Charged tensor matter fields and Lorentz symmetry violation via spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colatto, L.P.; Penna, A.L.A.; Santos, W.C.
2003-10-01
We consider a model with a charged vector field along with a Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond (CSKR) matter field coupled to a U(1) gauge potential. We obtain a natural Lorentz symmetry violation due to the local U(1) spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism triggered by the imaginary part of the vector matter. The choice of the unitary gauge leads to the decoupling of the gauge-Kr sector from the Higgs-Kr sector. The excitation spectrum is carefully analyzed and the physical modes are identified. We propose an identification of the neutral massive spin-1 Higgs-like field with the massive Z' boson of the so-called mirror matter models. (author)
Search for Violations of Lorentz Invariance and CPT Symmetry in B-(s)(0) Mixing
Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellan; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.
2016-01-01
Violations of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance are searched for by studying interference effects in B-0 mixing and in B-s(0) mixing. Samples of B-0 -> J/psi K-S(0) and B-0(s) -> J/psi K+K- decays are recorded by the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8
Lorentz Symmetry Violations from Matter-Gravity Couplings with Lunar Laser Ranging
Bourgoin, A.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Hees, A.; Bouquillon, S.; Francou, G.; Angonin, M.-C.
2017-11-01
The standard-model extension (SME) is an effective field theory framework aiming at parametrizing any violation to the Lorentz symmetry (LS) in all sectors of physics. In this Letter, we report the first direct experimental measurement of SME coefficients performed simultaneously within two sectors of the SME framework using lunar laser ranging observations. We consider the pure gravitational sector and the classical point-mass limit in the matter sector of the minimal SME. We report no deviation from general relativity and put new realistic stringent constraints on LS violations improving up to 3 orders of magnitude previous estimations.
Three questions on Lorentz violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)
2007-05-15
We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.
Search for violations of Lorentz invariance and $CPT$ symmetry in $B^0_{(s)}$ mixing
Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hongming, Li; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusardi, Nicola; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano
2016-06-15
Violations of $ CPT$ symmetry and Lorentz invariance are searched for by studying interference effects in $ B^0$ mixing and in $ B^0_s$ mixing. Samples of $ B^0\\to J/\\psi K^0_{\\mathrm{S}}$ and $ B^0_s\\to J/\\psi K^+ K^-$ decays are recorded by the LHCb detector in proton--proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$. No periodic variations of the particle-antiparticle mass differences are found, consistent with Lorentz invariance and $ CPT$ symmetry. Results are expressed in terms of the Standard Model Extension parameter $\\Delta a_{\\mu}$ with precisions of $ \\mathcal{O}(10^{-15})$ and $ \\mathcal{O}(10^{-14})$ GeV for the $ B^0$ and $ B^0_s$ systems, respectively. With no assumption on Lorentz (non-)invariance, the $ CPT$-violating parameter $z$ in the $ B^0_s$ system is measured for the first time and found to be $ \\mathcal{R}e(z) = -0.022 \\pm 0.033 \\pm 0.005$ and $ \\mathcal{I}m(z) = 0.004 \\pm 0.011\\pm 0.002$, where the first uncertainti...
Search for Violations of Lorentz Invariance and CPT Symmetry in B_{(s)}^{0} Mixing.
Aaij, R; Abellán Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hongming, L; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusardi, N; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Niess, V; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Osorio Rodrigues, B; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Pappenheimer, C; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S
2016-06-17
Violations of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance are searched for by studying interference effects in B^{0} mixing and in B_{s}^{0} mixing. Samples of B^{0}→J/ψK_{S}^{0} and B_{s}^{0}→J/ψK^{+}K^{-} decays are recorded by the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb^{-1}. No periodic variations of the particle-antiparticle mass differences are found, consistent with Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry. Results are expressed in terms of the standard model extension parameter Δa_{μ} with precisions of O(10^{-15}) and O(10^{-14}) GeV for the B^{0} and B_{s}^{0} systems, respectively. With no assumption on Lorentz (non)invariance, the CPT-violating parameter z in the B_{s}^{0} system is measured for the first time and found to be Re(z)=-0.022±0.033±0.005 and Im(z)=0.004±0.011±0.002, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic.
Astroparticle tests of Lorentz symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Jorge [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Lorentz symmetry is a cornerstone of modern physics. As the spacetime symmetry of special relativity, Lorentz invariance is a basic component of the standard model of particle physics and general relativity, which to date constitute our most successful descriptions of nature. Deviations from exact symmetry would radically change our view of the universe and current experiments allow us to test the validity of this assumption. In this talk, I describe effects of Lorentz violation in cosmic rays and gamma rays that can be studied in current observatories.
Lorentz violation, gravitoelectromagnetic field and Bhabha scattering
Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2018-01-01
Lorentz symmetry is a fundamental symmetry in the Standard Model (SM) and in General Relativity (GR). This symmetry holds true for all models at low energies. However, at energies near the Planck scale, it is conjectured that there may be a very small violation of Lorentz symmetry. The Standard Model Extension (SME) is a quantum field theory that includes a systematic description of Lorentz symmetry violations in all sectors of particle physics and gravity. In this paper, SME is considered to study the physical process of Bhabha Scattering in the Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) theory. GEM is an important formalism that is valid in a suitable approximation of general relativity. A new nonminimal coupling term that violates Lorentz symmetry is used in this paper. Differential cross-section for gravitational Bhabha scattering is calculated. The Lorentz violation contributions to this GEM scattering cross-section are small and are similar in magnitude to the case of the electromagnetic field.
Searching for Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, Roland E.; Yokoo, Seiichirou
2004-01-01
Astrophysical, terrestrial, and space-based searches for Lorentz violation are very briefly reviewed. Such searches are motivated by the fact that all superunified theories (and other theories that attempt to include quantum gravity) have some potential for observable violations of Lorentz invariance. Another motivation is the exquisite sensitivity of certain well-designed experiments and observations to particular forms of Lorentz violation. We also review some new predictions of a specific Lorentz-violating theory: If a fundamental energy m-bar c2 in this theory lies below the usual GZK cutoff E GZK , the cutoff is shifted to infinite energy; i.e., it no longer exists. On the other hand, if m-bar c2 lies above E GZK , there is a high-energy branch of the fermion dispersion relation which provides an alternative mechanism for super-GZK cosmic-ray protons
Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation
Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B
2008-01-01
Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...
Lorentz violation naturalness revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belenchia, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Liberati, Stefano [SISSA - International School for Advanced Studies, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)
2016-06-08
We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-energy percolation also in this case.
Threshold analyses and Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, Ralf
2003-01-01
In the context of threshold investigations of Lorentz violation, we discuss the fundamental principle of coordinate independence, the role of an effective dynamical framework, and the conditions of positivity and causality. Our analysis excludes a variety of previously considered Lorentz-breaking parameters and opens an avenue for viable dispersion-relation investigations of Lorentz violation
Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.
2008-01-01
Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical Lorentz violation due to the simultaneously generated gauge invariance. Udgivelsesdato: June 11...
Spacetime-varying couplings and Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostelecky, V. Alan; Lehnert, Ralf; Perry, Malcolm J.
2003-01-01
Spacetime-varying coupling constants can be associated with violations of local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry. An analytical supergravity cosmology with a time-varying fine-structure constant provides an explicit example. Estimates are made for some experimental constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Cima, Oswaldo M.; Franco, Daniel H.T.; Piguet, Olivier, E-mail: opiguet@pq.cnpq.br
2016-11-15
In this paper, we revisit the issue intensively studied in recent years on the generation of terms by radiative corrections in models with broken Lorentz symmetry. The algebraic perturbative method of handling the problem of renormalization of the theories with Lorentz symmetry breaking, is used. We hope to make clear the Symanzik's aphorism: “Whether you like it or not, you have to include in the lagrangian all counter terms consistent with locality and power-counting, unless otherwise constrained by Ward identities.”{sup 1}.
Lorentz Violation, Möller Scattering, and Finite Temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alesandro F. Santos
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Lorentz and CPT symmetries may be violated in new physics that emerges at very high energy scale, that is, at the Planck scale. The differential cross section of the Möller scattering due to Lorentz violation at finite temperature is calculated. Lorentz-violating effects emerge from an interaction vertex due to a CPT-odd nonminimal coupling in the covariant derivative. The finite temperature effects are determined using the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD formalism.
Statistical mechanics and Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick
2004-01-01
The theory of statistical mechanics is studied in the presence of Lorentz-violating background fields. The analysis is performed using the Standard-Model Extension (SME) together with a Jaynesian formulation of statistical inference. Conventional laws of thermodynamics are obtained in the presence of a perturbed hamiltonian that contains the Lorentz-violating terms. As an example, properties of the nonrelativistic ideal gas are calculated in detail. To lowest order in Lorentz violation, the scalar thermodynamic variables are only corrected by a rotationally invariant combination of parameters that mimics a (frame dependent) effective mass. Spin-couplings can induce a temperature-independent polarization in the classical gas that is not present in the conventional case. Precision measurements in the residual expectation values of the magnetic moment of Fermi gases in the limit of high temperature may provide interesting limits on these parameters
Anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation
Klinkhamer, F. R.
2018-01-01
If there exists Lorentz and CPT violation in nature, then it is crucial to discover and understand the underlying mechanism. In this contribution, we discuss one such mechanism which relies on four-dimensional chiral gauge theories defined over a spacetime manifold with topology ℛ3 × S 1 and periodic spin structure for the compact dimension. It can be shown that the effective gauge-field action contains a local Chern-Simons-like term which violates Lorentz and CPT invariance. For arbitrary Abelian U(1) gauge fields with trivial holonomies in the compact direction, this anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation has recently been established perturbatively with a Pauli-Villars-type regularization and nonperturbatively with a lattice regularization based on Ginsparg-Wilson fermions.
Sixth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry
CPT and Lorentz Symmetry
2014-01-01
This book contains the Proceedings of the Sixth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry, held at Indiana University in Bloomington on June 17–21, 2013. The Meeting focused on tests of these fundamental symmetries and on related theoretical issues, including scenarios for possible violations. Topics covered at the meeting include searches for CPT and Lorentz violations involving: accelerator and collider experiments; atomic, nuclear, and particle decays; birefringence, dispersion, and anisotropy in cosmological sources; clock-comparison measurements; electromagnetic resonant cavities and lasers; tests of the equivalence principle; gauge and Higgs particles; high-energy astrophysical observations; laboratory tests of gravity; matter interferometry; neutrino oscillations and propagation; oscillations and decays of neutral mesons; particle–antiparticle comparisons; post-newtonian gravity in the solar system and beyond; second- and third-generation particles; space-based missions; spectroscopy of hydrogen and ant...
Lorentz violation, gravitoelectromagnetism and Bhabha scattering at finite temperature
Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.
2018-04-01
Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) is an approach for the gravitation field that is described using the formulation and terminology similar to that of electromagnetism. The Lorentz violation is considered in the formulation of GEM that is covariant in its form. In practice, such a small violation of the Lorentz symmetry may be expected in a unified theory at very high energy. In this paper, a non-minimal coupling term, which exhibits Lorentz violation, is added as a new term in the covariant form. The differential cross-section for Bhabha scattering in the GEM framework at finite temperature is calculated that includes Lorentz violation. The Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) formalism is used to calculate the total differential cross-section at finite temperature. The contribution due to Lorentz violation is isolated from the total cross-section. It is found to be small in magnitude.
Strong binary pulsar constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity.
Yagi, Kent; Blas, Diego; Yunes, Nicolás; Barausse, Enrico
2014-04-25
Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of general relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry, which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.
Strong Binary Pulsar Constraints on Lorentz Violation in Gravity
Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas; Barausse, Enrico
2014-01-01
Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.
Lorentz and CPT violation in QED revisited: A missing analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Cima, Oswaldo M., E-mail: wadodelcima@if.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Polo Universitario de Rio das Ostras, Rua Recife s/n, 28890-000, Rio das Ostras, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, Jakson M., E-mail: jakson.fonseca@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Departamento de Fisica, Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, 36570-000, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Franco, Daniel H.T., E-mail: daniel.franco@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Departamento de Fisica, Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, 36570-000, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Piguet, Olivier, E-mail: opiguet@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Departamento de Fisica, Campus Universitario de Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2010-05-03
We investigate the breakdown of Lorentz symmetry in QED by a CPT violating interaction term consisting of the coupling of an axial fermion current with a constant vector field b, in the framework of algebraic renormalization - a regularization-independent method. We show, to all orders in perturbation theory, that a CPT-odd and Lorentz violating Chern-Simons-like term, definitively, is not radiatively induced by the axial coupling of the fermions with the constant vector b.
Lorentz and CPT violation in QED revisited: A missing analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Cima, Oswaldo M.; Fonseca, Jakson M.; Franco, Daniel H.T.; Piguet, Olivier
2010-01-01
We investigate the breakdown of Lorentz symmetry in QED by a CPT violating interaction term consisting of the coupling of an axial fermion current with a constant vector field b, in the framework of algebraic renormalization - a regularization-independent method. We show, to all orders in perturbation theory, that a CPT-odd and Lorentz violating Chern-Simons-like term, definitively, is not radiatively induced by the axial coupling of the fermions with the constant vector b.
Hiding Lorentz invariance violation with MOND
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, R. H.
2011-01-01
Horava-Lifshitz gravity is an attempt to construct a renormalizable theory of gravity by breaking the Lorentz invariance of the gravitational action at high energies. The underlying principle is that Lorentz invariance is an approximate symmetry and its violation by gravitational phenomena is somehow hidden to present limits of observational precision. Here I point out that a simple modification of the low-energy limit of Horava-Lifshitz gravity in its nonprojectable form can effectively camouflage the presence of a preferred frame in regions where the Newtonian gravitational field gradient is higher than cH 0 ; this modification results in the phenomenology of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) at lower accelerations. As a relativistic theory of MOND, this modified Horava-Lifshitz theory presents several advantages over its predecessors.
Quantum-gravity phenomenology, Lorentz symmetry, and the SME
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, Ralf
2007-01-01
Violations of spacetime symmetries have recently been identified as promising signatures for physics underlying the Standard Model. The present talk gives an overview over various topics in this field: The motivations for spacetime-symmetry research, including some mechanisms for Lorentz breaking, are reviewed. An effective field theory called the Standard-Model Extension (SME) for the description of the resulting low-energy effects is introduced, and some experimental tests of Lorentz and CPT invariance are discussed
Lorentz and CPT violation in the Standard-Model Extension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehnert, Ralf, E-mail: ralehner@indiana.edu [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries (United States)
2013-03-15
Lorentz and CPT invariance are among the symmetries that can be investigated with ultrahigh precision in subatomic physics. Being spacetime symmetries, Lorentz and CPT invariance can be violated by minuscule amounts in many theoretical approaches to underlying physics that involve novel spacetime concepts, such as quantized versions of gravity. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the low-energy effects of such violations are expected to be governed by effective field theory. This talk provides a survey of this idea and includes an overview of experimental efforts in the field.
Lorentz- and CPT-symmetry studies in subatomic physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehnert, Ralf, E-mail: ralehner@indiana.edu [Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany)
2016-12-15
Subatomic systems provide an exquisite test bench for spacetime symmetries. This work motivates such measurements, reviews the effective field theory test framework for the description of Lorentz and CPT violation, and employs this framework to study the phenomenology of spacetime-symmetry breaking in various subatomic systems.
Brane Lorentz symmetry from Lorentz breaking in the bulk
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Carvalho, C [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)
2007-05-15
We propose the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking of a bulk vector field as a way to generate the selection of bulk dimensions invisible to the standard model confined to the brane. By assigning a nonvanishing vacuum value to the vector field, a direction is singled out in the bulk vacuum, thus breaking the bulk Lorentz symmetry. We present the condition for induced Lorentz symmetry on the brane, as phenomenologically required.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalcanti Malta, Pedro
2017-06-27
It is well known that the Standard Model is not complete and many of the theories that seek to extend it predict new phenomena that may be accessible in low-energy settings. This thesis deals with some of these, namely, novel spin-dependent interparticle potentials, axion-like particles and Lorentz-symmetry violation. In Part I we discuss the spin-dependent potentials that arise due to the exchange of a topologically massive mediator, and also pursue a comparative study between spin-1/2 and spin-1 sources. In Part II we treat massive axion-like particles that may be copiously produced in core-collapse supernovae, thus leading to a non-standard flux of gamma rays. Using SN 1987A and the fact that after its observation no extra gamma-ray signal was detected, we are able to set robust limits on the parameter space of axion-like particles with masses in the 10 keV - 100 MeV range. Finally, in Part III we investigate the effects of Lorentz-breaking backgrounds in QED. We discuss two scenarios: a modification in the Maxwell sector via the Carroll-Field-Jackiw term and a new non-minimal coupling between electrons and photons. We are able to set upper limits on the coefficients of the backgrounds by using laboratory-based measurements.
Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calcagni, Gianluca [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)
2017-05-15
Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would display an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with q-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is E{sub *} > 10{sup 14} GeV (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value 1 / 2. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not change much the bounds obtained in their absence, unless the amplitude of the oscillations is fine tuned. This feature, unavailable in known quantum-gravity scenarios, may help the theory to avoid being ruled out by gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations, for which E{sub *} > 10{sup 17} GeV or greater. (orig.)
Lorentz violations and Euclidean signature metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbero G, J. Fernando; Villasenor, Eduardo J.S.
2003-01-01
We show that the families of effective actions considered by Jacobson et al. to study Lorentz invariance violations contain a class of models that represent pure general relativity with a Euclidean signature. We also point out that some members of this family of actions preserve Lorentz invariance in a generalized sense
New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carone, Christopher D.; Sher, Marc; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2006-01-01
Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parametrized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are 19 dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10 -11 and 10 -32 ; the remaining parameter, k-tilde tr , is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10 -4 . In this Brief Report, we point out that k-tilde tr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10 -8 . With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10 -14 by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz-violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD
k-essence explains a Lorentz violation experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Miao; Pang Yi; Wang Yi
2009-01-01
Recently, a state of the art experiment shows evidence for Lorentz violation in the gravitational sector. To explain this experiment, we investigate a spontaneous Lorentz violation scenario with a generalized scalar field. We find that when the scalar field is nonminimally coupled to gravity, the Lorentz violation induces a deformation in the Newtonian potential along the direction of Lorentz violation.
Structural aspects of Lorentz-violating quantum field theory
Cambiaso, M.; Lehnert, R.; Potting, R.
2018-01-01
In the last couple of decades the Standard Model Extension has emerged as a fruitful framework to analyze the empirical and theoretical extent of the validity of cornerstones of modern particle physics, namely, of Special Relativity and of the discrete symmetries C, P and T (or some combinations of these). The Standard Model Extension allows to contrast high-precision experimental tests with posited alterations representing minute Lorentz and/or CPT violations. To date no violation of these symmetry principles has been observed in experiments, mostly prompted by the Standard-Model Extension. From the latter, bounds on the extent of departures from Lorentz and CPT symmetries can be obtained with ever increasing accuracy. These analyses have been mostly focused on tree-level processes. In this presentation I would like to comment on structural aspects of perturbative Lorentz violating quantum field theory. I will show that some insight coming from radiative corrections demands a careful reassessment of perturbation theory. Specifically I will argue that both the standard renormalization procedure as well as the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formalism need to be adapted given that the asymptotic single-particle states can receive quantum corrections from Lorentz-violating operators that are not present in the original Lagrangian.
Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liberati, S.; Maccione, L.
2009-09-01
We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)
Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-09-15
We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)
Lorentz-violating theories in the standard model extension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira Junior, Manoel Messias [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: Lorentz-violating theories have been an issue of permanent interest in the latest years. Many of these investigations are developed under the theoretical framework of the Standard Model Extension (SME), a broad extension of the minimal Standard Model embracing Lorentz-violating (LV) terms, generated as vacuum expectation values of tensor quantities, in all sectors of interaction. In this talk, we comment on some general properties of the SME, concerning mainly the gauge and fermion sectors, focusing in new phenomena induced by Lorentz violation. The LV terms are usually separated in accordance with the behavior under discrete symmetries, being classified as CPT-odd or CPT-even, parity-even or parity-odd. We follow this classification scheme discussing some features and new properties of the CPT-even and CPT-odd parts of the gauge and fermion sectors. We finalize presenting some upper bounds imposed on the corresponding LV coefficients. (author)
Lorentz-violating electrodynamics and the cosmic microwave background.
Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2007-07-06
Possible Lorentz-violating effects in the cosmic microwave background are studied. We provide a systematic classification of renormalizable and nonrenormalizable operators for Lorentz violation in electrodynamics and use polarimetric observations to search for the associated violations.
Studying Lorentz-violating electromagnetic waves in confined media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viana, Davidson R.; Gomes, Andre H.; Fonseca, Jakson M.; Moura-Melo, Winder A.
2009-01-01
Full text. Planck energy scale is still far beyond current possibilities. A question of interest is whether the Lorentz symmetry remains valid at these extremely high energies, whose answer certainly would be useful whenever building grand unified theories, in which general relativity is consistently accommodated. Here, we study a reminiscent of this possible symmetry violation, incorporated in the body of the so-called Standard Model Extension (SME). More precisely, we deal with the pure (Abelian) gauge sector, so that we have a modified classical electromagnetism in (3+1) dimensions, whose Lagrangian include a term proportional to a (constant) background tensor that breaks the Lorentz symmetry, but respecting CPT. Our attention is devoted to the wave-like solutions constrained to propagate inside confined media, like waveguides and resonant cavities. Our preliminary findings indicate that Lorentz-breaking implies in modifications of the standard results which are proportional to the (very small) violating parameters, but could be largely enhanced by diminishing the size of the confined media. Under study is the case of a toroidal cavity where the electromagnetic field should respect the additional requirement of being single-valued in the (toroidal) angular variable. Perhaps, such an extra feature combined with the usual boundary conditions could lead us to large effects of this violation, somewhat similar to those predicted for CPT- and Lorentz-odd electromagnetic waves constrained to propagate along a hollow conductor waveguide. (author)
Lorentz-violating alternative to the Higgs mechanism?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandre, Jean; Mavromatos, Nick E.
2011-01-01
We consider a four-dimensional field-theory model with two massless fermions, coupled to an Abelian vector field without flavor mixing, and to another Abelian vector field with flavor mixing. Both Abelian vectors have a Lorentz-violating kinetic term, introducing a Lorentz-violation mass scale M, from which fermions and the flavor-mixing vector get their dynamical masses, whereas the vector coupled without flavor mixing remains massless. When the two coupling constants have similar values in order of magnitude, a mass hierarchy pattern emerges, in which one fermion is very light compared to the other, while the vector mass is of the order of the heavy fermion mass. The work presented here may be considered as a Lorentz-symmetry-violating alternative to the Higgs mechanism, in the sense that no scalar particle (fundamental or composite) is necessary for the generation of the vector-meson mass. However, the model is not realistic given that, as a result of Lorentz violation, the maximal (light-cone) speed seen by the fermions is smaller than that of the massless gauge boson (which equals the speed of light in vacuo) by an amount which is unacceptably large to be compatible with the current tests of Lorentz invariance, unless the gauge couplings assume unnaturally small values. Possible ways out of this phenomenological drawback are briefly discussed, postponing a detailed construction of more realistic models for future work.
Noncommutative gauge theory without Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, Carl E.; Carone, Christopher D.; Zobin, Nahum
2002-01-01
The most popular noncommutative field theories are characterized by a matrix parameter θ μν that violates Lorentz invariance. We consider the simplest algebra in which the θ parameter is promoted to an operator and Lorentz invariance is preserved. This algebra arises through the contraction of a larger one for which explicit representations are already known. We formulate a star product and construct the gauge-invariant Lagrangian for Lorentz-conserving noncommutative QED. Three-photon vertices are absent in the theory, while a four-photon coupling exists and leads to a distinctive phenomenology
Constraining Lorentz Violation in Electroweak Physics
Lehnert, Ralf
2018-01-01
For practical reasons, the majority of past Lorentz tests has involved stable or quasistable particles, such as photons, neutrinos, electrons, protons, and neutrons. Similar efforts in the electroweak sector have only recently taken shape. Within this context, Lorentz-violation searches in the Standard-Model Extension’s Z-Boson sector will be discussed. It is argued that existing precision data on polarized electron-electron scattering can be employed to extract the first conservative two-sided limits on Lorentz breakdown in this sector at the level of 10-7.
Lorentz violation and black-hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betschart, G.; Kant, E.; Klinkhamer, F.R.
2009-01-01
We consider nonstandard photons from nonbirefringent modified Maxwell theory and discuss their propagation in a fixed Schwarzschild spacetime background. This particular modification of Maxwell theory is Lorentz-violating and allows for maximal photon velocities differing from the causal speed c of the asymptotic background spacetime. In the limit of geometrical optics, light rays from modified Maxwell theory are found to propagate along null geodesics in an effective metric. We observe that not every Lorentz-violating theory with multiple maximal velocities different from the causal speed c modifies the notion of the event horizon, contrary to naive expectations. This result implies that not every Lorentz-violating theory with multiple maximal velocities necessarily leads to a contradiction with the generalized second law of thermodynamics.
Black holes in Lorentz-violating gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barausse, Enrico; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2013-01-01
Lorentz symmetry and the notion of light cones play a central role in the definition of horizons and the existence of black holes. Current observations provide strong indications that astrophysical black holes do exist in Nature. Here we explore what happens to the notion of a black hole in gravity theories where local Lorentz symmetry is violated, and discuss the relevant astrophysical implications. Einstein-aether theory and Hořava gravity are used as the theoretical background for addressing this question. We review earlier results about static, spherically symmetric black holes, which demonstrate that in Lorentz-violating theories there can be a new type of horizon and, hence, a new notion of black hole. We also present both known and new results on slowly rotating black holes in these theories, which provide insights on how generic these new horizons are. Finally, we discuss the differences between black holes in Lorentz-violating theories and in General Relativity, and assess to what extent they can be probed with present and future observations. (paper)
A Lorentz-Violating Alternative to Higgs Mechanism?
Alexandre, Jean
2011-01-01
We consider a four-dimensional field-theory model with two massless fermions, coupled to an Abelian vector field without flavour mixing, and to another Abelian vector field with flavour mixing. Both Abelian vectors have a Lorentz-violating kinetic term, introducing a Lorentz-violation mass scale $M$, from which fermions and the flavour-mixing vector get their dynamical masses, whereas the vector coupled without flavour mixing remains massless. When the two coupling constants have similar values in order of magnitude, a mass hierarchy pattern emerges, in which one fermion is very light compared to the other, whilst the vector mass is larger than the mass of the heavy fermion. The work presented here may be considered as a Lorentz-symmetry-Violating alternative to the Higgs mechanism, in the sense that no scalar particle (fundamental or composite) is necessary for the generation of the vector-meson mass. However, the model is not realistic given that, as a result of Lorentz Violation, the maximal (light-cone) s...
Lorentz Transformation from Symmetry of Reference Principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petre, M.; Dima, M.; Dima, A.; Petre, C.; Precup, I.
2010-01-01
The Lorentz Transformation is traditionally derived requiring the Principle of Relativity and light-speed universality. While the latter can be relaxed, the Principle of Relativity is seen as core to the transformation. The present letter relaxes both statements to the weaker, Symmetry of Reference Principle. Thus the resulting Lorentz transformation and its consequences (time dilatation, length contraction) are, in turn, effects of how we manage space and time.
Vortices in superconductors from Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belich, H.; Orlando, M.T.D.; Costa-Soares, T.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.
2004-01-01
We start from a Lorentz non-invariant Abelian-Higgs model in 1+3 dimensions, and carry out its dimensional reduction to D = 1 + 2. The planar model resulting thereof is composed by a Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca gauge sector, a massive scalar sector, and a mixing term (involving the fixed background, v μ ) that realizes Lorentz violation for the reduced model. Vortex type solutions of the planar model are investigated in a superconducting environment . Our vortex solutions are electrically charged and exhibit a screened electric field. (author)
Lorentz violation and generalized uncertainty principle
Lambiase, Gaetano; Scardigli, Fabio
2018-04-01
Investigations on possible violation of Lorentz invariance have been widely pursued in the last decades, both from theoretical and experimental sides. A comprehensive framework to formulate the problem is the standard model extension (SME) proposed by A. Kostelecky, where violation of Lorentz invariance is encoded into specific coefficients. Here we present a procedure to link the deformation parameter β of the generalized uncertainty principle to the SME coefficients of the gravity sector. The idea is to compute the Hawking temperature of a black hole in two different ways. The first way involves the deformation parameter β , and therefore we get a deformed Hawking temperature containing the parameter β . The second way involves a deformed Schwarzschild metric containing the Lorentz violating terms s¯μ ν of the gravity sector of the SME. The comparison between the two different techniques yields a relation between β and s¯μ ν. In this way bounds on β transferred from s¯μ ν are improved by many orders of magnitude when compared with those derived in other gravitational frameworks. Also the opposite possibility of bounds transferred from β to s¯μ ν is briefly discussed.
BPS Lorentz-violating vortex solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira Junior, Manoel M.; Hora, E. da
2011-01-01
In this work, we deal with the construction of static Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) rotationally symmetric configurations on the dimensional CPT-even Lorentz-breaking photonic sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME). The main objective of this presentation is to show the possibility of obtaining such BPS solutions, even in the presence of a Lorentz-violating background. A secondary objective is to analyze the effects of this background on such topologically non-trivial BPS configurations. In order to obtain these results, we deal with some specific components of Lorentz-violating field, handling with the static Euler-Lagrange equation of motion to gauge field, from which we fix temporal gauge (absence of electric field) as a proper gauge choice. Also, considering this equation, we consistently determine an interesting configuration (discarding non-interesting ones) to the Lorentz-breaking sector. Using this configuration and the standard rotationally symmetric vortex Ansatz (which describes the behaviors of Higgs and gauge fields via two profile functions, g(r) and a(r), respectively), we construct a rotationally symmetric expression to the energy density of the system. To obtain BPS solutions, we rewrite this expression in order to have static vortex solutions satisfying a set of first order differential equations (BPS ones). The existence of such solutions is strongly constrained by a relation between some parameters of the model, including the Lorentz-breaking one. Naturally, we show that the total energy of these BPS solutions is proportional to their magnetic flux, which is quantized according to their winding number. Using suitable boundary conditions (near the origin and asymptotically), we numerically integrate the BPS equations (by means of the shooting method). By this way, we obtain solutions for some physical quantities (Higgs field, magnetic field and energy density) for several values of the Lorentz-violating parameters. From these
Some impacts of Lorentz violation on cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arianto; Zen, Freddy P.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Triyanta; Supardi
2007-01-01
The impact of Lorentz violation on the dynamics of a scalar field is investigated. In particular, we study the dynamics of a scalar field in the scalar-vector-tensor theory where the vector field is constrained to be unity and time like. By taking a generic form of the scalar field action, a generalized dynamical equation for the scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravity is obtained to describe the cosmological solutions. We present a class of exact solutions for an ordinary scalar field or phantom field corresponding to a power law coupling vector and the Hubble parameter. As the results, we find a constant equation of state in de Sitter space-time and power law expansion with the quadratic of coupling vector, while a dynamic equation of state is obtained for n > 2. Then, we consider the inflationary scenario based on the Lorentz violating scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravity with general power-law coupling vector and two typical potentials: inverse power-law and power-law potentials. In fact, both the coupling vector and the potential models affect the dynamics of the inflationary solutions. Finally, we use the dynamical system formalism to study the attractor behavior of a cosmological model containing a scalar field endowed with a quadratic coupling vector and a chaotic potential
Spontaneous Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation, massive modes, and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluhm, Robert; Fung Shuhong; Kostelecky, V. Alan
2008-01-01
Theories with spontaneous local Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation contain massless Nambu-Goldstone modes, which arise as field excitations in the minimum of the symmetry-breaking potential. If the shape of the potential also allows excitations above the minimum, then an alternative gravitational Higgs mechanism can occur in which massive modes involving the metric appear. The origin and basic properties of the massive modes are addressed in the general context involving an arbitrary tensor vacuum value. Special attention is given to the case of bumblebee models, which are gravitationally coupled vector theories with spontaneous local Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation. Mode expansions are presented in both local and spacetime frames, revealing the Nambu-Goldstone and massive modes via decomposition of the metric and bumblebee fields, and the associated symmetry properties and gauge fixing are discussed. The class of bumblebee models with kinetic terms of the Maxwell form is used as a focus for more detailed study. The nature of the associated conservation laws and the interpretation as a candidate alternative to Einstein-Maxwell theory are investigated. Explicit examples involving smooth and Lagrange-multiplier potentials are studied to illustrate features of the massive modes, including their origin, nature, dispersion laws, and effects on gravitational interactions. In the weak static limit, the massive mode and Lagrange-multiplier fields are found to modify the Newton and Coulomb potentials. The nature and implications of these modifications are examined.
Modelling Planck-scale Lorentz violation via analogue models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinfurtner, Silke; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt
2006-01-01
Astrophysical tests of Planck-suppressed Lorentz violations had been extensively studied in recent years and very stringent constraints have been obtained within the framework of effective field theory. There are however still some unresolved theoretical issues, in particular regarding the so called 'naturalness problem' - which arises when postulating that Planck suppressed Lorentz violations arise only from operators with mass dimension greater than four in the Lagrangian. In the work presented here we shall try to address this problem by looking at a condensed-matter analogue of the Lorentz violations considered in quantum gravity phenomenology. specifically, we investigate the class of two-component BECs subject to laserinduced transitions between the two components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. We shall show that such a model can be considered to be an explicit example high-energy Lorentz violations where the 'naturalness problem' does not arise
Bumpy black holes from spontaneous Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubovsky, Sergei; Tinyakov, Peter; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2007-01-01
We consider black holes in Lorentz violating theories of massive gravity. We argue that in these theories black hole solutions are no longer universal and exhibit a large number of hairs. If they exist, these hairs probe the singularity inside the black hole providing a window into quantum gravity. The existence of these hairs can be tested by future gravitational wave observatories. We generically expect that the effects we discuss will be larger for the more massive black holes. In the simplest models the strength of the hairs is controlled by the same parameter that sets the mass of the graviton (tensor modes). Then the upper limit on this mass coming from the inferred gravitational radiation emitted by binary pulsars implies that hairs are likely to be suppressed for almost the entire mass range of the super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies
Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bietenholz, Wolfgang
2008-11-01
This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors γ ∝ O(10 11 ). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous γ-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic γ-rays. For multi TeV γ-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects next to them - as probable UHECR sources. (orig.)
Cosmological constraints on Lorentz violating dark energy
Audren, B; Lesgourgues, J; Sibiryakov, S
2013-01-01
The role of Lorentz invariance as a fundamental symmetry of nature has been lately reconsidered in different approaches to quantum gravity. It is thus natural to study whether other puzzles of physics may be solved within these proposals. This may be the case for the cosmological constant problem. Indeed, it has been shown that breaking Lorentz invariance provides Lagrangians that can drive the current acceleration of the universe without experiencing large corrections from ultraviolet physics. In this work, we focus on the simplest model of this type, called ThetaCDM, and study its cosmological implications in detail. At the background level, this model cannot be distinguished from LambdaCDM. The differences appear at the level of perturbations. We show that in ThetaCDM, the spectrum of CMB anisotropies and matter fluctuations may be affected by a rescaling of the gravitational constant in the Poisson equation, by the presence of extra contributions to the anisotropic stress, and finally by the existence of ...
Cosmological constraints on Lorentz violating dark energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Audren, B.; Lesgourgues, J. [FSB/ITP/LPPC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Blas, D. [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Sibiryakov, S., E-mail: Benjamin.Audren@epfl.ch, E-mail: Diego.Blas@cern.ch, E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: Sergey.Sibiryakov@cern.ch [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-08-01
The role of Lorentz invariance as a fundamental symmetry of nature has been lately reconsidered in different approaches to quantum gravity. It is thus natural to study whether other puzzles of physics may be solved within these proposals. This may be the case for the cosmological constant problem. Indeed, it has been shown that breaking Lorentz invariance provides Lagrangians that can drive the current acceleration of the universe without experiencing large corrections from ultraviolet physics. In this work, we focus on the simplest model of this type, called ΘCDM, and study its cosmological implications in detail. At the background level, this model cannot be distinguished from ΛCDM. The differences appear at the level of perturbations. We show that in ΘCDM, the spectrum of CMB anisotropies and matter fluctuations may be affected by a rescaling of the gravitational constant in the Poisson equation, by the presence of extra contributions to the anisotropic stress, and finally by the existence of extra clustering degrees of freedom. To explore these modifications accurately, we modify the Boltzmann code class. We then use the parameter inference code Monte Python to confront ΘCDM with data from WMAP-7, SPT and WiggleZ. We obtain strong bounds on the parameters accounting for deviations from ΛCDM. In particular, we find that the discrepancy between the gravitational constants appearing in the Poisson and Friedmann equations is constrained at the level of 1.8%.
Imprints of supersymmetry in the Lorentz-symmetry breaking of Gauge Theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Dias, G S; Leal, F J.L. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Durand, L G; Helayel-Neto, Jose Abdalla; Spalenza, W [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes (GFT-JLL), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: The breaking of Lorentz symmetry that may take place at very high energies opens up a venue for the discussion of the interplay between the violations of supersymmetry and relativistic symmetry. Recently, there have appeared in the literature models which propose a residual (non-relativistic) supersymmetry after Lorentz symmetry has been broken in a Horava gravity scenario. We here propose an N=1-supersymmetric Abelian gauge model which realises the breaking of Lorentz invariance by means of a CPT-even term. Our attempt assumes the point of view that supersymmetry and Lorentz symmetry are broken down at the same scale. If this is the case, the fermionic sector of the supermultiplets that accomplish the breaking of the symmetries into consideration may give rise to condensates that play an important role in the photon and photino dispersion relations. Contemporarily, they may also point to a more fundamental origin for the (bosonic) tensors usually associated to the backgrounds that parametrize Lorentz-symmetry breaking. We also highlight that, by studying the the violation of Lorentz symmetry in connection with supersymmetry, we find out that the Myers-Pospelov Electrodynamics, proposed on the basis of an analysis of the set of dimension-five operators, naturally appears in the bosonic sector of our model. Also, as a result of the interconnection between the supersymmetry and Lorentz-symmetry breakings, the photino-photino and photon-photino mixings that correspond to the supersymmetric completion of the Myers-Pospelov purely photonic terms come out. Finally, we present some comments on the possible modifications the supersymmetric fermions may introduce in the dispersion relations for particles at (high) energies close to the scale where supersymmetry and Lorentz symmetry are broken. (author)
Imprints of supersymmetry in the Lorentz-symmetry breaking of Gauge Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belich, H.; Dias, G.S.; Leal, F.J.L.; Durand, L.G.; Helayel-Neto, Jose Abdalla; Spalenza, W.
2011-01-01
Full text: The breaking of Lorentz symmetry that may take place at very high energies opens up a venue for the discussion of the interplay between the violations of supersymmetry and relativistic symmetry. Recently, there have appeared in the literature models which propose a residual (non-relativistic) supersymmetry after Lorentz symmetry has been broken in a Horava gravity scenario. We here propose an N=1-supersymmetric Abelian gauge model which realises the breaking of Lorentz invariance by means of a CPT-even term. Our attempt assumes the point of view that supersymmetry and Lorentz symmetry are broken down at the same scale. If this is the case, the fermionic sector of the supermultiplets that accomplish the breaking of the symmetries into consideration may give rise to condensates that play an important role in the photon and photino dispersion relations. Contemporarily, they may also point to a more fundamental origin for the (bosonic) tensors usually associated to the backgrounds that parametrize Lorentz-symmetry breaking. We also highlight that, by studying the the violation of Lorentz symmetry in connection with supersymmetry, we find out that the Myers-Pospelov Electrodynamics, proposed on the basis of an analysis of the set of dimension-five operators, naturally appears in the bosonic sector of our model. Also, as a result of the interconnection between the supersymmetry and Lorentz-symmetry breakings, the photino-photino and photon-photino mixings that correspond to the supersymmetric completion of the Myers-Pospelov purely photonic terms come out. Finally, we present some comments on the possible modifications the supersymmetric fermions may introduce in the dispersion relations for particles at (high) energies close to the scale where supersymmetry and Lorentz symmetry are broken. (author)
Quantizations of D = 3 Lorentz symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lukierski, J. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Tolstoy, V.N. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-04-15
Using the isomorphism o(3; C) ≅ sl(2; C) we develop a new simple algebraic technique for complete classification of quantum deformations (the classical r-matrices) for real forms o(3) and o(2,1) of the complex Lie algebra o(3; C) in terms of real forms of sl(2; C): su(2), su(1,1) and sl(2; R). We prove that the D = 3 Lorentz symmetry o(2,1) ≅ su(1,1) ≅ sl(2; R) has three different Hopf-algebraic quantum deformations, which are expressed in the simplest way by two standard su(1,1) and sl(2; R) q-analogs and by simple Jordanian sl(2; R) twist deformation. These quantizations are presented in terms of the quantum Cartan-Weyl generators for the quantized algebras su(1,1) and sl(2; R) as well as in terms of quantum Cartesian generators for the quantized algebra o(2,1). Finally, some applications of the deformed D = 3 Lorentz symmetry are mentioned. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C.; Ferrari, A.F. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, IFQ, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
2016-11-15
This paper is dedicated to the study of interactions between external sources for the electromagnetic field in the presence of Lorentz symmetry breaking. We focus on a higher derivative, Lorentz violating interaction that arises from a specific model that was argued to lead to interesting effects in the low energy phenomenology of light pseudoscalars interacting with photons. The kind of higher derivative Lorentz violating interaction we discuss are called nonminimal. They are usually expected to be relevant only at very high energies, but we argue they might also induce relevant effects in low energy phenomena. Indeed, we show that the Lorentz violating background considered by us leads to several phenomena that have no counterpart in Maxwell theory, such as nontrivial torques on isolated electric dipoles, as well as nontrivial forces and torques between line currents and point like charges, as well as among Dirac strings and other electromagnetic sources. (orig.)
Consistent Lorentz violation in flat and curved space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele
2007-01-01
Motivated by the severity of the bounds on Lorentz violation in the presence of ordinary gravity, we study frameworks in which Lorentz violation does not affect the spacetime geometry. We show that there are at least two inequivalent classes of spontaneous Lorentz breaking that even in the presence of gravity result in Minkowski space. The first one generically corresponds to the condensation of tensor fields with tachyonic mass, which in turn is related to ghost condensation. In the second class, realized by the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model or theories of massive gravitons, spontaneous Lorentz breaking is induced by the expectation value of sources. The generalization to de Sitter space is also discussed
Lorentz Violation in Warped Extra Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2011-01-01
Higher dimensional theories which address some of the problematic issues of the Standard Model(SM) naturally involve some form of D = 4 + n-dimensional Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). In such models the fundamental physics which leads to, e.g., field localization, orbifolding, the existence of brane terms and the compactification process all can introduce LIV in the higher dimensional theory while still preserving 4-d Lorentz invariance. In this paper, attempting to capture some of this physics, we extend our previous analysis of LIV in 5-d UED-type models to those with 5- d warped extra dimensions. To be specific, we employ the 5-d analog of the SM Extension of Kostelecky et al. which incorporates a complete set of operators arising from spontaneous LIV. We show that while the response of the bulk scalar, fermion and gauge fields to the addition of LIV operators in warped models is qualitatively similar to what happens in the flat 5-d UED case, the gravity sector of these models reacts very differently than in flat space. Specifically, we show that LIV in this warped case leads to a non-zero bulk mass for the 5-d graviton and so the would-be zero mode, which we identify as the usual 4-d graviton, must necessarily become massive. The origin of this mass term is the simultaneous existence of the constant non-zero AdS 5 curvature and the loss of general co-ordinate invariance via LIV in the 5-d theory. Thus warped 5-d models with LIV in the gravity sector are not phenomenologically viable.
Factoring the dispersion relation in the presence of Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Mullins, David
2010-01-01
We produce an explicit formula for the dispersion relation for the Dirac equation in the standard model extension in the presence of Lorentz violation. Our expression is obtained using novel techniques which exploit the algebra of quaternions. The dispersion relation is found to conveniently factor in two special cases that each involve a mutually exclusive set of nonvanishing Lorentz-violating parameters. This suggests that a useful approach to studies of Lorentz-violating models is to split the parameter space into two separate pieces, each of which yields a simple, tractable dispersion relation that can be used for analysis.
Lorentz invariance violation in modified gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe
2012-01-01
We consider an environmentally dependent violation of Lorentz invariance in scalar-tensor models of modified gravity where General Relativity is retrieved locally thanks to a screening mechanism. We find that fermions have a modified dispersion relation and would go faster than light in an anisotropic and space-dependent way along the scalar field lines of force. Phenomenologically, these models are tightly restricted by the amount of Cerenkov radiation emitted by the superluminal particles, a constraint which is only satisfied by chameleons. Measuring the speed of neutrinos emitted radially from the surface of the earth and observed on the other side of the earth would probe the scalar field profile of modified gravity models in dense environments. We argue that the test of the equivalence principle provided by the Lunar ranging experiment implies that a deviation from the speed of light, for natural values of the coupling scale between the scalar field and fermions, would be below detectable levels, unless gravity is modified by camouflaged chameleons where the field normalisation is environmentally dependent.
ICECUBE NEUTRINOS AND LORENTZ INVARIANCE VIOLATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sez. Roma1, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guetta, D. [Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, v. Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Piran, Tsvi [The Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2015-06-20
The IceCube neutrino telescope has found so far no evidence of gamma-ray burst (GRB) neutrinos. We here notice that these results assume the same travel times from source to telescope for neutrinos and photons, an assumption that is challenged by some much-studied pictures of spacetime quantization. We briefly review previous results suggesting that limits on quantum-spacetime effects obtained for photons might not be applicable to neutrinos, and we then observe that the outcome of GRB-neutrino searches could depend strongly on whether one allows for neutrinos to be affected by the minute effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) predicted by some relevant quantum-spacetime models. We discuss some relevant issues using as an illustrative example three neutrinos that were detected by IceCube in good spatial coincidence with GRBs, but hours before the corresponding gamma rays. In general, this could happen if the earlier arrival reflects quantum-spacetime-induced LIV, but, as we stress, some consistency criteria must be enforced in order to properly test such a hypothesis. Our analysis sets the stage for future GRB-neutrino searches that could systematically test the possibility of quantum-spacetime-induced LIV.
Lorentz invariance violation in modified gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)
2012-06-06
We consider an environmentally dependent violation of Lorentz invariance in scalar-tensor models of modified gravity where General Relativity is retrieved locally thanks to a screening mechanism. We find that fermions have a modified dispersion relation and would go faster than light in an anisotropic and space-dependent way along the scalar field lines of force. Phenomenologically, these models are tightly restricted by the amount of Cerenkov radiation emitted by the superluminal particles, a constraint which is only satisfied by chameleons. Measuring the speed of neutrinos emitted radially from the surface of the earth and observed on the other side of the earth would probe the scalar field profile of modified gravity models in dense environments. We argue that the test of the equivalence principle provided by the Lunar ranging experiment implies that a deviation from the speed of light, for natural values of the coupling scale between the scalar field and fermions, would be below detectable levels, unless gravity is modified by camouflaged chameleons where the field normalisation is environmentally dependent.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)
2016-09-15
From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry and write an effective metric for the cosmic string spacetime. Then, we investigate the arising of an analogue of the Anandan quantum phase for a relativistic Dirac neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment in the cosmic string spacetime under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. Besides, we analyse the influence of the effects of the Lorentz symmetry violation and the topology of the defect on the Aharonov–Casher geometric quantum phase in the nonrelativistic limit.
Symmetry violating kaon decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herczeg, P.
1979-01-01
An analysis of the muon number violating decay modes of the K-mesons is given. Subsequently, some new developments in the field of CP-violation are reviewed and the question of time-reversal invariance and the status of CPT-invariance are briefly considered. 42 references
Non-Abelian Gauge Theory in the Lorentz Violating Background
Ganai, Prince A.; Shah, Mushtaq B.; Syed, Masood; Ahmad, Owais
2018-03-01
In this paper, we will discuss a simple non-Abelian gauge theory in the broken Lorentz spacetime background. We will study the partial breaking of Lorentz symmetry down to its sub-group. We will use the formalism of very special relativity for analysing this non-Abelian gauge theory. Moreover, we will discuss the quantisation of this theory using the BRST symmetry. Also, we will analyse this theory in the maximal Abelian gauge.
Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bietenholz, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolbi@nucleares.unam.mx
2011-08-15
This is an introductory review about the ongoing search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultrahigh energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors {gamma}{approx}O(10{sup 11}). For heavier nuclei, the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous {gamma}-factors-far beyond accelerator tests-is a central issue. Next, we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent 'Maximal Attainable Velocities'. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic {gamma}-rays. For multi-TeV {gamma}-rays, we encounter another possible puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not that far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable nonlinear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent results by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, in particular the hypothesis that nearby Active Galactic Nuclei-or objects next to
Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2008-11-15
This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors {gamma} {proportional_to} O(10{sup 11}). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous {gamma}-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic {gamma}-rays. For multi TeV {gamma}-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects
The CTA Sensitivity to Lorentz-Violating Effects on the Gamma-Ray Horizon
Fairbairn, Malcolm; Ellis, John; Hinton, Jim; White, Richard
2014-01-01
The arrival of TeV-energy photons from distant galaxies is expected to be affected by their QED interaction with intergalactic radiation fields through electron-positron pair production. In theories where high-energy photons violate Lorentz symmetry, the kinematics of the process $\\gamma + \\gamma\\rightarrow e^+ + e^-$ is altered and the cross-section suppressed. Consequently, one would expect more of the highest-energy photons to arrive if QED is modified by Lorentz violation than if it is not. We estimate the sensitivity of Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to changes in the $\\gamma$-ray horizon of the Universe due to Lorentz violation, and find that it should be competitive with other leading constraints.
Lorentz Violation of the Photon Sector in Field Theory Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingli Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We compare the Lorentz violation terms of the pure photon sector between two field theory models, namely, the minimal standard model extension (SME and the standard model supplement (SMS. From the requirement of the identity of the intersection for the two models, we find that the free photon sector of the SMS can be a subset of the photon sector of the minimal SME. We not only obtain some relations between the SME parameters but also get some constraints on the SMS parameters from the SME parameters. The CPT-odd coefficients (kAFα of the SME are predicted to be zero. There are 15 degrees of freedom in the Lorentz violation matrix Δαβ of free photons of the SMS related with the same number of degrees of freedom in the tensor coefficients (kFαβμν, which are independent from each other in the minimal SME but are interrelated in the intersection of the SMS and the minimal SME. With the related degrees of freedom, we obtain the conservative constraints (2σ on the elements of the photon Lorentz violation matrix. The detailed structure of the photon Lorentz violation matrix suggests some applications to the Lorentz violation experiments for photons.
Generalizations of teleparallel gravity and local Lorentz symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Barrow, John D.; Li Baojiu
2011-01-01
We analyze the relation between teleparallelism and local Lorentz invariance. We show that generic modifications of the teleparallel equivalent to general relativity will not respect local Lorentz symmetry. We clarify the reasons for this and explain why the situation is different in general relativity. We give a prescription for constructing teleparallel equivalents for known theories. We also explicitly consider a recently proposed class of generalized teleparallel theories, called f(T) theories of gravity, and show why restoring local Lorentz symmetry in such theories cannot lead to sensible dynamics, even if one gives up teleparallelism.
Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory including the coupling to external fields
Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.
2018-05-01
If any violation of Lorentz symmetry exists in the hadron sector, its ultimate origins must lie at the quark level. We continue the analysis of how the theories at these two levels are connected, using chiral perturbation theory. Considering a 2-flavor quark theory, with dimension-4 operators that break Lorentz symmetry, we derive a low-energy theory of pions and nucleons that is invariant under local chiral transformations and includes the coupling to external fields. The pure meson and baryon sectors, as well as the couplings between them and the couplings to external electromagnetic and weak gauge fields, contain forms of Lorentz violation which depend on linear combinations of quark-level coefficients. In particular, at leading order the electromagnetic couplings depend on the very same combinations as appear in the free particle propagators. This means that observations of electromagnetic processes involving hadrons—such as vacuum Cerenkov radiation, which may be allowed in Lorentz-violating theories—can only reliably constrain certain particular combinations of quark coefficients.
Lorentz violation and black-hole thermodynamics: Compton scattering process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kant, E.; Klinkhamer, F.R.; Schreck, M.
2009-01-01
A Lorentz-noninvariant modification of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is considered, which has photons described by the nonbirefringent sector of modified Maxwell theory and electrons described by the standard Dirac theory. These photons and electrons are taken to propagate and interact in a Schwarzschild spacetime background. For appropriate Lorentz-violating parameters, the photons have an effective horizon lying outside the Schwarzschild horizon. A particular type of Compton scattering event, taking place between these two horizons (in the photonic ergoregion) and ultimately decreasing the mass of the black hole, is found to have a nonzero probability. These events perhaps allow for a violation of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the Lorentz-noninvariant theory considered.
A Study of Gaugeon Formalism for QED in Lorentz Violating Background
Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A.
2018-02-01
At the energy regimes close to Planck scales, the usual structure of Lorentz symmetry fails to address certain fundamental issues and eventually breaks down, thus paving the way for an alternative road map. It is thus argued that some subgroup of proper Lorentz group could stand consistent and might possibly help us to circumvent this problem. It is this subgroup that goes by the name of Very Special Relativity (VSR). Apart from violating rotational symmetry, VSR is believed to preserve the very tenets of special relativity. The gaugeon formalism due to type-I Yokoyama and type-II Izawa are found to be invariant under BRST symmetry. In this paper, we analyze the scope of this invariance in the scheme of VSR. Furthermore, we will obtain VSR modified Lagrangian density using path integral derivation. We will explore the consistency of VSR with regard to these theories.
Detecting Lorentz Violations with Gravitational Waves From Black Hole Binaries
Sotiriou, Thomas P.
2018-01-01
Gravitational wave observations have been used to test Lorentz symmetry by looking for dispersive effects that are caused by higher order corrections to the dispersion relation. In this Letter I argue on general grounds that, when such corrections are present, there will also be a scalar excitation. Hence, a smoking-gun observation of Lorentz symmetry breaking would be the direct detection of scalar waves that travel at a speed other than the speed of the standard gravitational wave polarizations or the speed of light. Interestingly, in known Lorentz-breaking gravity theories the difference between the speeds of scalar and tensor waves is virtually unconstrained, whereas the difference between the latter and the speed of light is already severely constrained by the coincident detection of gravitational waves and gamma rays from a binary neutron star merger.
Searches for Lorentz Violation in Top-Quark Production and Decay at Hadron Colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)
2012-07-01
We present a first-of-its-kind confirmation that the most massive known elementary particle obeys the special theory of relativity. Lorentz symmetry is a fundamental aspect of special relativity which posits that the laws of physics are invariant regardless of the orientation and velocity of the reference frame in which they are measured. Because this symmetry is a fundamental tenet of physics, it is important to test its validity in all processes. We quantify violation of this symmetry using the Standard-Model Extension framework, which predicts the effects that Lorentz violation would have on elementary particles and their interactions. The top quark is the most massive known elementary particle and has remained inaccessible to tests of Lorentz invariance until now. This model predicts a dependence of the production cross section for top and antitop quark pairs on sidereal time as the orientation of the experiment in which these events are produced changes with the rotation of the Earth. Using data collected with the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we search for violation of Lorentz invariance in events involving the production of a $t\\bar{t}$ pair. Within the experimental precision, we find no evidence for such a violation and set upper limits on parameters describing its possible strength within the Standard-Model Extension. We also investigate the prospects for extending this analysis using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider which, because of the higher rate of $t\\bar{t}$ events at that experiment, has the potential to improve the limits presented here.
Experimental Studies on the Lorentz Symmetry in Post-Newtonian Gravity with Pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lijing Shao
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Local Lorentz invariance (LLI is one of the most important fundamental symmetries in modern physics. While the possibility of LLI violation (LLIv was studied extensively in flat spacetime, its counterpart in gravitational interaction also deserves significant examination from experiments. In this contribution, I review several recent studies of LLI in post-Newtonian gravity, using powerful tools of pulsar timing. It shows that precision pulsar timing experiments hold a unique position to probe LLIv in post-Newtonian gravity.
CPT and Lorentz violation as signatures for Planck-scale physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, Ralf
2009-01-01
In recent years, the breakdown of spacetime symmetries has been identified as a promising research field in the context of Planck-scale phenomenology. For example, various theoretical approaches to the quantum-gravity problem are known to accommodate minute violations of CPT invariance. This talk covers various topics within this research area. In particular, some mechanisms for spacetime-symmetry breaking as well as the Standard-Model Extension (SME) test framework will be reviewed; the connection between CPT and Lorentz invariance in quantum field theory will be exposed; and the a few experimental CPT tests with emphasis on matter-antimatter comparisons will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, Graham M.
2005-01-01
The strong equivalence principle, local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry are fundamental ingredients of the quantum field theories used to describe elementary particle physics. Nevertheless, each may be violated by simple modifications to the dynamics while apparently preserving the essential fundamental structure of quantum field theory itself. In this paper, we analyse the construction of strong equivalence, Lorentz and CPT violating Lagrangians for QED and review and propose some experimental tests in the fields of astrophysical polarimetry and precision atomic spectroscopy. In particular, modifications of the Maxwell action predict a birefringent rotation of the direction of linearly polarised radiation from synchrotron emission which may be studied using radio galaxies or, potentially, gamma-ray bursts. In the Dirac sector, changes in atomic energy levels are predicted which may be probed in precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and anti-hydrogen atoms, notably in the Doppler-free, two-photon 1s-2s and 2s-nd (n∼10) transitions
Why Cerenkov Radiation May Not Occur, Even When It Is Allowed by Lorentz-Violating Kinematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett Altschul
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In a Lorentz-violating quantum field theory, the energy-momentum relations for the field quanta are typically modified. This affects the kinematics, and processes that are normally forbidden may become allowed. One reaction that clearly becomes kinematically possible when photons’ phase speeds are less than 1 is vacuum Cerenkov radiation. However, in spite of expectations, and in defiance of phase space estimates, a electromagnetic Chern–Simons theory with a timelike Lorentz violation coefficient does not feature any energy losses through Cerenkov emission. There is an unexpected cancelation, made possible by the existence of unstable long-wavelength modes of the field. The fact that the theory possesses a more limited form of gauge symmetry than conventional electrodynamics also plays a role.
Lorentz Invariance Violation and Modified Hawking Fermions Tunneling Radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shu-Zheng Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recently the modified Dirac equation with Lorentz invariance violation has been proposed, which would be helpful to resolve some issues in quantum gravity theory and high energy physics. In this paper, the modified Dirac equation has been generalized in curved spacetime, and then fermion tunneling of black holes is researched under this correctional Dirac field theory. We also use semiclassical approximation method to get correctional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so that the correctional Hawking temperature and correctional black hole’s entropy are derived.
Vacuum Cherenkov radiation for Lorentz-violating fermions
Schreck, M.
2017-11-01
The current work focuses on the process of vacuum Cherenkov radiation for Lorentz-violating fermions that are described by the minimal standard-model extension (SME). To date, most considerations of this important hypothetical process have been restricted to Lorentz-violating photons, as the necessary theoretical tools for the SME fermion sector have not been available. With their development in a very recent paper, we are now in a position to compute the decay rates based on a modified Dirac theory. Two realizations of the Cherenkov process are studied. In the first scenario, the spin projection of the incoming fermion is assumed to be conserved, and in the second, the spin projection is allowed to flip. The first type of process is shown to be still forbidden for the dimensionful a and b coefficients where there are strong indications that it is energetically disallowed for the H coefficients, as well. However, it is rendered possible for the dimensionless c , d , e , f , and g coefficients. For large initial fermion energies, the decay rates for the c and d coefficients were found to grow linearly with momentum and to be linearly suppressed by the smallness of the Lorentz-violating coefficient where for the e , f , and g coefficients this suppression is even quadratic. The decay rates vanish in the vicinity of the threshold, as expected. The decay including a fermion spin-flip plays a role for the spin-nondegenerate operators and it was found to occur for the dimensionful b and H coefficients as well as for the dimensionless d and g . The characteristics of this process differ much from the properties of the spin-conserving one, e.g., there is no threshold. Based on experimental data of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, new constraints on Lorentz violation in the quark sector are obtained from the thresholds. However, it does not seem to be possible to derive bounds from the spin-flip decays. This work reveals the usefulness of the quantum field theoretic methods
Constraining spacetime nonmetricity with Lorentz-violation methods
Xiao, Zhi; Lehnert, Ralf; Snow, W. M.; Xu, Rui
2018-01-01
In this report, we will give the first constraints on in-matter nonmetricity. We will show how the effective-field-theory (EFT) toolbox developed for the study of Lorentz violation (LV) can be employed for investigations of the “effective LV” background caused by nonmetricity, a geometric object extending the notion of a Riemannian manifold. The idea is to probe for the effects of spacetime nonmetricity sourced by liquid 4He with polarized slow neutrons. We present the first constraints on isotropic and parity-odd nonmetricity components. Further constraints on anisotropic nonmetricity components within this EFT framework may be feasible with proper experimental techniques in the near future.
Prospects for testing Lorentz and CPT symmetry with antiprotons
Vargas, Arnaldo J.
2018-03-01
A brief overview of the prospects of testing Lorentz and CPT symmetry with antimatter experiments is presented. The models discussed are applicable to atomic spectroscopy experiments, Penning-trap experiments and gravitational tests. Comments about the sensitivity of the most recent antimatter experiments to the models reviewed here are included. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'.
Prospects for testing Lorentz and CPT symmetry with antiprotons.
Vargas, Arnaldo J
2018-03-28
A brief overview of the prospects of testing Lorentz and CPT symmetry with antimatter experiments is presented. The models discussed are applicable to atomic spectroscopy experiments, Penning-trap experiments and gravitational tests. Comments about the sensitivity of the most recent antimatter experiments to the models reviewed here are included.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'. © 2018 The Author(s).
CP violation and modular symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dent, Thomas
2001-01-01
We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent noninvariance of the results under duality. We find a modular CP invariance condition, applicable to any predictive model of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated as a source of CP violation, but is likely experimentally excluded. We consider the prospects for explaining CP violation in strongly coupled strings and brane worlds
CP violation and modular symmetries
Dent, Thomas
2001-01-01
We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...
Tests of Lorentz and CPT violation with MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation excesses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katori, Teppei
2014-01-01
Lorentz and CPT symmetry violaton is a predicted phenomenon of Planck–scale physics. Various types of data are analyzed to search for Lorentz violation under the Standard–Model Extension (SME) framework, including neutrino oscillation data. MiniBooNE is a short–baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab. The measured excesses from MiniBooNE cannot be reconciled within the neutrino Standard Model (vSM); thus it might be a signal of new physics, such as Lorentz violation. We have analyzed the sidereal time dependence of MiniBooNE data for signals of the possible sidereal time dependence of the ocillation signals. we find that the v e appearance data prefer a sidereal time–independent solution, and the v-bar e appearance data slightly prefer a sidereal time–dependent solution, however, the statistical significance is not high to claim the discovery. Limits of order 10 −20 GeV are placed on combinations of SME coefficients
New test of Lorentz symmetry using ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays
Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Soriano, Jorge F.
2018-02-01
We propose an innovative test of Lorentz symmetry by observing pairs of simultaneous parallel extensive air showers produced by the fragments of ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray nuclei which disintegrated in collisions with solar photons. We show that the search for a cross-correlation of showers in arrival time and direction becomes background free for an angular scale ≲3 ° and a time window O (10 s ) . We also show that if the solar photo-disintegration probability of helium is O (10-5.5) then the hunt for spatiotemporal coincident showers could be within range of existing cosmic ray facilities, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory. We demonstrate that the actual observation of a few events can be used to constrain Lorentz violating dispersion relations of the nucleon.
Symmetry-violating kaon decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herczeg, P.
1979-01-01
The content of this talk comprises two parts. In the first, an analysis of the muon number violating decay modes of the K-mesons is given. Subsequently, some new developments in the field of CP-violation are reviewed and the question of time-reversal invariance and the status of CPT-invariance are briefly considered. (auth)
Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattingly, David M.; Maccione, Luca; Galaverni, Matteo; Liberati, Stefano; Sigl, Günter
2010-01-01
We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E 2 M Pl 2 ) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter η ν . We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10 19 eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10 17 eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as η ν ∼ −4 on the neutrino LV parameter, depending on how LV is distributed among neutrino mass states. Constraints on η ν < 0 can in principle be obtained with this strategy, but they require a more detailed modeling of how LV affects the neutrino sector
Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattingly, David M. [New Hamshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States); Maccione, Luca [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Galaverni, Matteo [INAF-IASF Bologna (Italy); Liberati, Stefano [INFN, Trieste (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2009-11-15
We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter {eta}{sub {nu}}. We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10{sup 19} eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10{sup 17} eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as {eta}{sub {nu}}
Extended hamiltonian formalism and Lorentz-violating lagrangians
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Don Colladay
2017-09-01
Full Text Available A new perspective on the classical mechanical formulation of particle trajectories in Lorentz-violating theories is presented. Using the extended hamiltonian formalism, a Legendre Transformation between the associated covariant lagrangian and hamiltonian varieties is constructed. This approach enables calculation of trajectories using Hamilton's equations in momentum space and the Euler–Lagrange equations in velocity space away from certain singular points that arise in the theory. Singular points are naturally de-singularized by requiring the trajectories to be smooth functions of both velocity and momentum variables. In addition, it is possible to identify specific sheets of the dispersion relations that correspond to specific solutions for the lagrangian. Examples corresponding to bipartite Finsler functions are computed in detail. A direct connection between the lagrangians and the field-theoretic solutions to the Dirac equation is also established for a special case.
Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector after OPERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Liberati, Stefano [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione de Trieste (Italy); Mattingly, David M. [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States). Dept. of Physics
2011-10-15
The OPERA collaboration has recently reported that neutrinos travel faster than light. We review the theoretical situation of constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance, focusing in particular on the compatibility between the OPERA results with both previous constraints and recently obtained ones. We generalize to higher order operators the recent constraint provided by the absence of neutrino energy loss, via electron-positron pair production at OPERA energies, and show that no modi ed in vacuo dispersion relation within an effective field theory context is compatible with OPERA results. We conclude that the OPERA result is incompatible with current observations, at least without resorting to models beyond effective field theory, possibly with local environmental effects. (orig.)
Lorentz Invariance Violation effects on UHECR propagation: A geometrized approach
Torri, Marco Danilo Claudio; Bertini, Stefano; Giammarchi, Marco; Miramonti, Lino
2018-06-01
We explore the possibility to geometrize the interaction of massive fermions with the quantum structure of space-time, trying to create a theoretical background, in order to explain what some recent experimental results seem to implicate on the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). We will investigate part of the phenomenological implications of this approach on the predicted effect of the UHECR suppression, in fact recent evidences seem to involve the modification of the GZK cut-off phenomenon. The search for an effective theory, which can explain this physical effect, is based on Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV), which is introduced via Modified Dispersion Relations (MDRs). Furthermore we illustrate that this perspective implies a more general geometry of space-time than the usual Riemannian one, indicating, for example, the opportunity to resort to Finsler theory.
Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector after OPERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maccione, Luca; Liberati, Stefano; Mattingly, David M.
2011-10-01
The OPERA collaboration has recently reported that neutrinos travel faster than light. We review the theoretical situation of constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance, focusing in particular on the compatibility between the OPERA results with both previous constraints and recently obtained ones. We generalize to higher order operators the recent constraint provided by the absence of neutrino energy loss, via electron-positron pair production at OPERA energies, and show that no modi ed in vacuo dispersion relation within an effective field theory context is compatible with OPERA results. We conclude that the OPERA result is incompatible with current observations, at least without resorting to models beyond effective field theory, possibly with local environmental effects. (orig.)
Constraints and stability in vector theories with spontaneous Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluhm, Robert; Gagne, Nolan L.; Potting, Robertus; Vrublevskis, Arturs
2008-01-01
Vector theories with spontaneous Lorentz violation, known as bumblebee models, are examined in flat spacetime using a Hamiltonian constraint analysis. In some of these models, Nambu-Goldstone modes appear with properties similar to photons in electromagnetism. However, depending on the form of the theory, additional modes and constraints can appear that have no counterparts in electromagnetism. An examination of these constraints and additional degrees of freedom, including their nonlinear effects, is made for a variety of models with different kinetic and potential terms, and the results are compared with electromagnetism. The Hamiltonian constraint analysis also permits an investigation of the stability of these models. For certain bumblebee theories with a timelike vector, suitable restrictions of the initial-value solutions are identified that yield ghost-free models with a positive Hamiltonian. In each case, the restricted phase space is found to match that of electromagnetism in a nonlinear gauge
Extended hamiltonian formalism and Lorentz-violating lagrangians
Colladay, Don
2017-09-01
A new perspective on the classical mechanical formulation of particle trajectories in Lorentz-violating theories is presented. Using the extended hamiltonian formalism, a Legendre Transformation between the associated covariant lagrangian and hamiltonian varieties is constructed. This approach enables calculation of trajectories using Hamilton's equations in momentum space and the Euler-Lagrange equations in velocity space away from certain singular points that arise in the theory. Singular points are naturally de-singularized by requiring the trajectories to be smooth functions of both velocity and momentum variables. In addition, it is possible to identify specific sheets of the dispersion relations that correspond to specific solutions for the lagrangian. Examples corresponding to bipartite Finsler functions are computed in detail. A direct connection between the lagrangians and the field-theoretic solutions to the Dirac equation is also established for a special case.
Vacuum solutions of a gravity model with vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.
2005-01-01
We study the vacuum solutions of a gravity model where Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken once a vector field acquires a vacuum expectation value. Results are presented for the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB. The purely radial LSB result corresponds to new black hole solutions. When possible, parametrized post-Newtonian parameters are computed and observational boundaries used to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale
Lorentz violating p-form gauge theories in superspace
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Centre for Theoretical Studies, Kharagpur (India); Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar, Kashmir (India)
2017-03-15
Very special relativity (VSR) keeps the main features of special relativity but breaks rotational invariance due to an intrinsic preferred direction. We study the VSR-modified extended BRST and anti-BRST symmetry of the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) actions corresponding to the p = 1, 2, 3-form gauge theories. Within the VSR framework, we discuss the extended BRST invariant and extended BRST and anti-BRST invariant superspace formulations for these BV actions. Here we observe that the VSR-modified extended BRST invariant BV actions corresponding to the p = 1, 2, 3-form gauge theories can be written in a manifestly covariant manner in a superspace with one Grassmann coordinate. Moreover, two Grassmann coordinates are required to describe the VSR-modified extended BRST and extended anti-BRST invariant BV actions in a superspace. These results are consistent with the Lorentz-invariant (special relativity) formulation. (orig.)
A perfectly conducting surface in electrodynamics with Lorentz symmetry breaking
Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.
2017-10-01
In this paper we consider a model which exhibits explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking due to the presence of a single background vector v^{μ } coupled to the gauge field. We investigate such a theory in the vicinity of a perfectly conducting plate for different configurations of v^{μ }. First we consider no restrictions on the components of the background vector and we treat it perturbatively up to second order. Next, we treat v^{μ } exactly for two special cases: the first one is when it has only components parallel to the plate, and the second one when it has a single component perpendicular to the plate. For all these configurations, the propagator for the gauge field and the interaction force between the plate and a point-like electric charge are computed. Surprisingly, it is shown that the image method is valid in our model and we argue that it is a non-trivial result. We show there arises a torque on the mirror with respect to its positioning in the background field when it interacts with a point-like charge. It is a new effect with no counterpart in theories with Lorentz symmetry in the presence of a perfect mirror.
A perfectly conducting surface in electrodynamics with Lorentz symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C. [UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ, Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
2017-10-15
In this paper we consider a model which exhibits explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking due to the presence of a single background vector v{sup μ} coupled to the gauge field. We investigate such a theory in the vicinity of a perfectly conducting plate for different configurations of v{sup μ}. First we consider no restrictions on the components of the background vector and we treat it perturbatively up to second order. Next, we treat v{sup μ} exactly for two special cases: the first one is when it has only components parallel to the plate, and the second one when it has a single component perpendicular to the plate. For all these configurations, the propagator for the gauge field and the interaction force between the plate and a point-like electric charge are computed. Surprisingly, it is shown that the image method is valid in our model and we argue that it is a non-trivial result. We show there arises a torque on the mirror with respect to its positioning in the background field when it interacts with a point-like charge. It is a new effect with no counterpart in theories with Lorentz symmetry in the presence of a perfect mirror. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)
2016-10-15
Based on the Standard Model Extension, we investigate relativistic quantum effects on a scalar particle in backgrounds of the Lorentz symmetry violation defined by a tensor field. We show that harmonic-type and linear-type confining potentials can stem from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects, and thus, relativistic bound state solutions can be achieved. We first analyse a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry that gives rise to a harmonic-type potential. In the following, we analyse another possible scenario of the breaking of the Lorentz symmetry that induces both harmonic-type and linear-type confining potentials. In this second case, we also show that not all values of the parameter associated with the intensity of the electric field are permitted in the search for polynomial solutions to the radial equation, where the possible values of this parameter are determined by the quantum numbers of the system and the parameters associated with the violation of the Lorentz symmetry.
Lepton flavor violation and seesaw symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aristizabal Sierra, D., E-mail: daristizabal@ulg.ac.be [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Department AGO (Belgium)
2013-03-15
When the standard model is extended with right-handed neutrinos the symmetries of the resulting Lagrangian are enlarged with a new global U(1){sub R} Abelian factor. In the context of minimal seesaw models we analyze the implications of a slightly broken U(1){sub R} symmetry on charged lepton flavor violating decays. We find, depending on the R-charge assignments, models where charged lepton flavor violating rates can be within measurable ranges. In particular, we show that in the resulting models due to the structure of the light neutrino mass matrix muon flavor violating decays are entirely determined by neutrino data (up to a normalization factor) and can be sizable in a wide right-handed neutrino mass range.
Cosmological evolution of interacting dark energy in Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zen, Freddy P.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Triyanta; Arianto; Purwanto, A.
2009-01-01
The cosmological evolution of an interacting scalar-field model in which the scalar field interacts with dark matter, radiation, and baryons via Lorentz violation is investigated. We propose a model of interaction through the effective coupling, anti β. Using dynamical system analysis, we study the linear dynamics of an interacting model and show that the dynamics of critical points are completely controlled by two parameters. Some results can be mentioned as follows. Firstly, the sequence of radiation, the dark matter, and the scalar-field dark energy exist and baryons are subdominant. Secondly, the model also allows for the possibility of having a universe in the phantom phase with constant potential. Thirdly, the effective gravitational constant varies with respect to time through anti β. In particular, we consider the simple case where anti β has a quadratic form and has a good agreement with the modified ΛCDM and quintessence models. Finally, we also calculate the first post-Newtonian parameters for our model. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C., E-mail: luizhenriqueunifei@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Dias, A.G., E-mail: alex.dias@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Ferrari, A.F., E-mail: alysson.ferrari@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R., E-mail: jroberto@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, Paraíba, 58051-970 (Brazil); Petrov, A.Yu., E-mail: petrov@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, Paraíba, 58051-970 (Brazil)
2016-05-10
We study the perturbative generation of higher-derivative Lorentz violating operators as quantum corrections to the photon effective action, originated from a specific Lorentz violation background, which has already been studied in connection with the physics of light pseudoscalars. We calculate the complete one loop effective action of the photon field through the proper-time method, using the zeta function regularization. This result can be used as a starting point to study possible effects of the Lorentz violating background we are considering in photon physics. As an example, we focus on the lowest order corrections and investigate whether they could influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves through the vacuum. We show, however, that no effects of the kind of Lorentz violation we consider can be detected in such a context, so that other aspects of photon physics have to be studied.
Violation of Particle Anti-particle Symmetry
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
Symmetry is a fundamental concept which can be found in the whole range of human activities e. g. from arts to science. The beauty of a statues is often related to its symmetric form. In physics, all the laws are related to some sort of symmetry. Equally important is a small breakdown ofsymmetry. Even for the case of a statue, its beauty might be enhanced by introducing small distortions. In this course, we investigate the role symmetry in the world of elementary particles. Some symmetries found there are very similar to those which can be seen in our daily life, while others are more exotic and related to the quantum nature of the elementary particles. Our particular focus ismade on symmetry and its violation between the matter and anti-matter, known as CP violation. It is experimentally well established that particleand anti-particle behave a tiny bit differently in the world of elementary particles. We discuss how this would be explained and how we can extendour knowledge. Evolution of our universe is stro...
First test of Lorentz violation with a reactor-based antineutrino experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Konno, T.; Kuze, M.; Aberle, C.; Buck, C.; Hartmann, F.X.; Haser, J.; Kaether, F.; Lindner, M.; Reinhold, B.; Schwetz, T.; Wagner, S.; Watanabe, H.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Gama, R.; Lima, H.P.-Jr.; Pepe, I.M.; Bergevin, M.; Felde, J.; Maesano, C.N.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N.S.; Dazeley, S.; Erickson, A.; Keefer, G.; Bezerra, T.J.C.; Furuta, H.; Suekane, F.; Bezrukhov, L.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.K.; Yanovitch, E.; Blucher, E.; Conover, E.; Crum, K.; Strait, M.; Worcester, M.; Busenitz, J.; Goon, J.TM.; Habib, S.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Reichenbacher, J.; Stancu, I.; Sun, Y.; Cabrera, A.; Franco, D.; Kryn, D.; Obolensky, M.; Roncin, R.; Tonazzo, A.; Caden, E.; Damon, E.; Lane, C.E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Perasso, S.; Smith, E.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Franke, A.J.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Toups, M.; Cerrada, M.; Crespo-Anadon, J.I.; Gil-Botella, I.; Lopez-Castano, J.M.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Chang, P.J.; Horton-Smith, G.A.; McKee, D.; Shrestha, D.; Chimenti, P.; Classen, T.; Collin, A.P.; Cucoanes, A.; Durand, V.; Fechner, M.; Fischer, V.; Hayakawa, T.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Mention, G.; Mueller, Th.A.; Perrin, P.; Sida, J.L.; Sinev, V.; Veyssiere, C.
2012-01-01
We present a search for Lorentz violation with 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events taken by the Double Chooz experiment in 227.9 live days of running. This analysis, featuring a search for a sidereal time dependence of the events, is the first test of Lorentz invariance using a reactor-based antineutrino source. No sidereal variation is present in the data and the disappearance results are consistent with sidereal time independent oscillations. Under the Standard-Model Extension, we set the first limits on 14 Lorentz violating coefficients associated with transitions between electron and tau flavor, and set two competitive limits associated with transitions between electron and muon flavor. (authors)
Spontaneous Lorentz violation and the long-range gravitational preferred-frame effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graesser, Michael L.; Jenkins, Alejandro; Wise, Mark B.
2005-01-01
Lorentz-violating operators involving Standard Model fields are tightly constrained by experimental data. However, bounds are more model-independent for Lorentz violation appearing in purely gravitational couplings. The spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance by the vacuum expectation value of a vector field selects a universal rest frame. This affects the propagation of the graviton, leading to a modification of Newton's law of gravity. We compute the size of the long-range preferred-frame effect in terms of the coefficients of the two-derivative operators in the low-energy effective theory that involves only the graviton and the Goldstone bosons
Planck-scale Lorentz violation constrained by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Hamburg, II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Taylor, A.M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Mattingly, D.M.; Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)
2009-09-15
We investigate the consequences of higher dimension Lorentz violating, CPT even kinetic operators that couple standard model fields to a non-zero vector field in an Effective Field Theory framework. Comparing the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum reconstructed in the presence of such terms with data from the Pierre Auger observatory allows us to establish two sided bounds on the coefficients of the mass dimension five and six operators for the proton and pion. Our bounds imply that for both protons and pions, the energy scale of Lorentz symmetry breaking must be well above the Planck scale. In particular, the dimension five operators are constrained at the level of 10{sup -3}M{sup -1}{sub Planck}. The magnitude of the dimension six proton coefficient is bounded at the level of 10{sup -6}M{sup -2}{sub Planck} except in a narrow range where the pion and proton coefficients are both negative and nearly equal. In this small area, the magnitude of the dimension six proton coefficient must only be below 10{sup -3}M{sup -2}{sub Planck}. Constraints on the dimension six pion coefficient are found to be much weaker, but still below M{sup -2}{sub Planck}. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Luty, Markus; Thaler, Jesse
2005-01-01
We study the universal low-energy dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance down to spatial rotations. The effective lagrangian for the associated Goldstone field can be uniquely determined by the non-linear realization of a broken time diffeomorphism symmetry, up to some overall mass scales. It has previously been shown that this symmetry breaking pattern gives rise to a Higgs phase of gravity, in which gravity is modified in the infrared. In this paper, we study the effects of direct couplings between the Goldstone boson and standard model fermions, which necessarily accompany Lorentz-violating terms in the theory. The leading interaction is the coupling to the axial vector current, which reduces to spin in the non-relativistic limit. A spin moving relative to the 'ether' rest frame will emit Goldstone Cerenkov radiation. The Goldstone also induces a long-range inverse-square law force between spin sources with a striking angular dependence, reflecting the underlying Goldstone shockwaves and providing a smoking gun for this theory. We discuss the regime of validity of the effective theory describing these phenomena, and the possibility of probing Lorentz violations through Goldstone boson signals in a way that is complementary to direct tests in some regions of parameter space
Charged Lifshitz black hole and probed Lorentz-violation fermions from holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: rocengeng@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kuang, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: xmeikuang@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Shu, Fu-Wen, E-mail: shufuwen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)
2017-06-10
We analytically obtain a new charged Lifshitz solution by adding a non-relativistic Maxwell field in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity. The black hole exhibits an anisotropic scaling between space and time (Lifshitz scaling) in the UV limit, while in the IR limit, the Lorentz invariance is approximately recovered. We introduce the probed Lorentz-violation fermions into the background and holographically investigate the spectral properties of the dual fermionic operator. The Lorentz-violation of the fermions will enhance the peak and correspond larger fermi momentum, which compensates the non-relativistic bulk effect of the dynamical exponent (z). For a fixed z, when the Lorentz-violation of fermions increases to a critical value, the behavior of the low energy excitation goes from a non-Fermi liquid type to a Fermi liquid type, which implies a kind of phase transition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rubtsov, Grigory; Satunin, Petr; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: grisha@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: satunin@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: Sergey.Sibiryakov@cern.ch [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-05-01
Parameterizing hypothetical violation of Lorentz invariance at high energies using the framework of effective quantum field theory, we discuss its effect on the formation of atmospheric showers by very-high-energy gamma rays. In the scenario where Lorentz invariance violation leads to a decrease of the photon velocity with energy the formation of the showers is suppressed compared to the Lorentz invariant case. Absence of such suppression in the high-energy part of spectrum of the Crab nebula measured independently by HEGRA and H.E.S.S. collaborations is used to set lower bounds on the energy scale of Lorentz invariance violation. These bounds are competitive with the strongest existing constraints obtained from timing of variable astrophysical sources and the absorption of TeV photons on the extragalactic background light. They will be further improved by the next generation of multi-TeV gamma-ray observatories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge
2006-01-01
The vacuum solutions arising from a spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry due to the acquisition of a vacuum expectation value by a vector field are derived. These include the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB scenarios. It is found that the purely radial LSB case gives rise to new black hole solutions. Whenever possible. Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters are computed and compared to observational bounds, in order to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale
Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state
Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.
2016-02-01
Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector.
Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ-Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
2016-02-15
Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector. (orig.)
Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, L.H.C.; Barone, F.A.
2016-01-01
Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector. (orig.)
Erratum (astro-ph/0510172) Robust Limits on Lorentz Violation from Gamma-Ray Bursts
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556; Nanopoulos, D V; Sakharov, Alexander S; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E
2008-01-01
We correct the fitting formula used in refs. [1,2] to obtain a robust limit on a violation of Lorentz invariance that depends linearly on the photon energy. The correction leads to a slight increase of the limit on the scale of the violation, to M > 1.4 x 10^{16} GeV.
Radiative violation of CP-symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvan Herrera, J.B.
1990-01-01
The left-right quiral symmetry is not conserved by the Standard model. A subgroup of the standard gauge group (SU(2) L ) breaks this symmetry in a explicit way. Moreover, the standard model, if there are theree or more matter generations, violates the CP discrete symmetry. This prediction has been experimentally demonstrated correct in the Kaon anti Kaon system. In this work some possible explanations to the CP violation parameter magnitude are researched. We have studied the variation of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix with the energy scale. To realize this work we have developed a general method to calculate the renormalization group equations of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parameters. From these equations we could also calculate the renormalization group equation of the J parameter that characterizes the CP violation. This calculus has been applied in a concrete example: a typical supersymmetric model from superstring theories. This model can be seen like a natural extension of the supersymmetric standard model. This kind of models have a gauge group bigger that the standard one more particles and new terms of the Lagrangian. We have verified that such model provides us of a correct low energy fenomenology and, moreover other results, some particle spectrums have been developed. In the elaboration of this model some conditions, that the model has to respected to be compatible with the actual fenomenology, have been studied. The most interesting results of this thesis are the develop of a general method to calculate the renormalization group equations of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parameters and the develop of a new mechanism of the radiative violation. This mechanism is related with the new terms of the Lagrangian. (Author)
Test of CPT and Lorentz symmetry in entangled neutral kaons with the KLOE experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babusci, D.; Balwierz-Pytko, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Curciarello, F.; Czerwiński, E.; Danè, E.; De Leo, V.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.
2014-01-01
Neutral kaon pairs produced in ϕ decays in anti-symmetric entangled state can be exploited to search for violation of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance. We present an analysis of the CP-violating process ϕ→K S K L →π + π − π + π − based on 1.7 fb −1 of data collected by the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ϕ-factory DAΦNE. The data are used to perform a measurement of the CPT-violating parameters Δa μ for neutral kaons in the context of the Standard Model Extension framework. The parameters measured in the reference frame of the fixed stars are: Δa 0 =(−6.0±7.7 stat ±3.1 syst )×10 −18 GeV, Δa X =(0.9±1.5 stat ±0.6 syst )×10 −18 GeV, Δa Y =(−2.0±1.5 stat ±0.5 syst )×10 −18 GeV, Δa Z =(3.1±1.7 stat ±0.5 syst )×10 −18 GeV. These are presently the most precise measurements in the quark sector of the Standard Model Extension.
The energy-momentum spectrum in local field theories with broken Lorentz-symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borchers, H.J.; Buchholz, D.
1984-05-01
Assuming locality of the observables and positivity of the energy it is shown that the joint spectrum of the energy-momentum operators has a Lorentz-invariant lower boundary in all superselection sectors. This result is of interest if the Lorentz-symmetry is (spontaneously) broken, such as in the charged sectors of quantum electrodynamics. (orig.)
Constraining Anisotropic Lorentz Violation via the Spectral-lag Transition of GRB 160625B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Shao, Lang [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bin-Bin [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucá (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Mészáros, Peter [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kostelecký, V. Alan, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: kostelec@indiana.edu [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)
2017-06-20
Violations of Lorentz invariance can lead to an energy-dependent vacuum dispersion of light, which results in arrival-time differences of photons with different energies arising from a given transient source. In this work, direction-dependent dispersion constraints are obtained on nonbirefringent Lorentz-violating effects using the observed spectral lags of the gamma-ray burst GRB 160625B. This burst has unusually large high-energy photon statistics, so we can obtain constraints from the true spectral time lags of bunches of high-energy photons rather than from the rough time lag of a single highest-energy photon. Also, GRB 160625B is the only burst to date having a well-defined transition from positive lags to negative lags, providing a unique opportunity to distinguish Lorentz-violating effects from any source-intrinsic time lag in the emission of photons of different energy bands. Our results place comparatively robust two-sided constraints on a variety of isotropic and anisotropic coefficients for Lorentz violation, including the first bounds on Lorentz-violating effects from operators of mass dimension 10 in the photon sector.
Effects of Lorentz violation through the γe → Wνe process in the Standard Model extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aranda, J I; Ramírez-Zavaleta, F; Tututi, E S; Rosete, D A; Tlachino, F J; Toscano, J J
2014-01-01
Physics beyond the Fermi scale could show up through deviations of the gauge couplings predicted by the electroweak Yang–Mills sector. This possibility is explored in the context of the International Linear Collider through the helicity amplitudes for the γe → Wν e reaction to which the trilinear WWγ coupling contributes. The new physics effects on this vertex are parametrized in a model-independent fashion through an effective electroweak Yang–Mills sector, which is constructed by considering two essentially different sources of new physics. In one scenario, Lorentz violation will be considered exclusively as the source of new physics effects. This type of new physics is considered in an extension of the Standard Model (SM) that is known as the SM extension (SME), which is an effective field theory that contemplates CPT and Lorentz violation in a model-independent fashion. Any source of new physics that respects the Lorentz symmetry will be considered within the general context of the well-known conventional effective SM (CESM) extension. Both the SME and CESM descriptions include gauge invariant operators of dimension higher than 4, which, in general, transform as Lorentz tensors of rank higher than zero. In the former theory, observer Lorentz invariants are constructed by contracting these operators with constant Lorentz tensors, whereas in the latter the corresponding Lorentz invariant interactions are obtained contracting such operators with products of the metric tensor. In this work, we focus on a dimension 6 Lorentz 2-tensor, O αβ , which arises from an effective SU(2) L Yang–Mills sector. Contributions to the WWγ coupling arising from dimension 4 operators are ignored since they are strongly constrained. When these operators are contracted with a constant antisymmetric background tensor, b αβ , the corresponding observer invariant belongs to the SME, whereas if they are contracted with the metric tensor, g αβ , an effective interaction in
Maxwell-Chern-Simons vortices in a CPT-odd Lorentz-violating Higgs electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casana, R.; Ferreira, M.M.; Hora, E. da; Neves, A.B.F.
2014-01-01
We study BPS vortices in a CPT-odd and Lorentz-violating Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs (MCSH) electrodynamics attained from the dimensional reduction of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw-Higgs model. The Lorentz-violating parameter induces a pronounced behavior at origin (for the magnetic/electric fields and energy density) which is absent in the MCSH vortices. For some combination of the Lorentz-violating coefficients there always exists a sufficiently large winding number n 0 such that for all vertical stroke n vertical stroke ≥ vertical stroke n 0 vertical stroke the magnetic field flips sign, yielding two well-defined regions with opposite magnetic flux. However, the total magnetic flux remains quantized and proportional to the winding number. (orig.)
Tests of Lorentz violation in νμ→νe oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auerbach, L.B.; Burman, R.L.; Donahue, J.B.; Garvey, G.T.; Louis, W.C.; Mills, G.B.; Sandberg, V.D.; White, D.H.; Caldwell, D.O.; Yellin, S.; Church, E.D.; McIlhany, K.L.; Strossman, W.H.; Cochran, A.K.; Fazely, A.R.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.L.; Metcalf, W.J.; Sung, M.; Katori, T.
2005-01-01
A recently developed standard-model extension (SME) formalism for neutrino oscillations that includes Lorentz and CPT violation is used to analyze the sidereal time variation of the neutrino event excess measured by the liquid scintillator neutrino detector (LSND) experiment. The LSND experiment, performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, observed an excess, consistent with neutrino oscillations, of ν e in a beam of ν μ . It is determined that the LSND oscillation signal is consistent with no sidereal variation. However, there are several combinations of SME coefficients that describe the LSND data; both with and without sidereal variations. The scale of Lorentz and CPT violation extracted from the LSND data is of order 10 -19 GeV for the SME coefficients a L and Exc L . This solution for Lorentz and CPT violating neutrino oscillations may be tested by other short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, such as the MiniBooNE experiment
Bounds on Cubic Lorentz-Violating Terms in the Fermionic Dispersion Relation
Bertolami, O.; Rosa, J. G.
2004-01-01
We study the recently proposed Lorentz-violating dispersion relation for fermions and show that it leads to two distinct cubic operators in the momentum. We compute the leading order terms that modify the non-relativistic equations of motion and use experimental results for the hyperfine transition in the ground state of the ${}^9\\textrm Be^+$ ion to bound the values of the Lorentz-violating parameters $\\eta_1$ and $\\eta_2$ for neutrons. The resulting bounds depend on the value of the Lorenz-...
A CPT-even and Lorentz-Violating nonminimal coupling in the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira Junior, Manoel; Casana, M.R.; Santos, Frederico E.P. dos; Silva, E.O.; Passos, E.
2013-01-01
Full text: The Standard Model Extension (SME) has been the usual framework for investigating signals of Lorentz violation in physical systems. It is the natural framework for studying properties of physical systems with Lorentz-violation since it includes Lorentz-violating terms in all sectors of the minimal standard model. The Lorentz-violating (LV) terms are generated as vacuum expectation values of tensors defined in a high energy scale. This framework has inspired a great deal of investigation in recent years. Such works encompass several distinct aspects involving fermion systems and radiative corrections, CPT- probing experiments, the electromagnetic CPT- and Lorentz-odd term, the 19 electromagnetic CPT-even coefficients. Recently, some studies involving higher dimensional operators have also been reported with great interest, including nonminimal interactions. These many contributions have elucidated the effects induced by Lorentz violation and served to set up stringent upper bounds on the LV coefficients. In the present work, we propose a new CPT-even, dimension-five, nonminimal coupling linking the fermionic and gauge fields in the context of the Dirac equation, involving the CPT-even tensor of the gauge term of the SME. By considering the nonrelativistic limit of the modified Dirac equation, we explicitly evaluate the new contributions to the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. These new terms imply a direct correction on the anomalous magnetic moment, a kind of electrical Zeeman-like effect on the atomic spectrum, and a Rashba-like coupling term. These effects are then used to impose upper bounds on the magnitude of the non minimally coupled LV coefficients at the level of 1 part in 10 16 . (author)
A CPT-even and Lorentz-Violating nonminimal coupling in the Dirac equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira Junior, Manoel; Casana, M.R.; Santos, Frederico E.P. dos; Silva, E.O. [UFMA, Sao Luis (Brazil); Passos, E. [UFCG, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: The Standard Model Extension (SME) has been the usual framework for investigating signals of Lorentz violation in physical systems. It is the natural framework for studying properties of physical systems with Lorentz-violation since it includes Lorentz-violating terms in all sectors of the minimal standard model. The Lorentz-violating (LV) terms are generated as vacuum expectation values of tensors defined in a high energy scale. This framework has inspired a great deal of investigation in recent years. Such works encompass several distinct aspects involving fermion systems and radiative corrections, CPT- probing experiments, the electromagnetic CPT- and Lorentz-odd term, the 19 electromagnetic CPT-even coefficients. Recently, some studies involving higher dimensional operators have also been reported with great interest, including nonminimal interactions. These many contributions have elucidated the effects induced by Lorentz violation and served to set up stringent upper bounds on the LV coefficients. In the present work, we propose a new CPT-even, dimension-five, nonminimal coupling linking the fermionic and gauge fields in the context of the Dirac equation, involving the CPT-even tensor of the gauge term of the SME. By considering the nonrelativistic limit of the modified Dirac equation, we explicitly evaluate the new contributions to the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. These new terms imply a direct correction on the anomalous magnetic moment, a kind of electrical Zeeman-like effect on the atomic spectrum, and a Rashba-like coupling term. These effects are then used to impose upper bounds on the magnitude of the non minimally coupled LV coefficients at the level of 1 part in 10{sub 16}. (author)
Test of CPT and Lorentz symmetry in entangled neutral kaons with the KLOE experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babusci, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Balwierz-Pytko, I. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Branchini, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Budano, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Caldeira Balkeståhl, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Capon, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ceradini, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Ciambrone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Curciarello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Czerwiński, E. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Danè, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Leo, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Santis, A., E-mail: antonio.desantis@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); De Simone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); and others
2014-03-07
Neutral kaon pairs produced in ϕ decays in anti-symmetric entangled state can be exploited to search for violation of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance. We present an analysis of the CP-violating process ϕ→K{sub S}K{sub L}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}π{sup −} based on 1.7 fb{sup −1} of data collected by the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ϕ-factory DAΦNE. The data are used to perform a measurement of the CPT-violating parameters Δa{sub μ} for neutral kaons in the context of the Standard Model Extension framework. The parameters measured in the reference frame of the fixed stars are: Δa{sub 0}=(−6.0±7.7{sub stat}±3.1{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub X}=(0.9±1.5{sub stat}±0.6{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub Y}=(−2.0±1.5{sub stat}±0.5{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub Z}=(3.1±1.7{sub stat}±0.5{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV. These are presently the most precise measurements in the quark sector of the Standard Model Extension.
Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elander, Daniel, E-mail: pelander@purdue.edu [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Lawrance, Robert; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)
2015-08-15
We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV.
Experimental tests of charge symmetry violation in parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Londergan, J.T.; Murdock, D.P.; Thomas, A.W.
2005-01-01
Recently, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the allowed magnitude of such effects. We discuss two possible experiments that could search for isospin violation in valence parton distributions. We show that, given the magnitude of charge symmetry violation consistent with existing global data, such experiments might expect to see effects at a level of several percent. Alternatively, such experiments could significantly decrease the upper limits on isospin violation in parton distributions
From symmetry violation to dynamics: The charm window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appel, J.A.
1997-12-01
C.S. Wu observed parity violation in the low energy process of nuclear decay. She was the first to observe this symmetry violation at any energy. Yet, her work taught us about the form and strengths of the couplings of the massive weak boson. Today, we use the same approach. We look for very much higher mass-scale interactions through symmetry violations in the decays of charm quark systems. These charm decays provide a unique window to new physics
Lorentz-violating vortex solutions in the CPT-even electrodynamics of the Standard Model Extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira Junior, Manoel M.; Hora, E. da
2011-01-01
Full text: In this work, we investigate the formation of static rotationally symmetric solutions on the (1+3) dimensional CPT-even and Lorentz-violating photonic sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME). The main goal of this work is to show the possibility of obtaining these solutions, even in the presence of Lorentz-breaking fields. A secondary goal is to examine the effects of these fields on topologically non-trivial configurations. In order to obtain these results, we focus on specific components of Lorentz-violating background, dealing with static Euler-Lagrange equations, from which we fix temporal gauge (absence of electric field) as a proper gauge choice. We assume the usual rotationally symmetric Ansatz, inserting it in the Euler-Lagrange equations previously obtained. This Ansatz describes the Higgs and gauge fields via profile functions g(r) and a(r), respectively. From this Ansatz, we construct suitable boundary conditions near the origin. Also, we write the energy density in terms of these two profile functions, obtaining from it asymptotic boundary conditions. This set of conditions is used to numerically solve the Euler-Lagrange equations (by means of the shooting method). Finally, we plot solutions for some physical quantities (Higgs field, magnetic field and energy density) for several values of the Lorentz-violating parameters. From these plots, we discuss the influence of these coefficients on the topologically non-trivial rotationally symmetric configurations, focusing on the profiles of both magnetic field and energy density. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozari, Kourosh; Sadatian, S.D.
2008-01-01
We consider two alternative dark-energy models: a Lorentz-invariance preserving model with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a Lorentz-invariance violating model with a minimally coupled scalar field. We study accelerated expansion and the dynamics of the equation of state parameter in these scenarios. While a minimally coupled scalar field does not have the capability to be a successful dark-energy candidate with line crossing of the cosmological constant, a non-minimally coupled scalar field in the presence of Lorentz invariance or a minimally coupled scalar field with Lorentz-invariance violation have this capability. In the latter case, accelerated expansion and phantom divide line crossing are the results of the interactive nature of this Lorentz-violating scenario. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csaki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Grojean, Christophe
2001-01-01
Brane worlds are theories with extra spatial dimensions in which ordinary matter is localized on a (3+1) dimensional submanifold. Such theories could have interesting consequences for particle physics and gravitational physics. In this essay we concentrate on the cosmological constant (CC) problem in the context of brane worlds. We show how extra-dimensional scenarios may violate Lorentz invariance in the gravity sector of the effective 4D theory, while particle physics remains unaffected. In such theories the usual no-go theorems for adjustment of the CC do not apply, and we indicate a possible explanation of the smallness of the CC. Lorentz violating effects would manifest themselves in gravitational waves travelling with a speed different from light, which can be searched for in gravitational wave experiments
Search for violation of Lorentz invariance in top quark pair production and decay
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš
2012-01-01
Roč. 108, č. 26 (2012), "261603-1"-"261603-7" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047; GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : D0 * violation Lorentz * pair productionl * decay * Batavia TEVATRON, Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i26/e261603
Search for Violation of $CPT$ and Lorentz invariance in ${B_s^0}$ meson oscillations
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Agnew, James P; Alexeev, Guennadi D; Alkhazov, Georgiy D; Alton, Andrew K; Askew, Andrew Warren; Atkins, Scott; Augsten, Kamil; Avila, Carlos A; Badaud, Frederique; Bagby, Linda F; Baldin, Boris; Bandurin, Dmitry V; Banerjee, Sunanda; Barberis, Emanuela; Baringer, Philip S; Bartlett, JFrederick; Bassler, Ursula Rita; Bazterra, Victor; Bean, Alice L; Begalli, Marcia; Bellantoni, Leo; Beri, Suman B; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernhard, Ralf Patrick; Bertram, Iain A; Besancon, Marc; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bhatia, Sudeep; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Blazey, Gerald Charles; Blessing, Susan K; Bloom, Kenneth A; Boehnlein, Amber S; Boline, Daniel Dooley; Boos, Edward E; Borissov, Guennadi; Borysova, Maryna; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Oleg; Brock, Raymond L; Bross, Alan D; Brown, Duncan Paul; Bu, Xue-Bing; Buehler, Marc; Buescher, Volker; Bunichev, Viacheslav Yevgenyevich; Burdin, Sergey; Buszello, Claus Peter; Camacho-Perez, Enrique; Casey, Brendan Cameron Kieran; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; Caughron, Seth Aaron; Chakrabarti, Subhendu; Chan, Kwok Ming Leo; Chandra, Avdhesh; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Guo; Cho, Sung-Woong; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cihangir, Selcuk; Claes, Daniel R; Clutter, Justace Randall; Cooke, Michael P; Cooper, William Edward; Corcoran, Marjorie D; Couderc, Fabrice; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Cuth, Jakub; Cutts, David; Das, Amitabha; Davies, Gavin John; de Jong, Sijbrand Jan; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Deliot, Frederic; Demina, Regina; Denisov, Dmitri S; Denisov, Sergei P; Desai, Satish Vijay; Deterre, Cecile; DeVaughan, Kayle Otis; Diehl, HThomas; Diesburg, Michael; Ding, Pengfei; Dominguez, DAaron M; Dubey, Abhinav Kumar; Dudko, Lev V; Duperrin, Arnaud; Dutt, Suneel; Eads, Michael T; Edmunds, Daniel L; Ellison, John A; Elvira, VDaniel; Enari, Yuji; Evans, Harold G; Evdokimov, Anatoly V; Evdokimov, Valeri N; Faure, Alexandre; Feng, Lei; Ferbel, Thomas; Fiedler, Frank; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fisk, HEugene; Fortner, Michael R; Fox, Harald; Fuess, Stuart C; Garbincius, Peter H; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Andres; Gavrilov, Vladimir B; Geng, Weigang; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Gershtein, Yuri S; Ginther, George E; Gogota, Olga; Golovanov, Georgy Anatolievich; Grannis, Paul D; Greder, Sebastien; Greenlee, Herbert B; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Phillipe Luc; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gruenendahl, Stefan; Gruenewald, Martin Werner; Guillemin, Thibault; Gutierrez, Gaston R; Gutierrez, Phillip; Haley, Joseph Glenn Biddle; Han, Liang; Harder, Kristian; Harel, Amnon; Hauptman, John Michael; Hays, Jonathan M; Head, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedin, David R; Hegab, Hatim; Heinson, Ann; Heintz, Ulrich; Hensel, Carsten; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Herner, Kenneth Richard; Hesketh, Gavin G; Hildreth, Michael D; Hirosky, Robert James; Hoang, Trang; Hobbs, John D; Hoeneisen, Bruce; Hogan, Julie; Hohlfeld, Mark; Holzbauer, Jenny Lyn; Howley, Ian James; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hynek, Vlastislav; Iashvili, Ia; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Illingworth, Robert A; Ito, Albert S; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jaffre, Michel J; Jayasinghe, Ayesh; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jesik, Richard L; Jiang, Peng; Johns, Kenneth Arthur; Johnson, Emily; Johnson, Marvin E; Jonckheere, Alan M; Jonsson, Per Martin; Joshi, Jyoti; Jung, Andreas Werner; Juste, Aurelio; Kajfasz, Eric; Karmanov, Dmitriy Y; Katsanos, Ioannis; Kaur, Manbir; Kehoe, Robert Leo Patrick; Kermiche, Smain; Khalatyan, Norayr; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchilava, Avto; Kharzheev, Yuri N; Kiselevich, Ivan Lvovich; Kohli, Jatinder M; Kozelov, Alexander V; Kraus, James Alexander; Kumar, Ashish; Kupco, Alexander; Kurca, Tibor; Kuzmin, Valentin Alexandrovich; Lammers, Sabine Wedam; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Lee, Seh-Wook; Lee, William M; Lei, Xiaowen; Lellouch, Jeremie; Li, Dikai; Li, Hengne; Li, Liang; Li, Qi-Zhong; Lim, Jeong Ku; Lincoln, Donald W; Linnemann, James Thomas; Lipaev, Vladimir V; Lipton, Ronald J; Liu, Huanzhao; Liu, Yanwen; Lobodenko, Alexandre; Lokajicek, Milos; Lopes de Sa, Rafael; Luna-Garcia, Rene; Lyon, Adam Leonard; Maciel, Arthur KA; Madar, Romain; Magana-Villalba, Ricardo; Malik, Sudhir; Malyshev, Vladimir L; Mansour, Jason; Martinez-Ortega, Jorge; McCarthy, Robert L; Mcgivern, Carrie Lynne; Meijer, Melvin M; Melnitchouk, Alexander S; Menezes, Diego D; Mercadante, Pedro Galli; Merkin, Mikhail M; Meyer, Arnd; Meyer, Jorg Manfred; Miconi, Florian; Mondal, Naba K; Mulhearn, Michael James; Nagy, Elemer; Narain, Meenakshi; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer A; Negret, Juan Pablo; Neustroev, Petr V; Nguyen, Huong Thi; Nunnemann, Thomas P; Hernandez Orduna, Jose de Jesus; Osman, Nicolas Ahmed; Osta, Jyotsna; Pal, Arnab; Parashar, Neeti; Parihar, Vivek; Park, Sung Keun; Partridge, Richard A; Parua, Nirmalya; Patwa, Abid; Penning, Bjoern; Perfilov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Peters, Reinhild Yvonne Fatima; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrillo, Gianluca; Petroff, Pierre; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Podstavkov, Vladimir M; Popov, Alexey V; Prewitt, Michelle; Price, Darren; Prokopenko, Nikolay N; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quinn, Gene Breese; Ratoff, Peter N; Razumov, Ivan A; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rominsky, Mandy Kathleen; Ross, Anthony; Royon, Christophe; Rubinov, Paul Michael; Ruchti, Randal C; Sajot, Gerard; Sanchez-Hernandez, Alberto; Sanders, Michiel P; Santos, Angelo Souza; Savage, David G; Savitskyi, Mykola; Sawyer, HLee; Scanlon, Timothy P; Schamberger, RDean; Scheglov, Yury A; Schellman, Heidi M; Schott, Matthias; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwienhorst, Reinhard H; Sekaric, Jadranka; Severini, Horst; Shabalina, Elizaveta K; Shary, Viacheslav V; Shaw, Savanna; Shchukin, Andrey A; Simak, Vladislav J; Skubic, Patrick Louis; Slattery, Paul F; Smirnov, Dmitri V; Snow, Gregory R; Snow, Joel Mark; Snyder, Scott Stuart; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Sonnenschein, Lars; Soustruznik, Karel; Stark, Jan; Stoyanova, Dina A; Strauss, Michael G; Suter, Louise; Svoisky, Peter V; Titov, Maxim; Tokmenin, Valeriy V; Tsai, Yun-Tse; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuchming, Boris; Tully, Christopher George T; Uvarov, Lev; Uvarov, Sergey L; Uzunyan, Sergey A; Van Kooten, Richard J; van Leeuwen, Willem M; Varelas, Nikos; Varnes, Erich W; Vasilyev, Igor A; Verkheev, Alexander Yurievich; Vertogradov, Leonid S; Verzocchi, Marco; Vesterinen, Mika; Vilanova, Didier; Vokac, Petr; Wahl, Horst D; Wang, Michael HLS; Warchol, Jadwiga; Watts, Gordon Thomas; Wayne, Mitchell R; Weichert, Jonas; Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine; Williams, Mark Richard James; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Wobisch, Markus; Wood, Darien Robert; Wyatt, Terence R; Xie, Yunhe; Yamada, Ryuji; Yang, Siqi; Yasuda, Takahiro; Yatsunenko, Yuriy A; Ye, Wanyu; Ye, Zhenyu; Yin, Hang; Yip, Kin; Youn, Sungwoo; Yu, Jiaming; Zennamo, Joseph; Zhao, Tianqi Gilbert; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie; Zielinski, Marek; Zieminska, Daria; Zivkovic, Lidija
2015-10-14
We present the first search for CPT-violating effects in the mixing of ${B_s^0}$ mesons using the full Run II data set with an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We measure the CPT-violating asymmetry in the decay $B_s^0 \\to \\mu^\\pm D_s^\\pm$ as a function of celestial direction and sidereal phase. We find no evidence for CPT-violating effects and place limits on the direction and magnitude of flavor-dependent CPT- and Lorentz-invariance violating coupling coefficients. We find 95\\% confidence intervals of $\\Delta a_{\\perp} < 1.2 \\times 10^{-12}$ GeV and $(-0.8 < \\Delta a_T - 0.396 \\Delta a_Z < 3.9) \\times 10^{-13}$ GeV.
A New Limit on Planck Scale Lorentz Violation from Gamma-ray Burst Polarization
Stecker, Floyd W.
2011-01-01
Constraints on possible Lorentz invariance violation (UV) to first order in E/M(sub Plank) for photons in the framework of effective field theory (EFT) are discussed, taking cosmological factors into account. Then. using the reported detection of polarized soft gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst GRB041219a that is indicative' of an absence of vacuum birefringence, together with a very recent improved method for estimating the redshift of the burst, we derive constraints on the dimension 5 Lorentz violating modification to the Lagrangian of an effective local QFT for QED. Our new constraints are more than five orders of magnitude better than recent constraints from observations of the Crab Nebula.. We obtain the upper limit on the Lorentz violating dimension 5 EFT parameter absolute value of zeta of 2.4 x 10(exp -15), corresponding to a constraint on the dimension 5 standard model extension parameter. Kappa (sup 5) (sub (v)oo) much less than 4.2 X 10(exp -3)4 / GeV.
Lorentz invariance violation and electromagnetic field in an intrinsically anisotropic spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Zhe [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China); Wang, Sai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2012-09-15
Recently, Kostelecky [V.A. Kostelecky, Phys. Lett. B 701, 137 (2011)] proposed that the spontaneous Lorentz invariance violation (sLIV) is related to Finsler geometry. Finsler spacetime is intrinsically anisotropic and naturally induces Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). In this paper, the electromagnetic field is investigated in locally Minkowski spacetime. The Lagrangian is presented explicitly for the electromagnetic field. It is compatible with the one in the standard model extension (SME). We show the Lorentz-violating Maxwell equations as well as the electromagnetic wave equation. The formal plane wave solution is obtained for the electromagnetic wave. The speed of light may depend on the direction of light and the lightcone may be enlarged or narrowed. The LIV effects could be viewed as influence from an anisotropic media on the electromagnetic wave. In addition, birefringence of light will not emerge at the leading order in this model. A constraint on the spacetime anisotropy is obtained from observations on gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). (orig.)
Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbunov, Dmitry S.; Sibiryakov, Sergei M.
2005-01-01
We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances
Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorbunov, Dmitry S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, Sergei M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2005-09-15
We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Kooten, R. [Indiana U.
2017-01-01
A search is presented for CPT-violating effects in the mixing of $B^0_s$ mesons using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The CPT-violating asymmetry in the decay $B^0_s \\rightarrow \\mu^{\\pm} D_s^{\\mp} X$ as a function of sidereal phase is measured. No evidence for CPT-violating effects is observed and limits are placed on CPT- and Lorentz-invariance violating coupling coefficients.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katori, Teppei [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)
2008-12-01
The Mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is designed to search for v_{μ} → v_{e} appearance neutrino oscillations. Muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interactions (v_{μ} + n → μ + p) make up roughly 40% of our data sample, and it is used to constrain the background and cross sections for the oscillation analysis. Using high-statistics MiniBooNE CCQE data, the muon-neutrino CCQE cross section is measured. The nuclear model is tuned precisely using the MiniBooNE data. The measured total cross section is σ = (1.058 ± 0.003 (stat) ± 0.111 (syst)) x 10^{-38} cm^{2} at the MiniBooNE muon neutrino beam energy (700-800 MeV). v_{e} appearance candidate data is also used to search for Lorentz violation. Lorentz symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in modern physics. Neutrino oscillations offer a new method to test it. We found that the MiniBooNE result is not well-described using Lorentz violation, however further investigation is required for a more conclusive result.
Exact Lorentz-violating all-loop ultraviolet divergences in scalar field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carvalho, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Fisica, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Sena-Junior, M.I. [Universidade de Pernambuco, Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, AL (Brazil)
2017-11-15
In this work we evaluate analytically the ultraviolet divergences of Lorentz-violating massive O(N) λφ{sup 4} scalar field theories, which are exact in the Lorentz-violating mechanism, firstly explicitly at next-to-leading order and latter at any loop level through an induction procedure based on a theorem following from the exact approach, for computing the corresponding critical exponents. For attaining that goal, we employ three different and independent field-theoretic renormalization group methods. The results found for the critical exponents show that they are identical in the three distinct methods and equal to their Lorentz-invariant counterparts. Furthermore, we show that the results obtained here, based on the single concept of loop order of the referred terms of the corresponding β-function and anomalous dimensions, reduce to the ones obtained through the earlier non-exact approach based on a joint redefinition of the field and coupling constant of the theory, in the appropriate limit. (orig.)
Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.
Shao, Lijing
2014-03-21
The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.
Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity
Faizal, Mir
2011-10-01
In this paper, we will study the spontaneous breakdown of the Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity. Our analysis will be done in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. We will also analyse the modification of the BRST and anti-BRST transformations by the formation of this ghost condensate. It will be shown that even though the modified BRST and anti-BRST transformations are not nilpotent, their nilpotency is restored on-shell.
Dimensional reduction of a Lorentz and CPT-violating Maxwell-Chern-Simons model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H. Jr.; Helayel Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas; Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); E-mails: belich@cbpf.br; helayel@cbpf.br; Ferreira, M.M. Jr. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Maranhao Univ., Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: manojr@cbpf.br; Orlando, M.T.D. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Quimica; E-mail: orlando@cce.ufes.br
2003-01-01
Taking as starting point a Lorentz and CPT non-invariant Chern-Simons-like model defined in 1+3 dimensions, we proceed realizing its dimensional to D = 1+2. One then obtains a new planar model, composed by the Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) sector, a Klein-Gordon massless scalar field, and a coupling term that mixes the gauge field to the external vector, {nu}{sup {mu}}. In spite of breaking Lorentz invariance in the particle frame, this model may preserve the CPT symmetry for a single particular choice of {nu}{sup {mu}} . Analyzing the dispersion relations, one verifies that the reduced model exhibits stability, but the causality can be jeopardized by some modes. The unitary of the gauge sector is assured without any restriction , while the scalar sector is unitary only in the space-like case. (author)
Dimensional reduction of a Lorentz and CPT-violating Maxwell-Chern-Simons model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belich, H. Jr.; Helayel Neto, J.A.; Ferreira, M.M. Jr.; Maranhao Univ., Sao Luiz, MA; Orlando, M.T.D.; Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES
2003-01-01
Taking as starting point a Lorentz and CPT non-invariant Chern-Simons-like model defined in 1+3 dimensions, we proceed realizing its dimensional to D = 1+2. One then obtains a new planar model, composed by the Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) sector, a Klein-Gordon massless scalar field, and a coupling term that mixes the gauge field to the external vector, ν μ . In spite of breaking Lorentz invariance in the particle frame, this model may preserve the CPT symmetry for a single particular choice of ν μ . Analyzing the dispersion relations, one verifies that the reduced model exhibits stability, but the causality can be jeopardized by some modes. The unitary of the gauge sector is assured without any restriction , while the scalar sector is unitary only in the space-like case. (author)
Quantization of Space-like States in Lorentz-Violating Theories
Colladay, Don
2018-01-01
Lorentz violation frequently induces modified dispersion relations that can yield space-like states that impede the standard quantization procedures. In certain cases, an extended Hamiltonian formalism can be used to define observer-covariant normalization factors for field expansions and phase space integrals. These factors extend the theory to include non-concordant frames in which there are negative-energy states. This formalism provides a rigorous way to quantize certain theories containing space-like states and allows for the consistent computation of Cherenkov radiation rates in arbitrary frames and avoids singular expressions.
Lorentz-violating Yang-Mills theory. Discussing the Chern-Simons-like term generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Tiago R.S.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F. [UFF-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2017-12-15
We analyze the Chern-Simons-like term generation in the CPT-odd Lorentz-violating Yang-Mills theory interacting with fermions. Moreover, we study the anomalies of this model as well as its quantum stability. The whole analysis is performed within the algebraic renormalization theory, which is independent of the renormalization scheme. In addition, all results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory. We find that the Chern-Simons-like term is not generated by radiative corrections, just like its Abelian version. Additionally, the model is also free of gauge anomalies and quantum stable. (orig.)
Classical kinematics and Finsler structures for nonminimal Lorentz-violating fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schreck, M. [Indiana University, Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries, Bloomington, IN (United States)
2015-05-15
In the current paper the Lagrangian of a classical, relativistic point particle is obtained whose conjugate momentum satisfies the dispersion relation of a quantum wave packet that is subject to Lorentz violation based on a particular coefficient of the nonminimal standard-model extension (SME). The properties of this Lagrangian are analyzed and two corresponding Finsler structures are obtained. One structure describes a scaled Euclidean geometry, whereas the other is neither a Riemann nor a Randers or Kropina structure. The results of the article provide some initial understanding of classical Lagrangians of the nonminimal SME fermion sector. (orig.)
Classical kinematics and Finsler structures for nonminimal Lorentz-violating fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schreck, M.
2015-01-01
In the current paper the Lagrangian of a classical, relativistic point particle is obtained whose conjugate momentum satisfies the dispersion relation of a quantum wave packet that is subject to Lorentz violation based on a particular coefficient of the nonminimal standard-model extension (SME). The properties of this Lagrangian are analyzed and two corresponding Finsler structures are obtained. One structure describes a scaled Euclidean geometry, whereas the other is neither a Riemann nor a Randers or Kropina structure. The results of the article provide some initial understanding of classical Lagrangians of the nonminimal SME fermion sector. (orig.)
Local effects of the quantum vacuum in Lorentz-violating electrodynamics
Martín-Ruiz, A.; Escobar, C. A.
2017-02-01
The Casimir effect is one of the most remarkable consequences of the nonzero vacuum energy predicted by quantum field theory. In this paper we use a local approach to study the Lorentz violation effects of the minimal standard model extension on the Casimir force between two parallel conducting plates in the vacuum. Using a perturbative method similar to that used for obtaining the Born series for the scattering amplitudes in quantum mechanics, we compute, at leading order in the Lorentz-violating coefficients, the relevant Green's function which satisfies given boundary conditions. The standard point-splitting technique allow us to express the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor in terms of the Green's function. We discuss its structure in the region between the plates. We compute the renormalized vacuum stress, which is obtained as the difference between the vacuum stress in the presence of the plates and that of the vacuum. The Casimir force is evaluated in an analytical fashion by two methods: by differentiating the renormalized global energy density and by computing the normal-normal component of the renormalized vacuum stress. We compute the local Casimir energy, which is found to diverge as approaching the plates, and we demonstrate that it does not contribute to the observable force.
Test of Lorentz and CPT violation with short baseline neutrino oscillation excesses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Anderson, C.E. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Bazarko, A.O. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bugel, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cao, J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Coney, L. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Conrad, J.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cox, D.C. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Curioni, A. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Dharmapalan, R. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Finley, D.A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fleming, B.T. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Garvey, G.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grange, J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Green, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); and others
2013-01-29
The sidereal time dependence of MiniBooNE {nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sup Macron }{sub e} appearance data is analyzed to search for evidence of Lorentz and CPT violation. An unbinned Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test shows both the {nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sup Macron }{sub e} appearance data are compatible with the null sidereal variation hypothesis to more than 5%. Using an unbinned likelihood fit with a Lorentz-violating oscillation model derived from the Standard Model Extension (SME) to describe any excess events over background, we find that the {nu}{sub e} appearance data prefer a sidereal time-independent solution, and the {nu}{sup Macron }{sub e} appearance data slightly prefer a sidereal time-dependent solution. Limits of order 10{sup -20} GeV are placed on combinations of SME coefficients. These limits give the best limits on certain SME coefficients for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sup Macron }{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sup Macron }{sub e} oscillations. The fit values and limits of combinations of SME coefficients are provided.
Test of Lorentz and CPT violation with short baseline neutrino oscillation excesses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.A.; Fleming, B.T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G.; Garvey, G.T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.
2013-01-01
The sidereal time dependence of MiniBooNE ν e and ν ¯ e appearance data is analyzed to search for evidence of Lorentz and CPT violation. An unbinned Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K–S) test shows both the ν e and ν ¯ e appearance data are compatible with the null sidereal variation hypothesis to more than 5%. Using an unbinned likelihood fit with a Lorentz-violating oscillation model derived from the Standard Model Extension (SME) to describe any excess events over background, we find that the ν e appearance data prefer a sidereal time-independent solution, and the ν ¯ e appearance data slightly prefer a sidereal time-dependent solution. Limits of order 10 −20 GeV are placed on combinations of SME coefficients. These limits give the best limits on certain SME coefficients for ν μ →ν e and ν ¯ μ →ν ¯ e oscillations. The fit values and limits of combinations of SME coefficients are provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casana, R.; Ferreira, M.M., E-mail: manojr.ufma@gmail.com; Mouchrek-Santos, V.E.; Silva, Edilberto O.
2015-06-30
We have demonstrated that Lorentz-violating terms stemming from the fermion sector of the SME are able to generate geometrical phases on the wave function of electrons confined in 1-dimensional rings, as well as persistent spin currents, in the total absence of electromagnetic fields. We have explicitly evaluated the eigenenergies and eigenspinors of the electrons modified by the Lorentz-violating terms, using them to calculate the dynamic and the Aharonov–Anandan phases in the sequel. The total phase presents a pattern very similar to the Aharonov–Casher phase accumulated by electrons in rings under the action of the Rashba interaction. Finally, the persistent spin current were carried out and used to impose upper bounds on the Lorentz-violating parameters.
Aspects of quantum corrections in a Lorentz-violating extension of the abelian Higgs Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brito, L.C.T.; Fargnoli, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil); Scarpelli, A.P. Baeta [Departamento de Policia Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: We have investigated new aspects related to the four-dimensional abelian gauge-Higgs model with the addition of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw term (CFJ). We have focused on one-loop quantum corrections to the photon and Higgs sectors and we have analyzed what kind of effects are induced at the quantum level by spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking due the presence of the CFJ term. We have shown that new finite and non-ambiguous Lorentz-breaking terms are induced in both sectors at second order in the background vector. Specifically in the pure gauge sector, a CPT-even aether term (free from ambiguities) is induced. A CPT-even term is also induced in the pure Higgs sector. Both terms have been mapped in the Standard Model Extension. Besides, aspects of the one-loop renormalization of the background vector dependent terms have been studied. The new divergences due the presence of the CFJ term were shown to be worked out by the renormalization condition which requires the vanishing of the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. So at one loop the CFJ term does not spoil the well known renormalizability of the model without Lorentz symmetry breaking terms. The calculations have been done within dimensional methods and in an arbitrary gauge choice. (author)
Dai, Wei-Ming; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong
2017-06-01
We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, Wei-Ming; Cai, Rong-Gen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Guo, Zong-Kuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yuan-Zhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China)
2017-06-15
We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Wei-Ming; Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong
2017-01-01
We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density. (orig.)
Overview: Parity Violation and Fundamental Symmetries
Carlini, Roger
2017-09-01
The fields of nuclear and particle physics have undertaken extensive programs of research to search for evidence of new phenomena via the precision measurement of observables that are well predicted within the standard model of electroweak interaction. It is already known that the standard model is incomplete as it does not include gravity and dark matter/energy and therefore likely the low energy approximation of a more complex theory. This talk will be an overview of the motivation, experimental methods and status of some of these efforts (past and future) related to precision in-direct searches that are complementary to the direct searches underway at the Large Hadron Collider. This abstract is for the invited talk associated with the Mini-symposium titled ``Electro-weak Physics and Fundamental Symmetries'' organized by Julie Roche.
Lorentz-violating contributions to the nuclear Schiff moment and nuclear EDM
Araujo, Jonas B.; Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M.
2018-03-01
In the context of an atom endowed with nuclear electric dipole moments (EDM), we consider the effects on the Schiff moment of C P T -even Lorentz-violating (LV) terms that modify the Coulomb potential. First, we study the modifications on the Schiff moment when the nucleus interacts with the electronic cloud by means of a Coulomb potential altered only by the P -even LV components. Next, by supposing the existence of an additional intrinsic LV EDM generated by other LV sources, we assess the corrections to the Schiff moment when the interaction nucleus-electrons runs mediated by a Coulomb potential modified by both the P -odd and P -even LV components. We then use known estimates and EDM measurements to discuss upper bounds on the new Schiff moment components and the possibility of a nuclear EDM component ascribed to LV effects.
Constraints on spacetime anisotropy and Lorentz violation from the GRAAL experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Zhe [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China); Wang, Sai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2013-02-15
The GRAAL experiment could constrain the variations of the speed of light. The anisotropy of the speed of light may imply that the spacetime is anisotropic. Finsler geometry is a reasonable candidate to deal with the spacetime anisotropy. In this paper, the Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) of the photon sector is investigated in the locally Minkowski spacetime. The locally Minkowski spacetime is a class of flat Finsler spacetime and refers a metric with the anisotropic departure from the Minkowski one. The LIV matrices used to fit the experimental data are represented in terms of these metric deviations. The GRAAL experiment constrains the spacetime anisotropy to be less than 10{sup -14}. In addition, we find that the simplest Finslerian photon sector could be viewed as a geometric representation of the photon sector in the minimal standard model extension (SME). (orig.)
Effective potential in Lorentz-breaking field theory models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Nova Gameleira Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Brito, L.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Felipe, J.C.C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Engenharia, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Veredas, Janauba, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2017-12-15
We calculate explicitly the one-loop effective potential in different Lorentz-breaking field theory models. First, we consider a Yukawa-like theory and some examples of Lorentz-violating extensions of scalar QED. We observe, for the extended QED models, that the resulting effective potential converges to the known result in the limit in which Lorentz symmetry is restored. Besides, the one-loop corrections to the effective potential in all the cases we study depend on the background tensors responsible for the Lorentz-symmetry violation. This has consequences for physical quantities like, for example, in the induced mass due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. (orig.)
Effective potential in Lorentz-breaking field theory models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baeta Scarpelli, A.P.; Brito, L.C.T.; Felipe, J.C.C.; Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu.
2017-01-01
We calculate explicitly the one-loop effective potential in different Lorentz-breaking field theory models. First, we consider a Yukawa-like theory and some examples of Lorentz-violating extensions of scalar QED. We observe, for the extended QED models, that the resulting effective potential converges to the known result in the limit in which Lorentz symmetry is restored. Besides, the one-loop corrections to the effective potential in all the cases we study depend on the background tensors responsible for the Lorentz-symmetry violation. This has consequences for physical quantities like, for example, in the induced mass due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. (orig.)
R-symmetry violation in N=2 SUSY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, G.G.; Maslikov, A.A.
1990-01-01
The present paper discusses the spontaneous R-symmetry violation in the N=2 SUSY SU(4)xU(1) model with soft SUSY breaking terms preserving finiteness. (In this case an invisible axion appears). In particular, the mechanism producting a light photino mass up to some GeV is suggested. In R-odd version of this model the mechanisms of enhancement of the neutrino decay is discussed. 10 refs.; 3 figs
CP symmetry violation. The search for its origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cronin, J.W.
1981-01-01
The present experimental situation on detection of CP symmetry violation is presented. Interference between decays of long-lived (Ksub(L)sup(0)) and short-lived (Ksub(S)sup(0)) mesons into two charged pions serves a direct demonstration of the fact that the effect is caused by CP symmetry breaking. The time distribution of decays into π + π - when the 4-10 GeV Ksub(L) meson beam passes through a carbon regenerator is given as an example of the measurement accuracy. The measurements of the charge asymmetry in half-lepton channels of Ksub(L)→π +- l +- ν decay where l is an electron or a muon are discussed. It is noted that the presence of the charge asymmetry serves an indication of CP invariance violation and permits to carry out experimental differentiation between the matter and antimatter. Different theoretical assumptions on the nature of CP invariance violation are discussed. A list of experiments on search for CP, T and C invariance violation carried out in different laboratories of the world is given [ru
Constraints on relativity violations from gamma-ray bursts.
Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2013-05-17
Tiny violations of the Lorentz symmetry of relativity and the associated discrete CPT symmetry could emerge in a consistent theory of quantum gravity such as string theory. Recent evidence for linear polarization in gamma-ray bursts improves existing sensitivities to Lorentz and CPT violation involving photons by factors ranging from ten to a million.
Test of Lorentz symmetry with a 3He/129Xe clock-comparison experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gemmel, Claudia
2011-01-01
The minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) of Kostelecky and coworkers, which parametrizes the general treatment of CPT- and Lorentz invariance violation, predicts sidereal modulations of atomic transition frequencies as the Earth rotates relative to a Lorentz-violating background field. One method to search for these modulations is the so-called clock-comparison experiment, where the frequencies of co-located clocks are compared as they rotate with respect to the fixed stars. In this work an experiment is presented where polarized 3 He and 129 Xe gas samples in a glass cell serve as clocks, whose nuclear spin precession frequencies are detected with the help of highly sensitive SQUID sensors inside a magnetically shielded room. The unique feature of this experiment is the fact that the spins are precessing freely, with transverse relaxation times T * 2 of up to 4.4 h for 129 Xe and 14.1 h for 3 He. To be sensitive to Lorentz-violating effects, the influence of external magnetic fields is canceled via the weighted 3 He/ 129 Xe phase difference, ΔΦ=Φ he -(γ he )/(γ xe ) Φ xe . The Lorentz-violating SME parameters for the neutron, b n X and b n Y , are determined out of a χ 2 fit on the phase difference data of 7 spin precession measurements of 12 to 16 hours length. The piecewise defined fit model contains a sine and a cosine term to describe the sidereal modulation, as well as 7 offset terms, 7 linear terms and 7 . 2 exponential terms decreasing with T * 2,he and T * 2,xe , which are assigned to the respective measurement. The linear term in the weighted phase difference mainly arises from deviations of the gyromagnetic ratios from their literature values due to chemical shifts, while the exponential terms reflect the phase shifts resulting from demagnetization fields in the non-ideally spherical sample cell. The result of the χ 2 fit constrains the parameter b n perpendicular to =√((b n X ) 2 +(b n Y ) 2 ) to be -32 GeV at the 95% confidence level. This
Constraints on torsion from the bosonic sector of Lorentz violation and magnetogenesis data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia de Andrade, L.C.
2011-01-01
A. Kostelecky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 111102], have shown that there is an exceptional sensitivity of spacetime torsion components by coupling it to fermions and constraining it to Lorentz violation. They obtain new constraints on torsion components down to the level of 10 -31 GeV. Yet more recently, L.C. Garcia de Andrade [Phys. Lett. B 468 (2011) 28] has shown that the photon sector of Lorentz violation (LV) Lagrangian leads to linear non-standard Maxwell equations where the magnetic field decays slower giving rise to a seed for galactic dynamos. In this paper bounds are placed on torsion based on the magnetogenesis or the origin of magnetic fields in the universe. On a coherence scale of 10 kpc, galactic magnetic fields of the order of some μG yield a torsion primordial field of the order of K 0 ∼10 -48 GeV. Just to give an idea of how tiny it is we mention that torsion limit in the Early universe yield K 0 ∼10 -31 GeV had been obtained by V. de Sabbata and C. Sivaram. Good limits were also obtained by B.R. Heckel et al. [Phys. Rev. D 78 (2008) 092006]. In our case the advantage from astro-particle physics point of view, is that a very small seed torsion field is enough to seed galactic dynamo. C. Sivaram limit is obtained from a massive photon electrodynamics [L.C. Garcia de Andrade, C. Sivaram, Ap. Space Sci. 209 (1993) 109] where a gauge invariant electrodynamics is used. Dynamo stars data are able to raise this value of torsion up to 10 -34 GeV at magnetar atmosphere. From these estimates one notices that they coincide with the ones obtained by A. Kostelecky et al., the difference being basically in the method. The ones here were obtained from magnetogenesis data while theirs were obtained from the Earth laboratory data from polarised electrons. Besides here one used the torsion derivatives while A. Kostelecky et al. uses the constant axial torsion tensor. Another fundamental distinction is that we use bosonic sector of the Lagrangian while
Lorentz violation bounds from torsion trace fermion sector and galaxy M51 data and chiral dynamos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia de Andrade, L.C. [IF-UERJ, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-06-15
Earlier we have computed a Lorentz violation (LV) bound for torsion terms via galactic dynamos and found bounds similar to the one obtained by Kostelecky et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:111102, 2008) which is of the order of 10{sup -31} GeV. Their result was found making use of the axial torsion vector in terms of Dirac spinors and minimal torsion coupling in flat space-time of fermions. In this paper, a torsion dynamo equation obtained using the variation of the torsion trace and galaxy M51 data of 500 pc are used to place an upper bound of 10{sup -26} GeV in LV, which agrees with the one by Kostelecky and his group using an astrophysical framework background. Their lowest bound was obtained in earth laboratory using dual masers. One of the purposes of this paper is to apply the Faraday self-induction magnetic equation, recently extended to torsioned space-time, by the author to show that it lends support to physics in Riemann-Cartan space-time, in several distinct physical backgrounds. Backreaction magnetic effects are used to obtain the LV bounds. Previously Bamba et al. (JCAP 10:058, 2012) have used the torsion trace in their teleparallel investigation of the IGMF, with the argument that the torsion trace leads to less weaker effects than the other irreducible components of the torsion tensor. LV is computed in terms of a chiral-torsion-like current in the new dynamo equation analogous to the Dvornikov and Semikoz dynamo equation with chiral magnetic currents. Making use of the chiral-torsion dynamo equation we estimate the LV bounds in the early universe to be of the order of 10{sup -24} GeV, which was the order of the charged-lepton sector. Our main result is that it is possible to obtain more stringent bounds than the ones found in the fermion sector of astrophysics in the new revised 2017 data table for CPT and Lorentz violation by Kostelecky and Mewes. They found in several astrophysical backgrounds, orders of magnitude such as 10{sup -24} and 10{sup -23} Ge
Testing Lorentz invariance emergence in Ising Model using lattice Monte Carlo simulations
Stojku, Stefan
2017-01-01
All measurements performed so far at the observable energy scales show no violation of Lorentz invariance. However, it is yet impossible to check experimentally whether this symmetry holds at high energies such as the Planck scale. Recently, theories of gravitation with Lorentz violation, known as Horava-Lifshitz gravity [1, 2] have gained signiﬁcant attention by treating Lorentz symmetry as an emergent phenomenon. A Lif-shitz type theory assumes an anisotropic scaling between space and time weighted by some critical exponent. In order for these theories to be viable candidates for quantum gravity description of the nature, Lorentz symmetry needs to be recovered at low energies.
The Search for Fundamental Symmetry Violation in Radium Nuclei
Dietrich, Matthew; Bishof, Michael; Bailey, Kevin; Greene, John; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Rabga, Tenzin; Ready, Roy; Singh, Jaideep
2017-09-01
Electric dipole moments (EDMs) are signatures of time-reversal, parity, and charge-parity (CP) violation, which makes them a sensitive probe of expected new physics beyond the Standard Model. Due to its large nuclear octupole deformation and high atomic mass, the radioactive Ra-225 isotope is a favorable EDM case; it is particularly sensitive to CP-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. We have developed a cold-atom approach of measuring the atomic EDM of atoms held stationary in an optical dipole trap, which we have used to place the only upper limit on the EDM of radium, |d(225Ra)|EDM, but also the first time the EDM of any octupole deformed species has been measured. We will present results on a new approach to spin detection that we expect to improve our EDM sensitivity by a factor of 20. Combined with upcoming improvements to our electric field generation, the next measurement should be competitive with the best neutron EDM result, in terms of sensitivity to CP-violating interactions. The Search for Fudamental Symmetry Violation in Radium Nuclei. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
An application of Lorentz-invariance violation in black hole thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Pu, Jin [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Qing-Quan [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China)
2017-10-15
In this paper, we have applied the Lorentz-invariance violation (LIV) class of dispersion relations (DRs) with the dimensionless parameter n = 2 and the ''sign of LIV'' η{sub +} = 1, to a phenomenological study of the effect of quantum gravity in a strong gravitational field. Specifically, we have studied the effect of the LIV-DR induced quantum gravity on the Schwarzschild black hole thermodynamics. The result shows that the effect of the LIV-DR induced quantum gravity speeds up the black hole evaporation, and its corresponding black hole entropy undergoes a leading logarithmic correction to the ''reduced Bekenstein-Hawking entropy'', and the ill-defined situations (i.e. the singularity problem and the critical problem) are naturally bypassed when the LIV-DR effect is present. Also, to put our results in a proper perspective, we have compared results with the earlier findings by another quantum-gravity candidate, i.e. the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Finally, we conclude from the inert remnants at the final stage of the black hole evaporation that, the GUP as a candidate for describing quantum gravity can always do as well as the LIV-DR by adjusting the model-dependent parameters, but in the same model-dependent parameters the LIV-DR acts as a more suitable candidate. (orig.)
String Quantum Gravity, Lorentz-Invariance Violation and Gamma-Ray Astronomy
Mavromatos, Nick E
2010-01-01
In the first part of the review, I discuss ways of obtaining Lorentz-Invariance-Violating (LIV) space-time foam in the modern context of string theory, involving brane world scenarios. The foamy structures are provided by lower-dimensional background brane defects in a D3-brane Universe, whose density is a free parameter to be constrained phenomenologically. Such constraining can be provided by high energy gamma-ray photon tests, including ultra-high energy/infrared photon-photon scattering. In the second part, I analyze the currently available data from MAGIC and FERMI Telescopes on delayed cosmic photon arrivals in this context. It is understood of course that conventional Astrophysics source effects, which currently are far from being understood, might be the dominant reason for the observed delayed arrivals. I also discuss how the stringent constraints from studies of synchrotron-radiation from distant Nebulae, absence of cosmic birefringence and non observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic photons can be ...
Black holes in multi-fractional and Lorentz-violating models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calcagni, Gianluca [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez Fernandez, David [Universidad de Oviedo, Department of Physics, Oviedo (Spain); Ronco, Michele [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy)
2017-05-15
We study static and radially symmetric black holes in the multi-fractional theories of gravity with q-derivatives and with weighted derivatives, frameworks where the spacetime dimension varies with the probed scale and geometry is characterized by at least one fundamental length l{sub *}. In the q-derivatives scenario, one finds a tiny shift of the event horizon. Schwarzschild black holes can present an additional ring singularity, not present in general relativity, whose radius is proportional to l{sub *}. In the multi-fractional theory with weighted derivatives, there is no such deformation, but non-trivial geometric features generate a cosmological-constant term, leading to a de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. For both scenarios, we compute the Hawking temperature and comment on the resulting black-hole thermodynamics. In the case with q-derivatives, black holes can be hotter than usual and possess an additional ring singularity, while in the case with weighted derivatives they have a de Sitter hair of purely geometric origin, which may lead to a solution of the cosmological constant problem similar to that in unimodular gravity. Finally, we compare our findings with other Lorentz-violating models. (orig.)
Lorentz invariance violation and chemical composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saveliev, Andrey; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2010-12-15
Motivated by experimental indications of a significant presence of heavy nuclei in the cosmic ray flux at ultra high energies (>or similar 10{sup 19} eV), we consider the effects of Planck scale suppressed Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) on the propagation of cosmic ray nuclei. In particular we focus on LIV effects on the photodisintegration of nuclei onto the background radiation fields. After a general discussion of the behavior of the relevant quantities, we apply our formalism to a simplified model where the LIV parameters of the various nuclei are assumed to kinematically result from a single LIV parameter for the constituent nucleons, {eta}, and we derive constraints on {eta}. Assuming a nucleus of a particular species to be actually present at 10{sup 20} eV the following constraints can be placed: -3 x 10{sup -2}
Lorentz invariance violation and simultaneous emission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Passos
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we compute some phenomenological bounds for the electromagnetic and massive gravitational high-derivative extensions supposing that it is possible to have an astrophysical process that generates simultaneously gravitational and electromagnetic waves. We present Lorentz invariance violating (LIV higher-order derivative models, following the Myers–Pospelov approach, to electrodynamics and massive gravitational waves. We compute the corrected equation of motion of these models, their dispersion relations and the velocities. The LIV parameters for the gravitational and electromagnetic sectors, ξg and ξγ, respectively, were also obtained for three different approaches: luminal photons, time delay of flight and the difference of graviton and photon velocities. These LIV parameters depend on the mass scales where the LIV-terms become relevant, M for the electromagnetic sector and M1 for the gravitational one. We obtain, using the values for M and M1 found in the literature, that ξg∼10−2, which is expected to be phenomenologically relevant and ξγ∼103, which cannot be suitable for an effective LIV theory. However, we show that ξγ can be interesting in a phenomenological point of view if M≫M1. Finally the relation between the variation of the velocities of the photon and the graviton in relation to the speed of light was calculated and resulted in Δvg/Δvγ≲1.82×10−3.
Black holes in multi-fractional and Lorentz-violating models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Rodriguez Fernandez, David; Ronco, Michele
2017-01-01
We study static and radially symmetric black holes in the multi-fractional theories of gravity with q-derivatives and with weighted derivatives, frameworks where the spacetime dimension varies with the probed scale and geometry is characterized by at least one fundamental length l_*. In the q-derivatives scenario, one finds a tiny shift of the event horizon. Schwarzschild black holes can present an additional ring singularity, not present in general relativity, whose radius is proportional to l_*. In the multi-fractional theory with weighted derivatives, there is no such deformation, but non-trivial geometric features generate a cosmological-constant term, leading to a de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. For both scenarios, we compute the Hawking temperature and comment on the resulting black-hole thermodynamics. In the case with q-derivatives, black holes can be hotter than usual and possess an additional ring singularity, while in the case with weighted derivatives they have a de Sitter hair of purely geometric origin, which may lead to a solution of the cosmological constant problem similar to that in unimodular gravity. Finally, we compare our findings with other Lorentz-violating models. (orig.)
Searches for Lorentz violation in {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe clock comparison experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allmendinger, F. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut (Germany); Burghoff, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Heil, W., E-mail: wheil@uni-mainz.de; Karpuk, S. [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Kilian, W.; Knappe-Grueneberg, S.; Mueller, W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Schmidt, U. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut (Germany); Schnabel, A.; Seifert, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Sobolev, Yu [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Trahms, L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Tullney, K. [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)
2013-03-15
We discuss the design and performance of a very sensitive low-field magnetometer based on the detection of free spin precession of gaseous, nuclear polarized {sup 3}He or {sup 129}Xe samples with a SQUID as magnetic flux detector. Characteristic spin precession times T{sub 2}{sup Asterisk-Operator} of up to 115 h were measured in low magnetic fields (about 1 {mu}T) and in the regime of motional narrowing. With the detection of the free precession of co-located {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe nuclear spins (clock comparison), the device can be used as ultra-sensitive probe for non-magnetic spin interactions, since the magnetic dipole interaction (Zeeman-term) drops out in the weighted frequency difference, i.e., {Delta}{omega} = {omega}{sub He} - {gamma}{sub He}/{gamma}{sub Xe}{center_dot}{omega}{sub Xe}. We report on searches for Lorentz violating signatures by monitoring the Larmor frequencies of co-located {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe spin samples as the laboratory reference frame rotates with respect to distant stars (sidereal modulation).
Black holes in multi-fractional and Lorentz-violating models.
Calcagni, Gianluca; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Ronco, Michele
2017-01-01
We study static and radially symmetric black holes in the multi-fractional theories of gravity with q -derivatives and with weighted derivatives, frameworks where the spacetime dimension varies with the probed scale and geometry is characterized by at least one fundamental length [Formula: see text]. In the q -derivatives scenario, one finds a tiny shift of the event horizon. Schwarzschild black holes can present an additional ring singularity, not present in general relativity, whose radius is proportional to [Formula: see text]. In the multi-fractional theory with weighted derivatives, there is no such deformation, but non-trivial geometric features generate a cosmological-constant term, leading to a de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. For both scenarios, we compute the Hawking temperature and comment on the resulting black-hole thermodynamics. In the case with q -derivatives, black holes can be hotter than usual and possess an additional ring singularity, while in the case with weighted derivatives they have a de Sitter hair of purely geometric origin, which may lead to a solution of the cosmological constant problem similar to that in unimodular gravity. Finally, we compare our findings with other Lorentz-violating models.
Time reversal symmetry violation in the YbF molecule
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sauer, B. E., E-mail: ben.sauer@imperial.ac.uk; Devlin, J. A.; Hudson, J. J.; Kara, D. M.; Smallman, I. J.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Hinds, E. A. [Blackett Laboratory Imperial College London, Centre for Cold Matter (United Kingdom)
2013-03-15
We present a summary of the techniques used to test time reversal symmetry by measuring the permanent electric dipole moment of the YbF molecule. The results of a recent measurement (Hudson et al., Nature 473:493, 2011) are reported. We review some systematic effects which might mimic time reversal violation and describe how they are overcome. We then discuss improvements to the sensitivity of the apparatus, including both short term technical enhancements as well as a longer term goal to use laser cooled YbF in the experiment.
Vasileiou, V.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Bolmont, J.; Courturier, C.; Granot, J.; Stecker, Floyd William; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Longo, F.
2013-01-01
We analyze the MeV/GeV emission from four bright Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to produce robust, stringent constraints on a dependence of the speed of light in vacuo on the photon energy (vacuum dispersion), a form of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) allowed by some Quantum Gravity (QG) theories. First, we use three different and complementary techniques to constrain the total degree of dispersion observed in the data. Additionally, using a maximally conservative set of assumptions on possible source-intrinsic spectral-evolution effects, we constrain any vacuum dispersion solely attributed to LIV. We then derive limits on the "QG energy scale" (the energy scale that LIV-inducing QG effects become important, E(sub QG)) and the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension. For the subluminal case (where high energy photons propagate more slowly than lower energy photons) and without taking into account any source-intrinsic dispersion, our most stringent limits (at 95% CL) are obtained from GRB 090510 and are E(sub QG,1) > 7.6 times the Planck energy (E(sub Pl)) and E(sub QG,2) > 1.3×10(exp 11) GeV for linear and quadratic leading order LIV-induced vacuum dispersion, respectively. These limits improve the latest constraints by Fermi and H.E.S.S. by a factor of approx. 2. Our results disfavor any class of models requiring E(sub QG,1) < or approx. E(sub Pl)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toniolo, Giuliano R.; Fargnoli, H.G.; Brito, L.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Scarpelli, A.P.B. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2017-02-15
S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the physical equivalence between two Lorentz-breaking dual models. We begin with an extended Quantum Electrodynamics which incorporates CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms. Then, in a process of gauge embedding, its gauge-invariant dual model is obtained. The physical equivalence of the two models is established at tree level in the electron-electron scattering and the unpolarized cross section is calculated up to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toniolo, Giuliano R.; Fargnoli, H.G.; Brito, L.C.T.; Scarpelli, A.P.B.
2017-01-01
S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the physical equivalence between two Lorentz-breaking dual models. We begin with an extended Quantum Electrodynamics which incorporates CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms. Then, in a process of gauge embedding, its gauge-invariant dual model is obtained. The physical equivalence of the two models is established at tree level in the electron-electron scattering and the unpolarized cross section is calculated up to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter. (orig.)
Lorentz-Symmetry Test at Planck-Scale Suppression With a Spin-Polarized 133Cs Cold Atom Clock.
Pihan-Le Bars, H; Guerlin, C; Lasseri, R-D; Ebran, J-P; Bailey, Q G; Bize, S; Khan, E; Wolf, P
2018-06-01
We present the results of a local Lorentz invariance (LLI) test performed with the 133 Cs cold atom clock FO2, hosted at SYRTE. Such a test, relating the frequency shift between 133 Cs hyperfine Zeeman substates with the Lorentz violating coefficients of the standard model extension (SME), has already been realized by Wolf et al. and led to state-of-the-art constraints on several SME proton coefficients. In this second analysis, we used an improved model, based on a second-order Lorentz transformation and a self-consistent relativistic mean field nuclear model, which enables us to extend the scope of the analysis from purely proton to both proton and neutron coefficients. We have also become sensitive to the isotropic coefficient , another SME coefficient that was not constrained by Wolf et al. The resulting limits on SME coefficients improve by up to 13 orders of magnitude the present maximal sensitivities for laboratory tests and reach the generally expected suppression scales at which signatures of Lorentz violation could appear.
Electromagnetic contribution to charge symmetry violation in parton distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X.G. Wang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We report a calculation of the combined effect of photon radiation and quark mass differences on charge symmetry violation (CSV in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. Following a recent suggestion of Martin and Ryskin, the initial photon distribution is calculated in terms of coherent radiation from the proton as a whole, while the effect of the quark mass difference is based on a recent lattice QCD simulation. The distributions are then evolved to a scale at which they can be compared with experiment by including both QCD and QED radiation. Overall, at a scale of 5 GeV2, the total CSV effect on the phenomenologically important difference between the d and u-quark distributions is some 20% larger than the value based on quark mass differences alone. In total these sources of CSV account for approximately 40% of the NuTeV anomaly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laemmerzahl, Claus; Macias, Alfredo; Mueller, Holger
2005-01-01
All quantum gravity approaches lead to small modifications in the standard laws of physics which in most cases lead to violations of Lorentz invariance. One particular example is the extended standard model (SME). Here, a general phenomenological approach for extensions of the Maxwell equations is presented which turns out to be more general than the SME and which covers charge nonconservation (CNC), too. The new Lorentz invariance violating terms cannot be probed by optical experiments but need, instead, the exploration of the electromagnetic field created by a point charge or a magnetic dipole. Some scalar tensor theories and higher dimensional brane theories predict CNC in four dimensions and some models violating special relativity have been shown to be connected with CNC. Its relation to the Einstein Equivalence Principle has been discussed. Because of this upcoming interest, the experimental status of electric charge conservation is reviewed. Up to now there seem to exist no unique tests of charge conservation. CNC is related to the precession of polarization, to a modification of the 1/r-Coulomb potential, and to a time dependence of the fine structure constant. This gives the opportunity to describe a dedicated search for CNC
Soft CP violation and the global matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe
Senjanovic, G.; Stecker, F. W.
1980-01-01
Scenarios for baryon production are considered within the context of SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories where CP violation arises spontaneously. The spontaneous CP symmetry breaking then results in a matter-antimatter domain structure in the universe. Two possible, distinct types of theories of soft CP violation are defined. In the first type the CP nonconservation originates only from the breaking of SU(2) sub L X U(1) symmetry, and in the second type, even at the unification temperature scale, CP violation can emerge as a result of symmetry breaking by the vacuum expectation values of the superheavy Higgs sector scalars.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.J.B. Ghosh
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We consider four-dimensional chiral gauge theories defined over a spacetime manifold with topology R3×S1 and periodic boundary conditions over the compact dimension. The effective gauge-field action is calculated for Abelian U(1 gauge fields Aμ(x which depend on all four spacetime coordinates (including the coordinate x4∈S1 of the compact dimension and have vanishing components A4(x (implying trivial holonomies in the 4-direction. Our calculation shows that the effective gauge-field action contains a local Chern–Simons-like term which violates Lorentz and CPT invariance. This result is established perturbatively with a generalized Pauli–Villars regularization and nonperturbatively with a lattice regularization based on Ginsparg–Wilson fermions.
Ghosh, K. J. B.; Klinkhamer, F. R.
2018-01-01
We consider four-dimensional chiral gauge theories defined over a spacetime manifold with topology R3 ×S1 and periodic boundary conditions over the compact dimension. The effective gauge-field action is calculated for Abelian U (1) gauge fields Aμ (x) which depend on all four spacetime coordinates (including the coordinate x4 ∈S1 of the compact dimension) and have vanishing components A4 (x) (implying trivial holonomies in the 4-direction). Our calculation shows that the effective gauge-field action contains a local Chern-Simons-like term which violates Lorentz and CPT invariance. This result is established perturbatively with a generalized Pauli-Villars regularization and nonperturbatively with a lattice regularization based on Ginsparg-Wilson fermions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gazzola, G.; Fargnoli, H.G.; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Scarpelli, A.P. Baeta [Departamento de Policia Federal (DPF), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor Tecnico-Cientifico
2011-07-01
In this research we consider a modified version of quantum electrodynamics in four dimensions with the coupling between the photon and the fermion composed by two terms: a nonminimal and the minimal one. There are two interesting aspects in this model. First, gauge invariance is restored by the presence of the minimal coupling. Second, the quantum corrections will allow for the possibility of the generation of a Chern-Simons-like term. The fact that the model is gauge invariant allows for a more complete analysis on the value of both the coefficients of the hypothetical CPT odd and CPT even radiatively generated terms. A question that arises involves a possible violation of some Ward-Takahashi identity when radiative corrections are taken into account. In other words, is there an anomaly in the model? We show that, since conventional QED is gauge invariant, there is no room for a non transversal vacuum polarization tensor in the present model. This is study is to be presented in the following order: first we are to present the model; second we do an analysis on the generation of Lorentz violating terms in the pure gauge sector; third we carry out a calculation on gauge invariance grounds to fix the coefficients of the quantum corrections; and lastly the concluding comments. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazzola, G.; Fargnoli, H.G.; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M.C.; Scarpelli, A.P. Baeta
2011-01-01
In this research we consider a modified version of quantum electrodynamics in four dimensions with the coupling between the photon and the fermion composed by two terms: a nonminimal and the minimal one. There are two interesting aspects in this model. First, gauge invariance is restored by the presence of the minimal coupling. Second, the quantum corrections will allow for the possibility of the generation of a Chern-Simons-like term. The fact that the model is gauge invariant allows for a more complete analysis on the value of both the coefficients of the hypothetical CPT odd and CPT even radiatively generated terms. A question that arises involves a possible violation of some Ward-Takahashi identity when radiative corrections are taken into account. In other words, is there an anomaly in the model? We show that, since conventional QED is gauge invariant, there is no room for a non transversal vacuum polarization tensor in the present model. This is study is to be presented in the following order: first we are to present the model; second we do an analysis on the generation of Lorentz violating terms in the pure gauge sector; third we carry out a calculation on gauge invariance grounds to fix the coefficients of the quantum corrections; and lastly the concluding comments. (author)
Amelino-Camelia, G; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Piran, Tsvi
2001-01-01
One of the most puzzling current experimental physics paradoxes is the arrival on Earth of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with energies above the GZK threshold. The recent observation of 20TeV photons from Mk 501 is another somewhat similar paradox. Several models have been proposed for the UHECR paradox. No solution has yet been proposed for the TeV-$\\gamma$ paradox. Remarkably, the drastic assumption of a violation of ordinary Lorentz invariance would resolve both paradoxes. We present a formalism for the description of the type of Lorentz-invariance deformation (LID) that could be induced by non-trivial short-distance structure of space-time, and we show that this formalism is well suited for comparison of experimental data with LID predictions. We use the UHECR and TeV-$\\gamma$ data, as well as bounds on time-of-flight differences between photons of different energies, to constrain the LID parameter space. A model with only two parameters, an energy scale and a dimensionless parameter characterizing the fu...
Test of Lorentz symmetry with a {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe clock-comparison experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gemmel, Claudia
2011-01-28
The minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) of Kostelecky and coworkers, which parametrizes the general treatment of CPT- and Lorentz invariance violation, predicts sidereal modulations of atomic transition frequencies as the Earth rotates relative to a Lorentz-violating background field. One method to search for these modulations is the so-called clock-comparison experiment, where the frequencies of co-located clocks are compared as they rotate with respect to the fixed stars. In this work an experiment is presented where polarized {sup 3}He and {sup 129}Xe gas samples in a glass cell serve as clocks, whose nuclear spin precession frequencies are detected with the help of highly sensitive SQUID sensors inside a magnetically shielded room. The unique feature of this experiment is the fact that the spins are precessing freely, with transverse relaxation times T{sup *}{sub 2} of up to 4.4 h for {sup 129}Xe and 14.1 h for {sup 3}He. To be sensitive to Lorentz-violating effects, the influence of external magnetic fields is canceled via the weighted {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe phase difference, {delta}{phi}={phi}{sub he}-({gamma}{sub he})/({gamma}{sub xe}) {phi}{sub xe}. The Lorentz-violating SME parameters for the neutron, b{sup n}{sub X} and b{sup n}{sub Y}, are determined out of a {chi}{sup 2} fit on the phase difference data of 7 spin precession measurements of 12 to 16 hours length. The piecewise defined fit model contains a sine and a cosine term to describe the sidereal modulation, as well as 7 offset terms, 7 linear terms and 7 . 2 exponential terms decreasing with T{sup *}{sub 2,he} and T{sup *}{sub 2,xe}, which are assigned to the respective measurement. The linear term in the weighted phase difference mainly arises from deviations of the gyromagnetic ratios from their literature values due to chemical shifts, while the exponential terms reflect the phase shifts resulting from demagnetization fields in the non-ideally spherical sample cell. The result of the {chi
Leptonic Dirac CP violation predictions from residual discrete symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Girardi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Assuming that the observed pattern of 3-neutrino mixing is related to the existence of a (lepton flavour symmetry, corresponding to a non-Abelian discrete symmetry group Gf, and that Gf is broken to specific residual symmetries Ge and Gν of the charged lepton and neutrino mass terms, we derive sum rules for the cosine of the Dirac phase δ of the neutrino mixing matrix U. The residual symmetries considered are: i Ge=Z2 and Gν=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2; ii Ge=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2 and Gν=Z2; iii Ge=Z2 and Gν=Z2; iv Ge is fully broken and Gν=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2; and v Ge=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2 and Gν is fully broken. For given Ge and Gν, the sum rules for cosδ thus derived are exact, within the approach employed, and are valid, in particular, for any Gf containing Ge and Gν as subgroups. We identify the cases when the value of cosδ cannot be determined, or cannot be uniquely determined, without making additional assumptions on unconstrained parameters. In a large class of cases considered the value of cosδ can be unambiguously predicted once the flavour symmetry Gf is fixed. We present predictions for cosδ in these cases for the flavour symmetry groups Gf=S4, A4, T′ and A5, requiring that the measured values of the 3-neutrino mixing parameters sin2θ12, sin2θ13 and sin2θ23, taking into account their respective 3σ uncertainties, are successfully reproduced.
Implications of horizontal symmetries on baryon number violation in supersymmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Hamo, V.; Nir, Y.
1994-08-01
The smallness of the quark and lepton parameters and the hierarchy between them could be the result of selection rules due to a horizontal symmetry broken by a small parameter. The same selection rules apply to baryon number violating terms. Consequently, the problem of baryon number violation in supersymmetry may be solved naturally, without invoking any especially-designed extra symmetry. This mechanism is efficient enough even for low-scale flavor physics. Proton decay is likely to be dominated by the modes K + ν-bar i or K o μ + (e + ), and may proceed at observable rates. (authors). 15 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuda, Yasuhiro
1993-01-01
In this report, the papers on symmetry violation under space reflection and time reversal and neutron spin, neutron spin rotation and P-violation, parity nonconservation in neutron capture reaction, some advantage of the search for CP-violation in neutron scattering, dynamic polarization of 139 La target, alexandrite laser for optical pumping, polarized 3 He system for T- and P-violation neutron experiments, control of neutron spin in T-violation neutron experiment, symmetry regarding time and space and angular distribution and angular correlation of radiation and particle beams, T-violation due to low temperature nuclear polarization and axion exploration using nuclear transition are collected. (K.I.)
Modified Adler sum rule and violation of charge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, C.A.; Moreno, H.; Zepeda, A.
The consequences of a once subtracted dispersion relation in the derivation of the Adler sum rule are investigated. It is shown that one can expect a breakdown of charge symmetry, of the isotriplet current hypothesis, and of scaling of the structure functions. These breakdowns are related to the possible presence of a non-zero subtraction function at asymptotic energies and arbitrary q 2 . Second class currents and PCAC relations are also discussed
A model of spontaneous CP violation and neutrino phenomenology with approximate LμLτ symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikary, Biswajit
2013-01-01
We introduce a model where CP and Z 2 symmetry violate spontaneously. CP and Z 2 violate spontaneously through a singlet complex scalar S which obtains vacuum expectation value with phase S = Ve iα /2 and this is the only source of CP violation in this model. Low energy CP violation in the leptonic sector is connected to the large scale phase by three generations of left and right handed singlet fermions in the inverse see-saw like structure of model. We have considered approximate LμL τ symmetry to study neutrino phenomenology. Considering two mass square differences and three mixing angles including non zero θ 13 to their experimental 3σ limit, we have restricted the Lagrangian parameters for reasonably small value of L μ L τ symmetry breaking parameters. We have predicted the three masses, Dirac phase and two Majorana phases. We also evaluate CP violating parameter J CP , sum-mass and effective mass parameter involved in neutrino less double beta decay. (author)
A violation of CP symmetry in B meson decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karyotakis, Y.; Monchenault, G.H. de
2002-01-01
This article reviews the issue of CP-violation and reports the most recent results about the observation of large CP asymmetries in the decay of neutral B-mesons. Some of the CP asymmetries in the neutral B-meson decay are expected to be large. CP-violation always involves quantum mechanical interference. This occurs for instance when there are 2 paths for a particle to decay into a given final state. The interference between the mixing-induced amplitude (B 0 → B-bar 0 → f) and the decay amplitude (B 0 → f) to a CP eigenstate f leads to a time dependent CP asymmetry that can be interpreted in terms of the angles of the unitary triangle (sin(2β)). The experimental challenge comes from the fact that B decays to some CP eigenstates have very small branching ratios and low efficiencies for complete reconstruction of the final state. It is therefore necessary to produce a very large number of B-mesons to perform a CP-measurement. To make the measurement possible, a new type of e + e - collider, called asymmetric B-factory has been designed. 2 asymmetric B-factories are operating in the world: PEP2 (Stanford, Usa) fitted with the Babar detector and KEK-B (Japan) which hosts Belle detector. The measurements given by Babar and Belle are in good agreement and can be combined. The average value is sin(2β) = 0.78 ± 0.08 and this value is in excellent agreement with the standard model predictions based on available experimental data. (A.C.)
Searches for discrete symmetries violation in ortho-positronium decay using the J-PET detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamińska Daria
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present prospects for using the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET detector to search for discrete symmetries violations in a purely leptonic system of the positronium atom. We discuss tests of CP and CPT symmetries by means of ortho-positronium decays into three photons. No zero expectation values for chosen correlations between ortho-positronium spin and momentum vectors of photons would imply the existence of physics phenomena beyond the standard model. Previous measurements resulted in violation amplitude parameters for CP and CPT symmetries consistent with zero, with an uncertainty of about 10−3. The J-PET detector allows to determine those values with better precision, thanks to the unique time and angular resolution combined with a high geometrical acceptance. Achieving the aforementioned is possible because of the application of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta.
Mass mixing, CP violation and left-right symmetry for heavy neutral mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.
1985-01-01
We investigate M 0 - M-bar 0 mixing and CP violation in the minimal left-right symmetric gauge model with spontaneous P and CP violation. The dominant contributions to the mixing amplitude including QCD corrections are calculated explicitly for B 0 - B-bar 0 . While the amount of mixing is not much changed with respect to the standard model left-right symmetry can give rise to significantly larger CP violation in the B 0 sub(s) - B-bar 0 sub(s) system (up to two orders of magnitude for the dilepton charge asymmetry). Sizable CP violating effects require that the left-right contribution to the KsubLKsubS mass difference has the same sign as the standard model contribution. We also comment on D 0 - D-bar 0 mixing including a careful discussion of the standard model prediction. (Author)
Spontaneous Lorentz breaking at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, H.-C.; Luty, Markus A.; Mukohyama, Shinji; Thaler, Jesse
2006-01-01
Theories that spontaneously break Lorentz invariance also violate diffeomorphism symmetries, implying the existence of extra degrees of freedom and modifications of gravity. In the minimal model ('ghost condensation') with only a single extra degree of freedom at low energies, the scale of Lorentz violation cannot be larger than about M ∼ 100GeV due to an infrared instability in the gravity sector. We show that Lorentz symmetry can be broken at much higher scales in a non-minimal theory with additional degrees of freedom, in particular if Lorentz symmetry is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a vector field. This theory can be constructed by gauging ghost condensation, giving a systematic effective field theory description that allows us to estimate the size of all physical effects. We show that nonlinear effects become important for gravitational fields with strength Φ 1/2 ∼> g, where g is the gauge coupling, and we argue that the nonlinear dynamics is free from singularities. We then analyze the phenomenology of the model, including nonlinear dynamics and velocity-dependent effects. The strongest bounds on the gravitational sector come from either black hole accretion or direction-dependent gravitational forces, and imply that the scale of spontaneous Lorentz breaking is M ∼ 12 GeV, g 2 10 15 GeV). If the Lorentz breaking sector couples directly to matter, there is a spin-dependent inverse-square law force, which has a different angular dependence from the force mediated by the ghost condensate, providing a distinctive signature for this class of models
Charge symmetry violation in the electromagnetic form factors of the proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.
2015-03-01
Experimental tests of QCD through its predictions for the strange-quark content of the proton have been drastically restricted by our lack of knowledge of the violation of charge symmetry (CSV). We find unexpectedly tiny CSV in the proton's electromagnetic form factors by performing the first extraction of these quantities based on an analysis of lattice QCD data. The resulting values are an order of magnitude smaller than current bounds on proton strangeness from parity violating electron-proton scattering experiments. This result paves the way for a new generation of experimental measurements of the proton's strange form factors to challenge the predictions of QCD.
Experimental searches for CP and CPT symmetries violation in the neutral kaons system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debu, P.
1996-01-01
The aim of this lecture is to give an overview of the experiments devoted to the study and research of CP, T and CPT symmetries invariance violations in the system of neutral K mesons. The discovery of K mesons has provided crucial informations for the elaboration of the standard model. However, the observation of CP violation has remained confined to the K system. The origin of the observed CP violation remains hypothetic. Its origin could be a complex phase in the mixing matrix of quarks. In the standard model of electroweak interactions, several evidences of the CP violation exist: the observed K neutral mesons (K L and K S ) are not proper states of CP and are due to CP violation in the K 0 - anti-K 0 mixture. On the other hand, the model predicts also a CP violation in decay amplitudes, named direct CP violation. Important experiments have been carried out for its demonstration. The K system is also the most precise test for CPT invariance. A description of the experiments in progress developed to improve the precision of these tests is given. The plan of the lecture is the following: after a recall of K 0 - anti-K 0 phenomenology, some important steps in the CP violation study are described. Then, the regeneration phenomenon is briefly described and two of the most recent measurements of the direct CP violation parameter are analysed. Finally, the CPT invariance tests are described with their parameters and the measurements in progress. A review of the principal results is given in conclusion with their improvements expected in a near future. (J.S.). 71 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs
Lepton-flavour violation in a Pati-Salam model with gauged flavour symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feldmann, Thorsten; Luhn, Christoph; Moch, Paul [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät,Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)
2016-11-11
Combining Pati-Salam (PS) and flavour symmetries in a renormalisable setup, we devise a scenario which produces realistic masses for the charged leptons. Flavour-symmetry breaking scalar fields in the adjoint representations of the PS gauge group are responsible for generating different flavour structures for up- and down-type quarks as well as for leptons. The model is characterised by new heavy fermions which mix with the Standard Model quarks and leptons. In particular, the partners for the third fermion generation induce sizeable sources of flavour violation. Focusing on the charged-lepton sector, we scrutinise the model with respect to its implications for lepton-flavour violating processes such as μ→eγ, μ→3e and muon conversion in nuclei.
Strange quark distribution and parton charge symmetry violation in a semi-inclusive process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitagawa, Hisashi; Sakemi, Yasuhiro
2000-01-01
It is possible to observe a semi-inclusive reaction with tagged charged kaons using the RICH detector at DESY-HERA. Using the semi-inclusive process we study two kinds of parton properties in the nucleon. We study relations between cross sections and strange quark distributions, which are expected to be measured more precisely in such a process than in the process in which pions are tagged. We also investigate charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the nucleon, which appears in the region x ≤ 0.1. (author)
A phenomenological study of violation of CP and CPT symmetries in the neutral kaon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kojima, Kazushi; Sugiyama, Wataru; Tsai, S.Y.
1996-01-01
A phenomenological study is given of the (possible) violation of CP and CPT symmetries in the K 0 -K-bar 0 system. Special attention is paid to the problem of phase ambiguity and phase convention. Mixing parameters and decay amplitudes are parametrized in a rephasing invariant way, and the well-known parameters η +- and η 00 describing 2π modes as well as various leptonic asymmetries are expressed in terms of these parameters. The parameters ε and Δ characterizing mixing between |K 0 > and |K-bar 0 > are treated with as little theoretical prejudice as possible. (author)
A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity.
Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D
2003-08-28
Special relativity asserts that physical phenomena appear the same to all unaccelerated observers. This is called Lorentz symmetry and relates long wavelengths to short ones: if the symmetry is exact it implies that space-time must look the same at all length scales. Several approaches to quantum gravity, however, suggest that there may be a microscopic structure of space-time that leads to a violation of Lorentz symmetry. This might arise because of the discreteness or non-commutivity of space-time, or through the action of extra dimensions. Here we determine a very strong constraint on a type of Lorentz violation that produces a maximum electron speed less than the speed of light. We use the observation of 100-MeV synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula to improve the previous limit by a factor of 40 million, ruling out this type of Lorentz violation, and thereby providing an important constraint on theories of quantum gravity.
Measurements of CPT Violation at LHCb
INSPIRE-00260865
2017-01-01
Recent measurements of CPT violation and Lorentz symmetry breaking in $B^0-\\bar{B}^0$ mixing and $B^0_s-\\bar{B}^0_s$ mixing, obtained from data taken by the LHCb experiment, are highlighted. The results are expressed in terms of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) coefficients, which incorporate both CPT and Lorentz violation. Due to the large boost of the $B$ mesons at LHCb, the SME coefficients can be determined with high precision. The bounds on these coefficients are improved significantly compared to previous measurements.
Search for violation of CPT and Lorentz invariance in B.sup.0./sup..sub.s./sub. meson oscillations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš
2015-01-01
Roč. 115, č. 16 (2015), "161601-1"-"161601-8" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Batavia TEVATRON Coll * DZERO * asymmetry * anti -p p * scattering * B/s0 anti -B/s0: mixing * CPT * violation * experimental results Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015
Induction of novel macroscopic properties by local symmetry violations in spin-spiral multiferroics
Meier, D.; Leo, N.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Ramesh, R.; Fiebig, M.
2011-03-01
Incommensurate (IC) structures are omnipresent in strongly correlated electron systems as high-TC superconductors, CMR manganites, as well as multiferroics. In each case they are origin of a pronounced symmetry reduction reflecting the complexity of the underlying microscopic interactions. Macroscopically, this can lead to new phases and possibilities to gain control of the host material. Here we report how the IC nature of a spin-spiral multiferroic induces new physical properties by renormalizing the relevant length scales of the system. Local symmetry violations directly manifest in the macroscopic response of the material and co-determine the multiferroic order giving rise to additional domain states. These usually hidden degrees of freedom become visible when non-homogenous fields are applied and condition for instance the second harmonic generation. Our study shows that incommensurabilities play a vital role in the discussion of the physical properties of multiferroics -- they represent a key ingredient for further enhancing the functionality of this class of materials. This work was supported by the DFG through the SFB 608. D.M. thanks the AvH for financial support.
Spontaneous Broken Local Conformal Symmetry and Dark Energy Candidate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Lu-Xin
2013-01-01
The local conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the Local Lorentz invariance symmetry through the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting effective Lagrangian, in the unitary gauge, describes a cosmological vector field non-minimally coupling to the gravitational field. As a result of the Higgs mechanism, the vector field absorbs the dilaton and becomes massive, but with an independent energy scale. The Proca type vector field can be modelled as dark energy candidate. The possibility that it further triggers Lorentz symmetry violation is also pointed out
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sushkov, O.P.
2002-01-01
Full text: Electric dipole moment (EDM) of an elementary particle is a manifestation of the violation of the fundamental TP-symmetry. Because of the CRT-theorem TP-violation is related to CP-violation. Present experimental limitations on electron and neutron EDM as well as limitations on nuclear Schiff moments impose important constrains on physics beyond the standard model. Unfortunately the standard approaches for search of EDM in atomic, molecular, and neutron experiments are close to their sensitivity limit. There are novel suggestions for searches of the fundamental TP-violation in solid state experiments. Two groups lead by Lamoreaux (Los Alamos) and Hunter (Amherst college) are preparing these experiments. We calculate the expected effect. The improvement of sensitivity compared to the present level can reach 6-8 orders of magnitude!
A minimal spontaneous CP violation model with small neutrino mass and SU(2) x U(1) x Z3 symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng, C.Q.; Ng, J.N.
1988-04-01
It is shown that spontaneous CP violation and natural flavor conservation can occur in the SU(2) L x U(1) Y model based on two Higgs doublet and one Higgs singlet fields with a Z 3 discrete symmetry. Physical CP nonconservation is purely due to scalar-pseudoscalar mixings. In order for this to be a major source of CP violation a light spin-O boson of mass less than 10 GeV is required. The see-saw mechanism can be implemented to generate small neutrino masses. The model implies a relatively large electric dipole moment for charged leptons and small value for ε'/ε
Measurements of Direct CP Violation, CPT Symmetry, and Other Parameters in the Neutral Kaon System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Worcester, Elizabeth Turner [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
2007-12-01
The authors present precision measurements of the direct CP violation parameter, Re(ϵ'/ϵ), the kaon parameters, Δm and τ_{S}, and the CPT tests, Φ_{±} and ΔΦ, in neutral kaon decays. These results are based on the full dataset collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains ~ 15 million K → π^{0}π^{0} decays and ~ 69 million K → π^{+}π^{-} decays. They describe significant improvements to the precision of these measurements relative to previous KTeV analyses. They find Re(ϵ'/ϵ = [19.2 ± 1.1(stat) ± 1.8(syst)] x 10^{-4}, Δm = (5265 ± 10) x 10^{6} hs^{-1}, and τ_{S} = (89.62 ± 0.05) x 10^{-12} s. They measure Φ_{±} = (44.09 ± 1.00)° and ΔΦ = (0.29 ± 0.31)°; these results are consistent with CPT symmetry.
Test of CPT and Lorentz invariance from muonium spectroscopy
Hughes, V. W.; Perdekamp, M. Grosse; Kawall, D.; Liu, W.; Jungmann, K.; Putlitz, G. zu
2001-01-01
Following a suggestion of Kostelecky et al. we have evaluated a test of CPT and Lorentz invariance from the microwave spectroscopy of muonium. Hamiltonian terms beyond the standard model violating CPT and Lorentz invariance would contribute frequency shifts $\\delta\
Left-right symmetry, mixing and CP violation in B0 - B-bar0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.
1986-01-01
We discuss B 0 - B-bar 0 mixing and CP violation in the minimal left-right symmetric model. While the amount of mixing is not much changed with respect to the standard model, left-right symmtery can give rise to significantly larger CP violation in the B 0 sub(s) - B-bar 0 sub(s) system. (Author)
Entropic information for travelling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa, R.A.C.; Rocha, Roldão da; Souza Dutra, A. de
2015-01-01
In this work we group four research topics apparently disconnected, namely solitons, Lorentz symmetry breaking, supersymmetry, and entropy. Following a recent work (Gleiser and Stamatopoulos, 2012), we show that it is possible to construct in the context of travelling wave solutions a configurational entropy measure in functional space, from the field configurations. Thus, we investigate the existence and properties of travelling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking scenarios for a class of models with two interacting scalar fields. Here, we obtain a complete set of exact solutions for the model studied which display both double and single-kink configurations. In fact, such models are very important in applications that include Bloch branes, Skyrmions, Yang–Mills, Q-balls, oscillons and various superstring-motivated theories. We find that the so-called Configurational Entropy (CE) for travelling solitons shows that the best value of parameter responsible to break the Lorentz symmetry is one where the energy density is distributed equally around the origin. In this way, the information-theoretical measure of travelling solitons in Lorentz symmetry violation scenarios opens a new window to probe situations where the parameters responsible for breaking the symmetries are arbitrary. In this case, the CE selects the best value of the parameter in the model
CPT-symmetry studies with antihydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehnert, Ralf, E-mail: ralehner@indiana.edu [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries (United States)
2012-05-15
Various approaches to physics beyond the Standard Model can lead to small violations of CPT invariance. Since CPT symmetry can be measured with ultra-high precision, CPT tests offer an interesting phenomenological avenue to search for underlying physics. We discuss this reasoning in more detail, comment on the connection between CPT and Lorentz invariance, and review how CPT breaking would affect the (anti)hydrogen spectrum.
Closeout Report - Search for Time Reversal Symmetry Violation with TREK at J-PARC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohl, Michael [Hampton Univ., VA (United States)
2015-04-15
academic positions. Two former graduate students of the group have graduated and received their PhD degrees in nuclear physics (Dr. Anusha Liyanage and Dr. Ozgur Ates). In particular, this award has enabled Dr. Kohl to pursue the TREK project (Time Reversal Experiment with Kaons) at J-PARC, which he has been leading and advancing as International Spokesperson. Originally proposed as a search for time reversal symmetry violation [6], the project has evolved into a precision test of lepton flavor universality in the Standard Model along with sensitive searches for physics beyond the Standard Model through a possible discovery of new particles such as a sterile neutrino or a neutral gauge boson from the hidden sector in the mass region up to 300 MeV/c2 [7]. Experiment TREK/E36, first proposed in 2010, has been mounted between November 2014 and April 2015, and commissioning with beam has been started in April 2015, with production running anticipated in early summer and late fall 2015. It uses the apparatus from the previous KEK/E-246 experiment with partial upgrades to measure the ratio of decay widths of leptonic two-body decays of the charged kaon to µν and eν, respectively, which is highly sensitive to the ratio of electromagnetic charged lepton couplings and possible new physics processes that could differentiate between μ and e, hence breaking lepton flavor universality of the Standard Model. Through the searches for neutral massive particles, TREK/E36 can severely constrain any new physics scenarios designed to explain the proton radius puzzle [12, 13].
Are the invariance principles really truly Lorentz covariant?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arunasalam, V.
1994-02-01
It is shown that some sections of the invariance (or symmetry) principles such as the space reversal symmetry (or parity P) and time reversal symmetry T (of elementary particle and condensed matter physics, etc.) are not really truly Lorentz covariant. Indeed, I find that the Dirac-Wigner sense of Lorentz invariance is not in full compliance with the Einstein-Minkowski reguirements of the Lorentz covariance of all physical laws (i.e., the world space Mach principle)
Comment on self-inverse form of the Lorentz transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, R.J.
1979-01-01
It has been shown that the kinematic relations between two iertial reference frames in relative motion can be made symmetric by an appropriate orientation of the coordinate axes of the two frames. It follows from this symmetry and the principle of relativity that the transformation matrix, A, from one frame to the other, and its inverse, A -1 , are equal. This result, along with a limiting-velocity postulate, was used in a derivation of the Lorentz transformation. The present note points out that only two transformation laws are compatible with the symmetry condition A = A -1 . One of these is the Lorentz transformation and the other violates causality. Thus, if the limiting-velocity postulate is replaced by the requirement that causality be satisfied in all inertial frames, one arrives at a derivation of the Lorentz transformation based entirely on concepts which were known and widely accepted long before the advent of special relativity: the homogeneity and isotropy of space in all inertial frames, the principle of relativity, and the principle of causality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C
2015-01-01
About 50 years ago John St. Bell published his famous Bell theorem that initiated a new field in physics. This contribution discusses how discrete symmetries relate to the big open questions of quantum mechanics, in particular:(i) how correlations stronger than those predicted by theories sharing randomness (Bell's theorem) relate to the violation of the CP symmetry and the P symmetry; and its relation to the security of quantum cryptography,(ii) how the measurement problem (“why do we observe no tables in superposition?”) can be polled in weakly decaying systems,(iii) how strongly and weakly interacting quantum systems are affected by Newton's self gravitation.These presented preliminary results show that the meson-antimeson systems and the hyperon- antihyperon systems are a unique laboratory to tackle deep fundamental questions and to contribute to the understand what impact the violation of discrete symmetries has. (paper)
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.
2015-07-01
About 50 years ago John St. Bell published his famous Bell theorem that initiated a new field in physics. This contribution discusses how discrete symmetries relate to the big open questions of quantum mechanics, in particular: (i) how correlations stronger than those predicted by theories sharing randomness (Bell's theorem) relate to the violation of the CP symmetry and the P symmetry; and its relation to the security of quantum cryptography, (ii) how the measurement problem (“why do we observe no tables in superposition?”) can be polled in weakly decaying systems, (iii) how strongly and weakly interacting quantum systems are affected by Newton's self gravitation. These presented preliminary results show that the meson-antimeson systems and the hyperon- antihyperon systems are a unique laboratory to tackle deep fundamental questions and to contribute to the understand what impact the violation of discrete symmetries has.
Strange and charge symmetry violating electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shanahan, P.E.
2016-01-01
We summarise recent work based on lattice QCD simulations of the electromagnetic form factors of the octet baryons from the CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD collaborations. After an analysis of the simulation results using techniques to approach the infinite volume limit and the physical pseudoscalar masses at non-zero momentum transfer, the extrapolated proton and neutron form factors are found to be in excellent agreement with those extracted from experiment. Given the success of these calculations, we describe how the strange electromagnetic form factors may be estimated from these results under the same assumption of charge symmetry used in experimental determinations of those quantities. Motivated by the necessity of that assumption, we explore a method for determining the size of charge symmetry breaking effects using the same lattice results. (author)
Subtractions in the Adler sum rule and violation of charge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, C.A.; Moreno, H.; Zepeda, A.
1976-01-01
The consequences of a once-subtracted dispersion relation in the derivation of the Adler sum rule are investigated. It is shown that one can expect a breakdown of charge symmetry, of the isotriplet-current hypothesis, and of scaling of the structure functions. These breakdowns are related to the possible presence of a nonzero subtraction function at asymptotic energies and arbitrary q 2 . We also comment about second-class currents and PCAC (partial conservation of axial-vector current) relations
Fermion-number violation in regularizations that preserve fermion-number symmetry
Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal
2003-01-01
There exist both continuum and lattice regularizations of gauge theories with fermions which preserve chiral U(1) invariance (“fermion number”). Such regularizations necessarily break gauge invariance but, in a covariant gauge, one recovers gauge invariance to all orders in perturbation theory by including suitable counterterms. At the nonperturbative level, an apparent conflict then arises between the chiral U(1) symmetry of the regularized theory and the existence of ’t Hooft vertices in the renormalized theory. The only possible resolution of the paradox is that the chiral U(1) symmetry is broken spontaneously in the enlarged Hilbert space of the covariantly gauge-fixed theory. The corresponding Goldstone pole is unphysical. The theory must therefore be defined by introducing a small fermion-mass term that breaks explicitly the chiral U(1) invariance and is sent to zero after the infinite-volume limit has been taken. Using this careful definition (and a lattice regularization) for the calculation of correlation functions in the one-instanton sector, we show that the ’t Hooft vertices are recovered as expected.
Apparent violation of isospin symmetry in the 3H(3He,2H)4He reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rai, G.; Blyth, C.O.; England, J.B.A.; Farooq, A.; Karban, O.; Rawas, E.; Roman, S.; Vlastou, R.
1988-01-01
Angular distributions of the vector analyzing powers for the 3 H( 3 He, 2 H) 4 He reaction have been measured over the incident energy range 18--33 MeV. The measurements centered about 18 MeV display a deviation from the antisymmetric shape expected from isospin symmetry. Concentrating on the explanation of the 90 0 analyzing powers, we report the results of a distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) analysis which includes the direct and exchange processes and the spin-orbit potential. It is shown that the anomalous behavior of the 90 0 vector analyzing powers can be largely explained by the effect of a single F-wave potential resonance which leads to the magnification of the short-range differences between the 3 He and 3 H wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiler, A.
2007-01-01
We study flavor-changing decays of hadrons and leptons and an extra-dimensional approach to electroweak symmetry breaking. Specifically we study the framework of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as an explanation of the flavour problem. We discuss the impact of a specific extra-dimensional model of the MFV class on flavour changing neutral currents. We derive model-independent upper bounds on rare decays. -We discuss the extension of the MFV framework from the quark to the lepton sector and show how baryogenesis through leptogenesis can be achieved and examine if possible correlations with charged lepton flavour violation exist. We discuss the dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry in extra dimensions by unifying gauge and Higgs fields and we show that realistic models are possible once the extra dimension is strongly curved. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiler, A.
2007-01-16
We study flavor-changing decays of hadrons and leptons and an extra-dimensional approach to electroweak symmetry breaking. Specifically we study the framework of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as an explanation of the flavour problem. We discuss the impact of a specific extra-dimensional model of the MFV class on flavour changing neutral currents. We derive model-independent upper bounds on rare decays. -We discuss the extension of the MFV framework from the quark to the lepton sector and show how baryogenesis through leptogenesis can be achieved and examine if possible correlations with charged lepton flavour violation exist. We discuss the dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry in extra dimensions by unifying gauge and Higgs fields and we show that realistic models are possible once the extra dimension is strongly curved. (orig.)
Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particles
Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong
2016-12-01
In this paper, the Lorentz covariance of algorithms is introduced. Under Lorentz transformation, both the form and performance of a Lorentz covariant algorithm are invariant. To acquire the advantages of symplectic algorithms and Lorentz covariance, a general procedure for constructing Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms (LCCSAs) is provided, based on which an explicit LCCSA for dynamics of relativistic charged particles is built. LCCSA possesses Lorentz invariance as well as long-term numerical accuracy and stability, due to the preservation of a discrete symplectic structure and the Lorentz symmetry of the system. For situations with time-dependent electromagnetic fields, which are difficult to handle in traditional construction procedures of symplectic algorithms, LCCSA provides a perfect explicit canonical symplectic solution by implementing the discretization in 4-spacetime. We also show that LCCSA has built-in energy-based adaptive time steps, which can optimize the computation performance when the Lorentz factor varies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vien, Vo Van, E-mail: wvienk16@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Tay Nguyen University, Le Duan, Buon Ma Thuot, DakLak (Viet Nam)
2015-08-15
We study a 3-3-1 model based on non-Abelian discrete symmetry group T{sub 13} which accommodates lepton mixing with non-zero θ{sub 13} and CP violation phase. The neutrinos get small masses and mixing with CP violation phase from S U(3) L antisextets which are all in triplets under T{sub 13}. If both breakings T{sub 13} → Z{sub 3} and Z{sub 3} → {Identity} are taken place in neutrino sector, and T{sub 13} is broken into Z{sub 3} in lepton sector, the realistic neutrino mixing form is obtained as a natural consequence of P{sub l} and T{sub 13} symmetries. The model predicts the lepton mixing with non-zero θ{sub 13}, and also gives a remarkable prediction of Dirac CP violation δ{sub CP} = 292.5∘ in the normal spectrum, and δ {sub CP} = 303.161∘ in the inverted spectrum which is still missing in the neutrino mixing matrix. There exist some regions of model parameters that can fit the experimental data in 2014 on neutrino masses and mixing without perturbation. (author)
Violation of CPT invariance in the early universe and leptogenesis/baryogenesis
Mavromatos, Nick E
2013-01-01
In this talk, I review some plausible scenarios entailing violation of CPT symmetry in the early Universe, due to space-time backgrounds which do not respect some of the assumptions for the validity of the CPT theorem (here considered will be Lorentz invariance and/or Unitarity). The key point in all these models is that the background induces different populations of fermions as compared to antifermions, and hence CPT Violation (CPTV), already in thermal equilibrium. Such populations may freeze out at various conditions depending on the details of the underlying microscopic model, thereby leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. Among the considered scenarios is a stringy one, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field (axion) of the string gravitational multiplet. We also discuss briefly (Lorentz Violating) CPTV models that go beyond the local effective lagrangian framework, such as a stochastic Finsler metric and D-par...
Improved test of Lorentz invariance in electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, Peter; Bize, Sebastien; Clairon, Andre; Santarelli, Giorgio; Tobar, Michael E.; Luiten, Andre N.
2004-01-01
We report new results of a test of Lorentz invariance based on the comparison of a cryogenic sapphire microwave resonator and a hydrogen-maser. The experimental results are shown together with an extensive analysis of systematic effects. Previously, this experiment has set the most stringent constraint on Kennedy-Thorndike type violations of Lorentz invariance. In this work we present new data and interpret our results in the general Lorentz violating extension of the standard model of particle physics (SME). Within the photon sector of the SME, our experiment is sensitive to seven SME parameters. We marginally improve present limits on four of these, and by a factor seven to ten on the other three
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pillai, C.; Barlow, D.B.; Berman, B.L.; Briscoe, W.J.; Mokhtari, A.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Sadler, M.E.
1991-01-01
Data are presented on the energy and angle dependence of the charge-symmetry superratio R and simple ratios r 1 ' and r 2 ' for π ± elastic scattering from 3 H and 3 He. r 1 ' and r 2 ' were normalized with respect to π + d and π - d elastic scattering, which is assumed to have the ratio 1.0. The beam energies are T π =142, 180, and 220 MeV, and the scattering angle, θ L , ranges from 40 degree to 110 degree. In all cases measured it is found that R>1, r 1 ' congruent 1, and r 2 ' >1. These results provide substantial evidence for charge-symmetry violation. The angular distributions for π ± H and π ± 3 He elastic scattering also have been measured and comparisons are made with various model calculations
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
The lecture introduces the concepts and phenomena of matter-antimatter symmetry violation, so-called "CP" violation. The lecture is organized in four courses, the first being devoted to a historical overview and an introduction into fundamental discrete symmetries. The second course introduces the most compelling CP-violating phenomena, and presents the first experimental discovery of CP violation in the neutral kaon system. The third course discusses how CP violation is beautifully incorporated into the Standard Model of particle interactions, and how modern B-meson "factories" provide precise tests of this picture. Finally, the fourth and last course introduces CP violation and the genesis of our matter world.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.
1999-01-01
We construct extensions of the standard model based on the hypothesis that Higgs bosons also exhibit a family structure and that the flavor weak eigenstates in the three families are distinguished by a discrete Z 6 chiral symmetry that is spontaneously broken by the Higgs sector. We study in detail at the tree level models with three Higgs doublets and with six Higgs doublets comprising two weakly coupled sets of three. In a leading approximation of S 3 cyclic permutation symmetry the three-Higgs-doublet model gives a open-quotes democraticclose quotes mass matrix of rank 1, while the six-Higgs-doublet model gives either a rank-1 mass matrix or, in the case when it spontaneously violates CP, a rank-2 mass matrix corresponding to nonzero second family masses. In both models, the CKM matrix is exactly unity in the leading approximation. Allowing small explicit violations of cyclic permutation symmetry generates small first family masses in the six-Higgs-doublet model, and first and second family masses in the three-Higgs-doublet model, and gives a nontrivial CKM matrix in which the mixings of the first and second family quarks are naturally larger than mixings involving the third family. Complete numerical fits are given for both models, flavor-changing neutral current constraints are discussed in detail, and the issues of unification of couplings and neutrino masses are addressed. On a technical level, our analysis uses the theory of circulant and retrocirculant matrices, the relevant parts of which are reviewed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Phenomenologically viable Lorentz-violating quantum gravity.
Sotiriou, Thomas P; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2009-06-26
Horava's "Lifschitz point gravity" has many desirable features, but in its original incarnation one is forced to accept a nonzero cosmological constant of the wrong sign to be compatible with observation. We develop an extension of Horava's model that abandons "detailed balance" and regains parity invariance, and in 3+1 dimensions exhibit all five marginal (renormalizable) and four relevant (super-renormalizable) operators, as determined by power counting. We also consider the classical limit of this theory, evaluate the Hamiltonian and supermomentum constraints, and extract the classical equations of motion in a form similar to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation of general relativity. This puts the model in a framework amenable to developing detailed precision tests.
Spontaneous CP violation from a quaternionic Kaluza-Klein theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.
1991-01-01
Motivated by the isomorphism between the universal covering group of the six dimensional Lorentz group and the special linear group over the quaternions, a locally quaternionic covariant quantum mechanics is postulated to exist in six space-time dimensions. Compactifying onto the space-time M 4 x S 2 complex theory is retrieved on the four dimensional Minkowski space with the essential quaternionic nature confined to S 2 . Quaternionic spinors are introduced and a dimensionally reduced theory recovered which exhibits a CP violating effect via spontaneous symmetry breaking. 20 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, B. L.
2009-01-01
A short review is presented of the spontaneous violation of chiral symmetry in QCD vacuum. It is demonstrated that this phenomenon is the origin of baryon masses in QCD. The value of nucleon mass is calculated, as well as the masses of hyperons and some baryonic resonances, and expressed mainly through the values of quark condensates - , q = u, d, s,-the vacuum expectation values (v.e.v.) of quark field. The concept of v.e.v. induced by external fields is introduced. It is demonstrated that such v.e.v. induced by static electromagnetic field results in quark condensate magnetic susceptibility, which plays the main role in determination of baryon magnetic moments. The magnetic moments of proton, neutron, and hyperons are calculated. The results of calculation of baryon octet β-decay constants are also presented.
Violations of Einstein's Relativity: Motivations, Theory, and Phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, Ralf
2011-01-01
One of the most difficult questions in present-day physics concerns a fundamental theory of space, time, and matter that incorporates a consistent quantum description of gravity. There are various theoretical approaches to such a quantum-gravity theory. Nevertheless, experimental progress is hampered in this research field because many models predict deviations from established physics that are suppressed by some power of the Planck scale, which currently appears to be immeasurably small. However, tests of relativity theory provide one promising avenue to overcome this phenomeno-logical obstacle: many models for underlying physics can accommodate a small breakdown of Lorentz symmetry, and numerous feasible Lorentz-symmetry tests have Planck reach. Such mild violations of Einstein's relativity have therefore become the focus of recent research efforts. This mini course provides a brief survey of the key ideas in this research field and is geared at both experimentalists and theorists. In particular, several theoretical mechanisms leading to deviations from relativity theory are presented; the standard theoretical framework for relativity violations at currently accessible energy scales (i.e., the SME) is reviewed, and various present and near-future experimental efforts within this field are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksan, R.
1993-06-01
The violation of the CP symmetry is a phenomenon, the origin of which is not yet well established and deserves a particular attention since it may be a fundamental property of Nature with very important consequences for the evolution of the universe. We propose in these lectures to have an overview of this phenomenon as we understand it so far. To this end, and after introducing the discrete space-time symmetries, we discuss the observation of the violation of the CP symmetry in the neutral kaon decays. We then derive the general formalism for any neutral system made of a particle and its antiparticle and discuss how CP violation is introduced. We show how this phenomenon is generated in the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions and what are the predictions that can be made. In particular we shall concentrate on the expected effects in the decays of mesons involving the b quark. We review the various possibilities for observing these effects, calculate their magnitudes and show how the consistency of the theory can be tested. Finally, we outline the experimental prospects for studying CP non conservation at an asymmetric B Factory to either verify the Standard Model mechanism or provide evidence for new physics. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pillai, C.; Barlow, D.B.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Berman, B.L.; Briscoe, W.J.; Mokhtari, A.; Petrov, A.M.; Sadler, M.E.
1988-06-30
New data on the charge-symmetric superratio R and the simple ratios r/sub 1/' and r/sub 2/' are reported for ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ elastic scattering from /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He at T/sub n/=142, 180, and 220 MeV at theta/sub ..pi../(lab) from 40/sup 0/ to 110/sup 0/; R=dsigma(..pi../sup +3/H)dsigma(..pi../sup -3/H)/dsigma(..pi../sup -3/He)dsigma(..pi../sup +3/ He), r/sub 1/'=dsigma(..pi../sup +3/H)dsigma(..pi../sup -/d)/dsigma(..pi../sup -3/He)dsigma(..pi../sup +/d), and r/sub 2/'=dsigma(..pi../sup -3/H)dsigma(..pi../sup +/d)/dsigma(..pi../sup +3/He)dsigma(..pi../sup -/d). We find that R > 1, r/sub 1/' approx. = 1, and r/sub 2/' > 1 at all energies and angles. These results are not accounted for by any of the available calculations which attempt to include only electromagnetic effects. This disagreement suggests that the violation of charge symmetry is due to a combination of strong and electromagnetic effects.
Lorentz and Poincaré invariance 100 years of relativity
Hsu Jong Ping
2001-01-01
This collection of papers provides a broad view of the development of Lorentz and Poincaré invariance and spacetime symmetry throughout the past 100 years. The issues explored in these papers include: (1) formulations of relativity theories in which the speed of light is not a universal constant but which are consistent with the four-dimensional symmetry of the Lorentz and Poincaré groups and with experimental results, (2) analyses and discussions by Reichenbach concerning the concepts of simultaneity and physical time from a philosophical point of view, and (3) results achieved by the union o
Traveling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza Dutra, A. de; Correa, R. A. C.
2011-01-01
In this work we present a class of traveling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking systems. In the case of Lorentz violating scenarios, as far as we know, only static solitonic configurations were analyzed up to now in the literature. Here it is shown that it is possible to construct some traveling solitons which cannot be mapped into static configurations by means of Lorentz boosts due to explicit breaking. In fact, the traveling solutions cannot be reached from the static ones by using something similar to a Lorentz boost in those cases. Furthermore, in the model studied, a complete set of exact solutions is obtained. The solutions present a critical behavior controlled by the choice of an arbitrary integration constant.
Prospects for Lorentz and CPT tests with hydrogen and antihydrogen
Becker, Tobias Frederic
2017-01-01
As a summer student for 13 weeks in the ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration, under the supervision of Chloé Malbrunot, my project consisted in a first part on the theoretical treatment of Lorentz and CPT violation in hydrogen & antihydrogen in the framework of the Standard Model Extension SME and in second part on experimental measurements on a hydrogen beam.
Searching for CPT violation with cosmic microwave background data from WMAP and BOOMERANG.
Feng, Bo; Li, Mingzhe; Xia, Jun-Qing; Chen, Xuelei; Zhang, Xinmin
2006-06-09
We search for signatures of Lorentz and violations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies by using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the 2003 flight of BOOMERANG (B03) data. We note that if the Lorentz and symmetries are broken by a Chern-Simons term in the effective Lagrangian, which couples the dual electromagnetic field strength tensor to an external four-vector, the polarization vectors of propagating CMB photons will get rotated. Using the WMAP data alone, one could put an interesting constraint on the size of such a term. Combined with the B03 data, we found that a nonzero rotation angle of the photons is mildly favored: [Formula: See Text].
Testing Lorentz invariance in β decay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sytema A.
2014-03-01
Experimentally we exploit the Gamow-Teller transition of polarized 20Na, where we can test the dependence of the β-decay rate on the spin orientation of 20Na. The polarization degree is measured using the β asymmetry, while the decay rate is measured by the γ yield. A change in the γ rate, when reversing the spin, implies Lorentz invariance violation. The decay rate should depend on sidereal time and the polarization direction relative to the rotation axis of the earth. The method of the measurement will be presented, together with the first results.
Does the relativity principle violate?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barashenkov, V.S.
1994-01-01
Theoretical and experimental data about a possible existence in Nature of some preferred reference frame with a violation of the principle of relativity are considered. The Einstein's and Lorentz's points of view are compared. Although some experiments are known which, in opinion of their authors, indicate the relativity principle violation persuasive evidences supporting this conclusion are absent for the present. The proposals of new experiments in this region, particularly with electron spin precession, are discussed. 55 refs., 4 figs
Charge symmetry at the partonic level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-07-01
This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.
Possible violations of the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiomno, J.
1985-01-01
A review of previous works of the author and collaborators on possible violations of the Theory of Relativity (SR) is made. It is shown that there is no contradiction of the predictions of the Lorentz Aether Theory, in the form presented in these papers, with existing experiments. Further experiments to detect these violations (or to confirm SR) are indicated. (Author) [pt
Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries
Amelino-Camelia, G
2002-01-01
Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...
Adams, Scot
2001-01-01
Within the general framework of the dynamics of "large" groups on geometric spaces, the focus is on the types of groups that can act in complicated ways on Lorentz manifolds, and on the structure of the resulting manifolds and actions. This particular area of dynamics is an active one, and not all the results are in their final form. However, at this point, a great deal can be said about the particular Lie groups that come up in this context. It is impressive that, even assuming very weak recurrence of the action, the list of possible groups is quite restricted. For the most complicated of the
A new General Lorentz Transformation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novakovic, Branko; Novakovic, Alen; Novakovic, Dario
2000-01-01
A new general structure of Lorentz Transformations, in the form of General Lorentz Transformation model (GLT-model), has been derived. This structure includes both Lorentz-Einstein and Galilean Transformations as its particular (special) realizations. Since the free parameters of GLT-model have been identified in a gravitational field, GLT-model can be employed both in Special and General Relativity. Consequently, the possibilities of an unification of Einstein's Special and General Theories of Relativity, as well as an unification of electromagnetic and gravitational fields are opened. If GLT-model is correct then there exist four new observation phenomena (a length and time neutrality, and a length dilation and a time contraction). Besides, the well-known phenomena (a length contraction, and a time dilation) are also the constituents of GLT-model. It means that there is a symmetry in GLT-model, where the center of this symmetry is represented by a length and a time neutrality. A time and a length neutrality in a gravitational field can be realized if the velocity of a moving system is equal to the free fall velocity. A time and a length neutrality include an observation of a particle mass neutrality. A special consideration has been devoted to a correlation between GLT-model and a limitation on particle velocities in order to investigate the possibility of a travel time reduction. It is found out that an observation of a particle speed faster then c=299 792 458 m/s, is possible in a gravitational field, if certain conditions are fulfilled
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conte, E.
2007-11-01
This thesis probes the beauty baryon physics in the framework of the LHCb experiment. The present study deals with the Λ b 0 → Λ 0 V decays where V is a vector meson such as J/Ψ(μ + μ - ), φ(K + K - ), ω(π + π - π0) or the ρ 0 - ω 0 (π + π - ) mixing. These processes allow to test independently the CP symmetry, which violation has not been observed yet in the baryonic sector, and the T symmetry, which experimental proofs are limited. Among the possible perspectives, a precise measurement of the Λ b 0 lifetime could contribute to the resolution of the raising theoretical-experimental puzzle. A phenomenological model of the Λ b 0 → Λ 0 V decays has been performed, from which branching ratios and angular distributions have been estimated. An advanced study of the reconstruction and the selection of these reactions by the LHCb apparatus shows that the channel Λ b 0 → Λ 0 J/Ψ is the dominant channel on both statistics and purity aspects. The Λ b 0 lifetime measure is the most imminent result; the constrains on asymmetries due to CP and T violation require several data taking years. Besides, an instrumental work has been achieved on the read-out electronics, called Front-End, of the experiment pre-shower. This contribution takes into account the validation of the prototype boards and the development of tools required by the qualification of the 100 production boards. (author)
Başkal, Sibel
2015-11-01
This book explains the Lorentz mathematical group in a language familiar to physicists. While the three-dimensional rotation group is one of the standard mathematical tools in physics, the Lorentz group of the four-dimensional Minkowski space is still very strange to most present-day physicists. It plays an essential role in understanding particles moving at close to light speed and is becoming the essential language for quantum optics, classical optics, and information science. The book is based on papers and books published by the authors on the representations of the Lorentz group based on harmonic oscillators and their applications to high-energy physics and to Wigner functions applicable to quantum optics. It also covers the two-by-two representations of the Lorentz group applicable to ray optics, including cavity, multilayer and lens optics, as well as representations of the Lorentz group applicable to Stokes parameters and the Poincaré sphere on polarization optics.
Lorentz invariance on trial in the weak decay of polarized atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Stefan E., E-mail: s.mueller@kvi.nl [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (Netherlands)
2013-03-15
One of the most fundamental principles underlying our current understanding of nature is the invariance of the laws of physics under Lorentz transformations. Theories trying to unify the Standard Model with quantum gravity suggest that this invariance may be broken by the presence of Lorentz-violating background fields. Dedicated high-precision experiments at low energies could observe such suppressed signals from the Planck scale. At KVI, a test on Lorentz invariance of the weak interaction is performed searching for a dependence of the decay rate of spin-polarized nuclei on the orientation of their spin with respect to a fixed absolute galactical reference frame. An observation of such a dependence would imply a violation of Lorentz invariance.
Charge independence and charge symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
1994-09-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.
Charge independence and charge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.A.
1994-09-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs
Tests of CPT, Lorentz invariance and the WEP with antihydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holzscheiter, M.H.
1999-01-01
Antihydrogen atoms, produced near rest, trapped in a magnetic well, and cooled to the lowest possible temperature (kinetic energy) could provide an extremely powerful tool for the search of violations of CPT and Lorentz invariance. Equally well, such a system could be used for searches of violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) at high precision. The author describes his plans to form a significant number of cold, trapped antihydrogen atoms for comparative precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and antihydrogen and comment on possible first experiments
CPT symmetry tests with cold anti {rho} and antihydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamazaki, Yasunori [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Ulmer, Stefan [RIKEN, Ulmer Initiative Research Unit, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)
2013-07-15
Precision comparisons of the properties of particles and their corresponding antiparticles are highly relevant because the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, a local, Lorentz-invariant field theory, is necessarily symmetric with respect to the combined CPT operation. This symmetry defines exact equality between the fundamental properties of particles and their anti-images. Any measured and confirmed violation constitutes a significant challenge to the Standard Model. Recent results of different CPT-tests are summarized, with emphasis to the high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton and the antiproton, as well as the precision investigation of antihydrogen ground state hyperfine splitting. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Lorentz Covariance of Langevin Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koide, T.; Denicol, G.S.; Kodama, T.
2008-01-01
Relativistic covariance of a Langevin type equation is discussed. The requirement of Lorentz invariance generates an entanglement between the force and noise terms so that the noise itself should not be a covariant quantity. (author)
Parity violation in neutron resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, G.E.; Lowie, L.Y.; Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.; Crawford, B.E.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Masuda, Y.
1997-01-01
The observation of very large parity violation in neutron resonances has led to a new approach to the study of symmetry breaking in nuclei. The origin of the enhancement of parity violation is discussed, as well as the new (statistical) analysis approach. The TRIPLE experimental system and analysis methods, their improvements are described. Sign correlation and results from recent parity violation experiments are presented and discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokarev, M.V.; Zborovsky, I.
2009-01-01
The hypothesis of self-similarity of hadron production in relativistic heavy ion collisions for search for phase transition in a nuclear matter is discussed. It is offered to use the established features of z-scaling for revealing signatures of new physics in cumulative region. It is noted that selection of events on centrality in cumulative region could help to localize a position of a critical point. Change of parameters of the theory (a specific heat and fractal dimensions) near to a critical point is considered as a signature of new physics. The relation of the power asymptotic of ψ(z) at high z, anisotropy of momentum space due to spontaneous symmetry breaking, and discrete (C, P, T) symmetries is emphasized
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganjour, S
2007-09-15
This report summarizes my scientific activities from 1995 to 2007. During this period of time, my research work was related to the particle physics experiment BABAR. The BABAR experiment has been running since 1999 at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric B-factory located at SLAC. This experiment searches for CP violation in the system of B mesons and tests the Standard Model through the measurements of the angles and the sides of the Unitarity Triangle. My research work is divided in five main topics: study of the BABAR magnet system and measurement of the magnetic field in the central tracking volume; project of the particle identification system based on aerogel counters for the forward region of the detector; conception of the magnetic shield and measurements of the fringe field in the region of photomultipliers of the DIRC (Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) system, the principal particle identification system of BABAR; development of the partial reconstruction technique of B mesons and study of the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup *} + D{sup *-} decays; measurement of CP violation in the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup *{+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} decays and constraint on the Unitary Triangle parameter sin(2{beta} + {gamma}) using these decays. (author)
R-parity violating supersymmetry
Barbier, R.; Besancon, M.; Chemtob, M.; Deandrea, A.; Dudas, E.; Fayet, Pierre; Lavignac, S.; Moreau, G.; Perez, E.; Sirois, Y.
2004-01-01
The possible appearance of R-parity violating couplings, and hence implicitly the question of lepton and baryon number conservation, has been emphasised since the early development of supersymmetric theories. The rich phenomenology implied by R-parity violation has now gained full attention in the search for supersymmetry. In this review, theoretical and phenomenological implications of R-parity violation in supersymmetric theories are discussed, in relation with particle and astroparticle physics. Fundamental aspects include the relation with continuous and discrete symmetries, up to more recent developments on the Abelian family symmetries and hierarchy of R-parity violating couplings. The question of the generation of the standard model neutrino masses and mixings is presented. The possible contributions of R-parity violating Yukawa couplings in processes involving virtual supersymmetric particles and the resulting constraints are reviewed. Finally, a survey of the direct production of supersymmetric parti...
Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter with satellite galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bettoni, Dario [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nusser, Adi [Physics Department and the Asher Space Science Institute—Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: d.bettoni@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: sergey.sibiryakov@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2017-05-01
We develop the framework for testing Lorentz invariance in the dark matter sector using galactic dynamics. We consider a Lorentz violating (LV) vector field acting on the dark matter component of a satellite galaxy orbiting in a host halo. We introduce a numerical model for the dynamics of satellites in a galactic halo and for a galaxy in a rich cluster to explore observational consequences of such an LV field. The orbital motion of a satellite excites a time dependent LV force which greatly affects its internal dynamics. Our analysis points out key observational signatures which serve as probes of LV forces. These include modifications to the line of sight velocity dispersion, mass profiles and shapes of satellites. With future data and a more detailed modeling these signatures can be exploited to constrain a new region of the parameter space describing the LV in the dark matter sector.
Are we observing Lorentz violation in gamma ray bursts?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlopoulos, Theodore G.
2005-01-01
From recent observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), it appears that spectral time lags between higher-energy gamma rays photons and lower-energy photons vary with energy difference and time (distance) traveled. These lags appear to be smaller for the most luminous (close) bursts but larger for the fainter (farther away) bursts. From this observation, it has been suggested that it might be possible to determine the distance (L) these bursts have traveled from these time lags alone, without performing any red-shift measurements. These observed spreads (dispersion) of high-energy electromagnetic pulses of different energies with time contradict the special theory of relativity (STR). However, extended theories (ET) of the STR have been developed that contain a dispersive term, predicting the above observations. An example of such an ET is presented, allowing us to derive a relationship between time lags of gamma rays of different energies and distance L traveled from their origin. In addition, this theory predicts the origin of X-ray flashes
Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models
Stecker, Floyd
2011-01-01
High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.
Transport properties of stochastic Lorentz models
Beijeren, H. van
Diffusion processes are considered for one-dimensional stochastic Lorentz models, consisting of randomly distributed fixed scatterers and one moving light particle. In waiting time Lorentz models the light particle makes instantaneous jumps between scatterers after a stochastically distributed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph; Natoli, Paolo
2007-01-01
We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle Δα=-2.5±3.0 (Δα=-2.5±6.0) at the one (two) σ level, consistent with a null detection
de Sitter group as a symmetry for optical decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baskal, S; Kim, Y S
2006-01-01
Stokes parameters form a Minkowskian 4-vector under various optical transformations. As a consequence, the resulting two-by-two density matrix constitutes a representation of the Lorentz group. The associated Poincare sphere is a geometric representation of the Lorentz group. Since the Lorentz group preserves the determinant of the density matrix, it cannot accommodate the decoherence process through the decaying off-diagonal elements of the density matrix, which yields to an increase in the value of the determinant. It is noted that the O(3, 2) de Sitter group contains two Lorentz subgroups. The change in the determinant in one Lorentz group can be compensated by the other. It is thus possible to describe the decoherence process as a symmetry transformation in the O(3, 2) space. It is shown also that these two coupled Lorentz groups can serve as a concrete example of Feynman's rest of the universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T' Jampens, Stephane; /Orsay
2006-09-18
This thesis presents the full-angular time-dependent analysis of the vector-vector channel B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})*{sup 0}. After a review of the CP violation in the B meson system, the phenomenology of the charmonium-K*(892) channels is exposed. The method for the measurement of the transversity amplitudes of the B {yields} J/{psi}K*(892), based on a pseudo-likelihood method, is then exposed. The results from a 81.9 fb{sup -1} of collected data by the BABAR detector at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance peak are |A{sub 0}|{sup 2} = 0.565 {+-} 0.011 {+-} 0.004, |A{sub {parallel}}|{sup 2} = 0.206 {+-} 0.016 {+-} 0.007, |A{sub {perpendicular}}|{sup 2} = 0.228 {+-} 0.016 {+-} 0.007, {delta}{sub {parallel}} = -2.766 {+-} 0.105 {+-} 0.040 and {delta}{sub {perpendicular}} = 2.935 {+-} 0.067 {+-} 0.040. Note that ({delta}{sub {parallel}}, {delta}{sub {perpendicular}}) {yields} (-{delta}{sub {parallel}}, {pi} - {delta}{sub {perpendicular}}) is also a solution. The strong phases {delta}{sub {parallel}} and {delta}{sub {perpendicular}} are at {approx}> 3{sigma} from {+-}{pi}, signing the presence of final state interactions and the breakdown of the factorization hypothesis. The forward-backward analysis of the K{pi} mass spectrum revealed the presence of a coherent S-wave interfering with the K*(892). It is the first evidence of this wave in the K{pi} system coming from a B meson. The particularity of the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})*{sup 0} channel is to have a time-dependent but also an angular distribution which allows to measure sin 2{beta} but also cos2{beta}. The results from an unbinned maximum likelihood fit are sin 2{beta} = -0.10 {+-} 0.57 {+-} 0.14 and cos 2{beta} = 3.32{sub -0.96}{sup +0.76} {+-} 0.27 with the transversity amplitudes fixed to the values given above. The other solution for the strong phases flips the sign of cos 2{beta}. Theoretical considerations based on the s-quark helicity
1989-01-01
Contents: CP Phenomenology: Introduction to CP Violation (C Jarlskog); CP-Violation in the K 0 -K 0 -System (K Kleinknecht); The Quark Mixing Matrix, Charm Decays and B Decays (S Stone); The Question of CP Noninvariance - As Seen through the Eyes of Neutral Beauty (I I Bigi et al.); In Search of CP Noninvariance in Heavy Quark Systems (L-L Chau); CP Violation at High Energy e + e - Colliders (J Bernabéu & M B Gavela); CP Violation in the Standard Model with Four Families (A Datta & E A Paschos); CP Effects When Neutrinos are their Own Antiparticles (B Kayser); On Spontaneous CP Violation Trigg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleitez, V.
1983-01-01
An abelian gauge theory with violation of P and T symmetries, is constructed other features of usual spinor quantum electrodynamics are maintained. The theory is applied to some scattering processes with polarized and unpolarized electrons. (Author) [pt
Symmetry and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.
1999-01-01
The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)
$CPT$ violation searches and prospects for LHCb
van Tilburg, Jeroen
2015-03-06
An overview of current experimental bounds on $CPT$ violation in neutral meson mixing is given. New values for the $CPT$ asymmetry in the $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ systems are deduced from BaBar, Belle and LHCb data. With dedicated analyses, LHCb will be able to further improve the bounds on $CPT$ violation in the $D^0$, $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ systems. Since $CPT$ violation implies violation of Lorentz invariance, the observed $CPT$ asymmetry will exhibit sidereal- and boost-dependent variations. Such $CPT$-violating and Lorentz-violating effects are accommodated in the framework of the Standard-Model Extension (SME). The large boost of the neutral mesons produced at LHCb results in a high sensitivity to the corresponding SME coefficients. For the $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ systems, using existing LHCb data, we determine with high precision the SME coefficients that are not varying with sidereal time. With a full sidereal analysis, LHCb will be able to improve the existing SME bounds in the $D^0$, $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ systems by up t...
Lorentz covariant theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fagundes, H.V.
1974-12-01
An alternative method for the calculation of second order effects, like the secular shift of Mercury's perihelium is developed. This method uses the basic ideas of thirring combined with the more mathematical approach of Feyman. In the case of a static source, the treatment used is greatly simplified. Besides, Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann's Lagrangian for a system of two particles and spin-orbit and spin-spin interactions of two particles with classical spin, ie, internal angular momentum in Moller's sense, are obtained from the Lorentz covariant theory
CERN. Geneva
1999-01-01
In the first two lectures, CP violation in the K system is pedagogically reviewed: its manifestations in the neutral K meson systems, in rare K meson decays and in decays of charged K mesons, and results from classical and current experiments, are discussed. In the third lecture, CP Violation in the B system and the forthcoming experimental tests will be discussed.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have just entered a period during which we expect considerable progress toward understanding CP violation. Here we review what we have learnt so far, and what is to be expected in the near future. To do this we cover the foundation of CP violation at a level which can be understood by physicists who are not working ...
Uniformly bounded representations of the Lorentz groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brega, A.O.
1982-01-01
For the Lorentz group G = SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to 2) the author constructs a family of uniformly bounded representations by means of analytically continuing a certain normalization of the unitary principal series. The method the author uses relies on an analysis of various operators under a Mellin transform and extends earlier work of E.N. Wilson. In a series of papers Kunze and Stein initiated the theory of uniformly bounded representations of semisimple Lie groups; the starting point is the unitary principal series T(sigma,s) obtained in a certain subgroup M of G and a purely imaginary number s. From there Kunze and Stein constructed families of representations R(sigma,s) depending analytically on a parameter s in a domain D of C containing the imaginary axis which are unitarily equilvalent to T(sigma,s) for s contained in the set of imaginary numbers and whose operator norms are uniformly bounded for each s in D. In the case of the Lorentz groups SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to2) and the trivial representation 1 of M, E.N. Wilson obtained such a family R(1,s) for the domain D = [s contained in the set of C: absolute value Re(s) Vertical Bar2]. For this domain D and for any representation sigma of M the author provides a family R(sigma,s) of uniformly bounded representations analytically continuing T(sigma,s), thereby generalizing Wilson's work. The author has also investigated certain symmetry properties of the representations R(sigma,s) under the action of the Weyl group. The trivial representation is Weyl group invariant and the family R(1,s) obtained by Wilson satisfies R(1,s) = R(1,-s) reflecting this. Obtained was the analogous result R(sigma,s) = R(sigma,-s) for some well known representations sigma that are Weyl group invariant. This involves the explicit computation of certain constants arising in the Fourier transforms of intertwining operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, R. J.
2001-01-01
In this lecture, I will give an overview of the current and planned B meson facilities and the motivation for building them. The emphasis will be on the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II accelerator and on the primary physics motivation for these facilities: charge-parity symmetry violation. (Author) 11 refs
CP violating phenomena and theoretical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.
1987-01-01
An introduction to CP violating phenomena is given and the standard model and its most popular low energy extensions in this context are reviewed. The discussion comprises the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, left-right symmetry, the standard model with more than one Higgs doublet and gauged horizontal symmetries. (Author)
Tomaschitz, R
1994-01-01
Spinor fields are studied in infinite, topologically multiply connected Robertson-Walker cosmologies. Unitary spinor representations for the discrete covering groups of the spacelike slices are constructed. The spectral resolution of Dirac's equation is given in terms of horospherical elementary waves, on which the treatment of spin and energy is based in these cosmologies. The meaning of the energy and the particle-antiparticle concept is explained in the context of this varying cosmic background. Discrete symmetries, in particular inversions of the multiply connected spacelike slices, are studied. The violation of the unitarity of the parity operator, due to self-interference of P-reflected wave packets, is discussed. The violation of the CP and CPT invariance - already on the level of the free Dirac equation on this cosmological background - is pointed out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilman, F.J.
1989-12-01
Predictions for CP violation in the three generation Standard Model are reviewed based on what is known about the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Application to the K and B meson systems are emphasized. 43 refs., 13 figs
Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.
2005-01-01
We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, H.
1995-12-01
In this talk the author briefly reviews the cosmological importance of CP violation and the status of calculations of baryogenisis in the context of the Standard Model. The author then turns to a discussion of Standard Model Predictions for CP violation in B decays, stressing the importance of multiple measurements to overconstrain the model parameters and thus search for indications of beyond-Standard-Model physics
Cosmology and CPT violating neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barenboim, Gabriela; Salvado, Jordi [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Burjassot (Spain)
2017-11-15
The combination charge conjugation-parity-time reversal (CPT) is a fundamental symmetry in our current understanding of nature. As such, testing CPT violation is a strongly motivated path to explore new physics. In this paper we study CPT violation in the neutrino sector, giving for the first time a bound, for a fundamental particle, in the CPT violating particle-antiparticle gravitational mass difference. We argue that cosmology is nowadays the only data sensitive to CPT violation for the neutrino-antineutrino mass splitting and we use the latest data release from Planck combined with the current baryonic-acoustic-oscillation measurement to perform a full cosmological analysis. To show the potential of the future experiments we also show the results for Euclid, a next generation large scale structure experiment. (orig.)
CP violating scalar Dark Matter
Cordero-Cid, A.; Hernández-Sánchez, J.; Keus, V.; King, S. F.; Moretti, S.; Rojas, D.; Sokołowska, D.
2016-12-01
We study an extension of the Standard Model (SM) in which two copies of the SM scalar SU(2) doublet which do not acquire a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), and hence are inert, are added to the scalar sector. We allow for CP-violation in the inert sector, where the lightest inert state is protected from decaying to SM particles through the conservation of a Z 2 symmetry. The lightest neutral particle from the inert sector, which has a mixed CP-charge due to CP-violation, is hence a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density opened up by CP-violation, and compare our results to the CP-conserving limit and the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). We constrain the parameter space of the CP-violating model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct and indirect detection experiments.
Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.
1981-01-01
The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface. (orig.)
Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings
Arms, Judith M.; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Moncrief, Vincent
1981-01-01
The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface.
Solution of the Lorentz-Dirac equation based on a new momentum expression
Yan, C C
1998-01-01
The Lorentz-Dirac equation is solved based on a new momentum expression given by p sup a =1/c sup 2 (u submu p supmu)u sup a +k du sup a /d tau. This new momentum expression is the form proposed by Barut modified to satisfy the condition imposed by Dirac. The solution turns out to be well behaved without violating causality or causing runaway. (author)
Nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adelberger, E.G.
1983-01-01
Nuclear experiments which probe the parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetries and lepton-number conservation are reviewed. The P-violating NN interaction, studied in the NN system and in light nuclei, provides an unique window on ΔS=0 hadronic weak processes. Results are in accord with expectations. Sensitive searches for T-violation via detailed balance, T-odd correlations in γ and β-decay, and a possible neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) are discussed. No T-violation is observed. The EDM limit is almost good enough to eliminate one of the leading theoretical explanations for CP violation. Experimental studies of double β-decay are reviewed. Although ββ nu nu decay has been convincingly detected in geochemical experiments there is no evidence for the lepton number violating ββ decay mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Muenchen Univ.; Zumino, B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1991-01-01
We derive a q-deformed version of the Lorentz algebra by deformating the algebra SL(2, C). The method is based on linear representations of the algebra on the complex quantum spinor space. We find that the generators usually identified with SL q (2, C) generate SU q (2) only. Four additional generators are added which generate Lorentz boosts. The full algebra of all seven generators and their coproduct is presented. We show that in the limit q→1 the generators are those of the classical Lorentz algebra plus an additional U(1). Thus we have a deformation of SL(2, C)xU(1). (orig.)
Holography without translational symmetry
Vegh, David
2013-01-01
We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.
Lorentz invariance and the rotor Doppler shift experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.
1984-01-01
It is shown that 'Rotor Doppler shift Experiments' provide a way to distinguish Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) from Lorentz's Aether Theory (LAT). Misconceptions in previous papers involving the Doppler shift experiments are examined. The theoretical and experimental data available on rotor Doppler shift experiments are analysed. Two models of SR violating theories are used to predict the output of a recently proposed experiment by Torr and Kolen. The first one corresponds to (strict) LAT and the other to an extended form of LAT Contrary to the first, the second theory leads to results in agreement with the preliminary experimental data of Torr et al indicating a breakdown both of SR and strict LAT. (Author) [pt
Lorentz invariance and the rotor Doppler shift experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.
1984-01-01
It is shown that 'Rotor Doppler shift Experiments' provide a way to distinguish Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) from Lorentz's Aether Theory (LAT). Misconceptions in previous papers involving the Doppler shift experiments are examined. The theoretical and experimental data available on rotor Doppler shift experiments are analysed. Two models of SR violating theories are used to predict the output of a recently proposed experiment by Torr and Kolen. The first one corresponds to (strict) LAT and the other to an extended form of LAT. Contrary to the first, the second theory leads to results in agreement with the preliminary experimental data of Torr et al indicating a breakdown both of SR and strict LAT. (Author) [pt
Tests of Lorentz invariance using a microwave resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, Peter; Bize, Sebastien; Clairon, Andre; Santarelli, Giorgio; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.
2003-01-01
The frequencies of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator and a hydrogen maser are compared to set new constraints on a possible violation of Lorentz invariance. We determine the variation of the oscillator frequency as a function of its orientation (Michelson-Morley test) and of its velocity (Kennedy-Thorndike test) with respect to a preferred frame candidate. We constrain the corresponding parameters of the Mansouri and Sexl test theory to δ-β+1/2=(1.5±4.2)x10 -9 and β-α-1=(-3.1±6.9)x10 -7 which is of the same order as the best previous result for the former and represents a 30-fold improvement for the latter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronau, M.
1995-01-01
We review the present status of the Standard Model of CP violation, which is based on a complex phase in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. So far CP violation has been observed only in K 0 -K 0 mixing, consistent with a sizable phase. The implications of future CP nonconserving measusrements in K and B decays are discussed within the model. Direct CP violation in K→2π may be observed in the near future, however this would not be a powerful test of the model. B decays provide a wide variety of CP asymmetry measurements, which can serve as precise tests of the Standard Model in cases where the asymmetry is cleanly related to phases of CKM matrix elements. Some of the most promising cases are discussed. ((orig.))
A precision test of Lorentz invariance using room-temperature high-finesse optical resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisele, Christian
2009-01-01
An apparatus for a test of a basic postulate of the theory of Special Relativity, the isotropy of the speed of light, has been developed. Deviations from the isotropy imply a violation of Lorentz invariance, a symmetry assumed by all established theories of the fundamental forces. Such a signal may provide a glimpse on physics beyond our current theories of the fundamental forces, the General Theory of Relativity and the Standard Modell of particle physics. Since long theoreticians try to unify General Relativity and the Standard Modell within one theory, a grand unified theory (GUT). So far they did not succeed, although promising candidate theories have been developed, e.g. string theories or loop quantum gravity. However, there are hints that Lorentz invariance might not be an exact symmetry of nature, but that deviations are to be expected. This is a strong motivation for tests of Lorentz invariance with increased sensitivity as the one presented within this thesis. We employ, for the first time for a test of the isotropy of the speed of light, monolithic optical resonators fabricated from a glass ceramic with ultra low expansion coefficient (ULE). By means of a monolithic Nd:YAG-laser (λ = 1064 nm) we measure the difference between the resonance frequencies of two orthogonally oriented resonators. The low thermal expansion coefficient reduces the influence of thermal fluctuations on the resonance frequencies, which are a function of the mirror spacing and the speed of light inside the resonators only. The complete optical setup has been put on top of active vibration isolation supports, which strongly damp mechanical vibrations. This improves the short-time stability of the resonators resonance frequencies. This technique is used for the first time in a Speed of Light Isotropy Test (SLIT) experiment. Furthermore, a system for the stabilization of the tilt of the optics breadboard is implemented, based on electromagnetic actuators. This stabilization is
A precision test of Lorentz invariance using room-temperature high-finesse optical resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eisele, Christian
2009-10-28
An apparatus for a test of a basic postulate of the theory of Special Relativity, the isotropy of the speed of light, has been developed. Deviations from the isotropy imply a violation of Lorentz invariance, a symmetry assumed by all established theories of the fundamental forces. Such a signal may provide a glimpse on physics beyond our current theories of the fundamental forces, the General Theory of Relativity and the Standard Modell of particle physics. Since long theoreticians try to unify General Relativity and the Standard Modell within one theory, a grand unified theory (GUT). So far they did not succeed, although promising candidate theories have been developed, e.g. string theories or loop quantum gravity. However, there are hints that Lorentz invariance might not be an exact symmetry of nature, but that deviations are to be expected. This is a strong motivation for tests of Lorentz invariance with increased sensitivity as the one presented within this thesis. We employ, for the first time for a test of the isotropy of the speed of light, monolithic optical resonators fabricated from a glass ceramic with ultra low expansion coefficient (ULE). By means of a monolithic Nd:YAG-laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm) we measure the difference between the resonance frequencies of two orthogonally oriented resonators. The low thermal expansion coefficient reduces the influence of thermal fluctuations on the resonance frequencies, which are a function of the mirror spacing and the speed of light inside the resonators only. The complete optical setup has been put on top of active vibration isolation supports, which strongly damp mechanical vibrations. This improves the short-time stability of the resonators resonance frequencies. This technique is used for the first time in a Speed of Light Isotropy Test (SLIT) experiment. Furthermore, a system for the stabilization of the tilt of the optics breadboard is implemented, based on electromagnetic actuators. This stabilization is
Symmetry breaking in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potting, R.
1998-01-01
A mechanism for a spontaneous breakdown of CPT symmetry appears in string theory, with possible implications for particle models. A realistic string theory might exhibit CPT violation at levels detectable in current or future experiments. A possible new mechanism for baryogenesis in the early Universe is also discussed
Effective lagrangian description on discrete gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.
1989-01-01
We exhibit a simple low-energy lagrangian which describes a system with a discrete remnant of a spontaneously broken continuous gauge symmetry. The lagrangian gives a simple description of the effects ascribed to such systems by Krauss and Wilczek: black holes carry discrete hair and interact with cosmic strings, and wormholes cannot lead to violation of discrete gauge symmetries. (orig.)
Reflections on symmetries at SPIN '94
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, S.A.
1995-01-01
In my view, the parallel sessions on ''Symmetries'' were amongst the most stimulating sessions of this conference. Speakers reported on experimental tests of Charge Symmetry, Parity, and Time Reversal violation and their theoretical interpretation, spanning a wide range of energy scales and experimental techniques. I hope that this brief summary will whet the reader's appetite to explore the many contributed papers which follow
Can Lorentz-breaking fermionic condensates form in large N strongly-coupled Lattice Gauge Theories?
Tomboulis, E. T.
2010-01-01
The possibility of Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB) has attracted considerable attention in recent years for a variety of reasons, including the attractive prospect of the graviton as a Goldstone boson. Though a number of effective field theory analyses of such phenomena have recently been given it remains an open question whether they can take place in an underlying UV complete theory. Here we consider the question of LSB in large N lattice gauge theories in the strong coupling limit. We appl...
Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter
Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2012-01-01
We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.
Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blas, Diego [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mm.ivanov@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: sibir@inr.ac.ru [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-10-01
We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.
The Scientific Correspondence of H A Lorentz
Kox, AJ
2008-01-01
Presents a selection of more than 400 letters from and to the Dutch physicist and Nobel Prize winner Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928), covering the period from 1883 until a few months before his death.
On systems having Poincaré and Galileo symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holland, Peter
2014-01-01
Using the wave equation in d≥1 space dimensions it is illustrated how dynamical equations may be simultaneously Poincaré and Galileo covariant with respect to different sets of independent variables. This provides a method to obtain dynamics-dependent representations of the kinematical symmetries. When the field is a displacement function both symmetries have a physical interpretation. For d=1 the Lorentz structure is utilized to reveal hitherto unnoticed features of the non-relativistic Chaplygin gas including a relativistic structure with a limiting case that exhibits the Carroll group, and field-dependent symmetries and associated Noether charges. The Lorentz transformations of the potentials naturally associated with the Chaplygin system are given. These results prompt the search for further symmetries and it is shown that the Chaplygin equations support a nonlinear superposition principle. A known spacetime mixing symmetry is shown to decompose into label-time and superposition symmetries. It is shown that a quantum mechanical system in a stationary state behaves as a Chaplygin gas. The extension to d>1 is used to illustrate how the physical significance of the dual symmetries is contingent on the context by showing that Maxwell’s equations exhibit an exact Galileo covariant formulation where Lorentz and gauge transformations are represented by field-dependent symmetries. A natural conceptual and formal framework is provided by the Lagrangian and Eulerian pictures of continuum mechanics
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schieren, Roland
2010-12-02
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schieren, Roland
2010-01-01
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z R 4 symmetry is discovered which solves the μ-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z R 4 is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z R 4 symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Fundamental symmetry studies at Los Alamos using epithermal neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowman, C.D.; Bowman, J.D.; Yuan, V.W.
1988-01-01
Fundamental symmetry studies using intense polarized beams of epithermal neutrons are underway at the LANSCE facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Three classes of symmetry experiments can be explored: parity violation, and time reversal invariance violation for both parity-violating and parity-conserved observables. The experimental apparatus is described and performance illustrated with examples of recent measurements. Possible improvements in the facilities and prospective experiments are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs
High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models
Stecker, Floyd W.
2012-01-01
High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approx.10(exp -35) m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approx. 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future. I will also discuss how the LIV formalism casts doubt on the OPERA superluminal neutrino claim.
Parity violation in the compound nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.
1999-01-01
Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized
Compatibility of the Ampere and Lorentz force laws with the virtual-work concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graneau, P.
1983-01-01
Whenever the reaction forces between parts of an electric circuit have to be calculated, as in the design of railguns, a choice has to be made between three available formulae which have evolved during the past 160 years. The first was Ampere's force law for the mechanical interaction between two current elements. Neumann then derived the virtual-work formula from what may be called the Ampere-Neumann electrodynamics. The last to be introduced was the Lorentz force law. This paper investigates whether both the Amperian and the Lorentzian forces are compatible with the virtual-work concept. The conclusion is that only Ampere's formula agrees in all cases with the virtual-work idea, but in special circumstances the Lorentz law will give the same result. After demonstrating how Ampere's law can be derived from the virtual-work formula, it is shown that for two closed circuits the relativistic component of the Lorentz force vanishes under the double integral around the two circuits. The remaining nonvanishing term is also present in the Ampere electrodynamics. This is not the case when considering the reaction forces between two parts of an isolated circuit. The Lorentz force is then, in general, not compatible with the virtual-work concept unless the circuit possesses a high degree of symmetry
Spinor Structure and Internal Symmetries
Varlamov, V. V.
2015-10-01
Spinor structure and internal symmetries are considered within one theoretical framework based on the generalized spin and abstract Hilbert space. Complex momentum is understood as a generating kernel of the underlying spinor structure. It is shown that tensor products of biquaternion algebras are associated with the each irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Space-time discrete symmetries P, T and their combination PT are generated by the fundamental automorphisms of this algebraic background (Clifford algebras). Charge conjugation C is presented by a pseudoautomorphism of the complex Clifford algebra. This description of the operation C allows one to distinguish charged and neutral particles including particle-antiparticle interchange and truly neutral particles. Spin and charge multiplets, based on the interlocking representations of the Lorentz group, are introduced. A central point of the work is a correspondence between Wigner definition of elementary particle as an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group and SU(3)-description (quark scheme) of the particle as a vector of the supermultiplet (irreducible representation of SU(3)). This correspondence is realized on the ground of a spin-charge Hilbert space. Basic hadron supermultiplets of SU(3)-theory (baryon octet and two meson octets) are studied in this framework. It is shown that quark phenomenologies are naturally incorporated into presented scheme. The relationship between mass and spin is established. The introduced spin-mass formula and its combination with Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula allows one to take a new look at the problem of mass spectrum of elementary particles.
Einstein-Yang-Mills-Lorentz black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Gigante Valcarcel, Jorge [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)
2017-12-15
Different black hole solutions of the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills equations have been well known for a long time. They have attracted much attention from mathematicians and physicists since their discovery. In this work, we analyze black holes associated with the gauge Lorentz group. In particular, we study solutions which identify the gauge connection with the spin connection. This ansatz allows one to find exact solutions to the complete system of equations. By using this procedure, we show the equivalence between the Yang-Mills-Lorentz model in curved space-time and a particular set of extended gravitational theories. (orig.)
The Lorentz integral transform and its inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnea, N.; Efros, V.D.; Leidemann, W.; Orlandini, G.
2010-01-01
The Lorentz integral transform method is briefly reviewed. The issue of the inversion of the transform, and in particular its ill-posedness, is addressed. It is pointed out that the mathematical term ill-posed is misleading and merely due to a historical misconception. In this connection standard regularization procedures for the solution of the integral transform problem are presented. In particular a recent one is considered in detail and critical comments on it are provided. In addition a general remark concerning the concept of the Lorentz integral transform as a method with a controlled resolution is made. (author)
Nonlinear Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petry, W.
1976-01-01
A nonlinear Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation and a Lorentz-invariant Hamiltonian for a particle with spin in the gravitational field are developed. The equations of motions are studied. The theory is applied to the three well known tests of General Relativity. In the special case of the red shift of spectral lines and of the deflection of light, the theory gives the same results as the General Theory of Relativity, whereas in the case of the perihelion of the Mercury, the theory gives 40,3'', in good agreement with experimental results of Dicke. (author)
Self-duality in generalized Lorentz superspaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devchand, C.; Nuyts, J.
1996-12-01
We extend the notion of self-duality to spaces built from a set of representations of the Lorentz group with bosonic or fermionic behaviour, not having the traditional spin-one upper-bound of super Minkowski space. The generalized derivative vector fields on such superspace are assumed to form a superalgebra. Introducing corresponding gauge potentials and hence covariant derivatives and curvatures, we define generalized self-duality as the Lorentz covariant vanishing of certain irreducible parts of the curvatures. (author). 4 refs
Rotating optical cavity experiment testing Lorentz invariance at the 10-17 level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, S.; Senger, A.; Moehle, K.; Nagel, M.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Peters, A.
2009-01-01
We present an improved laboratory test of Lorentz invariance in electrodynamics by testing the isotropy of the speed of light. Our measurement compares the resonance frequencies of two orthogonal optical resonators that are implemented in a single block of fused silica and are rotated continuously on a precision air bearing turntable. An analysis of data recorded over the course of one year sets a limit on an anisotropy of the speed of light of Δc/c∼1x10 -17 . This constitutes the most accurate laboratory test of the isotropy of c to date and allows to constrain parameters of a Lorentz violating extension of the standard model of particle physics down to a level of 10 -17 .
Theory prospective on leptonic CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petcov, S.T.
2016-01-01
The phenomenology of 3-neutrino mixing, the current status of our knowledge about the 3-neutrino mixing parameters, including the absolute neutrino mass scale, and of the Dirac and Majorana CP violation in the lepton sector are reviewed. The problems of CP violation in neutrino oscillations and of determining the nature – Dirac or Majorana – of massive neutrinos are discussed. The seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation and the related leptogenesis scenario of generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe are considered. The results showing that the CP violation necessary for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in leptogenesis can be due exclusively to the Dirac and/or Majorana CP-violating phase(s) in the neutrino mixing matrix U are briefly reviewed. The discrete symmetry approach to understanding the observed pattern of neutrino mixing and the related predictions for the leptonic Dirac CP violation are also reviewed.
Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz
2017-07-01
A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.
CP violation in the lepton sector and implications for leptogenesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hagedorn, C.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Molinaro, E.
2018-01-01
We review the current status of the data on neutrino masses and lepton mixing and the prospects for measuring the CP-violating phases in the lepton sector. The possible connection between low energy CP violation encoded in the Dirac and Majorana phases of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing...... matrix and successful leptogenesis is emphasized in the context of seesaw extensions of the Standard Model with a flavor symmetry Gf (and CP symmetry)....
Reformulation of the symmetries of first-order general relativity
Montesinos, Merced; González, Diego; Celada, Mariano; Díaz, Bogar
2017-10-01
We report a new internal gauge symmetry of the n-dimensional Palatini action with cosmological term (n>3 ) that is the generalization of three-dimensional local translations. This symmetry is obtained through the direct application of the converse of Noether’s second theorem on the theory under consideration. We show that diffeomorphisms can be expressed as linear combinations of it and local Lorentz transformations with field-dependent parameters up to terms involving the variational derivatives of the action. As a result, the new internal symmetry together with local Lorentz transformations can be adopted as the fundamental gauge symmetries of general relativity. Although their gauge algebra is open in general, it allows us to recover, without resorting to the equations of motion, the very well-known Lie algebra satisfied by translations and Lorentz transformations in three dimensions. We also report the analog of the new gauge symmetry for the Holst action with cosmological term, finding that it explicitly depends on the Immirzi parameter. The same result concerning its relation to diffeomorphisms and the open character of the gauge algebra also hold in this case. Finally, we consider the non-minimal coupling of a scalar field to gravity in n dimensions and establish that the new gauge symmetry is affected by this matter field. Our results indicate that general relativity in dimension greater than three can be thought of as a gauge theory.
Electron correlation effects in the presence of non-symmetry dictated ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We numerically study the effect of non-symmetry dictated nodes (NSDN) on electron ... the absence of NSDN, attractive interaction between electrons give such an ... and the violation of parity effect, we first explain what are symmetry dictated.
Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.
Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu
2016-04-15
It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.
Classroom Experiment to Verify the Lorentz Force
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. Classroom Experiment to Verify the Lorentz Force. Somnath Basu Anindita Bose Sumit Kumar Sinha Pankaj Vishe S Chatterjee. Classroom Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 81-86 ...
Lorentz Spengler's descriptions of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)
Kaas, P.; Knudsen, J.
1992-01-01
The present paper deals with an important Danish paper on the Polyplacophora, published in 1797 by Lorentz Spengler: Udförlig Beskrivelse over det mangeskallede Konkylie-Slaegt, af Linnaeus kaldet Chiton; med endeel nye Arter og Varieteter. -Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet, 4e Bind, Ie Hefte,
Characterisation of Embeddings in Lorentz Spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gogatishvili, Amiran; Johansson, M.; Okpoti, C.A.; Persson, L. E.
2007-01-01
Roč. 76, č. 1 (2007), s. 69-92 ISSN 0004-9727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-increasing rearrangement * Lorentz spaces * weights Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.297, year: 2007
Voisin, Claire
1999-01-01
This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...
Discrete symmetries and their stringy origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayorga Pena, Damian Kaloni
2014-05-01
Discrete symmetries have proven to be very useful in controlling the phenomenology of theories beyond the standard model. In this work we explore how these symmetries emerge from string compactifications. Our approach is twofold: On the one hand, we consider the heterotic string on orbifold backgrounds. In this case the discrete symmetries can be derived from the orbifold conformal field theory, and it can be shown that they are in close relation with the orbifold geometry. We devote special attention to R-symmetries, which arise from discrete remnants of the Lorentz group in compact space. Further we discuss the physical implications of these symmetries both in the heterotic mini-landscape and in newly constructed models based on the Z 2 x Z 4 orbifold. In both cases we observe that the discrete symmetries favor particular locations in the orbifold where the particles of standard model should live. On the other hand we consider a class of F-theory models exhibiting an SU(5) gauge group, times additional U(1) symmetries. In this case, the smooth compactification background does not permit us to track the discrete symmetries as transparently as in orbifold models. Hence, we follow a different approach and search for discrete subgroups emerging after the U(1)s are broken. We observe that in this approach it is possible to obtain the standard Z 2 matter parity of the MSSM.
Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter
dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter Resources ) 'to verify a fundamental tenet of physics, known as CP [charge-parity] symmetry, by showing that two into two pi mesons. Cronin and Fitch had found an example of CP violation. The discovery's
Vacaru, Sergiu I
2014-01-01
The fundamental field equations in modified gravity (including general relativity; massive and bimetric theories; Ho\\vrava-Lifshits, HL; Einstein--Finsler gravity extensions etc) posses an important decoupling property with respect to nonholonomic frames with 2 (or 3) +2+2+... spacetime decompositions. This allows us to construct exact solutions with generic off--diagonal metrics depending on all spacetime coordinates via generating and integration functions containing (un-) broken symmetry parameters. Such nonholonomic configurations/ models have a nice ultraviolet behavior and seem to be ghost free and (super) renormalizable in a sense of covariant and/or massive modifications of HL gravity. The apparent noncommutativity and breaking of Lorentz invariance by quantum effects can be encoded into fibers of noncommutative tangent Lorentz bundles for corresponding "partner" anisotropically induced theories. We show how the constructions can be extended to include conjectured covariant reonormalizable models with...
The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Goldberg, Stanley
1969-01-01
Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…
CP violation experiment at Fermilab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiung, Yee B.
1990-07-01
The E731 experiment at Fermilab has searched for ''direct'' CP violation in K 0 → ππ, which is parametrized by var-epsilon '/var-epsilon. For the first time, in 20% of the data set, all four modes of the K L,S → π + π - (π 0 π 0 ) were collected simultaneously, providing a great check on the systematic uncertainty. The result is Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) = -0.0004 ± 0.0014 (stat) ± 0.0006(syst), which provides no evidence for ''direct'' CP violation. The CPT symmetry has also been tested by measuring the phase difference Δφ = φ 00 - φ ± between the two CP violating parameters η 00 and η ± . We fine Δφ = -0.3 degrees ± 2.4 degree(stat) ± 1.2 degree(syst). Using this together with the world average φ ± , we fine that the phase of the K 0 -bar K 0 mixing parameter var-epsilon is 44.5 degree ± 1.5 degree. Both of these results agree well with the predictions of CPT symmetry. 17 refs., 10 figs
Observational Aspects of Symmetries of the Neutral B Meson System
Fidecaro, Maria; Ruf, Thomas
2015-01-01
We revisit various results, which have been obtained by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations over the last twelve years, concerning symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian, which governs the time evolution and the decay of neutral B mesons. We find that those measurements, which established CP violation in B meson decay, 13 years ago, had as well established T (time-reversal) symmetry violation. They also confirmed CPT symmetry in the decay (T$_{CPT}$ = 0) and symmetry with respect to time-reversal ( $\\epsilon$ = 0) and to CPT ($\\delta$ = 0) in the $B^0 \\bar{B}^0$ oscillation.
The nucleon- nucleon interaction and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Oers, W.T.H.
1992-11-01
With the advent of the possibility to study nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies, its extension to investigate fundamental symmetries was recognized early on. It was precisely the introduction of rotational invariance, parity conservation, time reversal invariance, and isotopic spin conversation that led to the description of the N - N scattering matrix in terms of five complex amplitudes: one set of five for proton-proton scattering and one set of five for neutron-proton scattering, or alternatively, one set for the isotopic spin state ι=ο and the other for the isotopic spin state ι=1. Clearly, if one or more of the above constraints are removed, there are additional amplitudes that need to be considered. To be meaningful, experiment requires observables that are particularly sensitive to the violation of a conservation law or symmetry principle. During the last decade a series of precision experiments has been performed to measure charge- symmetry breaking in n - p elastic scattering (corresponding to isotopic spin non-conservation), and to measure parity violation in p-p scattering. For a particle-anti-particle system,like the pp or λλ system one can raise the question of CP violation in a system other than the neutral kaon system may become possible in the near future through pp →λλ and pp→ ≡ ≡. A description is given of the ongoing efforts to measure charge symmetry breaking, parity violation and CP violation.(author). 42 refs., 6 figs
On the origin of neutrino flavour symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph
2009-01-01
We study classes of models which are based on some discrete family symmetry which is completely broken such that the observed neutrino flavour symmetry emerges indirectly as an accidental symmetry. For such 'indirect' models we discuss the D-term flavon vacuum alignments which are required for such an accidental flavour symmetry consistent with tri-bimaximal lepton mixing to emerge. We identify large classes of suitable discrete family symmetries, namely the Δ(3n 2 ) and Δ(6n 2 ) groups, together with other examples such as Z 7 x Z 3 . In such indirect models the implementation of the type I see-saw mechanism is straightforward using constrained sequential dominance. However the accidental neutrino flavour symmetry may be easily violated, for example leading to a large reactor angle, while maintaining accurately the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric predictions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, Helen R
2001-01-01
These lectures provide a basic overview of topics related to the study of CP Violation in B decays. In the first lecture, I review the basics of discrete symmetries in field theories, the quantum mechanics of neutral but flavor-non-trivial mesons, and the classification of three types of CP violation [1]. The actual second lecture which I gave will be separately published as it is my Dirac award lecture and is focused on the separate topic of strong CP Violation. In Lecture 2 here, I cover the Standard Model predictions for neutral B decays, and in particular discuss some channels of interest for CP Violation studies. Lecture 3 reviews the various tools and techniques used to deal with the hadronic physics effects. In Lecture 4, I briefly review the present and planned experiments that can study B decays. I cannot teach all the details of this subject in this short course, so my approach is instead to try to give students a grasp of the relevant concepts and an overview of the available tools. The level of these lectures is introductory. I will provide some references to more detailed treatments and current literature, but this is not a review article so I do not attempt to give complete references to all related literature. By now there are some excellent textbooks that cover this subject in great detail [1]. I refer students to these for more details and for more complete references to the original literature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, H.
2002-01-01
These lectures provide a basic overview of topics related to the study of CP Violation in B decays. In the first lecture, I review the basics of discrete symmetries in field theories, the quantum mechanics of neutral but flavor-non-trivial mesons, and the classification of three types of CP violation. The actual second lecture which I gave will be separately published as it is my Dirac award lecture and is focussed on the separate topic of strong CP Violation. In Lecture 2 here, I cover the Standard Model predictions for neutral B decays, and in particular discuss some channels of interest for CP Violation studies. Lecture 3 reviews the various tools and techniques used to deal with the hadronic physics effects. In Lecture 4, I briefly review the present and planned experiments that can study B decays. I cannot teach all the details of this subject in this short course, so my approach is instead to try to give students a grasp of the relevant concepts and an overview of the available tools. The level of these lectures is introductory. I will provide some references to more detailed treatments and current literature, but this is not a review article so I do not attempt to give complete references to all related literature. By now there are some excellent textbooks that cover this subject in great detail. I refer students to these for more details and for more complete references to the original literature. (author)
Problems of CP-violation in early unification theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.; Volkov, G.G.
1985-01-01
The present work studies possible mechanisms of P and CP-violation in the frames of an approach based on early unification of fundamental local symmetries, i.e., Pati-Salam four-colour symmetry, extended weak isotopic symmetry and that of quark-lepton generations. The work also studies the influence of generations mixing on the rates of rare processes in each of 3 classes of interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, K.; Kaplan, D.B.; Nelson, A.E.
1993-01-01
Conventional solutions to the strong CP problem all require the existence of global symmetries. However, quantum gravity may destroy global symmetries, making it hard to understand why the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDMN) is so small. We suggest here that CP is actually a discrete gauge symmetry, and is therefore not violated by quantum gravity. We show that four-dimensional CP can arise as a discrete gauge symmetry in theories with dimensional compactification, if the original number of Minkowski dimensions equals 8k+1, 8k+2 or 8k+3, and if there are certain restrictions on the gauge group; these conditions are met by superstrings. CP may then be broken spontaneously below 10 9 GeV, explaining the observed CP violation in the kaon system without inducing a large EDMN. We discuss the phenomenology of such models, as well as the peculiar properties of cosmic 'SP strings' which could be produced at the compactification scale. Such strings have the curious property that a particle carried around the string is turned into its CP conjugate. A single CP string renders four-dimensional space-time nonorientable. (orig.)
The geometric role of symmetry breaking in gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wise, Derek K
2012-01-01
In gravity, breaking symmetry from a group G to a group H plays the role of describing geometry in relation to the geometry of the homogeneous space G/H. The deep reason for this is Cartan's 'method of equivalence,' giving, in particular, an exact correspondence between metrics and Cartan connections. I argue that broken symmetry is thus implicit in any gravity theory, for purely geometric reasons. As an application, I explain how this kind of thinking gives a new approach to Hamiltonian gravity in which an observer field spontaneously breaks Lorentz symmetry and gives a Cartan connection on space.
Neutrality of the lorentz transformations in SRT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamdan, N.; Baza, S.
2005-01-01
The special theory of Relativity (SRT), gives us two results, the dilation of time and the contraction of the Length, which have been refuted by many scientists. The solution to these kinematical effects has driven researchers to develop new methods. One of these methods is using the physical law equations and apply the principle of relativity to them. With this approach, we reformulated the SRT in a simple manner which has dynamical applications without using the Lorentz transformations (LT) and its kinematical effects. We obtained the results which require the invariant of Maxwell's field equations under the LT in a way different to that of Einsterin. In the present paper, we get the LT from the Lorentz force. In contrast to Einstein's LT with its kinematical effects, the LT produced in this paper is simply a neutral transformation. Containing no physical significance, i.e. LT and its kinematical effects do not explain any physical phenomenon. (author)
Minimal Flavour Violation and Beyond
Isidori, Gino
2012-01-01
We review the formulation of the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) hypothesis in the quark sector, as well as some "variations on a theme" based on smaller flavour symmetry groups and/or less minimal breaking terms. We also review how these hypotheses can be tested in B decays and by means of other flavour-physics observables. The phenomenological consequences of MFV are discussed both in general terms, employing a general effective theory approach, and in the specific context of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the SM.
Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.
1981-01-01
The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface.
Electromagnetic reactions of few-body systems with the Lorentz integral transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leidemann, W.
2007-01-01
Various electromagnetic few-body break-up reactions into the many-body continuum are calculated microscopically with the Lorentz integral transform (LIT) method. For three- and four-body nuclei the nuclear Hamiltonian includes two- and three-nucleon forces, while semirealistic interactions are used in case of six- and seven-body systems. Comparisons with experimental data are discussed. In addition various interesting aspects of the 4 He photodisintegration are studied: investigation of a tetrahedrical symmetry of 4 He and a test of non-local nuclear force models via the induced two-body currents
BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking
Ryder, L. H.
2005-11-01
One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajpoot, S.
1981-07-01
The SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1)sub(L+R) model of electroweak interactions is described with the most general gauge couplings gsub(L), gsub(R) and gsub(L+R). The case in which neutrino neutral current interactions are identical to the standard SU(2)sub(L) x U(1)sub(L+R) model is discussed in detail. It is shown that with the weak angle lying in the experimental range sin 2 thetaSUB(w)=0.23+-0.015 and 1 2 /gsub(R) 2 <3 it is possible to explain the amount of parity violation observed at SLAC and at the same time predict values of the ''weak charge'' in bismuth to lie in the range admitted by the controversal data from different experiments. (author)
CP and other gauge symmetries in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; MacIntire, D.A.
1992-01-01
We argue that CP is a gauge symmetry in string theory. As a consequence, CP cannot be explicitly broken either perturbatively or nonperturbatively; there can be no nonperturbative CP-violating parameters. String theory is thus an example of a theory where all θ angles arise due to spontaneous CP violation, and are in principle calculable
Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddhartha Sen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.
Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2013-11-14
We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.M.
1984-01-01
The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr
CP properties of symmetry-constrained two-Higgs-doublet models
Ferreira, P M; Nachtmann, O; Silva, Joao P
2010-01-01
The two-Higgs-doublet model can be constrained by imposing Higgs-family symmetries and/or generalized CP symmetries. It is known that there are only six independent classes of such symmetry-constrained models. We study the CP properties of all cases in the bilinear formalism. An exact symmetry implies CP conservation. We show that soft breaking of the symmetry can lead to spontaneous CP violation (CPV) in three of the classes.
Concerning the equivalence of Lorentz's and Einstein's theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clube, S.V.M.
1978-01-01
A clear distinction is drawn between derivations of the Lorentz transformations by Lorentz and Einstein. The choice as to which derivation is correct is still open to experimental test. Possible reasons are given for preferring the Lorentz derivation in terms of a material aether, and the role of covariance in physical theory is considered to be heuristic rather than fundamental. The existence of a material aether also permits one to question the fundamental role of fields in modern theory
Lorentz invariance with an invariant energy scale.
Magueijo, João; Smolin, Lee
2002-05-13
We propose a modification of special relativity in which a physical energy, which may be the Planck energy, joins the speed of light as an invariant, in spite of a complete relativity of inertial frames and agreement with Einstein's theory at low energies. This is accomplished by a nonlinear modification of the action of the Lorentz group on momentum space, generated by adding a dilatation to each boost in such a way that the Planck energy remains invariant. The associated algebra has unmodified structure constants. We also discuss the resulting modifications of field theory and suggest a modification of the equivalence principle which determines how the new theory is embedded in general relativity.
Mixed Lorentz boosted $Z^{0}'s$
Kjaer, N J
2001-01-01
A novel technique is proposed to study systematic errors on jet reconstruction in W physics measurements at LEP2 with high statistical precision. The method is based on the emulation of W pair events using Mixed Lorentz Boosted Z0 events. The scope and merits of the method and its statistical accuracy are discussed in the context of the DELPHI W mass measurement in the fully hadronic channel. The numbers presented are preliminary in the sense that they do not constitute the final DELPHI systematic errors.
Studies on representation of the Lorentz group and gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanitriarivo, R.
2002-01-01
This work is focused on studies about the representation of the Lorentz group and gauge theory. The mathematical tools required for the different studies are presented, as well as for the representation of the Lorentz group and for the gauge theory. Representation of the Lorentz group gives the possible types of fields and wave functions that describe particles: fermions are described by spinors and bosons are described by scalar or vector. Each of these entities (spinors, scalars, vectors) are characterized by their behavior under the action of Lorentz transformations.Gauge theory is used to describe the interactions between particles. [fr
From anomalies of finite symmetries to heterotic GUTs
Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.
2017-11-01
We review the role of finite symmetries for particle physics with special emphasis on discrete anomalies and on their possible origin from extra dimensions. Then, we apply our knowledge on finite symmetries to the problematic proton decay operators of various mass-dimensions, focusing on ℤ4R , i.e. a special R-symmetry of order 4. We show that this ℤ4R symmetry can naturally originate from extra dimensions as a discrete remnant of higher-dimensional Lorentz symmetry. Finally, in order to obtain a unified picture from the heterotic string theory we discuss grand unified theories (GUTs) in extra dimensions compactified on ℤ2 × ℤ2 orbifolds and show how proton decay operators can be suppressed in a certain class of orbifolds.
A model for the origin and mechanisms of CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Y.
1995-01-01
In this talk I will show that the two-Higgs doublet model with vacuum CP violation and approximate global U(1) family symmetries may provide one of the simplest and attractive models for understanding the origin and mechanisms of CP violation. It is shown that the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking provides not only a mechanism for generating masses of the bosons and fermions, but also a mechanism for creating CP-phases of the bosons and fermions, so that CP violation occurs, after spontaneous symmetry breaking, in all possible ways from a single CP phase of the vacuum and is generally classified into four types of CP-violating mechanism. A new type of CP-violating mechanism in the charged Higgs boson interactions of the fermions is emphasized and can provide a consistent description for both established and reported CP-, P-, and T-violating phenomena. Of particular importance is the new source of CP violation for charged Higgs boson interactions that lead to the value of ε'/ε as large as 10 -3 independent of the CKM phase. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
B-L violating supersymmetric couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1983-01-01
We consider two problems: one is the possible effect of the breaking of Peccei-Quinn symmetry on the inflationary universe scenario; the other is the remark that even the minimal supersymmetric SU 5 theory contains B-L violating couplings which give rise to neutrino masses and family-diagonal proton decay. However the strength of these couplings is limited by the gauge hierarchy
Neutrino properties and fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowles, T.J.
1996-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There are two components to this work. The first is a development of a new detection scheme for neutrinos. The observed deficit of neutrinos from the Sun may be due to either a lack of understanding of physical processes in the Sun or may be due to neutrinos oscillating from one type to another during their transit from the Sun to the Earth. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to use a water Cerenkov detector employing one thousand tonnes of heavy water to resolve this question. The ability to distinguish muon and tau neutrinos from electron neutrinos is crucial in order to carry out a model-independent test of neutrino oscillations. We describe a developmental exploration of a novel technique to do this using 3 He proportional counters. Such a method offers considerable advantages over the initially proposed method of using Cerenkov light from capture on NaCl in the SNO. The second component of this work is an exploration of optimal detector geometry for a time-reversal invariance experiment. The question of why time moves only in the forward direction is one of the most puzzling problems in modern physics. We know from particle physics measurements of the decay of kaons that there is a charge-parity symmetry that is violated in nature, implying time-reversal invariance violation. Yet, we do not understand the origin of the violation of this symmetry. To promote such an understanding, we are developing concepts and prototype apparatus for a new, highly sensitive technique to search for time-reversal-invariance violation in the beta decay of the free neutron. The optimized detector geometry is seven times more sensitive than that in previous experiments. 15 refs
Introduction to Ives' 'Derivation of the Lorentz transformations'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruderfer, M.
1979-01-01
Lorentz ether theory is elevated on a par with special relativity by Ives' derivation of the Lorentz transformations. The two theories combined then demand the physical existence of a relativistic ether. This is supported by the still unfolding hierarchy of matter. Cogent implications for physical theory follow. (Auth.)
Vortex deformation and reduction of the Lorentz force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuorio, M.
1977-01-01
A vortex of an extreme II-type superconductor is considered in the presence of a transport current. The equivalence of Magnus and Lorentz forces in a static vortex is discussed and the effect of vortex deformation is included in calculating corrections to the conventional expression of the Lorentz force. (author)
Lorentz Invariant Spectrum of Minimal Chiral Schwinger Model
Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Seung-Kook; Kim, Won-Tae; Park, Young-Jai; Kim, Kee Yong; Kim, Yongduk
We study the Lorentz transformation of the minimal chiral Schwinger model in terms of the alternative action. We automatically obtain a chiral constraint, which is equivalent to the frame constraint introduced by McCabe, in order to solve the frame problem in phase space. As a result we obtain the Lorentz invariant spectrum in any moving frame by choosing a frame parameter.
New paradigm for baryon and lepton number violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fileviez Pérez, Pavel
2015-01-01
The possible discovery of proton decay, neutron–antineutron oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay in low energy experiments, and exotic signals related to the violation of the baryon and lepton numbers at collider experiments will change our understanding of the conservation of fundamental symmetries in nature. In this review we discuss the rare processes due to the existence of baryon and lepton number violating interactions. The simplest grand unified theories and the neutrino mass generation mechanisms are discussed. The theories where the baryon and lepton numbers are defined as local gauge symmetries spontaneously broken at the low scale are discussed in detail. The simplest supersymmetric gauge theory which predicts the existence of lepton number violating processes at the low scale is investigated. The main goal of this review is to discuss the main implications of baryon and lepton number violation in physics beyond the Standard Model.
Lie-isotopic generalization of the Poincare symmetry: Classical formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santilli, R.M.
1991-03-01
This paper is devoted to the origin and methodology of the several phenomenological predictions of deviations from Einstein's Special Relativity and related Lorentz symmetry in the behaviour of the lifetime of unstable hadrons at different speeds, that exist in the literature since the early '60's. After reviewing the background phenomenological literature, we outline the Lie-isotopic symmetry of the emerging deformations of the Minkowski metric introduced in a preceding paper, and extend the results to the construction of the full Poincare-isotopic symmetry. The local isomorphism of the Poincare-isotopic symmetry with the conventional symmetry is proved for all possible topology-preserving deformations of the Minkowski metric. In this way we establish that the phenomenological predictions of deviations recalled earlier must be specifically referred to Einstein's Special Relativity, but they cannot be referred to the Lorentz (or to the Poincare) symmetry which remains exact. Particular attention is devoted to the proof of the compatibility of the exact validity of the Special Relativity for the center-of-mass trajectory of a hadron in a particle accelerator, with conceivable deviations from the same relativity in the interior structural problem. For completeness, the analysis is complemented with a few remarks on the gravitational profile. First, we review the pioneering Lie-isotopic generalization of Einstein's Gravitation worked out by Gasperini, which possesses precisely a locally Lorentz-isotopic structure. We then restrict this theory to the interior gravitational problem in order to achieve compatibility with the particle setting. The paper concludes with a review of the need to finally conduct direct experimental measures of the lifetime of unstable hadrons at different speeds, in order to finally resolve whether Einsteins's Special and General Relativities are locally valid in the interior of hadrons, or structurally more general relativities must be worked
Yamamoto, Hitoshi
2001-01-01
We review the physics of CP violation in B decays. After introducing the CKM matrix and how it causes CP violation, we cover three types of CP violation that can occur in B decays: CP violation in mixing, CP violation by mixing-decay interference, and CP violation in decay.
The nucleon- nucleon interaction and symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Oers, W T.H.
1992-11-01
With the advent of the possibility to study nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies, its extension to investigate fundamental symmetries was recognized early on. It was precisely the introduction of rotational invariance, parity conservation, time reversal invariance, and isotopic spin conversation that led to the description of the N - N scattering matrix in terms of five complex amplitudes: one set of five for proton-proton scattering and one set of five for neutron-proton scattering, or alternatively, one set for the isotopic spin state {iota}={omicron} and the other for the isotopic spin state {iota}=1. Clearly, if one or more of the above constraints are removed, there are additional amplitudes that need to be considered. To be meaningful, experiment requires observables that are particularly sensitive to the violation of a conservation law or symmetry principle. During the last decade a series of precision experiments has been performed to measure charge- symmetry breaking in n - p elastic scattering (corresponding to isotopic spin non-conservation), and to measure parity violation in p-p scattering. For a particle-anti-particle system,like the pp or {lambda}{lambda} system one can raise the question of CP violation in a system other than the neutral kaon system may become possible in the near future through pp {yields}{lambda}{lambda} and pp{yields} {identical_to} {identical_to}. A description is given of the ongoing efforts to measure charge symmetry breaking, parity violation and CP violation.(author). 42 refs., 6 figs.
Minimal flavour violation and neutrino masses without R-parity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arcadi, G.; Di Luzio, L.; Nardecchia, M.
2012-01-01
symmetry breaking all the couplings of the superpotential including the R-parity violating ones. If R-parity violation is responsible for neutrino masses, our setup can be seen as an extension of MFV to the lepton sector. We analyze two patterns based on the non-abelian flavour symmetries SU(3)(4) circle...... times SU(4) and SU(3)(5). In the former case the total lepton number and the lepton flavour number are broken together, while in the latter the lepton number can be broken independently by an abelian spurion, so that visible effects and peculiar correlations can be envisaged in flavour changing charged...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conte, E
2007-11-15
This thesis probes the beauty baryon physics in the framework of the LHCb experiment. The present study deals with the {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {lambda}{sup 0}V decays where V is a vector meson such as J/{psi}({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}), {phi}(K{sup +}K{sup -}), {omega}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}0) or the {rho}{sup 0} - {omega}{sup 0}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) mixing. These processes allow to test independently the CP symmetry, which violation has not been observed yet in the baryonic sector, and the T symmetry, which experimental proofs are limited. Among the possible perspectives, a precise measurement of the {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime could contribute to the resolution of the raising theoretical-experimental puzzle. A phenomenological model of the {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {lambda}{sup 0}V decays has been performed, from which branching ratios and angular distributions have been estimated. An advanced study of the reconstruction and the selection of these reactions by the LHCb apparatus shows that the channel {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {lambda}{sup 0}J/{psi} is the dominant channel on both statistics and purity aspects. The {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime measure is the most imminent result; the constrains on asymmetries due to CP and T violation require several data taking years. Besides, an instrumental work has been achieved on the read-out electronics, called Front-End, of the experiment pre-shower. This contribution takes into account the validation of the prototype boards and the development of tools required by the qualification of the 100 production boards. (author)
Probing Fundamental Symmetries: Questioning the Very Basics of Conservation Laws
Mohanmurthy, Prajwal
2017-09-01
Is the Lorentz-CPT symmetry, a core component of the standard model, valid? To what extent are the CP and T symmetries broken in the strong sector? What are we doing about the existing strong-CP problem? Do neutrons oscillate (like neutral kaons) or break the (Baryon - Lepton) number conservation? In this presentation, we will go over some of the experiments probing fundamental symmetries trying to answer the above questions. I will, very briefly, introduce the CompEx & nEx experiments probing the Lorentz symmetry in the electromagnetic (EM) sector, the nEDM experiment probing CP and T symmetries in the strong sector, NStar experiment searching for neutron oscillations, MASS & BDX experiments searching for axion like particles & dark matter. We will then briefly touch upon the highlights of these experiments and focus on the path we are taking towards answering those questions while also connecting the dots [experiments] with CEU. PM would like to acknowledge support from SERI SNSF Grant 2015.0594.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ingraham, R.L.
1985-01-01
The well-known relativistic transformation law of quantum fields satisfies the relativity principle, which asserts the complete equivalence of all Lorentz (inertial) frames as far as physical measurements go. We point out a slight generalization which is allowed by the relativity principle, but violates a further, tacit assumption usually made in connection with it but which is actually logically independent of it and subject to a feasible experimental test. The interest of the generalization is that it permits the incorporation of an ultraviolet cutoff in a simple, direct way which avoids the usual difficulties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1981-09-01
Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces
Two-Higgs-doublet models with Minimal Flavour Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlucci, Maria Valentina
2010-01-01
The tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents in the two-Higgs-doublet models can be suppressed by protecting the breaking of either flavour or flavour-blind symmetries, but only the first choice, implemented by the application of the Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis, is stable under quantum corrections. Moreover, a two-Higgs-doublet model with Minimal Flavour Violation enriched with flavour-blind phases can explain the anomalies recently found in the ΔF = 2 transitions, namely the large CP-violating phase in B s mixing and the tension between ε K and S ψKS .
Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons
Bernabéu, José
2018-01-01
Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.
Models of dynamical R-parity violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Slone, Oren; Volansky, Tomer [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2015-06-08
The presence of R-parity violating interactions may relieve the tension between existing LHC constraints and natural supersymmetry. In this paper we lay down the theoretical framework and explore models of dynamical R-parity violation in which the breaking of R-parity is communicated to the visible sector by heavy messenger fields. We find that R-parity violation is often dominated by non-holomorphic operators that have so far been largely ignored, and might require a modification of the existing searches at the LHC. The dynamical origin implies that the effects of such operators are suppressed by the ratio of either the light fermion masses or the supersymmetry breaking scale to the mediation scale, thereby providing a natural explanation for the smallness of R-parity violation. We consider various scenarios, classified by whether R-parity violation, flavor breaking and/or supersymmetry breaking are mediated by the same messenger fields. The most compact case, corresponding to a deformation of the so called flavor mediation scenario, allows for the mediation of supersymmetry breaking, R-parity breaking, and flavor symmetry breaking in a unified manner.
Rotation associated with product of two Lorentz transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Wyk, C.B.
1984-01-01
In the usual presentation of the Lorentz transformation there is an almost complete absence of the use of products of these transformations. One of the reasons for this appears to be the large amount of calculation involved when multi-plying the 4X4 matrices of the vector representation of the Lorentz transformation. In the article this problem is partly cleared up by using the coordinate free two-component spinor representation of rotations and Lorentz transformations. It is also shown that the theory derived in the article can be applied to Thomas precission in a very simple and direct way
CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1993-01-01
So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronau, M.
1984-01-01
Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references
Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandula, Jeffrey E.
2009-01-01
The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luescher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, whose elements are its cosets, is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, noncommuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example, free overlap fermions, these noncanonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are related to complex energy singularities that violate reflection positivity and impede continuation to Minkowski space.
Discrete R symmetries for the MSSM and its singlet extensions
Lee, Hyun Min; Ratz, Michael; Ross, Graham G; Schieren, Roland; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S
2011-01-01
We determine the anomaly free discrete R symmetries, consistent with the MSSM, that commute with SU(5) and suppress the $\\mu$ parameter and nucleon decay. We show that the order M of such $Z_M^R$ symmetries has to divide 24 and identify 5 viable symmetries. The simplest possibility is a $Z_4^R$ symmetry which commutes with SO(10). We present a string-derived model with this $Z_4^R$ symmetry and the exact MSSM spectrum below the GUT scale; in this model $Z_4^R$ originates from the Lorentz symmetry of compactified dimensions. We extend the discussion to include the singlet extensions of the MSSM and find $Z_4^R$ and $Z_8^R$ are the only possible symmetries capable of solving the $\\mu$ problem in the NMSSM. We also show that a singlet extension of the MSSM based on a $Z_{24}^R$ symmetry can provide a simultaneous solution to the $\\mu$ and strong CP problem with the axion coupling in the favoured window.
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed
Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (Germany); Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D. [Adelaide Univ. SA (Australia). School of Physics and Chemistry; Winter, F. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2010-12-15
By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N{sub f}=2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the non-perturbative structure of the proton but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global ts to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. (orig.)
Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Stueben, H.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Winter, F.; Regensburg Univ.
2010-12-01
By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N f =2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the non-perturbative structure of the proton but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global ts to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. (orig.)
Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)
2014-12-01
A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.
Lorentz and CPT invariances and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beauregard, O.C. de
1984-01-01
This paper shows that there is no conflict between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation and the new 1925 - 55 ''microrelativity principle'' stating the Lorentz and CPT invariance of physical law at the microlevel. The CPT invariance concept is a perfectly legal heir of the 1876 Loschmidt T-invariance concept. Therefore, the EPR-paradox can be understood as synthetizing two earlier ''paradoxes'': the wavelike probability calculus, and the T- or CPT-symmetry of elementary physical processes. The CPT-invariance can be summarized as the basic requirement of second quantization, that particle emission and antiparticle absorption are mathematically equivalent. The phenomenology displays causality as arrowless at the microlevel. The relativistic S-matrix scheme displays the CPT invariance of causality concept at the microlevel. In order to strengthen the point that the Lorentz and CPT invariant schemes of relativistic quantum mechanics do contain the full formalization of the EPR correlation, the covariant calculations pertaining to the subject are presented. The formalization of the EPR correlation and its interpretation are contained in the existing relativistic quantum mechanics. (Kato, T.)
Implications of Lorentz covariance for the guidance equation in two-slit quantum interference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holland, Peter; Philippidis, Chris
2003-01-01
It is known that Lorentz covariance fixes uniquely the current and the associated guidance law in the trajectory interpretation of quantum mechanics for spin-(1/2) particles. In the nonrelativistic domain this implies a guidance law for the electron which differs by an additional spin-dependent term from that originally proposed by de Broglie and Bohm. In this paper, we explore some of the implications of the modified guidance law. We bring out a property of mutual dependence in the particle coordinates that arises in product states, and show that the quantum potential has scalar and vector components, which implies the particle is subject to a Lorentz-like force. The conditions for the classical limit and the limit of negligible spin are given, and the empirical sufficiency of the model is demonstrated. We then present a series of calculations of the trajectories based on two-dimensional Gaussian wave packets which illustrate how the additional spin-dependent term plays a significant role in structuring both the individual trajectories and the ensemble. The single packet corresponds to quantum inertial motion. The distinct features encountered when the wave function is a product or a superposition are explored, and the trajectories that model the two-slit experiment are given. The latter paths exhibit several new characteristics compared with the original de Broglie-Bohm ones, such as crossing of the axis of symmetry
Dynamics and control of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft relative motion
Yan, Ye; Yang, Yueneng
2017-01-01
This book develops a dynamical model of the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in both unperturbed and J2-perturbed environments. It explicitly discusses three kinds of typical space missions involving relative orbital control: spacecraft hovering, rendezvous, and formation flying. Subsequently, it puts forward designs for both open-loop and closed-loop control schemes propelled or augmented by the geomagnetic Lorentz force. These control schemes are entirely novel and represent a significantly departure from previous approaches.
Measurement of the Lorentz-FitzGerald body contraction
Rafelski, Johann
2018-02-01
A complete foundational discussion of acceleration in the context of Special Relativity (SR) is presented. Acceleration allows the measurement of a Lorentz-FitzGerald body contraction created. It is argued that in the back scattering of a probing laser beam from a relativistic flying electron cloud mirror generated by an ultra-intense laser pulse, a first measurement of a Lorentz-FitzGerald body contraction is feasible.
The BTZ black hole as a Lorentz-flat geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduarodriguezsal@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio, E-mail: pasalgado@udec.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)
2014-11-10
It is shown that 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes are Lorentz-flat. This means, in particular, that any simply-connected patch of the BTZ black hole solution can be endowed with a Lorentz connection that is locally pure gauge. The result can be naturally extended to a wider class of black hole geometries and point particles in three-dimensional spacetime.
Symmetries of cosmological Cauchy horizons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moncrief, V.; Isenberg, J.
1983-01-01
We consider analytic vacuum and electrovacuum spacetimes which contain a compact null hypersurface ruled by closed null generators. We prove that each such spacetime has a non-trivial Killing symmetry. We distinguish two classes of null surfaces, degenerate and non-degenerate ones, characterized by the zero or non-zero value of a constant analogous to the ''surface gravity'' of stationary black holes. We show that the non-degenerate null surfaces are always Cauchy heizons across which the Killing fields change from spacelike (in the globally hyperbolic regions) to timelike (in the acausal, analytic extensions). For the special case of a null surface diffeomorphic to T 3 we characterize the degenerate vacuum solutions completely. These consists of an infinite dimensional family of ''plane wave'' spacetimes which are entirely foliated by compact null surfaces. Previous work by one of us has shown that, when one dimensional Killing symmetries are allowed, then infinite dimensional families of non-degenerate, vacuum solutions exist. We recall these results for the case of Cauchy horizons diffeomorphic to T 3 and prove the generality of the previously constructed non-degenerate solutions. We briefly discuss the possibility of removing the assumptions of closed generators and analyticity and proving an appropriate generalization of our main results. Such a generalization would provide strong support for the cosmic censorship conjecture by showing that causality violating, cosmological solutions of Einstein's equations are essentially an artefact of symmetry. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1987-01-01
Nuclei are very useful for testing symmetries, and for studies of symmetry breaking. This thesis is illustrated for two improper space-time transformations, parity and time-reversal and for one internal symmetry: charge symmetry and independence. Recent progress and present interest is reviewed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz: his role in physics and society
Berends, Frits
2009-04-01
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) was appointed in 1878 to a chair of theoretical physics at the University of Leiden, one of the first of such chairs in the world. A few years later Heike Kamerlingh Onnes became his experimental colleague, after vehement discussions in the faculty. Lorentz strongly supported Kamerlingh Onnes then, and proved subsequently to be an ideal colleague. With Lorentz's electron theory the classical theory of electromagnetism obtained its final form, at the time often called the Maxwell-Lorentz theory. In this theory the Zeeman effect could be explained: the first glimpse of the electron. The Nobel Prize followed in 1902. The Lorentz transformation, established in 1904, preceded the special theory of relativity. Later on, Lorentz played a much admired role in the debate on the new developments in physics, in particular as chairman of a series of Solvay conferences. Gradually his stature outside of physics grew, both nationally as chairman of the Zuiderzee committee and internationally as president of the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. At his funeral the overwhelming tribute was the recognition of his unique greatness. Einstein said about him 'He meant more to me personally than anyone else I have met on my life's journey'.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz: his role in physics and society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berends, Frits [Emeritus Theoretical Physics, Leiden University (Netherlands)
2009-04-22
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) was appointed in 1878 to a chair of theoretical physics at the University of Leiden, one of the first of such chairs in the world. A few years later Heike Kamerlingh Onnes became his experimental colleague, after vehement discussions in the faculty. Lorentz strongly supported Kamerlingh Onnes then, and proved subsequently to be an ideal colleague. With Lorentz's electron theory the classical theory of electromagnetism obtained its final form, at the time often called the Maxwell-Lorentz theory. In this theory the Zeeman effect could be explained: the first glimpse of the electron. The Nobel Prize followed in 1902. The Lorentz transformation, established in 1904, preceded the special theory of relativity. Later on, Lorentz played a much admired role in the debate on the new developments in physics, in particular as chairman of a series of Solvay conferences. Gradually his stature outside of physics grew, both nationally as chairman of the Zuiderzee committee and internationally as president of the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. At his funeral the overwhelming tribute was the recognition of his unique greatness. Einstein said about him 'He meant more to me personally than anyone else I have met on my life's journey'.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz: his role in physics and society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berends, Frits
2009-01-01
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) was appointed in 1878 to a chair of theoretical physics at the University of Leiden, one of the first of such chairs in the world. A few years later Heike Kamerlingh Onnes became his experimental colleague, after vehement discussions in the faculty. Lorentz strongly supported Kamerlingh Onnes then, and proved subsequently to be an ideal colleague. With Lorentz's electron theory the classical theory of electromagnetism obtained its final form, at the time often called the Maxwell-Lorentz theory. In this theory the Zeeman effect could be explained: the first glimpse of the electron. The Nobel Prize followed in 1902. The Lorentz transformation, established in 1904, preceded the special theory of relativity. Later on, Lorentz played a much admired role in the debate on the new developments in physics, in particular as chairman of a series of Solvay conferences. Gradually his stature outside of physics grew, both nationally as chairman of the Zuiderzee committee and internationally as president of the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. At his funeral the overwhelming tribute was the recognition of his unique greatness. Einstein said about him 'He meant more to me personally than anyone else I have met on my life's journey'.
The Lorentz-Dirac equation in light of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikishov, A.I.
1996-01-01
To high accuracy, an electron in ultrarelativistic motion 'sees' an external field in its rest frame as a crossed field (E=H, E·H=0). In this case, quantum expressions allow the introduction of a local intensity of the radiation, which determines the radiative term of the force of radiative reaction. For γ=(1-v2)-1/2>> 1 this term is much larger than the mass term, i.e., the term with xd3do. Under these conditions, the reduced Lorentz-Dirac equation, which is obtained from the full Lorentz-Dirac equation by eliminating the terms xd3do and xe on the right side using the equation of motion without taking into account the force of radiative reaction, is equivalent to good accuracy to the original Lorentz-Dirac equation. Exact solutions to the reduced Lorentz-Dirac equation are obtained for a constant field and the field of a plane wave. For γ∼1 a local expression for the radiative term cannot be obtained quantitatively from the quantum expressions. In this case the mass (Lorentz-Dirac) terms in the original and reduced Lorentz-Dirac equations are not small compared to the radiative term. The predictions of these equations, which depend appreciably on the mass terms, are therefore less reliable
Up sector of minimal flavor violation: top quark properties and direct D meson CP violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Li, Ye
2013-07-01
Minimal Flavor Violation in the up-type quark sector leads to particularly interesting phenomenology due to the interplay of flavor physics in the charm sector and collider physics from flavor changing processes in the top sector. We study the most general operators that can affect top quark properties and D meson decays in this scenario, concentrating on two CP violating operators for detailed studies. The consequences of these effective operators on charm and top flavor changing processes are generically small, but can be enhanced if there exists a light flavor mediator that is a Standard Model gauge singlet scalar and transforms under the flavor symmetry group. This flavor mediator can satisfy the current experimental bounds with a mass as low as tens of GeV and explain observed D-meson direct CP violation. Additionally, the model predicts a non-trivial branching fraction for a top quark decay that would mimic a dijet resonance.
Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation
Agrawal, Prateek; Gemmler, Katrin
2014-10-13
We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a $U(3)_\\chi$ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter $\\chi$ which transforms as triplet under $U(3)_\\chi$, and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator $\\phi$ with a coupling $\\lambda$. We identify a number of "flavor-safe" scenarios for the structure of $\\lambda$ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of $b$-...
Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin
2014-01-01
We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator with a coupling. We identify a number of ''flavor-safe'' scenarios for the structure of which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Galynsky, Vladimir M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei
2012-01-01
The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor...... of the metamaterial is calculated for normal incidence of light. Whenever the split ring lacks in-plane mirror symmetry, the corresponding permittivity tensor has a crystallographic structure of an elliptically dichroic medium, and the metamaterial exhibits optical properties of planar chiral structures. Its...... transmission spectra are different for right-handed versus left-handed circular polarization of the incident wave, so the structure changes its transmittance when the direction of incidence is reversed. The magnitude of this change is shown to be related to the geometric parameters of the split ring...
Discrete symmetries: A broken look at QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, T.
1996-01-01
The alphabet soup of discrete symmetries is briefly surveyed with a view towards those which can be tested at LISS and two particularly interesting cases are called out. A LISS experiment may be able to distinguish CP violation that is not due to the QCD θ term. The elements of a model of parity violation in proton-nucleon scattering, which is consistent with lower energy LAMPF and ANL results, are reviewed in the light of new information on diquarks and the proton spin fraction carried by quarks. The prediction that the parity violating total cross section asymmetry should be large at LISS energies is confirmed. The results of such an experiment can be used both to obtain new information about the diquark substructure of the nucleon and to provide bounds on new right-chiral weak interactions
A unique $Z_4^R$ symmetry for the MSSM
Lee, Hyun Min; Ratz, Michael; Ross, Graham G; Schieren, Roland; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S
2011-01-01
We consider the possible anomaly free Abelian discrete symmetries of the MSSM that forbid the mu-term at perturbative order. Allowing for anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism we identify discrete R-symmetries as the only possibility and prove that there is a unique Z_4^R symmetry that commutes with SO(10). We argue that non-perturbative effects will generate a mu-term of electroweak order thus solving the mu-problem. The non-perturbative effects break the Z_4^R symmetry leaving an exact Z_2 matter parity. As a result dimension four baryon- and lepton-number violating operators are absent while, at the non-perturbative level, dimension five baryon- and lepton-number violating operators get induced but are highly suppressed so that the nucleon decay rate is well within present bounds.
Renormalisation group improved leptogenesis in family symmetry models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, Iain K.; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph
2012-01-01
We study renormalisation group (RG) corrections relevant for leptogenesis in the case of family symmetry models such as the Altarelli-Feruglio A 4 model of tri-bimaximal lepton mixing or its extension to tri-maximal mixing. Such corrections are particularly relevant since in large classes of family symmetry models, to leading order, the CP violating parameters of leptogenesis would be identically zero at the family symmetry breaking scale, due to the form dominance property. We find that RG corrections violate form dominance and enable such models to yield viable leptogenesis at the scale of right-handed neutrino masses. More generally, the results of this paper show that RG corrections to leptogenesis cannot be ignored for any family symmetry model involving sizeable neutrino and τ Yukawa couplings.
Isospin symmetry violation, meson production and η-nucleus ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The experimental details and results obtained so far are presented ... to the large mass of η-meson (547 MeV), this S11 resonance is very close to η-N ... 3He particles were detected at the normal focal plane whereas tritons were measured.
Isospin symmetry violation, meson production and η-nucleus ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The experiment was perfomed at the cooler synchrotron accelerator. COSY, Jülich at several beam energies close to the corresponding production threshold. We also have ongoing programmes on -nucleus final-state interaction studies via + 6Li → 7Be + reactions, high resolution search for dibaryonic resonances ...
Weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohapatra, R.H.
1978-01-01
The present status of weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry is reviewed. The theoretical basis for asymptotic parity conservation, manifest left-right symmetry in charged current weak interactions, natural parity conservation in neutral currents and CP-violation in the context of SU(2)/sub L/ circled x SU (2)/sub R/ circled x U(1) models are outlined in detail. Various directions for further research in the theoretical and experimental side are indicated
CP violation and supersymmetry-breaking in superstring models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dent, T.E.
2000-09-01
In this thesis I discuss aspects of the phenomenology of heterotic string, theory, using low-energy effective supergravity models. I investigate the origin of CP violation, the implications for low-energy physics of the modular invariance of the theory, supersymmetry-breaking via gaugino condensation in a hidden sector, and the interplay between these topics. I review the theory of CP violation and the problem of CP violation in supersymmetry phenomenology. In a scenario where the origin of CP violation lies in the compactification of the extra dimensions of string theory, I present simple models which include a duality symmetry acting on the compactification modulus and on observable fields. I show how the structure of the theory affects CP-violating observables, and discuss the effect of such a symmetry on low-energy physics in general. I present a detailed investigation of supersymmetry-breaking by gaugino condensation in supergravity, in particular as applied to the stabilisation of string moduli. For hidden sectors with or without matter I calculate corrections to the usual formulae for the scalar potential and soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. I discuss the phenomenological implications of these corrections and show that they may affect the value of the compactification modulus. and consequently the prospects for predictions of CP violation in string models. (author)
Quantum-gravity-motivated Lorentz-symmetry tests with laser interferometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Laemmerzahl, Claus
2004-01-01
We consider the implications for laser interferometry of the quantum-gravity-motivated modifications in the laws of particle propagation, which are presently being considered in attempts to explain puzzling observations of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We show that there are interferometric set-ups in which the Planck-scale effect on propagation leads to a characteristic signature. A naive estimate is encouraging with respect to the possibility of achieving Planck-scale sensitivity, but we also point out some severe technological challenges which would have to be overcome in order to achieve this sensitivity
Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A
2007-01-01
The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.
1987-01-01
A short survey of the theoretical status of CP violation is presented. The Standart Model is confronted with the present experimental situation. Possible future tests of our notions of CP violation are discussed, concentrating on rare K decays. Other promising reactions such as B decays are briefly reviewed. Among alternative models of CP violation, multi-Higgs extensions of the Standart Model, left-right symmetric gauge theories and minimal SUSY models are discussed. Finally, the relevance of generalized CP invariance is emphasized. 64 refs., 7 figs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reason, J.
1988-01-01
This paper is in three parts. The first part summarizes the human failures responsible for the Chernobyl disaster and argues that, in considering the human contribution to power plant emergencies, it is necessary to distinguish between: errors and violations; and active and latent failures. The second part presents empirical evidence, drawn from driver behavior, which suggest that errors and violations have different psychological origins. The concluding part outlines a resident pathogen view of accident causation, and seeks to identify the various system pathways along which errors and violations may be propagated
Non-commutative phase space and its space-time symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Kang; Dulat Sayipjamal
2010-01-01
First a description of 2+1 dimensional non-commutative (NC) phase space is presented, and then we find that in this formulation the generalized Bopp's shift has a symmetric representation and one can easily and straightforwardly define the star product on NC phase space. Then we define non-commutative Lorentz transformations both on NC space and NC phase space. We also discuss the Poincare symmetry. Finally we point out that our NC phase space formulation and the NC Lorentz transformations are applicable to any even dimensional NC space and NC phase space. (authors)
LORENTZ PHASE IMAGING AND IN-SITU LORENTZ MICROSCOPY OF PATTERNED CO-ARRAYS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
VOLKOV, V.V.; ZHU, Y.
2003-01-01
Understanding magnetic structures and properties of patterned and ordinary magnetic films at nanometer length-scale is the area of immense technological and fundamental scientific importance. The key feature to such success is the ability to achieve visual quantitative information on domain configurations with a maximum ''magnetic'' resolution. Several methods have been developed to meet these demands (Kerr and Faraday effects, differential phase contrast microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, SEMPA etc.). In particular, the modern off-axis electron holography allows retrieval of the electron-wave phase shifts down to 2π/N (with typical N = 10-20, approaching in the limit N ∼ 100) in TEM equipped with field emission gun, which is already successfully employed for studies of magnetic materials at nanometer scale. However, it remains technically demanding, sensitive to noise and needs highly coherent electron sources. As possible alternative we developed a new method of Lorentz phase microscopy [1,2] based on the Fourier solution [3] of magnetic transport-of-intensity (MTIE) equation. This approach has certain advantages, since it is less sensitive to noise and does not need high coherence of the source required by the holography. In addition, it can be realized in any TEM without basic hardware changes. Our approach considers the electron-wave refraction in magnetic materials (magnetic refraction) and became possible due to general progress in understanding of noninterferometric phase retrieval [4-6] dealing with optical refraction. This approach can also be treated as further development of Fresnel microscopy, used so far for imaging of in-situ magnetization process in magnetic materials studied by TEM. Figs. 1-3 show some examples of what kind information can be retrieved from the conventional Fresnel images using the new approach. Most of these results can be compared with electron-holographic data. Using this approach we can shed more light on fine details of
Violation of the Appelquist-Carazzone decoupling in a nonsupersymmetric grand unified theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chankowski, Piotr H.; Wagner, Jakub
2008-01-01
We point out that in nonsupersymmetric grand unified theories, in which the SU(5) gauge symmetry is broken down to the standard model gauge group by a 24 Higgs multiplet the Appelquist-Carazzone decoupling is violated. This is because the SU(2) L Higgs triplet contained in the 24 acquires a dimension-full coupling to the SU(2) L Higgs doublets which is proportional to the grand unified symmetry breaking vacuum expectation value. As a result, at one-loop heavy gauge and Higgs fields contribution to tadpoles generates a vacuum expectation value of the triplet which is not suppressed for V→∞ and violates the custodial symmetry
In-depth Study on Cylinder Wake Controlled by Lorentz Force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hui; Fan Bao-Chun; Chen Zhi-Hua
2011-01-01
The underlying mechanisms of the electromagnetic control of cylinder wake are investigated and discussed. The effects of Lorentz force are found to be composed of two parts, one is its direct action on the cylinder (the wall Lorentz force) and the other is applied to the fluid (called the field Lorentz force) near the cylinder surface. Our results show that the wall Lorentz force can generate thrust and reduce the drag; the field Lorentz force increases the drag. However, the cylinder drag is dominated by the wall Lorentz force. In addition, the field Lorentz force above the upper surface decreases the lift, while the upper wall Lorentz force increases it. The total lift is dominated by the upper wall Lorentz force. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Violation of causality in f(T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otalora, G. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Reboucas, M.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-11-15
In the standard formulation, the f(T) field equations are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations, and thus the theory does not inherit the causal structure of special relativity. Actually, even locally violation of causality can occur in this formulation of f(T) gravity. A locally Lorentz covariant f(T) gravity theory has been devised recently, and this local causality problem seems to have been overcome. The non-locality question, however, is left open. If gravitation is to be described by this covariant f(T) gravity theory there are a number of issues that ought to be examined in its context, including the question as to whether its field equations allow homogeneous Goedel-type solutions, which necessarily leads to violation of causality on non-local scale. Here, to look into the potentialities and difficulties of the covariant f(T) theories, we examine whether they admit Goedel-type solutions. We take a combination of a perfect fluid with electromagnetic plus a scalar field as source, and determine a general Goedel-type solution, which contains special solutions in which the essential parameter of Goedel-type geometries, m{sup 2}, defines any class of homogeneous Goedel-type geometries. We show that solutions of the trigonometric and linear classes (m{sup 2} < 0 and m = 0) are permitted only for the combined matter sources with an electromagnetic field matter component. We extended to the context of covariant f(T) gravity a theorem which ensures that any perfect-fluid homogeneous Goedel-type solution defines the same set of Goedel tetrads h{sub A}{sup μ} up to a Lorentz transformation. We also showed that the single massless scalar field generates Goedel-type solution with no closed time-like curves. Even though the covariant f(T) gravity restores Lorentz covariance of the field equations and the local validity of the causality principle, the bare existence of the Goedel-type solutions makes apparent that the covariant formulation of f(T) gravity
Pittsburgh PLI Violations Report
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Report containing Department of Permits, Licenses, and Inspections violation notices that have been issued by the City after October 15, 2015
On the ether-like Lorentz-breaking actions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, A.Yu; Nascimento, J.R.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the generation of the CPT-even, ether-like Lorentz-breaking actions for the scalar and electro-magnetic fields via their appropriate Lorentz-breaking coupling to spinor fields in three, four and five space-time dimensions. Besides, we show that the ether-like terms for the spinor field also can be generated as a consequence of the same couplings. The key result which will be presented here is the finiteness of the ether-like term for the electromagnetic field not only in three and five space-time dimensions where it is natural due to known effects of the dimensional regularization but also in four space-time dimensions. Moreover, we present the calculation of the last result within different calculational schemes and conclude that the result for the four-dimensional ether-like term for the electromagnetic field essentially depending on the calculation scheme, similarly to the result for the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) term which probably signalizes a possibility for arising of a new anomaly. Also we discuss the dispersion relations in the theories with ether-like Lorentz-breaking terms which allows to discuss the consistency of the Lorentz-breaking modified theories for different (space-like or time-like) Lorentz-breaking vectors and find the tree-level effective (Breit) potential for fermion scattering and the one-loop effective potential corresponding to the action of the scalar field. (author)
Geometry of Majorana neutrino and new symmetries
Volkov, G G
2006-01-01
Experimental observation of Majorana fermion matter gives a new impetus to the understanding of the Lorentz symmetry and its extension, the geometrical properties of the ambient space-time structure, matter--antimatter symmetry and some new ways to understand the baryo-genesis problem in cosmology. Based on the primordial Majorana fermion matter assumption, we discuss a possibility to solve the baryo-genesis problem through the the Majorana-Diraco genesis in which we have a chance to understand creation of Q(em) charge and its conservation in our D=1+3 Universe after the Big Bang. In the Majorana-Diraco genesis approach there appears a possibility to check the proton and electron non-stability on the very low energy scale. In particle physics and in our space-time geometry, the Majorana nature of the neutrino can be related to new types of symmetries which are lying beyond the binary Cartan-Killing-Lie algebras/superalgebras. This can just support a conjecture about the non-completeness of the SM in terms of ...
Parity and time-reversal violation in nuclei and atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adelberger, E.G.
1986-01-01
Two topics are briefly reviewed: the parity (P)-violating NN interaction and the time-reversal (T) and P-violating electric moments (EDM's) of atoms. The ΔI = 1 P-violating NN amplitude dominated by weak π +- exchange is found to be appreciably smaller than bag-model predictions. This may be a dynamical symmetry of flavor-conserving hadronic weak processes reminiscent of the ΔI = 1/2 rule in flavor-changing decays. General principles of experimental searches for atomic EDM's are discussed. Atomic EDM's are sensitive to electronic or nuclear EDM's and to a P-and-T-violating electron-quark interaction. Even though the experimental precision is still ∼10 4 times worse than counting statistics, the recent results have reached a sensitivity to nuclear EDM's which rivals that of the neutron EDM data. Further significant improvements can be expected
Recent Results on T and CP Violation at BABAR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez Perez, Alejandro [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pisa (Italy).
2015-02-06
CP-violation (CPV) and Time-reversal violation (TRV) are intimately related through the CPT theorem: if one of these discrete symmetries is violated the other one has to be violated in such a way to conserve CPT. Although CPV in the B^{0}B^{0}-bar system has been established by the B-factories, implying indirectly TRV, there is still no direct evidence of TRV. We report on the observation of TRV in the B-meson system performed with a dataset of 468 × 10^{6} BB-bar pairs produced in Υ(4S) decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We also report on other CPV measurements recently performed on the B-meson system
LHC experimental sensitivity to CP violating gtt couplings
Sjölin, J
2003-01-01
The level of CP violation in pp to tt+X induced by the standard model is known to be below the experimental sensitivity by many orders of magnitude. However, in some effective theories, it is plausible that new CP violating physics could reveal itself as additional non- renormalizable terms in the Lagrangian. Since these should respect the symmetries of the low-energy gauge interaction, violate CP and generate the correct event topology, the set of allowed terms is highly restricted. This analysis gives an estimate of the expected experimental sensitivity to the lowest order effective CP violating gtt interaction term beyond the standard model using simulated data from the ATLAS detector at the LHC. (36 refs).
CP violation in the lepton sector with Majorana neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguila, F. del
1995-01-01
We study CP violation in the lepton sector in extended models with right-handed neutrinos, without and with left-right symmetry, and with arbitrary mass terms. We find the conditions which must be satisfied by the neutrino and charged lepton mass matrices for CP conservation. These constraints, which are independent of the choice of weak basis, are proven to be also sufficient in simple cases. This invariant formulation makes apparent the necessary requirements for CP violation, as well as the size of CP violating effects. As an example, we show that CP violation can be much larger in left-right symmetric models than in models with only additional right-handed neutrinos, i.e., without right-handed currents. (orig.)
CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksan, R.
1996-01-01
The status of CP violation and B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing is given and the subsequent constraints in the framework of the Standard Model are discussed. Recent result on CP violation in the kaon system and related topics are reviewed, including the status of T violation and the tests of the CPT symmetry. The results on B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing are presented followed by the studies on B d 0 -(B d 0 )-bar and B s 0 -(B s 0 )-bar oscillations. Finally, the prospects of progress on understanding CP violation are discussed in framework of the new projects expected to produce results at the turn of the century. (author)
Realizing total reciprocity violation in the phase for photon scattering.
Deák, László; Bottyán, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Merkel, Dániel Géza; Nagy, Dénes Lajos; Sajti, Szilárd; Schulze, Kai Sven; Spiering, Hartmut; Uschmann, Ingo; Wille, Hans-Christian
2017-02-22
Reciprocity is when wave or quantum scattering satisfies a symmetry property, connecting a scattering process with the reversed one. While reciprocity involves the interchange of source and detector, it is fundamentally different from rotational invariance, and is a generalization of time reversal invariance, occurring in absorptive media as well. Due to its presence at diverse areas of physics, it admits a wide variety of applications. For polarization dependent scatterings, reciprocity is often violated, but violation in the phase of the scattering amplitude is much harder to experimentally observe than violation in magnitude. Enabled by the advantageous properties of nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, we have measured maximal, i.e., 180-degree, reciprocity violation in the phase. For accessing phase information, we introduced a new version of stroboscopic detection. The scattering setting was devised based on a generalized reciprocity theorem that opens the way to construct new types of reciprocity related devices.
Dark Matter and observable lepton flavour violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heurtier, Lucien; Univ. Libre de Bruxelles; Teresi, Daniele
2016-07-01
Seesaw models with leptonic symmetries allow right-handed (RH) neutrino masses at the electroweak scale, or even lower, at the same time having large Yukawa couplings with the Standard Model leptons, thus yielding observable effects at current or near-future lepton-flavour-violation (LFV) experiments. These models have been previously considered also in connection to low-scale leptogenesis, but the combination of observable LFV and successful leptogenesis has appeared to be difficult to achieve unless the leptonic symmetry is embedded into a larger one. In this paper, instead, we follow a different route and consider a possible connection between large LFV rates and Dark Matter (DM). We present a model in which the same leptonic symmetry responsible for the large Yukawa couplings guarantees the stability of the DM candidate, identified as the lightest of the RH neutrinos. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry, caused by a Majoron-like field, also provides a mechanism to produce the observed relic density via the decays of the latter. The phenomenological implications of the model are discussed, finding that large LFV rates, observable in the near-future μ→e conversion experiments, require the DM mass to be in the keV range. Moreover, the active-neutrino coupling to the Majoron-like scalar field could be probed in future detections of supernova neutrino bursts.
The Symmetry behind Extended Flavour Democracy and Large Leptonic Mixing
Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I
2002-01-01
We show that there is a minimal discrete symmetry which leads to the extended flavour democracy scenario constraining the Dirac neutrino, the charged lepton and the Majorana neutrino mass term ($M_R$) to be all proportional to the democratic matrix, with all elements equal. In particular, this discrete symmetry forbids other large contributions to $M_R$, such as a term proportional to the unit matrix, which would normally be allowed by a $S_{3L}\\times S_{3R}$ permutation symmetry. This feature is crucial in order to obtain large leptonic mixing, without violating 't Hooft's, naturalness principle.
Special Relativity in Week One: 3) Introducing the Lorentz Contraction
Huggins, Elisha
2011-05-01
This is the third of four articles on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course.1,2 With Einstein's second postulate that the speed of light is the same to all observers, we could use the light pulse clock to introduce time dilation. But we had difficulty introducing the Lorentz contraction until we saw the movie "Time Dilation, an Experiment with Mu-Mesons" by David Frisch and James Smith.3,4 The movie demonstrates that time dilation and the Lorentz contraction are essentially two sides of the same coin. Here we take the muon's point of view for a more intuitive understanding of the Lorentz contraction, and use the results of the movie to provide an insight into the way we interpret experimental results involving special relativity.
Comment on 'Lorentz transformations with arbitrary line of motion'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tjiang, Paulus C; Sutanto, Sylvia H
2007-01-01
A short comment regarding the derivation of Lorentz transformation proposed by Iyer and Prabhu (2007 Eur. J. Phys. 11 183-90) is given. It is shown that the proposed derivation is similar to that appearing in the standard textbooks of classical mechanics, electrodynamics and the theory of relativity. In fact, those textbooks also provide an elegant form of the Lorentz matrix for the (3+1)-dimensional case, which Iyer and Prabhu claim to be difficult to attain because of its algebraic complexity. We also provide the derivation of the (3+1)-dimensional version of the Lorentz matrix using a method analogous to that proposed by Iyer and Prabhu, and show that the result is completely equivalent to the (3+1)-dimensional version appearing in the textbooks. (letters and comments)
Convexity and concavity constants in Lorentz and Marcinkiewicz spaces
Kaminska, Anna; Parrish, Anca M.
2008-07-01
We provide here the formulas for the q-convexity and q-concavity constants for function and sequence Lorentz spaces associated to either decreasing or increasing weights. It yields also the formula for the q-convexity constants in function and sequence Marcinkiewicz spaces. In this paper we extent and enhance the results from [G.J.O. Jameson, The q-concavity constants of Lorentz sequence spaces and related inequalities, Math. Z. 227 (1998) 129-142] and [A. Kaminska, A.M. Parrish, The q-concavity and q-convexity constants in Lorentz spaces, in: Banach Spaces and Their Applications in Analysis, Conference in Honor of Nigel Kalton, May 2006, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2007, pp. 357-373].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilles, Hans Peter
2012-04-01
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-04-15
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.
1987-01-01
The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.
1993-01-01
An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs
Rehren, K. -H.
1996-01-01
Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1976-01-01
The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy
Synchronizing and controlling hyperchaos in complex Lorentz-Haken systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jinqing, Fang [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy
1995-03-01
Synchronizing hyperchaos is realized by the drive-response relationship in the complex Lorentz-Haken system and its higher-order cascading systems for the first time. Controlling hyperchaos is achieved by the intermittent proportional feedback to all of the drive (master) system variables. The complex Lorentz-Haken system describes the detuned single-mode laser and is taken as a typical example of hyperchaotic synchronization to clarify our ideas and results. The ideas and concepts could be extended to some nonlinear dynamical systems and have prospects for potential applications, for example. to laser, electronics, plasma, cryptography, communication, chemical and biological systems and so on. (8 figs., 2 tabs.).
Synchronizing and controlling hyperchaos in complex Lorentz-Haken systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang Jinqing
1995-03-01
Synchronizing hyperchaos is realized by the drive-response relationship in the complex Lorentz-Haken system and its higher-order cascading systems for the first time. Controlling hyperchaos is achieved by the intermittent proportional feedback to all of the drive (master) system variables. The complex Lorentz-Haken system describes the detuned single-mode laser and is taken as a typical example of hyperchaotic synchronization to clarify our ideas and results. The ideas and concepts could be extended to some nonlinear dynamical systems and have prospects for potential applications, for example. to laser, electronics, plasma, cryptography, communication, chemical and biological systems and so on. (8 figs., 2 tabs.)
Complex scaling and residual flavour symmetry in the neutrino mass ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Probir Roy
2017-10-09
Oct 9, 2017 ... Leptonic Dirac CP violation must be maximal while atmospheric neutrino mixing need not be exactly maximal. Each of the two Majorana phases, to be probed by the search for 0νββ decay, has to be zero or π and a normal neutrino mass hierarchy is allowed. Keywords. Neutrinos; residual flavour symmetry; ...
Asymmetry in Nature-Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Asymmetry in Nature - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation - Background and ... Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University.
The minimal extension of the Standard Model with S3 symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, C.E.; Lin, C.; Yang, Y.W.
1991-01-01
In this paper the two Higgs-doublet extension of the standard electroweak model with S 3 symmetry is presented. The flavour changing neutral Higgs interaction are automatically absent. A permutation symmetry breaking scheme is discussed. The correction to the Bjorken's approximation and the CP-violation factor J are given within this scheme
String constraints on discrete symmetries in MSSM type II quivers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anastasopoulos, Pascal [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fur Theor. Phys.; Cvetic, Mirjam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia). Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Richter, Robert [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-11-15
We study the presence of discrete gauge symmetries in D-brane semirealistic compactifications. After establishing the constraints on the transformation behaviour of the chiral matter for the presence of a discrete gauge symmetry we perform a systematic search for discrete gauge symmetries within semi-realistic D-brane realizations, based on four D-brane stacks, of the MSSM and the MSSM with three right-handed neutrinos. The systematic search reveals that Proton hexality, a discrete symmetry which ensures the absence of R-parity violating terms as well as the absence of dangerous dimension 5 proton decay operators, is only rarely realized. Moreover, none of the semi-realistic local D-brane configurations exhibit any family dependent discrete gauge symmetry.
Raibert, M H
1986-03-14
Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.
Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina
2018-05-01
Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.
Parastatistics and gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, A.B.
1982-01-01
A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed
Family symmetries in F-theory GUTs
King, S F; Ross, G G
2010-01-01
We discuss F-theory SU(5) GUTs in which some or all of the quark and lepton families are assigned to different curves and family symmetry enforces a leading order rank one structure of the Yukawa matrices. We consider two possibilities for the suppression of baryon and lepton number violation. The first is based on Flipped SU(5) with gauge group SU(5)\\times U(1)_\\chi \\times SU(4)_{\\perp} in which U(1)_{\\chi} plays the role of a generalised matter parity. We present an example which, after imposing a Z_2 monodromy, has a U(1)_{\\perp}^2 family symmetry. Even in the absence of flux, spontaneous breaking of the family symmetry leads to viable quark, charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixing. The second possibility has an R-parity associated with the symmetry of the underlying compactification manifold and the flux. We construct an example of a model with viable masses and mixing angles based on the gauge group SU(5)\\times SU(5)_{\\perp} with a U(1)_{\\perp}^3 family symmetry after imposing a Z_2 monodromy.
Translational spacetime symmetries in gravitational theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petti, R J
2006-01-01
How to include spacetime translations in fibre bundle gauge theories has been a subject of controversy, because spacetime symmetries are not internal symmetries of the bundle structure group. The standard method for including affine symmetry in differential geometry is to define a Cartan connection on an affine bundle over spacetime. This is equivalent to (1) defining an affine connection on the affine bundle, (2) defining a zero section on the associated affine vector bundle and (3) using the affine connection and the zero section to define an 'associated solder form', whose lift to a tensorial form on the frame bundle becomes the solder form. The zero section reduces the affine bundle to a linear bundle and splits the affine connection into translational and homogeneous parts; however, it violates translational equivariance/gauge symmetry. This is the natural geometric framework for Einstein-Cartan theory as an affine theory of gravitation. The last section discusses some alternative approaches that claim to preserve translational gauge symmetry
Translational spacetime symmetries in gravitational theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petti, R J [MathWorks, Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760 (United States)
2006-02-07
How to include spacetime translations in fibre bundle gauge theories has been a subject of controversy, because spacetime symmetries are not internal symmetries of the bundle structure group. The standard method for including affine symmetry in differential geometry is to define a Cartan connection on an affine bundle over spacetime. This is equivalent to (1) defining an affine connection on the affine bundle, (2) defining a zero section on the associated affine vector bundle and (3) using the affine connection and the zero section to define an 'associated solder form', whose lift to a tensorial form on the frame bundle becomes the solder form. The zero section reduces the affine bundle to a linear bundle and splits the affine connection into translational and homogeneous parts; however, it violates translational equivariance/gauge symmetry. This is the natural geometric framework for Einstein-Cartan theory as an affine theory of gravitation. The last section discusses some alternative approaches that claim to preserve translational gauge symmetry.
Symmetry in social exchange and health
Siegrist, Johannes
2005-10-01
Symmetry is a relevant concept in sociological theories of exchange. It is rooted in the evolutionary old norm of social reciprocity and is particularly important in social contracts. Symmetry breaking through violation of the norm of reciprocity generates strain in micro-social systems and, above all, in victims of non-symmetric exchange. In this contribution, adverse healthconsequences of symmetry breaking in contractual social exchange are analysed, with a main focus on the employment contract. Scientific evidence is derived from prospective epidemiological studies testing the model of effort-reward imbalance at work. Overall, a twofold elevated risk of incident disease is observed in employed men and women who are exposed to non-symmetric exchange. Health risks include coronary heart disease, depression and alcohol dependence, among others. Preliminary results suggest similar effects on health produced by symmetry breaking in other types of social relationships (e.g. partnership, parental roles). These findings underline the importance of symmetry in contractual social exchange for health and well-being.
Auriemma, Giulio
2003-12-01
The origin of the asymmetry between matter and antimatter that is evident in our part of the Universe is one of the open questions in cosmology, because the CPT symmetry between matter and antimatter seems to be absolutely conserved at microscopic level. We repeat here the classical proofs which exclude the viability of a Universe baryon symmetric on the average, or the observed asymmetry as an initial conditions. The current understanding is that the asymmetry should have been dynamically generated before nucleosynthesis, by B, C, and CP violating processes, acting out of thermodynamical equilibrium, as suggested by Sakharov in the 70's. The physical realizations of these conditions would be possible, in principle, also in the framework of the Standard Model of elementary particles, but the present limits on the mass of the higgs particle exclude this possibility. Finally we present the model of baryogenesis through leptogenesis, which is allowed by a minimal extension of the Standard Model, which has the appeal of being testable in future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian
2015-01-01
A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.
Internal space-time symmetries of massive and massless particles and their unification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.S.
2001-01-01
It is noted that the internal space-time symmetries of relativistic particles are dictated by Wigner's little groups. The symmetry of massive particles is like the three-dimensional rotation group, while the symmetry of massless particles is locally isomorphic to the two-dimensional Euclidean group. It is noted also that, while the rotational degree of freedom for a massless particle leads to its helicity, the two translational degrees of freedom correspond to its gauge degrees of freedom. It is shown that the E(2)-like symmetry of of massless particles can be obtained as an infinite-momentum and/or zero-mass limit of the O(3)-like symmetry of massive particles. This mechanism is illustrated in terms of a sphere elongating into a cylinder. In this way, the helicity degree of freedom remains invariant under the Lorentz boost, but the transverse rotational degrees of freedom become contracted into the gauge degree of freedom
Probing CPT violation with CMB polarization measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia Junqing, E-mail: xia@sissa.i [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Li Hong; Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)
2010-04-12
The electrodynamics modified by the Chern-Simons term L{sub cs}approxp{sub m}uA{sub n}uF-tilde{sup m}u{sup n}u with a non-vanishing p{sub m}u violates the Charge-Parity-Time Reversal symmetry (CPT) and rotates the linear polarizations of the propagating Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons. In this Letter we measure the rotation angle DELTAalpha by performing a global analysis on the current CMB polarization measurements from the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5), BOOMERanG 2003 (B03), BICEP and QUaD using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Neglecting the systematic errors of these experiments, we find that the results from WMAP5, B03 and BICEP all are consistent and their combination gives DELTAalpha=-2.62+-0.87deg (68% C.L.), indicating a 3sigma detection of the CPT violation. The QUaD data alone gives DELTAalpha=0.59+-0.42deg (68% C.L.) which has an opposite sign for the central value and smaller error bar compared to that obtained from WMAP5, B03 and BICEP. When combining all the polarization data together, we find DELTAalpha=0.09+-0.36deg (68% C.L.) which significantly improves the previous constraint on DELTAalpha and test the validity of the fundamental CPT symmetry at a higher level.
Four-dimensional aether-like Lorentz-breaking QED revisited and problem of ambiguities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Rua Hugo D' Antola, 95, Lapa, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mariz, T. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2013-08-15
In this paper, we consider the perturbative generation of the CPT-even aether-like Lorentz-breaking term in the extended Lorentz-breaking QED within different approaches and discuss its ambiguities. (orig.)
Four-dimensional aether-like Lorentz-breaking QED revisited and problem of ambiguities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baeta Scarpelli, A.P.; Mariz, T.; Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we consider the perturbative generation of the CPT-even aether-like Lorentz-breaking term in the extended Lorentz-breaking QED within different approaches and discuss its ambiguities. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, S.M.
1992-01-01
Electric dipole moments of large atoms are an excellent tool to search for CP violation beyond the Standard Model. These tell us about the electron EDM but also about CP-violating electron-nucleon dimension-6 operators that arise from Higgs-exchange. Rapid strides are being made in searches for atomic EDMs. Limits on the electron EDM approaching the values which would be expected from Higgs-exchange mediated CP violation have been achieved. It is pointed out that in this same kind of model if tan β is large the effects in atoms of the dimension-6 e - n operators may outweigh the effect of the electron EDM. (author) 21 refs
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Philippe
1998-01-01
In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation
Noncommutativity and unitarity violation in gauge boson scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewett, J. L.; Petriello, F. J.; Rizzo, T. G.
2002-01-01
We examine the unitarity properties of spontaneously broken noncommutative gauge theories. We find that the symmetry breaking mechanism in the noncommutative standard model of Chaichian et al. leads to an unavoidable violation of tree-level unitarity in gauge boson scattering at high energies. We then study a variety of simplified spontaneously broken noncommutative theories and isolate the source of this unitarity violation. Given the group theoretic restrictions endemic to noncommutative model building, we conclude that it is difficult to build a noncommutative standard model under the Weyl-Moyal approach that preserves unitarity
Quantum walks, deformed relativity and Hopf algebra symmetries.
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2016-05-28
We show how the Weyl quantum walk derived from principles in D'Ariano & Perinotti (D'Ariano & Perinotti 2014Phys. Rev. A90, 062106. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062106)), enjoying a nonlinear Lorentz symmetry of dynamics, allows one to introduce Hopf algebras for position and momentum of the emerging particle. We focus on two special models of Hopf algebras-the usual Poincaré and theκ-Poincaré algebras. © 2016 The Author(s).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, H.R.
1993-02-01
Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons
Quinn, H. R.
1993-02-01
Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.
Direct observation of rectified motion of vortices by Lorentz microscopy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have investigated the vortex dynamics for the `ratchet' operation in a niobium superconductor via a direct imaging of Lorentz microscopy. We directly observe one-directional selective motion of field-gradient-driven vortices along fabricated channels. This results from the rectification of vortices in a spatially asymmetric ...
On Einstein's kinematics and his derivation of Lorentz transformation equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulati, Shobha; Gulati, S.P.
1981-01-01
Recently the present authors have claimed that Einstein's historic derivation of 1905 of Lorentz transformation equations is a 'howler' - a correct result achieved through some incorrect steps. In the present contribution, this howler is fully resolved. Incidently, Einstein's kinematical considerations are found to be void of any new definitional elements or conventionality as unjustifiably claimed by Einstein and some other scientists. (author)
On the Lorentz degree of a product of polynomials
Ait-Haddou, Rachid
2015-01-01
In this note, we negatively answer two questions of T. Erdélyi (1991, 2010) on possible lower bounds on the Lorentz degree of product of two polynomials. We show that the correctness of one question for degree two polynomials is a direct consequence of a result of Barnard et al. (1991) on polynomials with nonnegative coefficients.
The scientific correspondence of H. A. Lorentz: Volume I
Kox, A.J.
2008-01-01
This book presents a selection of 434 carefully annotated letters from and to the Dutch physicist and Nobel Prize winner Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928), covering the period from 1883 until a few months before his death in February 1928. Most of these letters are of a scientific nature, with the
Lorentz force actuation of a heated atomic force microscope cantilever.
Lee, Byeonghee; Prater, Craig B; King, William P
2012-02-10
We report Lorentz force-induced actuation of a silicon microcantilever having an integrated resistive heater. Oscillating current through the cantilever interacts with the magnetic field around a NdFeB permanent magnet and induces a Lorentz force that deflects the cantilever. The same current induces cantilever heating. With AC currents as low as 0.2 mA, the cantilever can be oscillated as much as 80 nm at resonance with a DC temperature rise of less than 5 °C. By comparison, the AC temperature variation leads to a thermomechanical oscillation that is about 1000 times smaller than the Lorentz deflection at the cantilever resonance. The cantilever position in the nonuniform magnetic field affects the Lorentz force-induced deflection, with the magnetic field parallel to the cantilever having the largest effect on cantilever actuation. We demonstrate how the cantilever actuation can be used for imaging, and for measuring the local material softening temperature by sensing the contact resonance shift.
Anomalous current in periodic Lorentz gases with infinite horizon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolgopyat, Dmitrii I [University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Chernov, Nikolai I [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States)
2009-08-31
Electric current is studied in a two-dimensional periodic Lorentz gas in the presence of a weak homogeneous electric field. When the horizon is finite, that is, free flights between collisions are bounded, the resulting current J is proportional to the voltage difference E, that is, J=1/2 D*E+o(||E||), where D* is the diffusion matrix of a Lorentz particle moving freely without an electric field (see a mathematical proof). This formula agrees with Ohm's classical law and the Einstein relation. Here the more difficult model with an infinite horizon is investigated. It is found that infinite corridors between scatterers allow the particles (electrons) to move faster, resulting in an abnormal current (causing 'superconductivity'). More precisely, the current is now given by J=1/2 DE| log||E|| | + O(||E||), where D is the 'superdiffusion' matrix of a Lorentz particle moving freely without an electric field. This means that Ohm's law fails in this regime, but the Einstein relation (suitably interpreted) still holds. New results are also obtained for the infinite-horizon Lorentz gas without external fields, complementing recent studies by Szasz and Varju. Bibliography: 31 titles.
Anomalous current in periodic Lorentz gases with infinite horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgopyat, Dmitrii I; Chernov, Nikolai I
2009-01-01
Electric current is studied in a two-dimensional periodic Lorentz gas in the presence of a weak homogeneous electric field. When the horizon is finite, that is, free flights between collisions are bounded, the resulting current J is proportional to the voltage difference E, that is, J=1/2 D*E+o(||E||), where D* is the diffusion matrix of a Lorentz particle moving freely without an electric field (see a mathematical proof). This formula agrees with Ohm's classical law and the Einstein relation. Here the more difficult model with an infinite horizon is investigated. It is found that infinite corridors between scatterers allow the particles (electrons) to move faster, resulting in an abnormal current (causing 'superconductivity'). More precisely, the current is now given by J=1/2 DE| log||E|| | + O(||E||), where D is the 'superdiffusion' matrix of a Lorentz particle moving freely without an electric field. This means that Ohm's law fails in this regime, but the Einstein relation (suitably interpreted) still holds. New results are also obtained for the infinite-horizon Lorentz gas without external fields, complementing recent studies by Szasz and Varju. Bibliography: 31 titles.
On the Lorentz degree of a product of polynomials
Ait-Haddou, Rachid
2015-01-01
In this note, we negatively answer two questions of T. Erdélyi (1991, 2010) on possible lower bounds on the Lorentz degree of product of two polynomials. We show that the correctness of one question for degree two polynomials is a direct consequence
A note on Lorentz transformation and pseudo-rapidity distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hama, Y.
1980-07-01
It is shown that although rapidity and pseudo-rapidity are almost equivalent variables, their difference may in pratice become quite remarkable. Non Lorentz invariance of pseudo-rapidity distributions may cause appearance of strange effects at first sight, such as deformation of a perfectly symmetric particle distribution into an asymmetric one when going to another frame. (Author) [pt
Adaptive compensation of Lorentz force detuning in superconducting RF cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Schappert, Warren [Fermilab
2011-11-01
The Lorentz force can dynamically detune pulsed Superconducting RF cavities and considerable additional RF power can be required to maintain the accelerating gradient if no effort is made to compensate. Fermilab has developed an adaptive compensation system for cavities in the Horizontal Test Stand, in the SRF Accelerator Test Facility, and for the proposed Project X.
What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars? Xinwu ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei. (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is ...
What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present ...
Helicity and evanescent waves. [Energy transport velocity, helicity, Lorentz transformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agudin, J L; Platzeck, A M [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina); Albano, J R [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina
1978-02-20
It is shown that the projection of the angular momentum of a circularly polarized electromagnetic evanescent wave along the mean velocity of energy transport (=helicity) can be reverted by a Lorentz transformation, in spite of the fact that this velocity is c.
Special Relativity in Week One: 3) Introducing the Lorentz Contraction
Huggins, Elisha
2011-01-01
This is the third of four articles on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. With Einstein's second postulate that the speed of light is the same to all observers, we could use the light pulse clock to introduce time dilation. But we had difficulty introducing the Lorentz contraction until we saw the movie…
Neutrino mixing: from the broken μ-τ symmetry to the broken Friedberg–Lee symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing, Zhizhong
2007-01-01
I argue that the observed flavor structures of leptons and quarks might imply the existence of certain flavor symmetries. The latter should be a good starting point to build realistic models towards deeper understanding of the fermion mass spectra and flavor mixing patterns. The μ-τ permutation symmetry serves for such an example to interpret the almost maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle (θ 23 ~ 45°) and the strongly suppressed CHOOZ neutrino mixing angle (θ 13 < 10°). In this talk I like to highlight a new kind of flavor symmetry, the Friedberg–Lee symmetry, for the effective Majorana neutrino mass operator. Luo and I have shown that this symmetry can be broken in an oblique way, such that the lightest neutrino remains massless but an experimentally-favored neutrino mixing pattern is achievable. We get a novel prediction for θ 13 in the CP-conserving case: sinθ 13 = tanθ 12 |(1 - tanθ 23 )/(1 + tanθ 23 )|. Our scenario can simply be generalized to accommodate CP violation and be combined with the seesaw mechanism. Finally I stress the importance of probing possible effects of μ-τ symmetry breaking either in terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments or with ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrino telescopes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainzer, K.
1988-01-01
Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mainzer, K
1988-05-01
Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arima, A.
2003-01-01
(1) There are symmetries in nature, and the concept of symmetry has been used in art and architecture. The symmetry is evaluated high in the European culture. In China, the symmetry is broken in the paintings but it is valued in the architecture. In Japan, however, the symmetry has been broken everywhere. The serious and interesting question is why these differences happens? (2) In this lecture, I reviewed from the very beginning the importance of the rotational symmetry in quantum mechanics. I am sorry to be too fundamental for specialists of nuclear physics. But for people who do not use these theories, I think that you could understand the mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics and the relation between the angular momentum and the rotational symmetry. (3) To the specialists of nuclear physics, I talked about my idea as follows: dynamical treatment of collective motions in nuclei by IBM, especially the meaning of the degeneracy observed in the rotation bands top of γ vibration and β vibration, and the origin of pseudo-spin symmetry. Namely, if there is a symmetry, a degeneracy occurs. Conversely, if there is a degeneracy, there must be a symmetry. I discussed some details of the observed evidence and this correspondence is my strong belief in physics. (author)
Masses, flavor mix and CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaussard, L.
2004-06-01
The author describes the relationships between masses, mixing of flavors and CP violation. This document is divided into 4 chapters: 1) fermions' masses, 2) mixing of flavors and CP violation, 3) beauty physics and 4) neutrino physics. In chapter 1 an attempt is made to explain what is behind the concepts of lepton mass and quark mass. As for neutrinos, the only neutral fermion, Dirac's and Majorana's views are exposed as well as their consequences. Fermion flavors are mixed in the process of mass generation and this mix is responsible for the breaking of CP and T symmetries. In chapter 2 the author shows how the analysis of particle oscillations from neutral mesons (K 0 , D 0 , B d 0 and B s 0 ) and from neutrinos can shed light on CP violation. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the contribution of beauty physics to the determination of the unitary triangle, through the oscillations of beauty mesons. In chapter 4 the author reviews the experimental results obtained recently concerning neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations and draws some perspectives on future neutrino experiments. (A.C.)
48 CFR 2803.104-10 - Violations or possible violations.
2010-10-01
... General IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 2803.104-10 Violations... action to be taken. The types of actions that would normally be taken when a violation has occurred that...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunietz, I.
1997-01-01
CP violation is observed to date only in K 0 decays and is parameterizable by a single quantity ε. Because it is one of the least understood phenomena in the Standard Model and holds a clue to baryogenesis, it must be investigated further. Highly specialized searches in K 0 decays are possible. Effects in B decays are much larger. In addition to the traditional B d → J/ψK S , π + π - asymmetries, CP violation could be searched for in already existing inclusive B data samples. The rapid B s --anti B s oscillations cancel in untagged B s data samples, which therefore allow feasibility studies for the observation of CP violation and the extraction of CKM elements with present vertex detectors. The favored method for the extraction of the CKM angle γ is shown to be unfeasible and a solution is presented involving striking direct CP violation in charged B decays. Novel methods for determining the B s mixing parameter Δm are described without the traditional requirement of flavor-specific final states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furmanski, W.
1981-08-01
The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) scattering, numerical analysis of the leptoproduction data). A proposal is made for extending the method on the higher twist sector. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, M.D. Brooks, M.; Hogan, G.E.
1997-01-01
The connection of rare decays to supersymmetric grand unification is highlighted, and a review of the status of rare decay experiments is given. Plans for future investigations of processes that violate lepton flavor are discussed. A new result from the MEGA experiment, a search for μ + → e + γ, is reported to be B.R. -11 with 90% confidence
Electron scattering violates parity
2004-01-01
Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)
Parity violating electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKeown, R.D.
1990-01-01
Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.
2016-01-01
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.
Harris, A. Brooks
2006-01-01
This paper represents a detailed instruction manual for constructing the Landau expansion for magnetoelectric coupling in incommensurate ferroelectric magnets. The first step is to describe the magnetic ordering in terms of symmetry adapted coordinates which serve as complex valued magnetic order parameters whose transformation properties are displayed. In so doing we use the previously proposed technique to exploit inversion symmetry, since this symmetry had been universally overlooked. Havi...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hagedorn, C.
2017-01-01
I summarize the status of theoretical predictions for the yet to be measured leptonic CP phases, the Dirac phase δ and the two Majorana phases α and β. I discuss different approaches based on: (a) a flavor symmetry without and with corrections, (b) different types of sum rules and (c) flavor and CP...... symmetries. I show their predictive power with examples. In addition, I present scenarios in which low and high energy CP phases are connected so that predictions for the CP phases α, β and δ become correlated to the sign of the baryon asymmetry YB of the Universe that is generated via leptogenesis....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilman, F.J.
1989-05-01
Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling
2009-07-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.
2009-01-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)