WorldWideScience

Sample records for longitudinal multilevel study

  1. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  2. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters. PMID:22171549

  3. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Egil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters.

  4. Empowerment and performance of managers and subordinates in elderly care: A longitudinal and multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Heidi; Högberg, Hans; Skytt, Bernice; Wadensten, Barbro; Engström, Maria

    2017-11-01

    To investigate relationships between first-line managers' ratings of structural and psychological empowerment, and the subordinates' ratings of structural empowerment, as well as their ratings of the managers' leadership-management performance. Work situations in elderly care are complex. To date, few studies have used a longitudinal, correlational and multilevel design to study the working life of subordinates and managers. In five Swedish municipalities, questionnaires were answered twice during 2010-12 by 56 first-line managers and 769 subordinates working in nursing homes or home-help services. First-line managers' empowerment at Time 1 partially predicted subordinate's structural empowerment and ratings of their managers' leadership-management performance at Time 2. Changes over time partially revealed that the more access managers had to structural empowerment, i.e. increase over time, the higher the ratings were for structural empowerment and managerial leadership-management performance among subordinates. Findings strengthen research and theoretical suggestions linking first-line managers' structural empowerment to their subordinates' structural empowerment and ratings of their manager's leadership-management performance. Managers with high access to structural empowerment are more likely to provide subordinates access to structural empowerment. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. HABITAT: A longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity change in mid-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wendy J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the patterns and influences of physical activity change in mid-aged adults. This study describes the design, sampling, data collection, and analytical plan of HABITAT, an innovative study of (i physical activity change over five years (2007–2011 in adults aged 40–65 years at baseline, and (ii the relative contribution of psychological variables, social support, neighborhood perceptions, area-level factors, and sociodemographic characteristics to physical activity change. Methods/Design HABITAT is a longitudinal multi-level study. 1625 Census Collection Districts (CCDs in Brisbane, Australia were ranked by their index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage score, categorized into deciles, and 20 CCDs from each decile were selected to provide 200 local areas for study inclusion. From each of the 200 CCDs, dwellings with individuals aged between 40–65 years (in 2007 were identified using electoral roll data, and approximately 85 people per CCD were selected to participate (N = 17,000. A comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS database has been compiled with area-level information on public transport networks, footpaths, topography, traffic volume, street lights, tree coverage, parks, public services, and recreational facilities Participants are mailed a questionnaire every two years (2007, 2009, 2011, with items assessing physical activity (general walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, walking for transport, cycling for transport, recreational activities, sitting time, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (traffic, pleasant surroundings, streets, footpaths, crime and safety, distance to recreational and business facilities, social support, social cohesion, activity-related cognitions (attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation, health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Analyses will use binary and multinomial logit regression models, as well as generalized linear latent

  6. A longitudinal study of interethnic contacts in Germany: estimates from a multilevel growth curve model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, B.; van Tubergen, F.; Maas, I.

    2015-01-01

    Interethnic ties are considered important for the cohesion in society. Previous research has studied the determinants of interethnic ties with cross-sectional data or lagged panel designs. This study improves on prior research by applying multilevel growth curve modelling techniques with lagged

  7. A longitudinal study of interethnic contacts in Germany : Estimates from a multilevel growth curve model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, Borja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822752; van Tubergen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271429534; Maas, Ineke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075229390

    2015-01-01

    Interethnic ties are considered important for the cohesion in society. Previous research has studied the determinants of interethnic ties with cross-sectional data or lagged panel designs. This study improves on prior research by applying multilevel growth curve modelling techniques with lagged

  8. Multilevel models for longitudinal data

    OpenAIRE

    Fiona Steele

    2008-01-01

    Repeated measures and repeated events data have a hierarchical structure which can be analysed by using multilevel models. A growth curve model is an example of a multilevel random-coefficients model, whereas a discrete time event history model for recurrent events can be fitted as a multilevel logistic regression model. The paper describes extensions to the basic growth curve model to handle auto-correlated residuals, multiple-indicator latent variables and correlated growth processes, and e...

  9. Retention of Children and Their Families in the Longitudinal Outcome Study of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L.; Maples, Connie J.; Johnson, Stacy F.; Tucker, Alyce L.

    2014-01-01

    Predictors of retention of participants in a longitudinal study and heterogeneity between communities were investigated using a multilevel logistic regression model. Data from the longitudinal outcome study of the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families program and information on…

  10. MMORPG gaming and hostility predict internet addiction symptoms in adolescents: an empirical multilevel longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Stavropoulos, V; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Wilson, P; Motti-Stefanidi, F

    2017-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become an increasingly researched topic. In the present study, IA symptoms in adolescents were investigated longitudinally with specific focus on the individual’s hostility, gaming use (of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games\\ud [MMORPGs]) and gaming on the classroom level (calculated using the percentage of MMORPG players within classes). The sample comprised 648 Greek adolescents who were\\ud assessed over a two-year period (aged 16-18 years). IA sympto...

  11. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weggelaar Anne-Marie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims. Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that

  12. Psychosocial safety climate, emotional demands, burnout, and depression: a longitudinal multilevel study in the Malaysian private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohd Awang; Dollard, Maureen F; Yulita

    2014-07-01

    This multilevel longitudinal study investigates a newly identified climate construct, psychosocial safety climate (PSC), as a precursor to job characteristics (e.g., emotional demands), and psychological outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and depression). We argued that PSC, as an organizational climate construct, has cross-level effects on individually perceived job design and psychological outcomes. We hypothesized a mediation process between PSC and emotional exhaustion particularly through emotional demands. In sequence, we predicted that emotional exhaustion would predict depression. At Time 1, data were collected from employees in 36 Malaysian private sector organizations (80% responses rate), n = 253 (56%), and at Time 2 from 27 organizations (60%) and n = 117 (46%). Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), we found that there were cross-level effects of PSC Time 1 on emotional demands Time 2 and emotional exhaustion Time 2, but not on depression Time 2, across a 3-month time lag. We found evidence for a lagged mediated effect; emotional demands mediated the relationship between PSC and emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion did not predict depression. Finally, our results suggest that PSC is an important organizational climate construct, and acts to reduce employee psychological problems in the workplace, via working conditions.

  13. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta

    2013-10-16

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.

  14. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, Glenn B; Anderson, Janet E; Burnett, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis......, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy...... by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how...

  15. Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Skrondal, Anders; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2004-01-01

    This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models.

  16. Multilevel predictors of adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hearst Mary O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine how factors from a social ecologic model predict physical activity (PA among adolescents using a longitudinal analysis. Methods Participants in this longitudinal study were adolescents (ages 10-16 at baseline and one parent enrolled in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA and the Etiology of Childhood Obesity (ECHO. Both studies were designed to assess a socio-ecologic model of adolescent obesity risk. PA was collected using ActiGraph activity monitors at two time points 24 months apart. Other measures included objective height and weight, adolescent and parent questionnaires on multilevel psychological, behavioral and social determinants of PA, and a home PA equipment inventory. Analysis was conducted using SAS, including descriptive characteristics, bivariate and stepped multivariate mixed models, using baseline adjustment. Models were stratified by gender. Results There were 578 adolescents with complete data. Results suggest few statistically significant longitudinal associations with physical activity measured as minutes of MVPA or total counts from accelerometers. For boys, greater self-efficacy (B = 0.75, p = 0.01 and baseline MVPA (B = 0.55, p p = 0.01 and barriers (B = -0.32, p = 0.05 significantly predicted MVPA at follow-up in the full model. The full multilevel model explained 30% of the variance in PA among boys and 24% among girls. Conclusions PA change in adolescents is a complex issue that is not easily understood. Our findings suggest early PA habits are the most important predictor of PA levels in adolescence. Intervention may be necessary prior to middle school to maintain PA through adolescence.

  17. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic

  18. Does gender inequity increase men's mortality risk in the United States? A multilevel analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Shane A; Shelley, Julia M; Stevenson, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    A number of theoretical approaches suggest that gender inequity may give rise to health risks for men. This study undertook a multilevel analysis to ascertain if state-level measures of gender inequity are predictors of men's mortality in the United States. Data for the analysis were taken primarily from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, which is based on a random sample of the non-institutionalised population. The full data set included 174,703 individuals nested within 50 states and had a six-year follow-up for mortality. Gender inequity was measured by nine variables: higher education, reproductive rights, abortion provider access, elected office, management, business ownership, labour force participation, earnings and relative poverty. Covariates at the individual level were age, income, education, race/ethnicity, marital status and employment status. Covariates at the state level were income inequality and per capita gross domestic product. The results of logistic multilevel modelling showed a number of measures of state-level gender inequity were significantly associated with men's mortality. In all of these cases greater gender inequity was associated with an increased mortality risk. In fully adjusted models for all-age adult men the elected office (OR 1.05 95% CI 1.01-1.09), business ownership (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01-1.08), earnings (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01-1.08) and relative poverty (OR 1.07 95% CI 1.03-1.10) measures all showed statistically significant effects for each 1 standard deviation increase in the gender inequity z -score. Similar effects were seen for working-age men. In older men (65+ years) only the earnings and relative poverty measures were statistically significant. This study provides evidence that gender inequity may increase men's health risks. The effect sizes while small are large enough across the range of gender inequity identified to have important population health implications.

  19. Does gender inequity increase men's mortality risk in the United States? A multilevel analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A. Kavanagh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of theoretical approaches suggest that gender inequity may give rise to health risks for men. This study undertook a multilevel analysis to ascertain if state-level measures of gender inequity are predictors of men's mortality in the United States. Data for the analysis were taken primarily from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, which is based on a random sample of the non-institutionalised population. The full data set included 174,703 individuals nested within 50 states and had a six-year follow-up for mortality. Gender inequity was measured by nine variables: higher education, reproductive rights, abortion provider access, elected office, management, business ownership, labour force participation, earnings and relative poverty. Covariates at the individual level were age, income, education, race/ethnicity, marital status and employment status. Covariates at the state level were income inequality and per capita gross domestic product. The results of logistic multilevel modelling showed a number of measures of state-level gender inequity were significantly associated with men's mortality. In all of these cases greater gender inequity was associated with an increased mortality risk. In fully adjusted models for all-age adult men the elected office (OR 1.05 95% CI 1.01–1.09, business ownership (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01–1.08, earnings (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01–1.08 and relative poverty (OR 1.07 95% CI 1.03–1.10 measures all showed statistically significant effects for each 1 standard deviation increase in the gender inequity z-score. Similar effects were seen for working-age men. In older men (65+ years only the earnings and relative poverty measures were statistically significant. This study provides evidence that gender inequity may increase men's health risks. The effect sizes while small are large enough across the range of gender inequity identified to have important population health implications.

  20. Associations among workplace environment, self-regulation, and domain-specific physical activities among white-collar workers: a multilevel longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Inoue, Shigeru

    2018-05-31

    Psychological and environmental determinants have been discussed for promoting physical activity among workers. However, few studies have investigated effects of both workplace environment and psychological determinants on physical activity. It is also unknown which domains of physical activities are promoted by these determinants. This study aimed to investigate main and interaction effects of workplace environment and individual self-regulation for physical activity on domain-specific physical activities among white-collar workers. A multi-site longitudinal study was conducted at baseline and about 5-month follow-up. A total of 49 worksites and employees within the worksites were recruited. Inclusion criteria for the worksites (a) were located in the Kanto area, Japan and (b) employed two or more employees. Employee inclusion criteria were (a) employed by the worksites, (b) aged 18 years or older, and (c) white-collar workers. For outcomes, three domain-specific physical activities (occupational, transport-related, and leisure-time) at baseline and follow-up were measured. For independent variables, self-regulation for physical activity, workplace environments (parking/bike, signs/bulletin boards/advertisements, stairs/elevators, physical activity/fitness facilities, work rules, written policies, and health promotion programs), and covariates at baseline were measured. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was conducted to investigate multilevel associations. Of the recruited worksites, 23 worksites and 562 employees, and 22 worksites and 459 employees completed the baseline and the follow-up surveys. As results of Hierarchical Linear Modeling, stairs/elevator (γ=3.80 [SE=1.80], ppsychological approaches to increase effect sizes to promote overall physical activity.

  1. Network Horizon and the Dynamics of Network Positions: A Multi-Method Multi-Level Longitudinal Study of Interfirm Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. van Liere (Diederik)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDiederik van Liere was born in Kortenhoef, the Netherlands, on February 18, 1978. He attended Herman Jordan Lyceum in Zeist, from which he received his Atheneum diploma in 1996. After high school, Diederik went on to study Business Administration at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the

  2. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. PMID:29755381

  3. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  4. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jo Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  5. A longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for interchangeable and structurally different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Eid, Michael; Geiser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM) is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality), whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings). Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only five observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed. PMID:24860515

  6. Transformational Leadership and Incivility: A Multilevel and Longitudinal Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Julien S; Gagné, Marylène; Morin, Alexandre J S; Mageau, Geneviève A

    2017-10-01

    This research examines group-level perceptions of transformational leadership (TFL) as negative longitudinal predictors of witnessing person-related (e.g., insults/affronts) and work-related (e.g., negation/intentional work overload) acts of incivility at work. Witnessing workplace incivility was also postulated to negatively predict employee need satisfaction. Data were collected among production employees in different Canadian plants of a major manufacturing company ( N = 344) who worked for 42 different managers ( M group size = 9.76). Two waves of data collection occurred 1 year apart. Results from multilevel analyses showed that workgroups where managers were perceived to engage in more frequent TFL behaviors reported reduced levels of person- and work-related incivility 1 year later. However, group-level incivility did not predict change in group-level need satisfaction 1 year later. At the individual level, results showed that witnessing higher levels of person-related incivility than one's colleagues predicted reduced satisfaction of the need for relatedness 1 year later. These longitudinal findings build upon previous literature by identifying TFL as a potential managerial strategy to reduce incivility in workgroups over time. They also show that mere exposure to workplace misbehavior still affects employees' adjustment, suggesting that every effort to reduce deviance in workplaces is worthwhile.

  7. A Multi-Level Investigation into the Antecedents of Enterprise Architecture (EA) Assimilation in the U.S. Federal Government: A Longitudinal Mixed Methods Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiya, George K.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports on a multi-dimensional longitudinal investigation of the factors that influence Enterprise Architecture (EA) diffusion and assimilation within the U.S. federal government. The study uses publicly available datasets of 123 U.S. federal departments and agencies, as well as interview data among CIOs and EA managers within…

  8. Co-occurrences Between Adolescent Substance Use and Academic Performance: School Context Inuences a Multilevel-Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. PMID:25057764

  9. The Moderating Effect of Health-Improving Workplace Environment on Promoting Physical Activity in White-Collar Employees: A Multi-Site Longitudinal Study Using Multi-Level Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the moderating effect of health-improving workplace environment on relationships between physical activity, self-efficacy, and psychological distress. Data were collected from 16 worksites and 129 employees at two time-points. Health-improving workplace environment was measured using the Japanese version of the Environmental Assessment Tool. Physical activity, self-efficacy, and psychological distress were also measured. Multi-level structural equation modeling was used to investigate the moderating effect of health-improving workplace environment on relationships between psychological distress, self-efficacy, and physical activity. Psychological distress was negatively associated with physical activity via low self-efficacy. Physical activity was negatively related to psychological distress. Physical activity/fitness facilities in the work environment exaggerated the positive relationship between self-efficacy and physical activity. Physical activity/fitness facilities in the workplace may promote employees' physical activity.

  10. The Productive Ward program™: a longitudinal multilevel study of nurse perceived practice environment, burnout, and nurse-reported quality of care and job outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Van heusden, Danny; Somers, Annemie; Tegenbos, Muriel; Wouters, Kristien; Van der Straeten, Johnny; Van Aken, Paul; Havens, Donna Sullivan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of The Productive Ward-Releasing Time to Care™ program implemented in a hospital transformation process on nurse perception related to practice environment, burnout, quality of care, and job outcomes. To address the continuously evolving complex challenges of patient care, high-performance nursing care is necessary. A longitudinal survey design was used to conduct a study in a 600-bed acute care university hospital with 3 measurement periods: T0: base line in 2006, T1 in 2011, and T2 in 2013. As part of the hospital transformation process, the productive ward program was introduced between T1 and T2. Relevant impact on nurse-physician relations, nurse management, hospital management-organizational support, nurse-reported quality of care, and job outcomes were identified. Hospital strategies and policies should be aligned with daily practices so that engaged and committed staff can promote excellent outcomes.

  11. A Multilevel Latent Growth Modelling of the Longitudinal Changes in Motivation Regulations in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Jaakkola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine individual- and classroom-level differences in the longitudinal change in motivational regulations during physical education students’ transition from elementary (Grade 6 across middle school (Grades 7 to 9. A sample of 757 Finnish adolescents (M = 12.71, SD = 0.23 participated in this study. Participants of the study responded to questionnaires collected six times. A multilevel latent growth modelling approach was used to analyze the data. Results showed that motivational regulations in physical education developed at different rates during middle school. More specifically, students’: (a identified regulation increased across Grades 6 to 9; (b amotivation increased during middle school transition from Grade 6 to 7; and (c introjected regulation declined from Grade 8 to 9. Other motivational regulations remained stable across time. The changes in amotivation and introjected regulation were largely due to individual factors, whereas the changes in identified regulation were due to environmental factors.

  12. A Multilevel, Longitudinal Analysis of Middle School Math and Language Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Zvoch

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of schools in a large urban school district was examined using achievement data from a longitudinally matched cohort of middle school students. Schools were evaluated in terms of the mean achievement and mean growth of students in mathematics and language arts. Application of multilevel, longitudinal models to student achievement data revealed that 1 school performance varied across both outcome measures in both subject areas, 2 significant proportions of variation were associated with school-to-school differences in performance, 3 evaluations of school performance differed depending on whether school mean achievement or school mean growth in achievement was examined, and 4 school mean achievement was a weak predictor of school mean growth. These results suggest that assessments of school performance depend on choices of how data are modeled and analyzed. In particular, the present study indicates that schools with low mean scores are not always “poor performing” schools. Use of student growth rates to evaluate school performance enables schools that would otherwise be deemed low performing to demonstrate positive effects on student achievement. Implications for state accountability systems are discussed.

  13. Co-occurrences between adolescent substance use and academic performance: school context influences a multilevel-longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A multilevel latent growth modelling of the longitudinal changes in motivation regulations in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Wang, John; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual- and classroom-level differences in the longitudinal change in motivational regulations during physical education students' transition from elementary (Grade 6) across middle school (Grades 7 to 9). A sample of 757 Finnish adolescents (M = 12.71, SD = 0.23) participated in this study. Participants of the study responded to questionnaires collected six times. A multilevel latent growth modelling approach was used to analyze the data. Results showed that motivational regulations in physical education developed at different rates during middle school. More specifically, students': (a) identified regulation increased across Grades 6 to 9; (b) amotivation increased during middle school transition from Grade 6 to 7; and (c) introjected regulation declined from Grade 8 to 9. Other motivational regulations remained stable across time. The changes in amotivation and introjected regulation were largely due to individual factors, whereas the changes in identified regulation were due to environmental factors. Key pointsStudents' identified regulation increased across Grades 6 to 9.Students' amotivation increased across middle school transition from Grade 6 to 7.Students' introjected regulation declined from Grade 8 to 9.Other motivational regulations remained stable across time.

  15. Longitudinal associations between exercise identity and exercise motivation: A multilevel growth curve model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Stenling, A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Vlachopoulos, S; Lindwall, M; Gucciardi, D F; Tsakonitis, C

    2018-02-01

    Past work linking exercise identity and exercise motivation has been cross-sectional. This is the first study to model the relations between different types of exercise identity and exercise motivation longitudinally. Understanding the dynamic associations between these sets of variables has implications for theory development and applied research. This was a longitudinal survey study. Participants were 180 exercisers (79 men, 101 women) from Greece, who were recruited from fitness centers and were asked to complete questionnaires assessing exercise identity (exercise beliefs and role-identity) and exercise motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external motivation, and amotivation) three times within a 6 month period. Multilevel growth curve modeling examined the role of motivational regulations as within- and between-level predictors of exercise identity, and a model in which exercise identity predicted exercise motivation at the within- and between-person levels. Results showed that within-person changes in intrinsic motivation, introjected, and identified regulations were positively and reciprocally related to within-person changes in exercise beliefs; intrinsic motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in role-identity but not vice versa. Between-person differences in the means of predictor variables were predictive of initial levels and average rates of change in the outcome variables. The findings show support to the proposition that a strong exercise identity (particularly exercise beliefs) can foster motivation for behaviors that reinforce this identity. We also demonstrate that such relations can be reciprocal overtime and can depend on the type of motivation in question as well as between-person differences in absolute levels of these variables. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Income inequality is associated with adolescent fertility in Brazil: a longitudinal multilevel analysis of 5,565 municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre D P; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-02-07

    Brazil has one of the highest adolescent fertility rates in the world. Income inequality has been frequently linked to overall adolescent health, but studies that analyzed its association with adolescent fertility have been performed only in developed countries. Brazil, in the past decade, has presented a rare combination of increasing per capita income and decreasing income inequality, which could influence future desirable pathways for other countries. We analyzed every live birth from 2000 and from 2010 in each of the 5,565 municipalities of Brazil, a total of 6,049,864 births, which included 1,247,145 (20.6%) births from women aged 15 to 19. Income inequality was assessed by the Gini Coefficient and adolescent fertility by the ratio between the number of live births from women aged 15 to 19 and the number of women aged 15 to 19, calculated for each municipality. We first applied multilevel models separately for 2000 and 2010 to test the cross-sectional association between income inequality and adolescent fertility. We then fitted longitudinal first-differences multilevel models to control for time-invariant effects. We also performed a sensitivity analysis to include only municipality with satisfactory birth record coverage. Our results indicate a consistent and positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility. After controlling for per capita income, college access, youth homicide rate and adult fertility, higher income inequality was significantly associated with higher adolescent fertility for both 2000 and 2010. The longitudinal multilevel models found similar results. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results for the association between income inequality and adolescent fertility were robust. Adult fertility was also significantly associated with adolescent fertility in the cross-sectional and longitudinal models. Income inequality is expected to be a leading concern for most countries in the near future. Our results suggest

  17. Modeling Learning in Doubly Multilevel Binary Longitudinal Data Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models: An Application to Measuring and Explaining Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2016-04-01

    When word learning is supported by instruction in experimental studies for adolescents, word knowledge outcomes tend to be collected from complex data structure, such as multiple aspects of word knowledge, multilevel reader data, multilevel item data, longitudinal design, and multiple groups. This study illustrates how generalized linear mixed models can be used to measure and explain word learning for data having such complexity. Results from this application provide deeper understanding of word knowledge than could be attained from simpler models and show that word knowledge is multidimensional and depends on word characteristics and instructional contexts.

  18. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  19. The Effects of Socioeconomic Vulnerability, Psychosocial Services, and Social Service Spending on Family Reunification: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Tonino; Delaye, Ashleigh; Chabot, Martin; Trocmé, Nico; Rothwell, David; Hélie, Sonia; Robichaud, Marie-Joelle

    2017-09-09

    Socio-environmental factors such as poverty, psychosocial services, and social services spending all could influence the challenges faced by vulnerable families. This paper examines the extent to which socioeconomic vulnerability, psychosocial service consultations, and preventative social services spending impacts the reunification for children placed in out-of-home care. This study uses a multilevel longitudinal research design that draws data from three sources: (1) longitudinal administrative data from Quebec's child protection agencies; (2) 2006 and 2011 Canadian Census data; and, (3) intra-province health and social services data. The final data set included all children ( N = 39,882) placed in out-of-home care for the first time between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2013, and followed from their initial out-of-home placement. Multilevel hazard results indicate that socioeconomic vulnerability, controlling for psychosocial services and social services spending, contributes to the decreased likelihood of reunification. Specifically, socioeconomic vulnerability, psychosocial services, and social services spending account for 24.0% of the variation in jurisdictional reunification for younger children less than 5 years of age, 12.5% for children age 5 to 11 years and 21.4% for older children age 12 to 17 years. These findings have implications for decision makers, funding agencies, and child protection agencies to improve jurisdictional resources to reduce the socioeconomic vulnerabilities of reunifying families.

  20. Pre- and Postnatal Women's Leisure Time Physical Activity Patterns: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Anita G.; Bray, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine women's leisure time physical activity (LTPA) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and through the first 7 months postnatal. Pre- and postnatal women (n = 309) completed the 12-month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and demographic information. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate a growth curve…

  1. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Tang, X.Z.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of δf particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future

  3. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  4. LEIR longitudinal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, S; Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015 and during 2016 there were exten-sive studies of longitudinal beam dynamics in LEIR aimedat improving extracted intensities. As the driving source oflosses early in the ramp was shown to be transverse spacecharge tune spread a significant improvement came fromflattening the beam profile to increase the bunching factorby offsetting the RF frequency from the beam revolution fre-quency. Further benefits were provided by modulating theRF frequency during capture, leading to emittance blow-upand improved reproducibility. The use of two RF cavitiesduring operation was studied to try and further increase thecaptured emittance, however after careful alignment of theRF it was found that a hard limit in the bunch heigh of approx-imately 7 MeV exists. Due to the acceptance limit there wasno operational benefit to using both cavities simultaneously

  5. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  6. Studying historical occupational careers with multilevel growth models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, W.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose to study occupational careers with historical data by using multilevel growth models. Historical career data are often characterized by a lack of information on the timing of occupational changes and by different numbers of observations of occupations per individual.

  7. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Harris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Research Council (MRC Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. Methods A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites. Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10. Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. Results All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded

  8. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fiona M; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Connor, Rory; Coyne, James C; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Koburger, Nicole; Gusmão, Ricardo; Costa, Susana; Székely, András; Cserhati, Zoltan; McDaid, David; van Audenhove, Chantal; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-03-15

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites). Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10). Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC) also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention) in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign) and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded) activity that shared the goals of suicide prevention

  9. Trade liberalization and tuberculosis incidence: a longitudinal multi-level analysis in 22 high burden countries between 1990 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Trade liberalization is promoted by the World Trade Organization (WTO) through a complex architecture of binding trade agreements. This type of trade, however, has the potential to modify the upstream and proximate determinants of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We aimed to analyse the association between trade liberalization and TB incidence in 22 high-burden TB countries between 1990 and 2010. and findings A longitudinal multi-level linear regression analysis was performed using five different measures of trade liberalization as exposure [WTO membership, duration of membership, trade as % of gross domestic product, and components of both the Economic Freedom of the World Index (EFI4) and the KOF Index of Globalization (KOF1)]. We adjusted for a wide range of factors, including differences in human development index (HDI), income inequality, debts, polity patterns, conflict, overcrowding, population stage transition, health system financing, case detection rates and HIV prevalence. None of the five trade indicators was significantly associated with TB incidence in the crude analysis. Any positive effect of EFI4 on (Log-) TB incidence over time was confounded by differences in socio-economic development (HDI), HIV prevalence and health financing indicators. The adjusted TB incidence rate ratio of WTO member countries was significantly higher [RR: 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-2.29] when compared with non-member countries. We found no association between specific aggregate indicators of trade liberalization and TB incidence. Our analyses provide evidence of a significant association between WTO membership and higher TB incidence, which suggests a possible conflict between the architecture of WTO agreements and TB-related Millennium Development Goals. Further research is needed, particularly on the relation between the aggregate trade indices used in this study and the hypothesized mediators and also on sector-specific indices, specific trade agreements and

  10. Fluid Intelligence as a Predictor of Learning: A Longitudinal Multilevel Approach Applied to Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primi, Ricardo; Ferrao, Maria Eugenia; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2010-01-01

    The association between fluid intelligence and inter-individual differences was investigated using multilevel growth curve modeling applied to data measuring intra-individual improvement on math achievement tests. A sample of 166 students (88 boys and 78 girls), ranging in age from 11 to 14 (M = 12.3, SD = 0.64), was tested. These individuals took…

  11. Income inequality and mortality: a multilevel prospective study of 521 248 individuals in 50 US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Eric; Rowe, Geoff; Lynch, John; Wolfson, Michael C; Kaplan, George A; Sorlie, Paul D

    2007-06-01

    Some of the most consistent evidence in favour of an association between income inequality and health has been among US states. However, in multilevel studies of mortality, only two out of five studies have reported a positive relationship with income inequality after adjustment for the compositional characteristics of the state's inhabitants. In this study, we attempt to clarify these mixed results by analysing the relationship within age-sex groups and by applying a previously unused analytical method to a database that contains more deaths than any multilevel study to date. The US National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) was used to model the relationship between income inequality in US states and mortality using both a novel and previously used methodologies that fall into the general framework of multilevel regression. We adjust age-sex specific models for nine socioeconomic and demographic variables at the individual level and percentage black and region at the state level. The preponderance of evidence from this study suggests that 1990 state-level income inequality is associated with a 40% differential in state level mortality rates (95% CI = 26-56%) for men 25-64 years and a 14% (95% CI = 3-27%) differential for women 25-64 years after adjustment for compositional factors. No such relationship was found for men or women over 65. The relationship between income inequality and mortality is only robust to adjustment for compositional factors in men and women under 65. This explains why income inequality is not a major driver of mortality trends in the United States because most deaths occur at ages 65 and over. This analysis does suggest, however, the certain causes of death that occur primarily in the population under 65 may be associated with income inequality. Comparison of analytical techniques also suggests coefficients for income inequality in previous multilevel mortality studies may be biased, but further research is needed to provide a definitive

  12. Longitudinal Assessment of Intellectual Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Multilevel Modeling of Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Kistler, Doris J.; John, Angela E.; Morris, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to address the longitudinal stability of standard scores (SSs) measuring intellectual ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were 40 children with genetically confirmed WS who completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition (KBIT-2; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 2004) 4-7…

  13. Coupling Longitudinal Data and Multilevel Modeling to Examine the Antecedents and Consequences of Jealousy Experiences in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Solomon, Denise Haunani

    2006-01-01

    We used longitudinal data and multilevel modeling to examine how intimacy, relational uncertainty, and failed attempts at interdependence influence emotional, cognitive, and communicative responses to romantic jealousy, and how those experiences shape subsequent relationship characteristics. The relational turbulence model (Solomon & Knobloch,…

  14. Longitudinal Multilevel Models of the Big Fish Little Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept: Counterbalancing Contrast and Reflected Glory Effects in Hong Kong Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Kong, Chit-Kwong; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Longitudinal multilevel path models (7,997 students, 44 high schools, 4 years) evaluated the effects of school-average achievement and perceived school status on academic self-concept in Hong Kong, a collectivist culture with a highly achievement-segregated high school system. Consistent with a priori predictions based on the big-fish-little-pond…

  15. The role of perceived social support in loneliness and self-esteem among children affected by HIV/AIDS: a longitudinal multilevel analysis in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-07-01

    To delineate the trajectories of loneliness and self-esteem over time among children affected by parental HIV and AIDS, and to examine how their perceived social support (PSS) influenced initial scores and change rates of these two psychological outcomes. We collected longitudinal data from children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural central China. Children 6-18 years of age at baseline were eligible to participate in the study and were assessed annually for 3 years. Multilevel regression models for change were used to assess the effect of baseline PSS on the trajectories of loneliness and self-esteem over time. We employed maximum likelihood estimates to fit multilevel models and specified the between-individual covariance matrix as 'unstructured' to allow correlation among the different sources of variance. Statistics including -2 Log Likelihood, Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion were used in evaluating the model fit. The results of multilevel analyses indicated that loneliness scores significantly declined over time. Controlling for demographic characteristics, children with higher PSS reported significantly lower baseline loneliness score and experienced a slower rate of decline in loneliness over time. Children with higher PSS were more likely to report higher self-esteem scores at baseline. However, the self-esteem scores remained stable over time controlling for baseline PSS and all the other variables. The positive effect of PSS on psychological adjustment may imply a promising approach for future intervention among children affected by HIV/AIDS, in which efforts to promote psychosocial well being could focus on children and families with lower social support. We also call for a greater understanding of children's psychological adjustment process in various contexts of social support and appropriate adaptations of evidence-based interventions to meet their diverse needs.

  16. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide : longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; Kollen, Boudewijn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  17. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide: longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; Kollen, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  18. Studying historical occupational careers with multilevel growth models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Schulz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose to study occupational careers with historical data by using multilevel growth models. Historical career data are often characterized by a lack of information on the timing of occupational changes and by different numbers of observations of occupations per individual. Growth models can handle these specificities, whereas standard methods, such as event history analyses can't. We illustrate the use of growth models by studying career success of men and women, using data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands. The results show that the method is applicable to male careers, but causes trouble when analyzing female careers.

  19. "Does anger regulation mediate the discrimination-mental health link among Mexican-origin adolescents? A longitudinal mediation analysis using multilevel modeling": Correction to Park et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link Among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling" by Irene J. K. Park, Lijuan Wang, David R. Williams and Margarita Alegría ( Developmental Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Nov 28, 2016, np). In the article, there were several typographical errors in the Recruitment and Procedures section. The percentage of mothers who responded to survey items should have been 99.3%. Additionally, the youths surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been n=246 . Accordingly, the percentage of youths surveyed in T2 and T3 should have been 91.4% and the percentage of mothers surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been 90.7%. Finally, the youths missing at T2 should have been n= 23, and therefore the attrition rate for youth participants should have been 8.6. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-57671-001.) Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents ( M age = 14.1 years, SD = 1.6; 57% girls), 12 to 17 years old. Three competing anger regulation variables were tested as potential mediators: outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control. Longitudinal mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling that disaggregated within-person effects from between-person effects. Results indicated that outward anger expression was a significant mediator; anger suppression and anger control were not significant mediators. Within a given individual, greater racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with more frequent outward anger expression. In turn

  20. Empowering leaders optimize working conditions for engagement: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Bakker, Arnold B; Dollard, Maureen F

    2012-01-01

    Using a multilevel framework, this study examined the role of empowering leadership at the group level by fire brigade captains in facilitating the individual level motivational processes that underpin work engagement in volunteer firefighters. Anonymous mail surveys were completed by 540 volunteer firefighters from 68 fire brigades and, separately, by 68 brigade captains. As predicted on the basis of the Job Demands-Resources model, increased levels of cognitive demands and cognitive resources partially mediated the relationship between empowering leadership and work engagement. In a three-way Leadership × Demands × Resources interaction, empowering leadership also had the effect of optimizing working conditions for engagement by strengthening the positive effect of a work context in which both cognitive demands and cognitive resources were high. Our findings shed light on a process through which leaders can empower workers and enhance well-being: via their influence on and interaction with the work environment. They also underscore the need to examine work engagement from a multilevel theoretical perspective.

  1. Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a longitudinal, multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Wolch, Jennifer; Chang, Roger; Lam, Claudia; Dunton, Genevieve; Gilliland, Frank; Lurmann, Fred; Islam, Talat; Berhane, Kiros

    2014-06-09

    Biologically plausible mechanisms link traffic-related air pollution to metabolic disorders and potentially to obesity. Here we sought to determine whether traffic density and traffic-related air pollution were positively associated with growth in body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) in children aged 5-11 years. Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort of children who lived in 13 communities across Southern California (N = 4550). Children were enrolled while attending kindergarten and first grade and followed for 4 years, with height and weight measured annually. Dispersion models were used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Multilevel models were used to estimate and test traffic density and traffic pollution related to BMI growth. Data were collected between 2002-2010 and analyzed in 2011-12. Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI and was robust to adjustment for many confounders. The effect size in the adjusted model indicated about a 13.6% increase in annual BMI growth when comparing the lowest to the highest tenth percentile of air pollution exposure, which resulted in an increase of nearly 0.4 BMI units on attained BMI at age 10. Traffic density also had a positive association with BMI growth, but this effect was less robust in multivariate models. Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI in children aged 5-11 years. Traffic pollution may be controlled via emission restrictions; changes in land use that promote jobs-housing balance and use of public transit and hence reduce vehicle miles traveled; promotion of zero emissions vehicles; transit and car-sharing programs; or by limiting high pollution traffic, such as diesel trucks, from residential areas or places where children play outdoors, such as schools and parks. These measures may have beneficial effects in terms of reduced obesity formation in children.

  2. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  3. Multilevel modeling using R

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, W Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    A powerful tool for analyzing nested designs in a variety of fields, multilevel/hierarchical modeling allows researchers to account for data collected at multiple levels. Multilevel Modeling Using R provides you with a helpful guide to conducting multilevel data modeling using the R software environment.After reviewing standard linear models, the authors present the basics of multilevel models and explain how to fit these models using R. They then show how to employ multilevel modeling with longitudinal data and demonstrate the valuable graphical options in R. The book also describes models fo

  4. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992

  5. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  6. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. PMID:29261114

  7. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Olsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067 and teachers (n = 1251 in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  8. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-12-20

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people's lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students ( n = 6067) and teachers ( n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  9. Age, forgiveness, and meeting behavior: A multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, E.-M.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the effects of age on counteractive team meeting behaviors (e.g. complaining). Forgiveness is included as a potential buffer against these behaviors. A multilevel model is developed to test individual and team level age effects. Design/methodology/approach: A

  10. Moral Orientation and Relationships in School and Adolescent Pro-and Antisocial Behaviors : A Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J.; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment- and victim-based moral orientation,

  11. Does anger regulation mediate the discrimination-mental health link among Mexican-origin adolescents? A longitudinal mediation analysis using multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Irene J K; Wang, Lijuan; Williams, David R; Alegría, Margarita

    2017-02-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 53(2) of Developmental Psychology (see record 2017-04475-001). In the article, there were several typographical errors in the Recruitment and Procedures section. The percentage of mothers who responded to survey items should have been 99.3%. Additionally, the youths surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been n 246. Accordingly, the percentage of youths surveyed in T2 and T3 should have been 91.4% and the percentage of mothers surveyed at T2 and T3 should have been 90.7%. Finally, the youths missing at T2 should have been n 23, and therefore the attrition rate for youth participants should have been 8.6. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents ( M age = 14.1 years, SD = 1.6; 57% girls), 12 to 17 years old. Three competing anger regulation variables were tested as potential mediators: outward anger expression, anger suppression, and anger control. Longitudinal mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling that disaggregated within-person effects from between-person effects. Results indicated that outward anger expression was a significant mediator; anger suppression and anger control were not significant mediators. Within a given individual, greater racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with more frequent outward anger expression. In turn, more frequent outward anger expression was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression at a given time point. Gender, age, and nativity status were not significant moderators of the hypothesized mediation models. By identifying outward anger expression as an explanatory

  12. Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    1999-01-01

    We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam

  13. Leprosy among patient contacts: a multilevel study of risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing leprosy among the contacts of newly-diagnosed leprosy patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 6,158 contacts and 1,201 leprosy patients of the cohort who were diagnosed and treated at the Leprosy Laboratory of Fiocruz from 1987 to 2007 were included. The contact variables analyzed were sex; age; educational and income levels; blood relationship, if any, to the index case; household or non-household relationship; length of time of close association with the index case; receipt of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BGG vaccine and presence of BCG scar. Index cases variables included sex, age, educational level, family size, bacillary load, and disability grade. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercept was applied. Among the co-prevalent cases, the leprosy-related variables that remained associated with leprosy included type of household contact, [odds ratio (OR = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02, 1.73] and consanguinity with the index case, (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.42-2.51. With respect to the index case variables, the factors associated with leprosy among contacts included up to 4 years of schooling and 4 to 10 years of schooling (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.54-4.79 and 2.40, 95% CI: 1.30-4.42, respectively and bacillary load, which increased the chance of leprosy among multibacillary contacts for those with a bacillary index of one to three and greater than three (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.19-2.17 and OR: 4.07-95% CI: 2.73, 6.09, respectively. Among incident cases, household exposure was associated with leprosy (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.29-2.98, compared with non-household exposure. Among the index case risk factors, an elevated bacillary load was the only variable associated with leprosy in the contacts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biological and social factors appear to be associated with leprosy among co-prevalent cases, whereas the factors related to the

  14. The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.

  15. Life satisfaction in the new country: a multilevel longitudinal analysis of effects of culture and 5-HTT allele frequency distribution in country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Emiko S; Kent, Stephen; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction of migrants to Australia from 17 countries, assessed at 4-5 months, 16-17 months and 3½ years after arrival, was analyzed with a longitudinal, multilevel analysis. The results indicated that migrants were more satisfied, if the national average life satisfaction was higher in their country of origin, after adjustment for individual-level income, age, and sex and a linear temporal trend. Simultaneously, the migrants were also happier if people in their country of origin had a higher frequency of 5-HTT long allele, a genotype known to be associated with resilience under life stresses. These two relationships were independent, suggesting that both culture and gene matter in international transitions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Statistical Power in Longitudinal Network Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadtfeld, Christoph; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; van Duijn, Marijtje

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal social network studies may easily suffer from a lack of statistical power. This is the case in particular for studies that simultaneously investigate change of network ties and change of nodal attributes. Such selection and influence studies have become increasingly popular due to the

  17. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  18. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  19. The multi-level perspective analysis: Indonesia geothermal energy transition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaksono, A.; Murphy, J.; Sharp, J. H.; Younger, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The study adopts a multi-level perspective in technology transition to analyse how the transition process in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia is able to compete against the incumbent fossil-fuelled energy sources. Three levels of multi-level perspective are socio-technical landscape (ST-landscape), socio-technical regime (ST-regime) and niche innovations in Indonesia geothermal development. The identification, mapping and analysis of the dynamic relationship between each level are the important pillars of the multi-level perspective framework. The analysis considers the set of rules, actors and controversies that may arise in the technological transition process. The identified geothermal resource risks are the basis of the emerging geothermal technological innovations in Indonesian geothermal. The analysis of this study reveals the transition pathway, which yields a forecast for the Indonesian geothermal technology transition in the form of scenarios and probable impacts.

  20. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  1. The Czech longitudinal study of optimal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 266-266 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : optimal development * Prague longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  2. Burnout development among dentists : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, H.; Smits, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  3. At the Frontiers of Modeling Intensive Longitudinal Data: Dynamic Structural Equation Models for the Affective Measurements from the COGITO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, E L; Asparouhov, T; Brose, A; Schmiedek, F; Muthén, B

    2018-04-06

    With the growing popularity of intensive longitudinal research, the modeling techniques and software options for such data are also expanding rapidly. Here we use dynamic multilevel modeling, as it is incorporated in the new dynamic structural equation modeling (DSEM) toolbox in Mplus, to analyze the affective data from the COGITO study. These data consist of two samples of over 100 individuals each who were measured for about 100 days. We use composite scores of positive and negative affect and apply a multilevel vector autoregressive model to allow for individual differences in means, autoregressions, and cross-lagged effects. Then we extend the model to include random residual variances and covariance, and finally we investigate whether prior depression affects later depression scores through the random effects of the daily diary measures. We end with discussing several urgent-but mostly unresolved-issues in the area of dynamic multilevel modeling.

  4. Commitment to the Study of International Business and Cultural Intelligence: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Barakat, Livia L.; Aad, Amine Abi

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a multilevel theoretical framework, we examined how metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence influence an individual's commitment to the study of international business (IB). Data from 292 undergraduate and graduate business students nested in 12 U.S. business school classes demonstrated that individuals' metacognitive and…

  5. A Multilevel Network Study of the Effects of Delinquent Behavior on Friendship Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.B.; Baerveldt, Chris

    2003-01-01

    A multilevel approach is proposed to the study of the evolution of multiple networks. In this approach, the basic evolution process is assumed to be the same, while parameter values may differ between different networks. For the network evolution process, stochastic actor-oriented models are used,

  6. Modeling the Factors Associated with Children's Mental Health Difficulties in Primary School: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Wigelsworth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores some of the factors associated with children's mental health difficulties in primary school. Multilevel modeling with data from 628 children from 36 schools was used to determine how much variation in mental health difficulties exists between and within schools, and to identify characteristics at the school and…

  7. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  8. Income Inequality and Risk of Suicide in New York City Neighborhoods: A Multilevel Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey R.; Piper, Tinka Markham; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2005-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between income inequality and suicide is inconsistent. Data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for all fatal injuries was collected to conduct a multilevel case-control study. In multilevel models, suicide decedents (n = 374) were more likely than accident controls (n = 453) to reside in…

  9. Longitudinal multilevel models of the big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept: counterbalancing contrast and reflected-glory effects in Hong Kong schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H W; Kong, C K; Hau, K T

    2000-02-01

    Longitudinal multilevel path models (7,997 students, 44 high schools, 4 years) evaluated effects of school-average achievement and perceived school status on academic self-concept in Hong Kong, which has a collectivist culture with a highly achievement-segregated high school system. Consistent with a priori predictions based on the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), higher school-average achievements led to lower academic self-concepts (contrast effect), whereas higher perceived school status had a counterbalancing positive effect on self-concept (reflected-glory, assimilation effect). The negative BFLPE is the net effect of counterbalancing influences, stronger negative contrast effects, and weaker positive assimilation effects so that controlling perceived school status led to purer--and even more negative--contrast effects. Attending a school where school-average achievement is high simultaneously resulted in a more demanding basis of comparison for one's own accomplishments (the stronger negative contrast effect) and a source of pride (the weaker positive assimilation effect).

  10. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  11. Motivation Mediates the Perfectionism-Burnout Relationship: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study With Junior Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Perfectionism in sports has been shown to predict longitudinal changes in athlete burnout. What mediates these changes over time, however, is still unclear. Adopting a self-determination theory perspective and using a three-wave longitudinal design, the current study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and athlete burnout in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years) over 6 months of active training. When multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to test a mediational model, a differential pattern of between- and within-person relationships emerged. Whereas autonomous motivation mediated the negative relationship that perfectionistic strivings had with burnout at the between- and within-person level, controlled motivation mediated the positive relationship that perfectionistic concerns had with burnout at the between-persons level only. The present findings suggest that differences in autonomous and controlled motivation explain why perfectionism predicts changes in athlete burnout over time.

  12. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  13. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anterior Versus Posterior Approach for Multilevel Degenerative Cervical Disease: A Retrospective Propensity Score-Matched Study of the MarketScan Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Tyler; Veeravagu, Anand; Zhang, Michael; Azad, Tej D; Desai, Atman; Ratliff, John K

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective 2:1 propensity score-matched analysis on a national longitudinal database between 2006 and 2010. To compare rates of adverse events, revisions procedure rates, and payment differences in anterior cervical fusion procedures compared with posterior laminectomy and fusion procedures with at least 3 levels of instrumentation. The comparative benefits of anterior versus posterior approach to multilevel degenerative cervical disease remain controversial. Recent systematic reviews have reached conflicting conclusions. We demonstrate the comparative economic and clinical outcomes of anterior and posterior approaches for multilevel cervical degenerative disk disease. We identified 13,662 patients in a national billing claims database who underwent anterior or posterior cervical fusion procedures with 3 or more levels of instrumentation. Cohorts were balanced using 2:1 propensity score matching and outcomes were compared using bivariate analysis. With the exception of dysphagia (6.4% in anterior and 1.4% in posterior), overall 30-day complication rates were lower in the anterior approach group. The rate of any complication excluding dysphagia with anterior approaches was 12.3%, significantly lower (P disease provide clinical advantages over posterior approaches, including lower overall complication rates, revision procedure rates, and decreased length of stay. Anterior approach procedures are also associated with decreased overall payments. These findings must be interpreted in light of limitations inherent to retrospective longitudinal studies including absence of subjective and radiographical outcomes. 3.

  15. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  16. School Climate and Exposure to Bullying: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Östberg, Viveca; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates associations between aspects of school climate, measured by students' assessments aggregated to the class level, and exposure to bullying, measured at the individual level. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey of 2006-2010 with information from 16,418 ninth-grade students (aged 15-16 years) distributed…

  17. Longitudinal analysis of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire scores of the Millennium Cohort Study children in England using M-quantile random-effects regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzavidis, Nikos; Salvati, Nicola; Schmid, Timo; Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2016-02-01

    Multilevel modelling is a popular approach for longitudinal data analysis. Statistical models conventionally target a parameter at the centre of a distribution. However, when the distribution of the data is asymmetric, modelling other location parameters, e.g. percentiles, may be more informative. We present a new approach, M -quantile random-effects regression, for modelling multilevel data. The proposed method is used for modelling location parameters of the distribution of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire scores of children in England who participate in the Millennium Cohort Study. Quantile mixed models are also considered. The analyses offer insights to child psychologists about the differential effects of risk factors on children's outcomes.

  18. Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Irene J. K.; Wang, Lijuan; Williams, David R.; Alegría, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin…

  19. Multilevel governance in community-based environmental management: a case study comparison from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sattler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze four case studies from Latin America using the concept of multilevel governance to assess at what vertical and horizontal levels and in what roles various state, market, and civil society actors interact for successful community-based environmental management (CBEM. In particular, we address the problem of how a conflict over natural resources with high negative impacts on the livelihoods of the respective communities could be overcome by a governance change that resulted in a multilevel governance arrangement for CBEM. The analysis involves a mixed-methods approach that combines a variety of empirical methods in social research such as field visits, personal interviews, participant observations, and stakeholder workshops. To visualize results, we introduce two schemes to present the composition of the governance structures for cross-case comparison. The first scheme plots the different actors into an arrangement that shows their associations with different societal spheres and at which territorial scales they are primarily involved. The second scheme differentiates these actors based on their complementing governance roles. Active roles are attributed to actors who implement activities on the ground, whereas passive roles are assigned to actors who provide specific resources such as knowledge, funding, legislative framework, or others. All cases involved governance actors from more than one societal sphere who operate on at least three different territorial levels (local to international and in distinct roles. Results show that multilevel governance can strengthen CBEM in different ways. First, the success of CBEM is an outcome of the sum of horizontal and vertical interactions of all involved actors, and there is no most appropriate single level of social organization at which a problem can best be addressed. Only the cooperation of actors from different societal spheres within and across levels ensures accessibility to needed

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on Remand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...

  1. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  2. The CogBIAS longitudinal study protocol: cognitive and genetic factors influencing psychological functioning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Charlotte; Songco, Annabel; Parsons, Sam; Heathcote, Lauren; Vincent, John; Keers, Robert; Fox, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    Optimal psychological development is dependent upon a complex interplay between individual and situational factors. Investigating the development of these factors in adolescence will help to improve understanding of emotional vulnerability and resilience. The CogBIAS longitudinal study (CogBIAS-L-S) aims to combine cognitive and genetic approaches to investigate risk and protective factors associated with the development of mood and impulsivity-related outcomes in an adolescent sample. CogBIAS-L-S is a three-wave longitudinal study of typically developing adolescents conducted over 4 years, with data collection at age 12, 14 and 16. At each wave participants will undergo multiple assessments including a range of selective cognitive processing tasks (e.g. attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias) and psychological self-report measures (e.g. anxiety, depression, resilience). Saliva samples will also be collected at the baseline assessment for genetic analyses. Multilevel statistical analyses will be performed to investigate the developmental trajectory of cognitive biases on psychological functioning, as well as the influence of genetic moderation on these relationships. CogBIAS-L-S represents the first longitudinal study to assess multiple cognitive biases across adolescent development and the largest study of its kind to collect genetic data. It therefore provides a unique opportunity to understand how genes and the environment influence the development and maintenance of cognitive biases and provide insight into risk and protective factors that may be key targets for intervention.

  3. Income Inequality or Performance Gap? A Multilevel Study of School Violence in 52 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Dante; Elacqua, Gregory; Martinez, Matias; Miranda, Álvaro

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between income inequality and school violence and between the performance inequality and school violence in two international samples. The study used data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 and from the Central Intelligence Agency of United States which combined information about academic performance and students' victimization (physical and social) for 269,456 fourth-grade students and 261,747 eighth-grade students, with gross domestic product and income inequality data in 52 countries. Ecological correlations tested associations between income inequality and victimization and between school performance inequality and victimization among countries. Multilevel ordinal regression and multilevel regression analyses tested the strength of these associations when controlling for socioeconomic and academic performance inequality at school level and family socioeconomic status and academic achievement at student level. Income inequality was associated with victimization rates in both fourth and eighth grade (r ≈ .60). Performance inequality shows stronger association with victimization among eighth graders (r ≈ .46) compared with fourth graders (r ≈ .30). Multilevel analyses indicate that both an increase in the income inequality in the country and school corresponds with more frequent physical and social victimization. On the other hand, an increase in the performance inequality at the system level shows no consistent association to victimization. However, school performance inequality seems related to an increase in both types of victimizations. Our results contribute to the finding that income inequality is a determinant of school violence. This result holds regardless of the national performance inequality between students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic relations between fast-food restaurant and body weight status: a longitudinal and multilevel analysis of Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongwei; Short, Susan E; Liu, Tao

    2013-03-01

    Mixed findings have been reported on the association between Western fast-food restaurants and body weight status. Results vary across study contexts and are sensitive to the samples, measures and methods used. Most studies have failed to examine the temporally dynamic associations between community exposure to fast-food restaurants and weight changes. Bayesian hierarchical regressions are used to model changes in body mass index, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR) as a function of changes in Western fast-food restaurants in 216 communities for more than 9000 Chinese adults followed up multiple times between 2000 and 2009. Number of Western fast-food restaurants is positively associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR among rural population. More fast-food restaurants are positively associated with a future increase in WHpR for urban women. Increased availability of fast food between two waves is related to increased WHtR for urban men over the same period. A past increase in number of fast-food restaurants is associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR for rural population. The associations between community exposure to Western fast food and weight changes are temporally dynamic rather than static. Improved measures of exposure to community environment are needed to achieve more precise estimates and better understanding of these relationships. In light of the findings in this study and China's rapid economic growth, further investigation and increased public health monitoring is warranted since Western fast food is likely to be more accessible and affordable in the near future.

  5. Day-to-day variations in health behaviors and daily functioning: two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    In two intensive longitudinal studies we examined the daily dynamics in health behaviors and their associations with two important indicators of young adults' daily functioning, namely, affect and academic performance. Over a period of 8 months, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. A subsample wore an actigraph to provide an additional measurement of sleep and physical activity and participated in a controlled laboratory snacking situation. Multilevel structural equation models showed that better day-to-day sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, but not snacking, were associated with improved daily functioning, namely, affect and learning goal achievement. Importantly, self-report measurements of health behaviors correlated with behavioral measurements. These findings have the potential to inform health promotion programs aimed at supporting young adults in their daily functioning in good physical and mental health.

  6. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  7. The multilevel determinants of workers' mental health: results from the SALVEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Durand, Pierre; Haines, Victor; Harvey, Steve

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the contribution of work, non-work and individual factors on workers' symptoms of psychological distress, depression and emotional exhaustion based on the multilevel determinants of workers' mental health model. Data from the SALVEO Study were collected in 2009-2012 from a sample of 1,954 employees nested in 63 workplaces in the province of Quebec (Canada). Multilevel regression models were used to analyse the data. Altogether, variables explain 32.2 % of psychological distress, 48.4 % of depression and 48.8 % of emotional exhaustion. Mental health outcomes varied slightly between workplaces and skill utilisation, physical and psychological demands, abusive supervision, interpersonal conflicts and job insecurity are related to the outcomes. Living in couple, having young children at home, family-to-work conflict, work-to-family conflict, strained marital and parental relations, and social support outside the workplace associated with the outcomes. Most of the individual characteristics also correlated with the three outcomes. Importantly, non-work and individual factors modulated the number and type of work factors related to the three outcomes. The results of this study suggest expanding perspectives on occupational mental health that fully recognise the complexity of workers' mental health determinants.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  9. One-Level or Multilevel Interbody Fusion for Multilevel Lumbar Degenerative Diseases: A Prospective Randomized Control Study with a 4-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiefeng; Shi, Lei; Luo, Yibin; Chen, Deyu; Chen, Yu

    2018-02-01

    The treatment of multilevel lumbar degenerative disease (LDD) is complicated and challenging, and the optimal surgical strategy remains controversial. To compare the differences in clinical and radiologic outcomes and in complications after 1-level interbody fusion versus multilevel interbody fusion for the treatment of multilevel LDD. A total of 100 patients with multilevel LDD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio into the 1-level interbody fusion group or the multilevel interbody fusion group. Clinical and radiologic results and major complications in the 2 groups were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale for radicular and back pain, the Oswestry Disability Index, and the short-form 36 physical score. Clinical status was assessed by the Whitecloud classification. Radiologic evaluation included assessment of lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, and sacral slope. There were no significant differences in clinical and radiologic results between the 2 groups. Procedure duration and intraoperative blood loss were significantly greater in the multilevel interbody fusion group than in the 1-level interbody fusion group; the multilevel interbody fusion group also had greater incidences of temporary nerve root palsy, wound infection, and adjacent segment disease. A hybrid technique including 1-level interbody fusion and multilevel posterolateral fusion is recommended for patients with multilevel LDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep was associated with depression and anxiety status during pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunxian; Li, Minchao; Pu, Liuyan; Wang, Shuojia; Wu, Jinhua; Ruan, Lingli; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Zhaopin; Jiang, Wen

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of sleep with depression and anxiety among Chinese pregnant women. Pregnant women were recruited in Zhoushan Pregnant Women Cohort at Zhoushan Maternal and Child Care Hospital from 2011 to 2015. Self-rating depression scales (SDS) and self-rating anxiety scales (SAS) were used for evaluating depression and anxiety status at each trimester; corresponding sleep quality and duration were reported by pregnant women. Ordinary or multilevel linear and logistic regression model were used to estimate the cross-sectional or longitudinal association of sleep with depression and anxiety. The prevalence rates were 35.64, 24.23, and 26.24% for depression and 22.57, 17.41, and 21.04% for anxiety at 1st (T1), 2nd (T2), and 3rd trimester (T3), respectively. Controlling for potential confounders, it revealed significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep with depression and anxiety status. In cross-sectional analysis, women who slept less than 8 h/day had higher risk of depression (T1: OR (95%CI) = 1.75 (1.39, 2.20); T2: 1.52 (1.26, 2.05); T3: 1.60 (1.18, 2.05)) and anxiety (T1: 2.00 (1.57, 2.55); T2: 1.86 (1.37, 2.54); T3: 1.33 (0.99, 1.79)). In the longitudinal analysis, multilevel model revealed that women with subjective "fair" or "bad" sleep quality had elevated risk of depression (OR ranging from 1.54 to 3.71) and anxiety (2.38 to 7.53) during pregnancy. Prenatal depression and anxiety status were prevalent in pregnant women. Sleep quality was associated with depression and anxiety status in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, implying that improving sleep quality should benefit for mental health of pregnant women.

  11. Importation, Antibiotics, and Clostridium difficile Infection in Veteran Long-Term Care: A Multilevel Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin A; Jones, Makoto; Daneman, Nick; Adler, Frederick R; Stevens, Vanessa; Nechodom, Kevin E; Goetz, Matthew B; Samore, Matthew H; Mayer, Jeanmarie

    2016-06-21

    Although clinical factors affecting a person's susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection are well-understood, little is known about what drives differences in incidence across long-term care settings. To obtain a comprehensive picture of individual and regional factors that affect C difficile incidence. Multilevel longitudinal nested case-control study. Veterans Health Administration health care regions, from 2006 through 2012. Long-term care residents. Individual-level risk factors included age, number of comorbid conditions, and antibiotic exposure. Regional risk factors included importation of cases of acute care C difficile infection per 10 000 resident-days and antibiotic use per 1000 resident-days. The outcome was defined as a positive result on a long-term care C difficile test without a positive result in the prior 8 weeks. 6012 cases (incidence, 3.7 cases per 10 000 resident-days) were identified in 86 regions. Long-term care C difficile incidence (minimum, 0.6 case per 10 000 resident-days; maximum, 31.0 cases per 10 000 resident-days), antibiotic use (minimum, 61.0 days with therapy per 1000 resident-days; maximum, 370.2 days with therapy per 1000 resident-days), and importation (minimum, 2.9 cases per 10 000 resident-days; maximum, 341.3 cases per 10 000 resident-days) varied substantially across regions. Together, antibiotic use and importation accounted for 75% of the regional variation in C difficile incidence (R2 = 0.75). Multilevel analyses showed that regional factors affected risk together with individual-level exposures (relative risk of regional antibiotic use, 1.36 per doubling [95% CI, 1.15 to 1.60]; relative risk of importation, 1.23 per doubling [CI, 1.14 to 1.33]). Case identification was based on laboratory criteria. Admission of residents with recent C difficile infection from non-Veterans Health Administration acute care sources was not considered. Only 25% of the variation in regional C difficile incidence in long

  12. Analysing the effect of area of residence over the life course in multilevel epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naess, Oyvind; Leyland, Alastair H

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we present multilevel models of individuals' residential history at multiple time points through the life course and their application and discuss some advantages and disadvantages for their use in epidemiological studies. Literature review of research using longitudinal multilevel models in studies of neighbourhood effects, statistical multilevel models that take individuals' residential history into account, and the application of these models in the Oslo mortality study. Measures of variance have been used to investigate the contextual impact of membership to collectives, such as area of residence, at several time points. The few longitudinal multilevel models that have been used suggest that early life area of residence may have an effect on mortality independently of residence later in life although the proportion of variation attributable to area level is small compared to individual level. The following multilevel models have been developed: simple multilevel models for each year separately, a multiple membership model, a cross-classified model, and finally a correlated cross-classified model. These models have different assumptions regarding the timing of influence through the life course. To fully recognise the origin of adult chronic diseases, factors at all stages of the life course at both individual and area level needs to be considered in order to avoid biased estimates. Important challenges in making life course residential data available for research and assessing how changing administrative coding over time reflect contextual impact need to be overcome before these models can be implemented as normal practice in multilevel epidemiology.

  13. Comparison of anterior decompression and fusion versus laminoplasty in the treatment of multilevel cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Weijun Liu,1,* Ling Hu,2,* Po-Hsin Chou,3 Ming Liu,1 Wusheng Kan,1 Junwen Wang1 1Department of Orthopedics, Pu Ai Hospital, Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Tianyou Hospital, Affiliated to Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedics & Traumatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the clinical outcomes, complications, reoperation rates, and late neurological deterioration between anterior decompression and fusion (ADF and laminoplasty (LAMP in the treatment of multilevel cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL. Methods: All related studies published up to August 2015 were acquired by searching PubMed and EMBASE. Exclusion criteria were case reports, revision surgeries, combined anterior and posterior surgeries, the other posterior approaches including laminectomy or laminectomy and instrumented fusion, non-English studies, and studies with quality assessment scores of <7. The main end points including Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score, recovery rate of JOA, cervical lordosis, complication rate, reoperation rate, and late neurological deterioration were analyzed. All available data was analyzed using RevMan 5.2.0 and Stata 12.0. Results: A total of seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The mean surgical level of ADF was 3.1, and the mean preoperative occupation ratios of ADF and LAMP group were 55.9% and 51.9%, respectively. No statistical difference was observed with regard to preoperative occupation ratio and preoperative JOA score. Although LAMP group had a higher preoperative cervical lordosis than ADF group (P<0.05, weighted mean difference [WMD

  14. Tulsa 1000: a naturalistic study protocol for multilevel assessment and outcome prediction in a large psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Teresa A; Khalsa, Sahib S; Simmons, W Kyle; Feinstein, Justin S; Savitz, Jonathan; Aupperle, Robin L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Bodurka, Jerzy; Paulus, Martin P

    2018-01-24

    Although neuroscience has made tremendous progress towards understanding the basic neural circuitry underlying important processes such as attention, memory and emotion, little progress has been made in applying these insights to psychiatric populations to make clinically meaningful treatment predictions. The overall aim of the Tulsa 1000 (T-1000) study is to use the NIMH Research Domain Criteria framework in order to establish a robust and reliable dimensional set of variables that quantifies the positive and negative valence, cognition and arousal domains, including interoception, to generate clinically useful treatment predictions. The T-1000 is a naturalistic study that will recruit, assess and longitudinally follow 1000 participants, including healthy controls and treatment-seeking individuals with mood, anxiety, substance use and eating disorders. Each participant will undergo interview, behavioural, biomarker and neuroimaging assessments over the course of 1 year. The study goal is to determine how disorders of affect, substance use and eating behaviour organise across different levels of analysis (molecules, genes, cells, neural circuits, physiology, behaviour and self-report) to predict symptom severity, treatment outcome and long-term prognosis. The data will be used to generate computational models based on Bayesian statistics. The final end point of this multilevel latent variable analysis will be standardised assessments that can be developed into clinical tools to help clinicians predict outcomes and select the best intervention for each individual, thereby reducing the burden of mental disorders, and taking psychiatry a step closer towards personalised medicine. Ethical approval was obtained from Western Institutional Review Board screening protocol #20101611. The dissemination plan includes informing health professionals of results for clinical practice, submitting results to journals for peer-reviewed publication, presenting results at national

  15. Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Irdam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal and proximal (individual causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. Methods The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals’ health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. Discussion In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition

  16. Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irdam, Darja; King, Lawrence; Gugushvili, Alexi; Azarova, Aytalina; Fazekas, Mihaly; Scheiring, Gabor; Stefler, Denes; Doniec, Katarzyna; Horvat, Pia; Kolesnikova, Irina; Popov, Vladimir; Szelenyi, Ivan; Marmot, Michael; Murphy, Michael; McKee, Martin; Bobak, Martin

    2016-07-30

    Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal) and proximal (individual) causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation) and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption) in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals' health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition experiences for individual respondents and their families across

  17. A multi-level model of emerging technology: An empirical study of the evolution of biotechnology from 1976 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an ecological, multi-level model that can be used to study the evolution of emerging technology. More specifically, by defining technology as a system composed of a set of interacting components, we can build upon the argument of multi-level density dependence from organizational ecology to develop a distribution-independent model of technological evolution. This allows us to distinguish between different stages of component development, which provides more insight into the emergence of stable component configurations, or dominant designs. We validate our hypotheses in the biotechnology industry by using patent data from the USPTO from 1976 to 2003. PMID:29795575

  18. Biomechanical characteristics of different regions of the human spine: an in vitro study on multilevel spinal segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Kingma, I.; van der Veen, A.J.; Verkerke, G.J.; Veldhuizen, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: An in vitro study on human multilevel spinal segments. Objective: To determine the differences in biomechanical characteristics between 4 separate regions of the human spine and to provide quantitative information is derived on the range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), neutral zone

  19. Biomechanical Characteristics of Different Regions of the Human Spine An In Vitro Study on Multilevel Spinal Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; van Dieen, Jaap H.; Kingma, Idsart; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design. An in vitro study on human multilevel spinal segments. Objective. To determine the differences in biomechanical characteristics between 4 separate regions of the human spine and to provide quantitative information is derived on the range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), neutral zone

  20. Empirically Examining the Performance of Approaches to Multi-Level Matching to Study the Effect of School-Level Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.; Figlio, David

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for applied education researchers in using multi-level data to study the effects of interventions implemented at the school level. Two primary approaches are currently employed in observational studies of the effect of school-level interventions. One approach employs intact school matching: matching…

  1. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Bianca Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.

  2. Conformational effects on the circular dichroism of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II: a multilevel computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G Karabencheva-Christova

    Full Text Available Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating conformational changes in proteins and therefore has numerous applications in structural and molecular biology. Here a computational investigation of the CD spectrum of the Human Carbonic Anhydrase II (HCAII, with main focus on the near-UV CD spectra of the wild-type enzyme and it seven tryptophan mutant forms, is presented and compared to experimental studies. Multilevel computational methods (Molecular Dynamics, Semiempirical Quantum Mechanics, Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory were applied in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of interaction between the aromatic chromophores within the protein environment and understand how the conformational flexibility of the protein influences these mechanisms. The analysis suggests that combining CD semi empirical calculations, crystal structures and molecular dynamics (MD could help in achieving a better agreement between the computed and experimental protein spectra and provide some unique insight into the dynamic nature of the mechanisms of chromophore interactions.

  3. School Process and Teacher Job Satisfaction at Alternative Schools: A Multilevel Study Using SASS 2007-08 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Izumi, Masashi; Gao, Xingyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between public alternative schools' teacher job satisfaction and school processes. Based on a multilevel analysis of the national School and Staffing Survey 2007-08 data, we found that among the seven school processes, public alternative schools' administrative support, staff collegiality, career and working…

  4. The relationship between neighborhood empowerment and dental caries experience: a multilevel study in adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Marques Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of contextual social capital (neighborhood empowerment and individual social capital (social support and social network with dental caries experience in adolescents and adults. METHODS: A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 573 subjects, 15-19 and 35-44 years of age, from 30 census tracts in three cities of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. Caries experience was assessed using the DMFT index (decayed, missing and filled teeth and participants were divided into two groups according to the median of the DMFT index in low and high caries experience. Demographic, socioeconomic, behaviors, use of dental services and social capital measures were collected through interviews. Neighborhood empowerment was obtained from the mean scores of the residents in each census tract. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience. RESULTS: High caries experience was inversely associated with neighborhood empowerment (OR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.33 - 0.99. Individual social capital was not associated with caries experience. Other associated factors with caries experience were age (OR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.12 - 1.18 and being a female (OR = 1.72; 95%CI 1.08 - 2.73. CONCLUSION: The association between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience suggests that the perception of features of the place of residence should be taken into account in actions of oral health promotion.

  5. Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

  6. Ecstasy use and depression: a 4-year longitudinal study among an Australian general community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amanda M; Olesen, Sarah; Tait, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal, population-based studies can better assess the relationship of ecstasy use with depression. We examined whether change in ecstasy use was associated with change in depressive symptoms/probable depression over a 4-year period, among a large Australian sample. The Personality and Total Health project is a longitudinal general community study of Australians from Canberra and Queanbeyan. Data from the youngest cohort when aged 24-30 (N = 2, 128) and 4 years later (N = 1, 977) was included. The Goldberg depression scale and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms and probable depression, respectively. Multilevel growth models also considered demographics, psychosocial characteristics, and other drug use. Ecstasy use was not associated with long-term depressive symptoms or greater odds of depression in multivariate analyses. Users had more self-reported depressive symptoms when using ecstasy compared to not using. However, differences between people who had and had not ever used ecstasy largely accounted for this. Other factors were more important in the prediction of depression. It would be premature to conclude that ecstasy use is not related to the development of long-term depressive symptoms, given the relatively low level of ecstasy and other drug use in this community sample. Results showed that other factors need to be considered when investigating ecstasy use and depression.

  7. Study of multilevel inverters with extended functions; Estudio de inversores multinivel con funciones ampliadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Vidales, Homero

    2007-06-15

    Since 1980 the multilevel converters have been fundamental part in equipment of power electronics such as of velocity variators for induction motors. In the last decades the applications of these converters was extended to other functions such as electrical vehicles, energy transmission systems and network conditioners equipment. At present the multilevel converters have gained a very important space in applications of medium and high voltage thanks to their characteristics they present. Especially in network conditioners which are equipment of power electronics that are based on static converters. Among the main applications of the network conditioners are the compensation of harmonics in current and/or voltage, the generation of reactive power and the compensation of deviations in the magnitude of the voltage. The harmonic contamination in the electric net is one of the most severe problems and it is worth to mention that in the majority of the industrialized countries there is not any charge that penalizes the generation and harmonic propagation. Nevertheless, it is necessary to perform a study and to offer solutions that help reduce the effects caused by the generation of harmonics in current and/or voltage. A solution to this problem is the active filters that are found within the network conditioners, which help reduce the amount of harmonics that circulate in the electric network. Nevertheless in systems of medium and high voltage the use of this equipment becomes complicated since the power devices that compose the conventional converters (two levels) do not support simultaneously high levels of voltage and current. As a solution to these problems emerge the multilevel inverters. The multilevel inverters are equipment that operates with low levels of voltage in the DC sources and the semiconductor devices can commute at very low frequency delivering in the way out a wave form with very low harmonic distortion. A power active filter is designed for the

  8. The regional economic impacts of bypasses : a longitudinal study incorporating spatial panel econometrics and multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This paper will describe an integrated approach to documenting and quantifying the impacts of bypasses : on small communities, with a focus on what economic impacts, if any, occur, and how these impacts : change over time. Two similarly sized communi...

  9. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Substance Use among Adolescents Involved in Bullying: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Tornero, Bernardita; Valenzuela, Daniela; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Salmivalli, Christina; Valenzuela, Eduardo; Araya, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Being involved in bullying as a victim or perpetrator could have deleterious health consequences. Even though there is some evidence that bullies and victims of bullying have a higher risk for drug use, less is known about bystanders. The aim of this research was to study the association between bullying experience (as victims, bullies, or bystanders) and substance use. We gathered complete information from a nationally representative sample of 36,687 students (51.4% female) attending 756 schools in Chile. We used a self-reported questionnaire which was developed based on similar instruments used elsewhere. This questionnaire was piloted and presented to an expert panel for approval. We used multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for several variables at the individual (e.g., school membership, parental monitoring) and school levels (e.g., school type, school denomination). This study shows that bullies and bully-victims have a high risk for cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use than bystanders. This is one of the few studies exploring the association between witnessing bullying and substance use. These findings add new insights to the study of the co-occurrence of bullying and substance use. Other factors, such as higher academic performance, stronger school membership, and better parental monitoring reduced the risk of any substance use, while the experience of domestic violence and the perception of social disorganization in the neighborhood, increased the risk. These findings may help the design of preventive interventions.

  11. Substance Use among Adolescents Involved in Bullying: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gaete

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Being involved in bullying as a victim or perpetrator could have deleterious health consequences. Even though there is some evidence that bullies and victims of bullying have a higher risk for drug use, less is known about bystanders. The aim of this research was to study the association between bullying experience (as victims, bullies, or bystanders and substance use. We gathered complete information from a nationally representative sample of 36,687 students (51.4% female attending 756 schools in Chile. We used a self-reported questionnaire which was developed based on similar instruments used elsewhere. This questionnaire was piloted and presented to an expert panel for approval. We used multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for several variables at the individual (e.g., school membership, parental monitoring and school levels (e.g., school type, school denomination. This study shows that bullies and bully-victims have a high risk for cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use than bystanders. This is one of the few studies exploring the association between witnessing bullying and substance use. These findings add new insights to the study of the co-occurrence of bullying and substance use. Other factors, such as higher academic performance, stronger school membership, and better parental monitoring reduced the risk of any substance use, while the experience of domestic violence and the perception of social disorganization in the neighborhood, increased the risk. These findings may help the design of preventive interventions.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  13. Sequence analysis in multilevel models. A study on different sources of patient cues in medical consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piccolo, Lidia; Mazzi, Maria Angela; Dunn, Graham; Sandri, Marco; Zimmermann, Christa

    2007-12-01

    The aims of the study were to explore the importance of macro (patient, physician, consultation) and micro (doctor-patient speech sequences) variables in promoting patient cues (unsolicited new information or expressions of feelings), and to describe the methodological implications related to the study of speech sequences. Patient characteristics, a consultation index of partnership and doctor-patient speech sequences were recorded for 246 primary care consultations in six primary care surgeries in Verona, Italy. Homogeneity and stationarity conditions of speech sequences allowed the creation of a hierarchy of multilevel logit models including micro and macro level variables, with the presence/absence of cues as the dependent variable. We found that emotional distress of the patient increased cues and that cues appeared among other patient expressions and were preceded by physicians' facilitations and handling of emotion. Partnership, in terms of open-ended inquiry, active listening skills and handling of emotion by the physician and active participation by the patient throughout the consultation, reduced cue frequency.

  14. School Climate for Academic Success: A Multilevel Analysis of School Climate and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Darren; Davis, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationship between school climate and academic achievement. Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS, 2002), and a sample of 16,258 students and 1954 schools nationwide, we found that student-level perception of school climate--especially the student learning environment--was highly predictive of academic…

  15. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  16. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  17. Multi-level computational chemistry study on hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Ise, Mariko; Inaba, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal the deactivation mechanism of the hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system, we investigate by using multi-level computational chemistry simulation methods. The recombiner apparatus is modeled by the numerical mesh system in the axial coordinates, and unsteady, advection and reaction rate equations are solved by using a finite difference method. The chemical reactions are formulated to represent adsorption-desorption of hydrogen and oxygen on Pt catalyst, and time developments of the coverage factors of Pt are solved numerically. The computational simulations successfully reproduce the very similar behaviors observed by experiments, such as increasing of the inversion rates of H 2 to H 2 O, the temperatures distributions along the flow direction, dependencies of experimental condition, and so on. Thus Pt poisoning is considered to cause the deactivation of the hydrogen recombination catalyst. To clarify the poisoning mechanism, the molecular level simulation is applied to the system of Pt on boehmite attacked by a cyclic siloxane which has been detected by experiments and considered as one of poisoning spices. The simulation shows ring-opening reaction of the cyclic siloxane on Pt, then attachment of two ends of the chain-like siloxane to Pt and boehmite, respectively, and that finally the recombination reaction is prevented. This may be the first study to find out the detailed dynamical mechanism of hydrogen recombination catalyst poisoning with cyclic siloxane. (author)

  18. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Tyng Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods: Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Results: Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  1. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  3. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  4. A longitudinal study of tooth erosion in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidi, H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinal study aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9

  5. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  6. The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razum Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that individual health is at least partly determined by neighbourhood and regional factors. Mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and evidence from Germany is scant. This study explores whether regional as well as neighbourhood deprivation are associated with physical health and to what extent this association can be explained by specific neighbourhood exposures. Methods Using 2004 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP merged with regional and neighbourhood characteristics, we fitted multilevel linear regression models with subjective physical health, as measured by the SF-12, as the dependent variable. The models include regional and neighbourhood proxies of deprivation (i.e. regional unemployment quota, average purchasing power of the street section as well as specific neighbourhood exposures (i.e. perceived air pollution. Individual characteristics including socioeconomic status and health behaviour have been controlled for. Results This study finds a significant association between area deprivation and physical health which is independent of compositional factors and consistent across different spatial scales. Furthermore the association between neighbourhood deprivation and physical health can be partly explained by specific features of the neighbourhood environment. Among these perceived air pollution shows the strongest association with physical health (-2.4 points for very strong and -1.5 points for strong disturbance by air pollution, standard error (SE = 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. Beta coefficients for perceived air pollution, perceived noise and the perceived distance to recreational resources do not diminish when including individual health behaviour in the models. Conclusions This study highlights the difference regional and in particular neighbourhood deprivation make to the physical health of individuals in Germany. The results support the argument that

  7. A multilevel reuse system with source separation process for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Jin, Xin; Wang, Ziyuan; Gu, Wantao; Wei, Zhechao; Huang, Yuanjie; Qiu, Zhuang; Jin, Pengkang

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new system of multilevel reuse with source separation in printing and dyeing wastewater (PDWW) treatment in order to dramatically improve the water reuse rate to 35%. By analysing the characteristics of the sources and concentrations of pollutants produced in different printing and dyeing processes, special, highly, and less contaminated wastewaters (SCW, HCW, and LCW, respectively) were collected and treated separately. Specially, a large quantity of LCW was sequentially reused at multiple levels to meet the water quality requirements for different production processes. Based on this concept, a multilevel reuse system with a source separation process was established in a typical printing and dyeing enterprise. The water reuse rate increased dramatically to 62%, and the reclaimed water was reused in different printing and dyeing processes based on the water quality. This study provides promising leads in water management for wastewater reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A water treatment case study for quantifying model performance with multilevel flow modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil K. Nielsen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems are a key focus of research on developing control rooms to aid operators in making reliable decisions and reducing incidents caused by human errors. For this purpose, models of complex systems can be developed to diagnose causes or consequences for specific alarms. Models applied in safety systems of complex and safety-critical systems require rigorous and reliable model building and testing. Multilevel flow modeling is a qualitative and discrete method for diagnosing faults and has previously only been validated by subjective and qualitative means. To ensure reliability during operation, this work aims to synthesize a procedure to measure model performance according to diagnostic requirements. A simple procedure is proposed for validating and evaluating the concept of multilevel flow modeling. For this purpose, expert statements, dynamic process simulations, and pilot plant experiments are used for validation of simple multilevel flow modeling models of a hydrocyclone unit for oil removal from produced water. Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Model Validation, Multilevel Flow Modeling, Produced Water Treatment

  9. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed. PMID:27437946

  10. Multi-level analysis of electronic health record adoption by health care professionals: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrecque Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The electronic health record (EHR is an important application of information and communication technologies to the healthcare sector. EHR implementation is expected to produce benefits for patients, professionals, organisations, and the population as a whole. These benefits cannot be achieved without the adoption of EHR by healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, the influence of individual and organisational factors in determining EHR adoption is still unclear. This study aims to assess the unique contribution of individual and organisational factors on EHR adoption in healthcare settings, as well as possible interrelations between these factors. Methods A prospective study will be conducted. A stratified random sampling method will be used to select 50 healthcare organisations in the Quebec City Health Region (Canada. At the individual level, a sample of 15 to 30 health professionals will be chosen within each organisation depending on its size. A semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to two key informants in each organisation to collect organisational data. A composite adoption score of EHR adoption will be developed based on a Delphi process and will be used as the outcome variable. Twelve to eighteen months after the first contact, depending on the pace of EHR implementation, key informants and clinicians will be contacted once again to monitor the evolution of EHR adoption. A multilevel regression model will be applied to identify the organisational and individual determinants of EHR adoption in clinical settings. Alternative analytical models would be applied if necessary. Results The study will assess the contribution of organisational and individual factors, as well as their interactions, to the implementation of EHR in clinical settings. Conclusions These results will be very relevant for decision makers and managers who are facing the challenge of implementing EHR in the healthcare system. In addition

  11. Realist theory construction for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John G; Kemp, Lynn A; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described a protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression. That protocol proposed a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: (1) emergent phase, (2) construction phase, and (3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design was described. The protocol also described in detail the Theory Construction Phase which will be presented here. The Theory Construction Phase will include: (1) defining stratified levels; (2) analytic resolution; (3) abductive reasoning; (4) comparative analysis (triangulation); (5) retroduction; (6) postulate and proposition development; (7) comparison and assessment of theories; and (8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The stratified levels of analysis in this study were predominantly social and psychological. The abductive analysis used the theoretical frames of: Stress Process; Social Isolation; Social Exclusion; Social Services; Social Capital, Acculturation Theory and Global-economic level mechanisms. Realist propositions are presented for each analysis of triangulated data. Inference to best explanation is used to assess and compare theories. A conceptual framework of maternal depression, stress and context is presented that includes examples of mechanisms at psychological, social, cultural and global-economic levels. Stress was identified as a necessary mechanism that has the tendency to cause several outcomes including depression, anxiety, and health harming behaviours. The conceptual framework subsequently included conditional mechanisms identified through the retroduction including the stressors of isolation and expectations and buffers of social support and trust. The meta-theory of critical realism is used here to generate and construct social epidemiological theory using stratified ontology and both abductive and retroductive analysis. The findings will be applied to the

  12. Is Preventative Long-Segment Surgery for Multi-Level Spondylolysis Necessary? A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Mo

    Full Text Available For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective.We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position.The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree.The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.

  13. Is Preventative Long-Segment Surgery for Multi-Level Spondylolysis Necessary? A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianqiang; Zhang, Wen; Zhong, Dongyan; Xu, Hao; Wang, Lan; Yu, Jia; Luo, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective. We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position. The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa) and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa) after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree). The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.

  14. Transportation and socioeconomic impacts of bypasses on communities : an integrated synthesis of panel data, multilevel, and spatial econometric models with case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Title: Transportation and Socioeconomic Impacts of Bypasses on Communities: An Integrated Synthesis of Panel Data, Multilevel, and Spatial Econometric Models with Case Studies. The title used at the start of this project was Transportation and Soc...

  15. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  16. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  17. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  18. A Longitudinal Study Assessing the Microsoft Office Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.; McGinnis, Denise; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Snyder, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a four-year longitudinal study of the assessment process for a Microsoft Office skills course. It examines whether there is an increase in students' knowledge based on responses to pre- and post-surveys that asked students to evaluate how well they can do particular tasks. Classical classroom teaching methods were used in the…

  19. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  20. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  1. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  2. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  3. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  4. Always connected: a longitudinal field study of mobile communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the

  5. Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng

    2018-01-01

    Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  7. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  8. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  9. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  10. Trust increases euthanasia acceptance: a multilevel analysis using the European Values Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köneke, Vanessa

    2014-12-20

    This study tests how various kinds of trust impact attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public. The indication that trust might have an impact on euthanasia attitudes is based on the slippery slope argument, which asserts that allowing euthanasia might lead to abuses and involuntary deaths. Adopting this argument usually leads to less positive attitudes towards euthanasia. Tying in with this, it is assumed here that greater trust diminishes such slippery slope fears, and thereby increases euthanasia acceptance. The effects of various trust indicators on euthanasia acceptance were tested using multilevel analysis, and data from the European Values Study 2008 (N = 49,114, 44 countries). More precisely, the influence of people's general levels of trust in other people, and their confidence in the health care system, were measured--both at the individual and at the country level. Confidence in the state and the press were accounted for as well, since both institutions might monitor and safeguard euthanasia practices. It was shown that the level of trust in a country was strongly positively linked to euthanasia attitudes, both for general trust and for confidence in health care. In addition, within countries, people who perceived their fellow citizens as trustworthy, and who had confidence in the press, were more supportive of euthanasia than their less trusting counterparts. The pattern was, however, not true for confidence in the state and for confidence in the health care system at the individual level. Notably, all confirmative effects held, even when other variables such as religiosity, education, and values regarding autonomy were controlled for. Trust seems to be a noteworthy construct to explain differences in attitudes towards euthanasia, especially when drawing cross-country comparisons. Therefore, it should be added to the existing literature on correlates of euthanasia attitudes.

  11. The role of municipal public policies in oral health socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil: A multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Violeta Rodrigues; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2017-12-07

    It is known that fluoridation has a contextual effect on oral health socioeconomic inequalities, but broad public policies have not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of municipal public policies on oral health across different social strata. This was a cross-sectional study with 7328 12-year-old children and 5445 15-19-year-old adolescents from 177 Brazilian municipalities. Information at municipal level was collated for dental services, educational services, sanitation and water fluoridation. The main individual-level exposure was the disposable equivalent household income. The dichotomous outcomes were as follows: untreated dental caries (≥1 tooth), missing teeth (≥1 tooth) and filled teeth (≥1 tooth). Analyses were carried out using multilevel logistic regression. Interaction terms were tested between individual-level income and policy variables. The prevalence of untreated dental caries, missing and filled teeth was 47.0%, 15.1% and 47.5%, respectively. There was no significant interaction between income and policy indicators. Individuals living in municipalities with no water fluoridation had 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08-1.86) higher odds of having untreated dental caries; the odds ratio (OR) for those in municipalities with less education policies was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.73); those in municipalities with less sanitation had OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.78-1.40); and those in municipalities with less dental care had OR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.02-1.80). Fluoridation and policies about sanitation, education and dental care were similarly associated with oral health in different social strata. Other policies on social and economic fields may be further explored. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Associations between physical activity and the neighbourhood social environment: baseline results from the HABITAT multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachele, Jerome N; Ghani, Fatima; Loh, Venurs H Y; Brown, Wendy J; Turrell, Gavin

    2016-12-01

    Limitations have arisen when measuring associations between the neighbourhood social environment and physical activity, including same-source bias, and the reliability of aggregated neighbourhood-level social environment measures. This study examines cross-sectional associations between the neighbourhood social environment (perceptions of incivilities, crime, and social cohesion) and self-reported physical activity, while accounting for same-source bias and reliability of neighbourhood-level exposure measures, using data from a large population-based clustered sample. This investigation included 11,035 residents aged 40-65years from 200 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia, in 2007. Respondents self-reported their physical activity and perceptions of the social environment (neighbourhood incivilities, crime and safety, and social cohesion). Models were adjusted for individual-level education, occupation, and household income, and neighbourhood disadvantage. Exposure measures were generated via split clusters and an empirical Bayes estimation procedure. Data were analysed in 2016 using multilevel multinomial logistic regression. Residents of neighbourhoods with the highest incivilities and crime, and lowest social cohesion were reference categories. Individuals were more likely to be in the higher physical activity categories if they were in neighbourhoods with the lowest incivilities and the lowest crime. No associations were found between social cohesion and physical activity. This study provides a basis from which to gain a clearer understanding of the relationship between the neighbourhood social environment and individual physical activity. Further work is required to explore the pathways between perceptions of the neighbourhood social environment and physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  14. Acute respiratory infection in children from developing nations: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Rondón, Ángela María; Aguilera-Otalvaro, Paula; Zárate-Ardila, Carol; Hoyos-Martínez, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide, acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of death of children under 5 years of age. To assess the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goal on under-5 mortality particularly related to ARI in developing countries, and to explore the associations between country characteristics and ARI in children under 5 taking into account child, mother and household attributes. The study included a representative sample of 354,633 children under 5 years from 40 developing nations. A multilevel analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the World Bank was conducted. The prevalence of ARI was 13%. Country inequalities were associated with the disease - GINI index (95% CI 1.01-1.04). The country's per capita gross domestic product (GDP) (95% CI 1.00-1.01) and health expenditure (95% CI 1.01-1.01) affected the relationship between immunization and ARI, while inequalities influenced the relationship between household wealth (95% CI 0.99-0.99) and the disease. Other factors positively associated with ARI were male gender, low birthweight, working mothers and a high-risk indoor environment. Factors associated with ARI reduction were older children, immunization, breastfeeding for more than 6 months, older maternal age, maternal education and planned pregnancy. In developing countries, public health campaigns to target ARI should consider the country's macro characteristics. At country level, inequalities but not health expenditure or GDP were associated with the disease and were independent of child, family and household characteristics. The effect of immunization on reducing ARI is greater in countries with a higher GDP and health expenditure. The effect of household wealth on ARI is less in countries with fewer inequalities. Reduction of inequalities is an important measure to decrease ARI in developing countries.

  15. Relationship between Sedentariness and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Youth: A Multivariate Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to jointly analyse moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentariness, and their correlates, in children within their school contexts, using a multivariate multilevel approach. The sample comprises 499 Portuguese children (284 girls from 23 schools. MVPA and sedentary time were estimated by accelerometer. A set of predictor variables from both child and school levels was tested. Overall, schools explained a small amount of the total variance in both MVPA (5.6% and sedentariness (3.2%, and a correlation coefficient of −0.45 (p < 0.05 was found between MVPA and sedentariness at the child level. Number of siblings and socioeconomic status (SES were significantly associated with both sedentariness (SES: β = 2.372 ± 1.183; siblings: β = −8.127 ± 2.759 and MPVA (SES: β = −1.535 ± 0.421; siblings: β = 2.822 ± 0.977, but with opposite signs. Body Mass Index (BMI (β = −4.804 ± 1.898 and sex (male (β = 21.561 ± 3.496 were only associated with MVPA. None of the school correlates were statistically significant in their joint effects to simultaneously explain sedentariness and MVPA. These results suggest that although MVPA and sedentariness may be different constructs, they are correlated and this should be taken into account when designing strategies to reduce children’s sedentariness and increase their MVPA. In addition, the small effect of the school context on this relationship highlights the important roles of child and family characteristics.

  16. New Methods to Address Old Challenges: The Use of Administrative Data for Longitudinal Replication Studies of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-09-15

    Administrative data are crucial to the "big data" revolution of social science and have played an important role in the development of child maltreatment research. These data are also of value to administrators, policy makers, and clinicians. The focus of this paper is the use of administrative data to produce and replicate longitudinal studies of child maltreatment. Child protection administrative data have several advantages. They are often population-based, and allow longitudinal examination of child maltreatment and complex multi-level analyses. They also allow comparison across subgroups and minority groups, remove burden from individuals to disclose traumatic experiences, and can be less biased than retrospective recall. Finally, they can be linked to data from other agencies to explore comorbidity and outcomes, and are comparatively cost and time effective. The benefits and challenges associated with the use of administrative data for longitudinal child maltreatment research become magnified when these data are used to produce replications. Techniques to address challenges and support future replication efforts include developing a biographical understanding of the systems from which the data are drawn, using multiple data sources to contextualize the data and research results, recognizing and adopting various approaches to replication, and documenting all data coding and manipulation processes. These techniques are illustrated in this paper via a case study of previous replication work.

  17. Multilevel modelling: Beyond the basic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; London, Kamala

    2009-05-01

    Over the last 30 years statistical algorithms have been developed to analyse datasets that have a hierarchical/multilevel structure. Particularly within developmental and educational psychology these techniques have become common where the sample has an obvious hierarchical structure, like pupils nested within a classroom. We describe two areas beyond the basic applications of multilevel modelling that are important to psychology: modelling the covariance structure in longitudinal designs and using generalized linear multilevel modelling as an alternative to methods from signal detection theory (SDT). Detailed code for all analyses is described using packages for the freeware R.

  18. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  19. Personality, Schizophrenia, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candini, Valentina; Ghisi, Marta; Bottesi, Gioia; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bulgari, Viola; Iozzino, Laura; Boero, Maria Elena; De Francesco, Alessandra; Maggi, Paolo; Segalini, Beatrice; Zuccalli, Vanessa; Giobbio, Gian Marco; Rossi, Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2017-07-31

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the presence of clinically significant personality traits and personality disorders (PD) in patients living in residential facilities, with or without a history of violence (69 and 46, respectively); and (b) to investigate any associations between clinically significant personality traits and PDs, aggression, impulsivity, hostility, and violent behavior during a 1-year follow-up. The most frequent primary diagnoses were schizophrenia (58.3%) and PD (20.9%). Those with a history of violence demonstrated more antisocial and alcohol dependence features and lower depressive PD symptoms than the control group. Hostility levels, antisocial symptoms, and drug dependence, as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II diagnosis of PD, predicted aggressive and violent behavior during follow-up. The study confirms the relevance of assessing PDs both to evaluate the risk of violent behavior and to plan appropriate preventive and treatment intervention.

  20. A multilevel analysis of the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and depressive symptoms: Evidence from the South African National Income Dynamics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-01-01

    The apartheid regime that governed South Africa from 1948 – 1994 established spatial segregation that is understood to have contributed to the magnitude of neighborhood social disorder in the post-apartheid era. Although a number of neighborhood social disorder characteristics, such as perceived violence and crime in the community, are prominent issues in South Africa, the extent to which these perceived spatial attributes are linked to depression is unknown at the population-level. Multilevel modeling of data from the second wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was utilized to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neighborhood social disorder as indicated by the perceived frequency of violent, criminal and illicit activities in the community. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A cut off score of ten or higher was used to indicate the presence of significant depressive symptomatology. Results showed that perception of neighborhood social disorder was independently associated with significant levels of depressive symptomatology. Gender, race/ethnicity, perceived health status, and education were significant for individual-level covariates of depression. Community intervention strategies that reduce the risk of neighborhood disorganization and emphasize positive social norms in the neighborhood are warranted. Taking into account the residential de-racialization of a country transitioning from apartheid to non-racial democracy, a longitudinal spatial study design assessing the dynamics between depression and the aforementioned perceptions of neighborhood attributes may also be warranted. PMID:25642654

  1. Accounting for dropout reason in longitudinal studies with nonignorable dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Camille M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Forster, Jeri E; Carlson, Nichole E; Allshouse, Amanda; Wang, Xinshuo; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Conway, Brian; Connick, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Dropout is a common problem in longitudinal cohort studies and clinical trials, often raising concerns of nonignorable dropout. Selection, frailty, and mixture models have been proposed to account for potentially nonignorable missingness by relating the longitudinal outcome to time of dropout. In addition, many longitudinal studies encounter multiple types of missing data or reasons for dropout, such as loss to follow-up, disease progression, treatment modifications and death. When clinically distinct dropout reasons are present, it may be preferable to control for both dropout reason and time to gain additional clinical insights. This may be especially interesting when the dropout reason and dropout times differ by the primary exposure variable. We extend a semi-parametric varying-coefficient method for nonignorable dropout to accommodate dropout reason. We apply our method to untreated HIV-infected subjects recruited to the Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program HIV cohort and compare longitudinal CD4 + T cell count in injection drug users to nonusers with two dropout reasons: anti-retroviral treatment initiation and loss to follow-up.

  2. No effect of unemployment on intimate partner-related femicide during the financial crisis: a longitudinal ecological study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, J; Vives-Cases, C; San-Sebastián, M; Sanz-Barbero, B; Goicolea, I; Álvarez-Dardet, C

    2015-09-30

    Spain's financial crisis has been characterized by an increase in unemployment. This increase could have produced an increase in deaths of women due to intimate partner-related femicides (IPF). This study aims to determine whether the increase in unemployment among both sexes in different regions in Spain is related to an increase in the rates of IPF during the current financial crisis period. An ecological longitudinal study was carried out in Spain's 17 regions. Two study periods were defined: pre-crisis period (2005-2007) and crisis period (2008-2013). IPF rates adjusted by age and unemployment rates for men and women were calculated. We fitted multilevel linear regression models in which observations at level 1 were nested within regions according to a repeated measurements design. Rates of unemployment have progressively increased in Spain, rising above 20 % from 2008 to 2013 in some regions. IPF rates decreased in some regions during crisis period with respect to pre-crisis period. The multilevel analysis does not support the existence of a significant relationship between the increase in unemployment in men and women and the decrease in IPF since 2008. The increase in unemployment in men and women in Spain does not appear to have an effect on IPF. The results of the multilevel analysis discard the hypothesis that the increase in the rates of unemployment in women and men are related to an increase in IPF rates. The decline in IPF since 2008 might be interpreted as the result of exposure to other factors such as the lower frequency of divorces in recent years or the medium term effects of the integral protection measures of the law on gender violence that began in 2005.

  3. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  4. Plasma HVA in psychiatric patients: longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Sharma, R P; Janicak, P G; Davis, J M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) was measured in 40 inpatients (25 schizophrenic and 15 nonschizophrenic patients) who underwent up to 3 weeks of drug washout. Schizophrenic patients were then treated with trifluoperazine for 4 weeks, and weekly behavioral and pHVA measures were obtained. The baseline pHVA had no relationship to age, sex, washout period, diagnosis, or behavioral rating scores. In schizophrenic patients, the baseline pHVA did not differ significantly from any value obtained during 4 weeks of treatment. Although there was significant improvement in clinical symptoms, this was not related to changes in pHVA. Further, changes in any of the four Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) factors (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms, hostility/suspicion, or anxiety/depression) were not correlated with changes in pHVA. Although other studies have reported a positive correlation between pHVA and psychotic symptoms, results of this study suggest that any observed relationship between pHVA and psychosis must be carefully interpreted.

  5. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    investigated four different proximity markers which lead to significantly improved marker values between NC and AD after correction for whole brain and hippocampus volume. Based on the different proximity markers we have chosen the surface connectivity marker that gave the best separation to investigate......This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning....... The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...

  6. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories. PMID:22742447

  7. Pembuatan Sistem Informasi Multilevel Marketing (MLM) Berbasis Web Studi Kasus Pada PT. Mediderma Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartanto, Johny; Soedjianto, Felicia; Budhi, Gregorius Satia

    2005-01-01

    Multilevel Marketing (MLM) is a marketing method that sells the product directly to the customers. And this method has been booming in Indonesia at this moment. MLM itself is a directly selling system through marketing program conformed more than one level, where the trading partner can get selling commission and bonus from the result of selling goods or services those did by itself and the members of network inside their own group. PT. Mediderma Indonesia is a firm which imports consumer go...

  8. A Comparative Study of Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithms Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Charansiriphaisan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel thresholding is a highly useful tool for the application of image segmentation. Otsu’s method, a common exhaustive search for finding optimal thresholds, involves a high computational cost. There has been a lot of recent research into various meta-heuristic searches in the area of optimization research. This paper analyses and discusses using a family of artificial bee colony algorithms, namely, the standard ABC, ABC/best/1, ABC/best/2, IABC/best/1, IABC/rand/1, and CABC, and some particle swarm optimization-based algorithms for searching multilevel thresholding. The strategy for an onlooker bee to select an employee bee was modified to serve our purposes. The metric measures, which are used to compare the algorithms, are the maximum number of function calls, successful rate, and successful performance. The ranking was performed by Friedman ranks. The experimental results showed that IABC/best/1 outperformed the other techniques when all of them were applied to multilevel image thresholding. Furthermore, the experiments confirmed that IABC/best/1 is a simple, general, and high performance algorithm.

  9. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7- to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n=56; 39 boys, 17 girls), gross motor skills were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and measured annually during a 3-year period. Motor scores of 253 typically developing children (125 boys, 112 girls) were collected for references values. The multilevel analyses showed that the ball skills of children with LD improved with age (p50). Boys had higher ball skill scores than girls (p=.002) and these differences were constant over time. Typically developing children outperformed the children with LD on the locomotor skills and ball skills at all ages, except the locomotor skills at age 7. Children with LD develop their ball skills later in the primary school-period compared to typically developing peers. However, 11 year-old children with LD had a lag in locomotor skills and ball skills of at least four and three years, respectively, compared to their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived coach-created and peer-created motivational climates and their associations with team cohesion and athlete satisfaction: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calvo, Tomás; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Gonzalez-Ponce, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the extent to which perceived coach- and peer-created motivational climates are associated with athlete-group cohesion and satisfaction with participation among Spanish soccer players competing in the Third National Division. Multilevel modelling analyses showed that perceived coach-created task climate was positively related to perceived cohesion and players' satisfaction with their participation within their team. Also, perceived peer-created task climate related positively to perceived cohesion. The results indicate the importance of considering peer-related aspects of the motivational climate in addition to considering the coach-related aspects of the motivational climate when examining motivational group dynamics in sport.

  11. Country characteristics and acute diarrhea in children from developing nations: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Rondón, Ángela María; Zárate-Ardila, Carol; Hoyos-Martínez, Alfonso; Ruiz-Sternberg, Ángela María; Vélez-van-Meerbeke, Alberto

    2015-08-21

    Each year 2.5 billion cases of diarrheal disease are reported in children under five years, and over 1,000 die. Country characteristics could play a role on this situation. We explored associations between country characteristics and diarrheal disease in children under 5 years of age, adjusting by child, mother and household attributes in developing countries. This study included 348,706 children from 40 nations. We conducted a multilevel analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the World Bank. The prevalence of acute diarrhea was 14 %. Country inequalities (OR = 1.335; 95 % CI 1.117-1.663) and country's low income (OR = 1.488; 95 % CI 1.024-2.163) were associated with diarrhea, and these country characteristics changed the associations of well-known determinants of diarrhea. Specifically, living in poor countries strengthens the association of poor household wealth and mother's lack of education with the disease. Other factors associated with diarrhea were female sex of the child (OR = 0.922; 95 % CI 0.900-0.944), age of the child (OR = 0.978; 95 % CI 0.978-0.979), immunization status (OR = 0.821; 95 % CI 0.799-0.843), normal birthweight (OR = 0.879; 95 % CI 0.834-0.926), maternal age (OR = 0.987; 95 % CI 0.985-0.989), lack of maternal education (OR = 1.416; 95 % CI 1.283-1.564), working status of the mother (OR = 1.136; 95 % CI 1.106-1.167), planned pregnancy (OR = 0.774; 95 % CI 0.753-0.795), a nuclear family structure (OR = 0.949; 95 % CI 0.923-0.975), and household wealth (OR = 0.948; 95 % CI 0.921-0.977). Inequalities and lack of resources at the country level in developing countries -but not health expenditure- were associated with acute diarrhea, independently of child, family and household features. The broad environment considerably modifies well-known social determinants of acute diarrhea and public health campaigns designed to target diarrhea should consider macro characteristics of the

  12. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  13. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  14. Multi-level, cross-sectional study of workplace social capital and smoking among Japanese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Fujiwara, Takeo; Takao, Soshi; Subramanian, S V; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-08-17

    Social capital is hypothesized to be relevant to health promotion, and the association between community social capital and cigarette smoking has been examined. Individual-level social capital has been found to be associated with smoking cessation, but evidence remains sparse on the contextual effect of social capital and smoking. Further, evidence remains sparse on the association between smoking and social capital in the workplace, where people are spending an increasing portion of their daily lives. We examined the association between workplace social capital and smoking status among Japanese private sector employees. We employed a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure. Of the total of 1,800 subjects in 60 companies, 1,171 (men/women; 834/337) employees (65.1%) were identified from 46 companies in Okayama in 2007. Workplace social capital was assessed in two dimensions; trust and reciprocity. Company-level social capital was based on inquiring about employee perceptions of trust and reciprocity among co-workers, and then aggregating their responses in order to calculate the proportion of workers reporting mistrust and lack of reciprocity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to explore whether individual- and company-level social capital was associated with smoking. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% credible intervals (CIs) for current smoking were obtained. Overall, 33.3% of the subjects smoked currently. There was no relationship between individual-level mistrust of others and smoking status. By contrast, one-standard deviation change in company-level mistrust was associated with higher odds of smoking (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.46) even after controlling for individual-level mistrust, sex, age, occupation, educational attainment, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, and chronic diseases. No clear associations were found between lack of reciprocity and smoking both at the individual- and

  15. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velden, Peter G.; Bosmans, Mark W.G.; van der Meulen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE’s are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. Design A longitudinal study with a 6 months’ time ...

  16. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  17. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  18. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  19. Residents' perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents' perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident's role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents' understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  20. A Water Treatment Case Study for Quantifying Model Performance with Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Emil Krabbe; Bram, Mads Valentin; Frutiger, Jerome

    2018-01-01

    Decision support systems are a key focus of research on developing control rooms to aid operators in making reliable decisions, and reducing incidents caused by human errors. For this purpose, models of complex systems can be developed to diagnose causes or consequences for specific alarms. Models...... during operation, this work aims to synthesize a procedure to measure model performance according to diagnostic requirements. A simple procedure is proposed for validating and evaluating the concept of Multilevel Flow Modelling. For this purpose, expert statements, dynamic process simulations, and pilot...

  1. Study of visualized simulation and analysis of nuclear fuel cycle system based on multilevel flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingquan; Yoshikawa, H.; Zhou Yangping

    2005-01-01

    Complex energy and environment system, especially nuclear fuel cycle system recently raised social concerns about the issues of economic competitiveness, environmental effect and nuclear proliferation. Only under the condition that those conflicting issues are gotten a consensus between stakeholders with different knowledge background, can nuclear power industry be continuingly developed. In this paper, a new analysis platform has been developed to help stakeholders to recognize and analyze various socio-technical issues in the nuclear fuel cycle sys- tem based on the functional modeling method named Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) according to the cognition theory of human being, Its character is that MFM models define a set of mass, energy and information flow structures on multiple levels of abstraction to describe the functional structure of a process system and its graphical symbol representation and the means-end and part-whole hierarchical flow structure to make the represented process easy to be understood. Based upon this methodology, a micro-process and a macro-process of nuclear fuel cycle system were selected to be simulated and some analysis processes such as economics analysis, environmental analysis and energy balance analysis related to those flows were also integrated to help stakeholders to understand the process of decision-making with the introduction of some new functions for the improved Multilevel Flow Models Studio, and finally the simple simulation such as spent fuel management process simulation and money flow of nuclear fuel cycle and its levelised cost analysis will be represented as feasible examples. (authors)

  2. Simulation and Study of Multilevel Inverter System Fed By Photovoltaic Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdulrazzak Jasim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simulation of Photovoltaic energy used to supply an induction motor with acomparison of two types of inverters.In general, the greater number of motorswhich"are used incommercial and industrial applicationsare"induction motors. To use PV source to run the induction motor, an interface circuits are used which are a dc-dc"converter and an inverter, the PV cell has nonlinear behavior,"adc-dc converter is used along with Maximum Power Point Tracker controllerto improve theefficiency by boosting the output voltage of the PV module and to match the load demand."The dc output voltage of PV modulethen"converted to AC, two types of inverter are presented, A conventional Voltage Source Inverter system and multilevel inverter system which employselective harmonic eliminationmethod fed three phase induction motor, these two types of inverters are simulated using Matlab/Simulink and their results are presented. The FFT spectrum is presented of the output currents to analyze the harmonics reduction, which shows that the"multilevel inverter is better than VSI system"according to harmonics reduction and increment in output voltage and power.

  3. Study of visualized simulation and analysis of nuclear fuel cycle system based on multilevel flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Quan; YOSHIKAWA Hidekazu; ZHOU Yang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Complex energy and environment system, especially nuclear fuel cycle system recently raised social concerns about the issues of economic competitiveness, environmental effect and nuclear proliferation. Only under the condition that those conflicting issues are gotten a consensus between stakeholders with different knowledge background, can nuclear power industry be continuingly developed. In this paper, a new analysis platform has been developed to help stakeholders to recognize and analyze various socio-technical issues in the nuclear fuel cycle system based on the functional modeling method named Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) according to the cognition theory of human being. Its character is that MFM models define a set of mass, energy and information flow structures on multiple levels of abstraction to describe the functional structure of a process system and its graphical symbol representation and the means-end and part-whole hierarchical flow structure to make the represented process easy to be understood. Based upon this methodology, a micro-process and a macro-process of nuclear fuel cycle system were selected to be simulated and some analysis processes such as economics analysis, environmental analysis and energy balance analysis related to those flows were also integrated to help stakeholders to understand the process of decision-making with the introduction of some new functions for the improved Multilevel Flow Models Studio, and finally the simple simulation such as spent fuel management process simulation and money flow of nuclear fuel cycle and its levelised cost analysis will be represented as feasible examples.

  4. Investigation of the CH3Cl + CN(-) reaction in water: Multilevel quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yulong; Zhang, Jingxue; Wang, Dunyou

    2015-06-28

    The CH3Cl + CN(-) reaction in water was studied using a multilevel quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (MM) method with the multilevels, electrostatic potential, density functional theory (DFT) and coupled-cluster single double triple (CCSD(T)), for the solute region. The detailed, back-side attack SN2 reaction mechanism was mapped along the reaction pathway. The potentials of mean force were calculated under both the DFT and CCSD(T) levels for the reaction region. The CCSD(T)/MM level of theory presents a free energy activation barrier height at 20.3 kcal/mol, which agrees very well with the experiment value at 21.6 kcal/mol. The results show that the aqueous solution has a dominant role in shaping the potential of mean force. The solvation effect and the polarization effect together increase the activation barrier height by ∼11.4 kcal/mol: the solvation effect plays a major role by providing about 75% of the contribution, while polarization effect only contributes 25% to the activation barrier height. Our calculated potential of mean force under the CCSD(T)/MM also has a good agreement with the one estimated using data from previous gas-phase studies.

  5. A Multilevel Study of Students in Vietnam: Drinking Motives and Drinking Context as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E S; Knibbe, Ronald A; De Vries, Nanne

    2016-07-13

    This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy.

  6. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  7. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  8. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  9. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children......, born in 1995, who currently are or formerly have been placed in care. The first data collection was conducted in the spring 2003, where the children were 7-8 years of age. It is the intention to follow up the children every third year during childhood, adolescence, and adult life. At each new data...

  10. PEMBUATAN SISTEM INFORMASI MULTILEVEL MARKETING (MLM BERBASIS WEB STUDI KASUS PADA PT. MEDIDERMA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johny Suhartanto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel Marketing (MLM is a marketing method that sells the product directly to the customers. And this method has been booming in Indonesia at this moment. MLM itself is a directly selling system through marketing program conformed more than one level, where the trading partner can get selling commission and bonus from the result of selling goods or services those did by itself and the members of network inside their own group. PT. Mediderma Indonesia is a firm which imports consumer goods from Europe. This firm uses MLM to sell their products and the distributor might come from any cities in Indonesia. Now, to get information about the product and the growth of member's network, a member must come or call the branch of the firm. As a result, every member will feel difficult to get the new information about their network and bonus which they get every month. Therefore, this research will develop a web site that can be accessed 24 hours through internet by the members. As a result, the members will get their information they need easier every time. Based on the evaluation of the facilities that are available for members and administrator and the system developed, it can be concluded that the whole system work properly and ready to be used. From the result of questionnaire, the implementation has gained 85,243 % for member's satisfaction and 85 % for administrator's satisfaction. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Multilevel Marketing (MLM merupakan suatu metode pemasaran Direct Selling yang sedang berkembang di Indonesia akhir-akhir ini. MLM sendiri adalah sistem penjualan langsung melalui program pemasaran berbentuk lebih dari satu tingkat, dimana mitra usaha mendapat komisi penjualan dan bonus penjualan dari hasil penjualan barang/jasa yang dilakukannya sendiri dan anggota jaringan di dalam kelompoknya. PT. Mediderma Indonesia adalah sebuah perusahaan yang mengimpor barang-barang kebutuhan sehari-hari dari Eropa. Perusahaan ini menggunakan

  11. Study on reliability analysis based on multilevel flow models and fault tree method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Yang Ming

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel flow models (MFM) and fault tree method describe the system knowledge in different forms, so the two methods express an equivalent logic of the system reliability under the same boundary conditions and assumptions. Based on this and combined with the characteristics of MFM, a method mapping MFM to fault tree was put forward, thus providing a way to establish fault tree rapidly and realizing qualitative reliability analysis based on MFM. Taking the safety injection system of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant as an example, its MFM was established and its reliability was analyzed qualitatively. The analysis result shows that the logic of mapping MFM to fault tree is correct. The MFM is easily understood, created and modified. Compared with the traditional fault tree analysis, the workload is greatly reduced and the modeling time is saved. (authors)

  12. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - a representative longitudinal study in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Michaela K; Bauer, Georg F; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hämmig, Oliver

    2011-04-29

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction.

  13. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction. PMID:21529345

  14. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämmig Oliver

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were (1 to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2 to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel, covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based, and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%. A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction.

  15. A Multilevel Study of Students' Motivations of Studying Accounting: Implications for Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Philip; Yuen, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of factors affecting students' choice of accounting as a study major in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: Multinomial logistic regression and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM) are used to analyze the survey data for the level one and level two data, which is the…

  16. Leadership in transformation: a longitudinal study in a nursing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitala, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change. The empirical material was gathered in a longitudinal case study in a nursing organisation in two different historical and situational points. It consists of written narratives produced by nurse leaders that are analysed by applying discourse analysis. The empirical study revealed that the constructions of leadership were dramatically different at the two different historical and situational points. Leadership showed up as a complex, fragile and changing phenomenon, which fluctuates along with the other organisational changes. The results signal the importance of agency in leadership and the central role of "significant others". The paper questions the traditional categorisation and labelling of leadership as well as the cross-sectional studies in understanding leadership transformation. Its originality relates to the longitudinal perspective on transformation of leadership in the context of a health care organisation.

  17. Multilevel Models: Conceptual Framework and Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Otilia-Sonia Hrițcu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and the social or organizational groups they belong to can be viewed as a hierarchical system situated on different levels. Individuals are situated on the first level of the hierarchy and they are nested together on the higher levels. Individuals interact with the social groups they belong to and are influenced by these groups. Traditional methods that study the relationships between data, like simple regression, do not take into account the hierarchical structure of the data and the effects of a group membership and, hence, results may be invalidated. Unlike standard regression modelling, the multilevel approach takes into account the individuals as well as the groups to which they belong. To take advantage of the multilevel analysis it is important that we recognize the multilevel characteristics of the data. In this article we introduce the outlines of multilevel data and we describe the models that work with such data. We introduce the basic multilevel model, the two-level model: students can be nested into classes, individuals into countries and the general two-level model can be extended very easily to several levels. Multilevel analysis has begun to be extensively used in many research areas. We present the most frequent study areas where multilevel models are used, such as sociological studies, education, psychological research, health studies, demography, epidemiology, biology, environmental studies and entrepreneurship. We support the idea that since hierarchies exist everywhere, multilevel data should be recognized and analyzed properly by using multilevel modelling.

  18. Individual and contextual factors associated with tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use among Chilean adolescents: A multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Araya, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We studied the association between individual and contextual variables and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or cannabis in the last 30 days preceding the study, considering the hierarchical nature of students nested in schools. We used the 7th Chilean National School Survey of Substance Use (2007) covering 45,273 students (aged 12-21 years old) along with information from 1465 schools provided by the Chilean Ministry of Education. Multilevel univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were performed. We found a significant intra-class correlation within schools for all substances in the study. Common (e.g., availability of pocket money, more time spent with friends, poor parental monitoring, poor school bonding, bullying others, and lower risk perception of substance use) and unique predictors (e.g., school achievement on national tests) were identified. These findings may help in planning and conducting preventive interventions to reduce substance use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of dyadic communication in couples managing prostate cancer: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lixin; Northouse, Laurel L; Zhang, Lingling; Braun, Thomas M; Cimprich, Bernadine; Ronis, David L; Mood, Darlene W

    2012-01-01

    Cancer patients and partners often report inadequate communication about illness-related issues, although it is essential for mutual support and informal caregiving. This study examined the patterns of change in dyadic communication between patients with prostate cancer and their partners, and also determined if certain factors affected their communication over time. Using multilevel modeling, this study analyzed longitudinal data obtained from a randomized clinical trial with prostate cancer patients and their partners, to examine their communication over time. Patients and partners (N=134 pairs) from the usual-care control group independently completed baseline demographic assessment and measures of social support, uncertainty, symptom distress, and dyadic communication at baseline, and 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-ups. The results indicated that (1) patients and partners reported similar levels of open communication at the time of diagnosis. Communication reported by patients and partners decreased over time in a similar trend, regardless of phase of illness; (2) phase of illness affected couples' open communication at diagnosis but not patterns of change over time; and (3) couples' perceived communication increased as they reported more social support, less uncertainty, and fewer hormonal symptoms in patients. Couples' demographic factors and general symptoms, and patients' prostate cancer-specific symptoms did not affect their levels of open communication. Perceived open communication between prostate cancer patients and partners over time is affected by certain baseline and time-varying psychosocial and cancer-related factors. The results provide empirical evidence that may guide the development of strategies to facilitate couples' interaction and mutual support during survivorship. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  1. Association between bacterial vaginosis and partner concurrency: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien; Klebanoff, Mark; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to test if there was an association between prevalent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and women reporting that their partner had other partners at the same time (partner concurrency). This association has not been assessed in a longitudinal cohort. The Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora recruited a cohort of 3620 non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years who presented for routine primary healthcare at 12 clinics in Birmingham, Alabama. Behavioural questionnaires and vaginal smears were obtained quarterly for a year and BV was defined by a Nugent score 7 or higher as well as Amsel criteria. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between prevalent BV and reporting that one's partner had other partners in the preceding 3-6 months time interval. Nugent score prevalent BV was associated with both reporting that one's partner definitely (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) and possibly (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) engaged in partner concurrency in the preceding 3-6 months time period. Prevalent BV diagnosed by Amsel criteria was similar. A diagnosis of prevalent BV was associated with reporting that one's partner possibly or definitely engaged in partner concurrency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: The QUASER study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Robert (Glenn); J.E. Anderson (Janet); S. Burnett (Susan); K. Aase (Karina); B. Andersson-Gare (Boel); R.A. Bal (Roland); J.E. Calltorp (Johan); F. Nunes (Francisco); A.M. Weggelaar (Anne Marie); C. Vincent (Charles); N.J. Fulop (Naomi)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in

  3. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  4. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT FACTORS EFFECTS ON ARTICLES PUBLICATION REGARDING SURVEY INTERVIEWER CHARACTERISTICS USING MULTILEVEL REGRESSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MOROŞANU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to evaluate the effects which some factors could have on articles publication regarding survey interviewer characteristics. For this, the author studied the existing literature from the various fields in which articles on survey interviewer characteristics has been published and which can be found in online articles database. The analysis was performed on 243 articles achieved by researchers in the time period 1949-2012. Using statistical software R and applying multilevel regression model, the results showed that the time period when the studied articles are made and the interaction between the number of authors and the number of pages affect the most their publication in journals with a certain level of impact factor.

  5. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  6. Workplace determinants of social capital: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from a Finnish cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Oksanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine which contextual features of the workplace are associated with social capital. METHODS: This is a cohort study of 43,167 employees in 3090 Finnish public sector workplaces who responded to a survey of individual workplace social capital in 2000-02 (response rate 68%. We used ecometrics approach to estimate social capital of work units. Features of the workplace were work unit's demographic and employment patterns and size, obtained from employers' administrative records. We used multilevel-multinomial logistic regression models to examine cross-sectionally whether these features were associated with social capital between individuals and work units. Fixed effects models were used for longitudinal analyses in a subsample of 12,108 individuals to examine the effects of changes in workplace characteristics on changes in social capital between 2000 and 2004. RESULTS: After adjustment for individual characteristics, an increase in work unit size reduced the odds of high levels of individual workplace social capital (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.91-0.98 per 30-person-year increase. A 20% increase in the proportion of manual and male employees reduced the odds of high levels of social capital by 8% and 23%, respectively. A 30% increase in temporary employees and a 20% increase in employee turnover were associated with 11% (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.17 and 24% (95% confidence interval 1.18-1.30 higher odds of having high levels of social capital respectively. Results from fixed effects models within individuals, adjusted for time-varying covariates, and from social capital of the work units yielded consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that workplace social capital is contextually patterned. Workplace demographic and employment patterns as well as the size of the work unit are important in understanding variations in workplace social capital between individuals and workplaces.

  7. Workplace Determinants of Social Capital: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Evidence from a Finnish Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kouvonen, Anne; Takao, Soshi; Suzuki, Etsuji; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine which contextual features of the workplace are associated with social capital. Methods This is a cohort study of 43,167 employees in 3090 Finnish public sector workplaces who responded to a survey of individual workplace social capital in 2000–02 (response rate 68%). We used ecometrics approach to estimate social capital of work units. Features of the workplace were work unit's demographic and employment patterns and size, obtained from employers' administrative records. We used multilevel-multinomial logistic regression models to examine cross-sectionally whether these features were associated with social capital between individuals and work units. Fixed effects models were used for longitudinal analyses in a subsample of 12,108 individuals to examine the effects of changes in workplace characteristics on changes in social capital between 2000 and 2004. Results After adjustment for individual characteristics, an increase in work unit size reduced the odds of high levels of individual workplace social capital (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.91–0.98 per 30-person-year increase). A 20% increase in the proportion of manual and male employees reduced the odds of high levels of social capital by 8% and 23%, respectively. A 30% increase in temporary employees and a 20% increase in employee turnover were associated with 11% (95% confidence interval 1.04–1.17) and 24% (95% confidence interval 1.18–1.30) higher odds of having high levels of social capital respectively). Results from fixed effects models within individuals, adjusted for time-varying covariates, and from social capital of the work units yielded consistent results. Conclusions These findings suggest that workplace social capital is contextually patterned. Workplace demographic and employment patterns as well as the size of the work unit are important in understanding variations in workplace social capital between individuals and workplaces. PMID:23776555

  8. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taren Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i waist circumference (WC and (ii waist-to-height ratio (WtHR across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (βboys  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14; βgirls  −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05 and WtHR (βboys  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01; βgirls  −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49. Associations among boys were contingent upon age (p  valuesage∗green  space40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys.

  9. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  10. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  11. Study of risk factors affecting both hypertension and obesity outcome by using multivariate multilevel logistic regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepedeh Gholizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Obesity and hypertension are the most important non-communicable diseases thatin many studies, the prevalence and their risk factors have been performedin each geographic region univariately.Study of factors affecting both obesity and hypertension may have an important role which to be adrressed in this study. Materials &Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 men aged 20-70 living in Bushehr province. Blood pressure was measured three times and the average of them was considered as one of the response variables. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 (and-or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 and obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25. Data was analyzed by using multilevel, multivariate logistic regression model by MlwiNsoftware. Results:Intra class correlations in cluster level obtained 33% for high blood pressure and 37% for obesity, so two level model was fitted to data. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension obtained 43.6% (0.95%CI; 40.6-46.5, 29.4% (0.95%CI; 26.6-32.1 respectively. Age, gender, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were the factors affecting blood pressure (p≤0.05. Age, gender, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and place of residence are effective on obesity (p≤0.05. Conclusion: The multilevel models with considering levels distribution provide more precise estimates. As regards obesity and hypertension are the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, by knowing the high-risk groups we can d careful planning to prevention of non-communicable diseases and promotion of society health.

  12. The Effect of Gender and Social Capital on the Dual Burden of Malnutrition: A Multilevel Study in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezghasemi, Masoud; Öhman, Ann; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Weinehall, Lars; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The paradoxical phenomenon of the coexistence of overweight and underweight individuals in the same household, referred to as the “dual burden of malnutrition”, is a growing nutrition dilemma in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Aims The objectives of this study were (i) to examine the extent of the dual burden of malnutrition across different provinces in Indonesia and (ii) to determine how gender, community social capital, place of residency and other socio-economic factors affect the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition. Methods The current study utilized data from the fourth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) conducted between November 2007 and April 2008. The dataset contains information from 12,048 households and 45,306 individuals of all ages. This study focused on households with individuals over two years old. To account for the multilevel nature of the data, a multilevel multiple logistic regression was conducted. Results Approximately one-fifth of all households in Indonesia exhibited the dual burden of malnutrition, which was more prevalent among male-headed households, households with a high Socio-economic status (SES), and households in urban areas. Minimal variation in the dual burden of malnutrition was explained by the community level differences (malnutrition but not among female-headed households and communities with the highest social capital. Conclusion To improve household health and reduce the inequality across different SES groups, this study emphasizes the inclusion of women's empowerment and community social capital into intervention programs addressing the dual burden of malnutrition. PMID:25153321

  13. The effect of gender and social capital on the dual burden of malnutrition: a multilevel study in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Vaezghasemi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The paradoxical phenomenon of the coexistence of overweight and underweight individuals in the same household, referred to as the "dual burden of malnutrition", is a growing nutrition dilemma in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. AIMS: The objectives of this study were (i to examine the extent of the dual burden of malnutrition across different provinces in Indonesia and (ii to determine how gender, community social capital, place of residency and other socio-economic factors affect the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition. METHODS: The current study utilized data from the fourth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS conducted between November 2007 and April 2008. The dataset contains information from 12,048 households and 45,306 individuals of all ages. This study focused on households with individuals over two years old. To account for the multilevel nature of the data, a multilevel multiple logistic regression was conducted. RESULTS: Approximately one-fifth of all households in Indonesia exhibited the dual burden of malnutrition, which was more prevalent among male-headed households, households with a high Socio-economic status (SES, and households in urban areas. Minimal variation in the dual burden of malnutrition was explained by the community level differences (<4%. Living in households with a higher SES resulted in higher odds of the dual burden of malnutrition but not among female-headed households and communities with the highest social capital. CONCLUSION: To improve household health and reduce the inequality across different SES groups, this study emphasizes the inclusion of women's empowerment and community social capital into intervention programs addressing the dual burden of malnutrition.

  14. The prevalence, prevention and multilevel variance of pressure ulcers in Norwegian hospitals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, Ida Marie; Bjøro, Karen; Gunningberg, Lena; Hofoss, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are preventable adverse events. Organizational differences may influence the quality of prevention across wards and hospitals. To investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers, patient-related risk factors, the use of preventive measures and how much of the pressure ulcer variance is at patient, ward and hospital level. A cross-sectional study. Six of the 11 invited hospitals in South-Eastern Norway agreed to participate. Inpatients ≥18 years at 88 somatic hospital wards (N=1209). Patients in paediatric and maternity wards and day surgery patients were excluded. The methodology for pressure ulcer prevalence studies developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel was used, including demographic data, the Braden scale, skin assessment, the location and severity of pressure ulcers and preventive measures. Multilevel analysis was used to investigate variance across hierarchical levels. The prevalence was 18.2% for pressure ulcer category I-IV, 7.2% when category I was excluded. Among patients at risk of pressure ulcers, 44.3% had pressure redistributing support surfaces in bed and only 22.3% received planned repositioning in bed. Multilevel analysis showed that although the dominant part of the variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers was at patient level there was also a significant amount of variance at ward level. There was, however, no significant variance at hospital level. Pressure ulcer prevalence in this Norwegian sample is similar to comparable European studies. At-risk patients were less likely to receive preventive measures than patients in earlier studies. There was significant variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers at ward level but not at hospital level, indicating that although interventions for improvement are basically patient related, improvement of procedures and organization at ward level may also be important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  16. In Good Company? A Multi-Study, Multi-Level Investigation of the Effects of Coworker Relationships on Employee Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lauren S.; Judge, Timothy A.; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Two multi-level studies were conducted to examine the effects of attitudes towards coworkers on daily well-being. Study 1 linked daily levels of coworker satisfaction to job satisfaction and life satisfaction and examined the extent to which job satisfaction mediated the relationship between coworker satisfaction and life satisfaction among 33…

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  18. Changes in social isolation and loneliness following total hip and knee arthroplasty: longitudinal analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T O; Dainty, J R; MacGregor, A J

    2017-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and change in social isolation and loneliness in people before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in England. The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) dataset, a prospective study of community-dwelling older adults, was used to identify people who had undergone primary THA or TKA because of osteoarthritis. Social isolation was assessed using the ELSA Social Isolation Index. Loneliness was evaluated using the Revised University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale. The prevalence of social isolation and loneliness were calculated and multilevel modelling was performed to assess the potential change of these measures before arthroplasty, within a two-year operative-recovery phase and a following two-year follow-up. The sample consisted of 393 people following THA and TKA. The prevalence of social isolation and loneliness changed from 16.9% to 18.8% pre-operative to 21.8% and 18.9% at the final post-operative follow-up respectively. This was not a statistically significant change for either measure (P = 0.15; P = 0.74). There was a significant difference in social isolation at the recovery phase compared to the pre-operative phase (P = 0.01), where people following arthroplasty reported an increase in social isolation (16.9-21.4%). There was no significant difference between the assessment phases in respect to UCLA Loneliness Scale score (P ≥ 0.74). Given the negative physical and psychological consequences which social isolation and loneliness can have on individuals following THA or TKA, clinicians should be mindful of this health challenge for this population. The reported prevalence of social isolation and loneliness suggests this is an important issue. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescents' psychological health complaints and the economic recession in late 2007: a multilevel study in 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Rathmann, Katharina; Elgar, Frank J; de Looze, Margaretha; Hofmann, Felix; Ottova-Jordan, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Bosakova, Lucia; Currie, Candace; Richter, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The recent economic recession, which began in 2007, has had a detrimental effect on the health of the adult population, but no study yet has investigated the impact of this downturn on adolescent health. This article uniquely examines the effect of the crisis on adolescents' psychological health complaints in a cross-national comparison. Data came from the World Health Organization collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2005-06 and 2009-10. We measured change in psychological health complaints from before to during the recession in the context of changing adult and adolescent unemployment rates. Furthermore, we used logistic multilevel regression to model the impact of absolute unemployment in 2010 and its change rate between 2005-06 and 2009-10 on adolescents' psychological health complaints in 2010. Descriptive results showed that although youth and adult unemployment has increased during the economic crisis, rates of psychological health complaints among adolescents were unaffected in some countries and even decreased in others. Multilevel regression models support this finding and reveal that only youth unemployment in 2010 increased the likelihood of psychological health complaints, whereas its change rate in light of the recession as well as adult unemployment did not relate to levels of psychological health complaints. In contrast to recent findings, our study indicates that the negative shift of the recent recession on the employment market in several countries has not affected adolescents' psychological health complaints. Adolescents' well-being instead seems to be influenced by the current situation on the labour market that shapes their occupational outlook. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Does urban sprawl impact on self-rated health and psychological distress? A multilevel study from Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L

    2011-09-01

    Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant.

  1. A cross-sectional study of workplace social capital and blood pressure: a multilevel analysis at Japanese manufacturing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Kunimoto, Masamizu; Tabata, Hidetoshi; Tsuchiya, Takuto; Kadowaki, Koji; Nakamura, Takehiro; Oyama, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the contextual effect of workplace social capital on systolic blood pressure (SBP). Cross-sectional. A conglomerate from 58 workplaces in Japan. Of the 5844 workers at a Japanese conglomerate from 58 workplaces, 5368 were recruited. Individuals who received drugs for hypertension (n=531) and who lacked information on any variable (n=167) were excluded from the analyses, leaving 4735 individuals (3281 men and 1454 women) for inclusion. Systolic blood pressure. The contextual effect of workplace social capital on SBP was examined using a multilevel regression analysis with a random intercept. Coworker support had a contextual effect at the workplace level (coefficient=-1.97, p=0.043), while a lack of trust for coworkers (coefficient=0.27, p=0.039) and lack of helpfulness from coworkers were associated with SBP (coefficient=0.28, p=0.002). The present study suggested that social capital at the workplace level has beneficial effects on SBP.

  2. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... (emphatic frication) and a phonemic Dari contrast (fricative voicing) as stimuli for both groups. We saw an effect of learning on the Dari learners’ identification of the Dari stimuli already after three weeks of language training, which was sustained, but not improved, after six and 20 months. The extents...

  3. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  4. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy′s (RNoN vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226. STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports. This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  5. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  6. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  7. Workplace social capital and mental health among Chinese employees: a multi-level, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Dai, Junming; Jia, Yingnan; Liu, Xingdi; Jin, Kezhi; Fu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the majority of previous research on social capital and health has been on residential neighborhoods and communities, the evidence remains sparse on workplace social capital. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the association between workplace social capital and health status among Chinese employees in a large, multi-level, cross-sectional study. By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 2,796 employees were identified from 35 workplaces in Shanghai during March to November 2012. Workplace social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure, and the Chinese language version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess mental health. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, occupation status, smoking status, physical activity, and job stress. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with mental health status. In total, 34.9% of workers reported poor mental health (WHO-5health, 1.39 (95% CI: 1.10-1.75), 1.85 (95% CI: 1.38-2.46) and 3.54 (95% CI: 2.73-4.59), respectively. Corresponding odds ratios for workplace-level social capital were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.61-1.49), 1.14 (95% CI: 0.72-1.81) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.05-2.53) for the third, second, and lowest quartiles, respectively. Higher workplace social capital is associated with lower odds of poor mental health among Chinese employees. Promoting social capital at the workplace may contribute to enhancing employees' mental health in China.

  8. Workplace Social Capital and Mental Health among Chinese Employees: A Multi-Level, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R.; Dai, Junming; Jia, Yingnan; Liu, Xingdi; Jin, Kezhi; Fu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Whereas the majority of previous research on social capital and health has been on residential neighborhoods and communities, the evidence remains sparse on workplace social capital. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the association between workplace social capital and health status among Chinese employees in a large, multi-level, cross-sectional study. Methods By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 2,796 employees were identified from 35 workplaces in Shanghai during March to November 2012. Workplace social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure, and the Chinese language version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess mental health. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, occupation status, smoking status, physical activity, and job stress. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with mental health status. Results In total, 34.9% of workers reported poor mental health (WHO-5workplace-level social capital were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.61–1.49), 1.14 (95% CI: 0.72–1.81) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.05–2.53) for the third, second, and lowest quartiles, respectively. Conclusions Higher workplace social capital is associated with lower odds of poor mental health among Chinese employees. Promoting social capital at the workplace may contribute to enhancing employees’ mental health in China. PMID:24404199

  9. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  10. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  11. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  12. A School-Based Multilevel Study of Adolescent Suicide Ideation in California High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan

    2018-05-01

    To assess the between-school variation in suicide ideation and to estimate the contribution of school-level attributes, student-level characteristics, and 2 cross-level interactions (school by student) to student suicide ideation. A secondary analysis of the California Healthy Kids Survey in 2 large and representative samples of California high schools and students: 2009-2011 and 2011-2013. This is a population sample of all public high school students (grades 9 and 11) in California. Analyses were first conducted on surveys administered in the 2011-2013 academic years to 790 schools with 345 203 students and replicated on surveys administered in 2009-2011 to 860 schools with 406 313 students. School-level suicide ideation rates ranged between 4% and 67%, with a median of 19.3% and mean of 20.0% (SD, 5.7%). Student suicide ideation was explained by student-level characteristics (R 2  = .20) and to a larger extent by school-level attributes (R 2  = .55). Student-level characteristics predictive of suicide ideation included, sex, ethnic and racial affiliation, victimization, and perceptions of school climate. In both samples, school size and average level of academic achievement were not associated with rates of school suicide ideation. Schools with a larger number of girls and higher levels of victimization had higher rates of suicide ideation in both samples. The hypotheses regarding cross-level interactions were not confirmed. Differences among schools in student suicide ideation are meaningful. The findings suggest an emphasis on the role of schools in prevention programs, public health campaigns to reduce suicide, multilevel research, and theory development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parent and Child Cigarette Use: A Longitudinal, Multigenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using longitudinal data from the multigenerational Youth Development Study (YDS), this article documents how parents’ long-term smoking trajectories are associated with adolescent children’s likelihood of smoking. Prospective data from the parents (from age 14–38 years) enable unique comparisons of the parents’ and children’s smoking behavior, as well as that of siblings. METHODS: Smoking trajectories are constructed using latent class analysis for the original YDS cohort (n = 1010). Multigenerational longitudinal data from 214 parents and 314 offspring ages 11 years and older are then analyzed by using logistic regression with cluster-corrected SEs. RESULTS: Four latent smoking trajectories emerged among the original cohort: stable nonsmokers (54%), early-onset light smokers who quit/reduce (16%), late-onset persistent smokers (14%), and early-onset persistent heavy smokers (16%). Although 8% of children of stable nonsmokers smoked in the last year, the other groups’ children had much higher percentages, ranging from 23% to 29%. Multivariate logistic regression models confirm that these significant differences were robust to the inclusion of myriad child- and parent-level measures (for which child age and grade point average [GPA] are significant predictors). Older sibling smoking, however, mediated the link between parental heavy smoking and child smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Even in an era of declining rates of teenage cigarette use in the United States, children of current and former smokers face an elevated risk of smoking. Prevention efforts to weaken intergenerational associations should consider parents’ long-term cigarette use, as well as the smoking behavior of older siblings in the household. PMID:23918887

  14. Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinchao [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-11-26

    In this project, we carried out many studies on adaptive and parallel multilevel methods for numerical modeling for various applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and complex fluids. We have made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multiphysics problems: multigrid methods, adaptive finite element methods, and applications.

  15. Managing the risks of proactivity: A multilevel study of initiative and performance in the middle management context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, L.; Stam, W.; Takeuchi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on theories of behavioral decision making and situational strength, we developed and tested a multilevel model that explains how the performance outcomes of personal initiative tendency depend on the extent of alignment between organizational control mechanisms and proactive individuals'

  16. Feasibility study of current pulse induced 2-bit/4-state multilevel programming in phase-change memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Fan, Xi; Chen, Houpeng; Wang, Yueqing; Liu, Bo; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin

    2017-08-01

    In this brief, multilevel data storage for phase-change memory (PCM) has attracted more attention in the memory market to implement high capacity memory system and reduce cost-per-bit. In this work, we present a universal programing method of SET stair-case current pulse in PCM cells, which can exploit the optimum programing scheme to achieve 2-bit/ 4state resistance-level with equal logarithm interval. SET stair-case waveform can be optimized by TCAD real time simulation to realize multilevel data storage efficiently in an arbitrary phase change material. Experimental results from 1 k-bit PCM test-chip have validated the proposed multilevel programing scheme. This multilevel programming scheme has improved the information storage density, robustness of resistance-level, energy efficient and avoiding process complexity.

  17. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  18. Multi-level significance of vulnerability indicators. Case study: Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanga, I. C.; Grozavu, A.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment aims, most frequently, to emphasize internal fragility of a system comparing to a reference standard, to similar systems or in relation to a given hazard. Internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the capacity to predict, to prepare for, to cope with or to recover from a disaster. Thus, vulnerability is linked to resilience and adaptive capacity. From local level to global one, vulnerability factors and corresponding indicators are different and their significance must be tested and validated in a well-structured conceptual and methodological framework. In this paper, the authors aim to show the real vulnerability of rural settlements in Eastern Romania in a multi-level approach. The research area, Tutova Hills, counts about 3421 sq.km and more than 200.000 inhabitants in 421 villages characterized by deficient accessibility, lack of endowments, subsistential agriculture, high pressure on natural environment (especially on forest and soil resources), poverty and aging process of population. Factors that could influence the vulnerability of these rural settlements have been inventoried and assigned into groups through a cluster analysis: habitat and technical urban facilities, infrastructure, economical, social and demographical indicators, environment quality, management of emergency situations etc. Firstly, the main difficulty was to convert qualitative variable in quantitative indicators and to standardize all values to make possible mathematical and statistical processing of data. Secondly, the great variability of vulnerability factors, their different measuring units and their high amplitude of variation require different method of standardization in order to obtain values between zero (minimum vulnerability) and one (maximum vulnerability). Final vulnerability indicators were selected and integrated in a general scheme, according to their significance resulted from an appropriate factor analysis: linear and

  19. Social trust, interpersonal trust and self-rated health in China: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixin; Vlachantoni, Athina; Liu, Xiaoting; Jones, Kelvyn

    2016-11-08

    Trust is important for health at both the individual and societal level. Previous research using Western concepts of trust has shown that a high level of trust in society can positively affect individuals' health; however, it has been found that the concepts and culture of trust in China are different from those in Western countries and research on the relationship between trust and health in China is scarce. The analyses use data from the national scale China General Social Survey (CGSS) on adults aged above 18 in 2005 and 2010. Two concepts of trust ("out-group" and "in-group" trust) are used to examine the relationship between trust and self-rated health in China. Multilevel logistical models are applied, examining the trust at the individual and societal level on individuals' self-rated health. In terms of interpersonal trust, both "out-group" and "in-group" trust are positively associated with good health in 2005 and 2010. At the societal level, the relationships between the two concepts of trust and health are different. In 2005, higher "out-group" social trust (derived from trust in strangers) is positively associated with better health; however, higher "in-group" social trust (derived from trust in most people) is negatively associated with good health in 2010. The cross-level interactions show that lower educated individuals (no education or only primary level), rural residents and those on lower incomes are the most affected groups in societies with higher "out-group" social trust; whereas people with lower levels of educational attainment, a lower income, and those who think that most people can be trusted are the most affected groups in societies with higher "in-group" social trust. High levels of interpersonal trust are of benefit to health. Higher "out-group" social trust is positively associated with better health; while higher "in-group" social trust is negatively associated with good health. Individuals with different levels of educational

  20. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  1. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical

  2. A longitudinal study on boys' and girls' career aspirations and interest in technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardies, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Gijbels, David

    2015-09-01

    Background: More young people, boys and girls, are needed in technical studies and professions, as the relative number of students in technology-related studies has been decreasing in most industrialised countries. To overcome this decrease several countries implemented mandatory technology classes in the curriculum of secondary education. Purpose: This study has two goals: exploring the evolution of pupils' interest during the year(s) they attend the mandatory technology classes and exploring determining characteristics for differences in boys' and girls' attitude change over time. Sample: This study focuses on data gathered in the first and second grade of the first cycle in general secondary education in the North region of Belgium, Flanders. In a first stage we selected a good representation of geographically spread schools (n = 20), from which over 1300 students participated. Design and methods: A longitudinal study with eight measurement occasions spread over the course of two years is presented in order to capture the evolution of students' attitudes, making use of a multilevel growth model analysis. Results: The results show that students' interest in technology decreases over time, although at the end of each grade interest is increasing again. Boys' and girls' interest in technology also evolves a little different in the first cycle of secondary education. For career aspirations we didn't see any significant difference between boys and girls. Boys' and girls' aspirations decrease over time with a little increase by the end of the second grade. Students with a more technological curriculum also have more career aspirations in the field of technology than their peers with other curricula. Although students' perceptions about technology as a subject for boys and girls are largely stable. Conclusions: The evolution of students' attitude is far from linear, this strengthens us in the choice for a more complex analysis model and the choice for more measuring

  3. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  4. Studies of the longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Goals for our first-year period are as follows: To study the evolution of a small perturbation in the current pulse (introduced via the grid voltage on the electron gun) when the beam propagates through our 5-m long periodic solenoid channel. Specifically, to see if the perturbation is reflected from the rear end of the pulse. So far these objectives have been met without any delays. We were able to launch different perturbations on the beam resulting in either a slow space-charge wave or a fast wave or both waves. The relative strength of each wave was found to depend on the electron emission temperature of the cathode. The propagation of these waves on an initially rectangular longitudinal beam profile was measured with fast current monitors and the kinetic energy was measured with sensitive energy analyzers at various positions along the 5-m long solenoidal focusing channel. We have also begun to study the behavior of the waves when they reach the respective edge of the beam. But this work is still of a preliminary nature, and we need to refine the beam conditions and measurements in future studies to reach any firm conclusions. Preparations for the resistive-wall instability experiment are in progress

  5. A longitudinal study of language learners’ images about Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Larisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.

  6. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  7. Clustering of unhealthy behaviors in the aerobics center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Participants were 13,621 adults (aged 20-84) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Four health behaviors were observed (diet, fitness, smoking, and drinking). Baseline characteristics of the study population and bivariate relations between pairs of the health behaviors were evaluated separately for those with and without chronic disease using cross-tabulation and a chi-square test. The odds of partaking in unhealthy behaviors were also calculated. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assess clustering. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors and mortality. The four health behaviors were related to each other. LCA results suggested that two classes existed. Participants in class 1 had a higher probability of partaking in each of the four unhealthy behaviors than participants in class 2. No differences in health behavior clustering were found between participants with and without chronic disease. Mortality risk increased relative to the number of unhealthy behaviors participants engaged in. Unhealthy behaviors cluster together irrespective of chronic disease status. Such findings suggest that multi-behavioral intervention strategies can be similar in those with and without chronic disease.

  8. A Multilevel Functional Study of a SNAP25 At-Risk Variant for Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houenou, Josselin; Boisgontier, Jennifer; Henrion, Annabelle; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Dumaine, Anne; Linke, Julia; Wessa, Michèle; Daban, Claire; Hamdani, Nora; Delavest, Marine; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Lançon, Christophe; Schürhoff, Franck; Szöke, Andrei; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Barau, Caroline; Poupon, Cyril; Etain, Bruno; Leboyer, Marion; Jamain, Stéphane

    2017-10-25

    The synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP25 is a key player in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion and has been associated with multiple psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We recently identified a promoter variant in SNAP25 , rs6039769 , that is associated with early-onset bipolar disorder and a higher gene expression level in human prefrontal cortex. In the current study, we showed that this variant was associated both in males and females with schizophrenia in two independent cohorts. We then combined in vitro and in vivo approaches in humans to understand the functional impact of the at-risk allele. Thus, we showed in vitro that the rs6039769 C allele was sufficient to increase the SNAP25 transcription level. In a postmortem expression analysis of 33 individuals affected with schizophrenia and 30 unaffected control subjects, we showed that the SNAP25b / SNAP25a ratio was increased in schizophrenic patients carrying the rs6039769 at-risk allele. Last, using genetics imaging in a cohort of 71 subjects, we showed that male risk carriers had an increased amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity and a larger amygdala than non-risk carriers. The latter association has been replicated in an independent cohort of 121 independent subjects. Altogether, results from these multilevel functional studies are bringing strong evidence for the functional consequences of this allelic variation of SNAP25 on modulating the development and plasticity of the prefrontal-limbic network, which therefore may increase the vulnerability to both early-onset bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Functional characterization of disease-associated variants is a key challenge in understanding neuropsychiatric disorders and will open an avenue in the development of personalized treatments. Recent studies have accumulated evidence that the SNARE complex, and more specifically

  9. A multilevel study of the impact of project manager's leadership on extra-role performance of project team members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokory, Suzyanty Mohd; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines the impact of transformational and transactional leadership of project manager on the extra-role performance of project team members. In addition, this study also identifies factor dominant to extra-role performance of project team members when the transformational and transactional leadership of project managers are analyzed simultaneously. The study involved 175 of project team members from 35 project teams (each project team consists of different contracting companies registered in the Selangor (N = 175 from 35 contractors company). A multilevel analysis with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) approach was used in this study. The analysis showed that transformational and transactional leadership of the project manager is a positive significant with extra-role performance project team members when analyzed separately. However when the two constructs (transformational leadership and transactional leadership of project manager) were analyzed simultaneously, transformational leadership was found to have more impact on extra-role performance project team members compared to transactional leadership. These findings explained that although transformational and transactional leadership of project managers can improve extra-role performance project team members, but this study has proved that transformational leadership of project managers affect extra-role performance project team members more as compared to transactional leadership.

  10. Types of social capital and mental disorder in deprived urban areas: a multilevel study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bertotti

    Full Text Available To examine the extent to which individual and ecological-level cognitive and structural social capital are associated with common mental disorder (CMD, the role played by physical characteristics of the neighbourhood in moderating this association, and the longitudinal change of the association between ecological level cognitive and structural social capital and CMD.Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods. We used a contextual measure of the physical characteristics of each neighbourhood to examine how the neighbourhood moderates the association between types of social capital and mental disorder. We analysed the association between ecological-level measures of social capital and CMD longitudinally.4,214 adults aged 16-97 (44.4% men were randomly selected from 40 disadvantaged London neighbourhoods.General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12.Structural rather than cognitive social capital was significantly associated with CMD after controlling for socio-demographic variables. However, the two measures of structural social capital used, social networks and civic participation, were negatively and positively associated with CMD respectively. 'Social networks' was negatively associated with CMD at both the individual and ecological levels. This result was maintained when contextual aspects of the physical environment (neighbourhood incivilities were introduced into the model, suggesting that 'social networks' was independent from characteristics of the physical environment. When ecological-level longitudinal analysis was conducted, 'social networks' was not statistically significant after controlling for individual-level social capital at follow up.If we conceptually distinguish between cognitive and structural components as the quality and quantity of social capital respectively, the conclusion of this study is that the quantity rather than quality of social capital is important in relation to CMD at both the

  11. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  12. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  13. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  14. Longitudinal study of prognostic factors in established periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtei, E E; Dunford, R; Hausmann, E; Grossi, S G; Powell, J; Cummins, D; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1997-02-01

    Numerous indicators for disease progression have been described in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to examine, longitudinally, a large battery of clinical, microbiological, and immunological indicators, to try to determine whether the presence of one or a combination of these parameters at baseline, would correlate positively with increased attachment and or bone loss (true prognostic factors). Following initial screening, 79 patients with established periodontitis were monitored longitudinally for one year. Whole mouth clinical measurements, plaque gingival and calculus indices, together with pocket depth and attachment level measurements, were repeated every three months. Full mouth radiographic survey, performed at baseline and 12 months, served to determine changes in crestal bone height using an image enhancement technique. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and every 3 months. Immunofluorescence assays were performed for the a battery of target microorganisms. Serum and GCF samples for IgG subclasses analysis were obtained at each visit and assayed using ELISA techniques. Likewise blood, samples were also drawn at each visit for a quantitative analysis of serum cotinine level. The overall mean attachment loss (AL) and bone loss (BL) were almost identical (0.159 mm and 0.164 mm, respectively). Individual patients variation was large (-0.733 to +1.004 mm). An overall 6.89% of sites were active; individual patients' means ranged from 0-28.9%. Mean pocket depth (PD) showed minimal change over the study period (-0.033 mm) thus suggesting that most if not all the AL was accompained by concomitant gingival recession. Smokers exhibited greater AL and radiographic BL compared to non-smokers. Likewise, patients' cotinine level showed direct correlation with outcomes of progressive periodontal breakdown. Past severity of periodontal involvement, as reflected in the patients baseline PD, AL and crestal bone height, showed good correlation

  15. Indicadores precoces da dislexia de desenvolvimento: um estudo longitudinal || Early indicators of dyslexia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dislexia do desenvolvimento é frequentemente diagnosticada quando os problemas na aprendizagem da leitura já afetaram negativamente outras áreas académicas e até o bem-estar emocional. A pesquisa internacional aponta para a existência de alguns preditores desta perturbação da aprendizagem, permitindo uma intervenção atempada e preventiva. No entanto, as diferenças relativas ao código ortográfico do Português Europeu não nos permitem tirar ilações de estudos realizados noutros contextos linguísticos. Com este problema em mente, desenvolvemos um estudo longitudinal que pretende destacar os preditores da dislexia em crianças portuguesas. A investigação seguiu um plano longitudinal ao longo de três anos e os resultados obtidos junto de uma amostra de 200 crianças permitem identificar a existência de poder preditivo em duas variáveis: no conhecimento que a criança tem do nome das letras e no seu desempenho em tarefas de fluência verbal, mostrando a influência que os fatores relativos às dificuldades na aquisição do princípio alfabético e no acesso ao léxico terão na manifestação posterior de problemas na aquisição da leitura.

  16. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  17. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  18. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  19. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  20. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Janssen, Nikki; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-07-01

    Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory, attention, and executive functioning. This longitudinal study is the first to investigate intellectual development in a group of individuals with Noonan syndrome. Sixteen patients with Noonan syndrome underwent intelligence assessment both in childhood and in adulthood, using Wechsler's intelligence scales. IQ scores and Wechsler standard scores achieved in childhood and adulthood were compared. Subsequently, verbal and performance IQ in childhood were used as predictors for adult IQ and index scores. Compared with childhood scores, adult full-scale IQ and performance IQ significantly increased. Adult performance IQ was higher than verbal IQ. Childhood performance IQ and verbal IQ together predicted all adult IQ and index scores, except for the processing speed index. Childhood IQ was a significant predictor of adult intelligence in patients with Noonan syndrome. Performance IQ advanced to a normal level in adulthood, while verbal IQ did not develop proportionately, resulting in a discrepancy between adult performance IQ and verbal IQ. This finding could suggest a delay in the development of executive functioning in patients with Noonan syndrome, which seems to be outgrown in adulthood.

  1. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

  2. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  3. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  4. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  5. Geographic and socioeconomic variations in adolescent toothbrushing: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, K A; Nicholls, N; Macdonald, S; Dundas, R; Douglas, G V A

    2015-03-01

    This study examined urban-rural and socioeconomic differences in adolescent toothbrushing. The data were modelled using logistic multilevel modelling and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method of estimation. Twice-a-day toothbrushing was regressed upon age, family affluence, family structure, school type, area-level deprivation and rurality, for boys and girls separately. Boys' toothbrushing was associated with area-level deprivation but not rurality. Variance at the school level remained significant in the final model for boys' toothbrushing. The association between toothbrushing and area-level deprivation was particularly strong for girls, after adjustment for individuals' family affluence and type of school attended. Rurality too was independently significant with lower odds of brushing teeth in accessible rural areas. The findings are at odds with the results of a previous study which showed lower caries prevalence among children living in rural Scotland. A further study concluded that adolescents have a better diet in rural Scotland. In total, these studies highlight the need for an examination into the relative importance of diet and oral health on caries, as increases are observed in population obesity and consumption of sugars. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Orotracheal intubation and temporomandibular disorder: a longitudinal controlled study

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    Cláudia Branco Battistella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in elective surgery patients who underwent orotracheal intubation. METHODS: This was a longitudinal controlled study with two groups. The study group included patients who underwent orotracheal intubation and a control group. We used the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire to assess the temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms one-day postoperatively (T1, and the patients' baseline status prior to surgery (T0 was also recorded. The same questionnaire was used after three months (T2. The mouth opening amplitude was measured at T1 and T2. We considered a pvalue of less than 0.05 to be significant. RESULTS: We included 71 patients, with 38 in the study group and 33 in the control. There was no significant difference between the groups in age (study group: 66.0 [52.5-72.0]; control group: 54.0 [47.0-68.0]; p = 0.117 or in their belonging to the female gender (study group: 57.9%; control group: 63.6%; p = 0.621. At T1, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the incidence of mouth opening limitation (study group: 23.7% vs. control group: 18.2%;p = 0.570 or in the mouth opening amplitude (study group: 45.0 [40.0-47.0] vs. control group: 46.0 [40.0-51.0];p = 0.278. At T2 we obtained similar findings. There was no significant difference in the affirmative response to all the individual questions in the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder of muscular origin was not different between the groups.

  7. Incidence and predictive factors of Internet addiction among Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Gross, Danielle L; Wu, Anise M S; Cheng, Kit-Man; Lau, Mason M C

    2017-06-01

    Internet use has global influences on all aspects of life and has become a growing concern. Cross-sectional studies on Internet addiction (IA) have been reported but causality is often unclear. More longitudinal studies are warranted. We investigated incidence and predictors of IA conversion among secondary school students. A 12-month longitudinal study was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese Secondary 1-4 students (N = 8286). Using the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS; cut-off >63), non-IA cases were identified at baseline. Conversion to IA during the follow-up period was detected, with incidence and predictors derived using multi-level models. Prevalence of IA was 16.0% at baseline and incidence of IA was 11.81 per 100 person-years (13.74 for males and 9.78 for females). Risk background factors were male sex, higher school forms, and living with only one parent, while protective background factors were having a mother/father with university education. Adjusted for all background factors, higher baseline CIAS score (ORa = 1.07), longer hours spent online for entertainment and social communication (ORa = 1.92 and 1.63 respectively), and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs (except perceived severity of IA and perceived self-efficacy to reduce use) were significant predictors of conversion to IA (ORa = 1.07-1.45). Prevalence and incidence of IA conversion were high and need attention. Interventions should take into account risk predictors identified, such as those of the HBM, and time management skills should be enhanced. Screening is warranted to identify those at high risk (e.g. high CIAS score) and provide them with primary and secondary interventions.

  8. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  9. Regional contextual influences on short sleep duration: a 50 universities population-based multilevel study in China.

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    Yang, Tingzhong; Peng, Sihui; Barnett, Ross; Zhang, Chichen

    2018-01-01

    Ecological models have emphasized that short sleep duration (SSD) is influenced by both individual and environmental variables. However, few studies have considered the latter. The present study explores the influence of urban and regional contextual factors, net of individual characteristics, on the prevalence of SSD among university students in China. Participants were 11,954 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in high and moderate levels of SSD. Overall the prevalence of high SSD (individual- and city-level covariates. Students attending high-level universities also recorded the highest levels of SSD. Of the individual characteristcs, only mother's occupation and student mental health status were related to SSD. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting SSD among young adults and indicate the need to take into account both past, as well as present, environmental influences to control SSD.

  10. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

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    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  12. Mild traumatic brain injury and fatigue: a prospective longitudinal study.

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    Norrie, Joan; Heitger, Marcus; Leathem, Janet; Anderson, Tim; Jones, Richard; Flett, Ross

    2010-01-01

    To examine fatigue prevalence, severity, predictors and co-variates over 6 months post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Longitudinal prospective study including 263 adults with MTBI. Participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey-Version 2 (SF-36v2). Complete data were available for 159 participants. Key measures; prevalence--RPSQ Item 6: severity--FSS. The effect of time on fatigue prevalence and severity was examined using ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis identified statistically significant covariates. Post-MTBI fatigue prevalence was 68%, 38% and 34% at 1 week, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a strong effect for time over the first 3 months and moderate-to-high correlations between fatigue prevalence and severity. Early fatigue strongly predicted later fatigue; depression, but not anxiety was a predictor. Fatigue was seen as laziness by family or friends in 30% of cases. Post-MTBI fatigue is a persistent post-concussion symptom, exacerbated by depression but not anxiety. It diminishes in the first 3 months and then becomes relatively stable, suggesting the optimum intervention placement is at 3 months or more post-MTBI.

  13. Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison

    2007-10-01

    The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.

  14. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE's are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. A longitudinal study with a 6 months' time interval ( N  =   103). At T1 demographics, workplace violence and potentially traumatic events in the past year, mental health, personality, handling of rules, coping and social organizational stressors were assessed. Confrontations with aggression were also examined at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only problems with superiors independently predicted repeated verbal aggression and that only the (absence of the) ability to compromise very easily predicted repeatedly being on guard and repeatedly confronted with any form of aggression. Due to very low prevalences, we could not examine predictors of repeated confrontations with physical aggression ( N  =   5) and serious threat ( N  =   7). A large majority reported that in most workplace violence cases they could prevent further escalations. About 2% reported a potentially traumatic event in the year before T1 that was WPV related and perceived as very stressful.

  15. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

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    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  16. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  17. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  18. The learner’s perspective in GP teaching practices with multi-level learners: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students, junior hospital doctors on rotation and general practice (GP) registrars are undertaking their training in clinical general practices in increasing numbers in Australia. Some practices have four levels of learner. This study aimed to explore how multi-level teaching (also called vertical integration of GP education and training) is occurring in clinical general practice and the impact of such teaching on the learner. Methods A qualitative research methodology was used with face-to-face, semi-structured interviews of medical students, junior hospital doctors, GP registrars and GP teachers in eight training practices in the region that taught all levels of learners. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was conducted using thematic analysis techniques aided by the use of the software package N-Vivo 9. Primary themes were identified and categorised by the co-investigators. Results 52 interviews were completed and analysed. Themes were identified relating to both the practice learning environment and teaching methods used. A practice environment where there is a strong teaching culture, enjoyment of learning, and flexible learning methods, as well as learning spaces and organised teaching arrangements, all contribute to positive learning from a learners’ perspective. Learners identified a number of innovative teaching methods and viewed them as positive. These included multi-level learner group tutorials in the practice, being taught by a team of teachers, including GP registrars and other health professionals, and access to a supernumerary GP supervisor (also termed “GP consultant teacher”). Other teaching methods that were viewed positively were parallel consulting, informal learning and rural hospital context integrated learning. Conclusions Vertical integration of GP education and training generally impacted positively on all levels of learner. This research has provided further evidence about the

  19. Workplace social capital and mental health among Chinese employees: a multi-level, cross-sectional study.

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    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas the majority of previous research on social capital and health has been on residential neighborhoods and communities, the evidence remains sparse on workplace social capital. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the association between workplace social capital and health status among Chinese employees in a large, multi-level, cross-sectional study. METHODS: By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 2,796 employees were identified from 35 workplaces in Shanghai during March to November 2012. Workplace social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure, and the Chinese language version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5 was used to assess mental health. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, occupation status, smoking status, physical activity, and job stress. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with mental health status. RESULTS: In total, 34.9% of workers reported poor mental health (WHO-5<13. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers with the highest quartile of personal social capital, workers with the third, second, and lowest quartiles exhibited 1.39 to 3.54 times greater odds of poor mental health, 1.39 (95% CI: 1.10-1.75, 1.85 (95% CI: 1.38-2.46 and 3.54 (95% CI: 2.73-4.59, respectively. Corresponding odds ratios for workplace-level social capital were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.61-1.49, 1.14 (95% CI: 0.72-1.81 and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.05-2.53 for the third, second, and lowest quartiles, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher workplace social capital is associated with lower odds of poor mental health among Chinese employees. Promoting social capital at the workplace may contribute to enhancing employees' mental health in China.

  20. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

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    Torsheim Torbjørn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of

  1. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics.Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC.Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC.A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  2. Multi-level comparison of empathy in schizophrenia: an fMRI study of a cartoon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jae; Kang, Do Hyung; Kim, Chi-Won; Gu, Bon Mi; Park, Ji-Young; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Shin, Na Young; Lee, Jong-Min; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-02-28

    Empathy deficits might play a role in social dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the neuroanatomical underpinnings of the subcomponents of empathy in schizophrenia. This study investigated the hemodynamic responses to three subcomponents of empathy in patients with schizophrenia (N=15) and healthy volunteers (N=18), performing an empathy cartoon task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The experiment used a block design with four conditions: cognitive, emotional, and inhibitory empathy, and physical causality control. Data were analyzed by comparing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal activation between the two groups. The cognitive empathy condition activated the right temporal pole to a lesser extent in the patient group than in comparison subjects. In the emotional and inhibitory conditions, the patients showed greater activation in the left insula and in the right middle/inferior frontal cortex, respectively. These findings add to our understanding of the impaired empathy in patients with schizophrenia by identifying a multi-level cortical dysfunction that underlies a deficit in each subcomponent of empathy and highlighting the importance of the fronto-temporal cortical network in ability to empathize. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multilevel, cross-sectional study on social capital with psychogeriatric health among older Japanese people dwelling in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Ikeno, Tamiko; Kawabata, Tomoko

    2014-09-01

    There has been increasing interest in the effect of social capital (SC) on health over the last decade both in Japan and internationally. This study elucidated whether components of SC are linked to the psychogeriatric health of older Japanese individuals. Data for 169 eligible older people living in three rural areas were collected. Multilevel analyses were performed to examine associations between general trust, informal social interaction and formal group participation with self-rated health, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), self-rated depression scale (SDS) and general self-efficacy scale (GSES). Our study revealed that MMSE, SDS and GSES were significantly associated with informal social interaction and formal group participation after adjusting for area-level SC. However, we observed no relationship between general trust and health outcomes. The findings suggest that the strategic enhancement of social cohesion and social networks for older people may promote their health and quality of later life. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  4. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Daniel, Mark; Zenk, Shannon N; Kestens, Yan; Charreire, Hélène; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Weber, Christiane; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal; Merlo, Juan; Pannier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008) were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location) where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education), and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking. A multilevel study in 29 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys and girls among 29 European countries varies according to socioeconomic group. Data were used from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2005/2006 comprising 50,338 adolescents aged 15 years from 29 European countries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate. For boys, tobacco price was negatively associated with weekly smoking rates. This association did not significantly differ between low and high FAS. Levels of tobacco-dependence treatment were significantly associated with weekly smoking. This association varied between low and high FAS, with higher treatment levels associated with higher probability of smoking only for low FAS boys. For girls, no tobacco policy was significantly associated with weekly smoking, irrespective of the FAS. Results indicated that most tobacco control policies are not clearly related to adolescent weekly smoking across European countries. Only tobacco price seemed to be adequate decreasing smoking prevalence among boys, irrespective of their socioeconomic status.

  6. Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J F; van der Does, A J Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults. Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004-2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control. Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55-2.12; P testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80; P psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression. © Copyright 2011

  7. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salines Georges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  8. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  9. Longitudinal Associations between Sibling Relationship Qualities and Risky Behavior across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between sibling intimacy and conflict and youths' reports of risky behavior in a sample of adolescents ages 11-20. Participants were mothers, fathers, and sibling dyads in 393 families who were interviewed annually for 3, 4, or 5 years. Multivariate multilevel models tested longitudinal links between sibling…

  10. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  11. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  12. Changes in taste preference after colorectal surgery: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Sophie; Hiotis, Perryhan; Pengelly, Steven; Hughes, Georgina; Halford, Jason; Christiansen, Paul; Lewis, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition is a key component of surgical enhanced recovery programmes. However, alterations in food preferences are often reported as reasons for patients not eating in the early postoperative period. We hypothesised that taste preferences are altered in the early postoperative period and this dysgeusia affects patients' food choices during this critical time. This is a longitudinal study looking at taste preferences of patients recovering from surgery. Patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited. Using visual analogue scales participants completed a questionnaire, taste tests and preference scoring of food images for the 6 groups of taste (bitter, salty, savoury, sour, spicy and sweet) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1-3. Patients were also offered snacks postoperatively, which represented foods from the six groups and consumption was measured. Differences from baseline were assessed using the Friedman's and Wilcoxon tests. 31 patients were studied. In the immediate postoperative period participants reported deterioration in their sense of taste (p ≤ 0.001), increased nausea (p palatability for salty taste increased (p = 0.001) following surgery. The highest rated images were for savoury food with only the ratings for salty food increasing after surgery (p foods in the postoperative period. Bitter, sour and spicy foods were the least frequently consumed. This is the first study to investigate postsurgical patients' food preferences. A consistent change in all the individual tastes with the exception of salty in the postoperative period was observed. The most desirable tastes were for savoury and sweet, reflecting patients' preoperative preferences. An improved understanding of taste may improve the resumption of eating after colonic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Multilevel index decomposition analysis: Approaches and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Y.; Ang, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing interest in using the technique of index decomposition analysis (IDA) in energy and energy-related emission studies, such as to analyze the impacts of activity structure change or to track economy-wide energy efficiency trends, the conventional single-level IDA may not be able to meet certain needs in policy analysis. In this paper, some limitations of single-level IDA studies which can be addressed through applying multilevel decomposition analysis are discussed. We then introduce and compare two multilevel decomposition procedures, which are referred to as the multilevel-parallel (M-P) model and the multilevel-hierarchical (M-H) model. The former uses a similar decomposition procedure as in the single-level IDA, while the latter uses a stepwise decomposition procedure. Since the stepwise decomposition procedure is new in the IDA literature, the applicability of the popular IDA methods in the M-H model is discussed and cases where modifications are needed are explained. Numerical examples and application studies using the energy consumption data of the US and China are presented. - Highlights: • We discuss the limitations of single-level decomposition in IDA applied to energy study. • We introduce two multilevel decomposition models, study their features and discuss how they can address the limitations. • To extend from single-level to multilevel analysis, necessary modifications to some popular IDA methods are discussed. • We further discuss the practical significance of the multilevel models and present examples and cases to illustrate

  14. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  15. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  16. Realist explanatory theory building method for social epidemiology: a protocol for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    A recent criticism of social epidemiological studies, and multi-level studies in particular has been a paucity of theory. We will present here the protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of the social epidemiology of maternal depression. We use a critical realist approach which is trans-disciplinary, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative traditions, and that assumes both ontological and hierarchical stratification of reality. We describe a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: 1) emergent phase, 2) construction phase, and 3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design is described. The Emergent Phase uses: interviews, focus groups, exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, and multilevel Bayesian spatial data analysis to detect and describe phenomena. Abductive and retroductive reasoning will be applied to: categorical principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, coding of concepts and categories, constant comparative analysis, drawing of conceptual networks, and situational analysis to generate theoretical concepts. The Theory Construction Phase will include: 1) defining stratified levels; 2) analytic resolution; 3) abductive reasoning; 4) comparative analysis (triangulation); 5) retroduction; 6) postulate and proposition development; 7) comparison and assessment of theories; and 8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The strength of the critical realist methodology described is the extent to which this paradigm is able to support the epistemological, ontological, axiological, methodological and rhetorical positions of both quantitative and qualitative research in the field of social epidemiology. The extensive multilevel Bayesian studies, intensive qualitative studies, latent variable theory, abductive triangulation, and Inference to Best Explanation provide a strong foundation for Theory

  17. The role of maternal factors in sibling relationship quality: a multilevel study of multiple dyads per family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-06-01

      Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and (b) this between family variation will be explained by maternal affective climate, operationalized as positive and negative ambient parenting, differential parenting and maternal malaise.   A general population sample of families with single and multiple sibling dyads were visited twice, 2 years apart. Up to 2 children in a family acted as informants; 253 relationships were rated in 118 families. A cross-classified, multilevel model was fit to separate between-family and within-family variance in sibling relationships while simultaneously controlling for informant and partner influences.   Thirty-seven percent of the variance in change in sibling affection and 32% of the variance in change in sibling hostility was between family variance. The measured maternal affective climate including, maternal malaise and maternal ambient and differential hostility and affection explained between family differences.   Sibling relationship quality clusters in families and is partly explained by maternal affective climate. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  19. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  20. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  1. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  3. Ultrafast X-ray absorption study of longitudinal-transverse phonon coupling in electrolyte aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...

  4. Improvement of the Work Environment and Work-Related Stress: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study of a Nationally Representative Sample of Japanese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional multilevel study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement of the work environment and work-related stress in a nationally representative sample in Japan. The study was based on a national survey that randomly sampled 1745 worksites and 17,500 nested employees. The survey asked the worksites whether improvements of the work environment were conducted; and it asked the employees to report the number of work-related stresses they experienced. Multilevel multinominal logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. Improvement of the work environment was not significantly associated with any level of work-related stress. Among men, it was significantly and negatively associated with the severe level of work-related stress. The association was not significant among women. Improvements to work environments may be associated with reduced work-related stress among men nationwide in Japan.

  5. Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Breum, Lars

    Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies Introduction: Ecological models of health behavior have potential as theoretical framework to comprehend the multiple levels of factors influencing physical...... to be taken into consideration. A theoretical implication of this finding is to develop a site-specific physical activity behavior model adding a layered structure to the ecological model representing the determinants related to the specific site. Support: This study was supported by TrygFonden, Realdania...... activity (PA). The potential is shown by the fact that there has been a dramatic increase in application of ecological models in research and practice. One proposed core principle is that an ecological model is most powerful if the model is behavior-specific. However, based on multi-level interventions...

  6. Factors Associated with Cognition in Adults: The Seattle Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Ryan, Lindsay H.; Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Kolanowski, Ann

    2010-01-01

    A better understanding of factors that affect cognition could lead to improved health and greater independence for older adults. We examined the association of four modifiable factors (leisure-time physical activity, leisure-time cognitive activity, self-directed work, and hypertension) with changes in two aspects of fluid intelligence (verbal memory and inductive reasoning). Data for 626 adults collected over 14 years (three time points) were analyzed by multi-level modeling. A component of self-directed work, higher work control, was associated with better verbal memory (p inductive reasoning (p < .01). There were no significant interactions among these factors. The findings suggest that a strong sense of control at work may be protective for fluid intelligence in adults. PMID:19606423

  7. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  8. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  10. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  11. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  12. Electronic cigarette: a longitudinal study of regular vapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-06-07

    It is unclear how vaping behaviour changes over time in regular vapers, and what occurs when vapers relapse to smoking or when they stop vaping. We assessed change in vaping and smoking behaviours over 12 months in regular vapers. A longitudinal study of 3868 regular vapers enrolled on the Internet in 2012-2015 ("baseline"), followed after one (n=1631, 42%), three (n=1337, 35%), six (n=1148, 30%) and 12 months (n=893, 23%). Participants had been vaping for a median of five months at baseline. Most (77%) were former smokers, who had not smoked for a median of three months at baseline. Over 12 months, enjoyment gradually became the most frequently cited reason to vape (93%), and vaping to deal with craving for tobacco gradually decreased (from 87% to 56%). In exclusive vapers (ex-smokers), nicotine concentration in e-liquids decreased over time (from 12 to 9 mg/mL), but puffs/day remained stable (200 puffs/day). After 12 months, 9% of 687 former smokers relapsed to smoking and 28% of 64 daily smokers (dual users) stopped smoking. After 12 months, when participants stopped vaping, they tended to relapse to smoking (+18% daily smokers among those who stopped vaping versus -2% in permanent vapers, preasons to vape. Rates of relapse to smoking were low in former smokers and quit rates were high in current smokers. Stopping vaping was associated with relapsing to smoking. Even in established vapers, vaping behaviour and reasons to vape change over time. This should be taken into account by clinicians, manufacturers and regulators. Results from this non-representative sample can help generate hypotheses that can later be tested in representative samples of vapers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  14. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms "Alaska Native", "children" and "oral health" were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970-2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising approaches to improve the oral and systemic health of Alaska Native

  15. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  16. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...... or a combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...... modulation for network oriented scenarios has been demonstrated....

  17. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  18. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  19. Multilevel modeling and panel data analysis in educational research (Case study: National examination data senior high school in West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulvia, Pepi; Kurnia, Anang; Soleh, Agus M.

    2017-03-01

    Individual and environment are a hierarchical structure consist of units grouped at different levels. Hierarchical data structures are analyzed based on several levels, with the lowest level nested in the highest level. This modeling is commonly call multilevel modeling. Multilevel modeling is widely used in education research, for example, the average score of National Examination (UN). While in Indonesia UN for high school student is divided into natural science and social science. The purpose of this research is to develop multilevel and panel data modeling using linear mixed model on educational data. The first step is data exploration and identification relationships between independent and dependent variable by checking correlation coefficient and variance inflation factor (VIF). Furthermore, we use a simple model approach with highest level of the hierarchy (level-2) is regency/city while school is the lowest of hierarchy (level-1). The best model was determined by comparing goodness-of-fit and checking assumption from residual plots and predictions for each model. Our finding that for natural science and social science, the regression with random effects of regency/city and fixed effects of the time i.e multilevel model has better performance than the linear mixed model in explaining the variability of the dependent variable, which is the average scores of UN.

  20. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, K A; Dundas, R; Miller, M; McCartney, G

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose-response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  1. Estimating trajectories of energy intake through childhood and adolescence using linear-spline multilevel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Northstone, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D

    2013-07-01

    Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped. We demonstrate the use of linear-spline multilevel models to summarize energy-intake trajectories through childhood and adolescence and their application as exposures, outcomes, or mediators. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children assessed children's dietary intake several times between ages 3 and 13 years, using both food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 3-day food diaries. We estimated energy-intake trajectories for 12,032 children using linear-spline multilevel models. We then assessed the associations of these trajectories with maternal body mass index (BMI), and later offspring BMI, and also their role in mediating the relation between maternal and offspring BMIs. Models estimated average and individual energy intake at 3 years, and linear changes in energy intake from age 3 to 7 years and from age 7 to 13 years. By including the exposure (in this example, maternal BMI) in the multilevel model, we were able to estimate the average energy-intake trajectories across levels of the exposure. When energy-intake trajectories are the exposure for a later outcome (in this case offspring BMI) or a mediator (between maternal and offspring BMI), results were similar, whether using a two-step process (exporting individual-level intercepts and slopes from multilevel models and using these in linear regression/path analysis), or a single-step process (multivariate multilevel models). Trajectories were similar when FFQs and food diaries were assessed either separately, or when combined into one model. Linear-spline multilevel models provide useful summaries of trajectories of dietary intake that can be used as an exposure, outcome, or mediator.

  2. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  3. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Bakke Finne

    Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect

  4. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both

  5. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  6. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  7. Scheduling patient appointments via multilevel template: a case study in chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Condotta, A; Shakhlevich, NV

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies a multi-criteria optimization problem which appears in the context of booking chemotherapy appointments. The main feature of the model under study is the requirement to book for each patient multiple appointments which should follow a pre-specified multi-day pattern. Each appointment involves several nurse activities which should also follow a pre-specified intra-day pattern. The main objectives are to minimize patients’ waiting times and peaks of nurses’ workload for an ou...

  8. Relationships between college settings and student alcohol use before, during and after events: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Mallie J; Saltz, Robert F

    2007-11-01

    We examined how alcohol risk is distributed based on college students' drinking before, during and after they go to certain settings. Students attending 14 California public universities (N=10,152) completed a web-based or mailed survey in the fall 2003 semester, which included questions about how many drinks they consumed before, during and after the last time they went to six settings/events: fraternity or sorority party, residence hall party, campus event (e.g. football game), off-campus party, bar/restaurant and outdoor setting (referent). Multi-level analyses were conducted in hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine relationships between type of setting and level of alcohol use before, during and after going to the setting, and possible age and gender differences in these relationships. Drinking episodes (N=24,207) were level 1 units, students were level 2 units and colleges were level 3 units. The highest drinking levels were observed during all settings/events except campus events, with the highest number of drinks being consumed at off-campus parties, followed by residence hall and fraternity/sorority parties. The number of drinks consumed before a fraternity/sorority party was higher than other settings/events. Age group and gender differences in relationships between type of setting/event and 'before,''during' and 'after' drinking levels also were observed. For example, going to a bar/restaurant (relative to an outdoor setting) was positively associated with 'during' drinks among students of legal drinking age while no relationship was observed for underage students. Findings of this study indicate differences in the extent to which college settings are associated with student drinking levels before, during and after related events, and may have implications for intervention strategies targeting different types of settings.

  9. Fruit and vegetable purchasing and the relative density of healthy and unhealthy food stores: evidence from an Australian multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kate E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of a relationship between residential retail food environments and diet-related outcomes is inconsistent. One reason for this may be that food environments are typically defined in terms of the absolute number of particular store types in an area, whereas a measure of the relative number of healthy and unhealthy stores may be more appropriate. Using cross-sectional data from the VicLANES study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent associations between absolute measures (numbers of healthy and unhealthy stores) and a relative measure (relative density of healthy stores) of the food environment, and self-reported variety of fruit and vegetable purchasing in local households. Purchasing behaviour was measured as the odds of purchasing above the median level of fruit and vegetables. Compared to households in areas where healthy food stores made up no more than 10% of all healthy and unhealthy stores, households in areas with 10.1-15.0% healthy food stores and >15% healthy stores had increased odds of healthier purchasing (OR=1.48 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.96) and OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91), respectively). There was less evidence of an association between absolute numbers of healthy or unhealthy stores and fruit and vegetable purchasing. We found strong evidence of healthier fruit and vegetable purchasing in households located in areas where the proportion of food stores that were healthy was greater. Policies aimed at improving the balance between healthy and unhealthy stores within areas may therefore be effective in promoting greater consumption of fruit and vegetables.

  10. The effect of the environment on symptom dimensions in the first episode of psychosis: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oher, F J; Demjaha, A; Jackson, D; Morgan, C; Dazzan, P; Morgan, K; Boydell, J; Doody, G A; Murray, R M; Bentall, R P; Jones, P B; Kirkbride, J B

    2014-08-01

    The extent to which different symptom dimensions vary according to epidemiological factors associated with categorical definitions of first-episode psychosis (FEP) is unknown. We hypothesized that positive psychotic symptoms, including paranoid delusions and depressive symptoms, would be more prominent in more urban environments. We collected clinical and epidemiological data on 469 people with FEP (ICD-10 F10-F33) in two centres of the Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (AESOP) study: Southeast London and Nottinghamshire. We used multilevel regression models to examine neighbourhood-level and between-centre differences in five symptom dimensions (reality distortion, negative symptoms, manic symptoms, depressive symptoms and disorganization) underpinning Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) Item Group Checklist (IGC) symptoms. Delusions of persecution and reference, along with other individual IGC symptoms, were inspected for area-level variation. Reality distortion [estimated effect size (EES) 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.24] and depressive symptoms (EES 0.21, 95% CI 0.07-0.34) were elevated in people with FEP living in more urban Southeast London but disorganized symptomatology was lower (EES -0.06, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.02), after controlling for confounders. Delusions of persecution were not associated with increased neighbourhood population density [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.83-1.23], although an effect was observed for delusions of reference (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.12-1.77). Hallucinatory symptoms showed consistent elevation in more densely populated neighbourhoods (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.61). In people experiencing FEP, elevated levels of reality distortion and depressive symptoms were observed in more urban, densely populated neighbourhoods. No clear association was observed for paranoid delusions; hallucinations were consistently associated with increased population density. These

  11. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults-A population-based multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Harford, Jane; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco A

    2018-01-01

    A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia and other high-income countries.

  12. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults—A population-based multilevel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. Methods For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. Results LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia

  13. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults-A population-based multilevel study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh

    Full Text Available A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (<21 teeth and poor self-rated oral health among Australian adults. Variations in the association between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared.For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income.LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87 after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality.Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income

  14. Exploring the relationships between drivers' familiarity and two-lane rural road accidents. A multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Paolo; Berloco, Nicola; Colonna, Pasquale; Ranieri, Vittorio; Ryeng, Eirin

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that drivers' route familiarity/unfamiliarity (using different definitions of familiarity), and the interactions between familiar and unfamiliar drivers, may affect both the driving performances and the likelihood of road crashes. The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution in the search for relationships between familiarity and crashes by: 1) introducing a measure of familiarity based on the distance from residence; 2) analyzing a traffic and accident dataset referred to rural two-lane sections of the Norwegian highways E6 and E39; 3) using a multi-level approach, based on different perspectives, from a macro analysis to more detailed levels. In the macro analyses, the accident rates computed for different seasons and for different summer traffic variation rates (used as indicators of the share of familiar drivers in the flow) were performed. At the second level, a logistic regression model was used to explain the familiarity/unfamiliarity of drivers (based on their distance from residence), through variables retrieved from the database. In the last step, an in-depth analysis considering also accident types and dynamics was conducted. In the macro analysis, no differences were found between accident rates in the different conditions. Whereas, as emerged from the detailed analyses, the factors: high traffic volume, low summer traffic variation, autumn/winter, minor intersections/driveways, speed limits accident risk, possibly due to distraction and dangerous behaviors, while the influence of being unfamiliar on the accident proneness has some unclarified aspects. However, crashes to unfamiliar drivers may cluster at sites showing high summer traffic variation and in summer months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High local unemployment and increased mortality in Danish adults; results from a prospective multilevel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    registers. Data were pooled data from two population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The association between unemployment at parish level and mortality was examined in Cox proportional hazard analysis. A total of 15 980 men and women, aged 20-67 years and employed at 1 January 1980, were studied...... was also a risk factor (hazard ratio(yes/no) 1.38:1.16-1.64). These estimates attenuated somewhat when other social and behavioural covariates were taken into account. The effects were similar in men and women, but the influence of individuals' unemployment experience during one and five years decreased...... gradually with increasing age. CONCLUSION: This prospective study suggests that high local unemployment and individuals' experience of unemployment increase mortality risk, even after adjustment for other social and behavioural factors....

  16. On- and Off-Field Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Esther A.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Biesta, Gert J. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent team membership predicts on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behavior in (pre)adolescent athletes. Effects of team-membership were related to characteristics of the team environment, such as relational support from the coach towards team members, fair play attitude and sociomoral reasoning within the…

  17. Bias due to selective dichotomization of multilevel exposure classes in risk analysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    General equations are developed for odds and risk ratio calculation in risk analysis studies with multiple exposure metrics, specifically for the four-level Wertheimer-Leeper (WL) code used in electromagnetic field (EMF) health studies. For an m-level code there are m-1 ways of categorizing subjects as exposed or unexposed: this dichotomization may be biased to maximize (or minimize) the risk parameter. This result is illustrated using Monte-Carlo simulation of health data. Results vary depending on the dichotomy used: indications of increased risk, decreased risk, window effects and inverse window effects are obtained, reflecting the range of conflicting results found in present-day EMF research. These results stress the need for care in the presentation and interpretation of health data in risk studies, especially where the exposure classification system is arbitrarily modifiable. This indication is especially urgent in the EMF field in view of recent proposals to base new epidemiological studies on subjectively modified WL codes. 8 refs., 7 tabs

  18. Multilevel approaches and the firm-agglomeration ambiguity in economic growth studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Burger, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371741092; Knoben, J.; Raspe, O.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies in spatial economics have shown that agglomeration economies may be a source of the uneven distribution of economic activities and economic growth across cities and regions. Both localization and urbanization economies are hypothesized to foster agglomeration and growth, but recent

  19. Multilevel approaches and the firm-agglomeration ambiguity in economic growth studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, F.G. van; Burger, M.J.; Knoben, J.; Raspe, O.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies in spatial economics have shown that agglomeration economies may be a source of the uneven distribution of economic activities and economic growth across cities and regions. Both localization and urbanization economies are hypothesized to foster agglomeration and growth, but

  20. The association between neighborhood disorder, social cohesion and hazardous alcohol use: A national multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; van den Brink, W.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence on associations of alcohol use with neighborhood disorder and social cohesion is limited. The aim of this study was to further investigate these associations. Methods: Individual data of 14,258 Dutch adults, living in 1546 neighborhoods across the Netherlands, were obtained from

  1. On- and Off-field Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.A.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Schuengel, C.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Hoeksma, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent team membership predicts on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behavior in (pre)adolescent athletes. Effects of team-membership were related to characteristics of the team environment, such as relational support from the coach towards team members, fair

  2. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  3. The effects of transformational and change leadership on employees' commitment to a change: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, David M; Fedor, Donald B; Caldwell, Steven; Liu, Yi

    2008-03-01

    The effects of transformational leadership on the outcomes of specific change initiatives are not well understood. Conversely, organizational change studies have examined leader behaviors during specific change implementations yet have failed to link these to broader leadership theories. In this study, the authors investigate the relationship between transformational and change leadership and followers' commitment to a particular change initiative as a function of the personal impact of the changes. Transformational leadership was found to be more strongly related to followers' change commitment than change-specific leadership practices, especially when the change had significant personal impact. For leaders who were not viewed as transformational, good change-management practices were found to be associated with higher levels of change commitment. Copyright 2008 APA

  4. A multi-level geographical study of Italian political elections from Twitter data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Pompa, Gabriele; Puliga, Michelangelo; Riccaboni, Massimo; Riotta, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the behavior of Italian Twitter users during national political elections. We monitor the volumes of the tweets related to the leaders of the various political parties and we compare them to the elections results. Furthermore, we study the topics that are associated with the co-occurrence of two politicians in the same tweet. We cannot conclude, from a simple statistical analysis of tweet volume and their time evolution, that it is possible to precisely predict the election outcome (or at least not in our case of study that was characterized by a "too-close-to-call" scenario). On the other hand, we found that the volume of tweets and their change in time provide a very good proxy of the final results. We present this analysis both at a national level and at smaller levels, ranging from the regions composing the country to macro-areas (North, Center, South).

  5. Individual and group antecedents of job satisfaction: a one-lab multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Martínez

    Full Text Available This study examines the simultaneous effect of individual (selfefficacy and group variables (cohesion and gender diversity on satisfaction. A laboratory study was conducted involving 373 college students randomly distributed across 79 small groups, who performed a laboratory task in about five hours. Two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM method was used. Results show the main effect from individual selfefficacy to satisfaction (both level 1, the cross-level effect from group cohesion (level 2 to individual satisfaction (level 1, and the interaction effect between self-efficacy and gender diversity to satisfaction. These results suggest that in a work group, satisfaction has a background in individual and group variables. Group cohesion and gender diversity have important effects on satisfaction. The article concludes with practical strategies and with limitations and suggestions for future research.

  6. Trust increases euthanasia acceptance: a multilevel analysis using the European Values Study

    OpenAIRE

    K?neke, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background This study tests how various kinds of trust impact attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public. The indication that trust might have an impact on euthanasia attitudes is based on the slippery slope argument, which asserts that allowing euthanasia might lead to abuses and involuntary deaths. Adopting this argument usually leads to less positive attitudes towards euthanasia. Tying in with this, it is assumed here that greater trust diminishes such slippery slope fears, and t...

  7. Differentiation and carcinogenesis: an integrated multilevel study of mechanisms from molecules to man. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This study sought to identify and characterize mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) in vitro, to identify the in vivo equivalent of the in vitro MPCs, and to determine the relationship between the presence or response of these cells both in vitro and eventually in vivo to altered proliferative capacity (in vitro cellular senescence, in vivo organismal aging) and altered susceptibility to carcinogenesis (frequency of in vitro neoplastic transformation and age-related frequency of in vivo cancer incidence). 16 refs

  8. Federalism and multilevel governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally

  9. Using the gene ontology to scan multilevel gene sets for associations in genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaid, Daniel J; Sinnwell, Jason P; Jenkins, Gregory D; McDonnell, Shannon K; Ingle, James N; Kubo, Michiaki; Goss, Paul E; Costantino, Joseph P; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Gene-set analyses have been widely used in gene expression studies, and some of the developed methods have been extended to genome wide association studies (GWAS). Yet, complications due to linkage disequilibrium (LD) among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and variable numbers of SNPs per gene and genes per gene-set, have plagued current approaches, often leading to ad hoc "fixes." To overcome some of the current limitations, we developed a general approach to scan GWAS SNP data for both gene-level and gene-set analyses, building on score statistics for generalized linear models, and taking advantage of the directed acyclic graph structure of the gene ontology when creating gene-sets. However, other types of gene-set structures can be used, such as the popular Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Our approach combines SNPs into genes, and genes into gene-sets, but assures that positive and negative effects of genes on a trait do not cancel. To control for multiple testing of many gene-sets, we use an efficient computational strategy that accounts for LD and provides accurate step-down adjusted P-values for each gene-set. Application of our methods to two different GWAS provide guidance on the potential strengths and weaknesses of our proposed gene-set analyses. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Personality factors and breast cancer development: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, E M; van der Ploeg, H M; Hendriks, J H; Adèr, H J

    1996-10-16

    It has been estimated that approximately 25% of all breast cancers in women can be explained by currently recognized somatic (i.e., hereditary and physiologic) risk factors. It has also been hypothesized that psychological factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the extent to which personality factors, in addition to somatic risk factors, may be associated with the development of primary breast cancer. We employed a prospective, longitudinal study design. From 1989 through 1990, a personality questionnaire was sent to all female residents of the Dutch city of Nijmegen who were 43 years of age or older. This questionnaire was sent as part of an invitation to participate in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women who developed breast cancer among those who returned completed questionnaires were compared with women without such a diagnosis in regard to somatic risk factors and personality traits, including anxiety, anger, depression, rationality, anti-emotionality (i.e., an absence of emotional behavior or a lack of trust in one's own feelings), understanding, optimism, social support, and the expression and control of emotions. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best explain group membership (i.e., belonging to the case [breast cancer] or the control [without disease] group). Personality questionnaires were sent to 28 940 women, and 9705 (34%) were returned in such a way that they could be used for statistical analyses. Among the 9705 women who returned useable questionnaires, 131 were diagnosed with breast cancer during the period from 1989 through 1994. Seven hundred seventy-one age-matched control subjects (up to six per case patient) were selected for the analyses. Three variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: 1) having a first-degree family member with breast cancer (versus not having an

  11. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control -- A multilevel and inter-disciplinary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1990-09-01

    All projects are working toward a goal for describing the three dimensional nuclear topography in terms of relative spatial relationships among genes (specific DNA sequence). Methods are now being perfected to detect these genes, quantitatively and spatially, to perturb these genes specifically, and to measure the perturbation in order to assure specificity. We are developing methods to assay, after perturbation of the target DNA within living cells, whether or not only the target sequence are attacked while other sequences remain unharmed. We are now at the stage to do chemical gene modification or masking within living cells in a strictly sequence-specific manner. Soon, we will be able to study the function and the physical location of each gene in living cells with exquisite specificity. 25 refs., 15 figs

  12. How Multilevel Societal Learning Processes Facilitate Transformative Change: A Comparative Case Study Analysis on Flood Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable resources management requires a major transformation of existing resource governance and management systems. These have evolved over a long time under an unsustainable management paradigm, e.g., the transformation from the traditionally prevailing technocratic flood protection toward the holistic integrated flood management approach. We analyzed such transformative changes using three case studies in Europe with a long history of severe flooding: the Hungarian Tisza and the German and Dutch Rhine. A framework based on societal learning and on an evolutionary understanding of societal change was applied to identify drivers and barriers for change. Results confirmed the importance of informal learning and actor networks and their connection to formal policy processes. Enhancing a society's capacity to adapt is a long-term process that evolves over decades, and in this case, was punctuated by disastrous flood events that promoted windows of opportunity for change.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  14. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  15. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the

  16. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer

    1994-01-01

    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...... are used to describe patterns of wealth mobility. These results and regression models of change in percentile position identify winners and losers. The losers include students, singles with children, those who changed residence and those who experienced unemployment, while the winners were the houseowners...

  17. Self-stigma and suicidality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Rüsch, Nicolas; Viering, Sandra; Wyss, Christine; Seifritz, Erich; Xu, Ziyan; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness stigma is a source of distress for persons with mental illness. Self-stigma occurs when negative stereotypes are internalized, leading to low self-esteem, shame and hopelessness. Due to its consequences self-stigma may contribute to suicidality and be a modifiable target for suicide prevention. Based on 222 disability pensioners with mental illness we examined whether self-stigma at baseline is associated with suicidal ideation over a 2-year period, controlling for baseline suicidal ideation, symptoms, age and gender. More self-stigma predicted suicidal ideation at baseline and longitudinally. Interventions on different levels to reduce self-stigma could improve suicide prevention.

  18. Psychological predictors of eco-driving: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauper Elisabeth; Moser Stephanie; Fischer Maja; Matthies Ellen; Kaufmann-Hayoz Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Eco-driving has well-known positive effects on fuel economy and greenhouse-gas emissions. Moreover, eco-driving reduces road-traffic noise, which is a serious threat to the health and well-being of many people. We investigated the psychological predictors of the adoption of eco-driving from the perspective of road-traffic noise abatement. The data came from 890 car drivers who participated in a longitudinal survey over four months. Specifically, we tested the effects of the intention to preve...

  19. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control: A multilevel and inter-disciplinary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' o, P.O.P.

    1990-09-01

    The main objectives of this Program Project is to develop strategy and technology for the study of gene structure, organization and function in a multi-disciplinary, highly coordinated manner. In Project I, Molecular Cytology, the establishment of all instrumentation for the computerized microscopic imaging system (CMIS) has been completed with the software in place, including measurement of the third dimension (along the Z-axis). The technique is now at hand to measure single copy DNA in the nucleus, single copy mRNA in the cell, and finally, we are in the process of developing mathematical approaches for the analysis of the relative spatial 3-D relationship among the chromosomes and the individual genes in the interphasal nucleus. Also, we have a sensitive and reliable method for measuring single-stranded DNA breaks which will be useful for the determination of damage to DNA caused by ionizing radiation. In Project II, the mapping of restriction fragments by 2-D enzymatic and electrophoretic analysis has been perfected for application. In Project III, a major finding is that the binding constant and effectiveness of antisense oligonucleotide analogues, Matagen, can be significantly improved by substituting 2{prime}-O-methylribos methylphosphonate backbones for the current 2{prime}-deoxyribomethylphosphonate backbones. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Integrated multi-level quality control for proteomic profiling studies using mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Jennifer H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic profiling using mass spectrometry (MS is one of the most promising methods for the analysis of complex biological samples such as urine, serum and tissue for biomarker discovery. Such experiments are often conducted using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight and SELDI-TOF (surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight MS. Using such profiling methods it is possible to identify changes in protein expression that differentiate disease states and individual proteins or patterns that may be useful as potential biomarkers. However, the incorporation of quality control (QC processes that allow the identification of low quality spectra reliably and hence allow the removal of such data before further analysis is often overlooked. In this paper we describe rigorous methods for the assessment of quality of spectral data. These procedures are presented in a user-friendly, web-based program. The data obtained post-QC is then examined using variance components analysis to quantify the amount of variance due to some of the factors in the experimental design. Results Using data from a SELDI profiling study of serum from patients with different levels of renal function, we show how the algorithms described in this paper may be used to detect systematic variability within and between sample replicates, pooled samples and SELDI chips and spots. Manual inspection of those spectral data that were identified as being of poor quality confirmed the efficacy of the algorithms. Variance components analysis demonstrated the relatively small amount of technical variance attributable to day of profile generation and experimental array. Conclusion Using the techniques described in this paper it is possible to reliably detect poor quality data within proteomic profiling experiments undertaken by MS. The removal of these spectra at the initial stages of the analysis substantially improves the

  1. Racial disparities in the development of breast cancer metastases among older women: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-02-15

    Distant metastases are the most common and lethal type of breast cancer relapse. The authors examined whether older African American breast cancer survivors were more likely to develop metastases compared with older white women. They also examined the extent to which 6 pathways explained racial disparities in the development of metastases. The authors used 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data with 1991-1999 Medicare data. They used Medicare's International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes to identify metastases of respiratory and digestive systems, brain, bone, or other unspecified sites. The 6 pathways consisted of patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, type of treatment received, access to medical care, surveillance mammography use, and area-level characteristics (poverty rate and percentage African American) and were obtained from the SEER or Medicare data. Of the 35,937 women, 10.5% developed metastases. In univariate analysis, African American women were 1.61 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.83) more likely to develop metastasis than white women. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade, stage at diagnosis, and census-tract percentage African American explained why African American women were more likely to develop metastases than white women (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68-1.03). Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer among African Americans also may reduce racial disparities in subsequent increased risk of developing metastasis. African Americans diagnosed with high-grade breast cancer could be targeted to reduce their risk of metastasis. Future studies should identify specific reasons why the racial distribution in census tracts was associated with racial disparities in the risk of breast cancer metastases. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  2. Effectiveness of a multi-level implementation strategy for ASD interventions: study protocol for two linked cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stahmer, Aubyn C

    2018-05-09

    The Centers for Disease Control (2018) estimates that 1 in 59 children has autism spectrum disorder, and the annual cost of ASD in the U.S. is estimated to be $236 billion. Evidence-based interventions have been developed and demonstrate effectiveness in improving child outcomes. However, research on generalizable methods to scale up these practices in the multiple service systems caring for these children has been limited and is critical to meet this growing public health need. This project includes two, coordinated studies testing the effectiveness of the Translating Evidence-based Interventions (EBI) for ASD: Multi-Level Implementation Strategy (TEAMS) model. TEAMS focuses on improving implementation leadership, organizational climate, and provider attitudes and motivation in order to improve two key implementation outcomes-provider training completion and intervention fidelity and subsequent child outcomes. The TEAMS Leadership Institute applies implementation leadership strategies and TEAMS Individualized Provider Strategies for training applies motivational interviewing strategies to facilitate provider and organizational behavior change. A cluster randomized implementation/effectiveness Hybrid, type 3, trial with a dismantling design will be used to understand the effectiveness of TEAMS and the mechanisms of change across settings and participants. Study #1 will test the TEAMS model with AIM HI (An Individualized Mental Health Intervention for ASD) in publicly funded mental health services. Study #2 will test TEAMS with CPRT (Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching) in education settings. Thirty-seven mental health programs and 37 school districts will be randomized, stratified by county and study, to one of four groups (Standard Provider Training Only, Standard Provider Training + Leader Training, Enhanced Provider Training, Enhanced Provider Training + Leader Training) to test the effectiveness of combining standard, EBI-specific training with the two TEAMS

  3. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  4. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...

  5. Stability of Boolean multilevel networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzo, Emanuele; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-09-01

    The study of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of complex multilevel systems is a pressing challenge nowadays. In this paper, we use a semiannealed approximation to study the stability properties of random Boolean networks in multiplex (multilayered) graphs. Our main finding is that the multilevel structure provides a mechanism for the stabilization of the dynamics of the whole system even when individual layers work on the chaotic regime, therefore identifying new ways of feedback between the structure and the dynamics of these systems. Our results point out the need for a conceptual transition from the physics of single-layered networks to the physics of multiplex networks. Finally, the fact that the coupling modifies the phase diagram and the critical conditions of the isolated layers suggests that interdependency can be used as a control mechanism.

  6. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  7. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  8. Determinants and causes of neonatal mortality in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of prospective follow up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmesa Tura Debelew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is among the countries with the highest neonatal mortality with the rate of 37 deaths per 1000 live births. In spite of many efforts by the government and other partners, non-significant decline has been achieved in the last 15 years. Thus, identifying the determinants and causes are very crucial for policy and program improvement. However, studies are scarce in the country in general and in Jimma zone in particular. OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants and causes of neonatal mortality in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was conducted among 3463 neonates from September 2012 to December 2013. The data were collected by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS V.20.0 and STATA 13. Verbal autopsies were conducted to identify causes of neonatal death. Mixed-effects multilevel logistic regression model was used to identify determinants of neonatal mortality. RESULTS: The status of neonatal mortality rate was 35.5 (95%CI: 28.3, 42.6 per 1000 live births. Though significant variation existed between clusters in relation to neonatal mortality, cluster-level variables were found to have non-significant effect on neonatal mortality. Individual-level variables such as birth order, frequency of antenatal care use, delivery place, gestation age at birth, premature rupture of membrane, complication during labor, twin births, size of neonate at birth and neonatal care practice were identified as determinants of neonatal mortality. Birth asphyxia (47.5%, neonatal infections (34.3% and prematurity (11.1% were the three leading causes of neonatal mortality accounting for 93%. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed high status of neonatal mortality in the study area. Higher-level variables had less importance in determining neonatal mortality. Individual level variables related to care during pregnancy, intra-partum complications and care, neonatal conditions and the immediate

  9. Interactive and independent associations between the socioeconomic and objective built environment on the neighbourhood level and individual health: a systematic review of multilevel studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The research question how contextual factors of neighbourhood environments influence individual health has gained increasing attention in public health research. Both socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and factors of the built environment play an important role for health and health-related behaviours. However, their reciprocal relationships have not been systematically reviewed so far. This systematic review aims to identify studies applying a multilevel modelling approach which consider both neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and factors of the objective built environment simultaneously in order to disentangle their independent and interactive effects on individual health. The three databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched with terms for title and abstract screening. Grey literature was not included. Observational studies from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western European countries were considered which analysed simultaneously factors of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment with a multilevel modelling approach. Adjustment for individual SEP was a further inclusion criterion. Thirty-three studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Twenty-two studies showed an independent association between characteristics of neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual health outcomes or health-related behaviours. Twenty-one studies found cross-level or within-level interactions either between neighbourhood SEP and the built environment, or between neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual characteristics, such as sex, individual SEP or ethnicity. Due to the large variation of study design and heterogeneous reporting of results the identification of consistent findings was problematic and made quantitative analysis not possible. There is a need for studies considering multiple neighbourhood dimensions and applying multilevel modelling in order to clarify their causal

  10. Habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos: um estudo longitudinal Cognitive abilities in older seniors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani I. de Lima Argimon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos longitudinais com idosos com mais de oitenta anos são escassos na literatura. A pesquisa foi delineada com o objetivo de analisar as modificações no perfil de algumas habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos, em dois momentos, com um intervalo de três anos. Pesquisa do tipo quantitativo, com delineamento longitudinal e prospectivo. A amostra, randômica, foi constituída por 66 indivíduos de 80 a 95 anos de idade na etapa I e, três anos após, na etapa II, por 46 idosos. Os instrumentos usados foram: Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Span de Números, Teste de Lembranças Livres e com Pistas de Buschke, Teste de Fluência Verbal - Categoria Animal. Houve uma pequena tendência de decréscimo no desempenho cognitivo em um período de três anos. Maior número de atividades de lazer e mais anos de escolaridade foram fatores preditivos de menor variação no desempenho cognitivo. Apesar da idade avançada, os idosos apresentaram um desempenho de habilidades cognitivas cujo declínio foi de intensidade leve, não sendo suficiente para acarretar mudanças significativas no seu padrão cognitivo.Longitudinal studies of older seniors (over 80 years are rare in the literature. This research was designed to study cognitive abilities in the oldest old at two different moments with a three-year interval. The research was quantitative, with a longitudinal and prospective design. The sample consisted of 66 individuals from 80 to 95 years of age, randomly selected for phase I, with 46 of these individuals tested again three years later, in phase II. The instruments used were: Geriatric Depression Scale, Subjective Perception of Memory Problems, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Buschke Test of Free and Cued Recall, and the Verbal Fluency Test - Animal Category. The results indicated that there was a small downward trend in the older

  11. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  12. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  13. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with breast cancer: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; dePont Christensen, René; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Frisch, Morten; Nicolaisen, Anne; Kroman, Niels; Flyger, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-02-01

    A breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can profoundly affect the sex life of patient and partner within a couple. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether individual and partner sexual functioning, affectionate behavior, emotional closeness and depressive symptoms are associated with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. Women with BC and their male partners participated in a longitudinal study (Time 1, ≤4 months after surgery; Time 2, 5 months later). Participants completed items from the PROMIS ® Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure (version 1.0), two items measuring affectionate behavior, a single item measuring emotional closeness and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Registers provided sociodemographic and medical information. Multilevel models were used, which take the interdependency of couples' scores into account. A total of 287 sexually active couples were included in the analyses. Less vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients' satisfaction with sex life. Patients' and partners' satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners' timing of ejaculation. Patients' reports of affectionate behavior were positively associated with their partners' satisfaction, and vice versa for partners. Patients' satisfaction increased the more emotional closeness their partner experienced. Partners' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with their satisfaction. Sociodemographic factors and BC treatment were not significantly associated with change in satisfaction. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active couples dealing with BC needs to be seen as a couple issue. Health professionals should take the partner into

  15. Are changes in workplace bullying status related to changes in salivary cortisol? A longitudinal study among Danish employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mors, Ole; Kaerlev, Linda; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30 min after awakening and at 8 p.m.). All participants responding to the item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after newly onset of and discontinuance of workplace bullying. All analyses were adjusted for the potentially confounding effect of differences from baseline to follow-up in education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, cohort, sampling waves, time of awakening, and time of sampling. We found no indication of statistically significant difference in saliva cortisol, neither when participants changed their self-labelling from not bullied at baseline to being bullied at follow-up, nor when they at follow-up two years later reported discontinuance of bullying. This longitudinal study on the impact of changes in bullying status on change in cortisol levels showed consistent lack of associations with onset and discontinuance of workplace bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  17. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  19. Patterns and predictors of patient and caregiver engagement in heart failure care: a multi-level dyadic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher S; Vellone, Ercole; Lyons, Karen S; Cocchieri, Antonello; Bidwell, Julie T; D'Agostino, Fabio; Hiatt, Shirin O; Alvaro, Rosaria; Buck, Harleah G; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Heart failure is a burdensome clinical syndrome, and patients and their caregivers are responsible for the vast majority of heart failure care. This study aimed to characterize naturally occurring archetypes of patient-caregiver dyads with respect to patient and caregiver contributions to heart failure self-care, and to identify patient-, caregiver- and dyadic-level determinants thereof. Dyadic analysis of cross-sectional data on patients and their caregivers. Outpatient heart failure clinics in 28 Italian provinces. 509 Italian heart failure patients and their primary caregivers. Multilevel and mixture modeling were used to generate dyadic averages and incongruence in patient and caregiver contributions to heart failure self-care and identify common dyadic archetypes, respectively. Three distinct archetypes were observed. 22.4% of dyads were labeled as novice and complementary because patients and caregivers contributed to different aspects of heart failure self-care that was generally poor; these dyads were predominantly older adults with less severe heart failure and their adult child caregivers. 56.4% of dyads were labeled as inconsistent and compensatory because caregivers reported greater contributions to the areas of self-care most insufficient on the part of the patients; patients in these dyads had the highest prevalence of hospitalizations for heart failure in the past year and the fewest limitations to performing activities of daily living independently. Finally, 21.2% of dyads were labeled as expert and collaborative because of high contributions to all aspects of heart failure self-care, the best relationship quality and lowest caregiver strain compared with the other archetypes; patients in this archetype were likely the sickest because they also had the worst heart failure-related quality of life. Three distinct archetypes of dyadic contributions to heart failure care were observed that represent a gradient in the level of contributions to self

  20. Exploring multi-level system factors facilitating educator training and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Schetter, Patricia L; McGee Hassrick, Elizabeth

    2018-01-08

    This study examines how system-wide (i.e., region, district, and school) mechanisms such as leadership support, training requirements, structure, collaboration, and education affect the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools and how this affects the outcomes for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite growing evidence for the positive effects of EBPs for ASD, these practices are not consistently or effectively used in schools. Although special education programs are mandated to use EBPs, there are very few evidence-based methods for selecting, implementing, and sustaining EBPs. Research focuses primarily on teacher training, without attention to contextual factors (e.g., implementation climate, attitudes toward EBPs, resource allocation, and social networks) that may impact outcomes. Using an implementation science framework, this project will prospectively examine relations between system-wide factors and teachers' use of EBPs and student education outcomes. Survey data will be collected from approximately 85 regional special education directors, 170 regional program specialists, 265 district special education directors, 265 behavior specialists, 925 school principals, 3538 special education teachers, and 2700 paraprofessionals. Administrative data for the students with ASD served by participating teachers will be examined. A total of 79 regional-, district-, and school-level personnel will also participate in social network interviews. Mixed methods, including surveys, administrative data, and observational checklists, will be used to gather in-depth information about system-wide malleable factors that relate to positive teacher implementation of EBPs and student outcomes. Multi-level modeling will be used to assess system-wide malleable factors related to EBP implementation which will be linked to the trainer, teacher, and student outcomes and examined based on moderators (e.g., district size, Special Education Local Plan Area structure

  1. Perceived stress, disturbed sleep, and cognitive impairments in patients with work-related stress complaints: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Kristensen, Simon Bang; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2017-07-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often present with cognitive impairments as well as sleep disturbances. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of perceived stress and sleep disturbances in the longitudinal development in cognitive impairments in a group of patients with prolonged work-related stress (N = 60) during a period of 12 months following initial professional care-seeking. Objective cognitive impairments (neuropsychological tests) were measured on two occasions - at initial professional care-seeking and at 12-month follow-up. Questionnaires on perceived stress, sleep disturbances, and cognitive complaints were completed seven times during the 12 months which facilitated multilevel analysis with segregation of within-person (change) and between-person (baseline level) components of the time-varying predictors (perceived stress and sleep disturbances). Change in perceived stress was associated with concurrent and subsequent change in self-reported cognitive complaints over the period of 12 months and to a lesser extent the change in performance on neuropsychological tests of processing speed from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Change in sleep disturbances was also associated with concurrent and subsequent change in self-reported cognitive complaints over the 12 months but not with change on neuropsychological test performance. Although the mechanism behind the improvement in cognitive impairments in patients with work-related stress should be further explored in future studies, the results could suggest that improvement in cognitive impairments is partly mediated by decreasing levels of perceived stress and, to a lesser extent, decreasing levels of sleep disturbances. Lay summary This study examines the role of perceived stress and sleep disturbances in respect to the development of cognitive impairments (e.g. memory and concentration) in a group of patients with work-related stress. We found that change in

  2. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Multilevel Modeling: Overview and Applications to Research in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…

  4. The Dynamic Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Positive Well-Being in Older People: A Prospective Study Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Attention Development in Primary School Children with and without Teacher-Reported Symptoms of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Suades-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prospective longitudinal studies are essential in characterizing cognitive trajectories, yet few of them have been reported on the development of attention processes in children. We aimed to explore attention development in normal children and children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in a repeated measures design using the attention network test (ANT.Methods: The population sample included 2,835 children (49.6% girls aged 7–11 years from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain who performed the ANT four times from January 2012 to March 2013. According to teacher ratings, 10.5% of the children presented ADHD symptoms. We performed multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models, adjusting for school and individual, to test the effects of age-related growth on the ANT networks: alerting, orienting and executive attention, and three measurements related to attentiveness: median of hit reaction time (HRT, hit reaction time standard error (HRT-SE and variability.Results: We observed age-related growth in all the outcomes, except orienting. The curves were steeper at the younger groups, although for alertness the improvement was further at the oldest ages. Gender and ADHD symptoms interacted with age in executive attention, HRT and variability. Girls performed better in executive attention at young ages although boys reached females at around 10 years of age. For HRT, males showed faster HRT. However, girls had a more pronounced improvement and reached the levels of boys at age 11. Children with ADHD symptoms had significant differences in executive attention, HRT and variability compared to children without ADHD symptoms.Conclusions: We detected an ongoing development of some aspects of attention in primary school children, differentiating patterns by gender and ADHD symptoms. Our findings support the ANT for assessing attention processes in children in large epidemiological studies.

  6. A longitudinal study of risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation among college students: Interactions with smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Case, Kathleen R; Marti, C Nathan; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-05-01

    Recent data suggest that lower perceived risks of e-cigarettes are associated with e-cigarette use in young adults; however, the temporality of this relationship is not well-understood. We explore how perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness of e-cigarettes influence e-cigarette initiation, and specifically whether this association varies by cigarette smoking status, in a longitudinal study of tobacco use on college campuses. Data are from a 5-wave 24-college study in Texas. Only students who reported never using e-cigarettes at wave 1 were included (n = 2565). Multilevel discrete-time hazard models, accounting for school clustering, were used. The dependent variable, ever e-cigarette use, was assessed at each wave. Both time-varying (e-cigarette perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness, age, use of cigarettes, use of other tobacco products, and use of other substances) and time-invariant demographic covariates were included. Two-way interactions between each e-cigarette perception variable and current conventional cigarette use were tested to determine if the hypothesized relationship differed among smokers and non-smokers. 21% of all never e-cigarette users at baseline had initiated e-cigarette ever use by wave 5. Significant two-way interactions qualified the relationship between risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation. Specifically, perceptions of a lower degree of harmfulness (OR = 1.13, p = .047) and addictiveness (OR = 1.34, p risk of e-cigarettes contributes to subsequent e-cigarette initiation among non-smokers, but not among current smokers. have implications for prevention campaigns focusing on the potential harm of e-cigarettes for non-smoking college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Chi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Design. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012 for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions

  8. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  9. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  10. Multi-level policies and adaptive social networks – a conceptual modeling study for maintaining a polycentric governance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Mathias

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information and collaboration patterns embedded in social networks play key roles in multilevel and polycentric modes of governance. However, modeling the dynamics of such social networks in multilevel settings has been seldom addressed in the literature. Here we use an adaptive social network model to elaborate the interplay between a central and a local government in order to maintain a polycentric governance. More specifically, our analysis explores in what ways specific policy choices made by a central agent affect the features of an emerging social network composed of local organizations and local users. Using two types of stylized policies, adaptive co-management and adaptive one-level management, we focus on the benefits of multi-level adaptive cooperation for network management. Our analysis uses viability theory to explore and to quantify the ability of these policies to achieve specific network properties. Viability theory gives the family of policies that enables maintaining the polycentric governance unlike optimal control that gives a unique blueprint. We found that the viability of the policies can change dramatically depending on the goals and features of the social network. For some social networks, we also found a very large difference between the viability of the adaptive one-level management and adaptive co-management policies. However, results also show that adaptive co-management doesn’t always provide benefits. Hence, we argue that applying viability theory to governance networks can help policy design by analyzing the trade-off between the costs of adaptive co-management and the benefits associated with its ability to maintain desirable social network properties in a polycentric governance framework.

  11. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2000-02-01

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol.

  12. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Fast, Patton L. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)

    2000-02-15

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Study and Analysis of a Natural Reference Frame Current Controller for a Multi-Level H-Bridge Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, P.

    2008-01-01

    will be needed in order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid with an increased level of renewable power. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents an analysis of the natural...... reference frame controller, based on proportional-resonant (PR) technique, for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network. The proposed method is tested in terms of harmonic content in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), voltage...

  14. Association between body mass index and individual characteristics and the school context: a multilevel study with Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael S. Henrique

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual and school context characteristics with the body mass index of Portuguese children. Methods: The sample comprised 1641 children (847 boys aged 6–10 years from the North and Central regions of Portugal. Regarding the individual characteristics, age, gender, city of residence, levels of physical activity, and physical fitness were assessed. Concerning the school context characteristics, the surrounding environment, school size, presence of recreational characteristics and space, and presence of a sports court and of physical education classes were considered. Children's body mass index was the dependent variable. The multilevel analysis was carried out in HLM 7.0 software. Results: The predictors of the child and the school context explained, respectively, 97.3% and 2.7% of the total body mass index variance. Regarding the individual characteristics, older children, boys, and those who had lower performance at the 1‐mile run/walk, curl‐up, push‐up, and higher performance in trunk lift tests showed higher BMI. Further, urban schools with higher recreational spaces were positively associated with children's body mass index. Conclusion: School context variables have a reduced effect on body mass index variation compared to the children's biological and behavioral characteristics. The authors therefore encourage strategies that aim to increasing children's physical fitness levels to help prevent excess weight. Resumo: Objetivo: Examinar a associação de características individuais e do contexto escolar no índice de massa corporal de crianças portuguesas. Método: A amostra compreendeu 1.641 crianças (847 meninos de 6 a 10 anos. Em relação às características individuais foram utilizadas informações relativas ao sexo, à idade, à residência, à atividade física e à aptidão física. Em termos de contexto escolar, foram considerados o meio ambiente

  15. Improving urban African Americans' blood pressure control through multi-level interventions in the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Patti L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Roter, Debra L; Bone, Lee R; Wolff, Jennifer L; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Levine, David M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Cooper, Lisa A; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie J; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Albert, Michael C; Monroe, Dwyan; Simmons, Michelle; Hickman, Debra; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Matens, Richard; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Ameling, Jessica M; Charlston, Jeanne; Sam, Tanyka S; Carson, Kathryn A; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Crews, Deidra C; Greer, Raquel C; Sneed, Valerie; Flynn, Sarah J; DePasquale, Nicole; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-07-01

    Given their high rates of uncontrolled blood pressure, urban African Americans comprise a particularly vulnerable subgroup of persons with hypertension. Substantial evidence has demonstrated the important role of family and community support in improving patients' management of a variety of chronic illnesses. However, studies of multi-level interventions designed specifically to improve urban African American patients' blood pressure self-management by simultaneously leveraging patient, family, and community strengths are lacking. We report the protocol of the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study, a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effectiveness of interventions that engage patient, family, and community-level resources to facilitate urban African American hypertensive patients' improved hypertension self-management and subsequent hypertension control. African American patients with uncontrolled hypertension receiving health care in an urban primary care clinic will be randomly assigned to receive 1) an educational intervention led by a community health worker alone, 2) the community health worker intervention plus a patient and family communication activation intervention, or 3) the community health worker intervention plus a problem-solving intervention. All participants enrolled in the study will receive and be trained to use a digital home blood pressure machine. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will be patients' blood pressure control at 12months. Results from the ACT study will provide needed evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive multi-level interventions to improve urban African American patients' hypertension control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  17. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  18. Trajectory of social isolation following hip fracture: an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toby O; Dainty, Jack R; MacGregor, Alex

    2018-01-01

    social isolation is defined as a lack of meaningful and sustained communication or interactions with social networks. There is limited understanding on the prevalence of social isolation and loneliness in people following hip fracture and no previous understanding of how this changes over time. to determine the prevalence and trajectory of social isolation and loneliness before a hip fracture, during the recovery phase and a minimum of 2 years post-hip fracture in an English population. data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort (2004/5-2014/15). The sample comprised of 215 participants who had sustained a hip fracture. Measures of social isolation and loneliness were analysed through multilevel modelling to determine their trajectories during three-time intervals (pre-fracture; interval at hip fracture and recovery; minimum 2 years post-fracture). The prevalence of social isolation and loneliness were determined pre- and post-fracture. prevalence of social isolation was 19% post-hip fracture and loneliness 13% post-hip fracture. There was no statistically significant change in social isolation pre-fracture compared to a minimum of 2 years post-fracture (P = 0.78). Similarly, there was no statistically significant change in loneliness pre-fracture compared to a minimum of 2 years post-fracture (P = 0.12). this analysis has determined that whilst social isolation and loneliness do not change over time following hip fracture, these remain a significant problem for this population. Interventions are required to address these physical and psychological health needs. This is important as they may have short and longer term health benefits for people post-hip fracture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonel C; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J E

    2016-04-06

    Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners' mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, and (3) to test the incremental effect of perceptions of the correctional climate on mental health symptoms. Data were obtained from a sample of 75 youths (aged 17 to 22 years) detained in a Portuguese young offender prison. Data were gathered 1, 3, and 6 months after their admission in this facility. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological variables were collected. Mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate were assessed through self-report assessment tools. Linear and logistic (multi-level) regressions and tests for differences between means were performed to analyze the data. Overall, mental health symptoms marginally declined by the sixth month in prison. Prisoners with a history of mental health treatment were more likely to have increased symptoms. Higher levels of mental health symptoms were associated with a history of mental health treatment, remand status, and a lower educational level. Better perceptions of the correctional climate were associated with Black race and participation in prison activities. A negative perception of the correctional climate was the strongest covariate of young prisoners' mental health symptoms and had incremental validity over that of personal variables. The results highlight that both characteristics of the prisoners and of the prison environment influence young prisoners' mental health. Prison management can try to reduce young prisoners' mental health problems by developing scientific procedures for their mental

  20. Gender Differences in Scientific Literacy of HKPISA 2006: A Multidimensional Differential Item Functioning and Multilevel Mediation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan Yin

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gender differences of 15-year-old students on scientific literacy and their impacts on students’ motivation to pursue science education and careers (Future-oriented Science Motivation) in Hong Kong. The data for this study was collected from the Program for International Student Assessment in Hong Kong (HKPISA). It was carried out in 2006. A total of 4,645 students were randomly selected from 146 secondary schools including government, aided and private schools by two-stage stratified sampling method for the assessment. HKPISA 2006, like most of other large-scale international assessments, presents its assessment frameworks in multidimensional subscales. To fulfill the requirements of this multidimensional assessment framework, this study deployed new approaches to model and investigate gender differences in cognitive and affective latent traits of scientific literacy by using multidimensional differential item functioning (MDIF) and multilevel mediation (MLM). Compared with mean score difference t-test, MDIF improves the precision of each subscales measure at item level and the gender differences in science performance can be accurately estimated. In the light of Eccles et al (1983) Expectancy-value Model of Achievement-related Choices (Eccles’ Model), MLM examines the pattern of gender effects on Future-oriented Science Motivation mediated through cognitive and affective factors. As for MLM investigation, Single-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (Single-Group CFA) was used to confirm the applicability and validity of six affective factors which was, originally prepared by OECD. These six factors are Science Self-concept, Personal Value of Science, Interest in Science Learning, Enjoyment of Science Learning, Instrumental Motivation to Learn Science and Future-oriented Science Motivation. Then, Multiple Group CFA was used to verify measurement invariance of these factors across gender groups. The results of

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Although motivation has been one of the most commonly studied subjects in second and foreign language learning in recent decades, it still remains an enigma for learners and teachers. This longitudinal study aimed to follow a student (N = 1) studying German in both second and foreign language environment for three years. The study was descriptive,…

  2. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  3. Racism, ethnic density and psychological well-being through adolescence: evidence from the Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, r...

  4. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  5. The role of team climate in improving the quality of chronic care delivery: a longitudinal study among professionals working with chronically ill adolescents in transitional care programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Nieboer, Anna P

    2014-05-22

    This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of implementing transition programmes in improving the quality of chronic care delivery and (2) identify the predictive role of (changes in) team climate on the quality of chronic care delivery over time. This longitudinal study was undertaken with professionals working in hospitals and rehabilitation units that participated in the transition programme 'On Your Own Feet Ahead!' in the Netherlands. A total of 145/180 respondents (80.6%) filled in the questionnaire at the beginning of the programme (T1), and 101/173 respondents (58.4%) did so 1 year later at the end of the programme (T2). A total of 90 (52%) respondents filled in the questionnaire at both time points. Two-tailed, paired t tests were used to investigate improvements over time and multilevel analyses to investigate the predictive role of (changes in) team climate on the quality of chronic care delivery. Transition programme. Quality of chronic care delivery measured with the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care Short version (ACIC-S). The overall ACIC-S score at T1 was 5.90, indicating basic or intermediate support for chronic care delivery. The mean ACIC-S score at T2 significantly improved to 6.70, indicating advanced support for chronic care. After adjusting for the quality of chronic care delivery at T1 and significant respondents' characteristics, multilevel regression analyses showed that team climate at T1 (pteam climate (pteam climate to enhance the quality of chronic care delivery to chronically ill adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Age-related slowing of digit symbol substitution revisited: what do longitudinal age changes reflect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    A previous investigation reported that cross-sectional age differences in Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) test performance reflect declines in perceptual processing speed. Support for the tenability of the processing speed hypothesis requires examining whether longitudinal age-related change in DSS performance is largely mediated by changes in speed. The present study used data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine patterns and predictors of longitudinal change in DSS for 512 older adults (M(age) = 68.37 years, SD = 7.43). On the basis of multilevel modeling, baseline DSS performance was poorer for older participants and men, with longitudinal declines more pronounced with increasing age and decreasing speed. In contrast to the present cross-sectional findings, statistical control of change trajectories in perceptual speed using the same data did not substantially attenuate age changes. These discrepancies suggest different sources of variance may underlie cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal age changes for DSS.

  7. Multilevel Cultural Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Fischer, Ronald; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-level structures are omnipresent. Consumers live in geographical locations, shop in specific stores, or are members of clubs. Consumers who belong to the same group share characteristics and are expected to be more similar than consumers belonging to another group. In data analysis this

  8. Handbook of multilevel analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leeuw, Jan de; Meijer, Erik

    2008-01-01

    ... appropriate and efficient model-based methods have become available to deal with this issue, that we have come to appreciate the power that more complex models provide for describing the world and providing new insights. This book sets out to present some of the most recent developments in what has come to be known as multilevel modelling. An...

  9. A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; San Miguel, Claudia; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica M

    2012-02-01

    In 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating violence as potential consequences of violent video game exposure using well-validated clinical outcome measures and controlling for other relevant predictors of youth aggression. A sample of 165, mainly Hispanic youth, were tested at 3 intervals, an initial interview, and 1-year and 3-year intervals. Results indicated that exposure to video game violence was not related to any of the negative outcomes. Depression, antisocial personality traits, exposure to family violence and peer influences were the best predictors of aggression-related outcomes. The current study supports a growing body of evidence pointing away from video game violence use as a predictor of youth aggression. Public policy efforts, including funding, would best be served by redirecting them toward other prevention programs for youth violence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sang, B.; Deng, X.; Luan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion

  11. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  12. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  13. Multi-level Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Study of Ring Opening Process of Guanine Damage by Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Qiong; Niu, Meixing; Wang, Dunyou

    2017-08-10

    Combining multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics with an explicit water model, we investigated the ring opening process of guanine damage by hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution. The detailed, atomic-level ring-opening mechanism along the reaction pathway was revealed in aqueous solution at the CCSD(T)/MM levels of theory. The potentials of mean force in aqueous solution were calculated at both the DFT/MM and CCSD(T)/MM levels of the theory. Our study found that the aqueous solution has a significant effect on this reaction in solution. In particular, by comparing the geometries of the stationary points between in gas phase and in aqueous solution, we found that the aqueous solution has a tremendous impact on the torsion angles much more than on the bond lengths and bending angles. Our calculated free-energy barrier height 31.6 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T)/MM level of theory agrees well with the one obtained based on gas-phase reaction profile and free energies of solvation. In addition, the reaction path in gas phase was also mapped using multi-level quantum mechanics theories, which shows a reaction barrier at 19.2 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T) level of theory, agreeing very well with a recent ab initio calculation result at 20.8 kcal/mol.

  14. Differences in within- and between-person factor structure of positive and negative affect: analysis of two intensive measurement studies using multilevel structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Jonathan; Hofer, Scott M

    2014-06-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of emotional experience. The factor structure of the PANAS has been examined predominantly with cross-sectional designs, which fails to disaggregate within-person variation from between-person differences. There is still uncertainty as to the factor structure of positive and negative affect and whether they constitute 2 distinct independent factors. The present study examined the within-person and between-person factor structure of the PANAS in 2 independent samples that reported daily affect over 7 and 14 occasions, respectively. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor structure at both the within-person and between-person levels, with correlated specific factors for overlapping items, provided good model fit. The best-fitting solution was one where within-person factors of positive and negative affect were inversely correlated, but between-person factors were independent. The structure was further validated through multilevel structural equation modeling examining the effects of cognitive interference, daily stress, physical symptoms, and physical activity on positive and negative affect factors.

  15. Comparison of titanium and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in the surgical treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a prospective, randomized, control study with over 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Xinwei; Lu, Xuhua; Yang, Lili; Yang, Haisong; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Deyu

    2013-07-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with titanium- or polyetheretherketone (PEEK)-cage reconstruction is widely used in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). This study was to compare outcomes of titanium and PEEK cages in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Between November 2002 and December 2004, a total of 80 patients with 3-level CSM were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to titanium group and PEEK group. The overall follow-up period of the patients ranged from 86 to 116 months (average 99.7 months). Clinical and radiological results were compared between titanium group and PEEK group. At the final follow-up, the clinical outcomes including JOA score, NDI score, and the excellent and good rates of clinical outcomes in the PEEK group were better than those in the titanium group. More loss of the Cobb angles and the intervertebral height was observed in the titanium group, resulting in the radiological parameters in the titanium group becoming inferior to the PEEK group at the final follow-up. Cage subsidence rates were 34.5 and 5.4% in the titanium and PEEK groups, respectively. Fusion was observed in all patients of two groups at the final follow-up. Two patients presented with cage dislocation without clinical symptoms in the titanium group. In surgical treatment of multilevel CSM, PEEK cage is superior to titanium cage in maintenance of intervertebral height and cervical lordosis, resulting in better clinical outcomes in the long-term follow-up.

  16. Nurses' practice environment and satisfaction with schedule flexibility is related to intention to leave due to dissatisfaction: A multi-country, multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Lindqvist, Rikard; Westerlund, Hugo; Runesdotter, Sara; Smeds Alenius, Lisa; Tishelman, Carol

    2016-06-01

    Nursing turnover is a major issue for health care managers, notably during the global nursing workforce shortage. Despite the often hierarchical structure of the data used in nursing studies, few studies have investigated the impact of the work environment on intention to leave using multilevel techniques. Also, differences between intentions to leave the current workplace or to leave the profession entirely have rarely been studied. The aim of the current study was to investigate how aspects of the nurse practice environment and satisfaction with work schedule flexibility measured at different organisational levels influenced the intention to leave the profession or the workplace due to dissatisfaction. Multilevel models were fitted using survey data from the RN4CAST project, which has a multi-country, multilevel, cross-sectional design. The data analysed here are based on a sample of 23,076 registered nurses from 2020 units in 384 hospitals in 10 European countries (overall response rate: 59.4%). Four levels were available for analyses: country, hospital, unit, and individual registered nurse. Practice environment and satisfaction with schedule flexibility were aggregated and studied at the unit level. Gender, experience as registered nurse, full vs. part-time work, as well as individual deviance from unit mean in practice environment and satisfaction with work schedule flexibility, were included at the individual level. Both intention to leave the profession and the hospital due to dissatisfaction were studied. Regarding intention to leave current workplace, there is variability at both country (6.9%) and unit (6.9%) level. However, for intention to leave the profession we found less variability at the country (4.6%) and unit level (3.9%). Intention to leave the workplace was strongly related to unit level variables. Additionally, individual characteristics and deviance from unit mean regarding practice environment and satisfaction with schedule flexibility were

  17. A Service Member's Self in Transition : A Longitudinal Case Study Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a narrative approach with a dialogical framework, a longitudinal case study is presented that describes a service member's self in transition from active service into the civilian population. An analysis and interpretation of the case study leads to the hypothesis that if a dominant

  18. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study

  19. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  20. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  1. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  3. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  4. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors : A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374886970; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors.

  5. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  6. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  7. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  8. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the

  9. Longitudinal Examination of Aggression and Study Skills from Middle to High School: Implications for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. Methods: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  11. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  12. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  13. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  14. The Need for Large-Scale, Longitudinal Empirical Studies in Middle Level Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Steven B.; Caskey, Micki M.; Flowers, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes and discusses the ongoing need for large-scale, longitudinal, empirical research studies focused on middle grades education. After a statement of the problem and concerns, the essay describes and critiques several prior middle grades efforts and research studies. Recommendations for future research efforts to inform policy…

  15. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  16. Empathy and Extracurricular Involvement in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Flege, Matthew; Thompson, Martie P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Perspective Taking subscale scores for male college students in a 2008-2011 longitudinal study at a large public university in the Southeast. Findings suggest that empathy is amenable to change among college males in the period of emerging adulthood. Through repeated measures analyses…

  17. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being Among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Meerkerk, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15

  18. Serum albumin and muscle strength: a longitudinal study in older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, B.W.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Visser, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether low serum albumin is associated with low muscle strength and future decline in muscle strength in community-dwelling older men and women. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred seventy-six women

  19. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  20. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  1. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...) of the U.S. Department of Education (ED), is a survey that focuses on children's early school... child assessments. Like its sister study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of..., early learning, and school progress, drawing together information from multiple sources to provide rich...

  2. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  3. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P.; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M[subscript age] 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed…

  4. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  5. Implications of Attrition in a Longitudinal Web-Based Survey: An Examination of College Students Participating in a Tobacco Use Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bennett; Haardoerfer, Regine; Windle, Michael; Goodman, Michael; Berg, Carla

    2017-10-16

    Web-based survey research has several benefits, including low cost and burden, as well as high use of the Internet, particularly among young adults. In the context of longitudinal studies, attrition raises concerns regarding the validity of data, given the potential associations with individual and institutional characteristics, or the focal area of study (eg, cigarette use). The objective of this study was to compare baseline characteristics of nonresponders versus responders in a sample of young adult college students in a Web-based longitudinal study regarding tobacco use. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 3189 college students from seven Georgia colleges and universities in a 2-year longitudinal study. We examined baseline tobacco use, as well as individual- and institutional-level factors, as predictors of attrition between wave 1 (October and November 2014) and wave 2 (February and March 2015) using multilevel modeling. Results: A total 13.14% (419/3189) participants were lost to follow-up at wave 2. Predictors of nonresponse were similar in the models examining individual-level factors and institutional-level factors only and included being black versus white (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, CI 1.23-2.46); being male versus female (OR 1.41, CI 1.10-1.79); seeking a bachelor's degree versus advanced degree (OR 1.41, CI 1.09-1.83); not residing on campus (OR 0.62, CI 0.46-0.84); past 30-day tobacco use (OR 1.41, CI 1.10-1.78); attending a nonprivate college (OR 0.48, CI 0.33-0.71); and attending a college with ≤10,000 students (OR 0.56, CI 0.43-0.73). Future longitudinal studies should assess predictors of attrition to examine how survey topic and other individual and institutional factors might influence the response to allow for correction of selection bias. ©Bennett McDonald, Regine Haardoerfer, Michael Windle, Michael Goodman, Carla Berg. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 16.10.2017.

  6. Is organizational justice climate at the workplace associated with individual-level quality of care and organizational affective commitment? A multi-level, cross-sectional study on dentistry in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether organizational justice climate at the workplace level is associated with individual staff members' perceptions of care quality and affective commitment to the workplace. The study adopts a cross-sectional multi-level design. Data were collected using an electronic survey and a response rate of 75% was obtained. Organizational justice climate and affective commitment to the workplace were measured by items from Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and quality of care by three self-developed items. Non-managerial staff working at dental clinics with at least five respondents (n = 900 from 68 units) was included in analyses. A set of Level-2 random intercept models were built to predict individual-level organizational affective commitment and perceived quality of care from unit-level organizational justice climate, controlling for potential confounding by group size, gender, age, and occupation. The results of the empty model showed substantial between-unit variation for both affective commitment (ICC-1 = 0.17) and quality of care (ICC-1 = 0.12). The overall results showed that the shared perception of organizational justice climate at the clinical unit level was significantly associated with perceived quality of care and affective commitment to the organization (p Organizational justice climate at work unit level explained all variation in affective commitment among dental clinics and was associated with both the individual staff members' affective commitment and perceived quality of care. These findings suggest a potential for that addressing organizational justice climate may be a way to promote quality of care and enhancing affective commitment. However, longitudinal studies are needed to support causality in the examined relationships. Intervention research is also recommended to probe the effectiveness of actions increasing unit-level organizational justice climate and test their impact on quality of care

  7. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  8. A micromechanical study of porous composites under longitudinal shear and transverse normal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of porous unidirectional composites under transverse normal and longitudinal shear loading is studied using the finite element analysis. The 3D model includes discrete and random distribution of fibers and voids. The micromechanical failure mechanisms are taken into account....... Finally, the computational prediction of the porous composite in the transverse normal-longitudinal shear stress space is obtained and compared with Puck's model. The results show that both interfaces with low fracture toughness and microvoids with even small void volume fraction can significantly reduce...

  9. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid at 3 months of age. Conclusions: Plasma levels of several small, polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid....

  10. A Comparative Study on Fatigue Life Optimization of the Intersection between a Longitudinal and a Webframe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk-Sørensen, Martin

    1996-01-01

    to improve the design. A new improved slot for the longitudinal intersection in the web plate is found on the basis of a shape optimization of the conventional slot. The new slot has an unique shape (tongue form) resulting in a stress relaxation around the slot. Both the conventional and the new slot...... structure were analyzed by FEM followed by fatigue life calculations and subsequently compared. The overall expected fatigue life for the shape optimized slot will increase by approximately 12 %. The results were compared with an another study concerning a slot for a T-longitudinal....

  11. Three-level multilevel growth models for nested change data: a guide for group treatment researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Illing, Vanessa; Joyce, Anthony S; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2009-07-01

    Researchers have known for years about the negative impact on Type I error rates caused by dependencies in hierarchically nested and longitudinal data. Despite this, group treatment researchers do not consistently use methods such as multilevel models (MLMs) to assess dependence and appropriately analyse their nested data. The goals of this study are to review some of the study design issues with regard to hierarchically nested and longitudinal data, discuss MLMs for assessing and handling dependence in data, and present a guide for developing a three-level growth MLM that is appropriate for group treatment data, design, and research questions. The authors present an example from group treatment research to illustrate these issues and methods.

  12. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman's work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  14. The Relation between Mastery Goals and Intrinsic Motivation among University Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Sonja; Reindl, Marion; Dresel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The present work broadens previous research on students' mastery goals and intrinsic motivation by exploring their reciprocal effects using a longitudinal approach. To this end, a study using four measurement points was conducted during 10 weeks of one semester. The sample comprised 1156 students enrolled in psychology courses at a medium-sized…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  16. Basic Aspects of Infant-Grandparent "Interaction": An Eight-Month Longitudinal and Naturalistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…

  17. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  18. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  19. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  20. Variations in Student Perceptions of Service Quality of Higher Education Institutions in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Domingos Fernandes; dos Santos, Guido Salvi; Castro, Felipe Nalon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, through a longitudinal study, undergraduate student perceptions of service expectations, priorities and quality of the higher education institution that they attend, using an importance-performance rating matrix. Design/methodology/approach: This research was carried out with students exposed to a…

  1. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control

  2. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  3. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  4. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  5. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  6. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  7. What Happens to a Nursing Home Chain When Private Equity Takes Over? A Longitudinal Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Harrington, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5

  8. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  9. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Laterality Expression and Teacher Evaluation of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Sarah S.

    1978-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study conducted to assess the incidence of mixed laterality in elementary school children showed that thirty-seven percent of the eighty-two subjects had mixed laterality. No relationship was found between perceptual motor and academic achievement as measured by teacher ratings and mixed laterality. (MF)

  11. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  12. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING AFTER TREATMENT FOR CANCER OF THE CERVIX - A COMPARATIVE AND LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULTZ, WCMW; VANDEWIEL, HBM; BOUMA, J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six couples participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of sexual functioning before and after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix. Sexual functioning was measured on admission prior to their treatment and at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up and made operational in terms of current sexual

  13. Changes in Domain Specific Self-Perception amongst Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…

  14. Predictors of Reading Skills for Kindergartners and First Grade Students in Spanish: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…

  15. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  16. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  17. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  18. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  19. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  20. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…