty but exclusion and vulnerability which affect these communities.In the sierra of Tepehua (San Bartolo Tutotepec, Huehuetla y Tenango, the rural communities, mostly indigenous, with agricultural economic vocation live in marginal conditions and the middlemanism —coyotaje— is a persistent flagellum that occurs even in public organisms. However, the rural inhabitants generate response processes to globalization through social capital and the women organisation.Por décadas el estado de Hidalgo ha sido considerado una entidad con profundas desigualdades sociales y escaso desarrollo social, económico y político. Por lo anterior, se observan condiciones de exclusión, marginación, discriminación y de un inequitativo acceso a los derechos fundamentales de los ciudadanos, todavía presentes en las cifras de los censos de población del Inegi de 2000 y 2005.En el estado de Hidalgo existen más de 4.596 localidades de las cuales el 96% son menores de 2500 habitantes, la gran mayoría están ubicadas en municipios y regiones marginadas y por consiguiente carecen del mínimo indispensable de bienestar; pero no solo es la pobreza sino que estas comunidades y sus habitantes se encuentran en condiciones de exclusión y vulnerabilidad.En la sierra tepehua (San Bartolo Tutotepec, Huehuetla

  13. El Estado neoliberal y las mujeres indígenas. Un estudio de caso de la Sierra Negra de Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Muñoz Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el desarrollo de capacidades en mujeres indígenas de la Sierra Negra de Puebla, producto de la intervención estatal. La metodología empleada fue mixta: una encuesta, tres talleres, ocho entrevistas a profundidad y observación participante. Se identifican cinco instituciones gubernamentales de relevancia para las mujeres: Sedesol, cdi, Sagarpa/sdr, Semarnat e inea. Se constata la fragmentación de programas, los cuales han contribuido (tímida y erráticamente al desarrollo de algunas capacidades. El Estado neoliberal se muestra incapaz de impulsarlas de manera más contundente y ordenada debido a las contradicciones existentes entre la apertura comercial a productos agrícolas del exterior y la política de subsidios diseñados para combatir la pobreza que esta misma apertura generó.

  14. 77 FR 49789 - Record of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC, for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project...: Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: DOE announces its decision to issue a Presidential permit to Energia... analyzed in the Environmental Impact Statement for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project...

  15. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  16. Increasing elevation of fire in the Sierra Nevada and implications for forest change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Schwartz; Nathalie Butt; Christopher R. Dolanc; Andrew Holguin; Max A. Moritz; Malcolm P. North; Hugh D. Safford; Nathan L. Stephenson; James H. Thorne; Phillip J. van Mantgem

    2015-01-01

    Fire in high-elevation forest ecosystems can have severe impacts on forest structure, function and biodiversity. Using a 105-year data set, we found increasing elevation extent of fires in the Sierra Nevada, and pose five hypotheses to explain this pattern. Beyond the recognized pattern of increasing fire frequency in the Sierra Nevada since the late 20th century, we...

  17. Nitrogen dynamics of spring-fed wetland ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada foothills oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall D. Jackson; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2002-01-01

    Spring-fed wetlands are small, highly productive, patchy ecosystems nested within the oak woodland/annual grassland matrix of the Sierra Nevada foothills. In an effort to place these wetlands in a landscape context, we described seasonal variation (1999-2000 growing season) in nitrogen cycling parameters at 6 spring-fed wetland sites of the Sierra Nevada foothill oak...

  18. A preliminary floristic inventory in the Sierra de Mazatan, Municipios of Ures and Mazatan, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Manuel Espericueta-Betancourt; Reyna Amanda Castillo-Gamez

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the flora of the Sierra de Mazatán contains 357 species of vascular plants distributed in 248 genera and 80 families. The families with the most species are Asteraceae (48), Fabaceae (45), Poaceae (28), Euphorbiaceae (18), and Acanthaceae, Cactaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Solanaceae (11 each). The results show that the flora of the Sierra de Mazat...

  19. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  20. High Sierra Ecosystems: The Role of Fish Stocking in Amphibian Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews

    2003-01-01

    With a rich diversity of aquatic habitats, including deep lakes, shallow ponds, and rushing streams, Dusy Basinin Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks typifies the high Sierra ecosystem where mountain yellow-legged frogs usually thrive. Yet throughout the Sierra, aquatic ecologist Kathleen Matthews found entire water basins empty of these amphibians. Comprehensive...

  1. Restos óseos humanos procedentes de las sierras de Guasayán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drube, Hilton

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los restos óseos humanos que son objeto del presente informe fueron exhumados en el área pedemontana oriental de las sierras de Guasayán, provincia de Santiago del Estero. La información disponible en cuanto a las condiciones del hallazgo y al contexto inhumatorio no es precisa, si bien corresponden a un sitio de ocupación prehispánico. El análisis e identificación de las piezas óseas permite constatar la presencia de al menos tres individuos en el material esqueletal. En efecto, forman parte del conjunto estudiado tres porciones distales de un mismo elemento esqueletal, en este caso correspondientes al húmero derecho. En la asignación de la edad probable de muerte solamente pudo tomarse como elemento diagnóstico el grado de atrición de las piezas dentales y algunos aspectos morfológicos generales de las piezas presentes. Con los datos obtenidos se infieren edades estimadas para el primer caso en 45-50 años; aproximadamente 30 años en el segundo; en tanto que el tercer caso correspondería a un subadulto. Dos de los individuos presentan rasgos morfoscópicos y métricos correspondientes al sexo femenino, en tanto que no existen elementos suficientes para evaluar la expresión dimórfica en el tercer caso. El neurocráneo correspondiente a uno de los individuos presenta deformación artificial del tipo tabular erecta en su variante plano sagital. Los datos recabados en el presente informe revisten carácter preliminar. Un análisis ulterior permitirá develar mayor información, particularmente en cuanto a las modificaciones de origen patológico y tafonómico observables en el material óseo en consideración.

  2. Entre vecinos: Retos de la justicia transicional a nivel local. El caso de la sierra de la Macarena, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Marín González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El actual proceso de paz entre el Gobierno Colombiano y las FARC- EP en la Habana ha reavivado el debate en torno a los límites y alcances de la justicia transicional. Fenómenos como la victimización horizontal, consecuencia de la participación indirecta de los civiles en el conflicto, plantea una serie de retos para el modelo de justicia transicional que se defina en la mesa; en particular cómo proceder cuando la violencia ha sido utilizada entre vecinos. Este artículo se centra en esta tensión y para ello presenta una caracterización de los límites de la justicia transicional y analiza los contextos de oportunidad donde la victimización horizontal ha tenido lugar en una región colombiana fuertemente afectada por el conflicto armado, la Sierra de La Macarena. El artículo concluye con la formulación de una hipótesis orientada a proponer una posible alternativa para superar la violencia horizontal en el post conflicto: la posible complementariedad entre los mecanismos de transición y las experiencias locales de justicia comunitaria. The current peace process between the Colombian Government and FARC - EP in Havana has rekindled the debate over the limits and scope of transitional justice. Phenomena such as horizontal victimization, result of the indirect participation of civilians in the conflict, poses a number of challenges for the transitional justice model, which is defined at the table; in particular how to proceed when violence has been used among neighbors. This article focuses on this tension and, for that, this presents a description of the boundaries of transitional justice and discusses the contexts of opportunity where the horizontal victimization has taken place in a Colombian region strongly affected by the armed conflict, la Sierra de La Macarena. The article concludes with the formulation of a hypothesis aimed at proposing a possible alternative in order to overcome the horizontal violence in the post conflict

  3. Evaluación de recursos hídricos de las sierras Blanca y Mijas (Málaga

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    Vadillo, I.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A water balance of Sierras Blanca and Mijas Hydrogeological Unit, the most important aquifer in the Costa del Sol, in the period 1990/91-1993/94, has been made. The recharge is produced by the infiltration of rain water with a total amount of 116.9 hmhm3/year/year: 60.2 hm3/year has been evapotranspirated, 56.7 hm3/year belongs to the useful rain (8 hm3/year as streamflow and 48.7 hm /year as infiltration. The discharge have been measured and gives a total amount of 62.2 hm3/year: 28.2 hm3/year by the springs and 34 hm3/year by the pumpings. The useful rain has been calculated with several methods (Turc, Coutagne, Kessler, chloride method and monthly and daily Thornwaite method -with field capacities of 25 and 50 mm-. The method that fits in a better way with the known volumes of recharge and discharge, for each one of the aquifer system and for the whole Blanca-Mijas Hydrogeological Unit, is the chloride method.Se ha realizado el balance de la Unidad Hidrogeológica Sierra Blanca-Sierra de Mijas, la más importante de la Costa del Sol, para la media del período 1990/911993/ 94. La precipitación media sobre la Unidad es de 116,9 hm3/año: 60,2 hm3/año se evapotranspiran y 56,7 hm3/año constituyen la lluvia útil (8 hm3/año de escorrentía y 48,7 hm3/año de infiltración eficaz. Las salidas controlables ascienden a 62,2 hm3/año: 28,2 hm3/año se descargan por manantiales y 34 hm3/año por bombeos. La lluvia útil se ha calculado mediante varios métodos (Turc, Coutagne, Kessler, balance de cloruros, Thornwhite diario y mensual -con capacidades de campo de 25 y 50 mm-. El método que más se adapta a los volúmenes conocidos de entradas y salidas, para cada uno de los sistemas acuíferos y para la Unidad Hidrogeológica BlancaMijas en su conjunto, es el balance de cloruros.

  4. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide: Addendum for Shock Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    This is an addendum to the Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide that documents additional capabilities available only in alternate versions of the Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) code. These alternate versions are enhanced to provide capabilities that are regulated under the U.S. Department of State's International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export-control rules. The ITAR regulated codes are only distributed to entities that comply with the ITAR export-control requirements. The ITAR enhancements to Sierra/SM in- clude material models with an energy-dependent pressure response (appropriate for very large deformations and strain rates) and capabilities for blast modeling. Since this is an addendum to the standard Sierra/SM user's guide, please refer to that document first for general descriptions of code capability and use.

  5. Auditory capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, I; Rosa, M; Arsuaga, J-L; Jarabo, P; Quam, R; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Carretero, J-M; Bermúdez de Castro, J-M; Carbonell, E

    2004-07-06

    Human hearing differs from that of chimpanzees and most other anthropoids in maintaining a relatively high sensitivity from 2 kHz up to 4 kHz, a region that contains relevant acoustic information in spoken language. Knowledge of the auditory capacities in human fossil ancestors could greatly enhance the understanding of when this human pattern emerged during the course of our evolutionary history. Here we use a comprehensive physical model to analyze the influence of skeletal structures on the acoustic filtering of the outer and middle ears in five fossil human specimens from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca of Spain. Our results show that the skeletal anatomy in these hominids is compatible with a human-like pattern of sound power transmission through the outer and middle ear at frequencies up to 5 kHz, suggesting that they already had auditory capacities similar to those of living humans in this frequency range.

  6. Implementation of Safeguards and Non-Proliferation in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Leone under the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements (CSAs) has enacted the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (NSRP) Act 2012 and has given numerous powers to the Authority to implement the above mentioned act fully. The NSRP Act 2012 established the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority which among other things to regulate, control and supervise the acquisition, importation, exportation, use, transportation and disposal of radioactive sources and devices emitting Ionizing Radiation. The Authority is bounded by law to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the application of Safeguards Agreement and any protocol thereto between Sierra Leone and the International Atomic Energy Agency including conducting inspections and providing any assistance or information required by designated IAEA inspectors in the fulfillment of their responsibilities pursuant to Section 5, Subsection 2, Article xvi of the NSRP Act 2012. The Authority is also granted powers to adopt all necessary measures including a system of licensing to control the export, re-export, transit and transhipment of any nuclear material, equipment or technology in order to protect the safety and security of Sierra Leone. The Regulatory Authority has established departments for the control of nuclear materials: One of which is The Regulatory Control Department; responsible for Inspections, Authorization and Enforcement actions for all radiation sources and nuclear materials. The Authority has been conducting inspections regularly on various facilities ranging from medical radiation generating equipment to industrial radiography sources. The methodology to be used is the issuance of the standard IAEA checklist which is consistent with the Regulatory Authority’s documents for inspection of sources and is in line with the General Safety Requirements(GSR)Part III. The expected outcomes would be increasing training of regulatory authority’s staff, the procurement of

  7. Novel Retinal Lesion in Ebola Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Paul J; Scott, Janet T; Baxter, Julia M; Parkes, Craig K; Dwivedi, Rahul; Czanner, Gabriela; Vandy, Matthew J; Momorie, Fayiah; Fornah, Alimamy D; Komba, Patrick; Richards, Jade; Sahr, Foday; Beare, Nicholas A V; Semple, Malcolm G

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study in Freetown, Sierra Leone, to investigate ocular signs in Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. A total of 82 EVD survivors with ocular symptoms and 105 controls from asymptomatic civilian and military personnel and symptomatic eye clinic attendees underwent ophthalmic examination, including widefield retinal imaging. Snellen visual acuity was Ebola virus, permitting cataract surgery. A novel retinal lesion following the anatomic distribution of the optic nerve axons occurred in 14.6% (97.5% CI 7.1%-25.6%) of EVD survivors and no controls, suggesting neuronal transmission as a route of ocular entry.

  8. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  9. PRIMEROS AVANCES EN LA CARACTERIZACIÓN GEOQUÍMICA DE VULCANITAS DE AFLORAMIENTOS DE ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA (PROV. DE CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / First advances in the geochemical characteristics of volcanic outcrops of Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca

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    Alejandra M. Elías

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En distintos sectores de la microrregión de Antofagasta de la Sierra (Provincia de Catamarca, Puna Meridional Argentina se registran afloramientos de vulcanitas (rocas volcánicas con proporciones de vidrio menores a 80%, sensu Aschero et al. 2002/2004 macroscópicamente muy similares. Con el objetivo de diferenciarlas y aportar, de esta forma, a su identificación en el registro arqueológico, se aplicaron diversos métodos y técnicas sobre muestras de estas rocas procedentes de los distintos afloramientos. En esta instancia, se exponen los resultados obtenidos a partir de caracterización geoquímica por medio de Fluorescencia de Rayos X de Energía Dispersiva. Las vulcanitas procedentes de los diferentes afloramientos tienden a presentar disímiles concentraciones de ciertos elementos. Estos resultados son prometedores y estimulan a continuar investigando la aplicación de métodos geoquímicos en la diferenciación y determinación de la procedencia de estas rocas volcánicas. Cabe destacar que en el Noroeste Argentino los métodos geoquímicos fueron exclusivamente aplicados sobre una roca volcánica específica, la obsidiana, y aún no habían sido utilizados en otras rocas volcánicas anisótropas, con superficies, texturas y estructuras más irregulares. Abstract   In different sectors of the Antofagasta de la Sierra micro-region (Catamarca Province, Southern Argentine Pune outcrops of macroscopically very similar vulcanites (volcanic rocks with ratios of glass below 80%, sensu Aschero et al. 2002/2004 have been recorded. In order to differentiate between these and contribute to their identification in the archaeological record, various methods and techniques were applied to samples of these rocks. In this instance, the initial results obtained from geochemical characterization, through Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, are presented. The vulcanites from different outcrops tend to show different concentrations for some elements

  10. PROBLEMS IN THE ADMISSION TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE LOWER SIERRA DE SONORA, CASE: UNIVERSITY OF SIERRA

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    Rubén Ángel Vásquez-Navarro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the issues and find solutions to align somewhat academic models of institutions of higher average level and above found in the central highlands of the state of Sonora, as are the University of Sierra, and the CBTA 53 and confront the culture of the people of the importance of young people studying a degree in that region.The above educational institutions are located in the geographical catchment area and education, in fact, in the same population, in the northeastern state of Sonora. The mountains of Sonora had always intended to have a school of higher education. To justify the town of Montezuma as a geographically strategic point, and thanks to the efforts made by the governor in turn was as the University of Sierra opens its doors to students on the mountain in August 2002.For the analysis of the functioning of an educational institution in the rural sector, should take into account a wide range of factors, however, this work will be key to analyze the dislocation and inconsistency of educational models from an institution of higher average level in relationship to another level, which serve as a unique educational opportunities for the people of Sonora and surrounding Montezuma. In addition, the cultural aspect, which reflects a regional behavior of the inhabitants of the region. La Sierra University is located in the mountainous region of the state of Sonora, in the town of Montezuma, with a catchment area of more than 30 municipalities in this area, which lacked a college until recently time.

  11. The Sierra de Cabral range: a restraining bend related to the Sierra Ballena shear zone in Dom Feliciano belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.

    2010-01-01

    Restraining and releasing bends occurring in all crustal environments are common but enigmatic features of strike-slip fault systems. They can be reported in all scales of observation. Regional-scale restraining bends are sites of mountain building, transpressional deformation and basement exhumation. Releasing bends are sites of subsidence, transtensional deformation and pull-apart basins. The Dom Feliciano Belt of Southern Uruguay has two main structures observed from the outer space: (i) the Sierra Ballena Shear Zone and (ii) the Sierra de Cabral flexure located to the SW of the former. Although a transpressional regime is commonly accepted for the Dom Feliciano Belt, the available tectonic models do not provide satisfactory explanations for its building mechanism. A restraining bend is proposed at the SW termination of Sierra Ballena strike-slip ductile shear zone. In a key-area (Alvariza Range) the relationship between the Zanja del Tigre volcanic-detritic and the calcareous succession shows three en-échelon upright bends of the same quartzite hanging-wall between two sub-vertical strike-slip faults, suggesting the existence of a shortened strike-slip duplex operating in viscous-elastic rheology. The deformation partitioning includes strike-slip and dip-slip simple-shear components as well as one contractional pure-shear component. Because restraining bends were scarcely described in Neoproterozoic low-grade regional exhumation conditions, this structural framework would be a natural laboratory to study fault kinematics, fault dynamics, their associated deformation and the tectonic and erosion constraints related to the exhumation of many crystalline terrains

  12. VALORACIÓN LOCAL DEL PATRIMONIO NATURAL PARA EL DESARROLLO TURÍSTICO EN UN TERRITORIO RURAL TRANSFRONTERIZO (SIERRA DEL LAROUCO, GALICIA-NORTE DE PORTUGAL

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    Elena De Uña-Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En la mayoría de los espacios rurales de montaña la oferta turístico - recreativa está basada en sus recursos naturales. El conocimiento de la percepción y las expectativas de los actores locales respecto a su valor y potencialidad es indispensable para fomentar un turismo sostenible. La Sierra del Larouco es un espacio transfronterizo que se extiende entre el sur de Galicia (N oroeste de España y el norte de Portugal. El objetivo principal de la investigación es conocer la percepción, las ideas y las expectativas de sus actores respecto a los bienes disponibles y su utilización como recursos para el desarrollo local a través de l turismo. Para ello, han sido realizadas 29 entrevistas a partir de un cuestionario - guía . Este trabajo presenta solo una parte de sus resultados en el contexto de un estudio exploratorio : los que expresan el grado de interés y la valoración que otorgan los actores clave al conjunto de recursos disponibles, entre los cuales el patrimonio natural ocupa una posición destacada ; al mismo tiempo, inciden en el potencial que confieren a este patrimonio “propio” como un conjunto de recursos turísticos para favor ecer la mejora del ámbito local.

  13. Construcción de paz en escenarios de violencia intracomunitaria. Estudio de caso Sierra de la Macarena (Meta-Colombia

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    Keren Xiomara Marín González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras la firma de los acuerdos de paz entre el Gobierno nacional y Las FARC-EP uno de los principales retos para el país es la construcción de paz en los territorios, especialmente en aquellos lugares donde la violencia ha sido, a su vez, política e intracomunitaria. Para explorar los retos que este tipo de violencia supone en escenarios de transición y posconflicto, este artículo analiza las dinámicas locales de la violencia y los diversos procesos de victimización que surgen al interior de las comunidades. Para esto se exponen algunos casos y testimonios recolectados en un trabajo etnográfico realizado en la Sierra de la Macarena, departamento del Meta, en los cuales se ilustran las dinámicas de la violencia comunitaria y sus efectos sobre el tejido social de las comunidades. A partir de estas consideraciones se plantean algunos límites que enfrenta la construcción de paz en esta región y se propone como alternativa la articulación entre la justicia transicional y la justicia local para tramitar estos escenarios de violencia.

  14. WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone.

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    Michaela Mallow

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention control (IPC protocols.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing WASH/IPC activity data routinely recorded on paper forms or white boards at ETUs during the outbreak and later merged into a database from two IMC-run ETUs in Sierra Leone between December 2014 and December 2015.The IMC WASH/IPC database contains data from over 369 days. Our results highlight parameters key to designing and maintaining an ETU. High concentration chlorine solution usage was highly correlated with both daily patient occupancy and high-risk zone staff entries; low concentration chlorine usage was less well explained by these measures. There is high demand for laundering and disinfecting of personal protective equipment (PPE on a daily basis and approximately 1 (0-4 piece of PPE is damaged each day.Lack of standardization in the type and format of data collected at ETUs made constructing the WASH/IPC database difficult. However, the data presented here may help inform humanitarian response operations in future epidemics.

  15. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. A Method for Snow Reanalysis: The Sierra Nevada (USA) Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Manuela; Margulis, Steven; Cortes, Gonzalo; Durand, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a state-of-the art methodology for constructing snow water equivalent (SWE) reanalysis. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model and snow depletion curve model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and snow cover area for a given set of (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the satellite observed depletion of the fractional snow cover time series. This method was applied over the Sierra Nevada (USA) based on the assimilation of remotely sensed fractional snow covered area data from the Landsat 5-8 record (1985-2016). The verified dataset (based on a comparison with over 9000 station years of in situ data) exhibited mean and root-mean-square errors less than 3 and 13 cm, respectively, and correlation greater than 0.95 compared with in situ SWE observations. The method (fully Bayesian), resolution (daily, 90-meter), temporal extent (31 years), and accuracy provide a unique dataset for investigating snow processes. This presentation illustrates how the reanalysis dataset was used to provide a basic accounting of the stored snowpack water in the Sierra Nevada over the last 31 years and ultimately improve real-time streamflow predictions.

  17. Germinación y dormancia de arbustos y trepadoras del bosque siempreverde de la Sierra del Rosario, Cuba

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    J. A Sánchez

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los requerimientos germinativos y las clases de dormancia seminal en 14 especies de arbustos y 16 trepadoras (13 enredaderas y tres lianas, del bosque siempreverde estacional tropical de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Rosario, Cuba. También se evaluaron las relaciones entre las clases de dormancia y otros rasgos de historia de vida de las plantas. Los experimentos de germinación se realizaron en condiciones controladas de laboratorio (luz y temperatura: una temperatura constante de 25 ºC, tres condiciones de temperatura alterna (25/30 ºC, 25/35 ºC y 25/40 ºC y dos ambientes lumínicos (luz y oscuridad. En los arbustos, la luz fue el principal factor que reguló la germinación; mientras que en las trepadoras los factores experimentados no afectaron significativamente la germinación en su totalidad, aunque algunas tuvieron una respuesta especie-específica. Solo dos especies fueron totalmente fotoblásticas positivas, y la germinación a la luz disminuyó con la masa fresca de la semilla. La dormancia ocurrió en 23 especies (76,6 %, de ellas 10 eran arbustos y 13, trepadoras. En los arbustos la dormancia fisiológica fue la más abundante, y en las trepadoras predominaron la fisiológica y la física. Entre las trepadoras se hallaron las únicas especies con dormancia morfológica y/o morfofisiológica. El mayor número de semillas dormantes se encontró en la estación seca (87 %. El estudio confirmó la diversidad de mecanismos de dormancia y requerimientos germinativos ya reportados en estas formas de vida para el trópico.

  18. Los Monjes

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    Nicolás Salom Franco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El título de este estudio debiera causar escalofrío en la concienciacolombiana pues se trata de uno de los episodios de mayor desdoro denuestra vida diplomática e institucional.El 22 de Noviembre se cumplen cincuenta años, - medio siglo – dehaber cursado nuestra Cancillería al gobierno de Venezuela, la «NotaDiplomática» más desafortunada por no darle otro calificativo, quegobierno alguno haya podido concebir renunciando graciosamente,contra toda evidencia histórica y jurídica a nuestra soberanía en unaparte del maritorio nacional, cuya aparente insignificancia sólo tuvo ytiene como sustento, la ignorancia jurídica y mucho de la estrechez dela mentalidad andina y mediterránea que con persistente prolongaciónen el tiempo por su desprecio de nuestro inmenso espacio marítimojurisdiccional, ha dominado y domina al Ministerio de RelacionesExteriores, con escasos intervalos de lúcida excepción. Para que no seborre de la memoria colectiva este baldón, como homenaje póstumo a larecta exégesis jurídica y también como toque de alerta a los nuevosprotagonistas de nuestra descaecida diplomacia - así sea ominoso surecuerdo - volvemos en estas páginas a hacer una reseña histórica de losepisodios que condujeron al auto despojo de nuestra soberanía maríti-ma, al regalársele los islotes y cayos de «Los Monjes» a la «hermana»República de Venezuela

  19. EL DISEÑO DE ITINERARIOS TURÍSTICOS PARA LA PUESTA EN VALOR DEL PATRIMONIO TERRITORIAL. LAS ACEQUIAS DE CAREO EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL DE SIERRA NEVADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Prados Velasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone el diseño de itinerarios turísticos apoyados en el sistema de acequias de careo en la cuenca del Guadalfeo, en la vertiente sur del Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada. Las acequias de careo son elementos claves empleados en la Antigüedad para la funcionalidad de los espacios agrarios de alta montaña en zonas semiáridas. En la actualidad constituyen elementos patrimoniales de primer orden que contribuyen al mantenimiento de los paisajes culturales. El objetivo central es el de vincular la sostenibilidad en la práctica del turismo, con la puesta en valor de elementos patrimoniales y paisajísticos.

  20. Elementos de la praxis y del corpus del conocimiento etnoecológico tseltal en comunidades de la Sierra Norte de Chiapas

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    José Ramón Rodríguez Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de uso y manejo de los ecosistemas como las que practican los tseltales en la Sierra Norte de Chiapas han sido insistentemente descritas por una visión occidental “científica” como sistemas de baja productividad y derrochadoras de recursos naturales. En este estudio se reseñan algunos aspectos del cosmos, corpus y praxis del conocimiento que se posee en comunidades tseltales, a partir del hilo conductor de un rubro específico del campo mexicano, el maíz, y de otras manifestaciones del conocimiento local, que permiten desmontar la marginación del sistema de conocimiento local con que lo ha revestido la visión occidental.

  1. La fauna del pleistoceno inferior de la Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia

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    Szyndlar, Z.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary karstic site of Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia, Spain has provided a wide faunistic list with 53 species distributed among gastropods, myriapods, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Especially interesting among the gastropods is Palaeoglandina that became extinct in Europe during the Pliocene. It remains as a relict genus in the Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Two of the birds, Gypaetus barbatus and Geronticus eremita, and a snake, Elaphe cf. E. sealaris, are scarcely represented in the fossil record. For several birds, it is the first record in the Lower Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Among the mammals, the presence of the Cercopithecine Macaca sylvanus is especially relevant one. The assemblage of the taxa Arvicola deucalion, Castillomys rivas rivas, Eliomys intermedius, Equus altidens and Capra sp. aff. C. alba allows the correlation with Plines 1, Orce 3 and Venta Micena, among other sites. Therefore Quibas can be dated before the end of Lower Pleistocene, between 1.3 and 1 Ma. A dry paleoclimatic regime, very similar to the current climate in the geographical area, though perhaps slightly wetter and warmer, can be inferred from the faunistic assemblage. The environment of the karstic cavity was a rocky place with open brushwood areas, but in the proximities there were wetlands and woodlands, as can be inferred from the presence of birds and micromammals characteristic of these habitats.El yacimiento kárstico cuaternario de la Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia ha proporcionado una amplia lista faunística constituida por 53 especies repartidas entre gasterópodos, miriápodos, anfibios, reptiles, aves y mamíferos. En el conjunto de los gasterópodos destaca Palaeoglandina, un género que se extingue en el resto de Europa durante el Plioceno y que se mantiene como relicto en el Pleistoceno de la Península Ibérica. Dos de las especies de aves determinadas, Gypaetus barbatus y Gerontieus eremita, y una

  2. Observaciones sobre la composición, ecología, y zoogeografía de la avifauna de la sierra de Chiribiquete, Caqueta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Hurd Frank Galfierd

    1995-06-01

    the Andes or the dry upper Magdalena Valley. Only among the latter is there evidence of taxonomic differentiation, resulting in forms endemic to the Sierra de Chiribiquete.Realizamos un inventario de la avifauna de una meseta en la Sierra de Chiribiquete, una serie de mesetas aisladas en la planicie amazónica del sureste colombiano, previamente sin exploraciones ornitológicas. Los hábitats del área de estudio incluyeron sabanas arbustivas y matorrales, y varios tipos de bosque. Se registraron un total de 77 especies para el sitio, y se colectaron 38 especímenes de 25 especies. Fueron notorias la poca diversidad y baja densidad de la avifauna, posiblemente relacionadas con la baja productividad y poca profundidad de los suelos arenosos del área. En general, el número de especies de aves en los distintos hábitats estuvo relacionado con la altura y diversidad estructural y taxonómica de la vegetación, con 20-40 especies en los diferentes tipos de bosques, y 13-16 especies en los sabanas y matorrales. Grupos tróficos bien representados en la avifauna fueron las rapaces, los consumidores de insectos pequeños, y (por lo menos en términos de número de especies, los nectarívoros; las aves frugívoras, granívoras, yacuáticas estuvieron muy pobremente representadas. Familias bien representadas incluyeron Formicariidae, Tyrannidae, y Trochilidae. La poca representación de familias de frugívoras grandes como Psittacidae, Ramphastidae, Cotingidae, etc., y de aves granívoras como Columbidae y Emberizidae, fue notoria. Los oscines en general estuvieron pobremente representados: 8 de las 21 especies registradas eran migrantes boreales. Se registró por primera vez en Colombia a Neomorphus rufipennis. La época reproductiva no habia comenzado aún para la gran mayoría de las especies; es posible que la disponibilidad de recursos, en particular de frutos, estaba en un punto bajo en el área. El grueso de la avifauna consiste de especies con afinidades cercanas con

  3. LOS ALAMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Following the historic observation of neutrinos in the mid-1950s by two Los Alamos scientists, Fred Reines and Clyde Cowan, Jr, using inverse beta decay, there has been a long and distinguished history of experimental neutrino physics at LAMPF, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. LAMPF is the only meson factory to have had an experimental neutrino programme. In the late 1970s, the first LAMPF neutrino experiment used a 6-tonne water Cherenkov detector 7 metres from the beam stop. A collaboration of Yale, Los Alamos and several other institutions, this experiment searched for the forbidden decay of a muon into an electron and two neutrinos, and measured the reaction rate of a neutrino interacting with a deuteron to give two protons and an electron - the inverse of the reaction that drives the sun's primary energy source. The next LAMPF neutrino experiment, a UC Irvine/Maryland/Los Alamos collaboration, ran from 1982 through 1986 and measured the elastic scattering rate of electron neutrinos and protons, where both neutral and charged weak currents contribute. With its precision of about 15%, the experiment provided the first demonstration of (destructive) interference between the charged and neutral currents. More recent neutrino experiments at LAMPF have searched for neutrino oscillations, especially between muon- and electron-neutrinos. The newest experiment to pursue this physics (as well as oscillations in other channels) is LSND (July/ August, page 10 and cover). In addition to searching for these oscillations, LSND will measure neutrino-proton elastic scattering at low momentum transfer, providing a sensitive measure of the strange quark contribution to the proton spin. LSND began taking data in August. Los Alamos physicists have also been busy in neutrino physics experiments elsewhere. One such experiment looked at the beta decay of free molecular tritium to obtain an essentially model independent determination of the electron-neutrino mass. The

  4. Los inmigrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lojze Kovačič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lojze Kovačič nació el 9 de noviembre de 1928 en Basilea, Suiza, en una familia de emigrantes, de madre alemana y padre esloveno. En 1938, cuando las autoridades suizas expulsaron del país a todos los emigrantes que no tenían ciudadanía suiza, se fue a vivir con su familia a Eslovenia, primero a Novo mesto, luego a Ljubljana donde frecuentó la escuela primaria, secundaria y la academia de pedagogía. Vivió en Ljubljana donde trabajó primero como periodista y luego como pedagogo. Murió el 1 de mayo de 2004 en la capital eslovena. Escribió obras autobiográficas y de ficción: Ljubljanske razglednice / Postales de Ljubljana (1956, Ključi mesta / Las llaves de la ciudad (1967, Deček in smrt / El niño y la muerte (1968, Sporočila v spanju – Resničnost / Mensajes en el sueño – Realidad (1972, Pet fragmentov / Cinco fragmentos (1981, Pri{leki / Los inmigrados (trilogía 1983–85, Basel / Basilea (1986, Prah / Polvo (1988, Kristalni čas / Tiempo de cristal (1990, Zgodbe s panjskih končnic / Relatos de las tablas de la colmena (1992, Knji`evna delavnica – {ola pisanja / Taller de literatura – escuela de la escritura (1997. A continuación se presentan dos fragmentos de la primera parte de la trilogía Pri{leki / Los inmigrados, una historia marcadamente autobiográfica del retorno a Eslovenia de una familia desalojada de Basilea, narrada a través de la voz de un niño de diez años, traducida al castellano por Xavier Farré y publicada por la editorial Siruela de Madrid en 2007.

  5. DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects support Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographical area: Implications for Astyanax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blind Mexican tetra fish, Astyanax mexicanus, has become the most influential model for research of cave adapted organisms. Many authors assume that the Sierra de Guatemala populations and the Sierra de El Abra populations are derived from two independent colonizations. This assumption arises in part from biogeography. The 100 m high, 100 m wide Servilleta Canyon of the Boquillas River separates both mountain ranges and is an apparent barrier for troglobite dispersion. Anelpistina quinterensis (Nicoletiidae, Zygentoma, Insecta is one of the most troglomorphic nicoletiid silverfish insects ever described. 16S rRNA sequences support that this species migrated underground to reach both mountain ranges within less than 12,000 years. Furthermore, literature shows a plethora of aquatic and terrestrial cave restricted species that inhabit both mountain ranges. Thus, the Servilleta canyon has not been an effective biological barrier that prevented underground migration of troglobites between the Sierra de Guatemala and the Sierra de El Abra. The Boquillas River has changed its course throughout time. Caves that in the past connected the two Sierras were only recently geologically truncated by the erosion of the new river course. It is likely that, with the geological changes of the area and throughout the 2-8 million years of evolutionary history of cave Astyanax, there have been opportunities to migrate across the Servilleta canyon.

  6. Eficiencia de tres atrayentes alimenticios para la captura de Rhagoletis zoqui Bush, 1966 (Díptera: Tephritidae) y caracterización del sistema de producción del nogal de castilla (Juglans regia L.) en la Sierra Nevada de Puebla.

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio del Moral, Yahana Michelle

    2014-01-01

    La mosca de la fruta Rhagoletis zoqui Bush, 1966 (Diptera: Tephritidae), es un insecto plaga asociado al nogal de Castilla (Juglans regia L.) que ocasiona pérdidas a los productores nogaleros en la Sierra Nevada de Puebla. En los últimos años se han incrementado las poblaciones de este insecto provocando daños importantes al fruto. No se dispone de información científica sobre los aspectos básicos para el control de este insecto en la región. En este trabajo, se evaluaron 3 atrayentes alimen...

  7. The vascular flora and floristic relationships of the Sierra de La Giganta in Baja California Sur, Mexico La flora vascular y las relaciones florísticas de la sierra de La Giganta de Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis León de la Luz

    2008-06-01

    superficie se ha excluido de la sectorización del desierto sonorense y se ha relacionado más con las comunidades del trópico seco de la región del cabo del extremo sur peninsular, pero tal idea no ha sido documentada con formalidad. Hacia la mitad del siglo XX, Annetta Carter, botánica de la Universidad de California, inició exploraciones en la sierra de La Giganta por espacio de 24 años, colectó unos 1 550 números y ayudó a describir varias especies en el área, pero nunca publicó un estudio integral de la flora. Habiendose colectado intensivamente en el área en los últimos años, nuestro objetivo es proporcionar una lista florística y una descripción de la vegetación de dicha serranía. La flora consiste de 729 taxones, en los cuales las formas de vida arbóreas son las menos representadas (3.1%, el endemismo es de nivel moderado (4.4%, y la dominancia de plantas en parcelas de muestreo señala que los árboles y arbustos de la familia Fabaceae son los más importantes. Adicionalmente, dentro de un enfoque biogeográfico, esta flora se compara con otras 5 conocidas; 3 de la Región del Cabo, 1 del Desierto Sonorense y 1 más del matorral espinoso del NO de México. Se concluye que la flora de la sierra de La Giganta tiene una composición mixta; primeramente, de plantas compartidas con el matorral de la región del cabo, pero también con numerosos taxones de la flora de las montañas desérticas del centro de la península, y en menor grado con el matorral desértico del sur de Sonora. Los resultados son congruentes con la idea sobre la existencia de un gradiente florístico que discurre a través de las montañas volcánicas en la mitad sur de la península, que bien puede considerarse como una nueva ecoregión para la península de Baja California.

  8. Distribución espacial y temporal de larvas de Trichoptera (Insecta en el río Manzanares, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel José Serna M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los insectos acuáticos son importantes como indicadores de calidad de aguas en ríos y arroyos. Uno de los grupos más abundantes son los Thichoptera, ellos juegan un papel importante por su papel funcional en los sistemas acuáticos. Por eso conocer su diversidad es prioritario. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la estructura de la comunidad del orden Trichoptera y su dinámica espacio-temporal en relación con los microhábitats y algunas variables físicas y químicas, en la parte media y baja de la cuenca del río Manzanares (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Se muestrearon mensualmente ocho microhábitats entre agosto 2002 y febrero 2003, durante los periodos de lluvias y sequía. Se recolectaron 3 316 larvas, repartidas en tres subórdenes pertenecientes a 10 familias y 14 géneros; seis de estos géneros y una familia son los primeros registros para el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia. Los tricópteros presentaron la mayor abundancia y riqueza genérica en los microhábitats Hojarasca Corriente Lenta, Hojarasca Corriente Rápida y Piedra Corriente Rápida, donde Nectopsyche (28%, Leptonema (17% y Smicridea (15% fueron los géneros más predominantes. La estructura, y composición de los géneros del orden Trichoptera variaron en cada estación en función del régimen pluviométrico y las variables físicas y químicas presentadas en la localidad de estudio, evidenciando las menores abundancias y riqueza en los periodos de altas precipitaciones (octubre y noviembre y las mayores en épocas de precipitaciones bajas (diciembre, enero y febrero. De igual forma las estaciones con mayores valores de oxígeno disuelto y menores valores en temperatura y conductividad reportaron las mayores abundancias de tricópteros. Los tricópteros evidenciaron preferencias por microhábitats específicos, variación en su composición de acuerdo con los periodos climáticos y respuesta a los niveles de polución del río. Se recomienda

  9. Inventario de Hymenoptera (Hexapoda en El Ventorrillo: un rico enclave de biodiversidad en la Sierra de Guadarrama (España Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2003-12-01

    estimated extrapolating overall regional richness data from Spain. The hymenopteran numbers from the inventory are compared with other local richness data from Spain and other surveys from Europe and America. The comparatively high abundance and richness figures at El Ventorrillo are emphasized. Results of the inventory, not yet completed, indicate a very high entomological diversity at the surveyed site, a small relatively well preserved area less than 0.5 km2, that probably is representative of other similar habitats in the Sierra of Guadarrama. This area is, however, under potential menace of alteration by the growing human and urban pressure of the vicinity of Madrid. We urge the politics and nature managers to protect this rich biodiversity spot. We hope that this work can help to support the recent proposal of creation of the National Park of the Sierra of Guadarrama.

    Se presentan los resultados globales del inventario de Hymenoptera llevado a cabo en el área de la Estación Biogeológica de El Ventorrillo, un área natural enclavada a 1450 metros de altitud en el sector central madrileño de la Sierra de Guadarrama. Con un programa de muestreo basado fundamentalmente en el uso de trampas Malaise, y adicionalmente trampas bandeja coloreadas y redes de barrido, llevado a cabo entre los años 1988 y 1991, se colectaron más de 1.000.000 de ejemplares de insectos que han sido ingresados en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid. Cerca de 600.000 ejemplares de insectos fueron separados hasta el nivel de orden, de los cuales 83.668 (un 13.8% correspondieron al orden Hymenoptera, siendo después de Diptera (450.000 ejemplares, un 77,5% del total el orden de insectos más numeroso en los muestreos. En las muestras colectadas se han identificado hasta la fecha 49 familias 518 géneros y 1310 especies de Hymenoptera; la riqueza total de himenópteros en las muestras colectadas se estima en más de 2700 especies, y la del conjunto

  10. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  11. Uranium mining in Sierra Pintada: knowledge, epistemic communities and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Demarco, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the conflict triggered by the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) proposing to re-open the Mining Complex of Sierra Pintada, in San Rafael, Province of Mendoza. Since 2004 when the Commission submitted the first report to the Ministry of Public Works and Environment of Mendoza to obtain the necessary permission to restart the works in the mine, several protests have taken place and many legal measures were taken in order to stop any resuming attempts. This study argues that, although CNEA has been an epistemic community capable of applying their policy proposals in the nuclear field, their technical knowledge is currently not sufficient to design a policy, and moreover, to hold that they are working for local and sustainable development. Only 'puzzling' 'with actors' paradigms and knowledge is possible to fit together their demands and achieve a public policy, or solution, for this problem. (author) [es

  12. Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Kevin; Naveed, Asad; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohamed Boie; Baion, David E.; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia; Williamson, Elizabeth; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2018-01-01

    We compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone during August 2014–March 2015 and performed multivariable logistic regression. Among 1,054 children, 309 (29%) were EVD positive and 697 (66%) EVD negative, with 48 (5%) missing. Contact history, conjunctivitis, and age were the strongest positive predictors for EVD. The PEP score had an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.80. A PEP score of 7/10 was 92% specific and 44% sensitive; 3/10 was 30% specific, 94% sensitive. The PEP score could correctly classify 79%–90% of children and could be used to facilitate triage into risk categories, depending on the sensitivity or specificity required. PMID:29350145

  13. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  14. Element Verification and Comparison in Sierra/Solid Mechanics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Roth, William

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to study the effects of element selection on the Sierra/SM solutions to five common solid mechanics problems. A total of nine element formulations were used for each problem. The models were run multiple times with varying spatial and temporal discretization in order to ensure convergence. The first four problems have been compared to analytical solutions, and all numerical results were found to be sufficiently accurate. The penetration problem was found to have a high mesh dependence in terms of element type, mesh discretization, and meshing scheme. Also, the time to solution is shown for each problem in order to facilitate element selection when computer resources are limited.

  15. Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sierra Nevada is a tectonic uplift mountain range with a gradual gain in elevation on the west side and a steep escarpment on the east. Most of the mapped...

  16. California; Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District; Approval of Air Plan Revisions; Wood Burning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of particulate matter (PM) from wood burning devices.

  17. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  18. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  19. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  20. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  1. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  2. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHEE Shepherd

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women’s health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a “Breast Week” during which 1 200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the “Breast Week” which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10% who participated in the “Breast Week” was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6% of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%. An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time.

  3. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México Roost sites characteristics of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana in Sierra Fria, Aguascalientes, Mexico

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    Marcelo Márquez-Olivas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos, en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3 de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el periodo de estudio y el resto, de manera ocasional. La mayoría de los dormideros se encontraron cerca de comederos o cebaderos y de parcelas agrícolas. Se contabilizaron de 1 a 23 árboles de percha utilizados por sitio, distribuidos a una distancia promedio de 24.4 ± 17.8 metros. El 81.2% de los árboles (n=170 fueron pinos (Pinus teocote, P. durangensis, P. leiophylla y P. michoacana, 17.6% encinos (Quercus laurina, Q. grisea y Q. eduardii y 1.2% madroños (Arbutus arizonica. La altura promedio de los árboles fue de 16.6 ± 4.4 m y el diámetro 43.2 ± 11.5 cm. La preferencia del guajolote silvestre por utilizar pinos como dormideros en lugar de otras especies arbóreas, se debe posiblemente a que son árboles de mayor porte o a la conformación de su dosel; sin embargo, se ha observado que en lugares donde hay pocos pinos, los guajolotes utilizan para dormir otros árboles de características semejantes, como encinos, madroños o sicomoros.Sixteen roosting sites of Gould's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana were found between October and November of 2001 and May of 2002 in Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes. A large percentage (87.5% of the roost sites was located in oak-pine forest (in pine stands, at an elevation range of 2500 to 2650 meters. Eight roost sites were on the upper portion (2/3 of the ridge, and 7 at northeast exposures with an average slope of 38.9 ± 12.6%. Most (81.2% of the roost trees (n =170 were pines (Pinus teocote, P

  4. Anfibios y reptiles de la sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Regalado, N.; Lavariega, M. C.; Gómez-Ugalde, R. M.; Rodríguez-Pérez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles of the Sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, Mexico We surveyed amphibian and reptile communities in temperate forest in the Sierra de Cuatro Venados to increase knowledge of the Oaxacan herpetofauna. We obtained 193 visual and 106 voucher records during 38 days of fieldwork. During the study, we recorded 36 of the 40 species predicted to occur in this mountain range: nine amphibians and 27 reptiles, five of which represent new records at the regional scale. Pine-o...

  5. Topographic Evolution of the Sierra Nevada Resolved by Inversion of Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, D. F.; Brandon, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    At present, there are two competing ideas for the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Range. One idea is that the Sierra Nevada was formed as a monocline in the Cretaceous, marking the transition from the Great Valley forearc basin to the west, and a high Nevadaplano plateau to the east, similar to the west flank of the modern Altiplano of the Andes. Both the thermochronologic signature of local relief and the stable isotopic evidence of a topographic rain shadow support this hypothesis. However, a suite of geomorphic observations suggests that the Sierra gained a large fraction of its present elevation as recently as the Pliocene. This recent surface uplift could have been driven by convective removal of in the lower part of the lithosphere and/or by changes in dynamic topography associated with deep subduction of the Farallon plate. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of low-temperature thermochronology in the Sierra Nevada, which provides a definitive solution, which indicates that both ideas are likely correct. Our analysis is distinguished by three new factors: The first is that we allow for separate evolutions for the local relief and the long-wavelength topography. Second, we use Al-in-Hb paleobarometry to constrain the initial depth of emplacement for the Sierra Nevada plutons. Third, our analysis is tied to a sea-level reference by using the paleo-bathymetric record of the Great Valley basin, where it on-laps the Sierra Nevada batholith. According to our analysis, westward tilting of the Sierra accounts for 2 km of uplift since 20 Ma. Topographic relief increased by a factor of 2. These findings suggest that the Sierra Nevada lost elevation through most of the Tertiary but regained much of its initial elevation following the onset of surface uplift in the Miocene.

  6. Rebuilding after emergency: Revamping agricultural research in Sierra Leone after civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo; Workneh, Sindu; Rhodes, Edward; Sutherland, John

    2009-01-01

    "The civil war in Sierra Leone, caused by a mix of political, social, and economic factors, had a huge impact on the overall economy in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector in particular. The agricultural research system of Sierra Leone was severely affected by the civil war. Research infrastructure was destroyed, laboratories were damaged and abandoned, and well-trained researchers and scientists fled from the country. With the cessation of hostilities in 2002, the gover...

  7. SierraDNA – Demonstrating the Usefulness of Direct ILS Database Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Padgett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovative Interface’s Sierra(™ Integrated Library System (ILS brings with it a Database Navigator Application (SierraDNA - in layman's terms SierraDNA gives Sierra sites read access to their ILS database. Unlike the closed use cases produced by vendor supplied APIs, which restrict Libraries to limited development opportunities, SierraDNA enables sites to publish their own APIs and scripts based upon custom SQL code to meet their own needs and those of their users and processes. In this article we give examples showing how SierraDNA can be utilized to improve Library services. We highlight three example use cases which have benefited our users, enhanced online security and improved our back office processes. In the first use case we employ user access data from our electronic resources proxy server (WAM to detect hacked user accounts. Three scripts are used in conjunction to flag user accounts which are being hijacked to systematically steal content from our electronic resource provider’s websites. In the second we utilize the reading histories of our users to augment our search experience with an Amazon style “People who borrowed this book also borrowed…these books” feature. Two scripts are used together to determine which other items were borrowed by borrowers of the item currently of interest. And lastly, we use item holds data to improve our acquisitions workflow through an automated demand based ordering process. Our explanation and SQL code should be of direct use for adoption or as examples for other Sierra customers willing to exploit their ILS data in similar ways, but the principles may also be useful to non-Sierra sites that also wish to enhancement security, user services or improve back office processes.

  8. Registro del águila elegante (Spizaetus ornatus en la Reserva de la Biosfera sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, México A new record for the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus in the Sierra Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, Jalisco-Colima, Mexico

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    Marcelo Aranda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un registro del águila elegante (Spizaetus ornatus en un bosque de encino-pino de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, correspondiente a un individuo de 2 a 3 años de edad. Este registro es significativo ante la escasez de registros de esta especie en el occidente de México, los cuales corresponden a localidades en los estados de Nayarit (1 Colima (3, Jalisco (1 y Guerrero (1. Se considera que el águila elegante está en peligro de extinción en México (NOM-059-ECOL-2001; su presencia en esta área natural protegida da aliento para su conservación.An immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus was observed and photographed while perched in pine-oak forest in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, Jalisco-Colima, Mexico. From plumage characteristics we believe the eagle to be 2-3 years old. This record is significant due to the paucity of records for this species in Western Mexico: Nayarit (1 Colima (3, Jalisco (1 and Guerrero (1. The Ornate Hawk-Eagle is considered as a threatened species in Mexico, and this record from a natural protected area brings hope for its conservation.

  9. Climate Change and Adaptation Planning on the Los Angeles Aqueduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. B.; Bales, R. C.; Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Chen, L.; Maurer, E. P.; Miller, N. L.; Mills, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the Eastern Sierra Nevada snowpack and snowmelt timing, using a combination of empirical (i.e., data-based) models, and computer simulation models forced by GCM-projected 21st century climatology (IPCC 2007 AR4 projections). Precipitation from the Eastern Sierra Nevada is one of the main water sources for Los Angeles' more than 4 million people - a source whose future availability is critical to the city's growing population and large economy. Precipitation in the region falls mostly in winter and is stored in the large natural reservoir that is the snowpack. Meltwater from the Eastern Sierra is delivered to the city by the 340-mile long Los Angeles Aqueducts. The analysis is focused on the nature of the impact to the LAA water supplies over the 21st century due to potential climate change, including volume of precipitation, the mix of snowfall and rainfall, shifts in the timing of runoff, interannual variability and multi-year droughts. These impacts further affect the adequacy of seasonal and annual carryover water storage, and potentially water treatment. Most of the snow in the 10,000 km^2 Mono-Owens basins that feed the LAA occurs in a relatively narrow, 10-20 km wide, high-elevation band on the steep slopes of 20 smaller basins whose streams drain into the Owens River and thence LAA. Extending over 240 km in the north-south direction, these basins present special challenges for estimating snowpack amounts and downscaling climate-model data. In addition, there are few meteorological stations and snow measurements in the snow-producing parts of the basins to drive physically based hydrologic modeling.

  10. Relaciones isotópicas Sm/Nd en rocas graníticas y miloníticas de Sierras Pampeanas del noroeste Argentino

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    Kawashita, K.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Velasco, Copacabana and Paimán Ranges in Sierras Pampeanas, are constituted mainly by paleozoic plutonic bodies of the Famatinian cycle (Huaco, Antinaco and Paimán and for mylonitic rocks (TIPA Shear Zone, originated as a consequence of dynamic events happening during the Upper Ordovician-Devonian. The last magmatic event of the area would probably have of devonian age (Granite San Blas. Model-ages of two stages were calculated based on 147Sm/144Nd relationships; the obtained values are closely grouped at around 1594 Ma. and the more plausible interpretation seems to be a reworking of an Early Proterozoic protolith.Las sierras de Velasco, Copacabana y Paimán, en el ambiente de Sierras Pampeanas, están constituidas principalmente por cuerpos plutónicos del Paleozoico inferior, relacionados con el ciclo Famatiniano (Granitos Huaco, Antinaco y Paimán y por rocas miloníticas (Faja Milonítica TiPA, originadas a partir de estos protolitos como consecuencia de eventos dinámicos acaecidos durante el Ordovícico superior-Devónico. El último evento magmático del área es de edad probablemente devónica (Granito San Blas. Se calcularon edades modelos de «dos estadios» en base a relaciones 147Sm/144Nd; los valores obtenidos se presentan estrechamente agrupadas en torno a 1594 Ma. y se interpretan a este basamento como un protolito del Proterozoico medio retrabajado.

  11. ALMACENES DE CARBONO Y ESTABILIDAD DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA DEL SUELO EN UN AGROECOSISTEMA CAFETALERO EN LA SIERRA SUR DE OAXACA, MÉXICO

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    Gustavo Alvarez Arteaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de los suelos de un agroecosistema cafetalero de sombra bajo diferentes condiciones de manejo para acumular formas estables de carbono, en la Sierra Sur de Oaxaca; para ello, se cuantificó el almacén de carbono edáfico y se realizó el aislamiento y caracterización química de la materia orgánica del suelo mediante fraccionamiento químico, espectroscopía UV-visible e infrarroja en los primeros 40 cm de profundidad. Los resultaron no mostraron diferencias significativas para los almacenes de carbono entre condiciones de manejo, situándose en valores promedio de 150 Mg C ha-1. Los patrones de humificación son consistentes para todos los suelos e indican que más del 50 % de la materia orgánica del suelo se encuentra en las huminas de insolubilización y entre el 15 y 20 % corresponde a los ácidos húmicos. Esta fracción, presumiblemente la más estable, está conformada por moléculas cuya aromaticidad y maduración tiene una relación positiva con el incremento de altitud y el contenido de arcillas en el suelo. De acuerdo a lo anterior se corrobora la capacidad de los agroecosistemas cafetaleros bajo sombra para acumular elevados contenidos de carbono en formas estables asociadas con la fracción mineral del suelo.

  12. Evaluación espacial y temporal de la vegetación de la Sierra Madrigal, Tabasco, México (1973-2003

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    Erika del Carmen Salazar Conde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar los cambios espaciales de la vegetación en la Sierra Madrigal; estado de Tabasco, en un área de 3 642 ha, en el período 1973-2003. Con base en la fotointerpretación de fotografías aéreas y verificación de campo, se elaboró la cartografía de vegetación y usos del suelo de los años 1973, 1984 y 2003 a escala 1:20 000. Se caracterizó la vegetación y los usos del suelo, se obtuvieron los índices de cambio de uso del suelo, y se compararon algunas propiedades del suelo con base en los tipos de la vegetación. La selva alta perennifolia de ramón (Brosimum alicastrum y huapaque (Dialium guianense tuvo una pérdida del 80% de su superficie en 30 años; las principales causas de esta pérdida fueron los incendios forestales que condujeron a la formación de vegetación secundaria (56% y la ampliación de los pastizales (10% para la ganadería de bovinos. La eliminación de la selva provocó, asimismo, disminución de los contenidos de materia orgánica y nitrógeno, lo que indica degradación de suelos en la capa de 0 a 30 cm de profundidad.

  13. Los diarios

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    Alfonso Hanssen

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available Junio 14 - Uno ha tenido el cuidado de amar exageradamente. Se extingue la pasión y se reduce en el ánima la energía. La convertimos en imágenes. La especie de rechazo. El fracaso de los sentimientos desleídos. El tedio galopante. La furia. Y el espíritu lleno y caótico. Entonces uno necesita mudarse, transportarse en la crín de la idea tropélica. Porque uno está perdido. Porque quiere navegar con mástiles rotos. Se le propone a la vida la danza dionisíaca. Extraerse uno. Someterse al éxtasis imaginativo.

  14. Paleodemografía del hipodigma de fósiles de homininos del nivel TD6 de Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos: estudio preliminar

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    Varela, S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aurora Stratum of the TD6 level of the Pleistocene site of Gran Dolina (Trinchera del Ferrocarril, Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain have yielded more than one hundred human fossil remains, of the species Homo antecessor and belonging to a minimum (MNI of nine individuals. In this paper we made the MNI determination and the age at death of the individuals, using data observed in the mandibular, maxillary, and dental remains. The previous taphonomic analysis concluded that the origin of the hominin accumulation was due to a punctual or recurrent episode of «gastronomic» cannibalism. Our analysis revealed that most individuals (N = 7 are immature between three and thirteen, whereas two are young adults between fifteen and eighteen. Considering this peculiar mortality distribution, alternative hypotheses on the possible scenarios in which hominins were apprehended, as well as the implications for the human behaviour in the Pleistocene are discussed.En el Estrato Aurora del nivel TD6 del yacimiento pleistoceno de Gran Dolina (Trinchera del Ferrocarril, Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos se han obtenido más de cien restos fósiles de homininos de la especie Homo antecessor, que pertenecen a un mínimo (NMI de nueve individuos. En este trabajo realizamos la determinación del NMI y de la edad de muerte de los individuos, empleando datos observados en los restos de mandíbula, maxilar y dientes. El análisis tafonómico previo concluyó que el origen de la acumulación de los restos de homininos fue un acto puntual o recurrente de canibalismo de tipo «gastronómico ». Nuestro análisis revela que la mayor parte de los individuos (n = 7 son inmaduros, de entre tres y trece años, mientras que dos son adultos jóvenes, de entre quince y dieciocho años. En función de esta peculiar distribución de mortalidad se discuten hipótesis alternativas sobre los escenarios en los que los homininos fueron aprehendidos y las implicaciones que ello

  15. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Briones-Salas; María D. Luna-Krauletz; Ariadna Marín-Sánchez; Jorge Servín

    2006-01-01

    We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte) in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus) and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis). Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1) in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamífero...

  16. The metamorphic basement of the southern Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas: Provenance and tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Clara Eugenia; Altenberger, Uwe; Mon, Ricardo; Günter, Christina; Gutiérrez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas are mainly composed of Neoproterozoic-early Palaeozoic metamorphic complexes whose protoliths were sedimentary sequences deposited along the western margin of Gondwana. South of the Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, a voluminous metamorphic complex crops out. It is mainly composed of schists, gneisses, marbles, calk-silicate schists, thin layers of amphibolites intercalated with the marbles and granitic veins. The new data correlate the Sierra de Aconquija with others metamorphic units that crop out to the south, at the middle portion of the Sierra de Ancasti. Bulk rock composition reflects originally shales, iron rich shales, wackes, minor litharenites and impure limestones as its protoliths. Moreover, comparisons with the northern Sierra de Aconquija and from La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) show similar composition. Amphibolites have a basaltic precursor, like those from the La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) ones. The analyzed metamorphic sequence reflects low to moderate weathering conditions in the sediments source environment and their chemical composition would be mainly controlled by the tectonic setting of the sedimentary basin rather than by the secondary sorting and reworking of older deposits. The sediments composition reveal relatively low maturity, nevertheless the Fe - shale and the litharenite show a tendency of minor maturity among them. The source is related to an acid one for the litharenite protolith and a more basic to intermediate for the other rocks, suggesting a main derivation from intermediate to felsic orogen. The source of the Fe-shales may be related to and admixture of the sediments with basic components. Overall the composition point to an upper continental crust as the dominant sediment source for most of the metasedimentary rocks. The protolith of the amphibolites have basic precursors, related to an evolving back-arc basin. The chemical data in combination with the specific sediment association

  17. Estado poblacional del orden Plecoptera (Insecta en el Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada en Venezuela y sus implicaciones para planes de conservación

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    Maribet Gamboa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La distribución longitudinal de las especies de plecópteros fue examinada a lo largo del Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada en la región Andina del estado Mérida, Venezuela. El PNSN es uno de las más grandes regiones protegidas y abarca dos subcuencas hidrográficas importantes. Muestras cuantitativas fueron recolectadas en 7 ríos tributarios de estas cuencas a lo largo del PNSN desde febrero a mayo del 2009, con un total de 135 individuos de 4 especies del género Anacroneuria. Sólo en tres ríos (Nuestra Señora, La Picón y Corcovada se encontró la presencia de plecópteros, los análisis de componentes principales muestran que la caracterización del hábitat, la velocidad de la corriente, el oxígeno disuelto y la ausencia de fuentes de perturbación antrópica influyen en un hábitat idóneo para las poblaciones. Los plecópteros se hallan en peligro de desaparición o incluso se han llegado a extinguir en gran parte de su área de distribución como consecuencia de actividades humanas. Planes de conservación deben ser implementados con urgencia, como evitar zonas recreacionales y/o económicas en las cercanías de los mismos.Population status of insects of Plecoptera order in Sierra Nevada National Park in Venezuela and its implications for conservation planning. Longitudinal distribution of Plecoptera species were examined along the Sierra Nevada National Park in the Andean region of Merida State, Venezuela. PNSN is one of the largest protected areas and consists of two major sub-basins. Quantitative samples were collected in 7 river tributaries along the PNSN from February to May of 2009, and a total of 135 individuals and 4 species of the genus Anacroneuria were collected. Only three rivers (Nuestra Señora, La Picón y Corcovada found the presence of stoneflies, the principal component analysis show that the characterization of habitat, current velocity, dissolved oxygen and the absence of human disturbance sources of influence in

  18. Fototrampeo de mamíferos en la Sierra Nanchititla, México: abundancia relativa y patrón de actividad

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    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de las especies y su manejo adecuado dependen de la disponibilidad de información sobre sus poblaciones, por ello es importante estudiar aspectos como la abundancia y el patrón de actividad. En esta investigación se utilizaron trampas-cámara para obtener índices de abundancia relativa y establecer el patrón de actividad de los mamíferos medianos y grandes de la Sierra Nanchititla, México. El trabajo se llevó a cabo durante el periodo de diciembre de 2003 a mayo de 2006, con un esfuerzo total de 4 305 días-trampa. Se obtuvieron 897 fotografías de 19 especies, las más abundantes fueron: Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus y Urocyon cinereoargenteus, de acuerdo con el índice de abundancia relativa (IAR, número de registros independientes/100 días trampa, coincidiendo con estudios basados en métodos indirectos. El patrón de actividad de las especies registradas mostraron que el 67% son de hábitos nocturnos. Algunas especies mostraron diferencias con los patrones mencionados por otros autores, las cuales se relacionan principalmente con la estacionalidad, la disponibilidad de recursos y el sexo de los individuosMammals’ camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns. Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus

  19. Granitoides paleozoicos de la Sierra de Narváez, Sistema de Famatina, Argentina: Hibridización de magmas en un margen continental activo

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    Cisterna, C. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The granitoids from the Sierra de Narváez were investigated for their geochemical and petrographical characteristics. They are composed of calc-alkaline granites, granodiorites and tonalites, similar to the other paleozoic granitoids of the Famatina System. These rocks are intrusive in the Las Planchadas (volcanic rocks and Suri (sedimentary rocks Formations, which are probably cogenetic with the granitoids within the same magmatic cycle.The study of the granitoids reveals the close relationship between their composition and the abundance of the enclosed magmatic inclusions. The latter represent rocks and granodioritic tonalitic and diorite composition, and have a great number of mineralogical characteristic that suggest the presence of two magmas, mafic and felsic for the origin of such enclaves.The close chemical relationship existing between the inclusions and their host rocks shows that the mafic and felsic components are compositionally modified and that the granitoids are more or less hybridized.Trace elements discrimination diagrams have been used as a tools for fingerprinting the tectonic setting of the Sierra de Narváez granitoids. The geochemistry as well as the geologic relations of the granitoids with the roughly coeval ordovician vulcanism indicate a volcanic arc environment.Las rocas que afloran en el extremo septentrional de la Sierra de Narváez están representadas por una asociación de monzogranitos, granodioritas y tonalitas que definen una serie calcoalcalina, de características similares a las de otros intrusivos del Paleozoico del Sistema de Famatina. Estos granitoides se hallan intruyendo las Formaciones Las Planchadas y Suri, representadas por vulcanitas y metasedimentitas, respectivamente, y corresponderían a un mismo evento magmático del Paleozoico Inferior.Los granitoides estudiados presentan abundantes inclusiones ígneas de composición granodiorítica o tonalítica y diorítica. La estrecha relación que

  20. Los españoles en los caminos del extremo norte del Perú en 1532

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available LES ESPAGNOLS SUR LES CHEMINS DE L'EXTRÊME NORD DU PÉROU EN 1532. À partir des relations des chroniqueurs qui ont accompagné Pizarro de Tumbes à Cajamarca, de la liste des tambos de 1543, des informations sur les caciques de 1548 et de la prospection des sites le long des chemins muletiers de l’extrême nord du Pérou, les routes incas de la côte et de la sierra par lesquelles sont passés les espagnols en 1532 ont été identifiées. On a repéré les centres administratifs et cérémoniels depuis lesquels les incas controlaient les caciques locaux des versants nord-ouest et sud-est des monts Amotape, des vallées du Chira et du Piura, sur la côte, et des hautes terres de Caxas et Huancabamba, ainsi que les tambos situés le long de ces routes. On a pu retrouver les maisons fortifiées et les villages des caciques de Pabur et Serrán dans la vallée du Piura. Finalement on a tenté de délimiter les terres et les canaux d’irrigation qui permettaient la produccion des differents cacicazgos. A partir de las relaciones de los cronistas que acompañaron a Pizarro de Tumbes a Cajamarca, de la lista de los tambos de 1543, de las informaciones sobre los caciques de 1548 y de la prospección de los sitios a lo largo de los caminos de herradura del extremo norte del Perú, se identificaron las rutas incaicas de la costa y de la sierra por las cuales pasaron los españoles en 1532. Se ubicaron los centros administrativos y ceremoniales desde los cuales los incas controlaban los caciques locales de las vertientes noroeste y sureste de los cerros de Amotape, de los valles de los ríos Chira y Piura, en la costa, y los de las serranías de Caxas y Huancabamba, así como los tambos ubicados a lo largo de estas rutas. Se logró encontrar las casas cercadas y los pueblos de los caciques de Pabur y Serrán en el valle del río Piura. Finalmente se intentó deslindar las tierras y los canales de irrigación que permitían la producción de los

  1. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L. Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the plant. This paper describes the propagation, domestication, harvesting, processing, marketing and socioeconomic importance of allspice in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México. The fieldwork has been focused on Totonaca indigenous communities from this area. In these communities, allspice has medicinal use, and is used as a condiment for food; other technological and cultural uses have been also recorded. A historical monograph from Casimiro Gómez Ortega is reviewed. It includes information of the history, botany, cultivation and commerce of allspice.Pimenta dioica es una miliacea neotropical de distribución mesoamericana y caribeña. En México vive hacia el este y sudeste. Sus frutos secos se utilizan como condimento, y se trata de un producto del mercado nacional mexicano que también se exporta a Alemania, Estados Unidos, Jamaica y Reino Unido. Aunque la mayoría de la cosecha proviene de la recolección de los frutos en árboles silvestres del bosque tropical, últimamente se tiende a cultivar esta especie en un proceso actual de domesticación. Se exponen datos sobre propagación, domesticación, cosecha, procesado, mercado e importancia socioeconómica de la pimienta de Jamaica en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, a partir de los datos de campo obtenidos principalmente en una comunidad indígena totonaca, en donde se usa como medicinal, en alimentación y en tecnología. Además se reseña una obra de carácter histórico sobre la pimienta de G

  2. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz T Paweska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD cases.The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14% tested positive for Ebola virus RNA.The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  3. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  4. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoo-Gottfried, K.; Hall, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  5. Contabilidad y Control sobre el Individuo. El Caso de las Nuevas Poblaciones de Sierra Morena y Andalucía (1767-1771

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la evolución y utilización en los sistemas de control y contabilidad en una institución de carácter estatal, experimental y agrícola en el siglo XVIII, para moldear el comportamiento de los individuos de acuerdo con los objetivos de la organización. El caso estudiado es el proyecto de las Nuevas Poblaciones de Sierra Morena y Andalucía durante el período 1767-1771. Este proyecto pretendía implantar una nueva forma de entender la agricultura en España en el apogeo de la Ilustración. Para su desarrollo se trasladaron hasta España seis mil colonos procedentes de Alemania y Holanda, cuyas culturas, aptitudes y religiones fueron diferentes de las esperadas. Los responsables del proyecto, con el fin de adaptar las características de los colonos a las deseadas, pusieron en marcha sucesivos mecanismos de control sin alcanzar siempre su objetivo. El período de estudio elegido se divide en dos etapas: (a los primeros años de constitución y puesta en marcha de las Nuevas Poblaciones, desde 1767 a mediados de 1769; y, (b el nuevo rumbo que toma el proyecto a partir de agosto de 1769, después de una crisis de gestión, hasta la consolidación del proyecto a finales de 1771.This article analyses the evolution of control and management systems at a governmental and experimental farming organization in the 18th century governing the behaviour of individuals according with the objectives of the organization. The case studied is the New Settlements of Sierra Morena and Andalucia during the period 1767-1771. This project was an attempt to set a new way to understand the agriculture in Spain at the height of Enlightenment. It involved the emigration of six thousand settlers from Germany and Holland to Spain, whose culture, abilities and religion were unexpected. The managers of the New Settlements implemented diverse control and management mechanisms that often did not succeed. The period chosen for this study is splited in two

  6. The exploitation of faunal resources in the Neolithic of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos: levels 19 and 20 of the Cueva del Mirador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The archaeozoological and taphonomical analyses of the faunal remains from levels 19 and 20 in the Mirador cave (Sierra of Atapuerca, Burgos are presented. The main aim of this work is threefold: to study how faunal resources were managed, to characterize the occupation of the cave and to understand how the environmental resources were exploited at the end of the sixth millennium and the beginning of the fifth millennium cal. BC. Results show the development of human communities with a complex organization and a great environmental adaptation. Shepherds used the cavity as a sheepfold and as a domestic space during almost all the year. Sheep and goat husbandry comprised the economic basis; these taxa were exploited mainly for their meat and milk. Breeding of cattle and hunting would have been complementary activities.

    En este trabajo se presentan los datos obtenidos a partir del análisis zooarqueológico y tafonómico de los restos faunísticos recuperados en los niveles 19 y 20 de la Cueva del Mirador (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos. El objetivo fundamental ha sido obtener información sobre la gestión de los recursos faunísticos y las características de ocupación de la cavidad y aprovechamiento del entorno durante el final del VI milenio y los inicios del V milenio cal. BC. Los resultados han mostrado el desarrollo de comunidades con una estructuración compleja y una gran adaptación a su entorno. La cavidad fue empleada por un grupo de agricultores y ganaderos, tanto como redil para el ganado como espacio doméstico y durante la práctica totalidad del año. La economía ganadera se basaría en la cría de ganado ovicaprino, explotado tanto para la obtención de carne como de leche. Esta práctica económica estaría complementada por la cría de ganado bovino y las prácticas cinegéticas.

  7. Prevalencia de patologías tropicales y factores de riesgo en la comunidad indígena de bunkwimake, sierra nevada de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Dib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades tropicales son endémicas en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, sin embargo se carece de información acerca de la distribución de estas enfermedades en las comunidades indígenas que la habitan. Mediante estudios entomológicos y seroepidemiológicos, se estudiaron los factores de riesgo y la prevalencia de enfermedad de Chagas, leishmaniosis, hepatitis B y parasitosis intestinales en la comunidad indígena de Bunkwimake, ubicada en la vertiente norte de la Sierra Nevada. Los resultados de los estudios serológicos en 94 individuos reportaron una positividad de 18 (19%, 52(55% y 19(20% para infección por Tripanosoma cruzi, leishmania y el virus de la hepatitis B respectivamente. Adicionalmente, en 41(74% de 56 niños indígenas se encontró la presencia de parasitosis intestinales al examen coprológico. En los estudios entomológicos se captu-raron 37 triatominos en 16 viviendas distribuidos de la siguiente manera: 13 Triatoma dimidiata, 12 Rhodnius prolixus y 12 Pastrongylus geniculatus. Las tres especies se encontraron colonizando las viviendas indígenas y presentaron infeccilón para Trypanosoma cruzi. Dos especies de flebotominos fueron capturados en las vivien-das: 5 lutzomyia Gomezi y 7 Lutzomyia hirsute hirsute. El presente estudio demostró una importante prevalencia de infección por T. Cruzi y Leishmania en la población infantil, indicando transmisión reciente de ambas infec-ciones. Adicionalmente, los estudios entomológicos indican que existe un riesgo de transmisión doméstica de T. Cruzi y Leishmania por especies selváticas de triatominos y flebotominos. Se necesitan estudios adicionales que determinen la ecoepidemiología y dinámicas de trasnmisión de la Leishmanisosis y la enfermedad de Chagas en esta población para diseñar estrategias de control más adecuadas. Debido a que los programas verticales de fumigación y mejoramiento de vivienda en las comunidades indígenas no son viables, nuevas

  8. El turista rural en Castilla-La Mancha y el sureste. Tipología frente a infradotación de servicios en las sierras de Murcia y Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Cebrián Abellán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Con un tipo de turista definido, salvo ligeros matices en las dos regiones, la actividad turística rural en ambas ha optado por rentabilizar el corto plazo, con un buen ejemplo en las sierras aludidas, sobre la base de establecimientos escasamente dimensionados, escasa relevancia de los servicios complementarios, carencia de cualificación de la mano de obra ocupada y desequilibrio espacial de la oferta. Se ha consolidado una actividad que contempla escasamente las necesidades del turista y que se define por la carencia de estrategias para combatir la estacionalidad del sector.

  9. Casa en Sierra Morena Huarochirí, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Doblado, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    La horizontalidad en la conformación de esta casa busca acentuar su relación con el paisaje de la cordillera de Los Andes. Se organiza en dos volúmenes horizontales paralelos, desfasados y semitransparentes, que se clavan a la pendiente. Al interior, la vivienda se caracteriza por poder integrar sus espacios a través de mamparas corredizas. En el primer cuerpo se encuentran los espacios comunes, la cocina y dormitorios, mientras que en el segundo volumen se sitúan un estar familiar y los dorm...

  10. The saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Evans, William C.; Klemic, Karin

    2017-07-20

    The five saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada in California are found between 38.5° and 38.8° N. latitude, on the South Fork American River; on Caples Creek, a tributary of the Silver Fork American River; and on the North Fork Mokelumne River. The springs issue from Cretaceous granitic rocks in the bottoms of these major canyons, between 1,200- and 2,200-m elevation. All of these springs were well known to Native Americans, who excavated meter-sized basins in the granitic rock, within which they produced salt by evaporation near at least four of the five spring sites. The spring waters are dominated by Cl, Na, and Ca; are enriched relative to seawater in Ca, Li, and As; and are depleted in SO4, Mg, and K. Tritium analyses indicate that the spring waters have had little interaction with rainfall since about 1954. The waters are apparently an old groundwater of meteoric origin that resided at depth before moving up along fractures to the surface of the exhumed granitic rocks. However, along the way these waters incorporated salts from depth, the origin of which could have been either from marine sedimentary rocks intruded by the granitic magmas or from fluid inclusions in the granitic rocks. Prolonged storage at depth fostered water-rock interactions that undoubtedly modified the fluid compositions.

  11. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.42.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2016-10-01

    Aria is a Galerkin finite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process flows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number (Re %3C 1) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h-adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  12. Sierra Stars Observatory Network: An Accessible Global Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Beshore, Edward

    2011-03-01

    The Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON) is a unique partnership among professional observatories that provides its users with affordable high-quality calibrated image data. SSON comprises observatories in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and is in the process of expanding to a truly global network capable of covering the entire sky 24 hours a day in the near future. The goal of SSON is to serve the needs of science-based projects and programs. Colleges, universities, institutions, and individuals use SSON for their education and research projects. The mission of SSON is to promote and expand the use of its facilities among the thousands of colleges and schools worldwide that do not have access to professional-quality automated observatory systems to use for astronomy education and research. With appropriate leadership and guidance educators can use SSON to help teach astronomy and do meaningful scientific projects. The relatively small cost of using SSON for this type of work makes it affordable and accessible for educators to start using immediately. Remote observatory services like SSON need to evolve to better support education and research initiatives of colleges, institutions and individual investigators. To meet these needs, SSON is developing a sophisticated interactive scheduling system to integrate among the nodes of the observatory network. This will enable more dynamic observations, including immediate priority interrupts, acquiring moving objects using ephemeris data, and more.

  13. Geological and geophysical investigations at Sierra del Medio massif - Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucca, J.C.; Llambias, E.; Puigdomenech, H.H.; Cebrelli, E.; Castro, C.E.; Grassi, I.; Salinas, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    Geological investigations were performed at Sierra del Medio (Chubut Province), a mountainous massif of about 25 km by 8 km of migmatic origin, which emerges from a depressed tectonic trench or graben called Pampa de Gastre. The most ancient rocks belong to biotitic and anphibolic schist that passed almost entirely to tonalitoid migmatites with a second process producing granitic rocks. Boreholes were drilled on the basis of conclusions from Landsat satellites imagery and aerial photographic sets, folowed by field work on geological, petrographic, geophysical and hydrogeological features at surface, structural interpretation supported by geostatistical computations. Two sets of boreholes were drilled to investigate subsurface rock behaviour al 300 m depth and 800 m depth respectively, beginning at peripheral places and ending at the central part or selected site. Basic purposes of boreholes were to define structural and petrographic features of the rock massif by a good comprehension of master joints and faulting distribution with its belts of alteration mylonitization or brecciation, mechanical properties of samples, chemical composition and varitions, petrographic facies and mineralogy. Boreholes provided data to investigate joints, faults and dikes as general discontinuities for hydraulic research like permeability or effective hydraulic conductivity, and their geostatistical modelling. Boreholes are also being prepared for geophysical logging from which logthermal ones have already been completed. (Author) [es

  14. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    Aria is a Galerkin fnite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process fows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number ( %3C 1 ) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h -adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  15. SIERRA Multimechanics Module: Aria User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    Aria is a Galerkin fnite element based program for solving coupled-physics problems described by systems of PDEs and is capable of solving nonlinear, implicit, transient and direct-to-steady state problems in two and three dimensions on parallel architectures. The suite of physics currently supported by Aria includes thermal energy transport, species transport, and electrostatics as well as generalized scalar, vector and tensor transport equations. Additionally, Aria includes support for manufacturing process fows via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations specialized to a low Reynolds number ( %3C 1 ) regime. Enhanced modeling support of manufacturing processing is made possible through use of either arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian (ALE) and level set based free and moving boundary tracking in conjunction with quasi-static nonlinear elastic solid mechanics for mesh control. Coupled physics problems are solved in several ways including fully-coupled Newton's method with analytic or numerical sensitivities, fully-coupled Newton- Krylov methods and a loosely-coupled nonlinear iteration about subsets of the system that are solved using combinations of the aforementioned methods. Error estimation, uniform and dynamic h -adaptivity and dynamic load balancing are some of Aria's more advanced capabilities. Aria is based upon the Sierra Framework.

  16. específico en la sierra norte de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garzón García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera parte del artículo ofrece una visión panorámica de la política de fomento del uso público en la Red de Espacios Naturales Protegidos de Andalucía desde su origen hasta nuestros días, con especial incidencia en cuestiones tales como el papel preponderante asumido por la figura de Parque Natural, el desequilibrio territorial de las intervenciones planteadas, o la necesaria ordenación y planificación de la actividad. Ello conforma el contexto idóneo para abordar, en segunda instancia, un análisis particularizado de la gestión del uso público en el Parque Natural Sierra Norte de Sevilla. La elección de este ámbito territorial se fundamenta tanto en sus especiales condicionantes para el fomento de esta línea de acción (privilegiada situación, existencia de una demanda tradicional asociada a determinados enclaves, propiedad de la tierra… como en la singular gestión desarrollada desde la declaración del parque, destacando las nuevas perspectivas e incertidumbres que parecen despertarse a partir del impulso y aprobación de una planificación específica

  17. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  18. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  19. Photo series for quantifying forest fuels in Mexico: montane subtropical forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur and temperate forests and montane shrubland of the northern Sierra Madre Oriental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge E. Morfin-Rios; Ernesto Alvarado-Celestino; Enrique J. Jardel-Pelaez; Robert E. Vihnanek; David K. Wright; Jose M. Michel-Fuentes; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg; Andres Najera-Diaz

    2008-01-01

    Single wide-angle and stereo photographs display a range of forest ecosystems conditions and fuel loadings in montane subtropical forests of the Sierra Madre del Sur and temperate forests and montane shrubland of the northern Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Each group of photographs includes inventory information summarizing overstory vegetation composition and...

  20. Los árboles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Paredes Pardo

    1964-09-01

    Full Text Available Los árboles son hijos del viento que transporta las semillas. En los valles anda de prisa, tanto que a veces alcanza a los trenes y a la melena de los caballos que espanta la algarabía de los pasajeros. Como los trenes, el viento tiene una frente de humo. De niebla como las montañas. ¿Pensará el viento?

  1. Geología de la parte sur de la Sierra de San Luis y granitoides asociados, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llambías, E. J.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower Palaeozoic basement of the southern part of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina, is made up of metamorphic rocks, granitoids and ultramafic rocks. The metamorphic grade ranges from the lower limit of greenschist facies through the upper limit of amphibolite facies, in apparent transition. The lower grade metamorphic rocks include slates, metavolcanics, metaconglomerates, quartzites and phyllites. Rocks with intermediate metamorphism are biotite-quartz-oligoclase schists with abundant pegmatoid veins. The higher grade metamorphism is represented by gneisses, amphibolites and migmatites, to which mafic and ultramafic bodies are associated. Three deformation phases have been recognized, being the last one (D3, of ordovician age, responsible of the most marked structures.The granitoids were grouped into pre-, syn- and post-kynematic bodies respect to D3. The pre-kynematic granitoids are located within the belt of lower grade metamorphic rocks and are composed of tonalites, granodiorites and monzogranites, strongly deformed. Their age is unknown. The syn-kynematic bodies are mainly garnet-moscovite-bearing leucogranodiorites. They show low thermal and rheological contrasts respect to the country rocks, and the age is 454 ± 21 m.a. The post-kynematic granitoids are mainly monzogranites with K-feldspar megacrysts and abundant sphene. They are subcircular and discordant, and are associated with an extensional regime. Their age is comprised between 423 and 320 m.a., and corresponds to the end of the Famatinian cycle.El basamento cristalino de la parte sur de la Sierra de San Luis, de edad Paleozoico Inferior, está constituido por rocas metamórficas, granitoides y rocas ultramáficas. El grado de metamorfismo varía desde la parte baja de esquistos verdes hasta la parte alta de la facies anfibolita, siendo sus relaciones de aparente transicionalidad. Las rocas con menor grado metamórfico consisten en pizarras, metavolcanitas, metaconglomerados

  2. Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics Project: 1993 field observations of the NPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Malin, P.E. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Ruppert, S.D. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics Project is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional investigation of the cause of the uplift of the Sierra Nevada and its relationship to extension in the adjacent Basin and Range. A broad range of geologic and geophysical data have been collected as part of this project. These data include both passive and active seismic measurements, as well as gravity and magnetotelluric observations. Three seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles were recorded: (1) a 325-km-long, north-south profile extending from just east of Mono Lake south across the Garlock fault, (2) a 400-km-long, east-west profile extending from Death Valley west across the Sierra Nevada to near the San Andreas fault, and (3) a 480-km-long, east-west profile deployed for the NPE. This profile extended from Beatty, Nevada, west across the Sierra Nevada along the previously recorded east-west profile and continued nearly to the Pacific Ocean. Up to 675 seismic recorders were deployed for each profile. These data are allowing us to develop refined models of the crustal and upper mantle structure of the southern Sierra Nevada and to evaluate alternative hypotheses for its uplift and for Basin and Range extension. They also provide insight into the propagation of regional phases across complex structures.

  3. EL AVANCE DE LA FRONTERA AGRÍCOLA EN EL ÁREA ADYACENTE AL SISTEMA SIERRAS DE LA VENTANA (BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fabián Marini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el incremento de la superficie agrícola en el área adyacente al Sistema Sierras de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, Argentina. Para ello se emplearon imágenes satelitales Landsat 5 TM de diversas fechas, realizándose una comparación entre la campaña agrícola 1998/ 1999 con respecto a la 2006/ 2007. El análisis llevado a cabo demuestra que existe un incremento en la superficie dedicada a la actividad agrícola que asciende a 55572 has, lo que representa en un aumento del 27,97 %. El mismo es originado principalmente por la propagación de los cultivos de verano, principalmente de la soja, de significativa expansión en la República Argentina en las últimas dos décadas.

  4. Descripción de la dieta del zorro gris, Pseudalopex griseus (Canidae) (Gray, 1869), en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las quijadas, San Luis, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, María Beatriz; Bozzolo, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    La dieta de Pseudalopex griseus (Gray, 1869) fue estudiada mediante el análisis de heces recolectadas en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas. El parque representa un ambiente semiárido, con regímenes hídricos estacionalmente marcados. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el ítem más abundante durante todo el año es el Orden Coleoptera (estación seca 26%; estación húmeda 31%). En la estación seca, el ítem más abundante fueron las cactáceas (12%) y en la húmeda las leguminosas (25%). Otr...

  5. Transcurrencia a lo largo de la Falla Sierra de Varas (Sistema de fallas de la Cordillera de Domeyko, norte de Chile Strike-slip along the Sierra de Varas Fault (Cordillera de Domeyko Fault-System, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Niemeyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema de Fallas de la Cordillera de Domeyko, de rumbo esencialmente norte-sur, es paralelo a la fosa chileno-peruana en el norte de Chile. Se analizaron los desplazamientos en el rumbo y en la vertical de una de sus fallas maestras: la Falla Sierra de Varas (FS V. Ésta se estudió en el segmento entre Aguada del Hornito y Aguada del Cerro Alto de Varas, sobre la base del desplazamiento en el rumbo de dos porciones de la unidad de Granitoides paleozoicos con idéntica petrografía, estructura interna y edad. Se determinó una separación sinistral horizontal de 15,6±1 km con una componente vertical de 4,9±0,1 km, lo cual implica un rechazo neto sinistral-inverso de 16,4±1 km. El alzamiento vertical está de acuerdo con el espesor estratigráfico erosionado del bloque oriental. Se investigó, además, la dinámica y cinemática de la FS V mediante el análisis de mesofallas asociadas a sus desplazamientos. Se determinó así un sistema estructural sinistral-inverso, que tuvo lugar durante el Eoceno medio tardío. Un segundo sistema estructural dextral, con desplazamiento de 0,6 km se sobrepuso sobre el anterior y ocurrió con posterioridad al Mioceno. Los desplazamientos simultáneos, tanto en el rumbo como según fallas inversas, dados por la existencia de una 'flor inversa en el segmento estudiado, indican que éste fue afectado primeramente por una transpresión. El desplazamiento sinistral demostrado paralaFSVy su cambio de rumbo hacia el SE, inmediatamente al sur de Aguada de Alto de Varas, son compatibles con la vergencia hacia el oeste de pliegues y fallas inversas asociadas del cinturón plegado y corrido de El Profeta, el cual también habría resultado de la transpresión.The north-south trending Cordillera de Domeyko Fault System in northern Chile considered herein is parallel to the Peru-Chile trench. The displacement history of the Sierra de Varas Fault, a master fault of the mentioned system, was examined in detall in the

  6. The geodynamic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M; Lopez de Luchi, M; Steenken, A

    2011-01-01

    , have been carried out to unravel the provenance and the geodynamic history of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Central Argentina. The geochemical and the Sm–Nd data point to a slightly stronger mafic and less-fractionated material in the provenance area of the Sierras de Co´rdoba when compared...

  7. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1470-000] Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. 75 FR 26786 - Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 261A; 10-08807; MO 4500012081; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC... discussion will include, but are not limited to: District Manager's reports on current program of work, Draft...

  9. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  10. Vegetación de las pilas o pilancones de la sierra de Guadarrama y La Serena (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baonza Díaz, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Weathering pits are wetlands of geomorphologic and biological interest, but this common fact is obscured by the different names used by biologists, such as the ambiguous name of rock pool. Aquatic or amphibious plant communities are known around the world, principally from SE North-America and Tropical Africa, but few are known from Spain. Here, I study the vegetation of weathering pits from two different localities: La Serena (Southweast Spain and Sierra de Guadarrama (central Spain. Plant communities change with depth of water and depth of sediment in the weathering pits. Some of them are characterized by Crassula vaillantii or Isoetes velatum.Las pilas o pilancones son unos humedales de interés tanto geomorfológico como biológico, aunque esta identidad ha pasado inadvertida por haberse usado distintas denominaciones en cada campo científico. Las comunidades acuáticas o anfibias vegetales de los pilancones han sido estudiadas en diversas partes del mundo, especialmente en el SE de Norteamérica y en África tropical, pero apenas hay referencias de España. En el presente trabajo se estudia la vegetación encontrada en los pilancones de dos zonas distantes, La Serena (Badajoz y la sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid. Estas comunidades varían según el nivel de máxima inundación que alcanza la pila y la profundidad del sedimento, con comunidades dominadas por Crassula vaillantii o Isoetes velatum, entre otras.

  11. Estudio geológico-estructural de las mineralizaciones de arsenopirita de Viandar de la Vera (Sierra de Gredos. Cáceres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque del Villar, F. J.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A structural and mineralogical study of a group of arsenopyrite-bearing hydrothermal dikes located in the central area of the Sierra de Gredos has been carried out. These mineralizations indicate a dominance of the high-temperature associations (arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite over the lower temperature ones. Four deformational stages evolving from mainly ductile to brittle regimes have been identified. A single phase of progressive deformation generated structures progressively smaller in size, with an E-W-oriented/horizontal maximum finite shortening axis. This study emphasizes the relationships between deformative processes and mineralization evolution in the sense that this evolution appears to be strongly inf!uenced by the size and character of the tectonic structures.Se ha realizado un estudio geológico-estructural y mineralógico de un grupo de diques hidrotermales con arsenopirita, localizados en el sector central de la Sierra de Gredos. Dichas mineralizaciones muestran un mayor desarrollo de las asociaciones de alta temperatura (arsenopirita, pirita y pirrotina sobre las de temperatura intermedia y baja. Estructuralmente. es posible diferenciar cuatro etapas deformativas que evolucionan desde comportamientos predominantemente dúctiles a marcadamente frágiles. Las estructuras generadas en estas etapas son de escala sucesivamente menor y corresponden a una misma fase de deformación progresiva, cuyo eje de máximo acortamiento finito es horizontal y de dirección E-W. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos se han establecido las relaciones existentes entre los procesos deformativos y el desarrollo de la mineralización, que se ve condicionado por la naturaleza y escalas de las estructuras tectónicas resultantes.

  12. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  13. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  14. Tectonic, volcanic, and climatic geomorphology study of the Sierras Pampeanas Andes, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Fielding, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed analysis of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data extends current research in the Sierras Pampeanas and the Puna of northwestern Argentina to the determination - by the digital analysis of mountain-front sinuousity - of the relative age and amount of fault movement along mountain fronts of the late-Cenozoic Sierras Pampeanas basement blocks; the determination of the age and history of the boundary across the Andes at about 27 S latitude between continuing volcanism to the north and inactive volcanism to the south; and the determination of the age and extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the High Sierras, as well as the comparative importance of climatic change and tectonic movements in shaping the landscape. The integration of these studies into other ongoing geology projects contributes to the understanding of landform development in this active tectonic environment and helps distinguish between climatic and tectonic effects on landforms.

  15. Magmatism and mineralization ages from northeast area of La Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulacco, Jose H

    2001-01-01

    Three igneous rock groups, characterized as pre, sin and post-kinematics, have intruded the crystalline basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina. The ore deposits are associated with Devonian to Carboniferous epizonal granite stocks and batholiths in an area underlain by metamorphic rocks. This granitoids are characterized as post-kinematics magmatism. Model lead ages on the ore deposits (338,8 - 292,1 Ma) are strongly supported by K-Ar ages of the intrusives. The bulk of the north Sierra de San Luis ore deposits are genetically related to late Carboniferous granite plutons. The ore bodies are tungsten veins with greisen envelopes, lead veins, epithermal fluorite veins and REE and Th deposit. A generalized scheme of ore bodies related to granites is proposed. The ore deposits and their lithotectonic setting are characteristic of Gondwana metallogenetic Epoch in the Sierra de San Luis (au)

  16. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  17. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  18. Early Pleistocene human hand phalanx from the Sima del Elefante (TE) cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Pablos, Adrián; Carretero, José Miguel; Huguet, Rosa; Valverdú, Josep; Martinón-Torres, María; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new Early Pleistocene proximal hand phalanx (ATE9-2) from the Sima del Elefante cave site (TE - Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), ascribed to Homo sp., is presented and comparatively described in the context of the evolution of the genus Homo. The ATE9-2 specimen is especially important because of the paucity of hand bones in the human fossil record during the Early Pleistocene. The morphological and metrical analyses of the phalanx ATE9-2 indicate that there are no essential differences between it and comparator fossil specimens for the genus Homo after 1.3 Ma (millions of years ago). Similar to Sima de los Huesos and Neandertal specimens, ATE9-2 is a robust proximal hand phalanx, probably reflecting greater overall body robusticity in these populations or a higher gracility in modern humans. The age of level TE9 from Sima del Elefante and morphological and metrical studies of ATE9-2 suggest that the morphology of the proximal hand phalanges and, thus, the morphology of the hand could have remained stable over the last 1.2-1.3 Ma. Taking into account the evidence recently provided by a metacarpal from Kaitio (Kenya) from around 1.42 Ma, we argue that modern hand morphology is present in the genus Homo subsequent to Homo habilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney B. Siegel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. The CCVI assesses species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change within a defined geographic area, through the integration of (a species' range maps, (b information about species' natural history traits and ecological relationships, (c historic and current climate data, and (d spatially explicit climate change projections. We conducted the assessment under two different downscaled climate models with divergent projections about future precipitation through the middle of the 21st century. Assessments differed relatively little under the two climate models. Of five CCVI vulnerability ranking categories, only one species, White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, received the most vulnerable rank, Extremely Vulnerable. No species received the second-highest vulnerability ranking, Highly Vulnerable. Sixteen species scored as Moderately Vulnerable using one or both climate models: Common Merganser (Mergus merganser, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus, Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius, Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa, Black Swift (Cypseloides niger, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, American Pipit (Anthus rubescens, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis, Pine Grosbeak

  20. Semiarid ethnoagroforestry management: Tajos in the Sierra Gorda, Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Vincent M; Casas, Alejandro; Moreno-Calles, Ana Isabel

    2017-06-12

    The semi-arid environments harbor nearly 40% of biodiversity, and half of indigenous cultures of Mexico. Thousands of communities settled in these areas depend on agriculture and using wild biodiversity for their subsistence. Water, soil, and biodiversity management strategies are therefore crucial for people's life. The tajos, from Sierra Gorda, are important, poorly studied, biocultural systems established in narrow, arid alluvial valleys. The systems are constructed with stone-walls for capturing sediments, gradually creating fertile soils in terraces suitable for agriculture in places where it would not be possible. We analyzed biocultural, ecological, economic and technological relevance of the artificial oasis-like tajos, hypothesizing their high capacity for maintaining agricultural and wild biodiversity while providing resources to people. We conducted our research in three sections of the Mezquital-Xichú River, in three communities of Guanajuato, Mexico. Agroforestry management practices were documented through semi-structured and in-depth qualitative interviews. Vegetation composition of local forests and that maintained in tajos was sampled and compared. Tajos harbor high agrobiodiversity, including native varieties of maize and beans, seven secondary crops, 47 native and 25 introduced perennial plant species. Perennial plants cover on average 26.8% of the total surface of plots. Tajos provide nearly 70% of the products required by households' subsistence and are part of their cultural identity. Tajos are heritage of TEK and land management forms of pre-Columbian Mexican and Mediterranean agricultural techniques, adapting and integrating modern agricultural practices. Tajos are valuable biocultural systems adapted to local semiarid conditions and sources of technology for similar areas of the World.

  1. Validación de un instrumento para vigilar la inseguridad alimentaria en la Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco Validation of an instrument to monitor food insecurity in Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar una versión de la Escala de Seguridad Alimentaria (FSS en comunidades de la Sierra de Manatlán, Jalisco. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Usando grupos focales se modificó la FSS. Posteriormente se aplicó una encuesta a mujeres con niños preescolares. La FSS se validó correlacionándola con el inventario de alimentos del hogar y con la variedad de dieta de la entrevistada. La encuesta incluyó un cuestionario socio-económico. RESULTADOS: El 44% de los hogares indicaron inseguridad alimentaria leve, 33% hambre moderada y 19.7% hambre severa. La inseguridad alimentaria estuvo inversamente correlacionada con el inventario de alimentos (r=-0.36**, alimentos de origen animal (r=-0.28**, lácteos (r=-0.25**, alimentos procesados (r=-0.37**, frutas (r=-0.21* y verduras (r=-0.28**; *pOBJECTIVE: To validate a version of the Food Security Scale (FSS in communities located in Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using focus groups, the FSS was modified to fit the Mexican context. Subsequently, a survey was applied to women with pre-school aged children. The FSS was validated in correlation with a household food inventory and the dietary variety of the individual being interviewed. The interview also included a socioeconomic questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of the households reported mild food insecurity, 33% reported moderate hunger and 19.7% reported severe hunger. Food insecurity was significantly and inversely correlated with the number of food items in the household (r=-0.36**, animal source foods (r=-0.28**, dairy products (r=-0.25*, processed foods (r=-0.37**, fruits (r=-0.21*, and vegetables (r=-0.28**; *p<0.05, **p< 0.01. Food insecurity was also associated with low dietary variety (r=-0.23, p=0.02. These associations were maintained in multivariate models. CONCLUSIONS: The FSS is a useful tool for monitoring food insecurity in rural regions of Jalisco.

  2. Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of very small changes of Earth’s gravitational field (time-lapse gravity) provide a direct, non-invasive method for measuring changes in aquifer storage change. An existing network of gravity stations in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed was revised in 2014 to better understand the spatial distribution of changes in aquifer storage, especially with relation to ephemeral channel recharge and a groundwater cone of depression associated with pumping in the greater Sierra Vista area. In addition, the network was extended to provide baseline data for possible future enhanced-recharge projects.

  3. SIERRA Code Coupling Module: Arpeggio User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SNL Sierra Mechanics code suite is designed to enable simulation of complex multiphysics scenarios. The code suite is composed of several specialized applications which can operate either in standalone mode or coupled with each other. Arpeggio is a supported utility that enables loose coupling of the various Sierra Mechanics applications by providing access to Framework services that facilitate the coupling. More importantly Arpeggio orchestrates the execution of applications that participate in the coupling. This document describes the various components of Arpeggio and their operability. The intent of the document is to provide a fast path for analysts interested in coupled applications via simple examples of its usage.

  4. Late holocene tectonic damming up in eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabie, A.C.; Limarino, C.O; Panarello, H.O.; Cordero, R.R; Bertels, A

    2001-01-01

    Neogene deformation due to Andean Orogeny has caused block faulting in the Sierras Pampeanas area, fracturing a Precambrian Paleozoic crystalline basement. These dislocations produced Late Tertiary to Quaternary landscape changes which are mainly expressed in clear and good preserved fluvial path modifications in sedimentary cover. The study of alterations of fluvial channel pattern associated with Quaternary tectonics has special neotectonic value in this central area of Argentina as a basic method to gain more precise temporal restrain of recent movements. Attention to this specific neotectonic field parallels general geologic knowledge evolution in Sierras Pampeanas. But in spite that nowadays better stratigraphic controls are available based on morphostructural, sedimentologic and paleontologic constraints (Massabie, 1999), still remain temporal uncertainties. Major difficulties for a more precise dating of neotectonic in the area of Sierras Pampeanas is a direct consequence of the random distribution of Neogene continental sediments located in different isolated basins which are mainly lacking of good bioestratigraphic control for comprehensive correlation. First steps in the study of Quaternary faulting dating in Sierras Pampeanas starts with the pioneer paper of Schlagintweit (1954) which reported a Quaternary faulting backed by stratigraphic and morphostructural considerations. Afterthen other papers about Quaternary faulting were presented based on similar geologic constraints (Lencinas y Timonieri, 1968; Massabie, 1976, 1987; Massabie and Szlafsztein, 1991; Kraemer et al., 1993; Massabie et al.,1998). In the way up to manage better adjust of Quaternary faulting dating in Sierras Pampeanas, there is a first work for Eastern Sierras Pampeanas presenting 14 C dating (Costa and Vita-Finzi, 1996). The authors postulated a late step of faulting younger than 1,300 for Comechingones fault with radiocarbon analysis based on organic matter in footwall colluvium

  5. Soil fauna in forest and coffee plantations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Two research stations (M inca, 700 m altitude and Maria Ter esa, 790 m altitude) were established in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta in places to study the soil fauna associated with forest and coffee plantations. Soil fauna was collected using pitfall and Bailer's traps. Samples were taken from litter as well as from horizons 0, A and B. individuals collected were identified to family level. Diversity, abundance and frequency indexes were used to compare fauna composition at both sites. Significant differences were found between the two research sites as well as with data from other high altitude forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta

  6. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  7. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectados. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2 para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino.

  8. Capra alba Moyà-Solà, 1987 del Pleistoceno Inferior de la Sierra de Quibas (Albanilla, Murcia, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first palaeontological study of the locality of Quibas dates from the end of the 1990ties (Montoya et al., 1999, describing over 60 vertebrate taxa. One of these was a caprine assigned to Capra sp. aff. Capra alba. Recent excavations yielded new remains of this taxon, which permits a more profound study of its affinities and an assignation to Capra alba, without reservation. This assignation is based on the morphological and metrical comparison of the skulls, horn cores, dentition and metapodials from Quibas with those of Capra alba from Venta Micena (Orce Granada.A finales de la década de los 90 se realizó el primer estudio paleontológico del yacimiento de la Sierra de Quibas (Montoya et al., 1999 en el que se describieron más de 60 taxones de vertebrados. Uno de ellos fue el de un caprino asignado como Capra sp. aff Capra alba. Las últimas campañas de excavación han librado nuevos restos de este taxón, lo que ha permitido poder estudiarlo con mayor profundidad y asignarlo a Capra alba. Esta atribución se basa en la comparación morfológica y métrica de los cráneos, núcleos óseos, dentición y metápodos con los ejemplares de C. alba de Venta Micena (Orce, Granada.

  9. Análisis de las economías familiares en el bienestar de las etnias zapotecas y chatinas de la Sierra Sur de Oaxaca en 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Méndez Bautista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda el análisis del bienestar de 121 hogares zapotecos y chatinos de la Sierra Sur en el estado de Oaxaca; específicamente se evalúa la economía familiar y se prueba un modelo teórico de bienestar que consta de 27 variables independientes, como: ingresos, dieta, vulnerabilidad, características sociodemográficas, activos y calidad de la vivienda. La información procede de entrevistas estructuradas financiadas por la CDI y realizadas a los jefes de familia entre septiembre y octubre de 2013. La variable dependiente “bienestar de los hogares indígenas” (BHI se construyó mediante la técnica multivariante análisis factorial a partir de los siguientes rubros de gasto: alimentación, salud, educación, ropa, trasporte y energía eléctrica. La variable BHI se estratificó a través del método de estratificación óptima de Dalenius y Hodges (1959. Enseguida se construyó el modelo del bienestar que establece relaciones definidas entre BHI y las variables dependientes significativas mediante análisis de regresión múltiple. Así, fue posible identificar aquellas variables que favorecen o restringen el bienestar a través de dos ecuaciones lineales.

  10. Patrones espaciales de cambio de cobertura y uso del suelo en el área cafetalera de la sierra norte de Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Evangelista Oliva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La Sierra Norte de Puebla (SNP es una región con gran diversidad biológica y cultural en donde la cafeticultura ha tenido un papel relevante en el uso del suelo. El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer los patrones espaciales de la dinámica de cambio de la cobertura vegetal y el uso del suelo entre 1988-2003, y relacionarlos con las actividades de cafeticultura en la SNP. El análisis de cambio se realizó mediante una clasificación supervisada de dos imágenes de satélite Landsat, y se evaluó el cambio espacial entre las dos fechas mediante una matriz de detección de cambios. En ella se encontró que en el 58.4% del área no hubo cambios y en el 41.6% sí los hubo. Los principales tipos de cambio fueron de pastizal (cultivado e inducido o agricultura anual a cafetales con sombra/vegetación secundaria intermedia de bosque tropical o bosque mesófilo de montaña/cultivo permanente de cítricos; asimismo, el proceso de cambio de cobertura y uso del suelo está relacionado con la problemática actual del café.

  11. Fototrampeo de mamíferos en la Sierra Nanchititla, México: abundancia relativa y patrón de actividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de las especies y su manejo adecuado dependen de la disponibilidad de información sobre sus poblaciones, por ello es importante estudiar aspectos como la abundancia y el patrón de actividad. En esta investigación se utilizaron trampas-cámara para obtener índices de abundancia relativa y establecer el patrón de actividad de los mamíferos medianos y grandes de la Sierra Nanchititla, México. El trabajo se llevó a cabo durante el periodo de diciembre de 2003 a mayo de 2006, con un esfuerzo total de 4 305 días-trampa. Se obtuvieron 897 fotografías de 19 especies, las más abundantes fueron: Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus y Urocyon cinereoargenteus, de acuerdo con el índice de abundancia relativa (IAR, número de registros independientes/100 días trampa, coincidiendo con estudios basados en métodos indirectos. El patrón de actividad de las especies registradas mostraron que el 67% son de hábitos nocturnos. Algunas especies mostraron diferencias con los patrones mencionados por otros autores, las cuales se relacionan principalmente con la estacionalidad, la disponibilidad de recursos y el sexo de los individuos

  12. Los alemanes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Villegas

    1966-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanizada por Julío César y cristianizada por los visigodos, los ostrogodos y los lombardos, Alemania ha sido a través de los siglos un potente faro de la cultura humana. Sus pensadores, sus filósofos, sus letrados, sus estadistas, sus guerreros se destacan gigantes -desde los tiempos de Carlos V, emperador de Europa.

  13. Sierras del Tandil. First Meeting of Morpfological Sciences.

    OpenAIRE

    Deserti, Maria Irene; Zamponi, Mauricio Oscar; Escalante, Alicia Haydee

    2015-01-01

    Las hidras son los cnidarios dulceacuícolas por excelencia y el ejemplo clásico de la forma pólipo dentro de dicho phylum. Sin embargo existe aún una gran confusión en lo que concierne a la taxonomía del género, ya que muchas especies presentan variaciones morfológicas que dificultan su identificación.Las hidras del hemisferio sur han sido poco investigadas, por lo que no se conoce con certeza cuales son las especies presentes y si éstas pertenecen a los grupos taxonómicos existentes hasta el...

  14. Las mineralizaciones filonianas de fluorita (galena del Calar de San José (sierra de Baza, cordilleras Béticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Ruiz, J.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The F-(Pb, Zn, Ba district of Sierra de Baza are a (Southeastern Spain is mainly constituted by fluorite-(galene stratiform and stratabound mineralizations which are included in Carbonate levels of Ladinian-Carnian age. These levels also contain vein mineralizations but only in certain zones as de Calar de San José and the Calar de Santa Bárbara. This paper deals with the main structural and mineralogical characteristics of the vein mineralizations and their relations with the geological context evolution. Special attention is given to the tectonic and the spatial association with the stratiform and stratabound, mineralizations of sedimentary/diagenetic character. Two types of vein mineralizations may be distinguished : one type is represented by small "in situ" remobilizations, from the stratiform and stratabound mineralizat ioos, which have been formed during the final stages of alpine deformations; the other one has been formed before Alpina Orogeny and probably in direct relation with an intratriassic tectonic phase.

    El distrito de F-(Pb, Zn, Ba de la Sierra de Baza (al SE de España está constituido fundamentalmente por mineralizaciones estratiformes y estratoligadas de fluorita-(galena, enclavadas en niveles carbonatados del Ladiniense Superior-Carniense. En estos mismos niveles, en algunos sectores como los del Calar de San José y Calar de Santa Bárbara, que constituyen el área de mayor importancia de este distrito minero, dichas mineralizaciones coexisten con otras de tipo filoniano. La presente nota trata esencialmente de las principales características estructurales y mineralógicas de las mineralizaciones filonianas y de sus relaciones con la evolución del contexto geológico, muy especialmente en lo que se refiere a la tectónica y a su asociación espacial con las mineralizaciones estratiformes y estratoligadas de carácter sedimentario/diagenético. Se han diferenciado dos tipos de mineralizaciones filonianas: unas

  15. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Briones-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1 in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamíferos en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte en Oaxaca, México, y se registró la notoria presencia de dos mamíferos: el mono araña (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus y el coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. El mono araña no se había registrado previamente en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, en tanto que el coyote, no había sido registrado en México a tan gran altitud (3 200 m como la de la localidad de captura.

  16. Avances en la agenda urbana : Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Steinberg (Florian); M.L. Garnelo (Maria Luisa); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEste libro tiene como objetivo principal, presentar algunos trabajos del SINPA que contribuyeron y representan “Avances en la Gestión Urbana”. Estos artículos son fruto de la experiencia del proyecto SINPA como aporte a los cambios y procesos de fortalecimiento de la gestión urbana en el

  17. The Eastern delta-fan deposits on the Granada Basin as tectonic indicators of the Sierra Nevada uplift (Betic Cordillera, South Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Mateos, Rosa Maria

    2014-05-01

    Sierra Nevada uplift and with original NE-SW normal left-lateral fault system associated with a compatible ESE-WNW normal fault system. The asymmetrical morphologies of the two delta-fan bodies confirm this configuration as tectonic induced deposits. References Braga, J.C., Martín, J.M. and Alcalá, B. (1990). Coral reefs in coarse-terrigenous sedimentary environments (Upper Tortonian, Granada Basin, southern Spain). Sedimentary Geology, 66, pp 135-150. Clark, S.J.P.and Dempster, T.J. (2009). The record of tectonic denudation and erosion in an emerging orogen: an apatite fission-track study of the Sierra Nevada, southern Spain. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 166, pp. 87-100. Dabrio, C.J., Fernández, J., Peña, J., Ruíz-Bustos, A. y Sanz de Galdeano, C. (1978). Rasgos sedimentarios de los conglomerados miocénicos del borde noreste de la Depresión de Granada. Estudios Geológicos, 34, pp 89-97. García-García, F., Fernández, J., Viseras, C. and Soria, J.M. (2006). Architecture and sedimentary facies evolution in a delta stack controlled by fault growth (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain, late Tortonian). Sedimentary Geology, 185, pp. 79-92. García-García, F., Viseras, C. and Fernández, J. (1999). Organización secuencial de abanicos deltaicos controlados por la tectónica (Tortoniense superior, cuenca de Granada, Cordillera Bética). Rev. Soc. Geol. España, 12 (2): 199-208.

  18. Inestabilidad de laderas e infraestructura vial: análisis de susceptibilidad en la Sierra Nororiental de Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Galindo Serrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En México y diversas partes del mundo los desastres asociados a la inestabilidad de laderas generan impactos negativos en el ámbito socio-económico y ambiental. Además de las pérdidas de vida, y el daño a la cubierta vegetal, las afectaciones a las viviendas y la infraestructura son frecuentes; en los últimos años, la destrucción y deterioro en la infraestructura vial ha sido de particular importancia. Entre las diferentes áreas del país que de manera recurrente suelen ser afectadas por inestabilidad de laderas, se encuentra la Sierra Norte del estado de Puebla. Pérdidas humanas y económicas directas e indirectas, resultado de la ocurrencia de procesos de remoción en masa (PRM desencadenados principalmente por lluvias intensas, en comunidades vulnerables expuestas de esta región, han tenido lugar desde hace algunas décadas. El impacto en la infraestructura ha cobrado gran relevancia, especialmente desde 1999, razón por la cual este estudio se centró en el análisis de la susceptibilidad a procesos de remoción de masa en las principales carreteras de la región de la Sierra Nororiental de Puebla. Dicho análisis involucró la elaboración de un inventario de PRM, así como de la cartografía temática empleada como insumo para la aplicación del análisis multicriterio y pesos de evidencia. Se obtuvieron dos mapas de susceptibilidad de la región de interés, y los resultados fueron analizados a través de un índice de recurrencia de PRM. Finalmente, se efectuó el análisis espacial de la susceptibilidad a PRM de varios tramos carreteros de la Sierra Nororiental, con base en el análisis de proximidad y de superposición. El inventario de PRM generado se integró por 166 procesos de remoción en masa y 40 zonas potencialmente inestables. Las áreas de muy alta susceptibilidad corresponden a zonas con un relieve muy accidentado, mientras que las regiones planas coinciden con zonas de muy baja susceptibilidad. La variación de

  19. Holocene glaciation of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Nicole D.; Clark, Douglas H.

    2011-05-01

    Sediment cores from two bedrock-dammed lakes in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, California, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the region. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest (˜1.3 km 2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the range, and capture essentially all of the rock flour it produces. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. The lakes have therefore received continuous sedimentation from the basin since the retreat of the Tioga glacier (Last Glacial Maximum) and capture rock flour related to all post-LGM advances. A total of eight long cores (up to 5.5 m sediment depth) and one short surface sediment short core preserve a coherent record of fluctuating rock flour flux to the lakes through the Holocene. Age constraints on rock flour spikes in First and Second lakes based on 31 14C-dated macrofossils indicate Holocene glaciation began ˜3200 cal yr B P, followed by a possible glacier maximum at ˜2800 cal yr B P and four distinct glacier maxima at ˜2200, ˜1600, ˜700 and ˜250-170 cal yr. B.P., the most recent maximum being the largest. Reconstruction of the equilibrium-line altitudes (ELA) associated with each distinct advance recorded in the moraines (Recess Peak, Matthes, and modern) indicates ELA depressions (relative to modern) of ˜250 m and 90 m for Recess Peak and Matthes advances, respectively. These differences represent decreases in summer temperatures of 1.7-2.8 °C (Recess Peak) and 0.2-2° (Matthes), and increases in winter precipitation of 22-34 cm snow water equivalent (s.w.e.) (Recess Peak) and 3-26 cm s.w.e. (Matthes) compared to modern conditions. Although small, these changes are significant and similar to those noted in the Cascade Range to the north, and represent a significant departure from historical climate trends in the region.

  20. Paleozoic and Mesozoic deformations in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Kistler, Ronald Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of structural and stratigraphic data indicates that several periods of regional deformation, consisting of combined folding, faulting, cataclasis, and regional metamorphism, occurred throughout the central Sierra Nevada during Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. The oldest regional deformation occurred alono northward trends during the Devonian and Mississippian periods in most roof pendants containing lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks at the center and along the crest of the range. This deformation is expressed in some roof pendants by an angular unconformity separating older thrice-deformed from younger twice-deformed Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The first Mesozoic deformation, which consisted of uplift and erosion and was accompanied by the onset of Andean-type volcanism during the Permian and Triassic, is expressed by an angular unconformity in several roof pendants from the Saddlebag Lake to the Mount Morrison areas. This unconformity is defined by Permian and Triassic andesitic to rhyolitic metavolcanic rocks unconformably overlying more intensely deformed Pennsylvanian, Permian(?), and older metasedimentary rocks. A later regional deformation occurred during the Triassic along N. 20?_30? W. trends in Permian and Triassic metavolcanic rocks of the Saddlebag Lake and Mount Dana roof pendants, in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Pine Creek roof pendant, and in the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt; the roof pendants are crosscut by Upper Triassic granitic rocks of the Lee Vining intrusive epoch. A still later period of Early and Middle Jurassic regional deformation occurred along N. 30?-60? E. trends in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt. A further period of deformation was the Late Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, which occurred along N. 20?_40? W. trends in Upper Jurassic rocks of the western metamorphic belt that are crosscut by Upper Jurassic granitic rocks of the Yosemite intrusive epoch

  1. Influence of anuran prey on the condition and distribution of Rana muscosa in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2002-01-01

    Mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) at high elevations of the Sierra Nevada must obtain enough food during summer to survive 7–9 winter months when their aquatic habitats are frozen and food is presumably unavailable. Adults of R. muscosa prey on a variety of organisms, including aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and...

  2. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 5, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based Combinations in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria among Children Under ... The Use of Mobile Electronic Devices for Public Health Data Collection and Syndromic Surveillance at the Republic Of Sierra Leone Armed Forces · EMAIL FREE ...

  3. Child mental health in Sierra Leone : A survey and exploratory qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoder, H.N.C.; Tol, W.A.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study complements the growing amount of research on the psychosocial impact of war on children in Sierra Leone by examining local perceptions of child mental health, formal and informal care systems, help-seeking behaviour and stigma. Methods The study combined: (1) a nationwide

  4. Climate change and fire regimes in the Sierra de Manantlan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke A. Cassell; Ernesto Alvarado; Emily Heyerdahl; Diego Perez-Salicrup; Enrique Jardel-Pelaez

    2010-01-01

    Fire has been attributed as one of the most influential factors in vegetation community and succession in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve in Jalisco and Colima, México. A mosaic of low, mixed and high severity fire regimes characterizes the landscape with ecosystems ranging from mesophyllous mountain forest to higher elevation pine and oak forest. Research...

  5. 75 FR 42601 - Establishment of the Sierra Pelona Valley Viticultural Area (2010R-004P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision establishes the 9.7-square mile ``Sierra Pelona Valley... purchase. DATES: Effective Date: August 23, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christina McMahon... origin of their wines to consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment...

  6. Aspen in the Sierra Nevada: Regional conservation of a continental species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Rogers; Wayne D. Shepperd; Dale L. Bartos

    2007-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) a common species in North America, is a minor species in the Sierra Nevada of California. However, the limited coverage of aspen in this area appears to carry a disproportionate biodiversity load: numerous species are dependent on the unique components of aspen forests habitat. Land managers in the region...

  7. Petrography of the Paleogene Volcanic Rocks of the Sierra Maestra, Southeastern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, V. L.

    2006-12-01

    This study is a petrographic analysis of over 200 specimens of the Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Sierra Maestra (Southerneastern Cuba), a key structure in the framework of the northern Caribbean plate boundary evolution. The purpose of this study is to understand the eruptive processes and the depositional environments. The volcanic sequence in the lower part of the Sierra Maestra begins with highly porphyritic pillow lavas, topped by massive tuffs and autoclastic flows. The presence of broken phenocrystals, palagonitic glass and hyaloclastites in this section of the sequence suggests that the prevalent mode of eruption was explosive. The absence of welding in the tuffs suggests that the rocks were emplaced in a deep submarine environment. Coherent flows, much less common than the massive tuffs, show evidence of autoclastic fracturing, also indicating low temperature-submarine environments. These observations support the hypothesis that the Sierra Maestra sequence may be neither part of the Great Antilles Arc of the Mesozoic nor any other fully developed volcanic arc, rather a 250 km long, submarine eruptive system of dikes, flows and sills, most likely a back-arc structure. The volcanic rocks of the upper sequence are all very fine grained, reworked volcaniclastic materials, often with the structures of distal turbidities, in mode and texture similar to those drilled on the Cayman Rise. This study suggests that the Sierra Maestra most likely records volcanism of diverse sources: a local older submarine source, and one or more distal younger sources, identifiable with the pan-Caribbean volcanic events of the Tertiary.

  8. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  9. Fire weather and large fire potential in the northern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon M. Collins

    2014-01-01

    Fuels, weather, and topography all contribute to observed fire behavior. Of these, weather is not only the most dynamic factor, it is the most likely to be directly influenced by climate change. In this study 40 years of daily fire weather observations from five weather stations across the northern Sierra Nevada were analyzed to investigate potential changes or trends...

  10. Role of oaks in fisher habitat quality in the Sierra Nevada mountains at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Thompson; Kathryn Purcell; Rebecca Green; Richard. Sweitzer

    2015-01-01

    Fishers (Pekania pennanti) occur in ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and mixed hardwood conifer habitats in the southern Sierra Nevada at elevations from approximately 1400 to 2300 m. They are a candidate species for listing under both the Federal and California Endangered Species Acts. Since 2007, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (...

  11. Survival of fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sweitzer; Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca E. Green; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Fishers in the western United States were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of concerns for loss of suitable habitat and evidence of a diversity of mortality risks that reduce survival. One of 2 remnant populations of fishers in California is in the southern Sierra Nevada region, where we studied them at 2 research sites in the...

  12. Ethnobotany of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Mireia Alcántara; Angueyra, Andrea; Cleef, Antoine M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2018-01-01

    Background: The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán in the Colombian Andes is protected as a National Natural Park since 1977 because of its fragile páramo ecosystems, extraordinary biodiversity, high plant endemism, and function as water reservoir. The vegetation on this mountain is threatened by

  13. The Role of Religion During and After the Civil War in Sierra Leone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil wars in Africa are renowned for their strong religious elements, with religion being used for different purposes and in different capacities. Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002), known also as the “rebel war,” had significant religious dimensions. The warring factions used religion for their gain. Beyond that, Muslim and ...

  14. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  15. Snowmelt runoff and water yield along elevation and temperature gradients in California's southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Thomas W. Whitaker; Roger C. Bales

    2012-01-01

    Differences in hydrologic response across the rain-snow transition in the southern Sierra Nevada were studied in eight headwater catchments – the Kings River Experimental Watersheds – using continuous precipitation, snowpack, and streamflow measurements. The annual runoff ratio (discharge divided by precipitation) increased about 0.1 per 300 m of mean catchment...

  16. Roadless area-intensive management tradeoffs on the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Hrubes; Kent P. Connaughton; Robert W. Sassaman

    1979-01-01

    This hypothesis was tested by a linear programing model: Roadless areas on the Sierra National Forest precluded from planned future development would be candidates for wilderness designation, and the associated loss in present and future timber harvests could be offset by investing in more intensive management. The results of this simulation test suggest that levels of...

  17. Evaluating avian-habitat relationships models in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Sallie J. Hejl; Terry A. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Using data from two studies in the southern and central Sierra Nevada, we compared the presence and abundance of bird species breeding in mixedconifer forests during 1978-79 and 1983-85 to predictions &om the California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (WHR) System. Twelve percent of the species observed in either study were not predicted by the WHR database to occur...

  18. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  19. A national survey of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) grain quality in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Sierra Leone approaches self-sufficiency in rice, against a backdrop of agricultural commercialization, the dynamics of the rice grain production and consumption will increasingly be driven by the quality of grains demanded by consumers to be produced by farmers and marketed by traders in the open market.

  20. Silviculture-ecology of forest-zone hardwoods in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; John C. Tappeiner

    1996-01-01

    Although the principal hardwood species in the forest zone of the Sierra Nevada (California black oak, tanoak, Pacific madrone, and canyon live oak) are key components of many ecosystems, they have received comparatively little study. Currently they are underutilized and unmanaged. This paper brings together what is known on the silviculture-ecology of these species...

  1. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  2. Carbon and nutrient contents in soils from the Kings River Experimental Watersheds, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson; C.T. Hunsaker; D.W. Glass; B.M. Rau; B.A. Roath

    2011-01-01

    Soil C and nutrient contents were estimated for eight watersheds in two sites (one high elevation, Bull, and one low elevation, Providence) in the Kings River Experimental Watersheds in the western Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Eighty-seven quantitative pits were dug to measure soil bulk density and total rock content, while three replicate surface samples...

  3. Genotypic anomaly in ebola virus strains circulating in magazine wharf Area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); P. Pertile; C. Cancedda; K. Dierberg; I. Wurie; A. Kamara; D. Kargbo; S.L. Caddy; A. Arias; L. Thorne; J. Lu; U. Jah; I. Goodfellow; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame,

  4. commercial drinking water quality and safety in bo city, sierra leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research ... These include 6 water sources and the production facilities for 10 brands of machine-filled factory-produced water sachets as well as the 10 sources and finished samples for ... Workers at all of these facilities were also interviewed about their knowledge and practices.

  5. Sierra Nevada grasslands: interactions between livestock grazing and ecosystem structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Livestock grazing plays an integral role in the grass-dominated ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada. Grazing has been asserted to influence such key ecological characteristics as water quality, net primary productivity, nutrient cycling, plant and animal diversity, wildlife habitat availability, and oak regeneration (Belsky and others 1999, Kauffmann and Krueger 1984)....

  6. Culture and environment in the Sierra de Misantla, Veracruz, Mexico: the case of Oecopetalum mexicanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maite Lascurain; Citlalli Lopez-Binnquist; Marla R. Emery

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the cultural and environmental dimensions of foraging the wild edible fruit cachichín (Oecopetalum mexicanum) in the Sierra de Misantla in central Veracruz, Mexico, including gathering practices, social organization, subsistence, commerce, and consumption. Gathering cachichín brings...

  7. Using epiphytic macrolichen communities for biomonitoring ammonia in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. Mccune

    2006-01-01

    Chronic, excessive nitrogen deposition is potentially an important ecological threat to forests of the greater Sierra Nevada in California. We developed a model for ammonia bioindication, a major nitrogen pollutant in the region, using epiphytic macrolichens. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to extract gradients in lichen community composition from surveys...

  8. Verification Tests for Sierra/SM's Reproducing Kernal Particle Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report seeks to verify the proper implemention of RKPM within Sierra by comparing the results from several basic example problems excecuted with RKPM against the analytical and FEM solutions for these same problems. This report was compiled as a summer student intern project.

  9. PARTITIONING OF WATER FLUX IN A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus pond...

  10. The Violence of Peace and the Role of Education: Insights from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario; Higgins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Research on peacebuilding has mushroomed over the last decade and there is a growing interest in the role of education in supporting peacebuilding processes. This paper engages with these debates, UN peacebuilding activities and the location of education initiatives therein, through a case study of Sierra Leone. In the first part, we explore the…

  11. Black bear abundance, habitat use, and food habits in the Sierra San Luis, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sierra Corona; Ivan A. Sayago Vazquez; M. del Carmen Silva Hurtado; Carlos A. Lopez Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied black bears to determine habitat use, food habits, and abundance between April 2002 and November 2003 in the Sierra San Luis, Sonora. We utilized transects to determine spoor presence, camera traps for abundance, and scat analysis. During 2002, bears fed principally on plant material, and for 2003 on animal matter, namely livestock. Habitat use differed...

  12. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  13. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  14. Learning Curve Characteristics for Caesarean Section Among Associate Clinicians : A Prospective Study from Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalewijn, B.P.; van Duinen, A.; Koroma, A. P.; Rijken, M. J.; Elhassein, M.; Bolkan, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In response to the high maternal mortality ratio, Sierra Leone has adopted an associate clinician postgraduate surgical task-sharing training programme. Little is known about learning curve characteristics for caesarean sections among associate clinicians. The aim of this study is to

  15. Converts to human rights? Popular debate about war and justice in rural central Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, S.; Richards, P.

    2002-01-01

    Internationally, war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) is regarded as an instance of violent conflict driven by economic factors (attempts to control the mining of alluvial diamonds). Fieldwork (2000-01) in rural areas recovering from war suggests a very different picture. War victims and combatants from

  16. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

  17. Burn Severity and Its Impact on Soil Properties: 2016 Erskine Fire in the Southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, S.; Guo, J.; Krugh, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire frequency in the southern Sierra Nevada has increased over the past decades. The effects of wildfires on soils can increase the frequency of slope failure and debris flow events, which pose a greater risk to people, as human populations expand into foothill and mountainous communities of the Sierra Nevada. Alterations in the physical properties of burned soils are one such effect that can catalyze slope failure and debris flow events. Moreover, the degree of a soil's physical alteration resulting from wildfire is linked to fire intensity. The 2016 Erskine fire occurred in the southern Sierra Nevada, burning 48,019 acres, resulting in soils of unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severities. In this study, the physical properties of soils with varying degrees of burn severity are explored within the 2016 Erskine fire perimeter. The results constrain the effects of burn severity on soil's physical properties. Unburned, low, moderate, and high burn severity soil samples were collected within the Erskine fire perimeter. Alterations in soils' physical properties resulting from burn severity are explored using X-ray diffractometry analysis, liquid limit, plastic limit, and shear strength tests. Preliminary results from this study will be used to assess debris flow and slope failure hazard models within burned areas of the Kern River watershed in the southern Sierra Nevada.

  18. From Typology to Topography in Clarence King's "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Loren

    The book "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada" by Clarence King, a late-ninteenth-century American geologist, writer, art critic, and romantic, is discussed in this paper. In the writing and revision of this book, King was attempting a metamorphosis of landscape description into popular reading as he moved from being a symbolic writer to…

  19. Developing and managing sustainable forest ecosystems for spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Verner; K.S. McKelvey

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the California spotted owl have revealed significant selection for habitats with large, old trees; relatively high basal areas of snags; and relatively high biomass in large, downed logs. Based on planning documents for national forests in the Sierra Nevada, we projected declining amounts of older-forest attributes. Region 5 has adopted measures to retain...

  20. La campagne pour un quota de femmes en politique en Sierra ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 nov. 2011 ... Aisha Ibrahim est directrice du Gender Research and Documentation ... Comme elles travaillaient toutes à faire avancer des causes différentes, ... et qu'il n'existe pas de discrimination à l'endroit des femmes en Sierra Leone.

  1. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  2. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-12-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  3. Fumarole/plume and diffuse CO2 emission from Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Theofilos, T.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Virgil, G.; Sumino, H.; Notsu, K.

    2009-12-01

    The active shield-volcano Sierra Negra is part of the Galapagos hotspot. Sierra Negra is the largest shield volcano of Isabela Island, hosting a 10 km diameter caldera. Ten historic eruptions have occurred and some involved a frequently visited east caldera rim fissure zone called Volcan Chico. The last volcanic event occurred in October 2005 and lasted for about a week, covering approximately twenty percent of the eastern caldera floor. Sierra Negra volcano has experienced some significant changes in the chemical composition of its volcanic gas discharges after the 2005 eruption. This volcanic event produced an important SO2 degassing that depleted the magmatic content of this gas. Not significant changes in the MORB and plume-type helium contribution were observed after the 2005 eruption, with a 65.5 % of MORB and 35.5 % of plume contribution. In 2006 a visible and diffuse gas emission study was performed at the summit of Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos, to evaluate degassing rate from this volcanic system. Diffuse degassing at Sierra Negra was mainly confined in three different DDS: Volcan Chico, the southern inner margin of the caldera, and Mina Azufral. These areas showed also visible degassing, which indicates highly fractured areas where volcano-hydrothermal fluids migrate towards surface. A total fumarole/plume SO2 emission of 11 ± 2 td-1 was calculated by mini-DOAS ground-based measurements at Mina Azufral fumarolic area. Molar ratios of major volcanic gas components were also measured in-situ at Mina Azufral with a portable multisensor. The results showed H2S/SO2, CO2/SO2 and H2O/SO2 molar ratios of 0.41, 52.2 and 867.9, respectively. Multiplying the observed SO2 emission rate times the observed (gas)i/SO2 mass ratio we have estimated other volatiles emission rates. The results showed that H2O, CO2 and H2S emission rates from Sierra Negra are 562, 394, and 2.4 t d-1, respectively. The estimated total output of diffuse CO2 emission from the summit of

  4. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  5. El recorrido al Cerro Gordo y el ritual tepehuano de las ofrendas en los cerros de la comunidad de San Bernardino de Milpillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal CRAMAUSSEL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El ritual de las ofrendas es una ceremonia propiciatoria de la lluvia que se efectúa al terminar la estación seca en los cerros más altos de la comunidad de San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, en la Sierra Tepehuana del estado de Durango. A esos rituales distintos de los cató- licos que forman parte del ciclo anual de costumbre concurren las autoridades civiles, los curanderos y miembros del Consejo de ancianos. Es un momento muy importante en el que se refuerza la cohesión de los tepehuanos que tienen un patrón de asentamiento muy disperso, como los demás grupos del norte, pero sus rituales presentan también similitudes con los mesoamericanos.

  6. ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA Y TAFONOMÍA DEL PERÍODO TARDÍO-INCA EN PEÑAS COLORADAS, ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA (PUNA DE CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA/Zooarchaeology and taphonomy of the Late Period-INCA in Peñas Coloradas, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Puna of Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Guillermo Ortiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis integrado del conjunto arqueofaunístico, constituido por vertebrados e invertebrados, del sitio Peñas Coloradas 3-cumbre (PC3-c, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina. El sitio se localiza en la cumbre de un farallón de ignimbrita y está conformado por estructuras arquitectónicas asignadas a momentos Tardíos-Incas, algunas de las cuales han sido reutilizadas hasta principios del siglo XX. Con la finalidad de complementar los datos y reconstruir la historia tafonómica de los conjuntos faunísticos, se estudió el contexto sedimentario mediante métodos físico-químicos (textura; pH; determinación de albúmina, P y MO. Los materiales analizados brindaron datos sobre algunas de las actividades realizadas en las estructuras, el consumo de animales, temporalidad, estacionalidad de las ocupaciones, y sobre los procesos diagenéticos actuantes. La integración contextual de los datos materiales analizados y del emplazamiento del sitio y sus estructuras, nos permite inferir prácticas sociales diferenciadas entre las estructuras con cubierta y sin cubierta. Las primeras, se vinculan a depósitos de alimentos y manufacturas, mientras que las segundas se asocian con  prácticas residenciales, procesamiento y consumo de alimentos. Abstract In this paper, an integrated analysis of archaeofaunal data consisting of vertebrates and invertebrates of the Peñas Coloradas 3-summit (PC3-c, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina is conducted. The site is located at the top of an ignimbrite hill and is composed of architectural structures attributed to Late Inca times, some of which had been re-used until the early 20th century. In order to complement the data and reconstruct the taphonomic history of the faunal assemblages, we studied the sedimentary context by physicochemical methods (texture, pH, determination of albumin, P and MO. The material tested has provided data on some of the activities in the structures

  7. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1990 to 2005 to assist a listing evaluation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study areas (from N to S) were on the Lassen National Forest (LAS), Eldorado National Forest (ELD), Sierra National Forest (SIE), and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SKC). These study areas represented a broad spectrum of habitat and management conditions in these mountain ranges. We estimated apparent survival probability, reproductive output, and rate of population change for spotted owls on individual study areas and for all study areas combined (meta-analysis) using model selection or model-averaging based on maximum-likelihood estimation. We followed a formal protocol to conduct this analysis that was similar to other spotted owl meta-analyses. Consistency of field and analytical methods among our studies reduced confounding methodological effects when evaluating results. We used 991 marked spotted owls in the analysis of apparent survival. Apparent survival probability was higher for adult than for subadult owls. There was little difference in apparent survival between male and female owls. Model-averaged mean estimates of apparent survival probability of adult owls varied from 0.811 ?? 0.021 for females at LAS to 0.890 ?? 0.016 for males at SKC. Apparent survival increased over time for owls of all age classes at LAS and SIE, for adults at ELD, and for second-year subadults and adults at SKC. The meta-analysis of apparent survival, which included only adult owls, confirmed an increasing trend in survival over time. Survival rates were higher for owls on SKC than on the other study areas. We analyzed data

  8. Macroeconomic costs of the unmet burden of surgical disease in Sierra Leone: a retrospective economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Caris E; Quaife, Matthew; Kamara, Thaim B; Lavy, Christopher B D; Leather, Andy J M; Bolkan, Håkon A

    2018-03-14

    The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that low/middle-income countries will lose an estimated cumulative loss of US$12.3 trillion from gross domestic product (GDP) due to the unmet burden of surgical disease. However, no country-specific data currently exist. We aimed to estimate the costs to the Sierra Leone economy from death and disability which may have been averted by surgical care. We used estimates of total, met and unmet need from two main sources-a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey and a retrospective, nationwide study on surgery in Sierra Leone. We calculated estimated disability-adjusted life years from morbidity and mortality for the estimated unmet burden and modelled the likely economic impact using three different methods-gross national income per capita, lifetime earnings foregone and value of a statistical life. In 2012, estimated, discounted lifetime losses to the Sierra Leone economy from the unmet burden of surgical disease was between US$1.1 and US$3.8 billion, depending on the economic method used. These lifetime losses equate to between 23% and 100% of the annual GDP for Sierra Leone. 80% of economic losses were due to mortality. The incremental losses averted by scale up of surgical provision to the Lancet Commission target of 80% were calculated to be between US$360 million and US$2.9 billion. There is a large economic loss from the unmet need for surgical care in Sierra Leone. There is an immediate need for massive investment to counteract ongoing economic losses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Orientación a la calidad total, satisfacción laboral, comunicación y compromiso en establecimientos de turismo rural de la Sierra de Huelva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Isabel Mendoza Sierra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas de turismo rural han experimentado un auge muy notable en los últimos tiempos, proporcionando a las comarcas grandes oportunidades para desarrollarse económica y socialmente. Parte de su éxito se debe a la búsqueda de la calidad en los servicios prestados. Este estudio analiza la influencia de distintas dimensiones de Orientación a la Calidad Total sobre la satisfacción, la comunicación y el compromiso de los trabajadores de este sector turístico. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 87 trabajadores de establecimientos de turismo rural de la Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche en Huelva. Se aplicó el cuestionario de Calidad y Cultura (CYC de Gómez-Bernabeu para la recogida de datos. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal se ha comprobado que las dimensiones de reconocimiento y mejora continua influyeron sobre la comunicación, mientras que el desarrollo y formación de los recursos humanos fueron los mejores predictores de la satisfacción laboral. No se han obtenido datos concluyentes respecto al compromiso organizacional.

  10. Quality improvement in emergency service delivery: Assessment of knowledge and skills amongst emergency nurses at Connaught Hospital, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedda Bøe Nyhus

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified key aspects of emergency nursing speciality training to be developed through theoretical and skill-based education provided by the nursing schools and hospital clinical facilities in Sierra Leone.

  11. Order of 13 December 1985 on the transfer to ENRESA of the Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Sierra Albarrana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Order provides for the transfer of the Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Sierra Albarrana from the Junta de Energia Nuclear to ENRESA, the National Enterprise for Radioactive Waste; it also organises all stages of the transfer. (NEA) [fr

  12. Reproducción de Joturus pichardi y Agonostomus monticola(Mugiliformes: Mugilidae en ríos de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Eslava Eljaiek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para los mugílidos de agua dulce Joturus pichardi y Agonostomus monticola se han documentado aspectos ecológicos y de distribución, principalmente para las poblaciones de América Central, sin embargo, hay poca información disponible de sus aspectos reproductivos, especialmente en ambientes de agua dulce de Colombia. Por lo tanto para ambas especies se estudió la biología reproductiva en ríos de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta durante julio de 2005 y diciembre de 2006. En total, 14 especímenes de J. pichardi y 320 A. monticola fueron capturados. Proporción sexual, índice gonadosomático, talla media de madurez, fecundidad y diámetros de los ovocitos fueron evaluados. Se realizó un bioensayo para observar el efecto de la salinidad sobre la movilidad espermática y su posible relación con el área de desove de las especies. Estos mugílidos comparten un hábitat con características ecológicas similares, de corrientes fuertes y claras y zonas pedregosas. Indicadores de madurez gonadal y evidencias indirectas son presentados y con los cuales se comprueba que el periodo reproductivo se encuentra relacionado con los mayores valores de precipitación de la zona (septiembre a noviembre, así como, la migración catádroma de J. pichardi y A. monticola. Estas especies representan un potencial de cultivo, dado su alimentación basada en vegetales y macroinvertebrados, la calidad de su carne y las tallas que pueden alcanzar, por lo cual, se deben efectuar estudios más profundos que revelen mayor información sobre su comportamiento y reproducción en cautividad.

  13. Estudio de un brote epidémico de fiebre amarilla selvática en el pie de monte de La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Vidales

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1979 se observó en Colombia una epidemia de fiebre amarilla selvática, en las estribaciones más bajas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, donde nunca antes se había registrado la enfermedad. Los casos ocurrieron en las cercanías de las ciudades de Valledupar y Santa Marta, por entonces infestadas con Aedes aegypti .Veinte de ellos fueron confirmados por examen histopatológico de hígado o por aislamiento de virus y en otros 36 se hizo un diagnóstico de presunción, con base en estudios clínicos, epidemiológicos y serológicos. Entre los primeros hubo 14 defunciones y entre los segundos 13. En las localidades urbanas del Brea se llevaron a cabo intensas campañas de lucha contra el A. aegyptiy de vacunación. No se registraron casos urbanos de la enfermedad. Los enfermos se infectaron en bosques estrechos de galería y en cafetales. donde previa y paralelamente se observó mortalidad en monos í Alouatta seniculus. El reconocimiento entomológico mostró en la región la presencia de 3 especies de Haemagogus, entre ellas H. janthinomys Con 745 mosquitos se hicieron 192 mezclas para intentar aislamiento de virus, habiéndose obtenido sólo uno positivo para fiebre amarilla, a partir de H. janthinomys. La epidemia descrita es un ejemplo mBs de la invasión del virus amarílico a nuevos "habitats" rurales,  con la consiguiente amenaza para las ciudades vecinas infestadas con A. aegypti, el riesgo de la urbanización del virus, lo cual exige la adopción inmediata de medidas para abatir el mosquito y para vacunar a la población expuesta.

  14. Factores de riesgo de violencia escolar (bullying severa en colegios privados de tres zonas de la sierra del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Amemiya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo de violencia escolar (bullying severa en alumnos de colegios privados de tres zonas de la sierra del Perú. Diseño: Estudio tipo encuesta. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Alumnos entre quinto de primaria y quinto de secundaria de colegios privados. Intervenciones: Una encuesta validada en estudios previos, para identificar violencia escolar (bullying, fue aplicada a 736 alumnos, entre quinto de primaria y quinto de secundaria, de colegios privados de Ayacucho, Huancavelica y Cusco (Sicuani. Se consideró bullying severo cuando contestaron positivamente 5 a más de las 9 opciones posibles de la pregunta que indagaba sobre los tipos de violencia. Se comparó 37 alumnos portadores de bullying severo con 74 alumnos tomados al azar del grupo que no tuvo violencia. Con análisis bivariado y multivariado de regresión logística se identificó factores asociados significativamente a la violencia escolar severa. Principales medidas de resultados: Factores de riesgo de violencia escolar (bullying severa. Resultados: La violencia escolar severa se asoció significativamente con reacción de padres al conocer el hecho, repetición de la amenaza a pesar de comunicar las agresiones, presencia de pandilleros en el colegio, tener amigos pandilleros y poseer defecto físico. La regresión logística encontró asociación significativa con la reacción de los padres, presencia de pandilleros y poseer un defecto físico. Conclusiones: Se ha encontrado que la violencia escolar severa se asocia a múltiples factores de riesgo, que pueden y deben ser detectados precozmente, debido al daño psicológico que produce en los estudiantes.

  15. Demography of the California spotted owl in the Sierra National Forest and Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    George N. Steger; Thomas E. Munton; Kenneth D. Johnson; Gary P. Eberlein

    2002-01-01

    Nine years (1990–1998) of demographic data on California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) in two study areas on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada—one in the Sierra National Forest (SNF), the other in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks (SNP)—are summarized. Numbers of territorial owls fluctuated from 85 to 50 in SNF and 80 to 58...

  16. Preliminary assessment of the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) fauna of Rincon de Guadalupe, Sierra de Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Palting

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra de Bacadéhuachi is a poorly sampled extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) located in east-central Sonora near the town of Bacadéhuachi. Sampling of moths using mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights occurred in summer and fall 2011, and spring 2012 at Rincón de Guadalupe, located in pine-oak forest at 1680 m elevation. Approximately 400 taxa of moths...

  17. Ecología del crecimiento de una lagartija del género Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae en la Reserva de la Biosfera, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México Growth ecology of a lizard of the genus Xenosaurus Peters 1861 (Squamata: Xenosauridae from the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda, Querétaro, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GASTÓN ZAMORA-ABREGO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos el crecimiento corporal de una nueva especie de lagartija endémica del género Xenosaurus Peters, ubicada en la Reserva de la Biósfera, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. Se estimaron las tasas de crecimiento corporal y se analizaron a partir de los modelos de crecimiento de Von Bertalanffy, logístico por longitud y logístico por peso. Para describir el patrón de crecimiento de estas lagartijas, utilizamos el modelo logístico por longitud debido a que fue el modelo que tuvo el mejor ajuste a las tasas observadas de crecimiento corporal. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras en el parámetro característico de crecimiento ni en la talla asintótica proyectada. Por lo tanto, se construyó una sola curva de crecimiento para ambos sexos. Los machos alcanzan la madurez sexual a los 24 meses, mientras que las hembras lo hacen hasta los 37 meses. Las tasas de crecimiento independientes de la talla no fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre años (2001, 2002 y 2003, ni entre estaciones (estación húmeda y seca. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la variación en el crecimiento corporal de esta especie, no es causada exclusivamente por las variaciones ambientales, sino más bien por una compleja combinación de factores ambientales y bases genéticas.We analyzed variation in body growth of a new lizard species of the genus Xenosaurus Peters that is endemic to the Biosphere Reserve, Sierra Gorda - Querétaro, México. We calculated body growth rates and analyzed them by means of the Von Bertalanffy, logistic-by-length, and logistic-by-weight growth models. We used the logistic-by-length model to describe the growth pattern of these lizards because this model provided the best fit to the observed body growth rates. No significant differences were found between males and females in the characteristic growth parameter or in the projected asymptotic size. Therefore, a single growth curve was constructed for both

  18. Landsat-Derived Estimates of Mangrove Extents in the Sierra Leone Coastal Landscape Complex during 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Trzaska, Sylwia; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2017-12-21

    This study provides the first assessment of decadal changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone. While significant advances have been made in mangrove mapping using remote sensing, no study has documented long-term changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone-one of the most vulnerable countries in West Africa. Such understanding is critical for devising regional management strategies that can support local livelihoods. We utilize multi-date Landsat data and cloud computational techniques to quantify spatiotemporal changes in land cover, with focus on mangrove ecosystems, for 1990-2016 along the coast of Sierra Leone. We specifically focus on four estuaries-Scarcies, Sierra Leone, Yawri Bay, and Sherbro. We relied on the k-means approach for an unsupervised classification, and validated the classified map from 2016 using ground truth data collected from Sentinel-2 and high-resolution images and during field research (accuracy: 95%). Our findings indicate that the Scarcies river estuary witnessed the greatest mangrove loss since 1990 (45%), while the Sierra Leone river estuary experienced mangrove gain over the last 26 years (22%). Overall, the Sierra Leone coast lost 25% of its mangroves between 1990 and 2016, with the lowest coverage in 2000, during the period of civil war (1991-2002). However, natural mangrove dynamics, as supported by field observations, indicate the potential for regeneration and sustainability under carefully constructed management strategies.

  19. Evaluating potential overlap between pack stock and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Robert C.; Few, Alexandra P.; Knox, Kathleen A.; Hatfield, Brian E.; Clark, Jonathan; German, David W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pack stock (horses, mules, burros, llamas, and goats) are frequently assumed to have negative effects on public lands, but there is a general lack of data to be able to quantify the degree to which this is actually the case. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks have received complaints that pack stock may affect Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae; SNBS), a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in largely disjunct herds in the Sierra Nevada Range of California. The potential effects are thought to be displacement of SNBS from meadows on their summer range (altered habitat use) or, more indirectly, through changes in SNBS habitat or forage quality. Our goals were to conduct an association analysis to quantify the degree of potential spatial overlap in meadow use between SNBS and pack stock and to compare differences in vegetation community composition, structure, and diversity among meadows with different levels of use by bighorn sheep and pack stock. For the association analysis, we used two approaches: (1) we quantified the proportion of meadows that were within the herd home ranges of bighorn sheep and were potentially open to pack stock, and, (2) we used Monte Carlo simulations and use-availability analyses to compare the proportion of meadows used by bighorn sheep relative to the proportional occurrence or area of meadows available to bighorn sheep that were used by pack stock. To evaluate potential effects of pack stock on meadow plant communities and SNBS forage, we sampled vegetation in 2011 and 2012 at 100 plots to generate data that allowed us to compare:

  20. Long-lived Control of Sierras Pampeanas Ranges on Andean Foreland Basin Evolution Revealed by Coupled Low-temperature Thermochronology and Sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens Goddard, A.; Carrapa, B.; Larrovere, M.; Aciar, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Sierras Pampeanas ranges of west-central Argentina (28º- 31ºS) are a classic example of thick-skinned style basement block uplifts. The style and timing of uplift in these mountain ranges has widely been attributed to the onset of flat-slab subduction in the middle to late Miocene. However, the majority of low-temperature thermochronometers in the Sierras Pampeanas have much older cooling dates. Thermal modeling derived from new low-temperature thermochronometers in Sierra de Velasco, one of the highest relief (> 4 km) mountains in the Sierras Pampeanas, suggest that the rocks in these ranges have been at near-surface temperatures (history of long-lived topography illustrated in Sierra de Velasco can be expanded to other ranges in the Sierras Pampeanas by integrating multiple data sets.

  1. La Sierra de Piura: ¿al margen de la evolución agraria andina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available LES ANDES DE PIURA : EN MARGE DE L’EVOLUTION AGRICOLE ANDINE ? La diversité productive des Andes centrales de Piura, au Nord du Pérou, obéit à trois principales modalités de reproduction de la fertilité, qui s’appuient sur les trois éléments suivants : 1- l’arbre et la défriche-brûlis, 2- l’animal et la culture attelée légère (araire, et 3- l’eau et l’irrigation. Il s’avère intéressant d’essayer de dater l’apparition de ces différentes formes d’agriculture qui coexistent dans les Andes de Piura. Cette micro-région constitue un espace marginal, car ni la révolution agro-hydraulique andine, ni la révolution fourragère du XIXème siècle, ni la révolution verte récente ne s’y sont généralisées. Malgré son enclavement et son retard par rapport à l’accumulation spectaculaire des forces productives dans les vallées de la côte, la micro-région possède une dynamique du développement agricole propre, qui combine des techniques d’arborisation, d’irrigation et d’articulation entre l’agriculture et l’élevage avec des relations sociales originales (rondes paysannes. La diversidad productiva de la sierra de Piura, al Norte del Perú, obedece a tres modalidades principales de reproducción de la fertilidad, basadas en: 1- el árbol y la roza y quema, 2- el animal y la agricultura de yunta ligera (arado de palo, y 3- el agua y la irrigación. Resulta fecundo para aproximarse a la evolución agrícola andina, intentar poner fechas a la aparición de estas diferentes formas de agricultura que coexisten en la sierra central de Piura. Ésta constituye un espacio marginal, pues ni la revolución agrohidraúlica andina, ni la revolución forrajera del siglo XIX, ni la revolución verde reciente se han generalizado. Pese a su marginación y su atraso con relación a la espectacular acumulación de las fuerzas productivas en los valles de la costa, la micro región posee una dinámica del desarrollo agrario propia, que

  2. Climate controls on forest productivity along the climate gradient of the western Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. E.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The broad climate gradient of the slopes of the western Sierra Nevada mountains supports ecosystems spanning extremes of productivity, biomass, and function. We are using this natural environmental gradient to understand how climate controls NPP, aboveground biomass, species' range limits, and phenology. Our experimental approach combines eddy covariance, sap flow, dendrometer, and litterfall measurements in combination with soil and hydrological data from the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). We have found that above about 2500 m, forest productivity is limited by winter cold, while below 1200 m, productivity is likely limited by summer drought. The sweet spot between these elevations has a nearly year-long growing season despite a snowpack that persists for as long as six months. Our results show that small differences in temperature can markedly alter the water balance and productivity of mixed conifer forests.

  3. Innovation diffusion and development in a Third World setting: the cooperative movement in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus); Schneider, R.; Harvey, M.E.; Riddell, J.B.

    1979-09-01

    The interface between innovation diffusion and economic development and social change in Third World settings is investigated. The paper first presents a conceptual framework linking diffusion processes and development and then exemplifies a portion of that framework by examining the diffusion of agricultural cooperatives in Sierra Leone from 1948 through 1967. Attention is then turned to elements of the historical development of a cooperative movement in Sierra Leone which are important for understanding the processes underlying that diffusion. The temporal and spatial patterns of diffusion are discussed and the statistical analyses that assess (1) which variables provide a basis for distinguishing political units with cooperatives from those without, and (2) which variables account for the differences in the time at which cooperatives were established are examined. The findings are integrated with the theory presented. 41 references.

  4. Geology and petrography of the Socoscora Sierra . Province of San Luis. Republica Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carugno Duran, A.

    1998-01-01

    The following paper include an study geological and petrographic of the Sierra de Socoscora. San Luis, Argentina. This mountainas is a block with less elevation that the Sierra de San Luis, and it located in the west center of it. It' s formed by an crystalline basement composed by metamorphic haigh grade rocks, with a penetrative foliation of strike N-S. in this context is possible to define petrographicly the following units, migmatitic that fill a big part of the mountain, amphibolites, marbles, skarns, milonites and pegmatites. This units have amphibolitic facies assemblanges mineral and in some them, we can observe retrograde metamorphism of the greesnschist facies. The metamorphic structure is complex and evidence at least three deformation event

  5. Crop-Specific EU Aid and Smallholder Food Security in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Saravia-Matus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the viability of promoting crop-specific programs as a mean to improve smallholder net farm income and food security. The case study explores the relevance of European Union Stabilisation of Export Earnings (STABEX funds in supporting Sierra Leone’s agricultural development agenda. By analysing the drivers of food security for a number of targeted smallholders in the two most important agricultural zones of Sierra Leone, it is possible to compare the suitability of crop-specific support (in rice, cocoa and coffee versus general aid programs (public infrastructure, on and off farm diversification opportunities, sustainable practices, access to productive assets, etc.. The results indicate that crop diversification strategies are widespread and closely related to risk minimisation and enhanced food security among smallholders. Similarly, crop-specific programs mainly focusing on commercialisation tend to overlook important constraints associated to self-consumption and productivity.

  6. Anfibios de las Sierras Pampeanas Centrales de Argentina: diversidad y distribución altitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián N. Lescano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians from Sierras Pampeanas Centrales of Argentina: diversity and altitudinal distribution. Sierras Pampeanas Centrales (SPC mountains are located in Córdoba and San Luis provinces (Argentina and represent an area of unique biogeographic importance. In this paper we provide a synthesis about the knowledge of diversity and altitudinal distribution of anurans that inhabit SPC mountains. We compiled a species list through different information sources (field data, biological collections and bibliography. Using this information we characterize altitudinal distribution range of each species and analyze associations between species richness and composition and altitude gradient. We recorded 24 amphibians species belonging to five families. These species are heterogeneously distributed over the altitude gradient of SPC. We detect a linear negative relationship between altitude and species richness and defined assemblages associated with different altitude sectors. The results obtained in the paper represent basic information that will be useful to evaluate anthropogenic impact on this particular and fragile mountain system.

  7. Los presupuestos del Concurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Línea de Investigación “De la Crisis Empresarial

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito es el resultado de uno de los proyectos de investigación adelantados por el Departamento de Derecho Comercial de la Universidad Externado de Colombia. En el se hace una aproximación histórica a los presupuestos para acceder a los trámites concursales en Perú, Argentina y España, analizándolos desde los puntos doctrinal, académico y legal.Así mismo, es parte integrante de un trabajo más amplio que pretende elaborar un documento contentivo del tratamiento que se da a los presupuestos concursales a nivel mundial.En este orden de ideas, nos permitimos presentar un análisis minucioso de la legislación de los citados países iberoamericanos.

  8. Son los latinos estadounidenses?

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    En el año 2050 la población blanca no latina de Estados Unidos sumará el 46% del total de los ciudadanos de ese país. Para entonces, la población latina, negra y asiática combinada representará el 54%. En ese horizonte que predicen los cálculos oficiales, los latinos habrán crecido en un 15%, pasando de los 47 millones que viven ahora EEUU a 133 millones. Mientras que los latinos y los asiáticos (de 16 millones a 41 millones para entonces) no pararán de crecer, las poblaciones blanca y negra ...

  9. cultural de los chicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Casasa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En Estados Unidos los diferentes grupos étnicos de habla hispana, entre ellos los chicanos, se enfrentan al problema de definir su identidad frente a la cultura anglosajona dominante, y este proceso puede ser descrito como un fenómeno de autoreconocimiento colectivo, o sea, la percepción diferencial de una colectividad suficientemente integrada y consistente, en contraposición con otras. Cualquier elemento que integra una configuración cultural, como son las pautas de comportamiento, los estilos de vida, las fiestas, los cantos, los mitos, los usos del ceremonial laico y religioso, la organización social del espacio, el lenguaje, la vida cotidiana o la utilización y percepción del medio físico, etcétera, pueden desempeñar este papel.

  10. GPS Imaging of vertical land motion in California and Nevada: Implications for Sierra Nevada uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations. Finally, we interpolate the data using weighted median estimation on a grid. The resulting velocity field is temporally and spatially robust and edges in the field remain sharp. Results from data spanning 5–20 years show that the Sierra Nevada is the most rapid and extensive uplift feature in the western United States, rising up to 2 mm/yr along most of the range. The uplift is juxtaposed against domains of subsidence attributable to groundwater withdrawal in California's Central Valley. The uplift boundary is consistently stationary, although uplift is faster over the 2011–2016 period of drought. Uplift patterns are consistent with groundwater extraction and concomitant elastic bedrock uplift, plus slower background tectonic uplift. A discontinuity in the velocity field across the southeastern edge of the Sierra Nevada reveals a contrast in lithospheric strength, suggesting a relationship between late Cenozoic uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada and evolution of the southern Walker Lane. PMID:27917328

  11. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vallières, Frédérique; McAuliffe, Eilish; Hyland, Philip; Galligan, Marie; Ghee, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively). Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWE...

  12. Evaluating the PV potential of Miraflores de la Sierra (Madrid) via geographic information technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Ávila, A.M.; Domínguez Bravo, J.; Amador Guerra, J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the PV potential in Miraflores de la Sierra forms part of the development of strategies to promote renewables-based distributed generation. The importance of residents and their urban environment in the change of energy model is taking on a new role, as both consumer and energy producer. Facilitating this transition towards a new model, demonstrating the huge possibilities of this new agent, is one of the basic objectives of this article. (Author)

  13. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Null

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  14. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  15. Searching pristine source of two gabbric plutons outcroping in Central Sierras Pampeanas Range, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daziano, C.; Ayala, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the study of two gabbric plutons outcrop ing throughout Central Sierras Pampeanas range (Cordoba province, Argentina). San Lorenzo hill gabbric plutons is in the Upper proterozoic age whereas Cañada del Puerto belongs to the Early proterozoic.They are stock-type igneous bodies and they are intrusive s in an Upper Precambrian crystalline basement; it is mainly composed by gneisses, migmatites, schistes, marbles, amphibolite s, tact's, serpentinites and related rocks

  16. Correlations and Areal Distribution of the Table Mountain Formation, Stanislaus Group; Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Sharma, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Late Cenozoic evolution of the western Cordillera is a matter of ongoing debate in geologic studies. Volcanic deposits within, and adjacent to the Sierra Nevada have played a significant role in many of these debates. With local faulting coincident with eruption of members of the Stanislaus Group at ca. 38°N, the composition and correlation of these volcanics can greatly aid our understanding of Sierra Nevada tectonics. At the crest of the central Sierra Nevada, 23 trachyandesite lava flows of the Table Mountain Formation, dated at ~10 Ma, cap Sonora Peak. These 23 flows compose the thickest and most complete known stratigraphic section of the Table Mountain Formation in the region. Located ~12 km east of Sonora Peak are 16 flows of trachyandesite at Grouse Meadow. We have collected a detailed set of geochemical and paleomagnetic data for flows of these two sections at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows in an attempt to correlate volcanic, paleomagnetic and structural events related to uplift and extension in the Sierra Nevada and the Walker Lane. Correlation of individual flows is possible based on: stratigraphic order, temporal gaps in deposition as determined by paleomagnetic remanence direction and nonconformities, and flow geochemistry. These correlations allow us to infer source localities, flow directions, and temporal changes in flow routes. The large number of flows present at Grouse Meadow provides an additional data set from which to correlate various localities in the region to those units not represented at Sonora Peak. Several flows which occur in the upper portions of the Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadow stratigraphic sections do not correlate between these localities. The causes of stratigraphic discontinuity potentially represent: tectonic isolation across the Sierran Crest, topographic isolation by the emplacement of younger flows, or the combination of the two. Additional to the correlation of individual flows at these localities, this study shows a

  17. Inversion for Eigenvalues and Modes Using Sierra-SD and ROL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report we formulate eigenvalue-based methods for model calibration using a PDE-constrained optimization framework. We derive the abstract optimization operators from first principles and implement these methods using Sierra-SD and the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL). To demon- strate this approach, we use experimental measurements and an inverse solution to compute the joint and elastic foam properties of a low-fidelity unit (LFU) model.

  18. Distance, accessibility and costs. Decision-making during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Treacy

    Full Text Available Sierra Leone has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality have included initiatives to encourage more women to deliver at health facilities. Despite the introduction of the free health care initiative for pregnant women, many women still continue to deliver at home, with few having access to a skilled birth attendant. In addition, inequalities between rural and urban areas in accessing and utilising health facilities persist. Further insight into how and why women make decisions around childbirth will help guide future plans and initiatives in improving maternal health in Sierra Leone. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and decision-making processes of women and their communities during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone.Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 22 in-depth interviews with recently pregnant women and their community members in two rural villages. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Findings revealed that decision-making processes during childbirth are dynamic, intricate and need to be understood within the broader social context that they take place. Factors such as distance and lack of transport, perceived negative behaviour of hospital staff, direct and indirect financial obstacles, as well as the position of women in society all interact and influence how and what decisions are made.Pregnant women face multiple interacting vulnerabilities that influence their healthcare-seeking decisions during pregnancy and childbirth. Future initiatives to improve access and utilisation of safe healthcare services for pregnant women need to be based on adequate knowledge of structural constraints and health inequities that affect women in rural Sierra Leone.

  19. Medium and large mammals in the Sierra La Madera, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick Oswaldo Bermudez-Enriquez; Rosa Elena Jimenez-Maldonado; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2013-01-01

    Sierra La Madera is a Sky Island mountain range in the Madrean Archipelago. It is in Fracción V of the Ajos-Bavispe CONANP Reserve in the Municipios (= Counties) of Cumpas, Granados, Huásabas, Moctezuma, and Villa Hidalgo. Medium and large mammals were inventoried using camera traps. Eighteen Wild View 2® camera traps were deployed during four sampling periods: August...

  20. Ten Years of Forest Cover Change in the Sierra Nevada Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed geographic record of recent vegetation regrowth and disturbance patterns in forests of the Sierra Nevada remains a gap that can be filled with remote sensing data. Landsat (TM) imagery was analyzed to detect 10 years of recent changes (between 2000 and 2009) in forest vegetation cover for areas burned by wildfires between years of 1995 to 1999 in the region. Results confirmed the prevalence of regrowing forest vegetation during the period 2000 and 2009 over 17% of the combined burned areas.

  1. Potential increase in floods in California's Sierra Nevada under future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Hidalgo, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    California's mountainous topography, exposure to occasional heavily moisture-laden storm systems, and varied communities and infrastructures in low lying areas make it highly vulnerable to floods. An important question facing the state-in terms of protecting the public and formulating water management responses to climate change-is "how might future climate changes affect flood characteristics in California?" To help address this, we simulate floods on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the state's primary catchment, based on downscaled daily precipitation and temperature projections from three General Circulation Models (GCMs). These climate projections are fed into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, and the VIC-simulated streamflows and hydrologic conditions, from historical and from projected climate change runs, allow us to evaluate possible changes in annual maximum 3-day flood magnitudes and frequencies of floods. By the end of the 21st Century, all projections yield larger-than-historical floods, for both the Northern Sierra Nevada (NSN) and for the Southern Sierra Nevada (SSN). The increases in flood magnitude are statistically significant (at p models, while under the third scenario, GFDL CM2. 1, frequencies remain constant or decline slightly, owing to an overall drying trend. These increases appear to derive jointly from increases in heavy precipitation amount, storm frequencies, and days with more precipitation falling as rain and less as snow. Increases in antecedent winter soil moisture also play a role in some areas. Thus, a complex, as-yet unpredictable interplay of several different climatic influences threatens to cause increased flood hazards in California's complex western Sierra landscapes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Improving access to surgery in a developing country: experience from a surgical collaboration in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Adam L; Kamara, Thaim B; Groen, Reinou S; Fadlu-Deen, Betsy D; Doah, Kisito S; Kingham, T Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although surgery is increasingly recognized as an essential component of primary health care, there has been little documentation of surgical programs in low- and middle-income countries. Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) is a New York-based organization with a mission to save lives in developing countries by improving surgical care. This article highlights the surgical program in Sierra Leone as a possible model to improve access to surgery. An SOS team conducted a needs assessment of surgical capacity in Sierra Leone in February 2008. Interventions were then developed and programs were implemented. A follow-up assessment was conducted in December 2009, which included interviews of key Sierra Leone hospital personnel and a review of operating room log books. Based on an initial needs assessment, a program was developed that included training, salary support, and the provision of surgical supplies and equipment. Two 3-day workshops were conducted for a total of 44 health workers, salary support given to over 100 staff, and 2 containers of supplies and equipment were donated. Access to surgery, as measured by the number of major operations at Connaught Hospital, increased from 460 cases in 2007 to 768 cases in 2009. The SOS program in Sierra Leone highlights a method for improving access to surgery that incorporates an initial needs assessment with minimal external support and local staff collaboration. The program functions as a catalyst by providing training, salary support, and supplies. The beneficial results of the program can then be used to advocate for additional resources for surgery from policy makers. This model could be beneficial in other resource-poor countries in which improved access to surgery is desired. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Family involvement in the reintegration of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone:A critical examination

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes have been an integral part of post-conflict reconstruction. This was especially true of Sierra Leone’s post-conflict reconstruction which has frequently been hailed a ‘multilateral success story’ by the international community. Nevertheless, within Western-authored DDR literature there is a widespread but little interrogated assertion that, in post-conflict contexts, resettling former child soldiers with their...

  4. Groundwater quality in the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2018-03-23

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and American River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking-water supplies.

  5. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  6. Resilience Through Disturbance: Effects of Wildfire on Vegetation and Water Balance in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisrame, G. F. S.; Thompson, S. E.; Stephens, S.; Collins, B.; Tague, N.

    2015-12-01

    A century of fire suppression in the Western United States has drastically altered the historically fire-adapated ecology in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains. Fire suppression is understood to have increased the forest cover, as well as the stem density, canopy cover and water demand of montane forests, reducing resilience of the forests to drought, and increasing the risk of catastrophic fire by drying the landscape and increasing fuel loads. The potential to reverse these trends by re-introducing fire into the Sierra Nevada is highly promising, but the likely effects on vegetation structure and water balance are poorly quantified. The Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park represents a unique experiment in the Sierra Nevada, in which managers have moved from fire suppression to allowing a near-natural fire regime to prevail since 1972. Changes in vegetation structure in the Illilouette since the restoration of natural burning provides a unique opportunity to examine how frequent, mixed severity fires can reshape the Sierra Nevada landscape. We characterize these changes from 1969 to the present using a combination of Landsat products and high-resolution aerial imagery. We describe how the landscape structure has changed in terms of vegetation composition and its spatial organization, and explore the drivers of different post-fire vegetation type transitions (e.g. forest to shrubland vs. forest to meadow). By upscaling field data using vegetation maps and Landsat wetness indices, we explore how these vegetation transitions have impacted the water balance of the Illilouette Creek Basin, potentially increasing its resilience in the face of drought, climate change, and catastrophic fire. In a region that is adapted to frequent disturbance from fire, this work helps us understand how allowing such natural disturbances to take place can increase the sustainability of diverse landscapes in the long term.

  7. Metallogeny of The Sierra de Guanajuato Range, Central México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro F., Z. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Sierra de Guanajuato Range (SGR), trending N315° at Central México, is an orographic feature extending over a distance of 80 km. SGR comprises three well defined lithostratigraphic units: (1) a cretaceous basement including an arc-derived terrane named Guanajuato Arc (GA) made of gabbro, diorite and basaltic pillowed lava, and volcano-sedimentary rocks belonging to Arperos fore-arc basin which are geochemically anomalous in Au (0.15 ppm), Ag (3 ppm), Cu (40 ppm), Pb (50 ppm) and Zn (15 ppm); (2) Early Tertiary intrusive rocks, e.g., Comanja Granite which is affected by the presence of tourmalinized (schörl) aplito-pegmatite dykes mineralized with rare earths elements, and (3) Eocene redbeds (1,500-2000 m) and Oligocene-Miocene volcanics cover. The metallogeny of the SGR shows a multiple origin in time and space: volcano-sedimentary, granitic and volcanic, being possible to define three metallogenic epochs: cretaceous, paleocene and oligocene. Cretaceous epoch includes: (a) volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (VMS) of bimodal-siliclastic type belonging to León-Guanajuato district; wallrock of VMS is made of felsic-internediate volcanics and black argillite; at Los Gavilanes deposit paragenesis is next: chalcopyrite > sphalerite > galena, pyrite > pyrrhotite > marcasite; grade is as follows: Au: .02-.07 g/t; Ag: 157-18.5 g/t; Cu: 2.24-0.81%, Pb: 4.16-0.03%; Zn: 10.35-3.02 %; (b) lens-shaped stratiform bodies of massive pyrite (i. ex., San Ignacio prospect; ˜ 4,000 ton) of exhalative-sedimentary origin with chalcopyrite and sphalerite microveins. Paleocene epoch includes both quartz-cordierite-sanidine veins and replacement bodies of hydrothermal metamorphic filliation (W +Se-Bi, Pb, Zn, Cu), and pyrometasomatic bodies [Cu, Pb, Zn (Ag), W] which genetically are linked to Comanja Granite emplacement. The wallrock at El Maguey mine (35,000 ton; 0.6% WO3) is made of hornfel and the vein (1.8-3.2m width) has a banding structure made of : \\{quartz & K

  8. Conservación de un área protegida con uso recreativo: ¿Se puede lograr que los visitantes dejen menos basura?

    OpenAIRE

    Cingolani, Ana María; Barberá, Ivan; Renison, Daniel; Barri, Fernando Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los problemas de las áreas protegidas en zonas de afluencia masiva es la acumulación de basura abandonada por algunos visitantes. Evaluamos, en playas ribereñas de un área protegida de las sierras de Córdoba, si es posible reducir la basura abandonada por los visitantes utilizando herramientas de la interpretación ambiental. La técnica utilizada consistió en el pedido personalizado al visitante de no dejar basura, acompañado del ejemplo de juntar la basura abandonada en la playa. Reali...

  9. Conservación de un área protegida con uso recreativo: ¿Se puede lograr que los visitantes dejen menos basura?

    OpenAIRE

    Cingolani, Ana M.; Barberá, Iván; Renison, Daniel; Barri, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Uno de los problemas de las áreas protegidas en zonas de afluencia masiva es la acumulación de basura abandonada por algunos visitantes. Evaluamos, en playas ribereñas de un área protegida de las sierras de Córdoba, si es posible reducir la basura abandonada por los visitantes utilizando herramientas de la interpretación ambiental. La técnica utilizada consistió en el pedido personalizado al visitante de no dejar basura, acompañado del ejemplo de juntar la basura abandonada en la playa. Reali...

  10. De los estados fallidos

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Medrano, Salvador Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Al presente, desde distintas perspectivas, los Estados fallidos parecieran ser una clasificación más de los Estados en general. Este artículo constituye un intento por revisar dicho concepto, que en nuestros días, últimamente, a cobrando nueva relevancia. La tarea se emprende desde el concepto que el derecho internacional da a los Estados fallidos. Luego se analizan las características políticas del mismo, a través del Índice de Política Exterior y Fondo para la Paz de los...

  11. Los mercados financieros

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Bendeck, Henry David; Guzmán Salazar, Laura Steffi

    2017-01-01

    En este documento el lector encontrará una visión general y un punto de partida sobre el funcionamiento de los mercados financieros de dinero y capitales, abordando la teoría en cuanto a la estructura y funcionamiento del sistema de valores intercambiario, además de aspectos como la psicología de sus participantes y la actualidad de algunos de los mercados muy poco desarrollados como el caso de los latinoamericanos. Estos aspectos hacen parte del contexto de inversión en los mercados, e...

  12. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard; Kamara, Idrissa; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Mi-Fang; Wu, Gui-Zhen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-06-23

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV detection since 11 March 2015. Complete management and program documents were created for the SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab, and it was divided into four zones (the green, yellow, brown, and red zones) based on the risk assessment. Different types of safe and appropriate personnel protection equipment (PPE) are used in different zones of the laboratory, and it fully meets the Biosafety Level 3 laboratory standards of the World Health Organization. Good preparedness, comprehensive risk assessment and operation documents, appropriate PPE, effective monitoring and intensive training, together with well-designed and reasonable laboratory sectioning are essential for guaranteeing biosafety.

  13. Magma mixing in granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, John B.; Evans, Owen C.; Fates, Dailey G.

    1983-12-01

    The El Capitan alaskite exposed in the North American Wall, Yosemite National Park, was intruded by two sets of mafic dikes that interacted thermally and chemically with the host alaskite. Comparisons of petrographic and compositional data for these dikes and alaskite with published data for Sierra Nevada plutons lead us to suggest that mafic magmas were important in the generation of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Specifically, we conclude that: (1) intrusion of mafic magmas in the lower crust caused partial melting and generation of alaskite (rhyolitic) magmas; (2) interaction between the mafic and felsic magmas lead to the observed linear variation diagrams for major elements; (3) most mafic inclusions in Sierra Nevada plutons represent chilled pillows of mafic magmas, related by fractional crystallization and granitoid assimilation, that dissolve into their felsic host and contaminate it to intermediate (granodioritic) compositions; (4) vesiculation of hydrous mafic magma upon chilling may allow buoyant mafic inclusions and their disaggregation products to collect beneath a pluton's domed ceiling causing the zoning (mafic margins-to-felsic core) that these plutons exhibit.

  14. Experiences of providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone--the local staff's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Lina; Ahlström, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, West Africa, there are many people with disabilities in need of rehabilitation services after a long civil war. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of prosthetic and orthotic service delivery in Sierra Leone from the local staff's perspective. Fifteen prosthetic and orthotic technicians working at all the rehabilitation centres providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to latent content analysis. One main theme emerged: sense of inability to deliver high-quality prosthetic and orthotic services. This main theme was generated from eight sub-themes: Desire for professional development; appraisals of work satisfaction and norms; patients neglected by family; limited access to the prosthetic and orthotic services available; problems with materials and machines; low public awareness concerning disabilities; marginalisation in society and low priority on the part of government. The findings illustrated traditional beliefs about the causes of disability and that the public's attitude needs to change to include and value people with disabilities. Support from international organisations was considered necessary as well as educating more prosthetic and orthotic staff to a higher level.

  15. Using machine learning to predict snow water equivalent in the Sierra Nevada USA and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, N.; Rittger, K.; Dozier, J.

    2017-12-01

    In many mountain regions, snowmelt provides most of the runoff. Ranges such as the Sierra Nevada USA benefit from hundreds of manual and automated snow measurement stations as well as basin-wide snow water equavalent (SWE) estimates from new platforms like the Airborne Snow Observatory. Thus, we have been able to use the Sierra Nevada as a testbed to validate an approach called SWE reconstruction, where the snowpack is built-up in reverse using downscaled energy balance forcings. Our past work has shown that SWE reconstruction produces some of the most accurate basin-wide SWE estimates, comparable in accuracy to a snow pillow/course interpolation, but requires no in situ measurements, which is its main advantage. The disadvantages are that reconstruction cannot be used for a forecast and is only valid during the ablation period. To address these shortcomings, we have used machine learning trained on reconstructed SWE in the Sierra Nevada and Afghanistan, where there are no accessible snowpack measurements. Predictors are physiographic and remotely-sensed variables, including brightness temperatures from a new enhanced resolution passive microwave dataset. Two machine learning techniques—bagged regression trees and feed-forward neural networks—were used. Results show little bias on average and training period, i.e. the ablation period.

  16. Mental health care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Stania; Walder, Anna; Duncan, Jennifer; Kabbedijk, Antoinet; Hughes, Peter; Muana, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Reported levels of mental health and psychosocial problems rose during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. As part of the emergency response, existing plans to create mental health units within the existing hospital framework were brought forward. A nurse-led mental health and psychosocial support service, with an inpatient liaison service and an outpatient clinic, was set up at the largest government hospital in the country. One mental health nurse trained general nurses in psychological first aid, case identification and referral pathways. Health-care staff attended mental well-being workshops on coping with stigma and stress. Mental health service provision in Sierra Leone is poor, with one specialist psychiatric hospital to serve the population of 7 million. From March 2015 to February 2016, 143 patients were seen at the clinic; 20 had survived or had relatives affected by Ebola virus disease. Half the patients (71) had mild distress or depression, anxiety disorders and grief or social problems, while 30 patients presented with psychosis requiring medication. Fourteen non-specialist nurses received mental health awareness training. Over 100 physicians, nurses and auxiliary staff participated in well-being workshops. A nurse-led approach within a non-specialist setting was a successful model for delivering mental health and psychosocial support services during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. Strong leadership and partnerships were essential for establishing a successful service. Lack of affordable psychotropic medications, limited human resources and weak social welfare structures remain challenges.

  17. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  18. Los niños y los videojuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Gaviria, Jaime; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2007-01-01

    Los niños y los videojuegos / Efectos perjudiciales de la utilización de los videojuegos por los niños y adolescentes/ Efectos benéficos de la de la utilización de los videojuegos por los niños y adolescentes/ Recomendaciones para favorecer el uso adecuado/ Sistema de clasificación de los videojuegos

  19. Hepatitis fulminante en la Sierra Nevada: Una forma de superinfección del virus delta con el virus de la hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Villanueva

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante septiembre de 1980 a octubre de 1983, se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico para hepatitis A y B, en 258 personas en una ciudad (Santa Marta población de 250.000 y tres pequeños municipios (Santa Rosalía, Julio Zawady y Aracataca, poblaciones de 768, 800 y 5.000 habitantes respectivamente. La presencia de hepatitis A se encontró en un 77 a 93% (IgG Hepatitis A. Hbs Ag o Anti-Hbs Ag en 30.5% de la población en dos municipios (Santa Rosalía y Julio Zawady, en 2.5% en el municipio de Aracataca y 48.5% en la ciudad de Santa Marta. La presencia del Agente Delta (Anti-delta en el suero se determinó también en estas mismas poblaciones, encontrándose ausente en la ciudad y uno de los municipios (Aracataca, en contraste con una prevalencia de 13.7% y 22% en Julio Zawady y Santa Rosalía (P: 0.0001. Se excluyeron por historia clínica, antecedentes de drogadicción, transfusiones, o prácticas homosexuales, como mecanismos de transmisión de los virus B y delta. En veinte pacientes con diagnóstico histopalógico de hepatitis fulminante y en quienes se descartaron otras etiologías se demostró la presencia serológica de los virus de la hepatitis By Delta. De estos veinte, diez provenían de Julio Zawady y los otros diez de Santa Rosalía. La evolución clínica de esta enfermedad fue indistinguible de otras causas de falla hepática aguda. La mortalidad de estas formas fulminantes de hepatitis alcanzaron hasta un 65%. Los corticoides no modificaron el curso de esta enfermedad. La población joven mostró mayor compromiso y peor diagnóstico (P:0.033. La hepatitis fulminante de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta es el resultado de la superinfección con el virus Delta sobre la infección virus B. La aparición simultánea de casos intrafamiliares sugiere una relación importante entre los grupos comprometidos, aunque la forma exacta de transmisión permanece aún desconocida.

  20. Grandes retos y aplicación de herramientas participativas en la planificación de la ciudad informal. El caso de Makeni, Sierra Leona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Perea Moreno

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo indaga sobre la definición de modelos de planificación y herramientas de gestión para ciudades con crecimientos expansivos y amplios sectores informales, utilizando como caso de estudio la experiencia desarrollada en la ciudad de Makeni, Sierra Leona. En un proceso de varios años que continua vivo, la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad San Pablo CEU (USP-CEU ha impulsado acciones de planeamiento urbano participativo, aportando experiencia técnica desde la colaboración con la Universidad de Makeni y con el Ayuntamiento de la ciudad. Avanzando en el conocimiento paulatino de una realidad específica llena de retos, se han abordado propuestas urbanas en dos líneas fundamentales. Por un lado, mediante el desarrollo de un Plan Espacial Estratégico para Makeni, destinado a la generación de propuestas para la ciudad y su territorio; y, por otro, con la implementación del Programa de Mejoramiento de Barrios, centrado en la ciudad existente. En relación a los resultados, en el territorio de Makeni, destacan el desarrollo de las capacidades formativas de los alumnos de la universidad local, la generación de metodologías e instrumentos de planeamiento básicos, el reforzamiento de los cuadros administrativos municipales, junto a la implicación y concienciación de la población local. A nivel global, hay que destacar la definición de un marco coherente y sistemático, factible de ser replicado en otras realidades urbanas con similares características. Un aporte que resulta especialmente válido en aquellos contextos urbanos desfavorecidos que, en sus procesos de crecimiento, afrontan el mayor reto futuro vinculado a la habitabilidad a nivel global.

  1. Hábitos alimentarios del venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en el Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla, Estado de México

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    Ulises Aguilera-Reyes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El venado cola blanca es una especie con una gran plasticidad conductual y de adaptación en diferentes hábitat. En el Parque Sierra Nanchititla en el Estado de México se realizó un estudio para determinar los hábitos alimentarios en el bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM y bosque de pino-encino (BPE. De junio 1990 a mayo 1992 se recolectaron 104 muestras de excremento de venado en las dos zonas de estudio. Aplicamos el índice de Morisita y la correlación de Spearman para determinar la preferencia alimentaria. Se utilizó el análisis histológico de heces fecales para herbívoros las cuales se compararon con muestras de tejidos vegetales de plantas de la zona de estudio. Los resultados muestran que consume el 79.44% de especies vegetales del BMM y 20.56% del BPE. Existe cierta tendencia en la selectividad de 12 de las 14 especies de plantas localizadas en el BMM, mientras que para el BPE no se aprecia tal tendencia. Las especies clave que for- man parte de la alimentación elemental del venado fueron: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum y Dendropanax arborea. El consumo de plantas no varió sig- nificativamente entre la época seca y lluviosa en función de la forma biológica (X2=12, p=0.21. Sin embargo, durante la época seca existe cierta tendencia a consumir árboles y a finales de la época de lluvia a consumir hierbas (Z=1.61, p=0.95. Los datos indican que el venado puede ser selecti- vo con plantas del BMM, mientras que para el BPE tiende a ser oportunista.

  2. Petrología y análisis geométrico y tectónico de las milonitas de la Sierra de Copacabaña, provincia de Catamarca, República Argentina

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    López, J. P.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A petrographic and structural study of units from Copacabana Range in the Northwestern Pampean Ranges is presented. Two facies of deformed granitoids were recognized. Rocks of both facies are classificated as mylonite schists, mylonite gneisses and protomylonites. First would have formed at temperature of 3500 C and 15 km of deep. Protomylonite would have formed at lower temperatures and deeps. Undeformed granitoids and ortogneis are also descript.Structural data and the analysis of some kinematic indicators suggest that a main shear plane strikes NNW, inclined to the east, with vergence to the west. Geometric analysis, realized in base to petrographic diagrams of c-axis of quartz and mica cleavage suggest an orthorhombic fabric.Se realiza un estudio petrológico estructural de las unidades que componen el extremo septentrional de la Sierra de Copacabana, que se localiza en el ámbito de las Sierras Pampeanas Noroccidentales. Entre éstas se reconocen dos épocas de deformación de los granitoides; de acuerdo a la clasificación de Higgins (1971 corresponden a esquistos miloníticos, gneises miloníticos y protomilonitas. Los primeros se habrían formado a temperaturas superiores a los 3500 C y a profundidades de unos 15 km, bajo un régimen cuasi plástico de deformación, mientras que las condiciones de formación de las protomilonitas corresponden a una zona de transición elástico-friccional a cuasiplástico, a temperaturas y profundidades algo menores.Además se describe también la facies granítica no deformada, que se halla en contacto neto con las anteriores y un ortogneis que representa la roca de caja en la que se instruyeron los granitoides.Los datos estructurales y observaciones de indicadores cinemáticos sugieren un plano de cizalla principal de rumbo NNW e inclinación al este, cuyo movimiento relativo es de carácter inverso, produciendo un cabalgamiento con vergencia al W. El análisis geométrico de diagramas petrof

  3. Los libros de los moriscos y los eruditos orientales

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    Rodríguez Mediano, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how the Orientalist scholarship of Christian Arabs who had come to Spain from the Middle East (via Italy adressed the literature of the Moriscos, to examine how it was understood by such scholars and what they used it for. We show that these scholars, from among whom we have chosen the examples of Marcus Dobelius and Miguel Casiri, could not carry out their Orientalist work using the Arabic manuscripts of the El Escorial library without confronting the Morisco problem in the form of Morisco texts held in several collections confiscated by the Inquisition. The knowledge and activities of these Moriscos served to trace the broad outlines of an intellectual history of the Arabic language in Europe, in which Morisco activity was interppreted in relation to its linguistic and doctrinal variables. This was achieved by means of the construction of a scholarly discipline (Orientalism at a time of religious polemic between the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, i.e. during the period of the development of religious dissidence and skepticism in early modern Europe.Pretendemos, en este trabajo, mostrar cómo la erudición orientalista de árabes cristianos venidos a España desde Oriente (a través de Italia se aproximó a la literatura de los moriscos, cómo la entendió y para qué la utilizó. Mostramos que estos eruditos, de entre los que elegimos los casos de Marcos Dobelio y Miguel Casiri, no pudieron realizar su trabajo orientalista, que se basa en una fuerte vinculación con los manuscritos árabes de la Biblioteca de El Escorial, sin evitar el problema morisco en forma de su producción escrita aparecida en diversos fondos requisados por la Inquisición. Sus saberes y su actividad sirven para trazar los contornos amplios de una historia intelectual de la lengua árabe en Europa, en la que el hecho morisco es interpretado en función de sus variables lingüsticas y doctrinales, a partir de la constitución de

  4. Los menos accesibles

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    Lydia Bond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Droga y SIDA están relacionados. La pobreza, la discriminación y el desempleo son factores que condicionan el consumo de drogas. Ergo, los programas de prevención tienen que llegar a los pobres.

  5. Origen y filogenia de los primeros homínidos de Europa

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    A. Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se discuten el origen y relaciones filogenéticas de la especie Homo antecesor, Bermudez de Castro et al.., 1997, con especial atención a los datos aportados por la nueva mandíbula recuperada en el nivel TD6 del yacimiento de Gran Dolina, en la Sierra de Atapuerca, que refuerzan la identidad taxonómica de esta especie y su relación con el origen de H. sapiens. Se constata la hipótesis de que H. antecessor represente el último antecesor común de los neandertales y de las poblaciones modernas y se considera la posibilidad de un origen asiático para el primer poblamiento de Europa

  6. A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias; Fu, Qiaomei; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Glocke, Isabelle; Nickel, Birgit; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia, Ana; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Pääbo, Svante

    2014-01-16

    Excavations of a complex of caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain have unearthed hominin fossils that range in age from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene. One of these sites, the 'Sima de los Huesos' ('pit of bones'), has yielded the world's largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 individuals dated to over 300,000 years ago. The skeletal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified as Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits. Here we determine an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos and show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of Denisovans, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals. Our results pave the way for DNA research on hominins from the Middle Pleistocene.

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns of fault slip rates across the Central Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Dylan H.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Finkel, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns in fault slip rates through time and space are examined across the transition from the Sierra Nevada to the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. At each of four sites along the eastern Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone between 38 and 39° N latitude, geomorphic markers, such as glacial moraines and outwash terraces, are displaced by a suite of range-front normal faults. Using geomorphic mapping, surveying, and 10Be surface exposure dating, mean fault slip rates are defined, and by utilizing markers of different ages (generally, ~ 20 ka and ~ 150 ka), rates through time and interactions among multiple faults are examined over 10 4-10 5 year timescales. At each site for which data are available for the last ~ 150 ky, mean slip rates across the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone have probably not varied by more than a factor of two over time spans equal to half of the total time interval (~ 20 ky and ~ 150 ky timescales): 0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 (mode and 95% CI) at both Buckeye Creek in the Bridgeport basin and Sonora Junction; and 0.4 + 0.3/-0.1 mm year - 1 along the West Fork of the Carson River at Woodfords. Data permit rates that are relatively constant over the time scales examined. In contrast, slip rates are highly variable in space over the last ~ 20 ky. Slip rates decrease by a factor of 3-5 northward over a distance of ~ 20 km between the northern Mono Basin (1.3 + 0.6/-0.3 mm year - 1 at Lundy Canyon site) to the Bridgeport Basin (0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 ). The 3-fold decrease in the slip rate on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone northward from Mono Basin is indicative of a change in the character of faulting north of the Mina Deflection as extension is transferred eastward onto normal faults between the Sierra Nevada and Walker Lane belt. A compilation of regional deformation rates reveals that the spatial pattern of extension rates changes along strike of the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. South of the Mina Deflection

  8. High Compressive Stresses Near the Surface of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.; Logan, J. M.; Stock, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Observations and stress measurements in granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California reveal strong compressive stresses parallel to the surface of the range at shallow depths. New overcoring measurements show high compressive stresses at three locations along an east-west transect through Yosemite National Park. At the westernmost site (west end of Tenaya Lake), the mean compressive stress is 1.9. At the middle site (north shore of Tenaya Lake) the mean compressive stress is 6.8 MPa. At the easternmost site (south side of Lembert Dome) the mean compressive stress is 3.0 MPa. The trend of the most compressive stress at these sites is within ~30° of the strike of the local topographic surface. Previously published hydraulic fracturing measurements by others elsewhere in the Sierra Nevada indicate surface-parallel compressive stresses of several MPa within several tens of meters of the surface, with the stress magnitudes generally diminishing to the west. Both the new and the previously published compressive stress magnitudes are consistent with the presence of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints") in the Sierra Nevada, which require lateral compressive stresses of several MPa to form. These fractures are widespread: they are distributed in granitic rocks from the north end of the range to its southern tip and across the width of the range. Uplift along the normal faults of the eastern escarpment, recently measured by others at ~1-2 mm/yr, probably contributes to these stresses substantially. Geodetic surveys reveal that normal faulting flexes a range concave upwards in response to fault slip, and this flexure is predicted by elastic dislocation models. The topographic relief of the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada is 2-4 km, and since alluvial fill generally buries the bedrock east of the faults, the offset of granitic rocks is at least that much. Compressive stresses of several MPa are predicted by elastic dislocation models of the range front

  9. [Sierra of the Atapuerca, thinking about the evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Eudald

    2007-01-01

    Homo sapiens walks to the future in a uncertain way. The fosil evidences from the lithosphere can help us to get into know the social and cultural evolution of all the species that have precede us and even our own. Atapuerca, with more than 1.2 MA old of fossilized history from the Pleistocene to the Holocene is throwing a scientific message through the study of all its archaeological sites. There are thousands of animal and human fossils in Trinchera del Ferrocarril, Cueva de Gran Dolina, Sima del Elefante and Galeria that yield information on the cultural cannibalism practices by Homo antecessor 900,000 years ago, and the hunting and gathering that Homo heidelbergensis developed 400,000 years ago. Finally in the Sima de los Huesos, with a similar chronology than at the H. heidelbergensis sites from the Trinchera del Ferrocarril, we find the first intentional accumulation of hominid bodies. These contributions are significant to the knowledge of the biological and cultural human evolution and permits to deepen it empirically. We hope that understanding the message we will be able to improve our species through the socialization of the scientific knowledge.

  10. Palaeogene to Early Miocene sedimentary history of the Sierra Espuña (Malaguide complex, internal zone of the Betic cordilleras, SE Spain. Evidence for extra-Malaguide (Sardinian? provenance of oligocene conglomerates: Palaeogeographic implications

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    Geel, T.

    1996-12-01

    discussed. It is shown that this large figure is at variance with geological data and partly due to erroneous field observations.La Sierra Espuña está situada al margen norte de la Zona Interna en la parte oriental de las Cordilleras Béticas y forma parte del Complejo Maláguide no metamórfico. Análisis paleontológico y sedimentológico de sedimentos de edad Eoceno al Aquitaniense del lado noroeste del Espuña han producido información nueva y de inesperada importancia respecto a la reconstrucción de la historia de la misma Sierra Espuña y del Maláguide en general. Los depósitos considerados del Eoceno superior (Auversiall son de edad Oligoceno inferior (P20 y contienen materiales supermaduros procedentes de fuera del dominio Maláguide. Los conglomerados con cantos calizos de Sierra Espuña (cientos de metros de espesor son de edad Oligoceno medio (P21 y representan un complejo de «fan deltas» en retroceso en el margen de una plataforma calcárea situada al nordeste de Sierra Espuña. Análisis de cantos podrían indicar que esta plataforma haya sido formada por parte del bloque del Norte de Cerdeña dado el predominio de fragmentos procedentes de una plataforma interior de edad Jurásico superior (calizas y dolomías con Clypeina y Trocholinu. Al contrario de los puntos de vista anteriores (Paquet, 1966; Lonergan, 1993, los conglomerados no pueden ser considerados como productos de erosión de unidades maláguides imbricadas. Por lo cual, uno de los argumentos más importantes en favor de una imbricación y colocación de mantos de corrimiento temprano (Eoceno superior-Oligoceno en Espuña es inválido. Se discuten otros argumentos en favor de movimientos tempranos, entre otros la sedimentación supuestamente continua del Eoceno hasta el Langhiense al noroeste de Sierra Espuña. Nuestros datos han demostrado la existencia de una interrupción estratigráfica desde el Aquitaniense medio hasta el Burdigaliense medio. Se presenta un modelo nuevo para la

  11. Tumores de los conductos biliares

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    Santiago Triana Cortés

    1955-02-01

    Los tumores benignos de los conductos biliares son relativamente raros. Christopher, que ha revisado recientemente este asunto, sólo pudo encontrar cuarenta y un casos publicados. Los papilomas parecen los más frecuentes, pero se les encuentra con menor frecuencia en los conductos que en la vesícula. Los adenomas son también tumores benignos de los más frecuentes en los conductos; en general, son múltiples y quísticos, y en algunos casos parecen derivar del epitelio de los conductos.

  12. The Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain): palaeoenvironment and habitats of Homo heidelbergensis during the Middle Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Nuria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2011-06-01

    Interpreting how environmental dynamics respond to global climate change and how this has affected human evolution and dispersal is an on-going topic of debate. During the early Middle Pleistocene (˜0.6-0.4 Ma), as compared to earlier, environmental conditions were relatively more stable, with longer climatic cycles alternating between open and forested landscapes. During this interval, humans spread successfully providing an important number of fossil sites where fossils or tools are reported. The Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain) site (Atapuerca-SH) is one of the earliest localities with hominin evidence in the European Middle Pleistocene, with the most important accumulation of Homo heidelbergensis so far. We have analyzed the abundant faunal record from Sima de los Huesos, which is mainly comprised of carnivores, in order to approach an interpretation of the palaeoenvironmental circumstances where these hominids inhabited within the Sierra. Other sites from Sierra de Atapuerca referred to the same Faunal Unit (FU 6), are roughly contemporaneous, and include important ungulates, which are here analyzed with Atapuerca-SH. Additional information provided by isotopic analysis helps elucidate the ancient ecology of taxa present in Sima de los Huesos allowing for an accurate portrayal of the setting in which humans lived. The timing of the spread of Homo heidelbergensis is dominated by a relative climatic and environmental stability and points to a landscape dominated by savannah-like open woodland.

  13. Particularidades estructurales y determinación del stress principal a partir de la información de un perfil en la parte oriental de la Sierra del Rosario, Pinar del Río, Cuba

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    Dámaso Cáceres-Govea

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de las descripciones de afloramientos y mediciones estructurales de estructuras disyuntivas y plicativas, con la utilización de sistemas que permiten el procesamiento de la información, se llega a resultados que sirven de base para el análisis y determinación de la posible orientación del stress principal σ1 en el momento en que ocurrieron los movimientos tectónicos que afectaron el corte en el occidente de Cuba. Se reporta y explica la presencia y posición de restos de hidrocarburos en vetas y grietas en las secuencias carbonatadas del corte en la porción más oriental de la Sierra.

  14. Políticas públicas y su contribución en las relaciones de género: el caso de las jornaleras de la Sierra Negra poblana

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    Humberto Piñón-Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar el efecto del Programa de Atención a Jornaleros Agrícolas de la Secretaría de Desarrollo Social, en la condición y posición de género, de mujeres de la Sierra Negra de Puebla. El estudio fue de tipo descriptivo con diseño probabilístico estratificado. Se realizaron encuestas, entrevistas, estudio de pesas-medidas y de tiempos-movimientos. Los resultados muestran que la variable salud (25% de las variables inherentes a la condición de género, y las de control de recursos, toma de decisiones y violencia familiar (75% de las relativas a la posición de género, influyeron de manera positiva en la equidad de género.

  15. Emplazamiento hacia el ENE del manto de Los Reales (Alpujarrides occidentales: criterios estructurales y de petrofábrica

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    Tubía, J. M.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Los Reales nappe rests over Ojén nappe to the North of Sierra Alpujata. The nappe contact zone shows a intense plastic deformation with mylonitic rocks, The deformation decreases progressively going away from the contacto The structural study of footwall and hangingwall roen permits to attribute this deformation to the Los Reales nappe emplacement over that of Ojén. The foliation and stretching lineation distributions show a WSW-ENE shear direction. The mylonite microstructural characteristics and the enstatite crystalline preferred orientations in the basal peridotites give a mear sense in according that, Los Reales nappe is displaced, in their present position, from the WSW towards the ENE.

    El manto de Los Reales descansa sobre el manto de Ojén, al norte de Sierra Alpujata. La zona de contacto entre mantos exhibe una intensa deformación plástica con rocas miloníticas; la deformación disminuye progresivamente al alejarse del contacto. El estudio estructural de las rocas infra y suprayacentes al contacto permite atribuir esta deformación al emplazamiento del manto de Los Reales sobre el de Ojén. , Las distribuciones de la foliación y de la lineación, de estiramiento indican una dirección de cizallamiento WSW-ENE. Las características microestructurales de las milonitas y las orientaciones preferentes cristalinas de la enstatita en las peridotitas basales proporcionan un sentido de cizallamiento tal que el manto de Los Reales se ha desplazado, en su posición actual, desde el WSW hacia el ENE.

  16. Agradecimiento a los revisores

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este primer volumen, correspondiente al año 2015, la calidad de los artículos arbitrados se debe, además de los autores que se animaron y confiaron sus trabajos a nuestra Revista, a la exhaustiva tarea de los evaluadores que, como todos nosotros, hacen su mejor esfuerzo para colaborar en su revisión. En este sentido, deseamos agradecer su labor haciendo público el reconocimiento de su contribución a:Karen Rangel Silva, Instituto Universitario de Tecnología del Estado Bolívar - Venezuela.Lu...

  17. Los quechuismos en Colombia

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    Víctor Sánchez Montenegro

    1962-06-01

    Full Text Available Como una pequeña introducción a este estudio, debo dar algunos datos sobre el descubrimiento del Perú y la historia de los "Trece de la Fama" que se relacionan íntimamente con nuestra Isla del Gallo, en las cercanías de Tumaco, asombroso episodio que, siendo verdadera historia, tiene todos los aspectos de la más extraordinaria leyenda de esa época superior a cualquier relación mítica de los Libros de Caballería.

  18. Convergencia de los medios.

    OpenAIRE

    Salaverría, Ramón

    2003-01-01

    Cuando se estudia la evolución de la convergencia multimedia en los medios de comunicación es frecuente encontrarse con análisis reduccionistas. En muchos de esos análisis tiende a destacarse la tecnología como el único parámetro que promueve los procesos de convergencia y evoluciona con ellos, mientras se olvida o minusvalora otros aspectos. Sin embargo, el proceso actual de convergencia en los medios es mucho más rico en matices. En particular, como trataremos de explicar, en este caso debe...

  19. AGUA, SALUD Y SOCIEDAD EN LA SIERRA DE GUADARRAMA, 1890-1936. EL MANANTIAL DE AGUAS MINERO-MEDICINALES DE LA PORQUERIZA Y EL BALNEARISMO EN GUADARRAMA (COMUNIDAD DE MADRID

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    Miguel Ángel Soto Caba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La explotación y uso medicinal de los manantiales de la localidad de Guadarrama (Comunidad de Madrid se desarrolló durante el primer tercio del siglo XX, cuando en esta localidad se construyeron balnearios, colonias y centros de salud, en un contexto de cambios en la organización del sistema de salud y de implantación de las ideas defendidas por médicos higienistas y del movimiento Regeneracionista. En torno al manantial de La Porqueriza se constituyó una colonia veraniega, formada principalmente por miembros de la burguesía madrileña, con modos de vida saludables que apreciaba las propiedades medicinales del agua, el aire y el paisaje de la Sierra de Guadarrama en contraposición de los problemas sanitarios de la urbe madrileña.Abstract: The exploitation and use of medicinal springs in the town of Guadarrama (Community of Madrid occurred during the first third of the twentieth century, when resorts, colonies, and health centers were built, in a context of changes in the health system organization and the implementation of ideas then defended by hygienists doctors and regenerationists. Around the La Porqueriza spring a summer colony was formed, consisting mainly of members of the bourgeoisie of Madrid, who practiced healthy lifestyles and appreciated the medicinal properties of water, air and the landscape of the Sierra de Guadarrama which contrasted with health problems of Madrid.

  20. Provencance of the late Proterozoic to early Cambrian metaclastic sediments ot the Sierra de San Luis (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) and Cordillera Oriental, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M.; López de Luchi, M.; Steenken, A.

    2009-01-01

    Provenance studies have been performed utilising major and trace elements, Nd systematics, whole rock Pb-Pb isotopes and zircon U/Pb SHRIMP data on metasedimentary rocks of the Sierra de San Luis (Nogolí Metamorphic Complex, Pringles Metamorphic Complex, Conlara Metamorphic Complex and San Luis...... is depicted for all the complexes using major and trace elements. The Pringles Metamorphic Complex shows indications for crustal recycling, pointing to a bimodal provenance. Major volcanic input has to be rejected due to Th/Sc, Y/Ni and Cr/V ratios for all units. The eNd(540 Ma) data is lower for the San Luis...... Formation and higher for the Conlara Metamorphic Complex, as compared to the other units, in which a good consistency is given. This is similar to the TDM ages, where the metapsammitic samples of the San Luis Formation are slightly older. The spread of data is largest for the Pringles Metamorphic Complex...

  1. Conjunto de actividades físicas recreativas para contribuir a utilizar de forma sana el tiempo libre de adolescente de 12 a 14 años del Consejo Popular Punta de la Sierra del municipio Guane

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    Yusniel Echevarria Hernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo surge por la necesidad de ocupar de manera más contructiva y de forma sana el tiempo libre de los adolescentes y jóvenes del consejo popular Punta de la Sierra. En esta etapa de la vida de todos los seres humanos ocurren cambios muy significativos no solo desde el punto de vista anatomofisiologico sino también desde el punto de vista psicológico, en estas edades se reafirman los rasgos de la personalidad que tendrá el individuo en la adultes, de ahí la importancia que se le concede al trabajo educativo en esta etapa de la vida. El propósito de este trabajo es mantener a los adolescentes vinculados a la sociedad de manera sana mediante actividades físicas recreativas de manera que se desarrollen simultáneamente las cualidades y valores morales y las capacidades físicas de los participantes. Para ello se ha elaborado un conjunto de actividades físicas recreativas teniendo en cuenta las necesidades y motivaciones de los adolescentes y jóvenes en cuestión. Es importante destacar que este trabajo surge como necesidad después de realizar varias observaciones, encuestas y constatar que existe un gran numero de adolescentes que ocupan su tiempo libre en actividades delictivas, vicios, juegos ilícitos que atentan contra sus propias vidas como el tabaquismo, alcoholismo etc., de ahí la importancia que le conferimos a este trabajo investigativo.

  2. Las murallas de Las Cogotas y La Mesa de Miranda: apuntes a la arquitectura defensiva de los vettones

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    Francisco Javier José GONZÁLEZ-TABLAS SASTRE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio sobre los sistemas defensivos de los castros vettones y, más específicamente, el de sus murallas, ha seguido la tendencia a considerarlas como un hecho único tanto en su concepción como en su construcción. De la observación de los procesos de limpieza, consolidación y restauración de algunos de los lienzos de las murallas de Las Cogotas (Cardeñosa, Ávila y de La Mesa de Miranda (Chamartín de la Sierra, Ávila así como de los datos obtenidos en la excavación de la casa C de este último castro, se deduce que los procesos de construcción se desarrollan a lo largo del tiempo de vida de los castros, no como un acto único sino como una serie de actos vinculados al propio devenir histórico de los asentamientos. Las remodelaciones, añadidos y reparaciones de los muros debieron ser una constante en el día a día de sus habitantes, más aún en aquellos momentos en que la presencia de ejércitos numerosos y bien estructurados generó los graves conflictos que sacudieron esta región desde finales del siglo III a. C. hasta la completa pacificación e incorporación a la estructura político/administrativa romana. El conocimiento de los distintos acontecimientos históricos y su vinculación a los procesos constructivos, de remodelación o de reparación de las murallas nos permitirá llegar a un mejor conocimiento de la historia de estos pueblos.

  3. Patrones biogeográficos de la avifauna de la Sierra Madre del Sur Biogeographic patterns of the avifauna of the Sierra Madre del Sur

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    Epifanio Blancas-Calva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos la avifauna de 26 subcuencas de la provincia biótica de la Sierra Madre del Sur y sus relaciones biogeográficas utilizando el análisis de parsimonia de endemismos (PAE. A partir de información distributional de las especies obtenida de la base de datos del Atlas de las aves de México y de la literatura disponible, construimos una matriz de datos para 26 subcuencas y 437 especies. Se obtuvo un cladograma que sugiere la existencia de 3 grupos de subcuencas: el primero agrupa subcuencas de climas áridos, ubicadas geográficamente de norte a sureste en el estado de Oaxaca; el segundo, otras subcuencas de ambientes climáticos subhúmedos, y el tercero, las restantes subcuencas de ambientes climáticos húmedos de mayor complejidad ambiental.We analyzed the avifauna of 26 sub-basins of the Sierra Madre del Sur biotic province and their biogeographical relationships applying a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE. Based on the distributional information of the species obtained from the Atlas de las aves de México and published literature, we built a data matrix for 26 sub-basins and 437 species. The single cladogram obtained suggests the existence of three groups of sub-basins:the first with 5 sub-basins from arid environments, geographically located in north-southeastern Oaxaca; the second with another 5 sub-basins form subhumid environments; and the third one with the remaining sub-basins, from humid and environmentally more complex habitats.

  4. Historia de los Medicamentos

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    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Cómo evolucionaron los medicamentos

    La historia de los medicamentos hace parte del devenir del hombre y de la historia de la medicina.

    Desde siempre, el ser humano buscó una explicación a los fenómenos y una solución a sus males. El pensamiento mágico, más acentuado en las tribus y en las más antiguas civilizaciones, hizo importante el poder de los conjuros y la influencia de los dioses sobre las pócimas.

    Con algunas excepciones, hasta que Paracelso introdujo en terapéutica las sustancias inorgánicas, los medicamentos eran hierbas. Gobernantes estudiosos del tema (el Emperador Rojo -padre de la Herbología china- y Mitrìdates VI -inventor y consumidor consuetudinario de la famosa teriaca- vivieron obsesionados con el temor al envenenamiento. Tanto que el último, septuagenario y derrotado por sus antiguos aliados romanos, trató de envenenarse para acabar con su vida, mas no fue posible pues estaba inmunizado contra los tóxicos; tuvo que rogarle a un esclavo que atravesara su pecho con la espada. Dioscórides y Plinio el Viejo eran eruditos conocedores de la botánica; el primero escribió la “Materia Médica”, el segundo, la “Historia Natural”.

    La aparición de la medicina como oficio, en casos como los de Hipócrates y Galeno, estuvo rodeada de prestigio; pero en los más fue tarea de esclavos, labor de sirvientes. Estos colegas de la antigüedad aprendieron a manejar sus propios medicamentos, preparados en algunas trastiendas o “boticas”. Los farmacéuticos se iniciaron como simples dispensadores y tuvieron auge entre los árabes, civilización donde aparecieron también los primeros recetarios, listados de medicinas o primitivas farmacopeas. Pero siempre las mismas hierbas con los mismos hierbateros, para llamar de alguna manera a los empíricos que ejercían artesanalmente la medicina.

    Refiriéndose a las curas de su médico tratante, Adriano –considerado por aquel

  5. de los estudiantes universitarios

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    Berta Marlén Velásquez B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo que se presenta a continuación, las autoras abordan estrategias metodológicas desde una perspectiva neurocientífica para el logro del aprendizaje significativo a partir del análisis de los rasgos distintivos de los estudiantes universitarios, y en concordancia con las investigaciones adelantadas al respecto. Las estrategias en mención, tienen en cuenta los niveles de desarrollo psicoafectivo, cognitivo, lingüístico y social del estudiante, así como el contexto en que evoluciona y se forma; se contempla, además, algunos principios basados en los fundamentos de la teoría del cerebro total, articulados con dichas estrategias que debe tener presentes el docente, como mediador y guía para apoyar al estudiante en la búsqueda y construcción del conocimiento.

  6. Los beneficios del TLC

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    Martín Uribe Arbeláez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El TLC usa-Colombia aumenta la protección de la propiedad intelectual por encima de la normatividad internacional plasmada en los Acuerdos adpic de la omc y en la Decisión 486 de 2000, de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones. Intensifica la llamada “apertura económica” consagrando un modelo exportador. El propósito de este ensayo es analizar lo que representa para el desarrollo económico y social, con énfasis en los dramáticos cambios que se introducen en el Régimen Común de Propiedad Industrial. El saqueo de la biodiversidad, “patentes a plantas o animales”, los enormes costos para la salud pública, la competitividad basada en las maquilas y la pauperización social, contradicen los sofismas que parecen evocar el realismo mágico como explicación de nuestra historia.

  7. Los estilos de gerencia

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    Jorge Noriega Santos

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Es fundamental para cada persona saber cómo  se puede manejar una organización y los resultados que puede obtener de su gestión. Existen diversas formas o estilos de gerencia que podemos utilizar para  el logro de los objetivos. En este artículo basado en la teoría de Robert  Blake y Jane Mounton conocida con el  nombre de “Malla Gerencial “se trata de exponer los diversos  estilos de gerencia  y los efectos que cada uno de ellos producen en nuestras empresas o instituciones

  8. Los pactos parasociales

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    Lina Henao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pactos parasociales son acuerdos celebrados al margen de la regulación societaria, entre los socios, entre estos y la sociedad, o con terceros, que constituyen una herramienta de uso frecuente en el desarrollo de las relaciones corporativas pese a la ausencia de una regulación legal integral, y que tienen por finalidad regular extremos no recogidos estatutariamente. Su validez, eficacia e incumplimiento estarán determinados en mayor medida por las normas de derecho civil y en menor proporción por el orden jurídico societario. El artículo desarrolla una presentación de la noción, notas características, naturaleza jurídica y las vicisitudes que subyacen en esta materia a la luz de los principales ordenamientos jurídicos de los sistemas de Civil Law y de Common Law.

  9. Los medios votan

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    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las experiencias electorales de Argentina, Ecuador, México y Venezuela, sugieren que la industria electoral, ya prendió sus hornos en la América Latina. Se advierte una nueva modalidad en el lanzamiento de los candidatos presidenciales muy similar a las utilizadas en los Estados Unidos. Es más, en el caso de Venezuela, los jefes de campaña, los llamados "brujos electorales", fueron norteamericanos. Y la televisión fue la niña bonita. CHASQU I presenta aqu í Un breve análisis, con nombre y apellido, de lo que pasó y está pasando en esos cuatro países.

  10. Secondary metabolites of lichens in the snow zone of the Sierra Nevada in Mérida-Venezuela and their role in the absorption of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Fernández, J.A.; Balza Quintero, A.; Marcano, V.; Rojas, P.A.; Dávila Vera, D.; Peña Contreras, Z.; Mendoza Briceño, R.V.; Palacios Prü, E.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical analyses of secondary compounds in lichens from the Venezuelan Andean snow zone were carried out in order to know the absorbance capacity of UV radiation at the UVA, UVB and UVC ranges and to determine its probable UV protective function. Spectrophotometric (UV) and fine layer chromatographic techniques (TLC) were utilized to separate and identify the compounds. UV radiation values were obtained from the Red Bioclimática del Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada de Mérida which constitutes a program supported by the University of Los Andes, Venezuela. Results indicated the existence of 22 species of lichens at the snow zone; 55% of these species showed a strong resistance to UVC radiation, 95% to UVB radiation, whereas the 100% revealed a strong resistance to UVA radiation. The substances that have the highest resistance to UVA and UVB radiation are characterized by having ester bonds among phenolic units depsids and constitute the most abundant products in lichens, whereas the substances having both ester and ether bonds among the two phenolic units depsidones revealed a higher capacity to absorb UVC radiation that could indicate a primitive origin [es

  11. Uranium-lead isotopic ages from the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    1982-01-01

    This study provides new information on the timing and distribution of Mesozoic magmatic events in the Sierra Nevada batholithic complex chiefly between 36° and 37°N. latitude. U-Pb ages have been determined for 133 zircon and 7 sphene separates from 82 samples of granitoid rocks. Granitoid rocks in this area range in age from 217 to 80 m.y. Triassic intrusions are restricted to the east side of the batholith; Jurassic plutons occur south of the Triassic plutons east of the Sierra Nevada, as isolated masses within the Cretaceous batholith, and in the western foothills of the range; Cretaceous plutons form a continuous belt along the axis of the batholith and occur as isolated masses east of the Sierra Nevada. No granitic intrusions were emplaced for 37 m.y. east of the Sierra Nevada following the end of Jurassic plutonism. However, following emplacement of the eastern Jurassic granitoids, regional extension produced a fracture system at least 350 km long into which the dominantly mafic, calc-alkalic Independence dike swarm was intruded 148 m.y. ago. The dike fractures probably represents a period of regional crustal extension caused by a redistribution of the regional stress pattern accompanying the Nevadan orogeny. Intrusion of Cretaceous granitic plutons began in large volume about 120 m.y. ago in the western Sierra Nevada and migrated steadily eastward for 40 m.y. at a rate of 2.7 mm/y. This slow and constant migration indicates remarkably uniform conditions of subduction with perhaps downward migration of parent magma generation or a slight flattening of the subduction zone. Such steady conditions could be necessary for the production of large batholithic complexes such as the Sierra Nevada. The abrupt termination of plutonism 80 m.y. ago may have resulted from an increased rate of convergence of the American and eastern Pacific plates and dramatic flattening of the subduction zone. U-Pb ages of the Giant Forest-alaskite sequence in Sequoia National Park are

  12. Los factores de riesgo

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    Justo Senado Dumoy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre el fundamento filosófico de los conceptos de la Dialéctica Materialista, se presenta un análisis en relación con el concepto e interpretación de los Factores de Riesgo.A analysis on the concept and interpretation of risk factors is presented based on the philosophical foundation of the concepts of materialist dialectics.

  13. Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; de Filippo, Cesare; Nagel, Sarah; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Nickel, Birgit; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia, Ana; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Viola, Bence; Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-03-24

    A unique assemblage of 28 hominin individuals, found in Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain, has recently been dated to approximately 430,000 years ago. An interesting question is how these Middle Pleistocene hominins were related to those who lived in the Late Pleistocene epoch, in particular to Neanderthals in western Eurasia and to Denisovans, a sister group of Neanderthals so far known only from southern Siberia. While the Sima de los Huesos hominins share some derived morphological features with Neanderthals, the mitochondrial genome retrieved from one individual from Sima de los Huesos is more closely related to the mitochondrial DNA of Denisovans than to that of Neanderthals. However, since the mitochondrial DNA does not reveal the full picture of relationships among populations, we have investigated DNA preservation in several individuals found at Sima de los Huesos. Here we recover nuclear DNA sequences from two specimens, which show that the Sima de los Huesos hominins were related to Neanderthals rather than to Denisovans, indicating that the population divergence between Neanderthals and Denisovans predates 430,000 years ago. A mitochondrial DNA recovered from one of the specimens shares the previously described relationship to Denisovan mitochondrial DNAs, suggesting, among other possibilities, that the mitochondrial DNA gene pool of Neanderthals turned over later in their history.

  14. de los movimientos sociales

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    Juliana Flórez-Flórez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el giro de los ochenta hasta hoy, los análisis de la acción colectiva tienden a concluir que la lucha de los movimientos latinoamericanos se halla anclada a la ilustración. Sea porque reivindican necesidades básicas, porque su principal interlocutor es el Estado, porque su contexto de lucha es atrasado o porque están atadas a localismos. En cualquiera de estos casos, se entiende que esos actores difícilmente pueden cuestionar los límites de la modernidad globalizada. En este artículo planteamos que tales conclusiones asumen un pensamiento dicotómico que diferencia y jerarquiza las dinámicas sociales según su mayor o menor distanciamiento de la tradición; una operación ilustrada que, paradójicamente, las teorías de movimientos deben a las perspectivas críticas de la ilustración; más específicamente, a su noción eurocéntrica de la modernidad. A partir de la revisión que de ese concepto ofrecen las posturas postcoloniales, concretamente el Programa de Investigación Modernidad/Colonialidad, dejamos sentadas algunas claves interpretativas que cambiarían los términos del debate sobre el escaso potencial de los movimientos latinoamericanos como actores críticos de la modernidad.

  15. Coccidiosis en los animales

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    Manuel Sánchez Herrera

    1937-05-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajos llevados a cabo por mí sobre coccidiosis en el Departamento de Anatomía Comparada de la Escuela de Medicina de Harvard, me dan tema para llenar el requisito reglamentario en el concurso extraordinario para Profesores Agregados en el presente año.' Las experiencias fueron hechas en 1931 bajo la direccién del Profesor de Anatomía Comparada, Dr. Ernest Edward Tyzzer, y se emplearon más o menos 150 pollos de 6 a 73 días de edad. La historia clínica de cada pollo comprendía su edad, su número, fecha de la comida infectante, fecha de la muerte o del comienzo de la convalecencia y porcentaje de mortalidad. A esto había que agregar el resultado de los exámenes microscópicos y si el animal hahía sido sacrificado o había muerto a consecuencia de la infección. Teniendo en cuenta que los coccidios son protozoarios de la clasede los esporozoarios, he creído conveniente dividir este estudio en cuatro partes: Protozoarios en general. Clase de los Esporozoaríos, Orden de los coccidios. Conclusiones

  16. Estereotipos hacia los ancianos

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    Marta Gil Barreiro

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 4 grupos etáreos diferentes: 20; 40; 60 y 70 años, del área de salud que abarca el Policlínico Docente "Lawton", con vistas a determinar cómo se estructuran los estereotipos hacia los ancianos. El instrumento de evaluación utilizado se confeccionó para la ocasión: la escala de adjetivos. El estereotipo más positivo hacia los ancianos lo evidenciaron los individuos de 40 años, a los que le siguieron, en orden decreciente, los de 70; 20 y 60 años.A descriptive study was a carried out in four different age groups: 20, 40, 60, and 70 years old, in the health area belonging to the "Lawton" Teaching Policlinic, in order to determine how the stereotypes towards the older people are formulated. The adjective scale was the assessing instrument built for the ocassion. The most positive stereotype towards the elder was demonstrated by individuals 40 years of age, followed in decreasing order, by the 70, 20, and 60 years old groups.

  17. Potential environmental effects of pack stock on meadow ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Moore, Peggy E.; Berlow, Eric L.; Robert Blank,; Roche, Jim; Chase, Jennifer T.; Sylvia Haultain,

    2014-01-01

    Pack and saddle stock, including, but not limited to domesticated horses, mules, and burros, are used to support commercial, private and administrative activities in the Sierra Nevada. The use of pack stock has become a contentious and litigious issue for land management agencies in the region inter alia due to concerns over effects on the environment. The potential environmental effects of pack stock on Sierra Nevada meadow ecosystems are reviewed and it is concluded that the use of pack stock has the potential to influence the following: (1) water nutrient dynamics, sedimentation, temperature, and microbial pathogen content; (2) soil chemistry, nutrient cycling, soil compaction and hydrology; (3) plant individuals, populations and community dynamics, non-native invasive species, and encroachment of woody species; and (4) wildlife individuals, populations and communities. It is considered from currently available information that management objectives of pack stock should include the following: minimise bare ground, maximise plant cover, maintain species composition of native plants, minimise trampling, especially on wet soils and stream banks, and minimise direct urination and defecation by pack stock into water. However, incomplete documentation of patterns of pack stock use and limited past research limits current understanding of the effects of pack stock, especially their effects on water, soils and wildlife. To improve management of pack stock in this region, research is needed on linking measurable monitoring variables (e.g. plant cover) with environmental relevancy (e.g. soil erosion processes, wildlife habitat use), and identifying specific environmental thresholds of degradation along gradients of pack stock use in Sierra Nevada meadows.

  18. Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Goba, Augustine; Gbakie, Michael; Gire, Stephen K; Colubri, Andres; Sealfon, Rachel S G; Kanneh, Lansana; Moigboi, Alex; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Moses, Lina M; Brown, Bethany L; Andersen, Kristian G; Winnicki, Sarah; Schaffner, Stephen F; Park, Daniel J; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Kargbo, David; Jalloh, Simbirie; Fonnie, Mbalu; Sinnah, Vandi; French, Issa; Kovoma, Alice; Kamara, Fatima K; Tucker, Veronica; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Kanneh, Franklyn; Saffa, Sidiki; Massally, James L B; Boisen, Matt L; Branco, Luis M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Grant, Donald S; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Fowler, Robert A; Bausch, Daniel G; Sabeti, Pardis C; Khan, S Humarr; Garry, Robert F

    2014-11-27

    Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P=0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P=0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and

  19. Assessing the spatial variability of mountain precipitation in California's Sierra Nevada using the Airborne Snow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, T.; Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Dozier, J.

    2016-12-01

    In California's Sierra Nevada, 10 or fewer winter storms are responsible for most of the annual precipitation, which falls mostly as snow. Presently, surface stations are used to measure the dynamics of mountain precipitation. However, even in places like the Sierra Nevada—one of the most gauged regions in the world—the paucity of surface stations can lead to large errors in precipitation thereby biasing both total water year and short-term streamflow forecasts. Remotely sensed snow depth and water equivalent, at a time scale that resolves storms, might provide a novel solution to the problems of: (1) quantifying the spatial variability of mountain precipitation; and (2) assessing gridded precipitation products that are mostly based on surface station interpolation. NASA's Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and LiDAR system, has measured snow in the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Sierra Nevada for the past four years, 2013-2016; and, measurements will continue. Principally, ASO monitors the progression of melt for water supply forecasting, nonetheless, a number of flights bracketed storms allowing for estimates of snow accumulation. In this study we examine a few of the ASO recorded storms to determine both the basin and subbasin orographic effect as well as the spatial patterns in total precipitation. We then compare these results to a number of gridded climate products and weather models including: Daymet, the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Finally, to put each ASO recorded storm into context, we use a climatology produced from snow pillows and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for 2014-2016 to examine key accumulation events, and classify storms based on their integrated water vapor flux.

  20. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.