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Sample records for loosen head louse

  1. Do nit removal formulations and other treatments loosen head louse eggs and nits from hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, I F

    2010-03-01

    Eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), are difficult to remove because the female louse fixes them to hairs using a proteinaceous secretion that hardens within seconds. The persistent eggshells are harmless but unsightly and are often mistaken for an active infestation. Combing with a fine comb (nit comb) does not readily remove the eggs or empty eggshells because of the resilience of the fixative and both folk remedies and medical products have claimed to facilitate their removal. Measurement of the force required to initiate sliding of the egg fixative using a slip-peel tester was unable to detect evidence that any of three products which claimed to have egg-loosening properties (Step 2 Nit Removal System, Clear Lice Egg Remover, RID Lice Egg Loosener Gel) had any activity or exerted any effect on the egg fixative beyond the lubricating effects conveyed by water or conventional hair conditioner.

  2. [Cosmus Conrad Cuno (1652-1745) on a human ectoparasite: the head louse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, G H

    1979-07-01

    Cosmus Conrad Cuno, a less well known optician and inventor of microscopes from the second half of the 17th century, published in 1734 at Augsburg his Observationes durch dessen verfertigte Microscopia where along with various observations he communicated salient details pertaining to the biology of the head louse.

  3. Studies on Human Head Louse Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura) Infestation (Case Report)

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    HATSUSHIKA, Ryo; MIYOSHI, Kaoru

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen cases of the human head louse infestation (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778) in Okayama City were reported. All the patients were found in ages between 2 and 35, and the highest incidence ranged in the age group of 10 years old and younger. The sex ratio of the patients was higher in female than in male. The patients were recognized more often in the early winter months of November and December. Adults and/or eggs (nits) of Pediculus louse were localized on hair of all the pat...

  4. A comparison of two insecticidal shampoos in the treatment of head louse infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, J H; Kennedy, J P; Miller, A J

    1991-06-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of a phenothrin liquid shampoo was compared with a carbaryl shampoo in 50 children with head lice infection. Twenty-five children were treated with a phenothrin liquid shampoo and 25 with a carbaryl shampoo. Each treatment was applied on three occasions at three-day intervals. Reinspection two weeks after initiation of treatment revealed two apparent treatment failures in the carbaryl group and one in the phenothrin group. No side effects were reported for either treatment. It is concluded that phenothrin liquid shampoo is a safe and effective treatment for head louse infection and is therefore a useful addition to those insecticides currently employed.

  5. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

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    Biliński Szczepan M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.

  6. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation

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    Nazma A Burgess

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ian F Burgess1, Katrina Kay1,2, Nazma A Burgess1, Elizabeth R Brunton11Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research and Development Limited, Cambridge, 2Leeds Primary Care Trust, Leeds, UKBackground: This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil-based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product.Methods: We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment.Results: The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P < 0.01 more effective than the lotion for both intention to treat (62.2% versus 34.8% successful treatment and per-protocol (74.3% versus 36.8% success groups. Post-treatment assessments showed the necessity for repeat treatment, but that a 9-day interval was too long because if eggs hatched after the first treatment, the lice could grow old enough to lay eggs before the second treatment.Conclusion: The soya oil-based shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.Keywords: pediculosis, medical device, medicinal product, insecticide, vegetable oil

  7. Evaluation of efficacy of four pediculicides against head louse (Pediculus capitis) infestation.

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    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Kuo, C L; Lin, C Y; Hsu, H M; Chuang, C H; Chow, C Y

    1992-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and to determine the minimum effective dosage of four pediculicides against head louse infestation, as well as to select a safe, effective, practical, and cheap agent, 1,657 infested school children in 25 primary schools in Szu-Hu, Kou-Hu, and Ku-Keng Districts of Yunlin County were treated and 1,611 of them were examined. The overall cure rate was 73% and the rate for boys (84%) was higher than that for girls (71%). The cure rate of Nix (permethrin 1%) cream rinse was 81%. The cure rate for single dosages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 cases/tube (56 gm/tube) was 87%, 83%, 81% and 71%, respectively. The cure rate of Para aerosol (bioallethrine 0.66%) was 78%. The cure rate for single dosages of 30 and 40 cases/tube (90 gm/tube) was 87% and 70%, respectively. The cure rate of Prioderm (malathion 1%) cream shampoo was 64%. The cure rate for single dosages of 10, 15 and 20 cases/tube (40 gm/tube) was 74%, 71% and 52%, respectively. The cure rate of Delice (1% gamma benzene hexachloride) was 71%. The cure rate for single dosages of 5 and 10 ml/case was 64% and 76%, respectively. Of the 226 infested girls, 181 (80%) were found to be infested with 1-10 head lice, 33 (15%) with 11-50 lice, 7(3%) with 51-100 lice and 5 (2%) with over 100 lice. Of the 2,160 head lice collected, 1,788 (83%) were nymphs, 284 (13%) females, and 88 (4%) males. The mean number of head lice in each infested girl was 10 (range 1-137). The low cure rates obtained in the present study may be due to the fact that many school girl & have long hair. In comparison, Nix had the highest cure rate (81%) but the highest price (NT$ 120/case). The cure rate and price of Para aerosol (78%, NT$ 7.2/case) and Delice (71%, NT$ 16.7/case) came next. Prioderm (64%, NT$ 10.0/case) had the lowest rate and a slight offensive smell. Preliminary trials show that based on the cost-effectiveness, Para aerosol is best in head louse infestation control.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Head Louse (Pediculus humanus capitis in Central Iran

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    Abedin Saghafipour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  Recognition of head lice prevalence and related risk factors contributing in spreading the disease is a step forward to the control of this important health problem. This survey was done to determine prevalence and risk factors associated with head louse (Pediculus Humanus Capitis in Central Iran. Materials and Methods In this descriptive–analytic study, a total of 38,237 suspected cases of head lice infestation that were referred to public health centers in Qom province during 2016 were studied. Data collection was done using standard check list that was conducted and approved by the Health Ministry of the Islamic Republic of Iran and physical examination of the hairsby visual inspections of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphs, and eggs (nits in all of suspected cases. For data analysis, Chi-square and Multiple Logistic Regression Tests were utilized. Results A total of 11,223 (29.35% out of 38,237 suspected cases of all ages were found to have pediculosis. According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, a significant relationship was observed between Pediculus capitis infestation and each of these factors: educational grade, family size, family income, having previous history of P. capitis infestation, number of combing per day(P

  9. Tocopheryl acetate 20% spray for elimination of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial comparing with 1% permethrin creme rinse

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Ian F; Burgess, Nazma A.; Brunton, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tocopheryl acetate is viscous oily fluid used in a range of preparations for skin and scalp care in Italy. Observational and in vitro data have suggested a high level of efficacy against head louse infestation. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm the activity of tocopheryl acetate in a clinical setting in comparison with a standard widely used preparation. Methods A spray formulation containing tocopheryl acetate 20% in cyclomethicone was compared with permethrin 1% cr...

  10. Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies in North American Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Poole, Bryan C.; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E. Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  11. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation [Corrigendum

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    Burgess IF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Burgess IF, Kay K, Burgess NA, Brunton ER. Med Devices (Auckl. 2011;4:35-42 In March 2011 we published a report of a clinical study investigating the efficacy of a shampoo for the treatment of head louse infestation.1 The report states that the shampoo used contained, as an active component, 1% soya oil. However, it has now come to light that this product may have a considerably different formulation, and possibly contained no soya oil at all. Read the original article

  12. [In vitro efficacy of three novel delousing formulations against the head louse (Pediculus capitis L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlckova, J; Rupes, V; Chmela, J; Kensa, M; Mazánek, L

    2011-02-01

    A total of 498 head lice (2nd and 3rd instar larvae, females and males) combed out of the hair of 38 children, were exposed to the delousing formulations Diffusil H Forte Spray (carbaryl 1%), Diffusil Care (isopropyl myristate, cyclomethicone, and dimethiconol) and Paranit (coconut oil, anise oil, and ylang ylang oil) in in vitro tests. The first two formulations, i. e. Diffusil H Forte Spray and Diffusil Care, caused 100% mortality of exposed lice, while Paranit only killed 12.2% of exposed lice.

  13. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (Pshampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 valuesshampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  14. Body louse remains found in textiles excavated at Masada, Israel.

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    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Zias, J; Tarshis, M; Lavi, M; Stiebel, G D

    2003-07-01

    A leg of the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), was found in a storeroom at Masada build during the reign of King Herod the Great. The unearthed culture material clearly indicates that the room was occupied by the rebels during the first Jewish revolt against the Romans (AD 66-73/4). The context of the textiles associated with the louse and their nature suggest a rebel origin. An exuvium of a leg of the third nymphal stage of body louse was found. The first three parts of the leg (tarsus, including the tarsal claw, tibia and femur) were preserved entirely, while the fourth segment of the leg, the trochanter, was only partially conserved. The comparison of the tarsus of this specimen with the legs of present day third instar nymphs of body and head lice revealed that the leg found within the archaeological debris belongs to a body louse.

  15. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

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    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  16. DLC screw preload. Loosening prevention

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    Ivete Aparecida de Mattias Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The screw loosening is a reason to prosthetic rehabilitation failure. However, the DLC (Diamond-like carbon screw treatment lead thefriction decrease and sliding between the components, which increases the screw preload benefit and decreases the chance of looseningoccurrence. This case shows a clinical indication of the association of the correct preload applied and the DLC screw, which can be considered an optimized protocol to solve screw loosening recidivate of unitary prosthesis in anterior maxillary site.

  17. Can neem oil help eliminate lice? Randomised controlled trial with and without louse combing

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    Christine M. Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem oil and wet combing with conditioner are both claimed to facilitate elimination of head louse infestation. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether a 1% neem oil lotion showed activity itself and/or enhanced the effectiveness of combing in treating infestation. Methods: We treated 47 participants with 1% neem-based lotion on four occasions 3-4 days apart in a randomised, community based trial, analysed by intention to treat. The participants were randomly divided between two groups: One group used a grooming comb (placebo and the other a head louse detection and removal comb (wet combing with conditioner method to systematically comb the hair. Cure was defined as no lice on both Day 10 and Day 14. Results: The cure rates of 6/24 (25.0% for the placebo comb group and 8/23 (34.8% for the louse comb group were not significantly different. Conclusion: These results indicate that this formulation of neem oil was ineffective in the treatment of head louse infestations, even when accompanied by combing. Both combing methods were also ineffective, despite being implemented throughout by trained professionals.

  18. Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty

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    Zustin, Jozef; Sauter, Guido [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Pathology, Hamburg (Germany); Hahn, Michael [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Biomechanics and Skeletal Biology, Hamburg (Germany); Morlock, Michael M. [TUHH Hamburg University of Technology, Biomechanics Section, Hamburg (Germany); Ruether, Wolfgang [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Orthopaedics, Hamburg (Germany); Amling, Michael [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Biomechanics and Skeletal Biology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral

  19. Comparison of phenothrin mousse, phenothrin lotion, and wet-combing for treatment of head louse infestation in the UK: a pragmatic randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1px

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    Ian F. Burgess

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation of effectiveness of an alternative pediculicide dosage form, we recruited 228 children and 50 adult participants from Bedfordshire, UK, to a randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing two insecticide products with mechanical removal of lice as a control group.  Participants using insecticide were treated with either the investigative 0.5% phenothrin mousse, for 30 minutes, or 0.2% phenothrin lotion, for 2 hours as the reference product.  Both treatments were applied only once, followed by shampoo washing.  Those treated by wet-combing with conditioner were combed 4 times over 12 days.  Parents/carers carried out the treatments to mimic normal consumer use.  The outcome measure was the absence of lice, 14 days after treatment for the insecticides, and up to 14 days after completion of combing.  Intention to treat analysis of the outcomes for 275 participants showed success for phenothrin mousse in 21/105 (20.0%, in 23/107 (21.5% for phenothrin lotion, and in 12/63 (19.1% for wet-combing.  People receiving mousse were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.81 times more likely to still have lice after treatment compared with those treated with lotion. The group of participants who received the wet combing treatment were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.61 to 2.11 times more likely to still have lice after the treatment.  None of the treatments was significantly (p < 0.05 more effective than any other. This study was carried out in an area where moderate resistance to phenothrin was demonstrated after the study by using a bioassay.  Analysis of post treatment assessments found that failure of insecticides to kill louse eggs had influenced the outcome.

  20. Loosening Psychometric Constraints on Educational Assessments

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    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…

  1. Study of the clinical application of salmon calcitonin in the prevention of aseptic loosening of the prosthesis after artificial femoral head replacement%鲑鱼降钙素在预防人工股骨头置换术后假体无菌性松动的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈述祥; 刘彦; 区文欢; 康乐; 丁林坚; 司徒坚; 廖志鹏; 陈丽君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of salmon calcitonin in the prevention of aseptic loosening of the prosthesis after artificial femoral head replacement.Methods One hundred and forty-six patients who received artificial femoral head replacement from January 2010 to January 2011 in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Wuyi Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were followed up.They were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 73 cases in each group.Patients in control group received oral calcium tablets daily (Caltrate D, containing 600mg calcium and 125u vitamin D).Patients in the treatment group received subcutaneous injection of calcitonin salmon (Miacalcic 50U) daily besides calcium tablets.The treatment lasted for 6 months.Bone mineral density ( BMD ) around the prosthesis ( ROI ) in both groups were examined before and 4-, 8-, 12-, and 24-week after the operation.Serum bone metabolic markers osteocalcin ( BGP) and type I collagen peptide ( C end of heterogeneous beta,β-CTX) were deterimined in patients of both groups before and 4-, 12-, and 24-week after the operation.BMD and bone metabolic markers before and after the operation were comparied and analyzed. Results After 24-week of operation, BMD of ROI in the treatment group increased nearly 5%, while BMD of ROI in the control group decreased 6%.The difference between the two groups was significant ( P005).However, these indexes were significantly different comparing to those in the control group (P <0.05 or P <0.01). Conclusion The treatment of salmon calcitonin ( Miacalcic) combined with basic therapy can significantly improve bone mass around the prosthesis, which is one of the effective methods for prevention of aseptic loosening.%目的:探讨鲑鱼降钙素在预防人工股骨头置换术后假体无菌性松动的临床应用效果。方法通过随访江门市五邑中医院骨伤科二区2010年1月至2011年1月146例人工股骨头

  2. [Loosening of a Calcaneo-Stop Screw after Trampolining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, K; Fingernagel, T; Petershofer, A; Hofstaetter, S G

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is a common malalignment in the paediatric population. Arthroereisis with a calcaneo-stop screw is an effective surgical procedure for treating juvenile flexible flatfoot after conservative measures have been fully exploited. In the present report, we describe the case of a loosening of a calcaneo-stop screw in a 12-year-old youth after excessive trampolining.

  3. Soil loosening processes in tillage : analysis, systematics and predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The soil movements and the inter-particle forces in the vicinity of an operating tool of a tillage implement may be called a soil tillage process. Examples are the tillage processes of tines, plough-bodies etc. (soil loosening processes) and the influence on the soil of land rollers,

  4. Pigmented villonodular synovitis after TKA associated with tibial component loosening.

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    Chung, Byung June; Park, Yong Bum

    2011-08-08

    There is no known causal link between total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). There also is no known relationship between PVNS and implant loosening after TKA in the literature. This article presents a case of PVNS in a patient undergoing revision TKA for tibial component loosening. A 74-year-old woman who had undergone cemented bilateral TKA 5 years earlier presented with painful swelling in her right knee. At the time of the primary TKA, no abnormal signs were found in the synovial membrane. Routine follow-up radiographs did not indicate implant loosening. At the patient's final follow-up examination before revision surgery, a radiolucent lesion was found below the tibial component. During revision surgery, there was focal proliferation of the synovial tissue with heavy pigmentation around the anteromedial part of the tibial component. The abnormal tissue was removed, and the tibial component was exchanged. The articular surface of the polyethylene was not damaged, and backside wear was not found. For the revision surgery, 5-mm thick medial metal block and extension stem were used. Histological analysis of the resected tissue revealed the typical appearance of PVNS. We present a typical case of PVNS found during revision TKA 5 years after primary TKA. It is hoped this report will encourage surgeons to consider PVNS in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with painful swelling of the knee and to consider PVNS as one of the causes of implant loosening after TKA. Further research about causal factors between PVNS and implant loosening are needed. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; Wen-geDong

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  6. Essential oils in the management of the donkey louse, Bovicola ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellse, L; Sands, B; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2016-05-01

    Chewing lice are widespread and clinically compromising parasites of livestock and equids. Their management is complicated by growing levels of resistance to commonly applied insecticides. Hence, the development of novel approaches to their control is of major clinical interest. To assess the effects of incorporating the essential oils of tea tree and lavender into a grooming programme for populations of donkeys with natural infestations of Bovicola ocellatus in the UK and Ireland when louse populations were at their winter seasonal peak. In vivo field trial. Suspensions of 5% (v/v) tea tree or lavender oil or an excipient only control were groomed into the coats of winter-housed donkeys (n = 198) on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. Louse counts were conducted before each application and 2 weeks later. After 2 applications, the groups groomed with lavender or tea tree oil suspensions had a significant reduction in louse intensity, with a mean decline in louse abundance of 78% (95% confidence interval 76-80%). Louse numbers in the groups groomed with excipient only either did not change or increased significantly. Donkey hair length had no effect on the decline in louse numbers. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of essential oil suspensions during grooming can be used to manage louse populations successfully. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of head lice in two socio-economically different schools in the center of Izmir City, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuş, Mehmet; Arıcı, Aylin; Töz, Seray Özensoy; Özbel, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The well-known and common infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis is an important public health and a social issue in many communities in the world. The aim of this study was to compare the head louse infestation rate in two schools having pupils from different socio-economic levels in the city center of Izmir. The pupils aged between 6 and 11 years, were screened for the presence of eggs and nymph/adult lice using a fine-tooth head louse comb. A total of 88 and 126 pupils from the schools with low and medium socio-economic level were screened and 24 (27.2%) and 5 (3.96%) of them were found to be positive for head lice, respectively. Overall, the infestation rate among girls was 3.14 times higher than in boys. Head louse infestation is a significant public health problem among primary schools. Increasing the knowledge about pediculosis and self-hygiene would be helpful in successfully reducing head louse infestation in the school setting. School authorities must encourage the parents to look for head lice routinely and a "school nurse" system is needed for effective head louse control in the schools.

  8. Lousy mums: patterns of vertical transmission of an amphibious louse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we document patterns of vertical transmission of the amphibious louse Antarctophthirus microchir (Echinophthiriidae) in pups of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Patagonia. Vertical transmission is fundamental for the long-term stability of A. microchir populations because only pups stay long enough (1 month) on land for the louse to reproduce. A total of 72 pups ≤7 days old from a single rookery were captured and examined for lice. Infection parameters and population structure of A. microchir did not differ among pups collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the reproductive season, suggesting that patterns of early vertical transmission are not affected by the increase of rookery size during this period. Over 60% of 1-day-old pups were infected with A. microchir, and recruitment increased in pups up to 3 days old and then leveled off. In 1-day-old pups, significantly more adults than nymphs were found, but the pattern was reversed in older pups. The number of first-stage nymphs was significantly smaller than that of second- and third-stage nymphs, as it was the number of males vs. females, particularly in 1-day-old pups. Three non-exclusive hypotheses could account for these patterns, i.e., recruitment merely reflects the population structure of A. microchir is cows; the relative ability of lice to pass from cows onto pups increases in advanced instars; and/or natural selection favors transmission of adults, especially females, because they accrue greater fitness. The importance of latter hypothesis should not be underestimated in a species with a tight reproductive schedule.

  9. The micromorphology of the blesbuck louse Damalinia (Damalinia crenelata as observed under the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Turner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The blesbuck is an important game animal on many game farms and reserves in South Africa. Damalinia crenelata, a biting louse, host-specific to the blesbuck, feed upon epidermal debris of this antelope, leading to severe skin irritation and dermatitis. Symptomatic scratching by the host aggravates these conditions. High infestations may lead to decreased population numbers. Live lice were collected from a blesbuck in the Rietvlei Nature Reserve and prepared for selectron microscopic investigation. Micrographs were recorded. The SEM investigation revealed several micromorphological features not previously described in D. crenelata. Besides the obvious anatomical differences in the reproductive organs of the male and female, several other differences were noted. The antennal flagellae showed morphological differences as well as certain features on the ventral surfaces of the head. Dorsally the forehead was markedly emarginated and showed an acute invagination (clypeo labral suture in the pulvinal area. The ventral surface of the head clearly demonstrated the structures of the preantennal regions such as ventral carina, pulvinus, labrum, mandibles and clypeus. The epipharynx appeared as an underlying extension of the labrum. The rims of the clypeus were more raised and thickened in the female than in that of the male. The mandibles were not notched and were noted to be angular in shape. The three segments of each of the antennae of the male were thicker and more robust than than those of the female. This could suggest sexual dimorphism in this species. The sensilla basoconica comprised 10 pegs. Pit organs were seen within the pore organs. The prothorax and mesothorax were clearly distinguished. The abdominal segments showed six pairs of spiracles. The male andfemale terminalia were confirmed to be strongly sexually dimorphic. The three pairs oflegs each terminated in a single, long and slender, claw.

  10. Loosening Xyloglucan Accelerates the Enzymatic Degradation of Cellulose in Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rumi Kaida; Tomomi Kaku; Kei'ichi Baba; Masafumi Oyadomari; Takashi Watanabe; Koji Nishida; Toshiji Kanaya; Ziv Shani; Oded Shoseyov; Takahisa Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    In order to create trees in which cellulose, the most abundant component in biomass, can be enzymatically hydrolyzed highly for the production of bioethanol, we examined the saccharification of xylem from several transgenic poplars, each overexpressing either xyloglucanase, cellulase, xylanase, or galactanase. The level of cellulose degradation achieved by a cellulase preparation was markedly greater in the xylem overexpressing xyloglucanase and much greater in the xylems overexpressing xylanase and cellulase than in the xylem of the wild-type plant. Although a high degree of degradation occurred in all xylems at all loci, the crystalline region of the cellulose microfibrUs was highly degraded in the xylem overexpressing xyloglucanase. Since the complex between microfibrils and xyloglucans could be one region that is particularly resistant to cellulose degradation, loosening xyloglucan could facilitate the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in wood.

  11. Bipolar hip arthroplasty as salvage treatment for loosening of the acetabular cup with significant bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Revision arthroplasty of the hip is becoming increasingly important in recent years. Early primary arthroplasty and longer life expectancy of the patients increases the number of revision surgery. Revision surgery of hip arthroplasty is major surgery for the patients, especially the elderly, with significant risks concerning the general condition of the patient. The aim of this work is to evaluate the outcome of bipolar hip arthroplasty as a salvage procedure for treatment of loosening of the acetabular cup with significant acetabular bone defects after total hip replacement (THR in multi-morbid patients.Patients and methods: During the period from January 1 2007 to December 31 2011 19 revision hip surgeries were performed in , in which the loosened acetabular cup was replaced by a bipolar head. The examined patient group consisted exclusively of female patients with an average of 75 years. The predominant diagnosis was “aseptic loosening” (84.2%. All patients in our study were multi-morbid. We decided to resort to bipolar hip arthroplasty due to the compromised general condition of patients and the major acetabular bone defects, which were confirmed intraoperatively. The postoperative follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 67 months (average 19.1 months. Results: Evaluation of the modified Harris Hip Score showed an overall improvement of the function of the hip joint after surgery of approximately 45%.Surgery was less time consuming and thus adequate for patients with significantly poor general health condition. We noticed different complications in a significant amount of patients (68.4%. The most common complication encountered was the proximal migration of the bipolar head.The rate of revision following the use of bipolar hip arthroplasty in revision surgery of the hip in our patients was high (21%. Despite the high number of complications reported in our study, we have noticed significant improvement of hip joint function as well

  12. [Immune competence of human tissue lymphocytes in contact with loosened hip joint prostheses. On the topic of cellular or humoral rejection reaction as the mechanism of loosening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K M; Löer, F; Hofstädter, F; Casser, H R

    1991-05-01

    In several investigations rejections were accused of being a possible cause for the loosening of hip endoprostheses. Using immunocytochemical techniques we studied the number and type of lymphocytes in the tissue adjacent to loosened hip endoprostheses. Tissue samples were taken from 18 patients being reoperated for a loosened endoprostheses. Impressive lymphocyte infiltrates were found in 4 of 18 patients (22%). These infiltrates only consisted of T-cells. In the other samples only few lymphocytes were detected belonging to T- and B-lymphocyte population, respectively. In our patients T-cell mediated rejections were of minor importance for the loosening of total hip replacement. B-cell accumulations were detected in none of the samples.

  13. Three-phase bone scintigraphy pattern of loosening in uncemented hip prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubello, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Borsato, N. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Chierichetti, F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Zanco, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Ferlin, G. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, General Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy)

    1995-04-01

    The three-phase bone scintigraphy pattern of loosening in uncemented hip prostheses (UHPs) has not previously been elucidated. We evaluated 28 patients with complicated UHPs who had undergone total hip arthroplasty a very long time previously (range 3-20 years, mean 8.4). All the patients were surgically reviewed: 26 UHPs were found to be loosened and two infected. Nine asymptomatic UHPs were taken as controls. The dynamic phase was invariably negative in both loosened and asymptomatic UHPs while markedly positive in the infected ones. The blood pool phase was positive to various degrees in 16 of the 26 loosened UHPs as well as in the infected UHPs, but was invariably negative in painless replacements. In the bone phase, areas of significantly (discrete to marked) increased uptake were observed in all the loosened prostheses as well as in two-thirds of the asymptomatic ones. However, the regions of the lesser trochanter and/or tip and/or shaft were involved exclusively in the case of the loosened UHPs, and diffuse periprosthetic uptake was found only with loosened or infected implants. Areas of slight methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake were found at every periprosthetic site and areas of discrete to marked MDP uptake were commonly found in the acetabulum and/or the greater trochanter with both loosened and painless prostheses and are thus considered to be nonspecific findings. (orig.)

  14. In Vivo Cell Wall Loosening by Hydroxyl Radicals during Cress Seed Germination and Elongation Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, K.; Linkies, A.; Vreeburg, R.A.M.; Fry, S.C.; Krieger-Liszkay, A.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2009-01-01

    Loosening of cell walls is an important developmental process in key stages of the plant life cycle, including seed germination, elongation growth, and fruit ripening. Here, we report direct in vivo evidence for hydroxyl radical (·OH)-mediated cell wall loosening during plant seed germination and se

  15. Prevention and treatment of head lice in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, K Y

    1999-01-01

    Head louse infestations (pediculosis) are prevalent worldwide. In developed countries, the infestation rate of 4- to 13-year-old children remains high despite preventive efforts. This is due to the existence of numerous ineffective pediculicides, the incorrect use of the effective agents, toxicological concerns and the development of louse strains resistant to insecticides. One of the most effective tools for the prevention and control of lice is the louse comb, which should be used regularly for the detection of living lice at an early stage of infestation, and as an accessory to any treatment method to remove living and dead lice. The louse comb can also be used systematically for the treatment of infestations, for confirmation that treatment with pediculicides has been successful, and for the removal of nits (dead eggs or egg shells). Most pediculicides are only partially ovicidal. Therefore, 10 days after beginning treatment with any antilouse product, the scalp of the child should be examined. If no living lice are found, the treatment should be discontinued. If living lice are still present, treatment should be continued with a product containing a different active ingredient. Suffocating agents such as olive, soya, sunflower and corn oils, hair gels and mayonnaise are able to kill a significant number of lice only if they are applied in liberal quantities for more than 12 hours. However, they lubricate the hair and therefore may facilitate combing and removing lice and eggs from the scalp. Nits may remain glued on the hair for at least 6 months, even after a successful treatment, and lead to a false positive diagnosis of louse infestation. If nits are seen on the hair, the child should be examined, but treatment should be initiated only if living lice are found. Formulations containing 5% acetic acid or 8% formic acid, as well as acid shampoos (pH 4.5 to 5.5) and conditioners, in combination with a louse comb, can be helpful for removing nits. There is no

  16. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area.

  17. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karabela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo. At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area.

  18. The dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger from stray cats in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Jeffery, J; Lewis, J W

    2012-06-01

    Stray cats collected from Georgetown, Penang from 2008 to 2010 were screened for ectoparasites via fine-tooth combing. Two cats from a total 102 examined were infested with the dog louse, Heterodoxus spiniger. Both cats, a juvenile male and female were found in close contact with each other prior to capture. The number of lice ranged from 5 and 14 in the male and female cat respectively. Other ectoparasites recovered included the common cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, one louse species Felicola subrostratus, one tick species Haemaphysalis bispinosa and one mite species of Listrophoridae. The present study reports for the first time the finding of H. spiniger on cats from peninsular Malaysia.

  19. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology.

  20. Detection of homocytotropic antibody in lambs infested with the louse, Bovicola ovis, using a basophil histamine-release assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, A; Phegan, M D; Bany, J

    1997-07-01

    The utility of a basophil histamine-release assay using washed whole blood cells was examined in lambs and was used to determine if homocytotropic antibody with specificity for Bovicola ovis was produced in response to infestation with the louse. Maximal histamine release in the assay in response to Concanavalin A, anti-ovine IgE monoclonal antibody and, in sensitized lambs, to B. ovis antigen ranged from 18 to 48%. Histamine release from blood cells in response to B. ovis antigen was significantly higher in louse-infested lambs than in louse-naive lambs and was significantly correlated with louse and cockle scores. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests were negative with sera obtained from the lambs at the same time as blood for the basophil histamine-release assay. Serum histamine levels also were significantly higher in the louse-infested lambs than in louse-naive lambs and were significantly correlated with louse and cockle scores. The present results support a role for B. ovis-specific homocytotropic antibody in the development of cockle and indicate that the basophil histamine-release assay is more sensitive than the PCA test.

  1. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions.

  2. A Novel Animal Model of Borrelia recurrentis Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Using Immunodeficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, C.; Lundqvist, J.; Rooijen, van N.; Bergstrom, S.

    2009-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been achi

  3. Physiological responses of fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus, to infection with the freshwater fish louse, Dolops carvalhoi. Abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, F.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Fernandes, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    The freshwater fish louse Dolops carvalhoi, is an ectoparasite of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, that causes severe damage to its hosts. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of pacu to the stress of D. carvalhoi infection. After acclimation at the laboratory condition

  4. Louse-borne relapsing fever among East African refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Spinello; Mediannikov, Oleg; Corbellino, Mario; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever a neglected and forgotten disease by western physicians has recently re-emerged among East African migrants seeking asylum in Europe. We review here the cases observed so far together with a critical reappraisal of several issues regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.

  5. DETECTION OF BARTONELLA SP. IN DEER LOUSE FLIES (LIPOPTENA MAZAMAE) ON GRAY BROCKET DEER (MAZAMA GOUAZOUBIRA) IN THE NEOTROPICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ugo; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Michel, Thais; Webster, Anelise; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Kasper, Carlos Benhur; Trigo, Tatiane Campos; Ott, Ricardo; Maria de Assis Jardim, Márcia; Reck, José

    2017-06-01

    Louse flies or deer keds, Lipoptena spp., are widespread in Neotropical cervids, but the vector-borne pathogens of louse flies had only been previously reported in the Northern hemisphere. This is the first report of Bartonella spp. in deer louse flies (Lipoptena mazamae) in the neotropics collected from gray brocket deer ( Mazama gouazoubira ) in Southern Brazil. DNA from Bartonella sp. was detected in all 429 L. mazamae collected from 11 road-killed gray brocket deer. The same sequences of DNA of Bartonella spp. were identified in samples. Gray brocket deer are abundant in Brazil, so Bartonella-infected Lipoptena spp. may be widely distributed in the neotropics.

  6. Comparative in vitro tests on the efficacy and safety of 13 anti-head-lice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Head lice are an emerging social problem, not only in economically poor countries but also in practically all other societies. Several of the common anti-louse products have lost--at least in part--their efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticides such as permethrin or allethrin. Other compounds, like lindan, were redrawn or banned due to high toxicity. Some recently developed products are based on dimethicones or cyclomethicones and turned out to be easily inflammable. Other styled medicinal products are based on plant extracts-some were proven of high efficacy-others of ineffectivity. The present study investigated in in vitro tests the anti-head louse efficacy of 13 products, the contents of which are used worldwide: Aesculo-Gel L, EtoPril, Goldgeist Forte, InfectoPedicul, Jacutin Pedicul Fluid, K.Laus, Liberalice, Licatack, Mosquito Läuse-Shampoo, Nyda, Paranix, Picksan Louse Stop, and Wash Away Louse. It turned out that several of them are easily inflammable, and therefore, they endanger users (InfectoPedicul, Paranix, EtoPril, Nyda, Goldgeist Forte, and K.Laus, see Table 1). Others have to remain for many hours on the hair in order to reach efficacy (Table 4). During such long periods, highly dosed oils may become inhaled and thus may become dangerous for the user's lung epithelia by covering them. When incubating the lice for 3 or 10 min in vitro, only the following products killed all lice exposed to these products: InfectoPedicul, Paranix, Jacutin Pedicul Fluid, Nyda, K.Laus, Picksan Louse Stop, Licatack, and Wash Away Louse. When evaluating the possible dangers for the users, the last three products, especially, derived from plant extracts, are safe and highly effective at the same time. Furthermore, they had been tested dermatologically as "very good".

  7. Related Analysis between the Interface Membrane and Loosening Prosthesis of Hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jianbing; Zhang Yuming; Meng Xiangdong; Liu Miao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the reason of loosening prosthesis by observing the interface membranes harvested during the hip revision operation. Methods: 28 specimens of interface membrane around the loosening prosthesis were harvested from 28 patients who underwent the revision of total hip replacement. All the specimens were observed by appearance, light microscope and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Results: All the gap around the loosening prothesis were filled with different thickness of interface membranes. The color of the most interface membranes was madder red, and other one third of membranes was black. The thicker membrane was similar to scar connective tissue, the thinner was similar to fiber membrane. A large number of wear debris, macrophage and foreign-body giant cells were found under light microscope. With SEM observation, a large number of different diameter collagen fibra structures looked like scar tissue arranged disorderly in a great mass, different size of foreign particles and bone debris distributed unevenly, and the fibroblast distributed in the collagen fiber. Conclusion: Wear debris is relevant to inflammatory cells response around the interface membrane of the loosening prosthesis. The wear debris engulfed by macrophage stimulated the interface membrane to release bone resorption factors (such as TNF) which lead to osteolysis, and this was one of the most importment reasons of the prosthesis loosening.

  8. Developing a highly reliable cae analysis model of the mechanisms that cause bolt loosening in automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hashimoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a highly reliable CAE analysis model of the mechanisms that cause loosening of bolt fasteners, which has been a bottleneck in automobile development and design, using a technical element model for highly accurate CAE that we had previously developed, and verified its validity. Specifically, drawing on knowledge gained from our clarification of the mechanisms that cause loosening of bolt fasteners using actual machine tests, we conducted an accelerated bench test consisting of a threedimensional vibration load test of the loosening of bolt fasteners used in mounts and rear suspension arms, where interviews with personnel at an automaker indicated loosening was most pronounced, and reproduced actual machine tests with CAE analysis based on a technical element model for highly accurate CAE analysis. Based on these results, we were able to reproduce dynamic behavior in which larger screw pitches (lead angles lead to greater non-uniformity of surface pressure, particularly around the nut seating surface, causing loosening to occur in areas with the lowest surface pressure. Furthermore, we implemented highly accurate CAE analysis with no error (gap compared to actual machine tests.

  9. Bio-ecology of the louse, Upupicola upupae, infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007-08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75-82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented.

  10. A new species and an annotated world list of the sucking louse genus Neohaematopinus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A

    1991-09-01

    A new species of sucking louse, Neohaematopinus sundasciuri, collected from the tree squirrel, Sundasciurus juvencus, is described from Palawan Island, Philippines. An updated world list of the genus Neohaematopinus is presented; this documents descriptive citations, known hosts, and geographical distributions with interpretive annotations for each of the 32 species now included in the genus. The geographical distributions of Neohaematopinus sciuri and N. sciurinus are discussed.

  11. An investigation of the aseptic loosening of an AISI 316L stainless steel hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Matjaz; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Dolinar, Drago; Mandrino, Djordje; Jenko, Monika; Antolic, Vane

    2010-08-01

    The total replacement of joints by the implantation of permanently indwelling prosthetic components has been one of the major successes of modern surgery in terms of relieving pain and correcting deformity. However, the aseptic loosening of a prosthetic-joint component is the most common reason for joint-revision surgery. Furthermore, it is thought that wear particles are one of the major contributors to the development and perpetuation of aseptic loosening. The aim of the present study was to identify the factors related to the aseptic loosening of an AISI 316L stainless steel total hip prosthesis. The stem was evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, with polished and rough regions being analyzed in order to establish the differences in the chemical compositions of both regions. Specific areas were examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy.

  12. Louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera infestations of the Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis and the Red-footed Falcon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piross Imre Sándor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the louse species harboured by Red-footed and Amur Falcons despite the fact that various life-history traits of these hosts make them good model species to study host-parasite interactions. We collected lice samples from fully grown Amur (n=20 and Red-footed Falcons (n=59, and from nestlings of Red-footed Falcons (n=179 in four countries: Hungary, India, Italy and South Africa. We identified 3 louse species on both host species, namely Degeeriella rufa, Colpocephalum subzerafae and Laembothrion tinnunculi. The latter species has never been found on these hosts. Comparing population parameters of lice between hosts we found significantly higher prevalence levels of D. rufa and C. subzerafae on Amur Falcons. Adult Red-footed Falcons had higher D. rufa prevalence compared to C. subzerafae. For the first time we also show inter-annual shift in prevalence and intensity levels of these species on Red-footed Falcons; in 2012 on adult hosts C. subzerafae had higher intensity levels than D. rufa, however in 2014 D. rufa had significantly higher intensity compared to C. subzerafae. In case of nestlings both louse species had significantly higher preva lence levels than in 2014. The exact causes of such inter-annual shifts are yet to be understood.

  13. A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Oliveira, Fabíola A S; Speare, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia and immersed in Wash-Away Louse shampoo (Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Germany). Vitality was evaluated for more than 3 h by examination under a dissecting microscope. Positive and negative controls were a commercially available head lice treatment containing permethrin 1% (n=19) and no treatment (n=14). All lice treated with the neem shampoo did not show any vital signs from the initial examination after immersion at 5-30 min; after 3 h, only a single louse showed minor signs of life, indicated by gut movements, a mortality of 94%. In the permethrin group, mortality was 20% at 5 min, 50% at 15 min, and 74% after 3 h. All 14 head lice of the negative control group survived during the observation period. Our data show that Wash-Away Louse is highly effective in vitro against head lice. The neem shampoo was more effective than the permethrin-based product. We speculate that complex plant-based compounds will replace the well-defined chemical pediculicides if resistance to the commonly used products further increases.

  14. Relationship between GNAS1 T393C polymorphism and aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Patrick; Kauther, Max D; Fuest, Lena; Kurscheid, Gina; Gehrke, Thorsten; Klenke, Stefanie; Jäger, Marcus; Wedemeyer, Christian; Bachmann, Hagen S

    2017-08-23

    Aseptic loosening is a main cause for revision surgery after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and there is no reliable marker for the early detection of patients at high risk. This study has been performed to validate association of the T393C polymorphism (rs7121) in the GNAS1 gene, encoding for the alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric G-protein Gs, with risk for and time to aseptic loosening after THA, which has been demonstrated in our previous study. 231 patients with primary THA and 234 patients suffering from aseptic loosening were genotyped for dependency on GNAS1 genotypes and analyzed. Genotyping revealed almost similar minor allele frequencies of 0.49 and 0.46, respectively. Consistently, genotype distributions of both groups were not significantly different (p = 0.572). Neither gender nor GNAS1 genotype showed a statistically significant association with time to loosening (p = 0.501 and p = 0.840). Stratification by gender, as performed in our previous study, was not able to show a significant genotype-dependent difference in time (female p = 0.313; male p = 0.584) as well as median time to aseptic loosening (female p = 0.353; male p = 0.868). This study was not able to confirm the results of our preliminary study. An association of the GNAS1 T393C polymorphisms with risk for and time to aseptic loosening after THA is unlikely.

  15. Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperglycemia and the Risk of Aseptic Loosening in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Schleck, Cathy D; Lewallen, Eric A; Larson, Dirk R; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Lewallen, David G

    2017-09-01

    It is unknown to what extent diabetes mellitus modifies the long-term risk of aseptic loosening in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We examined the association between diabetes mellitus, perioperative hyperglycemia, and the likelihood of revisions for aseptic loosening. We studied 16,085 primary THA and TKA procedures performed at a large tertiary care hospital between 2002 and 2009. All blood glucose values around the time of surgery (within 1 week) were retrieved. Subsequent revision surgeries and the reasons for revision were ascertained through the institutional joint registry. Multivariate Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aseptic loosening associated with diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and surgery type. A total of 2911 (18%) surgeries had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at the time of surgery. Glucose testing was performed at least once in 7055 (44%) procedures within ±1 week of surgery. Although diabetic patients did not experience a higher risk of revision for aseptic loosening (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.55-1.38), higher preoperative glucose values on the day before surgery were significantly associated with both the overall risk of revisions (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.00-7.85) and revisions for aseptic loosening (HR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.26-19.54). High preoperative hyperglycemia is a potential risk factor for aseptic loosening in THA and TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reactivation of a tuberculous coxitis due to loosening of a total hip endoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Casser, H R; Zilkens, K W; Rüther, W

    1995-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman who suffered from juvenile tuberculous coxitis at the age of 4 is presented. Her hip joint replacement lasted for 18 years and then needed replacing. Intraoperatively removed caseous soft tissue and an opalescent secretion histologically resembled a tuberculous focus, and bacteriological culture grew a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. Four months after the replacement, the patient suffered from a tuberculosis-induced septic loosening of the newly replaced hip joint endoprosthesis. The tuberculosis relapse was probably due to aseptic loosening of the first hip joint endoprosthesis.

  17. Genetic diversity of the human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, among primary school girls in Saudi Arabia, with reference to their prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahrani, Sarah A; Alajmi, Reem A; Ayaad, Tahany H; Al-Shahrani, Mohammed A; Shaurub, El-Sayed H

    2017-08-13

    The present work aimed at investigating the genetic diversity of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (P. humanus capitis) among infested primary school girls at Bisha governorate, Saudi Arabia, based on the sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt b) gene of 121 P. humanus capitis adults. Additionally, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis was surveyed. The results of sequencing were compared with the sequence of human head lice that are genotyped previously. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed the presence of 100% identity (n = 26) of louse specimens with clade A (prevalent worldwide) of the GenBank data base. Louse individuals (n = 50) showed 99.8% similarity with the same clade A reference having a single base pair difference. Also, a number of 22 louse individuals revealed 99.8% identity with clade B reference (prevalent in North and Central Americas, Europe, and Australia) with individual diversity in two base pairs. Moreover, 14 louse individual sequences revealed 99.4% identity with three base pair differences. It was concluded that moderate pediculosis (~13%) prevailed among the female students of the primary schools. It was age-and hair texture (straight or curly)-dependent. P. humanus capitis prevalence diversity is of clades A and B genotyping.

  18. Loosening of Total Knee Arthroplasty after Brucellosis Infection: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazegari, Mohammad Ali; Bahramian, Fateme; Mirzaee, Fateme; Zafarani, Zohreh; Aslani, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    In this report we describe a 78-year-old man whose total knee arthroplasty showed the symptoms of infection with brucella with radiographic signs of loosening 5 years after the index surgery. The patient was treated successfully after a 2-stage revision arthroplasty surgery along with using rifampicin and doxycycline for 8 weeks. PMID:28271092

  19. Contributions of human tissue analysis to understanding the mechanisms of loosening and osteolysis in total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Jiri; Vaculova, Jana; Goodman, Stuart B;

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic loosening and osteolysis are the most frequent late complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA) leading to revision of the prosthesis. This review aims to demonstrate how histopathological studies contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of aseptic loosening/osteolysis developm...

  20. Host specificity and genealogy of the louse Polyplax serrata on field mice, Apodemus species: a case of parasite duplication or colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefka, Jan; Hypsa, Václav

    2008-05-01

    The genealogy, population structure and population dynamics of the sucking louse Polyplax serrata were analysed across four host species of the genus Apodemus. An analysis of 126 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I using phylogenetic approaches and haplotype networking revealed a clear structure of European samples, forming three distinct and genetically distant clades with different host specificities. Although a clear connection was detected between the host and parasite genealogies/phylogenies, a uniform pattern of co-speciation was not found. For example, a dramatic shift in the degree of host specificity was demonstrated for two related louse lineages living in sympatry and sharing one of their host species. While one of the louse lineages frequently parasitised two different host taxa (Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis), the other louse lineage was strictly specific to A. flavicollis. The estimate of divergence time between the two louse lineages indicates that they may have arisen due to parasite duplication on A. flavicollis.

  1. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Eric

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5 was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax

  2. Update on treatments for head lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Head lice infestation is common, and mainly affects children of primary school age. Treatments include conventional chemical insecticides; fine tooth louse combs; and fluid preparations that work by a physical rather than chemical mode of action. However, each of these fails to eradicate head lice in some patients. Other disadvantages include the long contact time required for certain preparations e.g. 8 hours and the time commitment for combing regimens. Isopropyl myristate 50% in cyclomethicone solution (Full Marks Solution - SSL International) is a new fluid treatment with a physical mode of action that uses a 10-minute contact time. Here, we consider this product in the context of updating advice we gave in 2007 on treatments for head lice.

  3. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis using RAD sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N Carmichael

    Full Text Available The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837 is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  4. Deep reclamation loosening of soils: State of the problem, results of research, prospects of application, and degradation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel'man, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of deep reclamation loosening used for soils of different types on the main parent rocks in the Nonchernozemic zone (mantle and moraine loams, Permian and varved loamy clays, and clays) is assessed basing on the results of long-term stationary and analytical investigations. The long-term aftereffect of the deep loosening on the density, porosity, water permeability, and the main elements of the soil water regime and factors limiting the use of deep loosening are considered. Over 6-12 years after the deep loosening, in the area, where active and passive loosening by a plough was made, a zone of elevated water permeability is preserved at the depth of 40-75 cm. Based on this phenomenon, a new technology of deep reclamation loosening, which restores the hydraulic connection between the arable and deeper soil layers, is proposed. The data on active deep rippers that provide soil loosening to the depth of 0.9-1.0 m are presented. Some agroecological aspects related to the duration of deep loosening effects on the soils and their productivity are discussed. Recommendations on the application of passive and active loosening and moling of heavy-textured gleyed soils are suggested for the European part of the Nonchernozemic zone in the Russian Federation. Field and laboratory works on estimating the efficiency of deep loosening continued for 15 years (1976-1990) for heavy-textured soils on the loess-like, fine-stratified varved clays, as well as on acid moraine and calcareous Permian clays and loamy clays in Moscow, Vologda, Novgorod, and Kirov oblasts.

  5. SIRT1 protects osteoblasts against particle-induced inflammatory responses and apoptosis in aseptic prosthesis loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhantao; Wang, Zhenheng; Jin, Jiewen; Wang, Yong; Bao, Nirong; Gao, Qian; Zhao, Jianning

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that SIRT1 downregulation in osteoblasts induced by wear particles was one of the reasons for particle-induced osteolysis (PIO) in total joint arthroplasty failure. In the present study, the expression of SIRT1 was examined in osteoblasts treated with TiAl6V4 particles (TiPs) and CoCrMo particles (CoPs) from materials used in prosthetics and specimens from PIO animal models. To address whether SIRT1 downregulation triggers inflammatory responses and apoptosis in osteoblasts, the effect of a SIRT1 activator, resveratrol on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in particle-treated osteoblasts was tested. The results demonstrated that SIRT1 expression was significantly downregulated in particle-treated osteoblasts and PIO animal models. Both pharmacological activation and overexpression of SIRT1 dramatically reduced the particle-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and osteoblast apoptosis through NF-κB and p53 signaling, respectively. Furthermore, in PIO animal models, resveratrol significantly reduced the severity of osteolysis. Collectively, the results of the present study indicated that SIRT1 plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of aseptic loosening, and further treatment targeted at SIRT1 possibly lead to novel approaches for prevention of aseptic prosthesis loosening. Aseptic loosening is the most common cause of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure and revision surgery. However, there is still no effective therapeutic target in the clinical treatment. Besides, the underlying mechanism of aseptic loosening is largely unknown. The result of our study indicated that SIRT1 has the ability to effectively regulate the wear particle-induced inflammatory responses, apoptosis, osteolysis in particle-stimulated osteoblasts and particle-induced osteolysis animal models. Our study provides a potential target for the prevention and treatment of aseptic loosening and further investigated the

  6. Louse infestation of the Chiribaya Culture, Southern Peru: variation in prevalence by age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the interpretive potential of archaeoparasitology, it is important to demonstrate that the epidemiology of ancient parasites is comparable to that of modern parasites. Once this is demonstrated, then we can be secure that the evidence of ancient parasitism truly reflects the pathoecology of parasitic disease. Presented here is an analysis of the paleoepidemiology of Pediculus humanus infestation from 146 mummies from the Chiribaya culture 1000-1250 AD of Southern Peru. The study demonstrates the modern parasitological axiom that 10% of the population harbors 70% of the parasites holds true for ancient louse infestation. This is the first demonstration of the paleoepidemiology of prehistoric lice infestation.

  7. Local and systemic gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to infection with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Frank

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse (SL is an ectoparasitic caligid crustacean infecting salmonid fishes in the marine environment. SL represents one of the major challenges for farming of salmonids, and veterinary intervention is necessary to combat infection. This study addressed gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon infected with SL, which may account for its high susceptibility. Results The effects of SL infection on gene expression in Atlantic salmon were studied throughout the infection period from copepodids at 3 days post infection (dpi to adult lice (33 dpi. Gene expression was analyzed at three developmental stages in damaged and intact skin, spleen, head kidney and liver, using real-time qPCR and a salmonid cDNA microarray (SFA2. Rapid detection of parasites was indicated by the up-regulation of immunoglobulins in the spleen and head kidney and IL-1 receptor type 1, CD4, beta-2-microglobulin, IL-12β, CD8α and arginase 1 in the intact skin of infected fish. Most immune responses decreased at 22 dpi, however, a second activation was observed at 33 dpi. The observed pattern of gene expression in damaged skin suggested the development of inflammation with signs of Th2-like responses. Involvement of T cells in responses to SL was witnessed with up-regulation of CD4, CD8α and programmed death ligand 1. Signs of hyporesponsive immune cells were seen. Cellular stress was prevalent in damaged skin as seen by highly significant up-regulation of heat shock proteins, other chaperones and mitochondrial proteins. Induction of the major components of extracellular matrix, TGF-β and IL-10 was observed only at the adult stage of SL. Taken together with up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP, this classifies the wounds afflicted by SL as chronic. Overall, the gene expression changes suggest a combination of chronic stress, impaired healing and immunomodulation. Steady increase of MMP expression in all tissues except liver was a

  8. Tissue reaction around loosened prostheses: a histological, X-ray microanalytic and immunological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi,Takashi

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue reactions at the cement-bone and artificial implant-bone interface were examined light and electron microscopically in thirty-six patients who underwent revisory operation of hip or knee replacement. The reactions were classified into three types: inert tissue, active tissue with giant cell proliferation, and active tissue with predominant foamy cell proliferation. The third type of reaction was found only in total hip replacement with bone cement. No evidence of allergic reaction to implanted materials was found in any replacement, though active cellular infiltrations were observed around loosened prostheses especially in cemented arthroplasty. The tissue reactions always occurred around instable or loosened prostheses. Thus, the present study shows that mechanical instability is the primary cause of such undesired tissue reactions.

  9. Study on precision piezoelectric rotary step motors with inner anchor/loosen and outer drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfang LIU; Zhigang YANG; Ping ZENG; Zunqiang FAN

    2008-01-01

    A new precision rotary piezoelectric(PZT)actuator is proposed to improve its drive performance.Based on piezoelectric technology,the actuator adopts the principle of bionics,with a new method of stator inner anchor/loosen/rotor outer drive and a distortion structure of a thin shelf flexible hinge.This structure improves the stability of the anchor/loosen and step rotary.Its characteristics are evaluated by finite element analysis.The experiment shows that the new rotary PZT actuator works with higher frequency(40 Hz),higher speed (325 μrad/s),wider movement(360°),high resolution (1 μrad/step)and high torque(30 N·cm).The novel actuator can be applied in wide movement and high resolution driving devices such as those for optics engineering,precision positioning and some other micro-manipulation fields.

  10. Densitometric evaluation might prevent failure of knee artroplasty for aseptic loosening

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) expressed as stiffness index (SI) and the risk of aseptic loosening of knee arthroplasty. Methods: An observational retrospective controlled study was performed on 85 female patients (mean age: 73.3 years) divided into 2 groups from January 2007 to March 2015 and carried out at the Orthopedic Rehabilitation Unit, Casa di Cura Eremo, Arco, Trento, Italy. Group A included 42 patients who had undergone a revision of knee ...

  11. A Stereophotogrammetric System For The Detection Of Prosthesis Loosening In Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Genant, Harry K.; Hunter, John; Miller, David; Moffitt, Francis; Murray, William R.; Ross, Steven E.

    1980-07-01

    Loosening of the prosthetic device occurs in about 5% of cases following placement of total hip prostheses (THP). Early detection of loosening is much desired but is difficult to achieve using conventional methods. Due to errors of projection, it is quite possible to fail to detect mobility of even as much as 5 mm on single x-ray films. We are attempting to develop a simplified photogrammetric system suitable for general hospital use which could detect loosening of 0.8 mm at the 95 % level of confidence without use of complex stereoplotting equipment. Metal reference markers are placed in the shaft of the femur and in the acetabular region of the pelvis at the time of surgery. The distances between these reference markers and certain unambiguous points on the prostheses are computed analytically using an X-Y acoustical digitizer (accuracy ± 0.1 mm) and software developed previously for craniofacial measurement. Separate stereopairs of the joint region are taken under weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing conditions. Differences in the measured distances between the bo-ne markers and the prosthetic components on the two stereopairs are taken as indicators of prosthesis loosening. Measurements on a phantom using ten different x-ray stereopairs taken from as many different perspectives have established that true linear distances between reference points and prostheses can be measured at the desired reliability with the present low precision system. Preliminary in vivo measurements indicate that the main unresolved problem is the movement of the subject between the two exposures of each single stereopair. Two possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  12. Loosening and Sliding Behaviour of Bolt-Nut Fastener under Transverse Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruse T.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The thread joint has been frequently used for the efficient productivity and maintainability as a machine element. However, many troubles such as loosening of bolted joints or fatigue failure of bolt were often experienced. Many attentions must be paid on the improvement of the strength and the reliability of the thread joints [1, 2]. It is generally said that the fastening axial force rapidly decreases by the rotation loosening of nuts if the relative slippage on the interfaces between nuts and fastened body goes beyond a certain critical limit [3]. This critical relative slippage (Scr that prescribes the upper limit for preventing the loosening behaviour has been estimated according to the theoretically obtained equation considering the bending deformation of bolt and the geometrical constraint condition. In this paper, firstly we present the equation for estimating the Scr based on the fundamental cantilever deformation model. Then we present the investigated results of the deformation behaviour of bolt-nut joint under transverse loading condition considering the reaction moment by nut (Mn. Finaly we can confirmed that these estimated results of critical relative slippage coincided well with the experimental results [4, 5].

  13. Stability Analysis for Loosened Rock Slope of Jinyang Grand Buddha in Taiyuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, Jinzhong; TIAN, Xiaofu; GUAN, Xudong; YU, Yonggui; YANG, Xiusheng

    On the basis of the status quo of Jinyang Grand Buddha in Taiyuan, some factors such as topography, geological structures, climate, hydrology, and engineering geology that influence the stability of the Buddha slope are considered, and several working situations of the slope that possibly suffered are presented in this article. The Buddha slope stands upright and the rock masses are composed of thick Permian sandstone, which dips slightly inward to the slope. Affected by both the incision of regional joints and the load relief to the free surface, the rock mass of the Buddha slope has turned into loosened blocks. Numerical stability analysis by FLAC-2D on the basis of the strength reduction method reveals that the localized deformation of the rock masses near the vertical surface of the slope may trigger reversing of rock beddings making the back dip slope convert into a dip slope with the possibility of plane sliding failure. Furthermore, the pseudostatic method for the dynamic process and limit equilibrium method for the static process are applied to different working situations of the Buddha slope. The analytical results illustrate that plane sliding failure will not occur when the slope is affected only by seism. However, water filling in the cracks of the loosened rock mass may greatly contribute to the potential plane sliding failure. When horizontal seism-force and hydrostatic pressure are coupled, the Buddha slope can hardly keep stable. Additionally, the loosened rock masses are prone to block toppling failure when influenced by the seism force.

  14. A New Computed Tomography-Based Radiographic Method to Detect Early Loosening of Total Wrist Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivecrona, H.; Noz, M.E.; Maguire, G.Q. Jr; Zeleznik, M.P.; Sollerman, C.; Olivecrona, L. [Dept. of Hand Surgery, Soedersjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    Background: Diagnosis of loosening of total wrist implants is usually late using routine radiographs. Switching modality to computed tomography (CT) should aid in early diagnosis. Purpose: To propose and evaluate the accuracy of a new CT method for assessing loosening of the carpal component in total wrist arthroplasty. Material and Methods: A protocol encompassing volume registration of paired CT scans of patients with unexplained pain in a prosthetically replaced wrist (used in clinical routine) is presented. Scans are acquired as a dynamic examination under torsional load. Using volume registration, the carpal component of the prosthesis is brought into spatial alignment. After registration, prosthetic loosening is diagnosed by a shift in position of the bones relative to the prosthesis. This study is a preclinical validation of this method using a human cadaverous arm with a cemented total wrist implant and tantalum markers. Seven CT scans of the arm were acquired. The scans were combined into 21 pairs of CT volumes. The carpal component was registered in each scan pair, and the residual mismatch of the surrounding tantalum markers and bone was analyzed both visually and numerically. Results: The detection limit for prosthetic movement was less than 1 mm. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that CT volume registration holds promise to improve detection of movement of the carpal component at an earlier stage than is obtainable with plain radiography.

  15. Identification of different Bartonella species in the cattle tail louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in cattle blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Harrus, Shimon; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2014-09-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity.

  16. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  17. Over-expression of p53/BAK in aseptic loosening after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Toetsch, Martin; Wedemeyer, Christian; Saxler, Guido; Tsokos, Michael; von Knoch, Fabian; Neuhäuser, Markus; Löer, Franz; von Knoch, Marius

    2006-05-01

    Particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening after total joint replacement. The possible induction of apoptosis has not been addressed in great detail. Thus far, it has been shown that ceramic and polyethylene particles can induce apoptosis of macrophages in vitro. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that wears debris generated from total hip arthroplasty could induce cellular damage and apoptosis in vivo. We therefore determined by immunohistochemical methods if increased expression of p53, an important transcription factor, and BAK and Bcl-2, two important regulators of apoptosis, can be found in interface membranes and capsules of hips with aseptically loose implants. Strongly positive immunohistochemical staining for p53 and BAK was found in peri-implant tissues from patients with aseptic hip implant loosening. Differentiation of various cell types showed that macrophages stained positive for p53 in all capsule and interface specimens. p53 was frequently detected in giant cells. Positive staining of BAK in macrophages and giant cells was seen in all specimens. Some positive reactions were observed in fibroblasts, only two of 19 cases stained for p53 and three cases for BAK within synovial cells. Positive macrophages and giant cells were localized around polyethylene particles. While T-lymphocytes showed a regular BAK-staining, the other leukocytes were negative. Statistical analyses showed significant positive correlations (p inductor of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis than metal debris. In this study apoptosis of macrophages, giant cells and T-lymphocytes in capsules and interface membranes of patients with aseptic hip implant loosening has been demonstrated in vivo. It is possible that the apoptotic cascade could evolve as a novel therapeutic target to prevent particle-induced osteolysis.

  18. Radiotherapy inducing total knee prosthetic component loosening for recurrent pigmented villonodular synovitis following joint replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Ta Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a rare condition. We reported a case of PVNS following TKA; initially, arthroscopic synovectomy was performed; however, recurrence of PVNS happened. We performed second arthroscopic synovectomy and moderate dose radiotherapy (total dose 44 cGy/22 fractions to posterior fossa, 36 cGy/18 fractions to knee for the patient. Unfortunately, distal femur osteonecrosis with femoral and tibial component loosening happened 2 months after completing the radiotherapy procedure. Revision TKA with Legacy Constrained Condylar Knee was done. Radiotherapy is not recommended for recurrent PVNS after TKA.

  19. Unusual way of loosened total hip arthroplasty treatment with an Austin Moore endoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Erceg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old female patient with aseptic loosening of total cemented hip endoprosthesis and pathologic fracture of the femur at the level of the stem of endoprosthesis was presented. As no appropriate endoprosthesis was available due to the war in Croatia and war priority, the problem was managed by femur osteosynthesis and implantation of a partial Austin Moore hip endoprosthesis. The endoprosthesis is still functioning well (for 20 years.To the best of the author′s knowledge, nobody has ever treated problem like this using this alternative, an unconventional method, with an Austin Moore endoprosthesis.

  20. Unusual way of loosened total hip arthroplasty treatment with an Austin Moore endoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erceg, M; Becic, K

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old female patient with aseptic loosening of total cemented hip endoprosthesis and pathologic fracture of the femur at the level of the stem of endoprosthesis was presented. As no appropriate endoprosthesis was available due to the war in Croatia and war priority, the problem was managed by femur osteosynthesis and implantation of a partial Austin Moore hip endoprosthesis. The endoprosthesis is still functioning well (for 20 years).To the best of the author's knowledge, nobody has ever treated problem like this using this alternative, an unconventional method, with an Austin Moore endoprosthesis.

  1. The BCL2 -938C>A Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Risk for and Time to Aseptic Loosening of Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Patrick; Wedemeyer, Christian; Fuest, Lena; Kurscheid, Gina; Gehrke, Thorsten; Klenke, Stefanie; Jäger, Marcus; Kauther, Max D; Bachmann, Hagen S

    2016-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is a major cause of revision surgery of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Only few host factors affecting aseptic loosening have been identified until now, although they are urgently needed to identify and possibly treat those patients at higher risk for aseptic loosening. To determine whether the functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.-938C>A (rs2279115), located in the promoter region of the BCL2 gene has an impact on aseptic loosening of THA we genotyped and analyzed 234 patients suffering from aseptic loosening and 231 patients after primary THA. The polymorphism is associated with risk for aseptic loosening with the CC genotype at highest risk for aseptic loosening, Odds Ratio CC vs. AA 1.93, 95%CI 1.15-3.25, p = 0.013. In contrast, low risk AA genotype carriers that still developed aseptic loosening showed a significantly shorter time to aseptic loosening than patients carrying the C allele (p = 0.004). These results indicate that the BCL2 -938C>A polymorphism influences the occurrence and course of aseptic loosening and suggests this polymorphism as an interesting candidate for prospective studies and analyses in THA registers.

  2. The BCL2 -938C>A Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Risk for and Time to Aseptic Loosening of Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Stelmach

    Full Text Available Aseptic loosening is a major cause of revision surgery of total hip arthroplasty (THA. Only few host factors affecting aseptic loosening have been identified until now, although they are urgently needed to identify and possibly treat those patients at higher risk for aseptic loosening. To determine whether the functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.-938C>A (rs2279115, located in the promoter region of the BCL2 gene has an impact on aseptic loosening of THA we genotyped and analyzed 234 patients suffering from aseptic loosening and 231 patients after primary THA. The polymorphism is associated with risk for aseptic loosening with the CC genotype at highest risk for aseptic loosening, Odds Ratio CC vs. AA 1.93, 95%CI 1.15-3.25, p = 0.013. In contrast, low risk AA genotype carriers that still developed aseptic loosening showed a significantly shorter time to aseptic loosening than patients carrying the C allele (p = 0.004. These results indicate that the BCL2 -938C>A polymorphism influences the occurrence and course of aseptic loosening and suggests this polymorphism as an interesting candidate for prospective studies and analyses in THA registers.

  3. Xyloglucan antibodies inhibit auxin-induced elongation and cell wall loosening of azuki bean epicotyls but not of oat coleoptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T; Masuda, Y; Sone, Y; Misaki, A

    1991-06-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against isoprimeverose (Xyl(1)Glc(1)), xyloglucan heptasaccharides (Xyl(3)Glc(4)), and octasaccharides (Gal(1)Xyl(3)Glc(4)). Antibodies specific for hepta- and octasaccharides suppressed auxin-induced elongation of epicotyl segments of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi and Ohashi cv Takara). These antibodies also inhibited auxin-induced cell wall loosening (decrease in the minimum stress-relaxation time and the relaxation rate of the cell walls) of azuki segments. However, none of the antibodies influenced auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of coleoptile segments of oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory). Auxin caused a decrease in molecular mass of xyloglucans in the cell walls of azuki epicotyls and oat coleoptiles. The antibodies inhibited such a change in molecular mass of xyloglucans in both species. Preimmune serum exhibited little or no inhibitory effect on auxin-induced elongation, cell wall loosening, or breakdown of xyloglucans. The results support the view that the breakdown of xyloglucans is associated with the cell wall loosening responsible for auxin-induced elongation in dicotyledons. The view does not appear to be applicable to poaceae, because the inhibition of xyloglucan breakdown by the antibodies did not influence auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of oat coleoptiles.

  4. Percutaneous consolidation of loosened spine arthrodesis under CT and fluoroscopy guidance by radiologists: a new useful technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Bertrand, Anne-Sophie; Gallo, Giacomo; Caudal, Amandine; Boileau, Pascal [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Cornelis, Francois; Hauger, Olivier [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate percutaneous computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy-guided injection of bone cement for consolidation of loosened posterior arthrodesis performed by radiologists. A single-centre prospective study involving four consecutive patients (three women, one man) suffering from screw loosening (three at the vertebral level, one at the iliac wing level) after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF) treatment was done. The average age was 80 years. Surgical treatment was not indicated or not wished for by the patients. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Percutaneous consolidation was performed by an interventional radiologist under CT and fluoroscopy guidance. The path of the trocars was made outside loosened screws bilaterally. Follow-up was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). In all cases, bone cement was successfully placed around the loosened screw. The mean volume of cement that was injected was 3 ml. No cement leakage was observed. No neurological complication occurred. Using VAS, pain decreased from more than 9/10 preoperatively to less than 2/10 the day after the procedure for all patients (p < 0.05). This study suggests that loosening of spine arthrodesis could be successfully treated by percutaneous injection of bone cement under CT and fluoroscopy guidance. (orig.)

  5. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic position of two new species in Rhabdoviridae infecting the parasitic copepod, salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnfinn Lodden Økland

    Full Text Available Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11,600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses.

  6. [Enderleinellus tamiasis Fahrenholz, 1916 (Anoplura: Enderleinellidae), an introduced species, and a new sucking louse for the French fauna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucournu, J-C; Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J-L

    2008-06-01

    A new sucking louse is recorded for the French Anopluran fauna, Enderleinellus tomiasis found on the introduced Sciurid Tamias sibiricus. This observation highlights the maintenance of parasites when introduced with their hosts and when their hosts settle into a novel environments. It suggests a common origin for two out of four populations of Siberian chipmunks examined. The authors describe the morphological criteria that allow the distinction between the two species of Enderleinellus and each infecting a sciurid host found in our country.

  7. Ovicidal Efficacy of Abametapir Against Eggs of Human Head and Body Lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Vernon M; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Barker, Stephen C; Tran, Christopher; Rhodes, Christopher; Clark, Marshall J

    2017-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the ovicidal efficacy of 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (abametapir) against eggs of both human head and body lice. Head lice eggs of different ages (0-2, 3-5, and 6-8-d-old eggs) were exposed to varying concentrations of abametapir in isopropanol and concentration-dependent response relationships established based on egg hatch. One hundred percent of all abametapir-treated eggs failed to hatch at the 0.74 and 0.55% concentrations, whereas 100% of 6-8-d-old head louse eggs failed to hatch only at the 0.74% concentration. The LC50 value for abametapir varied, depending on the age of the head lice eggs, from ∼0.10% recorded for 0-2-d-old eggs and increasing to ∼0.15% for 6-8-d-old eggs. Abametapir was also evaluated once formulated into a lotion referred to as Xeglyze (0.74% abametapir) and serial dilutions made. Ovicidal efficacies were determined against head lice eggs 0-8-d-old. Results indicated 100% ovicidal activity at the 0.74, 0.55, 0.37, and 0.18% concentrations. Additional studies undertaken using body lice eggs also demonstrated that abametapir was 100% ovicidal against eggs of all ages when evaluated at a concentration of 0.37 and 0.55%. Given that ovicidal activity is a critical component of any effective treatment regime for louse control, the data presented in this study clearly demonstrate the ability of abametapir to inhibit hatching of both head and body louse eggs as assessed in vitro.

  8. Comparison of manual and semi-automatic DNA extraction protocols for the barcoding characterization of hematophagous louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-López, Rafael; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Gangoso, Laura; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    The barcoding of life initiative provides a universal molecular tool to distinguish animal species based on the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the subunit 1 of the cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. Obtaining good quality DNA for barcoding purposes is a limiting factor, especially in studies conducted on small-sized samples or those requiring the maintenance of the organism as a voucher. In this study, we compared the number of positive amplifications and the quality of the sequences obtained using DNA extraction methods that also differ in their economic costs and time requirements and we applied them for the genetic characterization of louse flies. Four DNA extraction methods were studied: chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, HotShot procedure, Qiagen DNeasy(®) Tissue and Blood Kit and DNA Kit Maxwell(®) 16LEV. All the louse flies were morphologically identified as Ornithophila gestroi and a single COI-based haplotype was identified. The number of positive amplifications did not differ significantly among DNA extraction procedures. However, the quality of the sequences was significantly lower for the case of the chloroform/isoamyl alcohol procedure with respect to the rest of methods tested here. These results may be useful for the genetic characterization of louse flies, leaving most of the remaining insect as a voucher. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Loosen Couple Workflow Mode of Lean Operator Improvement Based on Positive Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the core competitive power for telecom operating enterprises to face market fine operation, this article compares the ECTA mode (Extension Case Transmission Mode and the LCA mode (Loosen Couple Mode, both of which are promoted by WfMC. By comparing these two modes, the suitable situations for these two modes are determined. We also carry out empirical analysis based on the customization mode of mobile phones between China telecom and mobile phone manufacturers and to expound the ascension effect of mechanism based on the agile telecom loose coupling workflow with positive feedback to the telecom enterprises. Finally, on the basis of positive feedback system, the task complexity and information transparency of LCA mode are improved, so that the semantics of public flow mode is kept unchanged and the sub workflow is optimized when modifying the sub workflow.

  10. Long-term effects of deep soil loosening on root distribution and soil physical parameters in compacted lignite mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badorreck, Annika; Krümmelbein, Julia; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil compaction is a major problem of soils on dumped mining substrates in Lusatia, Germany. Deep ripping and cultivation of deep rooting plant species are considered to be effective ways of agricultural recultivation. Six years after experiment start, we studied the effect of initial deep soil loosening (i.e. down to 65 cm) on root systems of rye (Secale cereale) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and on soil physical parameters. We conducted a soil monolith sampling for each treatment (deep loosened and unloosened) and for each plant species (in three replicates, respectively) to determine root diameter, length density and dry mass as well as soil bulk density. Further soil physical analysis comprised water retention, hydraulic conductivity and texture in three depths. The results showed different reactions of the root systems of rye and alfalfa six years after deep ripping. In the loosened soil the root biomass of the rye was lower in depths of 20-40 cm and the root biomass of alfalfa was also decreased in depths of 20-50 cm together with a lower root diameter for both plant species. Moreover, total and fine root length density was higher for alfalfa and vice versa for rye. The soil physical parameters such as bulk density showed fewer differences, despite a higher bulk density in 30-40cm for the deep loosened rye plot which indicates a more pronounced plough pan.

  11. Accuracy of bone SPECT/CT for identifying hardware loosening in patients who underwent lumbar fusion with pedicle screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudyana, Hendrah; Maes, Alex [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); University Hospital Leuven, Department of Morphology and Medical Imaging, Leuven (Belgium); Vandenberghe, Thierry; Fidlers, Luc [AZ Groeninge, Department of Neurosurgery, Kortrijk (Belgium); Sathekge, Mike [University of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Nicolai, Daniel [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Wiele, Christophe van de [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); University Ghent, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of bone SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)/CT (computed tomography) in diagnosing loosening of fixation material in patients with recurrent or persistent back pain that underwent lumbar arthrodesis with pedicle screws using surgery and clinical follow-up as gold standard A total of 48 patients (median age 49 years, range 21-81 years; 17 men) who had undergone lumbar spinal arthrodesis were included in this retrospective analysis. SPECT/CT results were compared to the gold standard of surgical evaluation or clinical follow-up. Positive SPECT/CT results were considered true positives if findings were confirmed by surgery or if clinical and other examinations were completely consistent with the positive SPECT/CT finding. They were considered false positives if surgical evaluation did not find any loose pedicle screws or if symptoms subsided with non-surgical therapy. Negative SPECT/CT scans were considered true negatives if symptoms either improved without surgical intervention or remained stable over a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Negative SPECT/CT scans were determined to be false negatives if surgery was still required and loosening of material was found. The median length of time from primary surgery to bone SPECT/CT referral was 29.5 months (range 12-192 months). Median follow-up was 18 months (range 6-57) for subjects who did not undergo surgery. Thirteen of the 48 patients were found to be positive for loosening on bone SPECT/CT. Surgical evaluation (8 patients) and clinical follow-up (5 patients) showed that bone SPECT/CT correctly predicted loosening in 9 of 13 patients, while it falsely diagnosed loosening in 4 patients. Of 35 negative bone SPECT/CT scans, 12 were surgically confirmed. In 18 patients, bone SPECT/CT revealed lesions that could provide an alternative explanation for the symptoms of pain (active facet degeneration in 14 patients, and disc and sacroiliac

  12. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  13. Squatting-Related Tibiofemoral Shear Reaction Forces and a Biomechanical Rationale for Femoral Component Loosening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Thambyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous gait studies on squatting have described a rapid reversal in the direction of the tibiofemoral joint shear reaction force when going into a full weight-bearing deep knee flexion squat. The effects of such a shear reversal have not been considered with regard to the loading demand on knee implants in patients whose activities of daily living require frequent squatting. In this paper, the shear reversal effect is discussed and simulated in a finite element knee implant-bone model, to evaluate the possible biomechanical significance of this effect on femoral component loosening of high flexion implants as reported in the literature. The analysis shows that one of the effects of the shear reversal was a switch between large compressive and large tensile principal strains, from knee extension to flexion, respectively, in the region of the anterior flange of the femoral component. Together with the known material limits of cement and bone, this large mismatch in strains as a function of knee position provides new insight into how and why knee implants may fail in patients who perform frequent squatting.

  14. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett Eric; Palma Kathleen G; Clayton Bert; Ballard Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown...

  15. Heartworm (Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) and seal louse (Echinophthirius horridus) infections in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North and Baltic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Schwanke, Eva; Hahn, Kerstin; Wohlsein, Peter; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-07-01

    The seal louse (Echinophthirius [E.] horridus) and the heartworm (Acanthocheilonema [A.] spirocauda) are parasites of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Little is known about the role of the seal louse as a potential vector and its role for the development and transmission of heartworm larvae to their final host, the harbour seal. The life-cycle of the heartworm is still not fully understood. For the presented study, findings of 1191 stranded harbour seals collected along the North- and Baltic Sea coast between 1996 and 2013 were examined. 4.4% (n = 53) of these harbour seals were infected with adult heartworms and 3.4% (n = 40) harbour seals carried seal lice. The highest prevalence and level of infection with adult heartworms (A. spirocauda) (9.3%) and seal lice (E. horridus) (8.9%) were found on yearling harbour seals (7-18 months) compared to neonate and adult seals. Investigating seal lice (n = 35) for larval heartworm stages one larvae was encountered in an ethanol-fixated seal louse. During a health monitoring survey of live harbour seals, 109 animals were captured and examined during spring and autumn between 2008 and 2014. Blood samples were taken and microfilariae were discovered in blood smears in 41% (n = 45) of the examined harbour seals. Yearling seals (n = 21) showed higher prevalence (86%) and level of infection with microfilariae than adults. Microfilariae were identified as A. spirocauda by sequencing the species-specific COI gene in 24 blood samples. The high prevalence of microfilariae of A. spirocauda in blood samples (41%) is in contrast to the low prevalence of mature infections/adult specimens in stranded seals (4.4%) investigated. Although rare parasites of seals, the recent increase in prevalence of heartworm and seal lice in stranded seals and the relatively high occurrence of microfilaria in the free-ranging population underscore the importance of further studies investigating the immunology of infections and their transmission pathways, as

  16. A method for stable gene knock-down by RNA interference in larvae of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Christiane; Nilsen, Frank; Grotmol, Sindre; Dalvin, Sussie

    2014-05-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), an ectoparasitic copepod of salmonid fish, is a major threat to aquaculture in Norway, Ireland, Scotland and Canada. Due to rise in resistance against existing pesticides, development of novel drugs or vaccines is necessary. Posttranscriptional gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi), when established in a high throughput system is a potential method for evaluation of molecular targets for new medical compounds or vaccine antigens. Successful use of RNAi has been reported in several stages of salmon lice. However, when we employed a previously described protocol for planktonic stages, no reproducible down-regulation of target genes was gained. In the present study, we describe a robust method for RNAi, where nauplius larvae are soaked in seawater added double stranded RNA (dsRNA). In order to test for when dsRNA may be introduced, and for the efficacy and duration of RNAi, we performed a series of experiments on accurately age determined larvae, ranging from the hatching egg to the copepodid with a salmon louse coatomer and a putative prostaglandin E synthase gene. Presumptive knock-down was monitored by real time PCR. Significant gene silencing was obtained only when nauplius I larvae were exposed to dsRNA during the period in which they molted to nauplius II. A knock down effect could be detected 2days after soaking, and it remained stable until the last measurement, on day 12. Soaking nauplius I larvae, knock-down was verified for six additional genes with a putative role in molting. For one chitinase, a loss-of-function phenotype with abnormal swimming was obtained. Hence, RNAi, induced in the nauplius, may facilitate studies of the molecular biology of the louse, such as the function of specific genes in developmental processes and physiology, host recognition, host-parasite interaction, and, in extension, the engineering of novel medicines.

  17. A novel animal model of Borrelia recurrentis louse-borne relapsing fever borreliosis using immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Larsson

    Full Text Available Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been achieved only in primates (i.e., not in other laboratory or domestic animals. Here, we present the first non-primate animal model of LBRF, using SCID (-B, -T cells and SCID BEIGE (-B, -T, -NK cells immunocompromised mice. These animals were infected with B. recurrentis A11 or A17, or with B. duttonii 1120K3 as controls. B. recurrentis caused a relatively mild but persistent infection in SCID and SCID BEIGE mice, but did not proliferate in NUDE (-T and BALB/c (wild-type mice. B. duttonii was infectious but not lethal in all animals. These findings demonstrate that the immune response can limit relapsing fever even in the absence of humoral defense mechanisms. To study the significance of phagocytic cells in this context, we induced systemic depletion of such cells in the experimental mice by injecting them with clodronate liposomes, which resulted in uncontrolled B. duttonii growth and a one-hundred-fold increase in B. recurrentis titers in blood. This observation highlights the role of macrophages and other phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection. B. recurrentis evolved from B. duttonii to become a primate-specific pathogen that has lost the ability to infect immunocompetent rodents, probably through genetic degeneration. Here, we describe a novel animal model of B. recurrentis based on B- and T-cell-deficient mice, which we believe will be very valuable in future research on LBRF. Our study also reveals the importance of B-cells and phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection.

  18. Arthroscopic observation was useful to detect loosening of the femoral component of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in a recurrent hemoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakado Kotaro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case of recurrent hemarthrosis of the knee after a mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA; Oxford UKA is described. A 58-year-old man met with a road traffic accident 10 months after UKA. He developed anteromedial pain and hemarthrosis of the knee joint 1 month after the accident, which required multiple aspirations. Physical examination showed no instability. Plain radiograph revealed no signs of loosening. All laboratory data, including bleeding and coagulation times, were within normal limits. Diagnostic arthroscopy demonstrated loosening of the femoral component. Any intraarticular pathology other than nonspecific synovitis was ruled out. The loose femoral component and polyethylene meniscal bearing were revised. Since then, hemarthrosis has not recurred.

  19. Arthroscopic observation was useful to detect loosening of the femoral component of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in a recurrent hemoarthrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamakado Kotaro; Arakawa Hitoshi; Hayashi Seigaku

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A case of recurrent hemarthrosis of the knee after a mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA; Oxford UKA) is described. A 58-year-old man met with a road traffic accident 10 months after UKA. He developed anteromedial pain and hemarthrosis of the knee joint 1 month after the accident, which required multiple aspirations. Physical examination showed no instability. Plain radiograph revealed no signs of loosening. All laboratory data, including bleeding and coagulation t...

  20. Abrocomaphthirus hoplai, a new genus and species of sucking louse from Chile and its relevance to zoogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A; Webb, J P

    1999-10-01

    Both sexes of Abrocomaphthirus hoplai, new genus and new species (Anoplura: Polyplacidae), are described and illustrated. The endemic Chilean chinchilla rat Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse (Rodentia: Abrocomidae) is the type host. The definition of the family Polyplacidae is amended to accommodate the new genus. Polyplax longa (Werneck), also referred to in the literature as Neohaematopinus longus Werneck, is reassigned to Abrocomaphthirus. The host of A. longus comb.n., is Abrocoma cinerea Thomas, another chinchilla rat, which inhabits parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The erection of Abrocomaphthirus as a distinct genus has important zoogeographical and evolutionary implications. The tenuous anomaly of P. longa being the sole native representative of the genus Polyplax in South America, possibly with African affinities, is now refuted. Instead, partial colonization of the neotropics by native species of both Polyplax and Neohaematopinus appears to have been relatively recent and from North America. The phylogenetic affinities of Abrocomaphthirus are unknown, but it appears to be closely related to other, more ancient, native South American polyplacid louse genera, such as Cuyana, Eulinognathus, Galeophthirus, and Lagidiophthirus. Arguments are presented in support of an ancestral zoogeographical link to Africa for these louse genera.

  1. Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci ('lobster louse') in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Emma C; Pope, Edward C; Vogan, Claire L; Roberts, Emily C; Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse') in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host.

  2. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment.

  3. Use of next generation sequencing to detect biofilm bacteria in a patient with pedicle screw loosening after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Lorenzen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    2. Center for Microbial Communities, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark 3. Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Magdeburg, Germany 4. Eifelklinik St. Brigida, Simmerath, Germany Aim: ”Hidden deep...... as a possible cause for implant loosening. This case report describes the use of NGS in the diagnostic work-up of a patient with pedicle screw loosening after spine surgery.” Method: ”A 60 y/o male had to undergo revision spine surgery for pedicle screw loosening and adjacent segment disease 3 years after...... identified by MALDI-TOF . For the molecular detection, DNA was extracted using MolYsis complete5 (Molzym, Germany). The V1-3 region of 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified with bacterial primers 27F and 534R (30 cycles) and paired-end sequenced on Miseq DNA sequencer (v3 chemistry, 2×300 bp). Paired-end reads...

  4. Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Haas, de E.M.; Maas, H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bioassays are widely used to estimate ecological risks of contaminated sediments. We compared the results of three whole sediment bioassays, using the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus, and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. We used sediments from sixteen locations in t

  5. Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Haas, de E.M.; Maas, H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bioassays are widely used to estimate ecological risks of contaminated sediments. We compared the results of three whole sediment bioassays, using the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus, and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. We used sediments from sixteen locations in

  6. Heritability of resistance to infestation with the body louse, Bovicola ovis, in Romney sheep bred for differences in resistance or resilience to gastro-intestinal nematode parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, A; Morris, C A; Green, R S; Wheeler, M; Shu, D; Bisset, S A; Vlassoff, A

    2007-12-01

    The inheritance of resistance to louse infestation and the related allergic skin disease, cockle, was examined in Romney lambs. The lambs used in the study were the 2001- and 2004-born progeny of four experimental breeding lines ("Resistant", "Susceptible", "Resilient" and "Control") developed as part of a long-term study of the genetics of host resistance (maintenance of low faecal egg count (FEC) under nematode challenge) or resilience (maintenance of health and productivity under nematode challenge irrespective of FEC) to nematode parasites in sheep. Between 13 and 22 progeny (equally distributed between males and females, where possible) from each of five sires in each line were selected each year for this trial. All lambs (n=701) were examined for lice (Bovicola ovis) before artificial infestation; in 2001 the lambs were free of natural infestation, whilst in 2004 naturally acquired infestation was evident. In November 2001 and May 2002, approximately 60 B. ovis were transferred to each lamb, followed by monitoring at approximately 2-monthly intervals until August 2002. Similar procedures, but with fewer monitoring times, were repeated on the 2004 lambs. Overall, lambs in the Control line were significantly more susceptible to louse infestation and cockle compared with those in the other three lines (Pestimates were similar to those obtained for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in these breeding lines, using log-transformed FECs. Heritability estimates for cockle score in autumn, winter and when combined were 0.06 (SE 0.04), 0.45 (SE 0.09) and 0.40 (SE 0.09), respectively. The genetic correlations of mean log-transformed louse score with mean cockle score and levels of two different louse antigens in wool were, respectively, 0.97 (SE 0.04), 0.96 (SE 0.08) and 0.95 (SE 0.09). However, there was no significant genetic correlation between louse scores and FEC. These results suggest that selective breeding would be effective in reducing louse infestation

  7. Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Delli Pizzi, Patricia; Di Giulio, Mara; Grande, Rossella; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-11-01

    Head lice infestation is an emerging social problem in undeveloped and developed countries. Because of louse resistance increasing, several long-used insecticidal compounds have lost their efficacy, and alternatives, such as essential oils, have been proposed to treat this parasitic infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of two natural substances: tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) against lice and its eggs. Products were used alone and in combination (ratio 1:1 and 1:2) from 8 % dilution. The in vitro effect of natural substances at different concentrations were evaluated against 69 head lice (adults and nymphs) and 187 louse eggs collected from school children in Chieti-Pescara (Central Italy) over a 6-month period. The lice mortality was evaluated for 24 h by a stereo light microscope. The ovicidal activity was monitored by microscopic inspections for 15 days. Tea tree oil was more effective than nerolidol against head lice with 100 % mortality at 30 min and 1 % concentration. On the contrary, nerolidol expressed a more pronounced ovicidal activity inducing the failure of 50 % of the eggs to hatch at 1 % concentration after 4 days; the same effect was achieved by using a twice concentration of tea tree oil. The association of the two substances both in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 combined efficaciously their insecticidal and ovicidal effect; in particular, the ratio 1:2 (tea tree oil 0.5 % plus nerolidol 1 %) acted producing both the death of all head lice at 30 min and the abortive effect of louse eggs after 5 days. These results offer new potential application of natural compounds and display a promising scenario in the treatment of pediculosis resistant cases. The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation.

  8. Laboratory and clinical trials of cocamide diethanolamine lotion against head lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Burgess

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Context. During the late 1990s, insecticide resistance had rendered a number of treatment products ineffective; some companies saw this as an opportunity to develop alternative types of treatment. We investigated the possibility that a surfactant-based lotion containing 10% cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA was effective to eliminate head louse infestation.Settings and Design. Initial in vitro testing of the lotion formulation versus laboratory reared body/clothing lice, followed by two randomised, controlled, community-based, assessor blinded, clinical studies.Materials and Methods. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed by exposing lice or louse eggs to the product using a method that mimicked the intended use. Clinical Study 1: Children and adults with confirmed head louse infestation were treated by investigators using a single application of aqueous 10% cocamide DEA lotion applied for 60 min followed by shampooing or a single 1% permethrin creme rinse treatment applied to pre-washed hair for 10 min. Clinical Study 2: Compared two treatment regimens using 10% cocamide DEA lotion that was concentrated by hair drying. A single application left on for 8 h/overnight was compared with two applications 7 days apart of 2 h duration, followed by a shampoo wash.Results. The initial laboratory tests showed a pediculicidal effect for a 60 min application but limited ovicidal effect. A longer application time of 8 h or overnight was found capable of killing all eggs but this differed between batches of test material. Clinical Study 1: Both treatments performed badly with only 3/23 (13% successful treatments using cocamide DEA and 5/25 (23.8% using permethrin. Clinical Study 2: The single overnight application of cocamide DEA concentrated by hair drying gave 10/56 (17.9% successes compared with 19/56 (33.9% for the 2 h application regimen repeated after 1 week. Intention to treat analysis showed no significant difference (p = 0.0523 between the

  9. Laboratory and clinical trials of cocamide diethanolamine lotion against head lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Elizabeth R.; Brown, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. During the late 1990s, insecticide resistance had rendered a number of treatment products ineffective; some companies saw this as an opportunity to develop alternative types of treatment. We investigated the possibility that a surfactant-based lotion containing 10% cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA) was effective to eliminate head louse infestation. Settings and Design. Initial in vitro testing of the lotion formulation versus laboratory reared body/clothing lice, followed by two randomised, controlled, community-based, assessor blinded, clinical studies. Materials and Methods. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed by exposing lice or louse eggs to the product using a method that mimicked the intended use. Clinical Study 1: Children and adults with confirmed head louse infestation were treated by investigators using a single application of aqueous 10% cocamide DEA lotion applied for 60 min followed by shampooing or a single 1% permethrin creme rinse treatment applied to pre-washed hair for 10 min. Clinical Study 2: Compared two treatment regimens using 10% cocamide DEA lotion that was concentrated by hair drying. A single application left on for 8 h/overnight was compared with two applications 7 days apart of 2 h duration, followed by a shampoo wash. Results. The initial laboratory tests showed a pediculicidal effect for a 60 min application but limited ovicidal effect. A longer application time of 8 h or overnight was found capable of killing all eggs but this differed between batches of test material. Clinical Study 1: Both treatments performed badly with only 3/23 (13%) successful treatments using cocamide DEA and 5/25 (23.8%) using permethrin. Clinical Study 2: The single overnight application of cocamide DEA concentrated by hair drying gave 10/56 (17.9%) successes compared with 19/56 (33.9%) for the 2 h application regimen repeated after 1 week. Intention to treat analysis showed no significant difference (p = 0.0523) between the treatments

  10. RNA-Seq analysis using de novo transcriptome assembly as a reference for the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gallardo-Escárate

    Full Text Available Despite the economic and environmental impacts that sea lice infestations have on salmon farming worldwide, genomic data generated by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing for different developmental stages, sexes, and strains of sea lice is still limited or unknown. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was performed using de novo transcriptome assembly as a reference for evidenced transcriptional changes from six developmental stages of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. EST-datasets were generated from the nauplius I, nauplius II, copepodid and chalimus stages and from female and male adults using MiSeq Illumina sequencing. A total of 151,788,682 transcripts were yielded, which were assembled into 83,444 high quality contigs and subsequently annotated into roughly 24,000 genes based on known proteins. To identify differential transcription patterns among salmon louse stages, cluster analyses were performed using normalized gene expression values. Herein, four clusters were differentially expressed between nauplius I-II and copepodid stages (604 transcripts, five clusters between copepodid and chalimus stages (2,426 transcripts, and six clusters between female and male adults (2,478 transcripts. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the nauplius I-II, copepodid and chalimus stages are mainly annotated to aminoacid transfer/repair/breakdown, metabolism, molting cycle, and nervous system development. Additionally, genes showing differential transcription in female and male adults were highly related to cytoskeletal and contractile elements, reproduction, cell development, morphogenesis, and transcription-translation processes. The data presented in this study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource available for C. rogercresseyi, which should be used for future genomic studies linked to host-parasite interactions.

  11. [Louse-borne-relapsing-fever in refugees from the Horn of Africa; a case series of 25 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Wieser, A; Fingerle, V; Balzer, L; Fenzl, T; Hoch, M; von Both, U; Schmidt, H U; Wendtner, C M; Strobel, E

    2016-07-01

    Background | Relapsing fever is divided into tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF). This report describes 25 refugees from East Africa who were diagnosed to suffer from LBRF within a period of 6 month only at a single hospital in Munich / Germany. Material & Methods | The aim was to point out common clinical features as well as laboratory findings and clinical symptoms before and after initiation of treatment in 25 patients with louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF) who were diagnosed and treated at Klinikum München Schwabing from August 2015 to January 2016. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest case series of LBRF in the western world for decades. Main focus of the investigation was put on clinical aspects. Results | All 25 patients suffered from acute onset of high fever with chills, headache and severe prostration. Laboratory analysis showed high CRP and a marked thrombocytopenia. A Giemsa blood stain was procured immediately in order to look for malaria. In the blood smear spirochetes with typical shape and aspect of borrelia species could be detected.The further PCR analysis confirmed infection with Borrelia recurrentis. Treatment with Doxycycline was started forthwith. The condition improved already on the second day after treatment was started and all were restored to health in less than a week. Apart from a mild to moderate Jarisch-Herxheimer-reaction we didn`t see any side effects of the therapy. Conclusion | LBRF has to be taken into account in feverish patients who come as refugees from East-Africa. It seems that our patients belong to a cluster which probably has its origin in Libya and more patients are to be expected in the near future. As LBRF might cause outbreaks in refugee camps it is pivotal to be aware of this emerging infectious disease in refugees from East-Africa. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Vinhos em Terras de Chanfana: A Viabilidade do Turismo de Gastronomia e Vinhos nos concelhos de Miranda de Corvo e de Lousã

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Larise Ely Soares dos

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Lazer, Património e Desenvolvimento apresentada à Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra. Este trabalho visa avaliar fundamentalmente a valorização da oferta gastronómica e vinícola no âmbito do Turismo nos concelhos de Miranda de Corvo e de Lousã. Miranda de Corvo é conhecida por ser a capital e berço da Chanfana, e também pelo Vinho de Lamas. Por sua vez, a Lousã, para além de partilhar a mesma tradição gastronómica, apresenta-se com o vinho da Quinta d...

  13. Fault feature extraction of automotive engine camshaft bearing loosening%车用发动机凸轮轴轴承松脱的故障特征提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻菲菲; 杜灿谊

    2015-01-01

    Automotive engine camshaft bearing loosening fault will cause impact force because of uneven stress on camshaft , so abnormal vibration and noise appear on the body surface near the camshaft .By the test for engine camshaft bearing loosening fault,vibration acceleration signal of cylinder head is collected to analyze in time domain ,cyclical shock can be seen .Then wave-let packet decomposition method is used to decompose the signal and demodulation analysis is applied to higher frequency band signal,fault excitation frequency in the demodulation spectrum is very obvious .The analysis result shows that camshaft bearing loosening fault would cause mid-high frequency modulation phenomenon ,it could extract the corresponding fault feature by com-positely using time domain analysis ,frequency spectrum analysis and wavelet packer decomposition and demodulation analysis .%车用发动机凸轮轴轴承松脱故障使得凸轮轴受力不均而引起冲击力,导致凸轮轴附近机体表面出现异常振动和显著噪声。通过对某发动机凸轮轴轴承松脱故障的试验测试,提取缸盖振动加速度信号进行时域分析,发现有明显的周期性冲击;利用小波包分解至较高频段并做解调分析,解调谱的故障激励频率非常显著。分析结果表明,凸轮轴轴承松脱故障有中高频调制现象,可综合利用时域分析、频谱分析和小波包分解与解调分析进行相应的故障特征提取。

  14. Impalement wounds of the head and chest by reinforced steel bars with recovery: an unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumori, M; Futamura, A; Tsukuura, T; Konno, S; Kuramochi, K; Kaya, S; Yamada, F

    1981-03-01

    A 31-year-old male who sustained completely penetrating impalement wounds of the head and chest by reinforced steel bars in a fall at a ferroconcrete building construction with a miraculous survival is reported. The bars were successfully removed; a surgical mallet was required to loosen the bar impacted in the patient's head. After 12 days he was discharged, and he has returned to construction work and is well 3 years postinjury.

  15. Aseptic loosening rate of megaprostheses and related factors%肿瘤型人工关节假体无菌性松动率及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖何; 牛晓辉

    2014-01-01

    With the development of chemotherapy, imaging, surgical techniques and material science, limb-salvage has become a widely accepted concept in the treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors. Prosthetic reconstruction after tumor segment resection has become a common operation method. In the history, there appeared many kinds of materials for the reconstruction after the resection of tumors. The megaprosthesis has a history of more than 60 years, and has become the mainstream now, with many advantages over the other reconstruction materials. The aseptic loosening of megaprotheses is a common postoperative complication and also a prominent cause of prosthesis failure. How high is the aseptic loosening rate? Will the rate be affected by such factors as the patient’s age, gender, disease category, implantation site, reconstruction length, chemotherapy and so on? Will the rate be obviously reduced due to the improvement of megaprotheses? These questions are worth researching. The aseptic loosening rate of megaprostheses and related factors are reviewed in this article based on previous studies. According to previous reports, many factors concerning the patient and the prosthesis have an impact on the aseptic loosening rate. The clear and deifnite related factors included the implantation site, porous coating in the collar, type of articulation, age at the time of surgery and reconstruction length, and the gender and disease category are irrelevant factors. As to the size of intramedullary stem, ifxation mode, modular/custom and chemotherapy, their correlation with the aseptic loosening rate is still unclear.

  16. Transcriptome-Wide High-Density Microarray Analysis Reveals Differential Gene Transcription in Periprosthetic Tissue From Hips With Chronic Periprosthetic Joint Infection vs Aseptic Loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed; Klawonn, Frank; Brand, Stephan; Stiesch, Meike; Krettek, Christian; Eberhard, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Differentiating between periprosthetic hip infection and aseptic hip prosthesis loosening can be challenging, especially in patients with chronic infections. This study used whole-genome microarray analysis to investigate the transcriptomes of periprosthetic hip tissues to identify genes that are differentially transcripted between chronic periprosthetic hip infection and aseptic hip prosthesis loosening. In this pilot study, a total of 24 patients with either chronic periprosthetic hip infection (n = 12) or aseptic hip prosthesis loosening (n = 12) were analyzed. Periprosthetic hip infection was diagnosed based on modified criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. To evaluate differences in gene transcription, whole-genome microarray analysis was performed on the mRNA of periprosthetic tissue. Microarray analysis revealed differential gene transcription in periprosthetic hip tissue affected by chronic hip infection vs aseptic hip prosthesis loosening. A total of 39 genes had area under the curve values greater than 0.9 for diagnosing chronic periprosthetic hip infection; 5 genes had annotations relevant to infection and metabolism. The 39 genes also included 7 genes that were differentially transcribed but that have no apparent connection to immune response processes plus 27 genes with unknown function. Differences in gene transcription profiles might represent novel diagnostic targets that can be used to differentiate between chronic periprosthetic hip infections and aseptic hip prosthesis loosening. Secondary metabolites of differentially transcripted genes might serve as easily accessible markers for detecting chronic periprosthetic joint infection in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Lumbar Lordosis on Screw Loosening in Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization: Four-Year Follow-Up with Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS on clinical and radiographic outcomes, including spinal pelvic alignment. Method. Consecutive patients who underwent 1- or 2-level DDS for lumbar spondylosis, mild degenerative spondylolisthesis, or degenerative disc disease were included. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. Radiographic outcomes were assessed by radiographs and computed tomography. Pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (LL were also compared. Results. In 206 patients with an average follow-up of 51.1 ± 20.8 months, there were 87 screws (8.2% in 42 patients (20.4% that were loose. All clinical outcomes improved at each time point after operation. Patients with loosened screws were 45 years older. Furthermore, there was a higher risk of screw loosening in DDS involving S1, and these patients were more likely to have loosened screws if the LL failed to increase after the operation. Conclusions. The DDS screw loosening rate was overall 8.2% per screw and 20.4% per patient at more than 4 years of follow-up. Older patients, S1 involvement, and those patients who failed to gain LL postoperatively were at higher risk of screw loosening.

  18. The Effect of Lumbar Lordosis on Screw Loosening in Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization: Four-Year Follow-Up with Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Fay, Li-Yu; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS) on clinical and radiographic outcomes, including spinal pelvic alignment. Consecutive patients who underwent 1- or 2-level DDS for lumbar spondylosis, mild degenerative spondylolisthesis, or degenerative disc disease were included. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores. Radiographic outcomes were assessed by radiographs and computed tomography. Pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (LL) were also compared. In 206 patients with an average follow-up of 51.1 ± 20.8 months, there were 87 screws (8.2%) in 42 patients (20.4%) that were loose. All clinical outcomes improved at each time point after operation. Patients with loosened screws were 45 years older. Furthermore, there was a higher risk of screw loosening in DDS involving S1, and these patients were more likely to have loosened screws if the LL failed to increase after the operation. The DDS screw loosening rate was overall 8.2% per screw and 20.4% per patient at more than 4 years of follow-up. Older patients, S1 involvement, and those patients who failed to gain LL postoperatively were at higher risk of screw loosening.

  19. The metal nanoparticle-induced inflammatory response is regulated by SIRT1 through NF-κB deacetylation in aseptic loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhantao; Jin, Jiewen; Wang, Zhenheng; Wang, Yong; Gao, Qian; Zhao, Jianning

    2017-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is the most common cause of total hip arthroplasty (THA) failure, and osteolysis induced by wear particles plays a major role in aseptic loosening. Various pathways in multiple cell types contribute to the pathogenesis of osteolysis, but the role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which can regulate inflammatory responses through its deacetylation, has never been investigated. We hypothesized that the downregulation of SIRT1 in macrophages induced by metal nanoparticles was one of the reasons for osteolysis in THA failure. In this study, the expression of SIRT1 was examined in macrophages stimulated with metal nanoparticles from materials used in prosthetics and in specimens from patients suffering from aseptic loosening. To address whether SIRT1 downregulation triggers these inflammatory responses, the effects of the SIRT1 activator resveratrol on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in metal nanoparticle-stimulated macrophages were tested. The results demonstrated that SIRT1 expression was significantly downregulated in metal nanoparticle-stimulated macrophages and clinical specimens of prosthesis loosening. Pharmacological activation of SIRT1 dramatically reduced the particle-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in vitro and osteolysis in vivo. Furthermore, SIRT1 regulated particle-induced inflammatory responses through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) acetylation. Thus, the results of this study suggest that SIRT1 plays a key role in metal nanoparticle-induced inflammatory responses and that targeting the SIRT1 pathway may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of aseptic prosthesis loosening.

  20. Xyloglucan Antibodies Inhibit Auxin-Induced Elongation and Cell Wall Loosening of Azuki Bean Epicotyls but Not of Oat Coleoptiles 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Masuda, Yoshio; Sone, Yoshiaki; Misaki, Akira

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against isoprimeverose (Xyl1Glc1), xyloglucan heptasaccharides (Xyl3Glc4), and octasaccharides (Gal1Xyl3Glc4). Antibodies specific for hepta- and octasaccharides suppressed auxin-induced elongation of epicotyl segments of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi and Ohashi cv Takara). These antibodies also inhibited auxin-induced cell wall loosening (decrease in the minimum stress-relaxation time and the relaxation rate of the cell walls) of azuki segments. However, none of the antibodies influenced auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of coleoptile segments of oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory). Auxin caused a decrease in molecular mass of xyloglucans in the cell walls of azuki epicotyls and oat coleoptiles. The antibodies inhibited such a change in molecular mass of xyloglucans in both species. Preimmune serum exhibited little or no inhibitory effect on auxin-induced elongation, cell wall loosening, or breakdown of xyloglucans. The results support the view that the breakdown of xyloglucans is associated with the cell wall loosening responsible for auxin-induced elongation in dicotyledons. The view does not appear to be applicable to poaceae, because the inhibition of xyloglucan breakdown by the antibodies did not influence auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of oat coleoptiles. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668221

  1. Efficacy of a grapefruit extract on head lice: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Twenty children aging 2-9 years old--four boys with short hair and 16 girls with long hair--were included in a clinical test on the efficacy of a product against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Their hair were exposed to Licatack, which is a recently developed new anti-louse medicinal product containing extracts of grapefruits besides high quality shampoo components. Prior to this field trial, the product Licatack was tested dermatologically to be skin safe receiving the grade "very good". The children's mothers combed the kids prior to the start of the test in order to confirm that they were all lice-infested. The obtained lice were used for in vitro tests. All children were heavily infested. After combing and preservation of the living lice, the hair was wet with tap water. Then, 50 ml of the Licatack shampoo was placed onto the top of each child's head. Then, the mothers distributed the rather fluid product all over the hair thoroughly from their base at the skin until the free end. During this process, a type of massage, the product became foamy and it was easily recognized where the product covered the hair, thus, avoiding untreated spots. The hair of half of the treated children were washed with tap water after 10 min of exposition; while in the other half of the children, the exposition period was prolonged to 20 min before washing. When combing the kids with a metal louse comb after the washing, the lice were found immobile and they did not recover during the following observation period of 4 h. Only two lice from the group with an exposition time of only 10 min showed some slight leg movements after they had been combed off, but they died within the next 2 h. Thus, this new anti-louse medicinal product has a very quick and efficient activity besides its advantages of being non-inflammable, skin safe, and nice smelling. None of the kids claimed any burning at the skin or other side effects, although the skin showed, prior to treatment, lots of scars

  2. One-year results of cemented bipolar radial head prostheses for comminuted radial head fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laun, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comminuted radial head fractures (Mason type III continue to pose a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. When internal fixation is not possible, radial head arthroplasty has been advocated as the treatment of choice. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical and radiological short-term results of patients with Mason type III radial head fractures treated with a cemented bipolar radial prosthesis. Methods: Twelve patients received cemented bipolar radial head hemiarthroplasty for comminuted radial head fractures. In all patients a CT scan was obtained prior to surgical treatment to assess all associated injuries. Postoperatively an early motion protocol was applied. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically at an average of 12.7 months.Results: According to the Mayo Modified Wrist Score, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the functional rating index of Broberg and Morrey, and the DASH Score good to excellent results were obtained. Grip strength and range of motion were almost at the level of the unaffected contralateral side. Patient satisfaction was high, no instability or signs of loosening of the implant, and only mild signs of osteoarthritis were seen.Conclusion: Overall good to excellent short-term results for primary arthroplasty for comminuted radial head fractures were observed. These encouraging results warrant the conduction of further studies with long-term follow-up and more cases to see if these short-term results can be maintained over time.

  3. Statistical time series methods for damage diagnosis in a scale aircraft skeleton structure: loosened bolts damage scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis P; Fassois, Spilios D, E-mail: fkopsaf@mech.upatras.gr, E-mail: fassois@mech.upatras.gr [Stochastic Mechanical Systems and Automation (SMSA) Laboratory Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering University of Patras, GR 265 00 Patras (Greece)

    2011-07-19

    A comparative assessment of several vibration based statistical time series methods for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is presented via their application to a scale aircraft skeleton laboratory structure. A brief overview of the methods, which are either scalar or vector type, non-parametric or parametric, and pertain to either the response-only or excitation-response cases, is provided. Damage diagnosis, including both the detection and identification subproblems, is tackled via scalar or vector vibration signals. The methods' effectiveness is assessed via repeated experiments under various damage scenarios, with each scenario corresponding to the loosening of one or more selected bolts. The results of the study confirm the 'global' damage detection capability and effectiveness of statistical time series methods for SHM.

  4. Metal is not inert: role of metal ions released by biocorrosion in aseptic loosening--current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadosch, Dieter; Chan, Erwin; Gautschi, Oliver P; Filgueira, Luis

    2009-12-15

    Metal implants are essential therapeutic tools for the treatment of bone fractures and joint replacements. The metals and metal alloys used in contemporary orthopedic and trauma surgery are well tolerated by the majority of patients. However, complications resulting from inflammatory and immune reactions to metal implants have been well documented. This review briefly discusses the different mechanisms of metal implant corrosion in the human body, which lead to the release of significant levels of metal ions into the peri-implant tissues and the systemic blood circulation. Additionally, this article reviews the effects of the released ions on bone metabolism and the immune system and discusses their involvement in the pathophysiological mechanisms of aseptic loosening and metal hypersensitivity in patients with metal implants.

  5. Quantification of BaSO{sub 4} and polyacetal wear particles in the periprosthetic tissue around loosened isoelastic hip stems by nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazar, K. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloska 9, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kavcic, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si; Smit, Z. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jacimovic, R. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Antolic, V. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloska 9, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Coer, A. [Institute for Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of the biologically active wear particles in the periprosthetic tissue around loosened polyacetal isoelastic stems to find the pattern of their distribution in the periprosthetic tissue and determine their origin. Proton microbeam measurements of thin tissue sections enabled us identification and quantified elemental analysis of individual wear particles in the tissue. The Ba concentration measured on the wear particles matches the Ba concentration measured with in-air PIXE on the polyacetal stem directly proving the origin of the wear particles which suppose to play a decisive biological role in the process of premature aseptic loosening of polyacetal stems.

  6. Management of peri-prosthetic fracture of the humerus with severe bone loss and loosening of the humeral component after total shoulder replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, M D; Kang, S N; Al-Hadithy, N; Higgs, D S; Bayley, I; Falworth, M; Lambert, S M

    2012-10-01

    There is little information about the management of peri-prosthetic fracture of the humerus after total shoulder replacement (TSR). This is a retrospective review of 22 patients who underwent a revision of their original shoulder replacement for peri-prosthetic fracture of the humerus with bone loss and/or loose components. There were 20 women and two men with a mean age of 75 years (61 to 90) and a mean follow-up 42 months (12 to 91): 16 of these had undergone a previous revision TSR. Of the 22 patients, 12 were treated with a long-stemmed humeral component that bypassed the fracture. All their fractures united after a mean of 27 weeks (13 to 94). Eight patients underwent resection of the proximal humerus with endoprosthetic replacement to the level of the fracture. Two patients were managed with a clam-shell prosthesis that retained the original components. The mean Oxford shoulder score (OSS) of the original TSRs before peri-prosthetic fracture was 33 (14 to 48). The mean OSS after revision for fracture was 25 (9 to 31). Kaplan-Meier survival using re-intervention for any reason as the endpoint was 91% (95% confidence interval (CI) 68 to 98) and 60% (95% CI 30 to 80) at one and five years, respectively. There were two revisions for dislocation of the humeral head, one open reduction for modular humeral component dissociation, one internal fixation for nonunion, one trimming of a prominent screw and one re-cementation for aseptic loosening complicated by infection, ultimately requiring excision arthroplasty. Two patients sustained nerve palsies. Revision TSR after a peri-prosthetic humeral fracture associated with bone loss and/or loose components is a salvage procedure that can provide a stable platform for elbow and hand function. Good rates of union can be achieved using a stem that bypasses the fracture. There is a high rate of complications and function is not as good as with the original replacement.

  7. Large head metal-on-metal cementless total hip arthroplasty versus 28mm metal-on-polyethylene cementless total hip arthroplasty : design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P.; Bos, Nanne; van Raaij, Jos J. A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis of the hip is successfully treated by total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-polyethylene articulation. Polyethylene wear debris can however lead to osteolysis, aseptic loosening and failure of the implant. Large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty may overcome polyet

  8. Unlocking the black box of feather louse diversity: A molecular phylogeny of the hyper-diverse genus Brueelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah E; Weckstein, Jason D; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Allen, Julie; DiBlasi, Emily; Shreve, Scott M; Boldt, Rachel; Skeen, Heather R; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    Songbirds host one of the largest, and most poorly understood, groups of lice: the Brueelia-complex. The Brueelia-complex contains nearly one-tenth of all known louse species (Phthiraptera), and the genus Brueelia has over 300 species. To date, revisions have been confounded by extreme morphological variation, convergent evolution, and periodic movement of lice between unrelated hosts. Here we use Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (EF-1α) gene fragments to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among 333 individuals within the Brueelia-complex. We show that the genus Brueelia, as it is currently recognized, is paraphyletic. Many well-supported and morphologically unified clades within our phylogenetic reconstruction of Brueelia were previously described as genera. These genera should be recognized, and the erection of several new genera should be explored. We show that four distinct ecomorphs have evolved repeatedly within the Brueelia-complex, mirroring the evolutionary history of feather-lice across the entire order. We show that lice in the Brueelia-complex, with some notable exceptions, are extremely host specific and that the host family associations and geographic distributions of these lice are significantly correlated with our understanding of their phylogenetic history. Several ecological phenomena, including phoresis, may be responsible for the macroevolutionary patterns in this diverse group.

  9. Neem seed extract shampoo, Wash Away Louse, an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sobhy, Hassan; Semmler, Margit

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of water-free neem seed extract shampoo Wash Away Louse, provided by Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany), was investigated against Sarcoptes scabiei infesting dogs in Egypt. Ten naturally infested dogs were collected from different areas in the Nile delta. The occurrence of lesions, hair loss, and skin inflammation were regarded as signs of infestation and proved by detection of adult parasites and their developmental stages in scrapings of infested lesions. Adequate amount of the provided shampoo was applied topically and spread on the infested areas daily for 14 successive days. Scraping examinations were used to follow up the healing process. At day 7 of application, four dogs were completely free of mites as was proven by the disappearance of adults and/or any developmental stages of mites. The remaining six dogs showed a clear decrease in mite counts. By the end of the treatment (after 14 days), only a small number of mites were found in two dogs, while eight dogs were completely cured as was proven by mite counts and disappearance of clinical signs. No remarkable signs of side effects or adverse reactions were observed throughout the study.

  10. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... object that's stuck in the wound. previous continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

  11. Head Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... When this happens, the neck muscles go into spasm, causing the head to tilt to one side. ...

  12. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: Baseball Concussions Concussions: Getting Better Sports and Concussions Dealing ...

  13. Head MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart valves Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) implants Kidney disease or dialysis (you may not ... to: Abnormal blood vessels in the brain ( arteriovenous malformations of the head ) Tumor of the nerve that ...

  14. Probability of mechanical loosening of the femoral component in high flexion total knee arthroplasty can be reduced by rather simple surgical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Groes, S.A.W.; De Waal Malefijt, M.C.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some follow-up studies of highflexion total knee arthoplasties report disturbingly high incidences of femoral component loosening. Femoral implantfixation is dependant on two interfaces: the cement–implant and the cement–bone interface. The present finite-element model (FEM) is the first

  15. Probability of mechanical loosening of the femoral component in high flexion total knee arthroplasty can be reduced by rather simple surgical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groes, S.A.W. van de; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some follow-up studies of high flexion total knee arthoplasties report disturbingly high incidences of femoral component loosening. Femoral implant fixation is dependant on two interfaces: the cement-implant and the cement-bone interface. The present finite-element model (FEM) is the

  16. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhipeng [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tian, Meng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Li [Department of Oncology, the 452 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Chengdu 610021 (China); Yu, Xixun, E-mail: yuxixun@163.com [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening. - Highlights: • SCPP/UHMWPE composites could enhance biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. • SCPP would improve biological efficacy with a few sacrifice of wear resistance. • The results might provide a promising wear-resistant material for fabricating acetabular cup.

  17. Interleukin-6 in serum and in synovial fluid enhances the differentiation between periprosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Randau

    Full Text Available The preoperative differentiation between septic and aseptic loosening after total hip or knee arthroplasty is essential for successful therapy and relies in part on biomarkers. The objective of this study was to assess synovial and serum levels of inflammatory proteins as diagnostic tool for periprosthetic joint infection and compare their accuracy with standard tests. 120 patients presenting with a painful knee or hip endoprosthesis for surgical revision were included in this prospective trial. Blood samples and samples of intraoperatively acquired joint fluid aspirate were collected. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin-6 were determined. The joint aspirate was analyzed for total leukocyte count and IL-6. The definite diagnosis of PJI was determined on the basis of purulent synovial fluid, histopathology and microbiology. IL-6 in serum showed significantly higher values in the PJI group as compared to aseptic loosening and control, with specificity at 58.3% and a sensitivity of 79.5% at a cut-off value of 2.6 pg/ml. With a cut-off >6.6 pg/ml, the specificity increased to 88.3%. IL-6 in joint aspirate had, at a cut-off of >2100 pg/ml, a specificity of 85.7% and sensitivity of 59.4%. At levels >9000 pg/ml, specificity was almost at 100% with sensitivity just below 50%, so PJI could be considered proven with IL-6 levels above this threshold. Our data supports the published results on IL-6 as a biomarker in PJI. In our large prospective cohort of revision arthroplasty patients, the use of IL-6 in synovial fluid appears to be a more accurate marker than either the white blood cell count or the C-reactive protein level in serum for the detection of periprosthetic joint infection. On the basis of the results we recommend the use of the synovial fluid biomarker IL-6 for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty.

  18. Developmental dysplasia of the hip, age, BMI, place of residence and tobacco abuse increase the odds of aseptic loosening in Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlong Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this hospital-based case-control study was to evaluate the patient-related risk factors for aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty (THA and total knee arthroplasty (TKA in Chinese patients. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2012, 67 patients undergoing THA and TKA who developed aseptic loosening were detected as case subjects and 336 patients without aseptic loosening, matched by the year of index surgery and type of surgery, were selected as controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: The demographic factors and comorbid conditions associated with a risk-adjusted increase in aseptic loosening (in decreasing order of significance were a rural place of residence (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.21-4.30; p = 0.011, body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2 (vs. 18.5-28 kg/m(2 (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.19-4.41; p = 0.013, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.11-7.66; p = 0.030, tobacco abuse (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.05-7.89; p = 0.039, and age <45 years (vs. 45-65 years (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.01-6.80; p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: Patients aged <45 years and those with a BMI of ≥ 28 kg/m(2, a preoperative diagnosis of DDH, history of tobacco abuse, or living in rural areas are at increased risk for aseptic loosening after THA and TKA in Chinese population. Additional systematic large-scale studies are needed to verify these results.

  19. Loosening of the total knee arthroplasty: detection by radionuclide bone scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, J.C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.

    1980-07-01

    Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.

  20. Structural health monitoring for bolt loosening via a non-invasive vibro-haptics human-machine cooperative interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekedis, Mahmut; Mascerañas, David; Turan, Gursoy; Ercan, Emre; Farrar, Charles R.; Yildiz, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    For the last two decades, developments in damage detection algorithms have greatly increased the potential for autonomous decisions about structural health. However, we are still struggling to build autonomous tools that can match the ability of a human to detect and localize the quantity of damage in structures. Therefore, there is a growing interest in merging the computational and cognitive concepts to improve the solution of structural health monitoring (SHM). The main object of this research is to apply the human-machine cooperative approach on a tower structure to detect damage. The cooperation approach includes haptic tools to create an appropriate collaboration between SHM sensor networks, statistical compression techniques and humans. Damage simulation in the structure is conducted by releasing some of the bolt loads. Accelerometers are bonded to various locations of the tower members to acquire the dynamic response of the structure. The obtained accelerometer results are encoded in three different ways to represent them as a haptic stimulus for the human subjects. Then, the participants are subjected to each of these stimuli to detect the bolt loosened damage in the tower. Results obtained from the human-machine cooperation demonstrate that the human subjects were able to recognize the damage with an accuracy of 88 ± 20.21% and response time of 5.87 ± 2.33 s. As a result, it is concluded that the currently developed human-machine cooperation SHM may provide a useful framework to interact with abstract entities such as data from a sensor network.

  1. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lindh

    Full Text Available The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice and "hårlöss" (lice in hair were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001 when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689. In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  2. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Johan; Magnusson, Måns; Grünewald, Maria; Hulth, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice) and "hårlöss" (lice in hair) were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (pGoogle series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689). In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  3. Bioactivity of Argentinean essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT(50) values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed.

  4. Aquaporin family genes exhibit developmentally-regulated and host-dependent transcription patterns in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that function as pore channels for the transport of water and other small solutes across the cell membrane. Considering the important roles of these proteins in several biological processes, including host-parasite interactions, there has been increased research on aquaporin proteins recently. The present study expands on the knowledge of aquaporin family genes in parasitic copepods, examining diversity and expression during the ontogeny of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Furthermore, aquaporin expression was evaluated during the early infestation of Atlantic (Salmo salar) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed eight full length and two partial open reading frames belonging to the aquaporin protein family. Clustering analyses with identified Caligidae sequences revealed three major clades of aquaglyceroporins (Cr-Glp), classical aquaporin channels (Cr-Bib and Cr-PripL), and unorthodox aquaporins (Cr-Aqp12-like). In silico analysis revealed differential expression of aquaporin genes between developmental stages and between sexes. Male-biased expression of Cr-Glp1_v1 and female-biased expression of Cr-Bib were further confirmed in adults by RT-qPCR. Additionally, gene expressions were measured for seven aquaporins during the early infestation stage. The majority of aquaporin genes showed significant differential transcription expressions between sea lice parasitizing different hosts, with Atlantic salmon sea lice exhibiting overall reduced expression as compared to Coho salmon. The observed differences in the regulation of aquaporin genes may reveal osmoregulatory adaptations associated with nutrient ingestion and metabolite waste export, exposing complex host-parasite relationships in C. rogercresseyi.

  5. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  6. Loosening After Acetabular Revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Nicholas A.; Weiss, Stefan; Klotz, Matthias C.M.;

    2014-01-01

    The best method of revision acetabular arthroplasty remains unclear. Consequently, we reviewed the literature on the treatment of revision acetabular arthroplasty using revision rings (1541 cases; mean follow-up (FU) 5.7 years) and Trabecular Metal, or TM, implants (1959 cases; mean FU 3.7 years)...

  7. Daily number of bee louse (Braula coeca) in honey bee (Apis mellifera camica and A. m. syriaca) colonies maintained under semi-arid conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahera Zaitoun; Abd AI-Majeed AI-Ghzawi

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work was conducted at two apiaries located in Irbid district and in Shuna North, Jordan, during the years 2004-2006. The aims of these investigations were to estimate the seasonal changes in the infestation rates of the bee louse (Braula sp.) and to develop an easy and rapid method of estimating the infestation rate on workers with bee Braula. Two major honey bee subspecies are reared in Jordan; Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera syriaca were used in this study. The results showed that the infestation rate began to increase rapidly in May, reaching the season's maximum rate of 16.2%, 15.8% and 17.4% forA. ra. carnica and 22.6%, 23.9% and 22.9% forA. m. syr/aca in December of 2004,2005 and 2006, respectively. The maximum adult numbers of bees were found in April and June, whereas the minimum for the year was in January in both honey bee subspecies colonies during the study period. The actual population of the bee louse could be estimated by counting the daily dropped lice and multiplying by a factor of 158. This factor is valid for the experimental colonies of both subspecies kept for 3 years under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions.

  8. Loosening torque of prosthetic screws in metal-ceramic or metal-acrylic resin implant-supported dentures with different misfit levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Ataís; Paludo, Litiane; Ferraz Mesquita, Marcelo; Schuh, Christian; Federizzi, Leonardo; Oro Spazzin, Aloísio

    2013-04-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the prosthesis material (metal-acrylic resin or metal-ceramic) on loosening torque of the prosthetic screws in an implant-supported mandibular denture under two levels of vertical misfit. Ten frameworks were fabricated with commercially pure titanium, and five of them received acrylic resin and acrylic artificial teeth as veneering material and the other five were veneered with porcelain. Two levels of vertical fit were also created by fabricating 20 cast models to obtain four experimental groups according to the prosthesis material and misfit: Group 1 (metal-acrylic resin prosthesis with a passive fit); Group 2 (metal-acrylic resin prosthesis with a non-passive fit); Group 3 (metal-ceramic prosthesis with a passive fit); and Group 4 (metal-ceramic prosthesis with a non-passive fit). Two hundred prosthetic titanium-alloy screws were divided in 40 sets (five screws per set, n=10). After 24h, the loosening torque of the screws was evaluated using a digital torque meter. The results were submitted to two-way ANOVA analysis of variance followed by a Tukey's test (α=0.05). The mean values and standard deviations for each group were G1=7.05 (1.64), G2=5.52 (0.90), G3=6.46 (1.34), and G4=4.35 (0.99). Overall, the prosthesis material and misfit factors showed a statistically significant influence on the loosening torque (p<0.05). Metal-ceramic prosthesis and misfits decreased the loosening of the torque of the prosthetic screws.

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special ... the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  10. Of lice and math: using models to understand and control populations of head lice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fabiana Laguna

    Full Text Available In this paper we use detailed data about the biology of the head louse (pediculus humanus capitis to build a model of the evolution of head lice colonies. Using theory and computer simulations, we show that the model can be used to assess the impact of the various strategies usually applied to eradicate head lice, both conscious (treatments and unconscious (grooming. In the case of treatments, we study the difference in performance that arises when they are applied in systematic and non-systematic ways. Using some reasonable simplifying assumptions (as random mixing of human groups and the same mobility for all life stages of head lice other than eggs we model the contagion of pediculosis using only one additional parameter. It is shown that this parameter can be tuned to obtain collective infestations whose characteristics are compatible with what is given in the literature on real infestations. We analyze two scenarios: One where group members begin treatment when a similar number of lice are present in each head, and another where there is one individual who starts treatment with a much larger threshold ("superspreader". For both cases we assess the impact of several collective strategies of treatment.

  11. Of lice and math: using models to understand and control populations of head lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, María Fabiana; Laguna, Mara Fabiana; Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use detailed data about the biology of the head louse (pediculus humanus capitis) to build a model of the evolution of head lice colonies. Using theory and computer simulations, we show that the model can be used to assess the impact of the various strategies usually applied to eradicate head lice, both conscious (treatments) and unconscious (grooming). In the case of treatments, we study the difference in performance that arises when they are applied in systematic and non-systematic ways. Using some reasonable simplifying assumptions (as random mixing of human groups and the same mobility for all life stages of head lice other than eggs) we model the contagion of pediculosis using only one additional parameter. It is shown that this parameter can be tuned to obtain collective infestations whose characteristics are compatible with what is given in the literature on real infestations. We analyze two scenarios: One where group members begin treatment when a similar number of lice are present in each head, and another where there is one individual who starts treatment with a much larger threshold ("superspreader"). For both cases we assess the impact of several collective strategies of treatment.

  12. Of Lice and Math: Using Models to Understand and Control Populations of Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Mara Fabiana; Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use detailed data about the biology of the head louse (pediculus humanus capitis) to build a model of the evolution of head lice colonies. Using theory and computer simulations, we show that the model can be used to assess the impact of the various strategies usually applied to eradicate head lice, both conscious (treatments) and unconscious (grooming). In the case of treatments, we study the difference in performance that arises when they are applied in systematic and non-systematic ways. Using some reasonable simplifying assumptions (as random mixing of human groups and the same mobility for all life stages of head lice other than eggs) we model the contagion of pediculosis using only one additional parameter. It is shown that this parameter can be tuned to obtain collective infestations whose characteristics are compatible with what is given in the literature on real infestations. We analyze two scenarios: One where group members begin treatment when a similar number of lice are present in each head, and another where there is one individual who starts treatment with a much larger threshold (“superspreader”). For both cases we assess the impact of several collective strategies of treatment. PMID:21799752

  13. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhipeng; Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen; Tian, Meng; Li, Li; Yu, Xixun

    2016-04-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening.

  14. Ex vivo effectiveness of French over-the-counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Toubate, Berthine; Veirron, Emilie; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is still a public health problem worldwide, with an intracountry and intercountry prevalence variation of 0.7 to 59%. There is a large variety of over-the-counter anti-louse products, but their efficacy is not always well assessed. Our objective was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of 21 over-the-counter head louse products, available in France during the period of 2008 to 2012. We tested children living in Tours City in central France and visiting preschools, primary schools, kindergarten, camps, and child care facilities, as well as children in their family houses, and were examined for the presence of lice. The products were collected from randomly selected pharmacies by covert investigators and then tested in the laboratory on an ex vivo sample of head lice and their eggs, collected from the hair of infested children. Living lice and unharmed eggs were collected from the scalps of 3-12 years old. The laboratory conditions for ex vivo testing mimicked the manufacturers' instructions for exposure time and application method. In 21 runs, 3919 living lice and 4321 undamaged living eggs were collected from the scalp of over 400 children. The 21 products were classified in three groups: 6 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity and potentially 100% ovicidal activity, 8 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity but insufficient ovicidal activity (including 2 products with claims of single application treatment), and 7 products in a group of insufficient pediculicidal activity and ovicidal activity. The pharmaceutical market for head lice products in France is swamped with poorly tested and ineffective products. Rigorous efficacy testing preregistration and periodic screening and testing of effectiveness in the post-registration period should be endorsed by the health authorities.

  15. Comparative study of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo for the treatment of head lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, J G; Gomez, M P; Austin, R D; Wold, D E

    1987-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo were compared for the treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis). A total of 1040 patients in the Nezahualcoyotl community of Mexico City representing 296 family groups were enrolled and randomized to treatment, with one patient in each family designated as the index patient. Among index patients 98% treated with permethrin and 76% treated with lindane were louse-free 2 weeks after treatment (P less than 0.001). Comparable results were found with nonindex patients as well. Mild dermal reactions, such as pruritus or erythema, occurred in 1.2% of permethrin-treated patients and 2.6% of lindane-treated patients. There were no reports of central nervous system adverse effects or conjunctivitis.

  16. Head Position and Internally Headed Relative Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilico, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines "Head Movement" in internally headed relative clauses (IHRCs). The article shows that in some cases, head movement to an external position need not take place and demonstrates that this movement of the head to a sentence-internal position results from the quantificational nature of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping hypothesis (1990, 1992). (56…

  17. Analysis of {sup 18} F-FDG uptake patterns in PET for diagnosis of septic and aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U.; Niethard, F.U. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mumme, T.; Reinartz, P.; Wirtz, D. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik; Buell, U.

    2003-12-01

    Aim: Identification of typical patterns for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) to detect aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis (acetabular and/or femoral component) and prosthetic infection. Methods: 18 patients with painful hip prosthesis underwent PET using a dedicated full ring scanner after application of 200-300 MBq FDG. The interface between bone and surrounding soft tissue or bone as displayed on coronal slices was divided into 12 segments in accordance with the classifications of Delee and Gruen. FDG uptake in each of the segments was scored (0-3) by two independent observers. Intraoperative findings were regarded as the gold standard. Results: After surgical revision 14 acetabular components and 9 femoral components were found to be loose and prosthetic infection was present in 7 prostheses. Loosening of the acetabular component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the middle of the acetabular interface, while loosening of the femoral component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the proximal and middle segment of the lateral femoral interface and the proximal segment of the medial femoral interface. A similar pattern was found in prosthetic infection with high uptake along the middle portion of the lateral femoral interface. In 6 of 7 infected prostheses loosening of the acetabular and of the femoral component was present. Taking the typical uptake patterns as criteria for loosening and grade 3 uptake as an additional criterion for septic loosening the accuracy of PET imaging in the detection of loosening of the acetabular or the femoral component and of prosthetic infection was 72, 78 and 89%, respectively. Conclusion: This pilot study presents FDG-PET as a promising diagnostic tool for patients with painful hip prostheses. Its clinical value should be evaluated in a larger patient population. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Identifikation von Befundmustern in der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F

  18. 人工关节假体植入后无菌性松动的发病机制%Pathogenesis of aseptic prosthesis loosening after artificial prosthesis implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉超; 田京

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many clinical researches on aseptic loosening of artificial prosthesis, but the exact pathogenesis is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To review the pathogenesis of prosthesis aseptic loosening after artificial prosthesis implantation.METHODS: A computer-based online search of PubMed and CNKI was performed to search related articles published between 2006 and 2011 with the key words of “artificial prosthesis, aseptic loosening” both in English and Chinese. A total of 77 articles were obtained, and finally 38 articles were included.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Aseptic loosening after long-term total hip replacement is one of the main failure reasons. In the recent years, analysis of revision total hip replacement for failed hip arthroplasty showed that aseptic loosening is the chief reason. The mechanism of aseptic loosening mainly includes mechanical mechanisms, biological and other mechanisms. With further research and the improvement of implantation method and prosthetic materials, aseptic loosening will eventually be minimized, so that the service life of prosthesis will be longer.%背景:对于人工关节无菌性松动的基础和临床研究很多,但其确切机制仍不甚明确.目的:综述人工关节假体植入后无菌性松动的发病机制.方法:由第一作者应用计算机检索PubMed和中国期刊全文数据库2006/2011相关文献.在标题、摘要、关键词中以"artificial prosthesis,aseptic loosening"或"人工关节、无菌性松动"为检索词进行检索.共检索到77篇文献,最终纳入符合标准的文献38篇.结果与结论:无菌性松动已成为人工关节置换后远期失败的主要原因之一.近年来对人工全髋关节置换后翻修病例回顾性分析的统计显示,无菌性松动位于翻修原因第1位.关于人工关节无菌性松动的机制主要分为机械机制、生物机制及其他机制,它们的共同结果是造成骨吸收、骨溶解,最终导致假体松动.随着研究

  19. Spatial mapping of humeral head bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidousti, Hamidreza; Giles, Joshua W; Emery, Roger J H; Jeffers, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Short-stem humeral replacements achieve fixation by anchoring to the metaphyseal trabecular bone. Fixing the implant in high-density bone can provide strong fixation and reduce the risk of loosening. However, there is a lack of data mapping the bone density distribution in the proximal humerus. The aim of the study was to investigate the bone density in proximal humerus. Eight computed tomography scans of healthy cadaveric humeri were used to map bone density distribution in the humeral head. The proximal humeral head was divided into 12 slices parallel to the humeral anatomic neck. Each slice was then divided into 4 concentric circles. The slices below the anatomic neck, where short-stem implants have their fixation features, were further divided into radial sectors. The average bone density for each of these regions was calculated, and regions of interest were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with significance set at P density was found to decrease from proximal to distal regions, with the majority of higher bone density proximal to the anatomic neck of the humerus (P density increases from central to peripheral regions, where cortical bone eventually occupies the space (P density distribution in the medial calcar region was also observed. This study indicates that it is advantageous with respect to implant fixation to preserve some bone above the anatomic neck and epiphyseal plate and to use the denser bone at the periphery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New host/parasite record for very rare chewing louse Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay, 1938) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) on endemic mountain partridges of Arabian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den; Alahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The endemic avifauna of Arabia is unique and characteristic through the whole region. Little is known about these birds and their ectoparasites. The Arabian partridge Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) and Philby's partridge Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 are two endemic species which are distributed through the Sarawat Mountains in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Captive breeding population of these birds were examined for chewing lice at the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) near Ta'if. Only one rare species of louse, Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay 1938), was found to infest these birds. The occurrence of such species is considered a first record of the genus Cuculotogaster from Saudi Arabia, and the association of C. arabicus with Philby's partridge is considered a new host/parasite association. The clear diagnostic characters, high definition photos, and drawing of male genitalia are available through this paper.

  1. Original observations of Desmozoon lepeophtherii, a microsporidian hyperparasite infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and its subsequent detection by other researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Mark A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A microsporidian hyperparasite, Desmozoon lepeophtherii, of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis (salmon louse, infecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, was first discovered in the west of Scotland in 2000. Heavily infected salmon lice are easily recognised as they have large opaque inclusions distributed throughout the body. The prevalence of salmon lice with visible signs of microsporidiosis can be up to 10% of the population from certain farm sites. The microsporidian was also isolated from the host Atlantic salmon suggesting it may have a two host life cycle. The authors believe that the infection in immunocompetent salmon may be latent, becoming acute during periods of infection with another pathogen or during sexual maturation. Since its first discovery in Scotland, Desmozoon lepeophtherii has been subsequently reported from Norway, and more recently from the Pacific coast of North America.

  2. Original observations of Desmozoon lepeophtherii, a microsporidian hyperparasite infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and its subsequent detection by other researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark A; Sommerville, Christina

    2011-12-13

    A microsporidian hyperparasite, Desmozoon lepeophtherii, of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis (salmon louse), infecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), was first discovered in the west of Scotland in 2000. Heavily infected salmon lice are easily recognised as they have large opaque inclusions distributed throughout the body. The prevalence of salmon lice with visible signs of microsporidiosis can be up to 10% of the population from certain farm sites. The microsporidian was also isolated from the host Atlantic salmon suggesting it may have a two host life cycle. The authors believe that the infection in immunocompetent salmon may be latent, becoming acute during periods of infection with another pathogen or during sexual maturation. Since its first discovery in Scotland, Desmozoon lepeophtherii has been subsequently reported from Norway, and more recently from the Pacific coast of North America.

  3. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  4. An experimental animal model of aseptic loosening of hip prostheses in sheep to study early biochemical changes at the interface membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akens Margarete K

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis as it occurs in clinical cases in human patients was attributed to wear particles of the implants, the response of the tissue dominated by macrophages and the production of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes; however, the cascade of events initiating the process and their interaction regarding the time course is still open and discussed controversially. Therefore, the goal of this study was to establish an experimental animal model in sheep allowing to follow the cascade of early mechanical and biochemical events within the interface membrane and study the sequence of how they contribute to the pathological bone resorption necessary for aseptic loosening of the implant. Methods A cemented modular system (Biomedtrix was used as a hip replacement in 24 adult Swiss Alpine sheep, with one group receiving a complete cement mantle as controls (n = 12, and the other group a cement mantle with a standardized, lateral, primary defect in the cement mantle (n = 12. Animals were followed over time for 2 and 8.5 months (n = 6 each. After sacrifice, samples from the interface membranes were harvested from five different regions of the femur and joint capsule. Explant cell cultures were performed and supernatant of cultures were tested and assayed for nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, caseinolytic and collagenolytic activity. RNA extraction and quantification were performed for inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6. Overall differences between groups and time periods and interactions thereof were calculated using a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The development of an interface membrane was noticed in both groups at both time points. However, in the controls the interface membrane regressed in thickness and biological activity, while both variables increased in the experimental group with the primary cement mantle defect over time

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  7. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  8. Epidemiological Aspects of Head Lice in Children Attending Day Care Centres, Urban and Rural Schools in Uberlândia, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Raquel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From November 1996 to March 2000, a total of 884 children between 0 and 15 years, from 11 institutions including day care centres, public urban and public rural schools in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, central Brazil, were examined for head louse infestation. Children's sex, race, age and some hairs characteristics were shown to be associated to parasite infestation. A prevalence rate of 35% was found and the highest rates were observed in black, female children, with long, dark, wavy hairs. Hairs density and thickness did not seem to influence significantly the distribution of this pediculosis in Uberlândia's schoolchildren. Differences observed between the prevalence rates of head lice in children from the urban institutions suggest there is a greater epidemiological heterogeneity in this group when compared to the rural schoolchildren.

  9. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  10. Treatment of head lice with dimeticone 4% lotion: comparison of two formulations in a randomised controlled trial in rural Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin M Turhan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeticone 4% lotion was shown to be an effective treatment for head louse infestation in two randomised controlled trials in England. It is not affected by insecticide resistance but efficacy obtained (70-75% was lower than expected. This study was designed to evaluate efficacy of dimeticone 4% lotion in a geographically, socially, and culturally different setting, in rural Turkey and, in order to achieve blinding, it was compared with a potential alternative formulation. Methods Children from two village schools were screened for head lice by detection combing. All infested students and family members could participate, giving access to treatment for the whole community. Two investigator applied treatments were given 7 days apart. Outcome was assessed by detection combing three times between treatments and twice the week following second treatment. Results In the intention to treat group 35/36 treated using dimeticone 4% had no lice after the second treatment but there were two protocol violators giving 91.7% treatment success. The alternative product gave 30/36 (83.3% treatment success, a difference of 8.4% (95% CI -9.8% to 26.2%. The cure rates per-protocol were 33/34 (97.1% and 30/35 (85.7% respectively. We were unable to find any newly emerged louse nymphs on 77.8% of dimeticone 4% treated participants or on 66.7% of those treated with the alternative formulation. No adverse events were identified. Conclusion Our results confirm the efficacy of dimeticone 4% lotion against lice and eggs and we found no detectable difference between this product and dimeticone 4% lotion with nerolidol 2% added. We believe that the high cure rate was related to the lower intensity of infestation in Turkey, together with the level of community engagement, compared with previous studies in the UK. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10431107

  11. Identification and functional expression of a glutamate- and avermectin-gated chloride channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a southern Hemisphere sea louse affecting farmed fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cornejo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC(50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (n(H = 2 for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new

  12. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, IranMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  13. Micromorphology of the springbok louse Damalinia (Tricholipeurus antidorcus found at the Rietvlei Nature Reserve near Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Turner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This report provides additional information on the morphology of Damalinia (Tricholipeurus antidorcus, previously described only by light microscopy. Live lice were collected and prepared for viewing by SEM. Micromorphological features investigated included aspects of the forehead, mandibles and spiracles. The average length of the males was 2.0 mm and females 2.04 mm. The anterior hyalin region of the head was notably emarginated. Awell-developed medial groove on the ventral surface of the head between the mandibles was noted. The surface of the epipharynx was smooth. The labrum with its typical scale-like appearance gradually changed into the pulvinal area of the clypeus. Both genders had notched left mandibles. The mandibles were highly serrated on the oral surfaces. Situated ventrally below and caudal to the mandibles were a pair of labial palpi. The immediate area between, and surrounding the labial palpi was littered with numerous spiked setae and two well developed larger setae raised at their bases. The tips of the palpi bore three larger and longer sensory setae. Palpi of this nature are described here for the first time in D. antidorcus.

  14. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Stephen C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many different types of pediculicides available OTC in Australia. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil and lavender oil (TTO/LO; a head lice "suffocation" product; and a product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB. Method This study was a randomised, assessor-blind, comparative, parallel study of 123 subjects with live head lice. The head lice products were applied according to the manufacturer's instructions (the TTO/LO product and the "suffocation" product were applied three times at weekly intervals according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0, Day 7 and Day 14 and the P/PB product was applied twice according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0 and Day 7. The presence or absence of live lice one day following the last treatment was determined. Results The percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing tea tree oil and lavender oil (41/42; 97.6% and the head lice "suffocation" product (40/41, 97.6% was significantly higher compared to the percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (10/40, 25.0%; adj. p Conclusion The high efficacy of the TTO/LO product and the head lice "suffocation" product offers an alternative to the pyrethrins-based product. Trial Registration The study was entered into the Australian/New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12610000179033.

  15. Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, D; Birtles, R J; Montoya, M; Perez, E; Tissot-Dupont, H; Roux, V; Guerra, H

    1999-08-01

    Typhus and other louse-transmitted bacterial infections in Peruvian sierra communities are known to occur but have not recently been assessed. In this study, 194 of 1,280 inhabitants of four villages in Calca Province in the Urubamba Valley were included. Thirty-nine (20%) of the 194 volunteers had antibodies to Rickettsia prowazekii, whereas 24 (12%) had antibodies to Bartonella quintana and 2 against Borrelia recurrentis. There was a significant correlation between the presence of infesting ectoparasites and antibodies to R. prowazekii, as well as between antibodies to R. prowazekii and ectoparasite infestation and fever in the previous 6 months. The proportion of inhabitants infested with ectoparasites was significantly higher in the highest-altitude village than in the other three villages. Two volunteers' antibody levels suggested a recent typhus infection, but only B. quintana DNA was amplified from lice. Epidemic typhus remains extant in the area, and B. quintana infections were encountered and documented for the first time in South America.

  16. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicothoë astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-10-01

    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5μm in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (<1μm in diameter) teeth-like structures, which presumably pierce through, and grip, the cuticle lining of the host's gill. Overall, these structures are thought to provide a 'vacuum seal' to assist in pumping of blood, via peristalsis, into the alimentary canal of the copepod host.

  17. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Boltaña

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.

  18. Functional characterisation of the maternal yolk-associated protein (LsYAP) utilising systemic RNA interference in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvin, Sussie; Frost, Petter; Biering, Eirik; Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Krossøy, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an important pathogen in salmon aquaculture and a serious threat to wild populations of salmon. Knowledge of its basic biological processes such as reproduction is crucial for the control of this parasite and can facilitate development of a vaccine. Here, a novel yolk-associated protein, LsYAP, was characterised. Quantitative PCR and in situ analysis demonstrated that transcription of LsYAP takes place in the subcuticular tissue of adult females in the reproductive phase. LsYAP protein is transported and deposited in the developing eggs in the genital segment, where further processing takes place. The sequence characteristics, histological localisation and transcript regulation suggest that LsYAP is a yolk-associated protein. In addition, the use of RNA interference is, to our knowledge, demonstrated for the first time in a copepod. Treatment of adult females with double-stranded RNA led to lethality and deformations of offspring only. This result confirms that the LsYAP protein is produced in adult females but is utilised by the offspring.

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more ... the body being studied. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist begins by positioning ...

  20. Policy on use of foreign funds for western development to be loosened further%中国进一步放宽西部开发利用外资的政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has recently published the 11th Five-Year Plan on Development of the Western Area. A very important condition for continuous and fast progress for western development in China is to raise the opening level to the outside in the region, and the country will further loosen the policy on utilisation of foreign funds.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses ... of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical ...

  2. Of lemurs and louse flies: The biogeochemical and biotic effects of forest disturbance on Propithecus edwardsi and its obligate ectoparasite Allobosca crassipes in Ranomafana National Park, southeastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Stanley

    2017-08-01

    From alleles to ecosystems and landscapes, anthropogenic activity continues to affect the environment, with particularly adverse effects on biodiversity hotspots such as Madagascar. Selective logging has been proposed as a "win-win" conservation strategy, yet its effects on different components of biodiversity are still not fully understood. Here we examine biotic factors (i.e., dietary differences) that may be driving differences in biogeochemical stocks between disturbed and undisturbed forests. We present the stable nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) isotope composition of hair from the lemur Propithecus edwardsi and of whole bodies of its obligate ectoparasite, the louse-fly Allobosca crassipes, from sites in Ranomafana National Park (RNP) that are comparable except for the history of logging and subsequent forest regeneration. P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from the disturbed (i.e., heavily selectively logged) site are lower in (15) N and (13) C relative to P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from sites that were minimally selectively logged or not commercially logged at all. There is a ∼3‰ decrease in (15) N between disturbed and undisturbed sites that corresponds to a difference of nearly a full trophic level. Flowers from Bakerella clavata, a staple food source for P. edwardsi in disturbed habitats and a fallback food for P. edwardsi in primary forests, were also analyzed isotopically. B. clavata is δ(15) N-depleted in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Data from longitudinal behavioral surveys of P. edwardsi in RNP and other forests in eastern Madagascar point to significant differences in consumption patterns of B. clavata, with P. edwardsi in disturbed forests consuming almost twice as much of this plant. Depletion of (15) N in animal tissues is a complex issue, but likely the result of the interaction of physiological and ecological factors. Anthropogenic disturbance in RNP from selective logging has had both biotic and biogeochemical effects that

  3. Infectious prosthetic hip joint loosening: bacterial species involved in its aetiology and their antibiotic resistance profiles against antibiotics recommended for the therapy of implant-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogut, Agnieszka; Niedźwiadek, Justyna; Strzelec-Nowak, Dagmara; Blacha, Jan; Mazurkiewicz, Tomasz; Marczyński, Wojciech; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Reliable microbiological diagnosis along with surgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy are key elements in the management of prosthetic-joint infections (PJIs). The purpose of this study was to characterize antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria involved in the aetiology of PJIs. A total of 33 bacterial isolates cultured from 31 patients undergoing exchange of total hip prostheses were analyzed. The diagnostic approach toward isolation of prosthesis- associated microorganisms included sonication of retrieved implants and conventional cultures of periprosthetic tissues and synovial fluid. The in vitro resistance profiles of bacterial isolates were determined in relation to antibiotics recommended for the therapy of PJIs using the disc diffusion method, E-tests(®) and broth microdilution system. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were predominant microorganisms followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus mitis, and Propionibacterium acnes. Twenty out of 30 and 12 out of 30 staphylococcal isolates were methicillin- and multi-drug resistant, respectively. Only two isolates were rifampicinresistant. All staphylococci were susceptible to glycopeptides and linezolid. This paper stresses the pathogenic role of staphylococci in patients suffering from implant loosening and reports high methicillin- and multidrug-resistance rates in these bacteria. Hence, antimicrobial susceptibility tests of individual bacterial isolates must always be performed to guide selection of the optimal therapeutic option.

  4. HIV manifestations in the head and neck

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Hoek's current interest lies in attempting to eradicate the long waiting lists in the state sector of the Northern ... as loosening teeth and deep dental pain, ... status and ruling out of malignancy. .... reserved for visceral disease and liposomal.

  5. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  6. Loosening Up the Uptight Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Julie

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on releasing students' creative impulses, their imaginations, and their memories. Discusses a set of reading and writing activities that have been used with all kinds of students in a wide variety of settings. (RS)

  7. Loosening up the Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Skyrme model with the addition of extra scalar potentials that decrease the classical binding energies of the Skyrmions to about the 3% level -- without altering the pion mass -- if we insist on keeping platonic symmetries that are usually possessed by Skyrmions. A side effect of the potentials under consideration is the smaller size of the 1-Skyrmion resulting in a smaller moment of inertia and in turn a larger spin contribution to the energy upon semi-classical quantization. After taking into account the quantum contributions we find total binding energies at the 6% level.

  8. Assessment of Head Wear More Than Ten Years after Total Hip Arthroplasty: 22-mm Zirconia VS. Metal Heads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitani,Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present retrospective study assessed radiographs to determine socket wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA with 22-mm zirconia or COP (Cobalt-Chrome alloy rich in Cobalt and Phosphorous heads, and in cemented stems at more than 10 years after operation. Sockets of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene were used in each of two THA groups (13 hips each in a clinical trial in our hospital between 1989 and 1990. Three observers carried out masked assessments of the radiographs. Upon fi nal examination, there was no remarkable loosening in the zirconia or COP group, and no case had required revision surgery as of 2005. There was a statistically signifi cant diff erence between the 2 groups in average annual linear wear, at 0.093 mm/year and 0.046 mm/year in the zirconia and COP groups, respectively. Volume wear and average annual volume wear were also signifi cantly greater in the zirconia group despite its superior mechanical strength and toughness in vitro. Our present fi ndings do not confi rm early expectations of lower wear in long-term results of 22-mm zirconia femoral heads used in THA.

  9. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  10. 肿瘤型假体无菌性松动的治疗现状%Current status of the treatment of aseptic loosening in tumor prostheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 张清; 牛晓辉

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic loosening ( AL ) is one of the most common complications in tumor prostheses. Loss of bone quantity and decline of bone quality are the main challenges that orthopedists encounter when they deal with AL. Based on the latest reports, prosthesis revision is the primary choice in the treatment of AL, and it can provide relatively satisfactory outcomes when compared with other methods. While it needs enough bone quantity and good bone quality for prosthetic stability. In some reports, it can get a median Musculoskeletal Tumor Society ( MSTS ) functional score of 96% ( range: 50%-100% ) after an average follow-up of 101 months ( range: 47-155 months ) after the surgery. Besides this, allograft-prosthesis composites ( APCs ) are another choice. Allograft segments are used to construct a certain ifxation arm to get a more stable ifxation. However, its outcomes are not as satisfactory as that of prosthesis revision. According to some reports, after an average follow-up of 59 months after the surgery, it can provide an average MSTS functional score of 62% ( range: 57%-67% ). While we must take account that these patients receiving APCs always have less bone quantity and worse bone quality, when compared with those only receiving prosthetic treatment. In recent years, a new type of prosthesis based on extra-cortical plate ifxation has been used in the revision, which is superior to the conventional intramedullary stem prosthesis. The current results illustrate that it has certain application prospects, but high-quality studies are needed to further demonstrate it. When the loss of bone quantity and decline of bone quality are too serious to perform limb salvage treatment, rotationplasty and amputation may be a choice. However, great attention must be paid to their indications.

  11. APPLICATION ON THE COOPERATION BETWEEN WARP LOOSENING DEVICE AND THE BACK REST FOR AIR JET LOOMS%喷气织机松经机构与后梁配合的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忧华

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of air-jet looms warp loosening device was introduced , and analyzed the function of co-ordination between Warp loosening device and the back rest for Air Jet loom. It can be stable equilibrium in the process of weaving warp tension to reduce the tension fluctuation for wealing.%介绍了喷气织机松经装置的结构及作用,分析了后梁和松经装置的配合使用,可在织造过程中稳定均衡经纱张力,减少张力的波动,以利于织造的进行。

  12. Risk of dislocation using large- vs. small-diameter femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plate Johannes F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dislocation remains a difficult problem in total hip arthroplasty. Large-diameter femoral heads may lower the incidence of dislocation by enhancing the jump distance and decreasing impingement, but their performance against small-diameter heads has not been assessed. This study compared the mid-term radiographic and functional outcomes of two matched cohorts of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty who had a high pre-operative risk for dislocation and who received either small-diameter (26- or 28-millimeters or large-diameter (≥36-millimeters femoral heads. Methods All patients who received large-diameter heads (≥36-millimeter between 2002 and 2005, and who had pre-operative risk factors for dislocation, were identified in the institution’s joint registry. Forty-one patients (52 hips who received large-diameter heads were identified, and these patients were matched to 48 patients (52 hips in the registry who received small-diameter femoral heads. Results At mean final follow-up of 62 months (range, 49 to 101 months, both groups achieved excellent functional outcomes as measured by Harris Hip scores, with slightly better final scores in the large-diameter group (90 vs. 83 points. No patient showed any radiographic signs of loosening. No patient dislocated in the large-diameter femoral head group; the smaller-diameter group had a greater rate of dislocation (3.8%, 2 out of 52. Conclusions Large-diameter femoral head articulations may reduce dislocation rates in patients who have a high pre-operative risk for dislocation while providing the same functional improvements and safety as small-diameter bearings.

  13. Early results of large head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostensalo, I; Seppänen, M; Mäkelä, K; Mokka, J; Virolainen, P; Hirviniemi, J

    2012-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty significantly improves patient's life quality. However, total joint replacement is associated with possible complications, such as dislocations, infections, fractures and periprosthetic osteolysis. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties and analyse short term complications related to them. Between 9/2005 and 6/2009, a total of 691 hip replacements were performed on 635 patients with the use of Magnum M2 large head cementless metal-on-metal prosthesis in Turku University Hospital. All patients had a scheduled follow-up at two to three months, and at one year. The results were evaluated using X-rays, Harris Hip Score (HHS), and evaluating post-operative complications and reasons for re-operations. During our follow-up the HHS median raised from its preoperative value of 59.8 to 86.4 two to three months after the operation, and to 93.9 one year after the operation. As a complication we had five infections requiring single open debridement (early infection) or a two stage revision. Seven patients had a periprosthetic femoral fracture that was operated and 11 patients were reoperated because of acetabular component malposition, fracture or early loosening. We did not observe any dislocations, n. ischiadicus damages, squeeking or complications related to high metal ion release (ALVAL-reactions (Aseptic Lymphocyte-dominated Vasculitis-Associated Lesion) or pseudotumours). The metal-on-metal bearing pair allows large femoral head size, which decreases the risk for dislocation. It may also decrease the risk for osteolysis and aseptic loosening in a long run. Early complication rate related to the bearing surface is minimal. Metal-on-metal prosthesis is a good choice for young and active patients with good bone quality.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  16. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  17. Maneuvering impact boring head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  18. Outcome of Radial Head Arthroplasty in Comminuted Radial Head Fractures: Short and Midterm Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    had moderate or severe periarticular ossification, and scored substantially worse according to MEPI and Morrey. Four patients required revisional surgery due to loosening of the prosthesis and chronic pain. In addition, one patient required a neurolysis of the ulnaris nerve, one developed a neobursa, and one had extensive swelling and blistering. The time interval between injury and treatment appeared to have an effect on results. Thirty-five patients were treated within the first 5 days after accident and showed better results than the 40 patients who were treated after 5 days. Conclusions Comminuted radial head fractures with elbow instability can be treated well with a modular radial head prosthesis, which restores stability in acute treatment. The modular radial head arthroplasty used in this study showed promising findings in short to midterm results.

  19. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  1. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work together. Head and neck surgeons also perform craniofacial reconstruction operations. The surgery is done while you are deep asleep and pain-free (under general anesthesia ). The surgery may take ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain cavities (ventricles) in ... X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head ...

  8. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... hold your breath for short periods. A complete scan usually take only 30 seconds to a few ...

  9. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  11. Head and neck teratomas

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ajaz; Latoo, Suhail; Ahmed, Irshad; Malik, Altaf H

    2009-01-01

    Teratomas are complex lesions composed of diverse tissues from all 3 germinal cell layers and may exhibit variable levels of maturity. Head and neck teratomas are most commonly cervical with the oropharynx (epignathus) being the second commonest location. In this article, clinical presentation, behaviour and associated significance of head and neck teratomas have been highlightened. Because of their obscure origin, bizarre microscopic appearance, unpredictable behaviour and often dramatic cli...

  12. Spontaneous fracture of the femoral neck in preexisting avascular necrosis of femoral head in sickle cell disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Vaishya

    2012-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a known complication of femoral neck fracture but on the contrary,femoral neck fracture in a case of preexisting avascular necrosis is a very rare phenomenon.We present a case study of a 47 year old Iraqi male who developed spontaneous ipsilateral subcapital femoral neck fracture under the condition of preexisting sickle cell disease and avascular necrosis of the femoral head.The fracture was unnoticed for a few months.The patient was managed successfully by uncemented total hip arthroplasty.Postoperative recovery was uneventful and he was discharged 4 days after surgery.At 1 year's follow-up,the patient had normal gait and hip function,with no sign of loosening or any other complications on radiograph.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  14. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  16. Economics of head injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Manmohan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Head injuries account for significant proportion of neurosurgical admissions and bed occupancy. Patients with head injuries also consume significant proportions of neurosurgical resources. A prospective 6-month study has been carried out to evaluate the expenditure incurred on head injury patients in a modern neurosurgical center equipped with state of the art infrastructure. Costing areas included wages / salaries of health care personnel, cost of medicines / surgical items / crystalloids, general store items, stationary, all investigation charges, equipment cost, overhead building cost, maintenance cost, electricity and water charges and cost of medical gases, air conditioning and operation theatre expenses. Expenditure in each area was calculated and apportioned to each bed. The statistical analysis was done using X2 test. The cost of stay in ward was found to be Rs. 1062 / bed / day and in neurosurgical ICU Rs. 3082 / bed / day. The operation theatre cost for each surgery was Rs. 11948. The cost of hospital stay per day for minor, moderate and severe head injury group was found to be Rs. 1921, Rs. 2569 and Rs. 2713 respectively. The patients who developed complications, the cost of stay per day in the hospital were Rs. 2867. In the operative group, the cost of hospital stay per day was Rs. 3804. The total expenditure in minor head injury was Rs. 7800 per patient, in moderate head injury was Rs. 22172 per patient, whereas in severe head injury, it was found to be Rs. 32852 per patient. Patients who underwent surgery, the total cost incurred was Rs. 33100 per operated patient.

  17. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, Iran "n "nMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software. "n "nResults: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05. "n "nConclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  18. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hey! A Chigger Bit Me! Rashes: The Itchy Truth Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  19. Outcome of cemented Neer II hemiarthroplasty in displaced humeral head fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falborg, Bettina; Palm, Henrik; Fenger, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    .001). The 26 (57%) patients with abnormal radiographs (malpositioning or loosening of the prosthesis, non-union of tuberosities, heterotopic ossification, and/or glenoid erosion) had a significantly lower Constant Score (45 [range: 8 to 69] versus 55 [range: 31 to 71], p = 0.013). The functional outcome......The functional and radiological outcome of cemented Neer II hemiarthroplasty performed within six weeks after a fracture-dislocation or a three/four-part humeral head fracture was evaluated in 48 patients with an average age of 73 years (range: 45 to 89), with an average follow-up period of 44...... months (range: 6 to 106). Thirty-two (67%) patients were satisfied or very satisfied. Twenty-nine (61%) patients had no or mild pain, 17 (35%) had moderate pain and two (4%) had severe pain. Constant Score averaged 49 (range: 8 to 71) compared to 78 (range: 40 to 100) for the nonoperated shoulder (p

  20. Pediatric head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  1. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  2. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  3. Rocket injector head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A high number of liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen orifices per unit area are provided in an injector head designed to give intimate mixing and more thorough combustion. The injector head comprises a main body portion, a cooperating plate member as a flow chamber for one propellant, a cooperating manifold portion for the second propellant, and an annular end plate for enclosing an annular propellant groove formed around the outer edge of the body. All the openings for one propellant are located at the same angle with respect to a radial plane to permit a short combustion chamber.

  4. Heading in soccer: dangerous play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Soccer is the world's most popular sport and unique in that players use their unprotected heads to intentionally deflect, stop, or redirect the ball for both offensive and defensive strategies. Headed balls travel at high velocity pre- and postimpact. Players, coaches, parents, and physicians are justifiably concerned with soccer heading injury risk. Furthermore, risk of long-term neurocognitive and motor deficits caused by repetitively heading a soccer ball remains unknown. We review the theoretical concerns, the results of biomechanical laboratory experiments, and the available clinical data regarding the effects of chronic, subconcussive head injury during heading in soccer.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  6. Head space analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, G.J. van; Koorevaar, G.

    Additional analytical information is given about the method of head space analysis. From the data presented it can be concluded that this technique may be advantageous for enzyme kinetic studies in turbid solutions, provided a volatile organic substance is involved in the chemical reaction. Also

  7. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  8. Lubricating the swordfish head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, John J.; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T.; Szabo, Ben G.

    2016-01-01

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using magnet

  9. Prognosis in head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, J A; Rimel, R W

    1982-01-01

    The prognosis of head injury when viewed from the perspective of the Glasgow Coma Scale confirms the utility of this measure. In particular, decrease in mortality is associated with an increase in GCS. In addition, the motor score portion of the GCS was of predictive value when taken alone. The outcome of patients in coma (GCS less than 8) was closely related to three preventable or treatable factors, namely, hypoxia, shock, and increased intracranial pressure. These three factors, when considered in combination, powerfully predicted mortality. Of considerable interest was the finding that moderate head injury (GCS 9-12) was associated with a small but perhaps preventable mortality. The morbidity was intermediate between that of severe and minor and was surprisingly high. Minor head injury, while not associated with significant mortality, also resulted in considerable morbidity. Neuropsychological evaluation of the patients and an experimental study suggests that an organic component may be involved even in this group. To deal with head injury, distinctions must be made between grades of severity. The Glasgow Coma Scale is suited for this task. Nonetheless, the recognition of this basic continuity should elicit the further recognition that different health providers may be involved in the case of, say, severe, as opposed to mild, injury, and that different outcome measures are suitable for one group but not another.

  10. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  11. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA%中国云南部分小兽体表吸虱昆虫群落相似性及群落分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宪国; 钱体军; 郭利军; 董文鸽

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.%应用系统聚类分析方法对云南省境内24种主要小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表吸虱昆虫群落相似性及群落分类进行了研究.研究中将每一种小兽体表的所有吸虱昆虫定义为一个相应的吸虱群落单位.结果表明,小兽体表吸虱群落结构简单,物种多样性很低.多数小兽有固定的吸虱种类寄生,其吸虱的宿主特异性高.在动物分类上隶属同一个属的小兽,其体表吸虱群落相似程度高,在系统聚类分析中大多被归为一类.在动物分类上近缘的小兽,其体表吸虱群落相似,优势虱种相同或相似,此情形尤其表现在鼠属、白腹鼠属、姬鼠属和绒鼠属.吸虱群落相似性大小与相应小兽宿主在动物分类地位上的近缘性高低呈现高度一致.从生态学角度来看,吸虱昆虫与其所寄生的小兽

  12. Effect of femoral head size and surgical approach on risk of revision for dislocation after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P; De Hartog, Bas; Van Steenbergen, Liza N; Scheurs, B Willem; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2017-08-01

    Background and purpose - Recurrent dislocation is the commonest cause of early revision of a total hip arthropasty (THA). We examined the effect of femoral head size and surgical approach on revision rate for dislocation, and for other reasons, after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Patients and methods - We analyzed data on 166,231 primary THAs and 3,754 subsequent revision THAs performed between 2007 and 2015, registered in the Dutch Arthroplasty Register (LROI). Revision rate for dislocation, and for all other causes, were calculated by competing-risk analysis at 6-year follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression ratios (HRs) were used for comparisons. Results - Posterolateral approach was associated with higher dislocation revision risk (HR =1) than straight lateral, anterolateral, and anterior approaches (HR =0.5-0.6). However, the risk of revision for all other reasons (especially stem loosening) was higher with anterior and anterolateral approaches (HR =1.2) and lowest with posterolateral approach (HR =1). For all approaches, 32-mm heads reduced the risk of revision for dislocation compared to 22- to 28-mm heads (HR =1 and 1.6, respectively), while the risk of revision for other causes remained unchanged. 36-mm heads increasingly reduced the risk of revision for dislocation but only with the posterolateral approach (HR =0.6), while the risk of revision for other reasons was unchanged. With the anterior approach, 36-mm heads increased the risk of revision for other reasons (HR =1.5). Interpretation - Compared to the posterolateral approach, direct anterior and anterolateral approaches reduce the risk of revision for dislocation, but at the cost of more stem revisions and other revisions. For all approaches, there is benefit in using 32-mm heads instead of 22- to 28-mm heads. For the posterolateral approach, 36-mm heads can safely further reduce the risk of revision for dislocation.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  14. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  15. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to remain perfectly still and follow breath-holding instructions while the images are being recorded. If you ... Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Videos related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... ray, CT and ultrasound. top of page How is the procedure performed? MRI examinations may be performed ...

  18. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oncologist will listen to the history of your problem and perform a physical examination. Consultations with other members of the head and neck team, such as the head and neck surgeon, pathologist, ...

  19. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty expressing words or thoughts; dysarthric speech Head Injury Prevention Tips Buy and use helmets or protective head gear approved by the ASTM for specific sports 100 percent of the time. The ASTM has ...

  20. Preventing head injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... Helmets help to prevent head injuries. Your child should wear a ... sports or activities: Playing contact sports, such as lacrosse, ...

  1. 全膝关节置换假体松动时滑膜液中的诊断性标志物%Diagnostic markers in synovial fluid during prosthetic loosening after total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭红; 伍骥; 李松林; 初冬

    2013-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening of the prosthesis is a common complication after total knee arthroplasty. Whether the loosening of the prosthesis has relationship with the levels of tenascin-C, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α and tenascin-C of the patients with aseptic prosthesis loosening after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Forty-five patients treated with total knee arthroplasty and revision surgery were selected as the experimental group, and 25 patients treated with initial total knee arthroplasty were selected as the control group. In the experimental group, the patients with history of inflammatory arthritis, systemic secondary arthritis infection, autoimmune disease and combined hepatitis, malignant tumors, hormones or immunosuppressants administration were eliminated. Synovial fluid samples of the prostheses in each group were obtained, and the expression of tenascin-C shear variants in synovial fluid was tested with Western-blot. The levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α and tenascin-C were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Western blot results showed the presence of large tenascin-C variants in the synovial fluid of prostheses with loosening. The interleukin-6 and tenascin-C levels in the synovial fluid of prosthesis loosening were approximately three times higher than those in the control group, and tumor necrosis factor α level in the synovial fluid of prosthesis loosening was approximately 2.5 times higher than that in the control group. Levels of tenascin-C including large variant subunits are elevated in synovial fluid of prosthesis loosening, indicating that tenascin-C is a useful novel biochemical marker of prosthesis loosening.%  背景:人工关节置换后的无菌性假体松动一直是全膝关节置换后常见的并发症,是否与骨性关节炎的发生时的

  2. Revision hip arthroplasty in patients with a previous total hip replacement for osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youn-Soo; Moon, Young-Wan; Lee, Keun-Ho; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2014-12-01

    Patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head are typically relatively young and active and often require high rates of revision after primary total hip arthroplasty. However, outcomes of revision hip arthroplasty in this patient population have rarely been reported in the literature. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 72 patients (75 hips) who underwent revision hip arthroplasty with a primary diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Mean age at index revision was 53.3 years (range, 34-76). Components of acetabular revision included a cementless porous-coated cup in 58 hips and an acetabular cage in 3 hips. Components of femoral revision included a fully grit-blasted tapered stem in 30 hips and a proximally porous-coated modular stem in 9 hips. Mean duration of follow-up was 7 years (range, 3-17). Mean Harris Hip Score improved from 49 points preoperatively to 90 points postoperatively. At final follow-up, 11 hips (14.7%) required reoperation because of aseptic loosening (6 hips), infection (2 hips), recurrent dislocation (1 hip), periprosthetic fracture (1 hip), and ceramic fracture (1 hip). Kaplan-Meier survivor-ship with an endpoint of re-revision for any reason was 81% and for mechanical failure was 87.5% for the cup and 100% for the stem at 10 years. Unlike the previous report, the authors' study showed a lower failure rate of the femoral stem after revision hip arthroplasty using modern cementless femoral components in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Aseptic cup loosening or osteolysis is the most common mechanism of failure at medium-term follow-up. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. "Head versus heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.

  4. "Head versus heart"

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  5. Syntactic-Head-Driven Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, E

    1994-01-01

    The previously proposed semantic-head-driven generation methods run into problems if none of the daughter constituents in the syntacto-semantic rule schemata of a grammar fits the definition of a semantic head given in Shieber et al. 1990. This is the case for the semantic analysis rules of certain constraint-based semantic representations, e.g. Underspecified Discourse Representation Structures (UDRSs) (Frank/Reyle 1992). Since head-driven generation in general has its merits, we simply return to a syntactic definition of `head' and demonstrate the feasibility of syntactic-head-driven generation. In addition to its generality, a syntactic-head-driven algorithm provides a basis for a logically well-defined treatment of the movement of (syntactic) heads, for which only ad-hoc solutions existed, so far.

  6. Wear resistance of the biocompatible phospholipid polymer-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liner against larger femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Toru; Takatori, Yoshio; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Masami; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Oshima, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-07-01

    The use of larger femoral heads to prevent the dislocation of artificial hip joints has recently become more common. However, concerns about the subsequent use of thinner polyethylene liners and their effects on wear rate have arisen. Previously, we prepared and evaluated the biological and mechanical effects of a novel highly cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner with a nanometer-scaled graft layer of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC). Our findings showed that the PMPC-grafted particles were biologically inert and caused no subsequent bone resorptive responses and that the PMPC-grafting markedly decreased wear in a hip joint simulator. However, the metal or ceramic femoral heads used in this previous study had a diameter of 26 mm. Here, we investigated the wear-resistance of the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner with a 40-mm femoral head during 10 × 10(6) cycles of loading in the hip joint simulator. The results provide preliminary evidence that the grafting markedly decreased gravimetric wear rate and the volume of wear particles, even when coupled with larger femoral heads. Thus, we believe the PMPC-grafting will prolong artificial hip joint longevity both by preventing aseptic loosening and by improving the stability of articular surface.

  7. Root cause of thermal sleeve loosening in optimized power reactor 1000 unit 5 and 6 Part (I) - A theoretical approach to the root cause and probabilistic revision of acceptance criterion at explosive expansion -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; Jung, Sung Yeop; Kim, Sang Nyung [Kyunghee University, Youngin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Four of safety injection (SI) nozzles in a 1000 MWe-class Optimized Power Reactor (OPR-1000) are fitted with thermal sleeves (T/S) to alleviate thermal fatigue. Thermal sleeves in no3 and no4 of Younggwang (YGN) and Ulchin (UCN) nuclear power plant are manufactured out of Inconel-600 and fitted solidly without any problem, whereas YGN and UCN in no5 and no6, also fitted with thermal sleeves made of Inconel-690 for increased corrosion resistance, experienced a loosening of thermal sleeves except T/S of YGN no5-1A. To identify the root cause of T/S loosening, three suspected causes were analyzed: (1) the shear force of flow on the T/S when the safety SI nozzle was in operation, (2) the differences between Inconel-600 and Inconel-690 in terms of physical and chemical properties (notably the thermal expansion coefficient), and (3) the positioning error in explosive expansion of the T/S as well as the asymmetric expansion of T/S. It was confirmed that none of the three suspected causes could be considered as the root cause. However, after reviewing the design change history from the Palo Verde nuclear power plant to YGN and UCN no3,4 and no5,6, it was realized that the two stage design modifications (in terms of groove depth and material) made an additional explosive energy required by 172% in aggregate, but the amount of gunpowder and the explosive expansion method were the same as before, resulting in insufficient explosive force that led to poor thermal sleeve expansion. T/S measurement data and rubbing copies also support this conclusion. And the T/S loosening was also attributable to lenient quality control before and after fitting the T/S that resulted in significant uncertainty. In addition, it is our judgment that the acceptance criterion applicable to T/S fitting was not strict enough, failing to single out thermal sleeves that were not expanded sufficiently. Lastly, the acceptance criterion was scientifically revised to incorporate the thinning effect and

  8. Model of Loosen Blasting Assisted by High-Pressure Water Jet Spiral-Notch%高压水射流螺旋式切槽辅助松动爆破模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟登峰; 康勇; 王晓川; 郑丹丹

    2016-01-01

    A new technology of loosen blasting assisted by high-pressure water jet spiral-notch was put forward based on its unique advantages of water jet cutting, and the geometric model for water jet notched boreholes was established based on experiments. Furthermore, by employing fracture mechanics and Westergaard stress function method, the functions of complex variables was confirmed, and the stress field acted upon the spirally water jet notching borehole by quasi-static explosion gas was derived. The stress intensity factor of spiral-notch boreholes with high-pressure water jet was determined, and the loosening effect of loosen blasting assisted by high-pressure water jet spiral-notch was also analyzed. Finally, ANSYS/LS-DYNA was applied to verify the theoretical model, and the results of the numerical simulation are almost comparable to the model.%基于水射流独特的切割优势提出了高压水射流螺旋式切槽辅助松动爆破的新方法,实验研究了高压水射流切割煤岩体所形成缝槽的断口形貌并建立了其几何模型。在此基础上,基于断裂力学理论同时结合Westergaard方法,确定了复变函数,进而推导出爆生气体准静态作用下射流螺旋切槽孔的应力场公式,得到了射流螺旋切槽孔缝槽尖端应力强度因子计算公式,并分析了高压水射流切槽辅助松动爆破松动效应。最后,采用ANSYS/LS-DYNA数值模拟软件对该模型进行了验证,结果符合较好。

  9. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  10. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  11. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  12. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  13. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  14. THE APPLICATION OF PSEUDO-VSP METHOD TO THE DETECTION OF LOOSENED ZONE IN QUARRY WALL%反向VSP透射层析成像法在岩墙松动层检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正勤; 吴庆举; 冯锐; 陈立杰

    2001-01-01

    通过实例介绍了反向VSP透射层析成像方法的基本原理、数据采集和资料处理方法。利用该方法在检测岩墙松动层厚度中取得了很好的勘探效果。%The Pseudo-Vertical-Seismic-Profiling, somewhat similar to vertical seismic profiling, was successfully applied in detecting the loosened zone of quarry wall. The seismic transmission wave tomography was used to process the data. The basic theory, data acquisition and processing as well as case history are dealt with in this paper.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles ... Videos related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored ...

  16. A Novel Nit Comb Concept Using Ultrasound Actuation: Preclinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Mark N; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Ian F

    2016-01-01

    Nit combing and removal of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), eggs is a task made more difficult because "nit combs" vary in efficiency. There is currently no evidence that the binding of the eggshell to the hair can be loosened chemically and few hair treatments improve the slip of the louse eggs along the hair. Ultrasound, applied through the teeth of a nit comb, may facilitate the flow of fluids into the gap between the hair shaft and the tube of fixative holding louse eggs in place to improve lubrication. Ultrasound alone had little effect to initiate sliding, requiring a force of 121.5 ± 23.8 millinewtons (mN) compared with 125.8 ± 18.0 mN without ultrasound, but once the egg started to move it made the process easier. In the presence of a conditioner-like creamy lotion, ultrasound reduced the Peak force required to start movement to 24.3 ± 8.8 mN from 50.4 ± 13.0 mN without ultrasound. In contrast, some head louse treatments made removal of eggs more difficult, requiring approximately twice the Peak force to initiate movement compared with dry hair in the absence of ultrasound. However, following application of ultrasound, the forces required to initiate movement increased for an essential oil product, remained the same for isopropyl myristate and cyclomethicone, and halved for 4% dimeticone lotion. Fixing the nit comb at an estimated angle of 16.5° to the direction of pull gave an optimum effect to improve the removal process when a suitable lubricant was used.

  17. HEADS UP: Sensorimotor control of the head-neck system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Head-neck stabilization is inherently challenging even when stationary, requiring constant vigilance to counter the downward pull of gravity. It involves a highly complex biomechanical system comprised of a large mass (the head) balanced on top of seven vertebrae (the neck), that are in turn connect

  18. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel: the head injury that may have prolonged the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Heather A; Mullin, Jeffrey P; Sloffer, Chris A

    2016-07-01

    War-related head injury, indeed neurological injury in general, has been a part of the history of humankind for as long as there has been warfare. Such injuries can result in the removal of the individual from combat, thus eliminating any subsequent contribution that he or she might have made to the battle. However, at times, the injuries can have more wide-reaching effects. In the case of commanders or leaders, the impact of their injuries may include the loss of their influence, planning, and leadership, and thus have a disproportionate effect on the battle, or indeed the war. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was a talented military strategist and leader who was respected by friends and foes alike. He held an honored reputation by the German people and the military leadership. His head injury on July 17, 1944, resulted in his being removed from the field of battle in northern France, but also meant that he was not able to lend his stature to the assassination attempt of Adolph Hitler on July 20. It is possible that, had he been able to lend his stature to the events, Hitler's hold on the nation's government might have been loosened, and the war might have been brought to an end a year earlier. The authors review Rommel's career, his injury, the subsequent medical treatment, and his subsequent death.

  19. Trochanter/calcar preserving reconstruction in tumors involving the femoral head and neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwan Seong; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the results of hip reconstruction with extensive excision for tumor confined to the femoral head and neck. METHODS: We designed a resection preserving the greater trochanter and lower portion of calcar femorale, and utilized conventional total hip prosthesis. We retrospectively reviewed 7 patients, who underwent a wide resection and reconstruction using conventional hip prosthesis. There were 3 men and 4 women and their mean age was 42.5 years (22 to 65 years). The histologic diagnosis of each patient was low-grade osteosarcoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, liposclerosing myxofibroma, intraosseous lipoma, chondroblastoma, giant cell tumor and focal intramedullary fibrosis. RESULTS: One patient with lymphoma died due to disease dissemination at 10 mo postoperatively and the remaining 6 patients were followed for a mean of 4.7 years (3 to 6 years). All patients were able to return to their daily activities and no patient had local recurrence. No radiographic signs of loosening, wear, and osteolysis were found at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Trochanter/calcar-preserving resection of the proximal femur and reconstruction using conventional total hip prosthesis, is a satisfactory treatment for tumors confined to the femoral head and neck. PMID:27458555

  20. Comparison of the results between polyethylene liners articulated with zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chrome femoral heads in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Liu; James P. Waddell

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aseptic loosening of the implants is the main contributor to the long-term failure of hip arthroplasty.One of the alternatives is to choose ceramic head instead of the traditional CoCr head. This study is conducted to determine the clinicalefficacy of a zirconia ceramic head. Methods: Twenty-six cementless total hip arthroplasties in 24 patients were performed using a zirconiahead coupled with polyethylene. All hips were followed for an average of 9 years (range, 6-13 years). A matched group of 26 hips in 26patients using cobalt-chrome heads coupled with polyethylene were also followed for average of 10 years (range, 5-14 years). The twogroups of patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically respectively. Results: The average scores of functional hip according toHarris standard improved from 46 (preoperatively) to 86 (at the final follow-up) in the Zirconia group, and from 50 to 88 in the CrCogroup. The mean liner wear rate of zirconia-polyethylene coupling was 0. 118 mm/year (range, 0. 064-0. 175 mm/year), and the linearwear rate of CrCo-polyethylene was 0.113 mm/year (range, 0.056-0.190 mm/year). There were 10 hips (27%) revised due to looseningor extensive osteolysis of the.cup in the Zirconia group, and only 4 hips (11.5%) in CrCo group. Conclusion: Results of the studysuggest that a zirconia ceramic femoral head has little advantage over a cobalt-chrome head in decreasing polyethylene wear in vivo. Ourstudy demonstrates that although changes in designs and materials may offer theoretical advantages over current components, their effectsremain questionable in vivo.

  1. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  2. NASA head sworn in

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Fletcher was sworn in on May 12, 1986, as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At a news conference after he was sworn in, Fletcher said that NASA would deal with both its technical problems and its procedural problems before the shuttle will fly again. According to press accounts, he stressed that funds should be made available to replace the Challenger orbiter, which was lost in an explosion on January 28.Fletcher, who had also headed the agency from 1971 to 1977, succeeds James M. Beggs, who was indicted in December 1985 for conspiring to defraud the federal government while serving as a senior executive at the General Dynamics Corporation.

  3. Wear resistance of artificial hip joints with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) grafted polyethylene: comparisons with the effect of polyethylene cross-linking and ceramic femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Toru; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Karita, Tatsuro; Ito, Hideya; Nakamura, Kozo; Takatori, Yoshio

    2009-06-01

    Aseptic loosening of artificial hip joints induced by wear particles from the polyethylene (PE) liner remains the ruinous problem limiting their longevity. We reported here that grafting with a polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)) (PMPC), on the PE liner surface dramatically decreased the wear production under a hip joint simulator condition. We examined that the effect of properties of both PE by cross-linking and femoral head by changing the materials on wearing properties of PE. The PMPC grafting on the liners increased hydrophilicity and decreased friction torque, regardless of the cross-linking of the PE liner or the difference in the femoral head materials. During the hip joint simulator experiments (5 x 10(6) cycles of loading), cross-linking caused a decrease of wear amount and a reduction of the particle size, while the femoral head materials did not affect it. The PMPC grafting abrogated the wear production, confirmed by almost no wear of the liner surface, independently of the liner cross-linking or the femoral head material. We concluded that the PMPC grafting on the PE liner surpasses the liner cross-linking or the change of femoral head materials for extending longevity of artificial hip joints.

  4. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  6. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  8. Clinical trials in head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayan, RK; Michel, ME

    2002-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000,

  9. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  10. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  11. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn More about the Brain and How it Works Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” Educational ... Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS "Heads ...

  12. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kill head lice? Which medicine is best? Is mayonnaise effective for treating head lice? CDC does not ... to determine if suffocation of head lice with mayonnaise, olive oil, margarine, butter, or similar substances is ...

  13. 基于压电主动传感方式的螺栓松动检测实验研究*%Bolt Loosening Detection Based on Piezoelectric Active Sensing Technology*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 罗毅; 刘绍鹏; 肖涵; 王志刚; 李友荣

    2013-01-01

    For the measurement of bolt axial force and detection of bolt loosening,the ultrasonic method is studied using the piezoelectric active sensing technique. When the ultrasonic wave generated by a piezoelectric patch propagates across the interface of the components jointed by the bolt,only part of the ultrasonic wave energy passes through it. The transmitted wave energy depends on the true contact area which is decided by the bolt pretension ac-cording to the Classical Hertz contact theory. By measuring the received energy with another piezoelectric patch on the other side of the connected components, the bolt pretension or bolt connection status can be detected. The experiment device is set up and serials experiments were carried out. The experiment results show that the wave energy propagated across the interface has good correlation with the torque level. This method has potential application for the monitoring of bolt loosening in-site.%针对螺栓联接结构中螺栓易松动而引发事故的情况,进行了压电主动传感方式的螺栓松动检测研究。采用压电材料激发超声波,根据透射波通过螺栓联接界面时,透射波携带的能量与界面间实际接触面积相关,而界面实际接触面积与界面压力(即螺栓作用力)成一定关系,通过测量透射波的能量确定螺栓的松紧程度。建立了实验装置,进行了实验研究。实验结果显示,作为传感器的压电材料所接收到的超声波能量与螺栓紧固力具有较好相关性,该方法可作为螺栓联接结构健康监测的一种新方法。

  14. 浅析联冠或固定桥法修复前牙松动移位缺失%Analysis of the Crown or Fixed Bridge Restoration of Anterior Teeth Loosening Deletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向兰锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the periodontal disease patients before tooth mobility displacement or loss associated with the crown or fixed bridge restoration treatment ef ect. Methods 8 cases of anterior teeth 1~4 teeth loosening or 1~2 teeth missing patients with periodontal disease, periodontal therapy, in combination with the crown or fixed bridge do permanent splint fixation treatment, observation of 1~5 years, al patients were taken X-ray radiograph. Results the periodontal disease patients before tooth mobility displacement loss associated with the crown or fixed bridge restoration after treatment, loosening control, patients feel comfortable and beautiful, the high degree of satisfaction. Conclusion for patients with periodontal disease before tooth mobility displacement or lack of appropriate indications for the crown or fixed bridge restoration treatment, ef icacy, patient satisfaction, but the doctor must be designed to handle the crown gingival margin or bridge body position, and al ow patients to oral hygiene maintenance, ef ective control of plaque.%目的观察牙周病患者前牙松动移位或缺失用联冠或固定桥修复治疗的效果。方法选取8例前牙1~4颗松动移位或1~2颗缺失的牙周病患者,采用牙周基础治疗后,用联冠或固定桥做恒久夹板固定修复治疗,观察1~5年,所有病例均拍摄X线牙片。结果牙周病患者前牙松动移位缺失用联冠或固定桥修复治疗后,松动移位得到控制,患者感觉舒适美观,其满意度高。结论对牙周病患者前牙松动移位或缺失选择合适的适应症用联冠或固定桥修复治疗,效果肯定,患者满意,但医生一定要设计处理好冠龈缘或桥体位置,并让患者做好口腔卫生维护,有效控制菌斑。

  15. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format....... In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...

  16. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  17. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  18. Zero torque gear head wrench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... copied to a CD. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bright light and a mirror: Remove any dentures Look and feel inside the lips and the ... Early treatment may well be the key to complete recovery. Head, Neck & Oral Cancer Facts The information ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... the body being imaged, send and receive radio waves, producing signals that are detected by the coils. ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. Because they can interfere with the magnetic field ...

  8. New Russian science head named

    CERN Multimedia

    Levitin, C

    2000-01-01

    Ilya Klebanov, a deputy prime minister, has been appointed the country's new head of industrial and scientific policy. He will control the new Ministry for Industry, Science and Technologies (4 paragraphs).

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before ... imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or potentially pose a risk, depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many ... is positioned around the head. If a contrast material will be used in the MRI exam, a ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... head is performed for a number of abrupt onset or long-standing symptoms. It can help diagnose ... often within less than 30 minutes from the onset of symptoms. Risks The MRI examination poses almost ...

  13. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  14. Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symmetrical, but for a variety of reasons the asymmetry becomes less apparent as well. For example, in ... a flattened head does not affect a child's brain growth or cause developmental delays or brain damage. ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) ... contrast material in patients with very poor kidney function. Careful assessment of kidney function before considering a ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  19. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed ...

  1. challenges facing child headed households

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    This research employed qualitative methods to establish the daily experiences ... family support systems that view children as society's future and as an .... children's decision-making in 30 child-headed .... fetching water from nearby boreholes.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  4. Preliminary clinical and radiographic results of large ceramic heads on highly cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, Morteza; Ebrahimpour, Prouskeh Bruce; He, Chuan; Ranawat, Amar S; Ranawat, Chitranjan S

    2011-06-14

    Data are limited regarding large ceramic femoral heads with highly cross-linked polyethylene. We hypothesized that large ceramic head articulation with highly cross-linked polyethylene is safe with a low wear rate, comparable to metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene.The study group comprised 63 patients (72 hips) who had undergone total hip replacement (THR) with ceramic-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene between April 2006 and March 2007 with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Postoperative Western Ontario and Mc-Master Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores were used for clinical assessment. Six-week and 2-year radiographs were analyzed by 2 independent observers using Roman 1.70 software. Twenty-six patients (29 hips) had 32-mm and 37 patients (43 hips) had 36-mm Biolox delta ceramic femoral heads (Ceramtec, Plochingen, Germany). Mean patient age was 60.9 ± 8.9 years, and mean follow-up was 2.9 ± 0.5 years. Mean postoperative WOMAC and HSS hip scores were 30.4 and 36.6, respectively. Mean wear at 1 and 2 years postoperatively was 0.06 ± 0.28 and 0.006 ± 0.12 mm/yr for all hips, respectively. Mean wear at 1 and 2 years postoperatively for the 32-mm femoral head was 0.063 ± 0.278 and 0.007 ± 0.126 mm/yr, respectively, and for the 36-mm femoral head was 0.057 ± 0.292 and 0.006 ± 0.118 mm/yr, respectively. No patient had any clinical complications, such as reoperation, infection, fractures, or radiographic evidence of osteolysis or loosening. The early results of THR with large ceramic heads demonstrate high safety and efficacy. Our data with 2-year follow-up show low wear rates, similar to published data for metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene.

  5. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zahari Taha; Mohd Hasnun Arif Hassan; Iskandar Hasanuddin

    2015-08-01

    Heading occur frequently in soccer games and studies have shown that repetitive heading of the soccer ball could result in degeneration of brain cells and lead to mild traumatic brain injury. This study proposes a two degree-of-freedom linear mathematical model to study the impact of the soccer ball on the brain. The model consists of a mass–spring–damper system, in which the skull, the brain and the soccer ball are modelled as a mass and the neck modelled as a spring–damper system. The proposed model was compared with previous dynamic model for soccer ball-to-head impact. Moreover, it was also validated against drop ball experiment on an instrumented dummy skull and also compared with head acceleration data from previous studies. Comparison shows that our proposed model is capable of describing both the skull and brain accelerations qualitatively and quantitatively. This study shows that a simple linear mathematical model can be useful in giving a preliminary insight on the kinematics of human skull and brain during a ball-to-head impact. The model can be used to investigate the important parameters during soccer heading that affect the brain displacement and acceleration, thus providing better understanding of the mechanics behind it.

  6. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  7. [Illustrations of visceral referred pain. "Head-less" Head's zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, C; Beissner, F

    2011-04-01

    Reviewing anatomical, physiological and neurological standard literature for illustrations of referred visceral pain only one type of illustration can frequently be found, which is referred to as Treves and Keith. In fact, the original illustration as a model for most current pictures stems from the German edition of Sir Frederick Treves' famous book "Surgical Applied Anatomy" from 1914, which was reillustrated for didactical reasons for the German readership. While neither Treves and Keith nor the German illustrator Otto Kleinschmidt ever published any work on referred pain this illustration must have been adapted or copied from older sources by the illustrator. Therefore the comprehensive systematic original works before 1914 were reviewed, namely those of Sir Henry Head and Sir James Mackenzie. Due to the name of the phenomenon in the German literature of Head's zones, the illustrations were expected to be based mainly on Head's work. However, a comparison of all available illustrations led to the conclusion that Kleinschmidt chiefly used information from Mackenzie as a model for his illustration. Due to the inexact reproduction of Mackenzie's work by the illustrator some important features were lost that had been reported by the original authors. These include the phenomenon of Head's maximum points, which nowadays has fallen into oblivion.Therefore current charts, based on the illustration by Kleinschmidt from 1914, lack experimental evidence and appear to be a simplification of the observational results of both Head's and Mackenzie's original systematic works.

  8. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries ... in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries ...

  9. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  10. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyl...

  11. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  12. Magnetic head having a wear-resistant layer, and method of manufacturing such a magnetic head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirne, F.W.A.; Zieren, V.; Broese van Groenou, A.; Oorschot, L.F.M. van; Lasinski, P.; Jongh, M. de; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic head having a head face (5) and comprising a head structure composed of thin layers and provided with a transducing element (E11), in which different materials occurring in different areas are present in the head face. The head face is provided with a first layer (31) of a material which is

  13. 松凝分筋手法治疗膝骨关节病的实验研究%Experimental Research in Treatment of the Osteoarthrosis in Knee Joint by the Hand Skill of Loosening Congealation and Separation Tendon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方苏亭; 王胜利; 王希; 李胜利

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:We had used the hand skill of loosening congealation and separating tendon to treat the osteoarthrosis in knee joint and obtained a satisfied clinical effect. To probe into the mechanism of this method, we had researched the experiment.Method:According to the method of Videman T, knee joints of the sample rabbits had been fixed in straight position by gypsum for 6 weeks as osteoarthrosis model. Divide the sample animals into 3 groups randomly. The hand skill group were treated by the hand skill of loosening congealation and separating tendon every other day; The pharmaceutical contrast group were fed by a half gram of bone joint tonic every day; The blank contrast group were fed only fodder for 6 weeks.Result:In the pharmaceutical contrast group and the blank contrast group, the ill knee activity range of sample rabbits was obviously limited, the joint liquid became abnormal, the synovial membrane was proliferated. And under the microscope, it showed the cartilage cell in joint withered down and the quantity reduced, the cell nucleus concentrated, the cartilage base calcification was hindered; In the hand skill group, the ill knee activity range clearly enlarged, function was well, and there was no obvious difference of the joint liquid property compared with that at healthy side, there was no clear proliferation of synovial membrane and under microscope,the cartilage membrane and the cartilage cell were clear, range was normal,cartilage ossified regularly, clinical effect was notably superior to that of the pharmaceutical contrast group and the blank contrast group.Conclusion:This hand skill has a good effect for accelerating joint cartilage restoration,alleviating synovitis and improving joint function.%目的:松凝分筋手法治疗膝关节骨关节病在临床上取得了满意的疗效,为求证该手法的治疗作用并探讨其机理,进行了该项实验研究。方法:据Videman T的方法将兔膝关节于伸直位石膏固定6周制作

  14. 不同材料人工髋关节关节面磨损对无菌性松动的影响%Effect of articular surface wear of different-material artificial hip joints on aseptic loosening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑾瑛; 肖小燕; 唐方根; 刘建庭

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析各种人工髋关节假体材料在实际应用中的优势和存在的问题,对不同材料人工髋关节关节面的磨损对无菌性松动的影响进行评价.方法:以"生物材料,人工髋关节,假体,髋关节表面置换"为中文关键词,"biological materials,hip,prosthesis,hip resurfacing"为英文关键词,采用计算机检索1990-01/2009-12相关文章.纳入与不同材料人工髋关节关节面的磨损对无菌性松动的影响相关的文章;排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章.结果:人工髋关节的寿命和关节面的磨损密切相关,人工髋关节置换在临床应用研究过程中,出现无菌性松动等问题,这些问题的产生不但与假体的设计有关,而且与假体所用材料有着密切的关系,比较了不同人工髋关节假体材料的性能,为临床选择一种具耐磨损、生物相容性好的理想人工髋关节假体材料提供依据.结论:髋关节假体材料的表面改性和人体髋关节生物摩擦行为是未来研究的热点,髋关节假体材料性能评价体系的完善是亟待解决的问题.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze the advantage and problems of artificial hip joints made of different materials in clinical applications, andto evaluate the effects of articular surface wear on aseptic loosening.METHODS: A computer search of relevant articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 was performed by using thekeywords of “biological materials, hip, prosthesis, hip resurfacing” in Chinese and English. Repetitive studies or Meta analysis wereexcluded.RESULTS: The life of artificial hip joints is closely related to the articular surface wear. The appearance of aseptic loosening is notonly related to the design of prostheses, but also associated with prosthetic materials. Based on the comparison of different hipprosthesis material properties, we provide the basis for the selection of an ideal hip prosthesis material with good wear resistanceand biocompatibility

  15. Is there added risk in resurfacing a femoral head with cysts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral head cysts have been identified as a risk factor for early femoral failures after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA based on limited scientific data. However, we routinely performed HRA if less than 1/3 of the femoral head appeared destroyed by cysts on the preoperative radiograph. This study was undertaken to analyze whether there was an added risk of early femoral failures in HRA when femoral head cysts were present. Methods This retrospective case-control study included 939 MOM HRAs operated by a single surgeon with use of the posterior minimally invasive surgical (MIS approach between November 2005 and January 2009. Patients with all diagnoses except osteonecrosis were included. Among them, 117 HRAs had femoral head cysts ≥ 1 cm identified in surgery. All cysts were treated with bone grafting using acetabular reamings packed into the cavitary defect (instead of filling the cysts with cement. The control group, which had no cyst observed at the time of surgery, was randomly selected from our database using computer algorithms to match those cases in the study group for the parameters of surgical date, age, gender, body mass index, diagnosis, femoral fixation method, and the size of the femoral component. Results The minimum follow-up was 24 months for both groups. The early femoral failure rate in the study group was 3/117 (2.6% and 0/117 in the control group; there was no statistical difference between these two groups (P = 0.08. In the study group, there were two femoral neck fractures (revised: both occurred in patients having a cyst size of 1 cm3; and there was one femoral component loosening at 3-year follow up in a patient having a cyst size of 2 cm3. Conclusion Although the risk of early femoral failures among the group with cysts appeared higher than the group without cysts, we could not demonstrate a significant statistical difference between the two groups. It is possible that bone

  16. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  17. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  18. The Video Head Impulse Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Halmagyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, we introduced impulsive testing of semicircular canal (SCC function measured with scleral search coils and showed that it could accurately and reliably detect impaired function even of a single lateral canal. Later we showed that it was also possible to test individual vertical canal function in peripheral and also in central vestibular disorders and proposed a physiological mechanism for why this might be so. For the next 20 years, between 1988 and 2008, impulsive testing of individual SCC function could only be accurately done by a few aficionados with the time and money to support scleral search-coil systems—an expensive, complicated and cumbersome, semi-invasive technique that never made the transition from the research lab to the dizzy clinic. Then, in 2009 and 2013, we introduced a video method of testing function of each of the six canals individually. Since 2009, the method has been taken up by most dizzy clinics around the world, with now close to 100 refereed articles in PubMed. In many dizzy clinics around the world, video Head Impulse Testing has supplanted caloric testing as the initial and in some cases the final test of choice in patients with suspected vestibular disorders. Here, we consider seven current, interesting, and controversial aspects of video Head Impulse Testing: (1 introduction to the test; (2 the progress from the head impulse protocol (HIMPs to the new variant—suppression head impulse protocol (SHIMPs; (3 the physiological basis for head impulse testing; (4 practical aspects and potential pitfalls of video head impulse testing; (5 problems of vestibulo-ocular reflex gain calculations; (6 head impulse testing in central vestibular disorders; and (7 to stay right up-to-date—new clinical disease patterns emerging from video head impulse testing. With thanks and appreciation we dedicate this article to our friend, colleague, and mentor, Dr Bernard Cohen of Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, who

  19. Head kinematics during shaking associated with abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, T O; Puhulwelle Gamage, N T; Bloomfield, F H; Kelly, P; Finch, M C; Taberner, A J; Nash, M P; Nielsen, P M F

    2015-09-18

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a potentially fatal result of child abuse but the mechanisms of injury are controversial. To address the hypothesis that shaking alone is sufficient to elicit the injuries observed, effective computational and experimental models are necessary. This paper investigates the use of a coupled rigid-body computational modelling framework to reproduce in vivo shaking kinematics in AHT. A sagittal plane OpenSim computational model of a lamb was developed and used to interpret biomechanical data from in vivo shaking experiments. The acceleration of the head during shaking was used to provide in vivo validation of the associated computational model. Results of this study demonstrated that peak accelerations occurred when the head impacted the torso and produced acceleration magnitudes exceeding 200ms(-)(2). The computational model demonstrated good agreement with the experimental measurements and was shown to be able to reproduce the high accelerations that occur during impact. The biomechanical results obtained with the computational model demonstrate the utility of using a coupled rigid-body modelling framework to describe infant head kinematics in AHT.

  20. The Animal Without A Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万钧

    2002-01-01

    Have you ever seen an animal with out a head?there is such an animal! it has no tail or legs ,its body is full of holes it eats and breathes but never moves,it lives under water,the water brings the animal air.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform than other imaging modalities. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  2. Pediatric head injuries from earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lage, Juan F; Almagro, María-José; López-Guerrero, Antonio López; Martínez-Lage Azorín, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    By means of some illustrations, the authors briefly report the effects of some accidental head injuries caused by diverse mechanisms occurring in children. Many of these accidents seem to be preventable, but others are completely unavoidable and escape prevention as the one that is depicted in the cover of this issue.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  4. Neuroelectromagnetic Forward Head Modeling Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Zeynep Akalin; Makeig, Scott

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Neuroelectromagnetic Forward Head Modeling Toolbox (NFT) running under MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc.) for generating realistic head models from available data (MRI and/or electrode locations) and for computing numerical solutions for the forward problem of electromagnetic source imaging. The NFT includes tools for segmenting scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used for the numerical solution of the forward problem. After extracting segmented tissue volumes, surface BEM meshes can be generated. When a subject MR image is not available, a template head model can be warped to measured electrode locations to obtain an individualized head model. Toolbox functions may be called either from a graphic user interface compatible with EEGLAB (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab), or from the MATLAB command line. Function help messages and a user tutorial are included. The toolbox is freely available under the GNU Public License for noncommercial use and open source development. PMID:20457183

  5. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  9. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  10. Soccer heading frequency predicts neuropsychological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witol, Adrienne D; Webbe, Frank M

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated the presence of neuropsychological deficits associated with hitting the ball with one's head (heading) during soccer play. A neuro-cognitive test battery was administered to 60 male soccer players, high school, amateur and professional level, and 12 nonplaying control participants. The effects of currently reported heading behavior as well as that of estimated lifetime heading experience on neuropsychological test performance were examined. Players with the highest lifetime estimates of heading had poorer scores on scales measuring attention, concentration, cognitive flexibility and general intellectual functioning. Players' current level of heading was less predictive of neuro-cognitive level. Comparison of individual scores to age-appropriate norms revealed higher probabilities of clinical levels of impairment in players who reported greater lifetime frequencies of heading. Because of the worldwide popularity of the game, continued research is needed to assess the interaction between heading and soccer experience in the development of neuropsychological deficits associated with soccer play.

  11. Humeral head size in shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaesel, M T; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1998-01-01

    Changes in kinematics after hemiarthroplasty of the glenohumeral joint were investigated in nine cadaveric specimens. During experiments the influence of the humeral head size on glenohumeral kinematics was evaluated. A modular prosthesis with five different head sizes and press-fit stems was used....... Three-dimensional kinematic measurements during abduction and adduction from 0 degree to 70 degrees showed increased external rotation with increasing head size. Small prosthetic heads translated inferiorly and large prosthetic heads superiorly compared with the intact humeral head. During forced...... anterior and posterior translation the mobility is restricted with increasing head size. This study found that when a press-fit prosthesis is used, it takes 1.25 times the volume of the intact humeral head to reconstruct the kinematics of the glenohumeral joint....

  12. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  13. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this? Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How ... Disease Control and Prevention , Â National Center for Injury Prevention and Control , Â Division of Unintentional Injury ...

  14. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Concussion in Youth Sports Training course: This page ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS ...

  15. The Coming Baby Boom after Loosening Birth Control Policy and Its Characteristic in China%“单独二孩政策”实施初期的出生堆积及其特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石人炳

    2014-01-01

    From the beginning of 2014 , China starts to ease its family planning policy , which allows couples to have a second baby if either parent is an only child .The number of the couples of childbearing age that either one is an only child , the proportion that the couples who are permitted to a second birth will really give birth , and the birth timing will be the three fundamental determinants of the post-policy-change baby boom .It is estimated that the couples of childbearing age that either one is an only child are 20 million in the early 2014 in the whole country , the 60% of them will actually give the second birth in a couple of year after the policy change , that will result in a sharp rise of birth.The influence of birth control policy on fertility is deferent in urban and rural area for different women .In order to avoid too large baby boom , some measures should be take to keep off both “policy-loosening caused fertility rise” and “loss of control fertility rise”.%“单独二孩政策”实施初期出生堆积的程度取决于“生育潜能存量”的大小和其释放比例及释放进度。文章根据计生部门的统计资料和已有的对全国“单独育龄妇女”的预测结果进行推算,如果2014年年初全国统一实行单独二孩政策,全国的生育潜能存量将达到约2000万人,其中的60%左右会在政策调整后逐步释放,并主要集中在政策调整的最初几年释放,由此带来的出生堆积不可避免。生育政策调整对不同地区和不同妇女群体的影响有差别,因此,相关管理部门在政策调整初期要通过多种手段降低出生堆积的程度,尤其要避免生育率的“政策性反弹”与“失控性反弹”的叠加。

  16. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, G.H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  17. Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...

  18. Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aljabab, A. S.; Nason, R. W.; Kazi, R; Pathak, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcomas are malignant neoplasms originating from mesodermal tissues and constitute less than 1% of body’s tumors, including those of the head and neck region. 5–15% of adult sarcomas are in the head and neck region (20% from bones and cartilages and 80% in soft tissues). Commonly encountered sarcomas in the head and neck region are - osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma and angiosarcoma. This article reviews the available literature on head and neck sa...

  19. Horizontal plane head stabilization during locomotor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R L; Newton, R A; Carlton, L G

    2001-03-01

    Frequency characteristics of head stabilization were examined during locomotor tasks in healthy young adults(N = 8) who performed normal walking and 3 walking tasks designed to produce perturbations primarily in the horizontal plane. In the 3 walking tasks, the arms moved in phase with leg movement, with abnormally large amplitude, and at twice the frequency of leg movement. Head-in-space angular velocity was examined at the predominant frequencies of trunk motion. Head movements in space occurred at low frequencies ( 4.0 Hz) when the arms moved at twice the frequency of the legs. Head stabilization strategies were determined from head-on-trunk with respect to trunk frequency profiles derived from angular velocity data. During natural walking at low frequencies (head-on-trunk movement was less than trunk movement. At frequencies 3.0 Hz or greater, equal and opposite compensatory movement ensured head stability. When arm swing was altered, compensatory movement guaranteed head stability at all frequencies. Head stabilization was successful for frequencies up to 10.0 Hz during locomotor tasks. Maintaining head stability at high frequencies during voluntary tasks suggests that participants used feedforward mechanisms to coordinate head and trunk movements. Maintenance of head stability during dynamic tasks allows optimal conditions for vestibulo-ocular reflex function.

  20. Head movements while steering around bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Oving, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the determinants of head motions (rotations) when driving around bends were investigated when drivers viewed the scene through a head-mounted display. The scene camera was either fixed or coupled to head motions along 2 or 3 axes of rotation. Eight participants drove around a

  1. Target position relative to the head is essential for predicting head movement during head-free gaze pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Pallus, Adam; G Freedman, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Gaze pursuit is the coordinated movement of the eyes and head that allows humans and other foveate animals to track moving objects. The control of smooth pursuit eye movements when the head is restrained is relatively well understood, but how the eyes coordinate with concurrent head movements when the head is free remains unresolved. In this study, we describe behavioral tasks that dissociate head and gaze velocity during head-free pursuit in monkeys. Existing models of gaze pursuit propose that both eye and head movements are driven only by the perceived velocity of the visual target and are therefore unable to account for these data. We show that in addition to target velocity, the positions of the eyes in the orbits and the retinal position of the target are important factors for predicting head movement during pursuit. When the eyes are already near their limits, further pursuit in that direction will be accompanied by more head movement than when the eyes are centered in the orbits, even when target velocity is the same. The step-ramp paradigm, often used in pursuit tasks, produces larger or smaller head movements, depending on the direction of the position step, while gaze pursuit velocity is insensitive to this manipulation. Using these tasks, we can reliably evoke head movements with peak velocities much faster than the target's velocity. Under these circumstances, the compensatory eye movements, which are often called counterproductive since they rotate the eyes in the opposite direction, are essential to maintaining accurate gaze velocity.

  2. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian A

    2010-01-01

    The biceps brachii muscle and the musculocutaneous nerve of arm are frequent in their variations. A third head of biceps brachii was noted unilaterally during routine anatomy dissection. Variation in musculocutaneous nerve was also seen on the same arm. The evolutionary and functional basis of such variations are discussed. Such variations become relevant during surgical intervention of the arm, especially after humeral fracture with subsequent unusual bone displacements.

  3. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biceps brachii muscle and the musculocutaneous nerve of arm are frequent in their variations. A third head of biceps brachii was noted unilaterally during routine anatomy dissection. Variation in musculocutaneous nerve was also seen on the same arm. The evolutionary and functional basis of such variations are discussed. Such variations become relevant during surgical intervention of the arm, especially after humeral fracture with subsequent unusual bone displacements.

  4. No Difference Between Trabecular Metal Cones and Femoral Head Allografts in Revision TKA: Minimum 5-year Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Nemandra A; Misur, Peter; Garbuz, Donald S; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A

    2017-01-01

    Encouraging clinical results have been reported with the use of femoral head structural allografts and, more recently, trabecular metal cones for the management of large structural defects of the femur and tibia during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, to our knowledge, there are no published studies comparing these two techniques. Compared with bulk allografts, do trabecular metal cones result in (1) better validated outcomes scores; (2) a lower risk of loosening or revision at 5 years; and (3) fewer surgical complications when used for the management of bone loss in revision TKA? Between 2002 and 2008, three surgeons performed 450 TKA revisions, 45 (10%) of which were performed using augmentation of host bone; in those, femoral head allograft was used in 30 (75%) and trabecular metal cones in 15 (25%). From 2002 to 2007, femoral head allografts were used in all patients (28 patients); from 2007 to 2008, trabecular metal augments were used in all patients. There was a period of 1 year (16 knees) in which there was some overlap; during that time, femoral head structural allografts were used in cases in which we were unable to fit the defect or achieve adequate stability with trabecular metal cones. Followup was at a mean of 9 years (range, 5-12 years). No patients were lost to followup. Knee function and quality of life were assessed using the Oxford Knee Score, WOMAC, SF-12, and the UCLA activity score. Radiographs were assessed for signs of loosening. Surgical complications included superficial or deep infections, iatrogenic fractures, symptomatic deep venous thromboses or pulmonary emboli, and blood loss requiring transfusion; these were obtained from our database and from review of patients' charts. The mean Oxford Knee Score in the allograft and trabecular metal cone groups was 91 (SD 10) and 91 (SD 14), respectively (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-94; p = 0.29). Mean WOMAC scores were 94 (SD 10) and 92 (SD 14), respectively (95% CI, 80-105; p

  5. Preventing head and neck injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

    2005-06-01

    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  6. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  7. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  8. Neuropsychiatric sequelae of head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T W

    1992-06-01

    Based on the above review several general points can be highlighted: Head injuries are extremely common, affecting probably close to 2,000,000 people in this country each year. The most common are nonmissile, closed-head injuries, the majority of which occur in association with motor vehicle accidents. Virtually all studies of head injury suggest a peak incidence in the 15 to 24 years of age group. Coarse measures of outcome suggest that the very young and the elderly have poorer outcomes. Because of improved acute care, however, a large number of young, otherwise healthy patients are surviving head injuries with a variety of profound neuropsychiatric sequelae. Because of the mechanics of brain injury in acceleration-deceleration injuries, certain brain injury profiles are common including orbitofrontal, anterior and inferior temporal contusions, and diffuse axonal injury. The latter particularly affects the corpus callosum, superior cerebellar peduncle, basal ganglia, and periventricular white matter. The neuropsychiatric sequelae follow from the above injury profiles. Cognitive impairment is often diffuse with more prominent deficits in rate of information processing, attention, memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem solving. Prominent impulsivity, affective instability, and disinhibition are seen frequently, secondary to injury to frontal, temporal, and limbic areas. In association with the typical cognitive deficits, these sequelae characterize the frequently noted "personality changes" in TBI patients. In addition, these changes can exacerbate premorbid problems with impulse control. Marked difficulties with substance use, sexual expression, and aggression often result. The constellation of symptoms, which make up the postconcussive syndrome, are seen across the whole spectrum of brain injury severity. Even in so-called mild or minor head injury, these symptoms are likely to have an underlying neuropathologic, neurochemical, or neurophysiologic cause

  9. Comparative repeatability of guide-pin axis positioning in computer-assisted and manual femoral head resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, A; Helmy, N; Masri, B A; Greidanus, N V; Inkpen, K B; Duncan, C P; Garbuz, D S; Anglin, C

    2007-10-01

    The orientation of the femoral component in hip resurfacing arthroplasty affects the likelihood of loosening and fracture. Computer-assisted surgery has been shown to improve significantly the surgeon's ability to achieve a desired position and orientation; nevertheless, both bias and variability in positioning remain and can potentially be improved. The authors recently developed a computer-assisted surgical (CAS) technique to guide the placement of the pin used in femoral head resurfacing arthroplasty and showed that it produced significantly less variation than a typical manual technique in varus/valgus placement relative to a preoperatively determined surgical plan while taking a comparable amount of time. In the present study, the repeatability of both the CAS and manual techniques is evaluated in order to estimate the relative contributions to overall variability of surgical technique (CAS versus manual), surgeon experience (novice versus experienced), and other sources of variability (e.g. across specimens and across surgeons). This will enable further improvements in the accuracy of CAS techniques. Three residents/fellows new to femoral head resurfacing and three experienced hip arthroplasty surgeons performed 20-30 repetitions of each of the CAS and manual techniques on at least one of four cadaveric femur specimens. The CAS system had markedly better repeatability (1.2 degrees) in varus/valgus placement relative to the manual technique (2.8 degrees), slightly worse repeatability in version (4.4 degrees versus 3.2 degrees), markedly better repeatability in mid-neck placement (0.7 mm versus 2.5 mm), no significant dependence on surgeon skill level (in contrast to the manual technique), and took significantly less time (50 s versus 123 s). Proposed improvements to the version measurement process showed potential for reducing the standard deviation by almost two thirds. This study supports the use of CAS for femoral head resurfacing as it is quicker than the

  10. Expressiveness of multiple heads in CHR

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giusto, Cinzia; Meo, Maria Chiara

    2008-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are a committed-choice declarative language which has been designed for writing constraint solvers. A CHR program consists of multi-headed guarded rules which allow one to rewrite constraints into simpler ones until a solved form is reached. Many examples in the vast literature on the subject show that multiple heads are important in order to write programs which solve specific problems. On the other hand, the presence of multiples heads complicates considerably the semantics. Therefore, since restricting to single head rules does not affect the Turing completeness of the language, one can legitimately ask whether multiple heads do indeed augment the expressive power of the language. In this paper we answer positively to this question by showing that, under certain reasonable assumptions, it is not possible to encode the CHR language (with multi-headed rules) into a single head language while preserving the intended meaning of programs.

  11. Produtividade de soja e milho após coberturas de inverno e descompactação mecânica do solo Soybean and corn yield after soil winter covers and soil mechanical loosening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Debiasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de coberturas de inverno e da descompactação mecânica do solo sobre o desempenho de soja e milho, em sistema de plantio direto. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul, RS, sobre Argissolo Vermelho compactado, nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007. No primeiro, o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas. Os tratamentos consistiram de duas profundidades teóricas de atuação da haste sulcadora da semeadora (0,06 e 0,12 m, subparcela e de três tipos de coberturas do solo no inverno (parcela: pousio, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa e aveia-preta+ervilhaca (Vicia Sativa. Em 2006, a cobertura aveia-preta+ervilhaca foi substituída por nabo-forrageiro (Raphanus sativus. No segundo experimento, realizado em blocos ao acaso, o solo foi escarificado e os tratamentos consistiram do uso de aveia-preta ou nabo-forrageiro como cobertura de inverno. Os cultivos de cobertura reduziram a compactação superficial do solo (0-0,06 m em comparação ao pousio e, na safra 2006/2007, sob condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica, proporcionaram maior produtividade de milho e soja. Isso não se repetiu em 2006/2007, quando a disponibilidade hídrica foi adequada. O aumento da profundidade de atuação das hastes sulcadoras não influenciou a produtividade da soja e do milho. A escarificação reduziu a produtividade da soja e do milho em relação ao SPD contínuo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil winter covers and soil mechanical loosening on soybean and corn yield, in no-tillage system. Two experiments were carried oud in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, in a compacted Argissolo Vermelho (Haplic Acrisol, in the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons. The first experiment was carried out in a complete block design, with a split plot arrangement. The treatments were two theoretical working depths of a driller chisel-type furrow opener (0.06 and 0

  12. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, A.; Botti, F. M.; Panichi, R.; Barmack, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5–5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, “open loop.” Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during “closed loop” HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement. PMID:21735244

  13. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...... is dissolving and transforming into an evaluative present- and future-oriented update format that resembles the 24-hour newsonly channels. Production time merges with broadcast time so that the uncertainty of live spreads to the dramaturgy....

  14. Head First jQuery

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Want to add more interactivity and polish to your websites? Discover how jQuery can help you build complex scripting functionality in just a few lines of code. With Head First jQuery, you'll quickly get up to speed on this amazing JavaScript library by learning how to navigate HTML documents while handling events, effects, callbacks, and animations. By the time you've completed the book, you'll be incorporating Ajax apps, working seamlessly with HTML and CSS, and handling data with PHP, MySQL and JSON. If you want to learn-and understand-how to create interactive web pages, unobtrusive scrip

  15. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role.

  16. SYNTHESIS OF POLY(VINYLIDENE FLUORIDE) WITH LOW CONTENTS OF HEAD-TO-HEAD CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Youlu; YU Xiuying; XUE Ying; ZENG Miaoying; JI Shanrong

    1983-01-01

    The relations between polymerization conditions of vinylidene fluorideand contents of head-to-head chain in the polymer have been studied. It shows that the contents of head-to-head chain of the polymer are related to its polymerization temperature, but are not related with the kinds of initiators used. Therefore, poly(vinylidene fluoride) with low contents of head-to-head chain (ca. 3%)can be prepared under lower polymerization temperature. Plot of the contents of A chains against melting points of the polymer is linear, which can be expressed by an equation:A = 24.8 + 0.362 Tm(%).

  17. Revisões femorais de artroplastias totais do quadril com afrouxamentos assépticos e fraturas periprotéticas: análise de 49 casos tratados com haste de Wagner Femoral revision total hip arthroplasties with aseptic loosening and periprosthetic fractures: analysis of 49 cases treated with Wagner stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Nogueira Drumond

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar 49 quadris em 48 pacientes submetidos a revisão de artroplastia total do quadril usando a haste de Wagner. MÉTODOS: De abril de 1999 a janeiro de 2005, foram tratados 49 quadris em pacientes portadores de afrouxamento femoral (39 quadris ou fratura periprotética do fêmur (10 quadris com revisão da artroplastia com a prótese de Wagner. O seguimento médio foi de 35 meses e a média de idade, de 63,4 anos. As revisões do componente femoral foram realizadas em 49 quadris e, simultaneamente, no componente acetabular em 36 quadris. RESULTADOS: A avaliação dos resultados pelo índice de D'Aubignè-Postel-Charnley apresentou melhora estatisticamente significante no pós-operatório em relação ao pré-operatório (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 49 hips in 48 patients submitted to revision total hip arthroplasty using Wagner stem. METHODS: From April 1999 to January 2005, 49 hips were treated in patients with femoral loosening (39 hips or periprosthetic fracture of the femur (10 hips with revision arthroplasty using the Wagner prosthesis. Mean follow-up lasted 35 months and mean age was 63.4 years. Revisions of the femoral component were performed in 49 hips, with concomitant acetabular component revision in 36 hips. RESULTS: Results evaluation according to the D'Aubignè-Postel-Charnley index presented a statistically significant improvement in the post-operative period in comparison to the pre-operative period (p < 0.001. The most important problems seen were the high rate of dislocations (three hips and dislocations associated to the deepening of the stem (two hips. The four unsatisfactory results were due to loosening (two hips, infection (one hip, and acetabular loosening (one hip. All of the unsatisfactory results occurred in the group of aseptic loosening, but this finding was not statistically significant (p = 0.569. Restoration of bone stock (radiographic evaluation was seen consistently in most cases, without correlation

  18. A pre-Hispanic head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Bianucci

    Full Text Available This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability. Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS. This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.

  19. Emergency management of head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimel, R W; Jane, J A; Tyson, G W

    1981-03-01

    Sophisticated care of the head injury patient in the emergency department does not demand sophisticated knowledge of neurosurgery. Instead it depends upon: (1) Meticulous attention to the fundamental principles of resuscitation; (B) Prevention of secondary cardiopulmonary abnormalities which can further injure the traumatized brain; (C) Performance of serial neurologic examinations. (In the case of acute head injury, a simple neurologic examination performed repeatedly usually provides the physician with more useful information than a more elaborate examination performed only once). (D) Consultation with the neurosurgeon. If there is any possibility that neurosurgical consultation might enhance the emergency department management of the patient, one should not hesitate to contact him. There is no question that protocols for any phase of emergency management of central nervous system (CNA) trauma are of no values unless there is a high degree of compliance. This can only be achieved through persons dedicated to training emergency medical technicians, nurses and physicians in the optimal care that can be afforded these patients. If advances are to be made in decreasing the morbidity and mortality of the CNS trauma patient, those actively involved in emergency medicine are going to have to take an active role in training programs, seminars and clinical practice for physicians, emergency department nurses, and emergency medical technicians.

  20. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  1. Modeling heading in adult soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ernesto; Ponce, Daniel; Andresen, Max

    2014-01-01

    Heading soccer balls can generate mild brain injuries and in the long run can lead to difficulty in solving problems, memory deficits, and language difficulties. Researchers evaluated the effects on the head for both correct and incorrect heading techniques. They based the head's geometry on medical images. They determined the injury's magnitude by comparing the neurological tissue's resistance with predictions of the generated stresses. The evaluation examined fast playing conditions in adult soccer, taking into account the ball's speed and the type of impact. Mathematical simulations using the finite element method indicated that correctly heading balls arriving at moderate speed presents a low risk of brain injury. However, damage can happen around the third cervical vertebra. These results coincide with medical studies. Incorrect heading greatly increases the brain injury risk and can alter the parietal area.

  2. Does soccer ball heading cause retinal bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, William F; Feldman, Kenneth W; Weiss, Avery H; Tencer, Alan F

    2002-04-01

    To define forces of youth soccer ball heading (headers) and determine whether heading causes retinal hemorrhage. Regional Children's Hospital, youth soccer camp. Male and female soccer players, 13 to 16 years old, who regularly head soccer balls. Dilated retinal examination, after 2-week header diary, and accelerometer measurement of heading a lofted soccer ball. Twenty-one youth soccer players, averaging 79 headers in the prior 2 weeks, and 3 players who did not submit header diaries lacked retinal hemorrhage. Thirty control subjects also lacked retinal hemorrhage. Seven subjects heading the ball experienced linear cranial accelerations of 3.7 +/- 1.3g. Rotational accelerations were negligible. Headers, not associated with globe impact, are unlikely to cause retinal hemorrhage. Correctly executed headers did not cause significant rotational acceleration of the head, but incorrectly executed headers might.

  3. Fusobacterial head and neck infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2015-07-01

    Fusobacterium species are increasingly recognized as a cause of head and neck infections in children. These infections include acute and chronic otitis, sinusitis, mastoiditis, and tonsillitis; peritonsillar and retropharyngeal abscesses; Lemierre syndrome; post-anginal cervical lymphadenitis; and periodontitis. They can also be involved in brain abscess and bacteremia associated with head and neck infections. This review describes the clinical spectrum of head and neck fusobacterial infection in children and their management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Moving your head reduces perisaccadic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziridi, Maria; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2016-10-01

    Flashes presented around the time of a saccade appear to be closer to the saccade endpoint than they really are. The resulting compression of perceived positions has been found to increase with the amplitude of the saccade. In most studies on perisaccadic compression the head is static, so the eye-in-head movement is equal to the change in gaze. What if moving the head causes part of the change in gaze? Does decreasing the eye-in-head rotation by moving the head decrease the compression of perceived positions? To find out, we asked participants to shift their gaze between two positions, either without moving their head or with the head contributing to the change in gaze. Around the time of the saccades we flashed bars that participants had to localize. When the head contributed to the change in gaze, the duration of the saccade was shorter and compression was reduced. We interpret this reduction in compression as being caused by a reduction in uncertainty about gaze position at the time of the flash. We conclude that moving one's head can reduce the systematic mislocalization of flashes presented around the time of saccades.

  5. Eye-head coordination in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, D; Douglas, R M; Volle, M

    1984-12-01

    Gaze is the position of the visual axis in space and is the sum of the eye movement relative to the head plus head movement relative to space. In monkeys, a gaze shift is programmed with a single saccade that will, by itself, take the eye to a target, irrespective of whether the head moves. If the head turns simultaneously, the saccade is correctly reduced in size (to prevent gaze overshoot) by the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). Cats have an oculomotor range (OMR) of only about +/- 25 degrees, but their field of view extends to about +/- 70 degrees. The use of the monkey's motor strategy to acquire targets lying beyond +/- 25 degrees requires the programming of saccades that cannot be physically made. We have studied, in cats, rapid horizontal gaze shifts to visual targets within and beyond the OMR. Heads were either totally unrestrained or attached to an apparatus that permitted short unexpected perturbations of the head trajectory. Qualitatively, similar rapid gaze shifts of all sizes up to at least 70 degrees could be accomplished with the classic single-eye saccade and a saccade-like head movement. For gaze shifts greater than 30 degrees, this classic pattern frequently was not observed, and gaze shifts were accomplished with a series of rapid eye movements whose time separation decreased, frequently until they blended into each other, as head velocity increased. Between discrete rapid eye movements, gaze continued in constant velocity ramps, controlled by signals added to the VOR-induced compensatory phase that followed a saccade. When the head was braked just prior to its onset in a 10 degrees gaze shift, the eye attained the target. This motor strategy is the same as that reported for monkeys. However, for larger target eccentricities (e.g., 50 degrees), the gaze shift was interrupted by the brake and the average saccade amplitude was 12-15 degrees, well short of the target and the OMR. Gaze shifts were completed by vestibularly driven eye movements when the

  6. Research on genetics of rice heading date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Heading date is one of the most important traits for rice adaptation to cultivation area and crop seasons, and it is mainly determined by photoperiod, basic vegetative growth, and temperature of cultivars. The diversity of combinations of photo-sensitive varieties and the basic vegetative, makes the heading date varied. On one hand, this supplies abundant resources for different ecotypes breeding; on the other hand, it complicates the inheritance of heading date. In recent years, transgression of late maturity has often been encountered, especially between indica and japonica subspecies, this had inhabited the use of hybrid vigor. Therefore, understanding the inheritance basis of heading date is very important for breeding practices.

  7. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kee Jeong [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ''Buttonholing'' of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. (orig.)

  8. Office of Head Start (OHS) Head Start Center Locations Search Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) web based search tool for finding Head Start program office contact information. Searchable by location, grant number or center type....

  9. Facilitation of visual perception in head direction: visual attention modulation based on head direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Nakashima

    Full Text Available People usually see things using frontal viewing, and avoid lateral viewing (or eccentric gaze where the directions of the head and eyes are largely different. Lateral viewing interferes with attentive visual search performance, probably because the head is directed away from the target and/or because the head and eyes are misaligned. In this study, we examined which of these factors is the primary one for interference by conducting a visual identification experiment where a target was presented in the peripheral visual field. The critical manipulation was the participants' head direction and fixation position: the head was directed to the fixation location, the target position, or the opposite side of the fixation. The performance was highest when the head was directed to the target position even when there was misalignment of the head and eye, suggesting that visual perception can be influenced by both head direction and fixation position.

  10. Image data rate converter having a drum with a fixed head and a rotatable head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A data-rate converter is disclosed comprising a rotatable data-storing drum with at least one fixed read/record head and a rotatable read/record head. The latter is rotatable in a circular path about the drum axis of rotation. The drum is positionable in any one of a plurality of axial positions with respect to the heads, so that at least one drum track is aligned with the fixed head in one drum position and with the rotatable head in another drum position. When a track is aligned with the fixed head, data may be recorded therin or read out therefrom at a rate which is a function of drum rotation, while when aligned with the rotatable head, data may be recorded or read out at a rate which is a function of the rates and directions of rotation of both the drum and the head.

  11. Tolerance of the Head and Neck to -Gx Inertial Loading of the Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-09

    0.270 ms depen- ding on head-neck orientation , On the other hand, field collision data indi-, caes insignificant head-neck injuries of belted...ms depending on head-neck orientation . On the other hand, field collision data indicates insignificant head-- neck injuries of belted passengers from...C2 on the medio - ventral surface of the cervical spinal cord. They attributed the mechanism to a sharp flexion of the cord around the odontoid

  12. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  13. Natural head position: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, N; Tamizharasi, S; Senthilkumar, K P; Janardhanan, K

    2015-08-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario.

  14. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  15. Eye-head coordination abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye-movement abnormalities in schizophrenia are a well-established phenomenon that has been observed in many studies. In such studies, visual targets are usually presented in the center of the visual field, and the subject's head remains fixed. However, in every-day life, targets may also appear in the periphery. This study is among the first to investigate eye and head movements in schizophrenia by presenting targets in the periphery of the visual field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two different visual recognition tasks, color recognition and Landolt orientation tasks, were presented at the periphery (at a visual angle of 55° from the center of the field of view. Each subject viewed 96 trials, and all eye and head movements were simultaneously recorded using video-based oculography and magnetic motion tracking of the head. Data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were considered. The patients had similar saccadic latencies in both tasks, whereas controls had shorter saccadic latencies in the Landolt task. Patients performed more head movements, and had increased eye-head offsets during combined eye-head shifts than controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with schizophrenia may not be able to adapt to the two different tasks to the same extent as controls, as seen by the former's task-specific saccadic latency pattern. This can be interpreted as a specific oculomotoric attentional dysfunction and may support the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have difficulties determining the relevance of stimuli. Patients may also show an uneconomic over-performance of head-movements, which is possibly caused by alterations in frontal executive function that impair the inhibition of head shifts. In addition, a model was created explaining 93% of the variance of the response times as a function of eye and head amplitude, which was only observed in the controls, indicating abnormal eye-head coordination in patients

  16. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  17. The main cause and countermeasure of internal fixation loosening and disruption in the treatment of thoracolumbar fracture with vertebra pedicle screw-rod system%椎弓根钉棒系统治疗胸腰段椎体骨折术后松动断裂的原因及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲川成; 冉学军; 邓长青; 覃勇志; 周勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析脊柱后路椎弓根钉棒系统内固定治疗胸腰段椎体骨折术后松动、断裂的原因,探讨防治对策.方法 426例行后路椎弓根钉棒系统内固定治疗的胸腰椎骨折患者中,术后21例发生内固定松动、断裂,其中11例进行手术翻修,10例采取保守观察治疗.结果 21例均获随访,时间8~36个月.患者均骨性愈合,未再次发生内固定物松动及断钉、断棒.结论 经后路椎弓根钉棒系统内固定术治疗胸腰段椎体骨折,撑开复位后致骨折椎体"蛋壳样"变,未植骨填充所导致的前柱不实、后柱植骨融合不良、椎弓根钉棒系统安置不当内部自身产生较大的应力及术后脊柱负重过早是钉棒松动、断裂的主要原因.通过对伤椎前后柱进行充分植骨,提高椎体的骨性愈合速度和质量,及尽可能保留后柱小关节结构,增加脊柱稳定性,可明显降低内固定物松动、断裂的发生率.%Objective To explore the main cause and countenneasure of internal fixation loosening and disruption in the treatment of thoracolumbar fracture with pedicle screw-rod system. Methods A retrospective review was made in 426 patients with thoracolumbar fractures who fixed with pedicle screw-rod system. There were 2f cases with internal fixation loosening and disruption, f f cases were undergone revisions and the other fO cases were treated conservatively. Results 2f cases were followed up for 8~36 months. All of these cases recovered without fixation loosening and disruption. Conclusions The " shell-like change after vertebral fractures distraction reduction without bone graft leads to anterior column weakness. No posterior bone graft, and wrong pedicle screw-rod system insertion leads to excessive stress force on internal fixator itself, and premature vertebral column weight-bearing were the main reasons of pedicle screw-rod system loosening and disruption in the treatment of thoracolumbar vertebral fracture with the

  18. The Role of the Primary School Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lester

    1987-01-01

    This study uses Henry Mintzberg's structural observation method to examine British primary school head teachers' work patterns and determine the nature of their role. Head teachers' days were characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation similar to those discussed in findings of other empirical managerial studies. Leadership roles stressed…

  19. Evaluation of head and neck postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the literature and two experiments on the evaluation of head and neck postures. It is concluded that health and safety professiona1s and ergonomists during posture evaluation should consider neck flexion/extension (head vs. trunk), besides the traditionally used inclination of t

  20. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes] Heads Up! [Podcast: 0:59 seconds]; in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard ... minutes] Heads Up! [Podcast: 0:59 seconds]; in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard ...

  1. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role o...

  2. "Starfish" Heater Head For Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, N.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed "starfish" heater head for Stirling engine enables safe use of liquid sodium as heat-transfer fluid. Sodium makes direct contact with heater head but does not come in contact with any structural welds. Design concept minimizes number of, and simplifies nonstructural thermal welds and facilitates inspection of such welds.

  3. Outcome after complicated minor head injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Hunink, M.G.; Rijssel, DA van; Dekker, H.M.; Vos, P.E.; Kool, D.R.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Hofman, P.A.; Twijnstra, A.; Tanghe, H.L.; Dippel, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional outcome in patients with minor head injury with neurocranial traumatic findings on CT is largely unknown. We hypothesized that certain CT findings may be predictive of poor functional outcome. Materials and METHODS: All patients from the CT in Head Injury Patients

  4. Ultrasound examination of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Baatenburg de Jong (Robert Jan); R.J. Rongen (Robert Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractStructure of this thesis Part I deals with basic bio-physics and bio-effects of clinical ultrasound of the head and neck. Furthermore, the ultrasound anatomy of the head and neck is described and illustrated. In addition, the technique of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (

  5. Evaluation of head and neck postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the literature and two experiments on the evaluation of head and neck postures. It is concluded that health and safety professiona1s and ergonomists during posture evaluation should consider neck flexion/extension (head vs. trunk), besides the traditionally used inclination of

  6. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  7. Public knowledge of head and neck cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T E

    2010-04-01

    Studies show 60% of patients with newly diagnosed Head & Neck Squamous Cell Cancer in Ireland, present with advanced disease. A poor level of knowledge and awareness among the public of Head & Neck Cancer, is an important consideration in the often delayed presentation for medical attention in many of these cases. Our study surveyed 200 members of the public to assess their knowledge and awareness of Head & Neck Cancer. One hundred and forty (70%) of respondents had never encountered the term "Head & Neck Cancer". One hundred and forty six (73%) failed to identify excessive alcohol consumption as a risk factor. Less than 100 (50%) would have concern about persisting hoarseness or a prolonged oral ulcer. An urgent need exists to raise awareness of Head & Neck Cancer among the public in Ireland.

  8. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  9. Bobbling head in a young subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bobble-head Doll Syndrome is a rare and unique movement disorder found in children. Clinically, it is characterized by a to and fro or side to side movement of the head at the frequency of 2 to 3 Hz. It is mostly associated with cystic lesions around the third ventricle, choroid plexus papilloma, aqueductal stenosis and other rare disorders. An eleven year old child presented in the outpatient department with continuous to and fro movement of the head and declining vision for the last one month. MRI Scan showed a large contrast-enhanced lesion in the region of the third ventricle along with gross hydrocephalus. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted and the movements of the head disappeared completely. Bobble-head doll syndrome is a rare condition and therefore this case is presented and the literature reviewed.

  10. Tracking of human head with particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chao

    2009-01-01

    To cope with the problem of tracking a human head in a complicated scene, we propose a method that adopts human skin color and hair color integrated with a kind of particle filter named condensation algorithm. Firstly, a novel method is presented to set up human head color model using skin color and hair color separately based on region growing. Compared with traditional human face model, this method is more precise and works well when human turns around and the face disappears in the image. Then a novel method is presented to use color model in condensation algorithm more effectively. In this method, a combination of edge detection result, color segmentation result and color edge detection result in an Omega window is used to measure the scale and position of human head in condensation. Experiments show that this approach can track human head in complicated scene even when human turns around or the distance of tracking a human head changes quickly.

  11. Head positioning for anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Chaddad-Neto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the ideal patient's head positioning for the anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery. Method We divided the study in two parts. Firstly, 10 fresh cadaveric heads were positioned and dissected in order to ideally expose the anterior circulation aneurysm sites. Afterwards, 110 patients were submitted to anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery. During the surgery, the patient's head was positioned accordingly to the aneurysm location and the results from the cadaveric study. The effectiveness of the position was noted. Results We could determine mainly two patterns for head positioning for the anterior circulation aneurysms. Conclusion The best surgical exposure is related to specific head positions. The proper angle of microscopic view may minimize neurovascular injury and brain retraction.

  12. 木质素与生物燃料生产:降低含量或解除束缚?%To Make Biofuel:Cutting the Lignin or Loosening Lignin’s Grip?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟; 杨阳; 张晓强; 姜少俊; 宋瑜; 周海辰; 金樑

    2015-01-01

    , considerable genetic improvements can be expected through traditional breeding program or down regulation the levels of enzymes involved in the reactions specific for lignin monomer synthesis, which would reduce the amount of chemicals and energy used in pretreatment in lignocellulosic biorefinery. Furthermore, to explore the optimization of lignocellulose characters and the possibility of increased biofuel production rate, the technological means of biological refining pretreatment, transformation and biofuel production have been discussed for overcoming the cost barrier of lignocellulosic biomass utilization in the purpose of loosening lignin’s grip. Several different pretreatment and fractionation processes such as acid, alkaline and organic solvent hydrolysis can be used for treatment of lignocellulosic materials. And successful pretreatment can significantly improve the hydrolysis and increase the yield of bioethanol. In addition, the perspectives on hot issues and biofuel industry involved in studies of lignin were discussed.

  13. Neck strength imbalance correlates with increased head acceleration in soccer heading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezman, Zachary D W; Ledet, Eric H; Kerr, Hamish A

    2013-07-01

    Soccer heading is using the head to directly contact the ball, often to advance the ball down the field or score. It is a skill fundamental to the game, yet it has come under scrutiny. Repeated subclinical effects of heading may compound over time, resulting in neurologic deficits. Greater head accelerations are linked to brain injury. Developing an understanding of how the neck muscles help stabilize and reduce head acceleration during impact may help prevent brain injury. Neck strength imbalance correlates to increasing head acceleration during impact while heading a soccer ball. Observational laboratory investigation. Sixteen Division I and II collegiate soccer players headed a ball in a controlled indoor laboratory setting while player motions were recorded by a 14-camera Vicon MX motion capture system. Neck flexor and extensor strength of each player was measured using a spring-type clinical dynamometer. Players were served soccer balls by hand at a mean velocity of 4.29 m/s (±0.74 m/s). Players returned the ball to the server using a heading maneuver at a mean velocity of 5.48 m/s (±1.18 m/s). Mean neck strength difference was positively correlated with angular head acceleration (rho = 0.497; P = 0.05), with a trend toward significance for linear head acceleration (rho = 0.485; P = 0.057). This study suggests that symmetrical strength in neck flexors and extensors reduces head acceleration experienced during low-velocity heading in experienced collegiate players. Balanced neck strength may reduce head acceleration cumulative subclinical injury. Since neck strength is a measureable and amenable strength training intervention, this may represent a modifiable intrinsic risk factor for injury.

  14. Sex differences in head acceleration during heading while wearing soccer headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Ryan T; Higgins, Michael; Caswell, Shane V; Brady, Jessica; McHardy, Krista; Driban, Jeffrey B; Darvish, Kurosh

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have indicated that female soccer players may be at greater risk of concussion compared with their male counterparts. Soccer headgear is marketed for reducing head acceleration and risk of concussion. To determine the effect of sex and soccer headgear on head impact kinematics and dynamic stabilization during soccer heading. Cross-sectional design. Research laboratory. Forty-four college-aged soccer players (29 women, 15 men). Using a head impact model, participants performed 4 soccer headers under 3 headgear conditions (control, Head Blast Soccer Band, and Full90 Select Performance Headguard). Dependent variables assessed before soccer heading were head-neck anthropometrics and isometric neck muscle strength, and those assessed during soccer headers were resultant linear head acceleration, Head Injury Criteria (HIC(36)), and superficial neck muscle electromyography. Statistical analyses included multivariate and univariate analyses of variance with repeated measures, independent-samples t tests, appropriate follow-up analyses of variance and post hoc t tests, and Pearson product moment correlations (alpha = .05). Head acceleration in women was 32% and 44% greater than in men when wearing the Head Blast (21.5 g versus 16.3 g) and Full90 Select (21.8 g versus 15.2 g), respectively (P head accelerations (20.2 g versus 18.2 g) during the control condition (P = .164). Female soccer players exhibited greater head accelerations than their male counterparts when wearing headgear. Our results are important clinically because they indicate that soccer headgear may not be an appropriate head injury prevention tool for all athletes.

  15. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  16. NEUROENDOCRINE DISTURBANCES FOLLOWING HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the main causes of death and disability in young adults, with consequences ranging from physical disabilities to long - term cognitive, behavioural, psychological and social defects. Recently, c linical evidence has demonstrated that TBI may frequently cause hypothalamic – pituitary dysfunction, probably contributing to a delayed or hampered recovery from TBI. CASE REPORT: 32 year s old female presented with a history of fall from two wheeler on back hitting the head on occipital region with no history of vomiting, loss of consciousness, ENT bleed. Her GCS was 15/15. Patient was asymptomatic and was discharged from hospital on fifth day. Seven days after discharge patient again presented with heavine ss in her both breasts associated with pain and whitish discharge from both the nipples and mild fever since last two days. CONCLUSION: TBI is a public health problem that requires more effective strategies to improve the outcome and minimize disability of the affected patients. Changes in pituitary hormone secretion may be observed during the acute phase post - TBI, representing part of the acute adaptive response to the injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances, caused by damage to the pituitary and/or hypothalam us, is a frequent complication of TBI and may occur at any time after the acute event. Pituitary dysfunction presents more frequently as an isolated, and more rarely as a complete, deficiency.

  17. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  18. Toxicological Assessment of ABATE (Tradename) (0,0,0’,0’-Tetramethyl-0,0’-Thio-Di-P-Phenylene Phosphorothioate) Administered Orally and Dermally to Mated and Nonmated Female Rabbits, April 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-02

    The body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus (). (2) The head louse, Pediculus humanus cepitis (DeGeer). (3) The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis (L). b. To...means of an intravenous overdose of barbiturate. At this time, the brains were removed from two fetuses from each litter for the determination of brain...Animals of all groups were received In good condition and showed a smooth, shiny hair coat. A few had diarrhea for 2-3 days after arrival, but this

  19. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stepehen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2015-01-27

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  20. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen; McGraw, Gregory

    2016-02-02

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  1. Linear and angular head accelerations during heading of a soccer ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Rosanne S; Bayly, Philip V; Standeven, John; Neubauer, Jeremy S; Lewis, Larry M; Genin, Guy M

    2003-08-01

    Cognitive deficits observed in professional soccer players may be related to heading of a soccer ball. To assess the severity of a single instance of heading a soccer ball, this study experimentally and theoretically evaluated the linear and angular accelerations experienced by the human head during a frontal heading maneuver. Accelerations were measured using a set of three triaxial accelerometers mounted to the head of each of four adult male subjects. These measurements (nine signals) were used to estimate the linear acceleration of the mass center and the angular acceleration of the head. Results were obtained for ball speeds of 9 and 12 m.s(-1) (approximately 20 and 26 mph). A simple mathematical model was derived for comparison. At 9 m.s(-1), peak linear acceleration of the head was 158 +/- 19 m.s(-2) (mean +/- standard deviation) and peak angular acceleration was 1302 +/- 324 rad.s(-2); at 12 m.s(-1), the values were 199 +/- 27 m.s-2 and 1457 +/- 297 rad.s-2, respectively. The initial acceleration pulses lasted approximately 25 ms. Measured head accelerations confirmed laboratory headform measurements reported in the literature and fell within the ranges predicted by the theoretical model. Linear and angular acceleration levels for a single heading maneuver were well below those thought to be associated with traumatic brain injury, as were computed values of the Gadd Severity Index and the Head Injury Criterion. However, the effect of repeated acceleration at this relatively low level is unknown.

  2. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head: diagnosis and classification systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Ho-Rim; Steinberg, Marvin E; Y. Cheng, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of femoral head is a rare but disabling condition that usually results in progressive femoral head collapse and secondary arthritis necessitating total hip arthroplasty if not treated...

  3. [Mild head injuries in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Heinrich W; Jung-Schmidsfeld, Jochen; Pienaar, Simon

    2017-07-01

    In the elderly, particularly those over 80 years old, head injuries often occur as a result of falls. The majority suffer from mild head injury. After clarification of the initial symptoms in these patients, the main aim is to recognize or exclude intracranial injuries (bleeding). Demonstration of intracranial bleeding is possible with cranial computed tomography (CCT), which in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be quickly carried out in most cases; however, most patients with mild head injury show no intracranial bleeding. The performance of CCT and the often necessary hospital admission place a severe physical and psychological burden on the elderly. The plasma parameter S100B, combined with the clinical findings, is a valuable instrument for decision making in the management of elderly patients with mild head injury.

  4. Head development. Craniofacial genetics makes headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J M

    1995-04-01

    Studies of neural crest migration in animal models, and of human syndromes in which craniofacial development is abnormal, are helping us to understand both prenatal and postnatal development of the head.

  5. Bathymetry--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  6. Contours-Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" / Triin Thalheim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thalheim, Triin, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    George Clooney mängufilm "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" ("Good Night, and Good Luck") teleajakirjanik Edward R. Murrow võitlusest senaator Joseph McCarthy vastu. Lisatud "Filmi ajaloolised võtmetegelased"

  8. Efficient Cluster Head Selection Algorithm for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network (MANET cluster head selection is considered a gigantic challenge. In wireless sensor network LEACH protocol can be used to select cluster head on the bases of energy, but it is still a dispute in mobil ad hoc networks and especially when nodes are itinerant. In this paper we proposed an efficient cluster head selection algorithm (ECHSA, for selection of the cluster head efficiently in Mobile ad hoc networks. We evaluate our proposed algorithm through simulation in OMNet++ as well as on test bed; we experience the result according to our assumption. For further evaluation we also compare our proposed protocol with several other protocols like LEACH-C and consequences show perfection.

  9. "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" / Triin Thalheim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thalheim, Triin, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    George Clooney mängufilm "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" ("Good Night, and Good Luck") teleajakirjanik Edward R. Murrow võitlusest senaator Joseph McCarthy vastu. Lisatud "Filmi ajaloolised võtmetegelased"

  10. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... casings. This is difficult to distinguish with the naked eye. Nymph form. (CDC Photo) Nymph: A nymph ... with your local and state health departments to see if they have such recommendations. More on: Head ...

  11. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  12. Contours-Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Habitat--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  14. Transfer Pricing; Charging of head office costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    The key issues discussed in this presentation are (1) What are head office costs?, (2) Why is the charging an area of concern for international companies?, (3) Which part of head office costs should be charged?, (4) OECD guidelines on charging. Head office costs are classified as Shareholder costs, Stewardship costs, Costs related to a specific subsidiary or group of subsidiaries (on call), and Costs related to operational activities in the parent company. The OECD reports of 1984 and 1996 are discussed. In Norsk Hydro's experience, the practising of the OECD guidelines by national authorities are confusing and not consistent over time or across borders. To get a better understanding of how charging of corporate head office costs are dealt with on an international level, Norsk Hydro asked Deloitte and Touche in London to carry out a study on international companies' behaviour. Their conclusions are included.

  15. Engineering science and mechanics department head named

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Ishwar K. Puri, professor of mechanical engineering and executive associate dean of engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago, will become the head of Virginia Tech•À_ó»s Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics Aug. 1.

  16. Habitat--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  17. Head Start Program Information Report (HSPIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about children enrolled in the Head Start program and information about their families. Data about the children include: age, type of program attended,...

  18. Changing from Sears to LC Subject Headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadlich, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses factors that might induce a library to consider changing from Sears to Library of Congress subject headings and provides a quantitative evaluation of the compatibility of the two. (Author/FM)

  19. Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering appointed

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    Kenneth S. Ball, professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, will become the head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering in Virginia Tech's College of Engineering Aug. 1.

  20. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn More about the Brain and How it Works Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” Educational ... American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation American College of Sports Medicine American Medical Society for Sports ...

  1. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn More about the Brain and How it Works Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” Educational ... Chapel Hill May Clinic MSU, Institute for the Study of Youth Sports National Academy of Neuropsychology National ...

  2. Radiation-induced femoral head necrosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-25

    Mar 25, 2011 ... osteonecrosis of the femoral head, following radiotherapy for a squamous cell .... therapy, alcoholism, gout/hyperuricemia, and idiopathic osteonecrosis. ... 15 pediatric patients treated for cancer in a major pediatric oncology ...

  3. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering appointed

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    Kenneth S. Ball, professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, will become the head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering in Virginia Tech's College of Engineering Aug. 1.

  5. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionals Learn More about the Brain and How it Works Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” ... Enter your full name as you'd like it to appear on your completion certificate. Name: Submit

  6. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  7. Large head metal-on-metal cementless total hip arthroplasty versus 28mm metal-on-polyethylene cementless total hip arthroplasty: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raaij Jos JAM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the hip is successfully treated by total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-polyethylene articulation. Polyethylene wear debris can however lead to osteolysis, aseptic loosening and failure of the implant. Large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty may overcome polyethylene wear induced prosthetic failure, but can increase systemic cobalt and chromium ion concentrations. The objective of this study is to compare two cementless total hip arthroplasties: a conventional 28 mm metal-on-polyethylene articulation and a large head metal-on-metal articulation. We hypothesize that the latter arthroplasties show less bone density loss and higher serum metal ion concentrations. We expect equal functional scores, greater range of motion, fewer dislocations, fewer periprosthetic radiolucencies and increased prosthetic survival with the metal-on-metal articulation. Methods A randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Patients to be included suffer from non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease of the hip, are aged between 18 and 80 and are admitted for primary cementless unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Patients in the metal-on-metal group will receive a cementless titanium alloy acetabular component with a cobalt-chromium liner and a cobalt-chromium femoral head varying from 38 to 60 mm. Patients in the metal-on-polyethylene group will receive a cementless titanium alloy acetabular component with a polyethylene liner and a 28 mm cobalt-chromium femoral head. We will assess acetabular bone mineral density by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, serum ion concentrations of cobalt, chromium and titanium, self reported functional status (Oxford hip score, physician reported functional status and range of motion (Harris hip score, number of dislocations and prosthetic survival. Measurements will take place preoperatively, perioperatively, and postoperatively (6 weeks, 1 year, 5 years and 10 years. Discussion

  8. Schwannomas of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Kanatas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign encapsulated nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells. Malignant change in head and neck schwannomas is rare, with the incidence varying between 8 and 13.9%. In this review, we discuss the presentation and the management of head and neck schwannomas. The issues and difficulties based on our own experience as well as the experience of published reports from the literature are presented.

  9. Imaging of accidental paediatric head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Phua Hwee [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Lim, Choie Cheio Tchoyoson [National Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neuroradiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-05-15

    Head trauma is the most common form of injury sustained in serious childhood trauma and remains one of the top three causes of death despite improved road planning and safety laws. CT remains the first-line investigation for paediatric head trauma, although MRI may be more sensitive at picking up the full extent of injuries and may be useful for prognosis. Follow-up imaging should be tailored to answer the specific clinical question and to look for possible complications. (orig.)

  10. Learning toward practical head pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Gaoli; He, Feixiang; Zhu, Rong; Xuan, Shibin

    2017-08-01

    Head pose is useful information for many face-related tasks, such as face recognition, behavior analysis, human-computer interfaces, etc. Existing head pose estimation methods usually assume that the face images have been well aligned or that sufficient and precise training data are available. In practical applications, however, these assumptions are very likely to be invalid. This paper first investigates the impact of the failure of these assumptions, i.e., misalignment of face images, uncertainty and undersampling of training data, on head pose estimation accuracy of state-of-the-art methods. A learning-based approach is then designed to enhance the robustness of head pose estimation to these factors. To cope with misalignment, instead of using hand-crafted features, it seeks suitable features by learning from a set of training data with a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), such that the training data can be best classified into the correct head pose categories. To handle uncertainty and undersampling, it employs multivariate labeling distributions (MLDs) with dense sampling intervals to represent the head pose attributes of face images. The correlation between the features and the dense MLD representations of face images is approximated by a maximum entropy model, whose parameters are optimized on the given training data. To estimate the head pose of a face image, its MLD representation is first computed according to the model based on the features extracted from the image by the trained DCNN, and its head pose is then assumed to be the one corresponding to the peak in its MLD. Evaluation experiments on the Pointing'04, FacePix, Multi-PIE, and CASIA-PEAL databases prove the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Neuropsychological sequelae of minor head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J T; Macciocchi, S N; Giordani, B; Rimel, R; Jane, J A; Boll, T J

    1983-11-01

    Seventy-one patients with minor head injury were given extensive neuropsychological evaluations 3 months after injury. A significant percentage of the patients demonstrated cognitive impairment, which seemed essentially unrelated to the length of unconsciousness or of posttraumatic amnesia. Impaired patients evidenced memory and visuospatial deficits. Cognitively impaired patients also had difficulty returning to work after injury. The psychological and cognitive impairment that follows minor head injury is discussed in relation to diagnostic and intervention issues.

  12. Overhead shoulder press – In-front of the head or behind the head?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. McKean

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Shoulder ROM was within passive ROM for all measures except external rotation for males with the behind the head technique. To avoid possible injury passive ROM should be increased prior to behind the head protocol. Females showed greater spine movements, suggesting trunk strengthening may assist overhead pressing techniques. For participants with normal trunk stability and ideal shoulder ROM, overhead pressing is a safe exercise (for the shoulder and spine when performed either in-front of or behind the head.

  13. Modulation of Head Movement Control During Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Verstraete, Mary C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of the head relative to the trunk within a gait cycle during gaze fixation. Nine normal subjects walked on a motorized treadmill driven at 1.79 m/sec (20 s trials) while fixing their gaze on a centrally located earth-fixed target positioned at a distance of 2m from their eyes. The relative motion of the head and the net torque acting on it relative to the trunk during the gait cycle were used as measures of coordination. It was found that the net torque applied to the head counteracts the destabilizing forces acting on the upper body during locomotion. The average net torque impulse was significantly different (p less than 0.05) between the heel strike and swing phases and were found to be symmetrical between the right and left leg events of the gait cycle. However, the average net displacement of the head relative to the trunk was maintained uniform (p greater than 0.05) throughout the gait cycle. Thus, the coordination of the motion of the head relative to the trunk during walking is dynamically modulated depending on the behavioral events occurring in the gait cycle. This modulation may serve to aid stabilization of the head by counteracting the force variations acting on the upper body that may aid in the visual fixing of targets during walking.

  14. Cold head maintenance with minimal service interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovinsky, A. L.; Michael, P. C.; Zhukovsky, A.; Forton, E.; Paradis, Y.; Nuttens, V.; Minervini, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    Turn-key superconducting magnet systems are increasingly conduction-cooled by cryogenerators. Gifford-McMahon systems are reliable and cost effective, but require annual maintenance. A usual method of servicing is replacing the cold head of the cryocooler. It requires a complicated design with a vacuum chamber separate from the main vacuum of the cryostat, as well as detachable thermal contacts, which add to the thermal resistance of the cooling heat path and reduce the reliability of the system. We present a rapid warm-up scheme to bring the cold head body, which remains rigidly affixed to the cold mass, to room temperature, while the cold mass remains at cryogenic temperature. Electric heaters thermally attached to the cold head stations are used to warm them up, which permits conventional cold head maintenance with no danger of contaminating the inside of the cold head body. This scheme increases the efficiency of the cooling system, facilitates annual maintenance of the cold head and returning the magnet to operation in a short time.

  15. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  16. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  17. Protection of the side of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, A; Mills, N J

    1996-07-01

    The side of the head is a frequent impact site for pedal cyclists, motorcyclists, and industrial workers. It is vulnerable to impact, yet many helmet standards do not have impact tests at the side of the helmet. Laboratory impact tests should reproduce the phenomena in real impacts, but usually they do not allow the headform to rotate, or ignore the effect of the neck on the motion of the head. The authors designed a linkage, simulating the flexibility of the neck, for use with anthropomorphic dummies in helmet testing. Impacts at the side of the helmet, normal to the helmet surface, were made with flat and hemispherical strikers. Head rotation during impacts caused the impact site to move, in some cases to below the level protected by the helmet. The peak angular head acceleration correlated with the peak linear accelerations. Neck flexibility means that helmets can protect the head from higher kinetic energy impacts than those specified in standards using immovable headforms or impact anvils. The load spreading efficiency of polypropylene foam, used in soft shell bicycle helmets, is better than that of polystyrene foam. The authors conclude that the side of the head can be protected by a suitable helmet design.

  18. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.

  19. Heading in Soccer: Integral Skill or Grounds for Cognitive Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how purposeful heading of soccer balls and head injuries affect soccer players' cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive deficits may occur for many reasons. Heading cannot be blamed when details of the actual event and impact are unknown. Concussions are the most common head injury in soccer and a factor in cognitive deficits and are probably…

  20. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  1. Head injuries: a study evaluating the impact of the NICE head injury guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Z; Smith, M; Littlewood, S; Bouamra, O; Hughes, D; Biggin, C; Amos, K; Mendelow, A; Lecky, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: The NICE head injury guidelines recommend a different approach in the management of head injury patients. It suggests that CT head scan should replace skull x ray (SXR) and observation/admission as the first investigation. We wished to determine the impact of NICE on SXR, CT scan, and admission on all patients with head injury presenting to the ED setting and estimate the cost effectiveness of these guidelines, which has not been quantified to date. Design: Study of head injury patients presenting to two EDs before and after implementation of NICE guidelines Methods: The rate of SXR, CT scan, and admission were determined six months before and one month after NICE implementation in both centres. The before study also looked at predicted rates had NICE been applied. This enabled predicted and actual cost effectiveness to be determined. Result: 1130 patients with head injury were studied in four 1 month periods (two in each centre). At the teaching hospital, the CT head scan rate more than doubled (3% to 7%), the SXR declined (37% to 4%), while the admission rate more than halved (9% to 4%). This represented a saving of £3381 per 100 head injury patients: greater than predicted with no adverse events. At the District General Hospital, the CT head scan rate more than quadrupled (1.4% to 9%), the SXR dropped (19 to 0.57%), while the admission rate declined (7% to 5%). This represented a saving of £290 per 100 head injury patients: less than predicted. Conclusion: The implementation of the NICE guidelines led to a two to fivefold increase in the CT head scan rate depending on the cases and baseline departmental practice. However, the reduction in SXR and admission appears to more than offset these costs without compromising patient outcomes. PMID:16299190

  2. Overhead shoulder press-In-front of the head or behind the head?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark R. McKean; Brendan J. Burkett

    2015-01-01

    Background:Using a cross-sectional design comparison, two overhead press techniques (in-front of the head or behind the head) were compared. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of behind the head or in-front of the head overhead pressing technique on shoulder range of movement (ROM) and spine posture. The overhead press is commonly prescribed exercise. The two techniques (in-front of the head or behind the head) may influence joint mechanics and therefore require an objective analysis. Methods: Passive shoulder ROM quantified using goniometric measures, dynamic ROM utilised three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical mea-sures (120 Hz) of 33 participants performing overhead pressing in a seated position. The timing and synchronisation of the upper limb shoulder and spine segments were quantified and influence of each technique was investigated. Results:The in-front technique commenced in lordotic position, whilst behind the head technique commenced in kyphotic position. Behind the head technique started with less thoracic extension than in-front condition. The thoracic spine remained extended and moved between 12° and 15° regardless of gender or technique. The techniques resulted in a significant difference between genders. Males were able to maintain a flat or normal lumbar lordosis, whereas females tended to kyphotic. Conclusion:Shoulder ROM was within passive ROM for all measures except external rotation for males with the behind the head technique. To avoid possible injury passive ROM should be increased prior to behind the head protocol. Females showed greater spine movements, suggesting trunk strengthening may assist overhead pressing techniques. For participants with normal trunk stability and ideal shoulder ROM, overhead pressing is a safe exercise (for the shoulder and spine) when performed either in-front of or behind the head.

  3. The Automatic indexing of Grey Literature by Subject Headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System

    OpenAIRE

    Kocourek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution is devoted to the automatic indexing of grey literature by subject headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System in the National repository of grey literature. The paper describes the initial situation, previous experience, analysis, stages of implementation and demonstration of indexing.

  4. Head-to-head linked double calix[4]arenes: convenient synthesis and complexation properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struck, Oliver; Chrisstoffels, Lysander A.J.; Lugtenberg, Ronny J.W.; Verboom, Willem; Hummel, van Gerrit J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1997-01-01

    Combination of calix[4]arenes functionalized at the upper rim at the 5- and 17-positions with amino and formyl groups, respectively, gives a new series of "head-to-head" linked double calix[4]arenes in nearly quantitative yield. The X-ray structure of a modified double calix[4]arene is reported. The

  5. Principios Multiculturales para los Programas Head Start (Multicultural Principles for Head Start Programs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This Spanish-language report outlines 10 multicultural principles for Head Start preschool programs and ancillary services. The report assets that Head Start programming should: (1) treat every child as an individual; (2) represent the cultural groups in the community; (3) emphasize accurate information about cultural groups and discard…

  6. Late radial head dislocation with radial head fracture and ulnar plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich, Stephen D.; Butler, R. Allen

    Type 11 Monteggia lesion equivalents produced by plastic deformation of the ulna are rare. Radial head fractures in skeletally immature patients are also uncommon. We report a late presentation of a Type 11 Monteggia equivalent injury with a fracture of the radial head and neck and plastic

  7. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  8. Ulnar Head Replacement and Related Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, Michael; Arsalan-Werner, Annika; Enderle, Elena; Vetter, Miriam; Vonier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A stable distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is mandatory for the function and load transmission in the wrist and forearm. Resectional salvage procedures such as the Darrach procedure, Bowers arthroplasty, and Sauvé-Kapandji procedure include the potential risk of radioulnar instability and impingement, which can lead to pain and weakness. Soft tissue stabilizing techniques have only limited success rates in solving these problems. In an attempt to stabilize the distal forearm mechanically following ulnar head resection, various endoprostheses have been developed to replace the ulnar head. The prostheses can be used for secondary treatment of failed ulnar head resection, but they can also achieve good results in the primary treatment of osteoarthritis of the DRUJ. Our experience consists of twenty-five patients (follow-up 30 months) with DRUJ osteoarthritis who were treated with an ulnar head prosthesis, with improvement in pain, range of motion, and grip strength. An ulnar head prosthesis should be considered as a treatment option for a painful DRUJ. PMID:24436786

  9. Integrative Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovina, Chloe; Birkeland, Andrew C; Zick, Suzanna; Shuman, Andrew G

    2017-02-01

    Objective Complementary and alternative medicine, or integrative medicine, has become increasingly popular among patients with head and neck cancer. Despite its increasing prevalence, many patients feel uncomfortable discussing such therapies with their physicians, and many physicians are unaware and underequipped to evaluate or discuss their use with patients. The aim of this article is to use recent data to outline the decision making inherent to integrative medicine utilization among patients with head and neck cancer, to discuss the ethical implications inherent to balancing integrative and conventional approaches to treatment, and to highlight available resources to enhance head and neck cancer providers' understanding of integrative medicine. Data Sources Randomized controlled trials involving integrative medicine or complementary and alternative medicine treatment for cancer patients. Review Methods Trials were drawn from a systematic PubMed database search categorized into cancer prevention, treatment, and symptom management. Conclusions Integrative medicine is gaining popularity for the management of cancer and is most commonly used for symptom management. A number of randomized controlled trials provide data to support integrative therapies, yet physicians who treat head and neck cancer may be faced with ethical dilemmas and practical barriers surrounding incorporation of integrative medicine. Implications for Practice In the management of head and neck cancer, there is an increasing demand for awareness of, dialogue about, and research evaluating integrative medicine therapies. It is important for otolaryngologists to become aware of integrative therapy options, their risks and benefits, and resources for further information to effectively counsel their patients.

  10. Head-on/Near Head-on Collisions of Neutron Stars With a Realistic EOS

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, E; Gressman, P T; Iyer, S; Miller, M; Suen, W M; Zhang, H M; Evans, Edwin; Gressman, Philip; Iyer, Sai; Miller, Mark; Suen, Wai-Mo; Zhang, Hui-Min

    2003-01-01

    It has been conjectured that in head-on collisions of neutron stars (NSs), the merged object would not collapse promptly even if the total mass is higher than the maximum stable mass of a cold NS. In this paper, we show that the reverse is true: even if the total mass is {\\it less} than the maximum stable mass, the merged object can collapse promptly. We demonstrate this for the case of NSs with a realistic equation of state (the Lattimer-Swesty EOS) in head-on {\\it and} near head-on collisions. We propose a ``Prompt Collapse Conjecture'' for a generic NS EOS for head on and near head-on collisions.

  11. Effect of clenching with a mouthguard on head acceleration during heading of a soccer ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Keishiro; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Konno, Michiyo; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Concussions are acceleration-deceleration injuries that occur when biomechanical forces are transmitted to the cerebral tissues. By limiting acceleration of the head, enhanced cervical muscle activity derived from clenching with a mouthguard (MG) may reduce the incidence or severity of concussions following impact. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of voluntary clenching with a proper MG on acceleration of the head during "heading" of a soccer ball. Eleven male high school soccer players (mean age, 16.8 years) participated in the study. Each player was given a customized MG. An automated soccer machine was used to project the ball at the participants at a constant speed. The participants headed the ball under 3 different oral conditions: drill 1, heading freely performed without instruction and without the MG; drill 2, heading performed as the subject was instructed to clench the masseter muscles tightly while not wearing the MG; drill 3, heading performed as the subject was instructed to clench tightly while wearing the MG. Each participant repeated each drill 5 times. Linear acceleration of the head was measured with a 3-axis accelerometer. Activity of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles was measured by wireless electromyography. Weak masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscle activity was observed during drill 1. After the soccer players had been instructed to clench their masseter muscles (drills 2 and 3), statistically significant decreases in head acceleration and increases in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscle activity were observed (P soccer players to habitually clench while wearing a proper mouthguard to strengthen cervical muscle resistance as a way to mitigate the damage caused by heading.

  12. Rotation axes of the head during positioning, head shaking, and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Mikhail; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore

    2007-11-01

    Static head orientations obey Donders' law and are postulated to be rotations constrained by a Fick gimbal. Head oscillations can be voluntary or generated during natural locomotion. Whether the rotation axes of the voluntary oscillations or during locomotion are constrained by the same gimbal is unknown and is the subject of this study. Head orientation was monitored with an Optotrak (Northern Digital). Human subjects viewed visual targets wearing pin-hole goggles to achieve static head positions with the eyes centered in the orbit. Incremental rotation axes were determined for pitch and yaw by computing the velocity vectors during head oscillation and during locomotion at 1.5 m/s on a treadmill. Static head orientation could be described by a generalization of the Fick gimbal by having the axis of the second rotation rotate by a fraction, k, of the angle of the first rotation without a third rotation. We have designated this as a k-gimbal system. Incremental rotation axes for both pitch and yaw oscillations were functions of the pitch but not the yaw head positions. The pivot point for head oscillations was close to the midpoint of the interaural line. During locomotion, however, the pivot point was considerably lower. These findings are well explained by an implementation of the k-gimbal model, which has a rotation axis superimposed on a Fick-gimbal system. This could be realized physiologically by the head interface with the dens and occipital condyles during head oscillation with a contribution of the lower spine to pitch during locomotion.

  13. Survival of social relationships following head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, G; Ford, B; Moran, C

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective search through the medical records at a rehabilitation hospital in Melbourne, Australia, identified 38 subjects (within the age range 19-34 years) suffering the effect of a severe closed-head injury 2-10 years post-trauma. In regard to social relationships, availability of post-trauma close attachment figures and looser social networks were markedly reduced for the head-injured group in relation to a matched community control group. However, they did not generally perceive these social relationships as inadequate when compared to a normal control sample. Moreover, within the head-injured group the perception of inadequate social relationships was not significantly associated with minor psychiatric disturbance. The implications of these results in terms of the social bond theory of depression are discussed, and issues in long-term social support of this population are raised.

  14. Perfusion CT of head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel, E-mail: arazek@mans.edu.eg; Tawfik, Ahmed Mohamed, E-mail: ahm_m_tawfik@hotmail.com; Elsorogy, Lamiaa Galal Ali, E-mail: lamia2elsorogy@hotmail.com; Soliman, Nermin Yehia, E-mail: nermin_eid@hotmail.com

    2014-03-15

    We aim to review the technique and clinical applications of perfusion CT (PCT) of head and neck cancer. The clinical value of PCT in the head and neck includes detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as it allows differentiation of HNSCC from normal muscles, demarcation of tumor boundaries and tumor local extension, evaluation of metastatic cervical lymph nodes as well as determination of the viable tumor portions as target for imaging-guided biopsy. PCT has been used for prediction of treatment outcome, differentiation between post-therapeutic changes and tumor recurrence as well as monitoring patient after radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. PCT has a role in cervical lymphoma as it may help in detection of response to chemotherapy and early diagnosis of relapsing tumors.

  15. Head pulsations in a centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, V. S.; Sotnyk, M. I.; Moskalenko, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    This article investigated the factors, which affect to the character of the head pulsations of a centrifugal pump. We investigated the dependence of the shape and depth of these pulsations from the operation mode of the pump. Was determined, that the head pulsations at the outlet of the impeller (pulsations on the blade passing frequency) cause head pulsations at the outlet of the pump, that have the same frequency, but differ in shape and depth. These pulsations depend on the design features of the flow-through part of the pump (from the ratio of hydraulic losses on the friction and losses on the vortex formation). A feature of the researches that were conducted is also the using of not only hydraulic but also electric modeling methods. It allows determining the values of the components of hydraulic losses.

  16. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  17. Practical design of magnetic heading sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Although fluxgate magnetometers have been in use for many years, and a number of theoretical studies of these sensors are available, very little information has been published on the engineering choices relating to the detailed design of magnetometers intended for navigational applications in aircraft and other vehicles. This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in the design of the sensing head, the choice of operating mode, and the design of the supporting electronics for a simple low-cost magnetometer system which will produce a digital readout of the magnetic heading of the vehicle in which it is mounted. A major goal of this study has been to develop a design which minimizes circuit complexity, is easy to fabricate and calibrate, and utilizes a minimum of specialized components. Such a magnetometer system is intended either as a stand-alone indicating instrument or as a source of magnetic heading information for a more sophisticated navigational system.

  18. Corrado Pettenati acting head of ETT

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the departure of Juan Antonio Rubio, Corrado Pettenati has been appointed as the acting head of the ETT unit with effect from 1 August. He joined CERN in 1995 as head librarian, reorganizing and modernizing the library before becoming deputy leader of ETT from June 2000 to April 2004. Previously, he worked at the European University Institute in Florence from 1976, developing automated library systems and becoming head of the computer centre in 1985. He has also been a software analyst and a telecommunications specialist. In 2003 he was appointed as member of the steering committee of the Cellule de Coordination Documentaire Nationale pour les Mathématiques de Grenoble, and in 2004 became a member of the EULER - European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences - Scientific Advisory Board, based in Germany. He was born in 1946 and graduated with a degree in Electrical Engineering from the Polytechnic in Milan in 1969.

  19. Head first PHP and MySQL

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    If you're ready to create web pages more complex than those you can build with HTML and CSS, Head First PHP & MySQL is the ultimate learning guide to building dynamic, database-driven websites using PHP and MySQL. Packed with real-world examples, this book teaches you all the essentials of server-side programming, from the fundamentals of PHP and MySQL coding to advanced topics such as form validation, session IDs, cookies, database queries and joins, file I/O operations, content management, and more. Head First PHP & MySQL offers the same visually rich format that's turned every title in th

  20. Head Trauma in Mixed Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Michael G; Lawrence, David W; Cusimano, Michael D; Schweizer, Tom A

    2014-06-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full combative sport with a recent global increase in popularity despite significant scrutiny from medical associations. To date, the empirical research of the risk of head injuries associated with this sport is limited. Youth and amateur participation is growing, warranting investigation into the burden and mechanism of injuries associated with this sport. (1) To determine the incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of knockouts (KOs) and technical knockouts (TKOs) from repetitive strikes in professional MMA; and (2) to identify the mechanisms of head trauma and the situational factors that lead to KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes through video analysis. Descriptive epidemiology study. Competition data and video records for all KOs and TKOs from numbered Ultimate Fighting Championship MMA events (n = 844) between 2006 to 2012. Analyses included (1) multivariate logistic regression to investigate factors associated with an increased risk of sustaining a KO or TKO secondary to repetitive strikes and (2) video analysis of all KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes with descriptive statistics. During the study period, the KO rate was 6.4 per 100 athlete-exposures (AEs) (12.7% of matches), and the rate of TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes was 9.5 per 100 AEs (19.1% of matches), for a combined incidence of match-ending head trauma of 15.9 per 100 AEs (31.9% of matches). Logistic regression identified that weight class, earlier time in a round, earlier round in a match, and older age were risk factors for both KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes. Match significance and previously sustained KOs or TKOs were also risk factors for KOs. Video analysis identified that all KOs were the result of direct impact to the head, most frequently a strike to the mandibular region (53.9%). The average time between the KO-strike and match stoppage was 3.5 seconds (range, 0-20 seconds), with losers sustaining an average of 2

  1. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2013-12-24

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print header further includes a first layer comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  2. Cutting Characteristics of Force Controllable Milling Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirakashi; Takahiro; Shibuya; Wataru

    2002-01-01

    In order to control cutting force and its direction i n milling operation, a new milling head was developed. The head has two milling cutters, which are connected by a pair of gears and rotate in opposite direction respectively. Both up-cut and down-cut can be carried out simultaneously by t hese milling cutters. The each depth of cut, the ratio of up/down cutting depth , by these cutters can be also selected. The cutting force characteristics were experimentally discussed by changing the ratio. The cut...

  3. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  4. Regressive language in severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, I V; Skinhoj, E

    1976-09-01

    In a follow-up study of 50 patients with severe head injuries three patients had echolalia. One patient with initially global aphasia had echolalia for some weeks when he started talking. Another patient with severe diffuse brain damage, dementia, and emotional regression had echolalia. The dysfunction was considered a detour performance. In the third patient echolalia and palilalia were details in a total pattern of regression lasting for months. The patient, who had extensive frontal atrophy secondary to a very severe head trauma, presented an extreme state of regression returning to a foetal-body pattern and behaving like a baby.

  5. Penetrating wounds of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrsdoerfer, R A; Johns, M E; Cantrell, R W

    1979-12-01

    Wounding capability of bullets is primarily releated to velocity. Bullet mass and shape, and specific gravity of body tissues being struck by the missile, are lesser factors. Seventy cases of penetrating wounds of the head and neck were treated during a six-year period. Vascular injuries were more common with neck wounds, while face and head injuries (extracranial) were similar to maxillofacial trauma. It is recognized that hemorrhage at the base of the skull is difficult to treat, and contemporary training in temporal bone and base of skull surgery is mandatory for the critical management of these wounds.

  6. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes

    2010-09-01

    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  7. Limiting Performance of Helmets for the Prevention of Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Q. Cheng

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of the theoretical optimal (limiting performance of helmets for the prevention of head injury. A rigid head injury model and a two-mass translational head injury model are employed. Several head injury criteria are utilized, including head acceleration, the head injury criterion (HIC, the energy imparted to the brain which is related to brain injury, and the power developed in the skull that is associated with skull fracture. A helmeted head hitting a rigid surface and a helmeted head hit by a moving object such as a ball are considered. The optimal characteristics of helmets and the impact responses of the helmeted head are investigated computationally. An experiment is conducted on an ensemble of bicycle helmets. Computational results are compared with the experimental results.

  8. Minimizing Head Acceleration in Soccer: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccese, Jaclyn B; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2016-11-01

    Physicians and healthcare professionals are often asked for recommendations on how to keep athletes safe during contact sports such as soccer. With an increase in concussion awareness and concern about repetitive subconcussion, many parents and athletes are interested in mitigating head acceleration in soccer, so we conducted a literature review on factors that affect head acceleration in soccer. We searched electronic databases and reference lists to find studies using the keywords 'soccer' OR 'football' AND 'head acceleration'. Because of a lack of current research in soccer heading biomechanics, this review was limited to 18 original research studies. Low head-neck segment mass predisposes athletes to high head acceleration, but head-neck-torso alignment during heading and follow-through after contact can be used to decrease head acceleration. Additionally, improvements in symmetric neck flexor and extensor strength and neuromuscular neck stiffness can decrease head acceleration. Head-to-head impacts and unanticipated ball contacts result in the highest head acceleration. Ball contacts at high velocity may also be dangerous. The risk of concussive impacts may be lessened through the use of headgear, but headgear may also cause athletes to play more recklessly because they feel a sense of increased security. Young, but physically capable, athletes should be taught proper heading technique in a controlled setting, using a carefully planned progression of the skill.

  9. The neuropsychology of heading and head trauma in Association Football (soccer): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Andrew; Stephens, Richard; Potter, Douglas

    2003-09-01

    Association Football (soccer) is the most popular and widespread sport in the world. A significant proportion of the injuries suffered in football are head injuries involving trauma to the brain. In normal play, head trauma frequently arises from collisions, but some researchers have claimed that it also may arise as a consequence of heading the ball. Although assessments based on biomechanical analyses are equivocal on the potential for brain injury due to football heading, a growing literature seems to support the claim that neuropsychological impairment results from general football play and football heading in particular. However, this review suggests a distinction is required between the neuropsychological effects of concussive and subconcussive head trauma and that all of the neuropsychological studies conducted so far suffer from methodological problems. At best, a few of these studies may be regarded as exploratory. The review concludes that presently, although there is exploratory evidence of subclinical neuropsychological impairment as a consequence of football-related concussions, there is no reliable and certainly no definitive evidence that such impairment occurs as a result of general football play or normal football heading. The neuropsychological consequences of football-related subconcussive effects await confirmatory investigation.

  10. The Early Outcomes with Titanium Radial Head Implants in the Treatment of Radial Head Comminuted Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jijun; YANG Shuhua; HU Yong

    2007-01-01

    The study assessed the early functional outcomes with cemented titanium implants of ra- dius in the treatment of comminuted fractures of radial heads. The functional outcomes of arthro- plasty with cemented titanium implants of radius in the treatment of radial head fractures (Mason Type Ⅲ: 6; Mason Type Ⅳ: 4) in l0 consecutive patients (mean age, 38 years) were evaluated over a mean time of 23.7 months (18-31 months). The patients were assessed on the basis of physical ex- amination, functional rating (Mayo) and radiographic findings. The parameters evaluated included motion, stability, pain, and grip strength. Five patients were considered to have excellent results, 4 patients had good results and 1 patient had fairly good results. There were no cases of infection, prosthetic failure, heterotopic ossification or dislocation. When medial collateral ligament was injured, radial head became the main stabilizing structure of the elbow. Titanium radial head implant may provide the stability similar to that of native radial head. We believe that titanium radial head im- plants may be indicated for the Mason Type Ⅲ and Mason Type Ⅳ radial head fractures.

  11. MEG inversion using spherical head model combined with brain-shaped head model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun

    2001-01-01

    The spherical head model has been widely used in magnetoen cephalography (MEG) as a simple forward model for calculating the external mag netic field producing by neural currents in a human brain. But this model may lead to an inaccurate result, even if the computation speed is fast. For more precise computation, realistic brain-shaped head model is used with the boundary element method (BME), but at greatly increased computational cost. When solving MEG inverse problem by using optimization methods, the forward problem must often be solved for thousands of possible source configurations. So if the brain-shaped head model is used in all iterative steps of optimization, it may be computationally infeasible for practical application. In this paper, we present a method about using compound head model in MEG inverse solution. In this method, first spherical head model is used for a rough estimation, then brain-shaped head model is adopted for more precise solution. Numerical simulation indicates that under the condition of same accuracy, the computation speed for the present method is about three times faster than a method using the brain-shaped head model at all iterations.

  12. 松解腹肌对缓解痉挛性脑瘫患儿下肢肌肉痉挛的治疗体会%Treatment experience of loosening abdominal muscles to relieve lower limb muscles spasticity of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季少君

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical curative effect of loosening abdominal muscles on relieving lower limb muscles spasticity of children with spastic cerebral palsy and to provide new treatment thoughts and references. Methods 60 children who were in in accordance with the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to the treatment group and the control group, with 30 in each. At the basis of rehabilitation training, the treatment group was received loosening abdominal muscles method while the control group was received routine massage. The treatment was 6 times a week and four weeks was one course, lasting for 3 courses. Degrees of lower limb muscles spasticity before and after treatment of children were evaluated. Results In treatment group, there were 8 cases with marked effect and 21 cases with effectiveness. The total effective rate was 96.7%. In the control group, there were 2 cases with marked effect and 25 cases with effectiveness. The total effective rate was 90.0%. Differences in curative effects of two groups had statistical significance by examination of x2, which showed that curative effect of the treatment group was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusion Loosening abdominal muscles to relieve lower limb muscles spasticity of children with spastic cerebral palsy has more significant strength and accurate curative effect, worthy of further clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察腹肌松解法对缓解痉挛性脑瘫患儿下肢肌肉痉挛的临床疗效,为临床治疗脑瘫提出新的治疗思路和参考。方法将符合纳入标准的60例患儿,随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组30例。两组在康复训练的基础上,治疗组采用腹肌松解法;对照组采用常规推拿法。每周治疗6次,4周为1个疗程,治疗3个疗程。对两组患儿治疗前后的下肢肌肉痉挛程度进行评定。结果治疗组30例,显效8例,有效21例,总有效率为96.7%;对照组30

  13. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  14. Eye and head turning indicates cerebral lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsbourne, M

    1972-05-05

    When solving verbal problems, right-handed people usually turn head and eyes to the right, whereas with numerical and spatial problems, these people look up and left. Left-handed people differ in all these respects. The results suggest that the direction in which people look while thinking reflects the lateralization of the underlying cerebral activity.

  15. Biomedical Techniques for Post Head Trauma Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Judith V.

    The nature and effects of head trauma are discussed. Among the most common deficits noted are impaired cognition, difficulties in oral and written communication, sensory problems, and marked personality changes. Suggestions are offered for dealing with each type of deficit, such as using alarm clocks and other tools to remind the individual about…

  16. Mechatronic design of the Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, Ludo C.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the mechatronic design of the Twente humanoid head, which has been realized in the purpose of having a research platform for human-machine interaction. The design features a fast, four degree of freedom neck, with long range of motion, and a vision system with three degrees of f

  17. 49 CFR 214.113 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... protection. (a) Railroad bridge workers working in areas where there is a possible danger of head injury from... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... Avenue, SE., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)....

  18. Kiirlaenud kohe vastuolus heade kommetega / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mis kuulutab heade kommetega vastuolus olevaiks ning tühiseiks laenutehingud, kus laenuvõtja suudab hiljem tõendada oma erakorralisi vajadusi, sõltuvussuhet, kogenematust või muid selliseid asjaolusid ning väidab, et talle tehti laenu andes liiga

  19. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, S.M.; Bos, J.E.; Klis, S.F.L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. OBJECTIVE: To test a new, m

  20. Malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Paxton V; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2006-05-01

    Head and neck masses represent a common clinical entity in children. In general, these masses are classified as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic. Having a working knowledge of lesions within this region and conducting a thorough history and physical examination generally enables the clinician to facilitate an appropriate workup and establish a diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is broad, and expeditiously distinguishing benign from malignant masses is critical for instituting a timely multidisciplinary approach to the management of malignant lesions. Neoplasms of the head and neck account for approximately 5% of all childhood malignancies. A diagnosis of malignancy may represent a primary tumor or metastatic foci to cervical nodes. In this review, we discuss the general approach to evaluating suspicious masses and adenopathy in the head and neck region and summarize the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck with regard to their incidence, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, staging, and management. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland tumors are discussed elsewhere in this issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery.

  1. Head injury and risk for Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Lee, Pei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between head injuries throughout life and the risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in an interview-based case-control study. METHODS: We identified 1,705 patients diagnosed with PD at 10 neurologic centers in Denmark in 1996-2009 and verified their diagnoses...

  2. Nutrition in Patients with Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Totur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of energy increases by 40% in patients with a head trauma, when compared to people who are living a normal life. This ratio reaches to 200% in some cases. It is important to give a nutrition support which can satisfy the energy need resulted from the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic states and that is enough to help to fix the immunologic state and achieve a better result in healing the injury. When oral nutrition is not possible in the patient with a head trauma, their energy need is satisfied through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Though parenteral nutrition had held an important role in feeding patients with head trauma, enteral nutrition is applied much more widely today. Enteral and parenteral nutrition both has their own advantages and disadvantages. In the clinical and laboratory studies that had been held, it was found that enteral nutrition improved the systemic immunity, decreased the incidence of the major infectious complications, decreased the metabolic response to trauma, protected the intestinal mucosa, and protected the ecologic balance of the microflora. In this article, it is investigated through the importance of the feeding in patients with a head trauma and reasons to chose enteral nutrition

  3. Prehospital care of head injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Hari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resuscitation of head injured patients at the accident site is paramount in minimizing morbidity and mortality. This can be achieved through prehospital care which is nonexistent in our country. This review is a step forward, so that we can formulate guidelines in this regard.

  4. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  5. Head injury from a bungee run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Convery, Fiona; Watt, Michael; Fulton, Ailsa; McKinstry, Steven; Flannery, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    An adaptation of bungee jumping, 'bungee running', involves participants attempting to run as far as they can whilst connected to an elastic rope which is anchored to a fixed point. Usually considered a safe recreational activity, we report a potentially life-threatening head injury following a bungee running accident.

  6. 76 FR 70009 - Head Start Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... created by the National Center for Quality Teaching and Learning ( http://eckkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta... what has been learned.'' In brief, the NPRM proposed seven conditions that would signal that a Head... conditions are culturally and linguistically appropriate for MSHS programs or other dual language learner...

  7. On Impact: Students with Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Angela I.; Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Students with head injuries may not be as "low incidence" as previously believed. Recent efforts from the American Academy of Pediatrics (2010), the National Football League, and other agencies are attempting to raise awareness of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among students. Along with awareness, there has been an increased publicity effort via…

  8. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nag S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post concussion syndrome underwent the retraining program for one month. The patients had deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention parallel processing, serial processing, visual scanning, verbal learning and memory and working memory. After the retraining programme the deficits of attention improved in the four patients. Serial processing improved in two patients. Parallel processing and neuropsychological deficits did not improve in any patient. The symptom intensity reduced markedly and behavioural functioning improved in three of the four patients. The results supported an association between improving attention and reduction of symptom intensity. Attention remediation shows promise as a cost effective, time efficient and simple technique to improve the psychological and psychosocial functioning of the head injured patient.

  9. [Head injuries in infants and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, Violaine; Duigou, Anne-Laure; Seizeur, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Head injuries in children are frequent reasons for visits to emergency departments. Depending on age, the causes are different: falls for younger infants and accidents for older children. Those treating children, especially in cases of serious injury, must be aware of the specificities of paediatric anatomy and physiology. As with adults, the initial assessment and surveillance help to prevent the condition from worsening.

  10. Oral sequelae of head and neck radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A; Jansma, J; Spijkervet, FKL; Burlage, FR; Coppes, RP

    In addition to anti-tumor effects, ionizing radiation causes damage in normal tissues located in the radiation portals. Oral complications of radiotherapy in the head and neck region are the result of the deleterious effects of radiation on, e. g., salivary glands, oral mucosa, bone, dentition,

  11. Radographic changes of the revascularized femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindell, K. (Orthopaedic Hospital of the Invalid Foundation, Helsinki (Finland). Department of Orthopeadic Surgery); Tallroth, K. (Orthopaedic Hospital of the Invalid Foundation, Helsinki (Finland). Department of Radiology); Lindholm, T.S. (Tampere University Central Hospital (Finland). Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Traumatology)

    Twenty-two nerotic femoral heads in young adults were radiologically followed-up after grafting with vascularized bone by comparing the preoperative and the postoperative state of the hip joint. Three parameters were observed and followed; the flattening of the femoral head: the degree of osteoarthrosis of the joints; and the degree of incorporation of the graft into the recipient bone. The results, expressed by index figures, showed that the femoral head flattened during the first two years postoperatively; that the maximal incorporation occurred during the same period of time; and that the appearance of postoperative osteoarthrosis was slow during the first year and increased subsequently. This numerical characterization of radiological finding allows systematic individual analysis after revascularization of the femoral head with bone grafts. It is also suited for comparisons between patients, between series of patients and of various treatment techniques. Furthermore, this quatification provides a numerical index that seems to correlate with the outcome of the treated hip joint. (author). 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.

  12. Bill Gates,Head of Microsoft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿钧

    2001-01-01

    As a teenager in 1972, Bill Gates once said that he would be a millionaire by the time he was 20. Only 15 years later he was a billionaire. And by 1992, as head of the Microsoft company,he became the richest man in America with assets(资产) ofabout US$ 6. 3 billion.

  13. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and obey the rules of safety. B By working with parents, athletes, school and club administrators to spread awareness about concussions ... Sports Materials for Health Care Providers Materials for School ... about the Brain and How it Works Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” Educational ...

  14. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  15. 3-Dimensional Reproducibility of Natural Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    directed toward positioning skeletal and dental structures in the most ideal position to support optimal facial esthetic, dental function , and stability...temporomandibular disorders, neck pain, headache, dentofacial structures, mandibular length, mandibular position, mandibular divergency and overjet (Cuccia, 2009...with their head offset from its point of stability. This function is coordinated by the otolithic organs which are gravitationally based and

  16. 49 CFR 572.16 - Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... centerline falls within 2 degrees of a horizontal line in the dummy's midsagittal plane. (5) Guide the probe... SA 103C 002, sheet 8. (b) When the head is impacted by a test probe specified in § 572.21(a)(1) at 7... milliseconds. (2) The lateral acceleration vector does not exceed 7g. (c) Test procedure. (1) Seat the dummy...

  17. A Device to Record Infant Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Clement; Bullinger, Andre

    1976-01-01

    The device described is a system to indicate left-to-right head position. It is limited to indicating relative left-right movements without vertical or up-down discrimination. Although developed for newborns, the system can be applied to older subjects by using a holding device for the infant. (JH)

  18. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  19. On Impact: Students with Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Angela I.; Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Students with head injuries may not be as "low incidence" as previously believed. Recent efforts from the American Academy of Pediatrics (2010), the National Football League, and other agencies are attempting to raise awareness of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among students. Along with awareness, there has been an increased publicity effort via…

  20. [Photodynamic therapy for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, C.B.; Specht, Lena; Kirkegaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment for head and neck cancer. The principle of the treatment is a photochemical reaction initiated by light activation of a photosensitizer, which causes the death of the exposed tissue. This article presents the modes of action of PDT and the techniques...