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Sample records for longitudinal descriptive study

  1. A descriptive longitudinal study protocol: recurrence and pregnancy post-repair of obstetric fistula in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamou, Alexandre; Delvaux, Therese; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Levêque, Alain; Zhang, Wei-Hong; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-10-10

    Obstetric fistula is a serious medical condition which affects women in low income countries. Despite the progress of research on fistula, there is little data on long term follow-up after surgical repair. The objective of this study is to analyse the factors associated with the recurrence of fistula and the outcomes of pregnancy following fistula repair in Guinea. A descriptive longitudinal study design will be used. The study will include women who underwent fistula repair between 2012 and 2015 at 3 fistula repair sites supported by the Fistula Care Project in Guinea (Kissidougou Prefectoral Hospital, Labé Regional Hospital and Jean Paul II Hospital of Conakry). Participants giving an informed consent after a home visit by the Fistula Counsellors will be interviewed for enrolment at least 3 months after hospital discharge The study enrolment period is January 1, 2012 - June 30, 2015. Participants will be followed-up until June 30, 2016 for a maximum follow up period of 48 months. The sample size is estimated at 364 women. The cumulative incidence rates of fistula recurrence and pregnancy post-repair will be calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and the risk factor analyses will be performed using adjusted Cox regression. The outcomes of pregnancy will be analysed using proportions, the Pearson's Chi Square (χ2) and a logistic regression with associations reported as risk ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. All analyses will be done using STATA version 13 (STATA Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) with a level of significance set at P < 0.05. This study will contribute to improving the prevention and management of obstetric fistula within the community and support advocacy efforts for the social reintegration of fistula patients into their communities. It will also guide policy makers and strategic planning for fistula programs. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02686957 . Registered 12 February 2016 (Retrospectively registered).

  2. Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staedke Sarah G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. Methods All households in a geographically defined area were enumerated and mapped. Probability sampling was used to recruit a representative sample of children and collect baseline descriptive data for future longitudinal studies. Results 16,172 residents living in 4931 households in a densely-populated community (18,824 persons/km2 were enumerated. A total of 582 households were approached with at least one child less than 10 years of age in order to recruit 601 children living in 322 households. At enrollment, 19% were parasitaemic, 24% were anaemic, 43% used bednets, and 6% used insecticide-treated nets. Low G6PD activity (OR = 0.33, P = 0.009 and bednet use (OR = 0.64, P = 0.045 were associated with a decreased risk of parasitaemia. Increasing age (OR = 0.62 for each year, P Conclusion Detailed surveys of target populations in urban Africa can provide valuable descriptive data and provide a sampling frame for recruitment of representative cohorts for longitudinal studies. Plans to use a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the understanding of the distribution and determinants of malaria incidence and response to therapy in this population are discussed.

  3. Disease management programs for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Germany: a longitudinal population-based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, Michael; Donnachie, Ewan; Bonke, Florian Cornelius; Werner, Christoph; Schneider, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the disease management program (DMP) for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 is to improve the quality of health care and the treatment process. 12 years after its introduction in Germany, there is still no consensus as to whether DMP has been effective in reaching these goals. A retrospective longitudinal population-based study between 2004 and 2015 were conducted to evaluate the DMP for type 2 diabetes in Bavaria using routinely collected patient medical records hold from the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians of Bavaria. During the first 12 years of DMP, the number of participants increased continually to reach 580,222 in 2015. The proportion of participants older than 70 years increased during the observation from 41.6 to 51.1%. The percentage of smokers increased slightly from 9 to 11%. Similarly, the distribution of body mass index remained constant with approximately 50% of patients having a body mass index >30 kg/m 2 . Control of HbA1c was without an appreciable change over the course, with between 8.3 and 9.4% of all patients with uncontrolled values higher than 8.5%. Prescription of metformin increased from 40.5% in 2004 to 54.1% in 2015. Among patients receiving insulin, the proportion receiving a combined therapy with metformin increased from 28.4% in 2004 to 50.8% in 2015. In contrast, the percentage with insulin monotherapy decreased from 55.4 to 33.7%. The proportion of patients with a diabetic education increased within the course from 12.8 to 29.3%. Data from the German DMP for type 2 diabetes demonstrates an improvement in the quality of care with respect to pharmacotherapy and patient education and therefore to an improved adherence to guidelines. However, no appreciable improvement was observed with regard to smoking status, obesity or HbA1c control.

  4. Changes in the Oral Environment after Placement of Fixed Orthodontic Appliance for the Treatment of Malocclusion - a Descriptive Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanishree, T; Panchmal, Ganesh Shenoy; Shenoy, Rekha; Jodalli, Praveen; Sonde, Laxminarayan; Kundapur, Nagaraj

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes of salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, total antioxidant capacity and changes in streptococci and lactobacilli counts at baseline, 1 month and 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment. An unstimulated salivary sample was collected from 30 out of 43 patients who were in need of fixed orthodontic treatment (mean age 17.8 ± 5.01 years). Salivary samples were collected from the patients before the placement of fixed orthodontic appliance (Gemini MBT 0223M) at 1 month and 6 months following start of the treatment. Samples were tested for significant changes in flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, total antioxidant capacity and streptococci and lactobacilli counts. Results were compared using ANOVA. The study results showed that orthodontic appliances significantly changed the unstimulated salivary flow rate (p orthodontic appliance resulted in a significant increase in unstimulated salivary flow rate and lactobacilli counts, whereas buffering capacity decreased significantly during the study period.

  5. Predictive ability of an early diagnostic guess in patients presenting with chest pain; a longitudinal descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, François; Junod, Michel; Herzig, Lilli; Vaucher, Paul; Burnand, Bernard; Bischoff, Thomas; Pécoud, Alain; Favrat, Bernard

    2010-02-21

    The intuitive early diagnostic guess could play an important role in reaching a final diagnosis. However, no study to date has attempted to quantify the importance of general practitioners' (GPs) ability to correctly appraise the origin of chest pain within the first minutes of an encounter. The validation study was nested in a multicentre cohort study with a one year follow-up and included 626 successive patients who presented with chest pain and were attended by 58 GPs in Western Switzerland. The early diagnostic guess was assessed prior to a patient's history being taken by a GP and was then compared to a diagnosis of chest pain observed over the next year. Using summary measures clustered at the GP's level, the early diagnostic guess was confirmed by further investigation in 51.0% (CI 95%; 49.4% to 52.5%) of patients presenting with chest pain. The early diagnostic guess was more accurate in patients with a life threatening illness (65.4%; CI 95% 64.5% to 66.3%) and in patients who did not feel anxious (62.9%; CI 95% 62.5% to 63.3%). The predictive abilities of an early diagnostic guess were consistent among GPs. The GPs early diagnostic guess was correct in one out of two patients presenting with chest pain. The probability of a correct guess was higher in patients with a life-threatening illness and in patients not feeling anxious about their pain.

  6. Predictive ability of an early diagnostic guess in patients presenting with chest pain; a longitudinal descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischoff Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intuitive early diagnostic guess could play an important role in reaching a final diagnosis. However, no study to date has attempted to quantify the importance of general practitioners' (GPs ability to correctly appraise the origin of chest pain within the first minutes of an encounter. Methods The validation study was nested in a multicentre cohort study with a one year follow-up and included 626 successive patients who presented with chest pain and were attended by 58 GPs in Western Switzerland. The early diagnostic guess was assessed prior to a patient's history being taken by a GP and was then compared to a diagnosis of chest pain observed over the next year. Results Using summary measures clustered at the GP's level, the early diagnostic guess was confirmed by further investigation in 51.0% (CI 95%; 49.4% to 52.5% of patients presenting with chest pain. The early diagnostic guess was more accurate in patients with a life threatening illness (65.4%; CI 95% 64.5% to 66.3% and in patients who did not feel anxious (62.9%; CI 95% 62.5% to 63.3%. The predictive abilities of an early diagnostic guess were consistent among GPs. Conclusions The GPs early diagnostic guess was correct in one out of two patients presenting with chest pain. The probability of a correct guess was higher in patients with a life-threatening illness and in patients not feeling anxious about their pain.

  7. Nutrition as a determinant of successful aging: description of the Quebec longitudinal study Nuage and results from cross-sectional pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, Pierrette; Morais, José A; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Khalil, Abdel; Dionne, Isabelle; Ferland, Guylaine; Fülöp, Tamàs; Jacques, Danielle; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Tessier, Daniel; Wagner, Richard; Payette, Hélène

    2007-09-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for general well being, maintenance of physical and functional capacities and prevention of chronic disease in the elderly. The 5-year longitudinal study, NuAge, was designed to assess the pivotal role of nutrition on physical and cognitive status, functional autonomy and social functioning. A cohort of 1793 men and women, selected from three age groups (68-72, 73-77, 78-82) at recruitment, has been followed annually since 2003-2004. A plurimethodological approach, including basic, clinical, epidemiologic, and social research has been used. Data on various facets of nutritional status (diet, food habits, appetite, anthropometry and body composition), and functional (muscle strength, physical activity, physical and functional capacities and performance), medical (physical, mental and cognitive health, medication) and social data (network, support, participation) are collected by questionnaires or direct measurements. Blood, urine, and saliva samples are also collected and processed for genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses and to study markers of endocrine, immune, and cognitive functions. Selected bio-psycho-social characteristics of the cohort, consumption of macronutrients, and biologic variables are presented, including the impact of intake of certain foods on total antioxidant status. Understanding the aging process as regulated by a modifiable factor such as nutrition should facilitate the development of targeted strategies for promoting successful aging.

  8. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  9. LEIR longitudinal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, S; Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015 and during 2016 there were exten-sive studies of longitudinal beam dynamics in LEIR aimedat improving extracted intensities. As the driving source oflosses early in the ramp was shown to be transverse spacecharge tune spread a significant improvement came fromflattening the beam profile to increase the bunching factorby offsetting the RF frequency from the beam revolution fre-quency. Further benefits were provided by modulating theRF frequency during capture, leading to emittance blow-upand improved reproducibility. The use of two RF cavitiesduring operation was studied to try and further increase thecaptured emittance, however after careful alignment of theRF it was found that a hard limit in the bunch heigh of approx-imately 7 MeV exists. Due to the acceptance limit there wasno operational benefit to using both cavities simultaneously

  10. Modal description of longitudinal space-charge fields in pulse-driven free-electron devices

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    Yu. Lurie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In pulsed-beam free-electron devices, longitudinal space-charge fields result in collective effects leading to an expansion of short electron bunches along their trajectory. This effect restricts an application of intense ultrashort electron pulses in free-electron radiation sources. A careful theoretical treatment is required in order to achieve an accurate description of the self-fields and the resulted electron beam dynamics. In this paper, longitudinal space-charge fields are considered in the framework of a three-dimensional, space-frequency approach. The model is based on the expansion of the total electromagnetic field (including self-fields in terms of transverse eigenmodes of the (cold cavity, in which the field is excited and propagates. The electromagnetic field, originally obtained in the model as a solution of the wave equation, is shown to satisfy also Gauss’s law. We applied the theory to derive an analytical expression for the longitudinal electric field of a pointlike charge, moving along a waveguide at a constant velocity. This enables consideration and study of the role played by different terms of the resulted expressions, such as components arising from forward and backward waves, propagating waves, and under cutoff frequencies, and so on. Possible simplifications in evaluation of longitudinal space-charge fields are discussed.

  11. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After proposing the “Deeming Rule” in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles–area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA’s soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014 and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015–2016. Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2 were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule. Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc. over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  12. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheila; Escobedo, Patricia; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Meza, Leah; Sussman, Steve

    2018-02-11

    After proposing the "Deeming Rule" in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles-area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations) at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA's soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014) and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015-2016). Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2) were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule). Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc.) over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  13. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  14. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992

  15. Descriptive studies of Purepecha: Introductory study

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    Violeta Vázquez Rojas Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven papers in this volume are the result of a collective project of linguistic description. This introduction offers a general background for such enterprise. It provides information about some sociolinguistic and grammatical aspects of the Purepecha language, a list of some recent studies on the language, it describes the orthographic conventions employed. We also provide details about the elicitation methodology and the demographic information of the language consultants.

  16. Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    1999-01-01

    We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam

  17. Statistical Power in Longitudinal Network Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadtfeld, Christoph; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; van Duijn, Marijtje

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal social network studies may easily suffer from a lack of statistical power. This is the case in particular for studies that simultaneously investigate change of network ties and change of nodal attributes. Such selection and influence studies have become increasingly popular due to the

  18. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  19. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  20. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  1. The Czech longitudinal study of optimal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 266-266 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : optimal development * Prague longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  2. Burnout development among dentists : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, H.; Smits, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  3. Recurrencias de malaria por Plasmodium vivax según el uso de primaquina: análisis de estudios descriptivos longitudinales Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence according to the use of primaquine: analysis of longitudinal descriptive studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: la primaquina (PQ es el único medicamento disponible en el mercado para prevenir recurrencias del paludismo por Plasmodium vivax pero varios aspectos suyos se desconocen. OBJETIVO: comparar regímenes de PQ para prevenir recurrencias de malaria vivax. METODOLOGÍA: revisión sistemática de datos. RESULTADOS: 1. ¿Según los estudios descriptivos, la PQ es eficaz para prevenir las recurrencias del paludismo vivax? Sí. La comparación de estudios que no usaron PQ con otros que sí la aplicaron, en cualquier esquema, mostró que si no se usa PQ la recurrencia es altamente probable. 2. ¿Tienen la misma eficacia dosis diarias (mg/kg iguales pero dosis totales diferentes? La dosis total de 75 mg es tanto o más eficaz que la de 210 mg. 3. ¿La eficacia anti-recurrencias depende del lugar donde sucede la infección? Si. Hay variación según país y región. 4. ¿La frecuencia de recurrencias depende del tiempo de seguimiento post tratamiento? La respuesta no es uniforme para todos los lugares. CONCLUSIONES: la PQ resultó eficaz para prevenir las recurrencias, pero no fue 100%. Las dosis totales de 210 y de 75 mg tuvieron igual eficacia, pero 75 mg sólo han sido evaluados en India, donde P. vivax parece ser más sensible a la PQ que en otros lugares. Parece indudable la influencia del lugar en la proporción de recurrencias, incluso con una misma dosis total. El papel del tiempo de seguimiento no resultó claro. Deben evaluarse esquemas alternativos al estándar, que tiene eficacia promedio de 90% o más.BACKGROUND: primaquine (PQ is the only drug available in the market to prevent Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence, but several aspects are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare PQ regimens to prevent recurrence of vivax malaria. METHODS: systematic review and meta-analysis of data. RESULTS: 1. According to descriptive studies, is PQ effective in preventing recurrence of vivax malaria? Yes. The comparison of studies that did not use

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Although motivation has been one of the most commonly studied subjects in second and foreign language learning in recent decades, it still remains an enigma for learners and teachers. This longitudinal study aimed to follow a student (N = 1) studying German in both second and foreign language environment for three years. The study was descriptive,…

  5. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

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    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  6. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

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    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  7. Falls among community-residing stroke survivors following inpatient rehabilitation: a descriptive analysis of longitudinal data

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    Hunsaker Amanda E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke victims are at relatively high risk for injurious falls. The purpose of this study was to document longitudinal fall patterns following inpatient rehabilitation for first-time stroke survivors. Methods Participants (n = 231 were recruited at the end of their rehab stay and interviewed monthly via telephone for 1 to 32 months regarding fall incidents. Analyses were conducted on: total reports of falls by month over time for first-time and repeat fallers, the incidence of falling in any given month; and factors differing between fallers and non fallers. Results The largest percentage of participants (14% reported falling in the first month post-discharge. After month five, less than 10% of the sample reported falling, bar months 15 (10.4% and 23 (13.2%. From months one to nine, the percentage of those reporting one fall with and without a prior fall were similar. After month nine, the number of individuals who reported a single fall with a fall history was twice as high compared to those without a prior fall who reported falling. In both cases the percentages were small. A very small subset of the population emerged who fell multiple times each month, most of whom had a prior fall history. At least a third of the sample reported a loss of balance each month. Few factors differed significantly between fallers and non-fallers in months one to six. Conclusion Longitudinal data suggest that falls most likely linked to first time strokes occur in the first six months post discharge, particularly month one. Data routinely available at discharge does not distinguish fallers from non-fallers. Once a fall incident has occurred however, preventive intervention is warranted.

  8. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on Remand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...

  11. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  13. Self-consistent Vlasov-Maxwell description of the longitudinal dynamics of intense charged particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Davidson

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a self-consistent kinetic model for the longitudinal dynamics of a long, coasting beam propagating in straight (linear geometry in the z direction in the smooth-focusing approximation. Starting with the three-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations, and integrating over the phase-space (x_{⊥},p_{⊥} transverse to beam propagation, a closed system of equations is obtained for the nonlinear evolution of the longitudinal distribution function F_{b}(z,p_{z},t and average axial electric field ⟨E_{z}^{s}⟩(z,t. The primary assumptions in the present analysis are that the dependence on axial momentum p_{z} of the distribution function f_{b}(x,p,t is factorable, and that the transverse beam dynamics remains relatively quiescent (absence of transverse instability or beam mismatch. The analysis is carried out correct to order k_{z}^{2}r_{w}^{2} assuming slow axial spatial variations with k_{z}^{2}r_{w}^{2}≪1, where k_{z}∼∂/∂z is the inverse length scale of axial variation in the line density λ_{b}(z,t=∫dp_{z}F_{b}(z,p_{z},t, and r_{w} is the radius of the conducting wall (assumed perfectly conducting. A closed expression for the average longitudinal electric field ⟨E_{z}^{s}⟩(z,t in terms of geometric factors, the line density λ_{b}, and its derivatives ∂λ_{b}/∂z,… is obtained for the class of bell-shaped density profiles n_{b}(r,z,t=(λ_{b}/πr_{b}^{2}f(r/r_{b}, where the shape function f(r/r_{b} has the form specified by f(r/r_{b}=(n+1(1-r^{2}/r_{b}^{2}^{n} for 0≤r

  14. Anxiety and its time courses during radiotherapy for non-metastatic breast cancer: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Florence; Merckaert, Isabelle; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; COUCKE, Philippe; Salamon, Emile; Razavi, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To our knowledge, no study has specifically assessed the time course of anxiety during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to assess anxiety time courses in patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Material and methods: This multicenter, descriptive longitudinal study included 213 consecutive patients with breast cancer who completed visual analog scales (VASs) assessing state anxiety before and after the RT simulation and the first and last five RT se...

  15. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  16. Descriptive epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rick W; Huston, Laura J; Spindler, Kurt P; Dunn, Warren R; Haas, Amanda K; Allen, Christina R; Cooper, Daniel E; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Lantz, Brett Brick A; Mann, Barton J; Stuart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most common mode of failure. Allograft graft choice is more common in the revision setting than autograft. Concomitant knee injury is extremely common in this population.

  17. INJURIES IN QUIDDITCH: A DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Rachel; Cooper, Ashley; Edmond, Evan; Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Michael J; Davies, Peter S E

    2017-10-01

    Quidditch is a fast growing, physically intense, mixed-gender full-contact sport. Originally adapted from Harry Potter novels, quidditch was first played in 2005 in the USA but is now played worldwide. It is essential to elucidate patterns of injury for the safety and growth of the sport of quidditch. It also provides a unique opportunity to study injury patterns in mixed-gender full-contact sport, an area of increasing importance with the developing culture of transition from single-gender to mixed-gender sports. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the types of injuries sustained while playing quidditch in terms of their incidence, anatomical distribution and severity, and gender distribution. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all active quidditch players in the UK. Data collection included player demographics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, player position, experience and treatment required, relating to the previous 12 months. A total of 348 participants of 684 eligible athletes responded to the questionnaire representing a 50.87% response rate. There were 315 injuries reported by 180 athletes in total, with an overall incidence of 4.06 injuries per 1,000 hours. A statistically significantly different rate of concussion was observed with female athletes sustaining more concussion than males (p=0.006). The overall rate of concussion was 0.651/1000hrs in males and 1.163/1000hrs in females (0.877/1000 hours overall). This study provides the first quantitative description of injury rates in quidditch. The overall injury rates are no higher than those reported in other recreational contact sports. Female athletes were found to have a higher rate of concussion, which needs further investigation. These findings are relevant to players concerned about safety in quidditch and to governing bodies regarding governance of the sport. 3b.

  18. Training the Workforce: Description of a Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Education and Mentoring Program in Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stacie; O'Mahony, Sean; Baron, Aliza; Ansari, Aziz; Deamant, Catherine; Frader, Joel; Leyva, Ileana; Marschke, Michael; Preodor, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in demand for palliative care (PC) services has led to concerns regarding workforce shortages and threats to the resiliency of PC teams. To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a regional interdisciplinary training program in PC. Thirty nurse and physician fellows representing 22 health systems across the Chicago region participated in a two-year PC training program. The curriculum was delivered through multiple conferences, self-directed e-learning, and individualized mentoring by expert local faculty (mentors). Fellows shadowed mentors' clinical practices and received guidance on designing, implementing, and evaluating a practice improvement project to address gaps in PC at their institutions. Enduring, interdisciplinary relationships were built at all levels across health care organizations. Fellows made significant increases in knowledge and self-reported confidence in adult and pediatric PC and program development skills and frequency performing these skills. Fellows and mentors reported high satisfaction with the educational program. This interdisciplinary PC training model addressed local workforce issues by increasing the number of clinicians capable of providing PC. Unique features include individualized longitudinal mentoring, interdisciplinary education, on-site project implementation, and local network building. Future research will address the impact of the addition of social work and chaplain trainees to the program. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  20. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  1. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT): Description of approach, theoretical advances, and published longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David W; Doell, Faye K; Dalton, E Jane; Ahmad, Saunia

    2008-12-01

    The systemic-constructivist approach to studying and benefiting couples was derived from qualitative and quantitative research on distressed couples over the past 10 years. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) is the clinical intervention that accompanies the approach. SCCT guides the therapist to work with both the intrapersonal and the interpersonal aspects of marriage while also integrating the social-environmental context of the couple. The theory that underlies SCCT is explained, including concepts such as we-ness and interpersonal processing. The primary components of the therapy are described. Findings described previously in an inaugural monograph containing extensive research demonstrating the long-term utility of SCCT are reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  3. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  5. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  7. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  8. A longitudinal study of tooth erosion in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidi, H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinal study aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9

  9. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  10. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  11. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  12. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  13. A Longitudinal Study Assessing the Microsoft Office Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.; McGinnis, Denise; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Snyder, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a four-year longitudinal study of the assessment process for a Microsoft Office skills course. It examines whether there is an increase in students' knowledge based on responses to pre- and post-surveys that asked students to evaluate how well they can do particular tasks. Classical classroom teaching methods were used in the…

  14. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  15. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  17. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  18. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  19. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  20. Always connected: a longitudinal field study of mobile communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the

  1. Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng

    2018-01-01

    Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  3. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  4. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  6. A prospective descriptive study of the management of miscarriages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the current management of incomplete miscarriage at Harare and Parirenyatwa Hospitals and to determine the proportion of patients with incomplete miscarriage managed with Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA), sharp curettage or medical evacuation. Design: A prospective descriptive study.

  7. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part Two: Interdisciplinary Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of interdisciplinary environmental studies courses. Topic areas of these courses include: environmental sociology; human ecology (politics, institutions, and the environment); humans and the environment in historical perspective; environmental management; humans, hazards, and disasters; and other…

  8. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part One: Historical Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Donald; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of selected environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from an historical and humanistic perspective. Areas explored in the courses include human ecology, American environmental history, environmental politics, and others. (JN)

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  10. A descriptive study of consent documentation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, K

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the error rate in the consent process of a university hospital and to illicit the opinions of the consenting doctors on the process. A prospective observational review of theatre consent forms was performed along with an anonymous survey of non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHD\\'s). No potential risks were documented in 95.3% of the 64 scrutinized consents and late alterations were required in 9%. Respondents to the NCHD survey estimated that they were unsure of the procedure or risks involved in an average of 29% of occasions. Interns admitted to being unsure of the details of the procedure in almost a third (32%) of cases, making them less well informed than their senior colleagues (p=0.024). This study highlights the difficulties encountered by consenting doctors, an issue which may lead to patient dissatisfaction, threaten the efficient running of a surgical unit and potentially expose its staff to avoidable litigation. It also recommends the use of multimedia adjuncts to facilitate both patient and doctor education in the consent process.

  11. Dysphagia in Rett Syndrome: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzedimi, Chiara; Livi, Walter; De Felice, Claudio; Cocca, Serena

    2017-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder and the second major cause of mental retardation in females. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing problems of RS patients by endoscopic assessment and compile a list of suggestions for managing feeding and preventing complications. The sample consisted of 61 female patients (mean age = 13.6 years, range, 2-33 years) admitted to the Department of Neuropsychiatry, where they had previously been diagnosed with RS. Speech evaluation associated with observation during mealtimes was useful to formulate suggestions for caregivers. Progressive deterioration of feeding was commonly noted by caregivers. Fifty-four patients had a history of recurrent episodes of bronchitis. Oral apraxia, dyskinetic tongue movements, prolonged oral stage, and poor bolus formation were the most common findings in all patients. Dysphagia was primarily limited to oral preparatory phases, while the pharyngeal phase was normal in most patients. The high percentage of dysphagia suggests the need to accurately monitor the feeding capability of RS children. It is critical to correctly inform caregivers about safe swallowing procedures to reduce the incidence of fatal complications.

  12. Longitudinal split of the posterior cruciate ligament: description of a new MR finding and evaluation of its potential clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.H. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W., E-mail: chung@amc.seoul.k [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J.W. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B.K.; Lee, S.H.; Shin, M.J. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical significance of the intra-substance longitudinal split of the posterior cruciate ligament (LS-PCL) and to evaluate its potential clinical significance on MRI. Materials and methods: The databases of two centres were searched for LS-PCL, 6917 knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations undertaken were retrospectively reviewed. LS-PCL was defined as increased signal intensity in a PCL in the longitudinal direction, but with an intact ligament outer surface on MRI. Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. Available arthroscopic results, degree of posterior knee instability, and changes in MRI findings, or the degree of instability during follow-up (FU), were reviewed from the patients medical records and via their MRI images. MRI images were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus for presence and location of LS-PCL and any combined injuries: menisci lesions, ligament injuries, and bone marrow changes. Results: Seven of 12 patients (58.3%) had morphological or functional evidence of PCL injury or insufficiency according to the change of posterior instability on FU stress testing (n = 3), insufficiency during arthroscopy (n = 2), or decreased extent and altered shape of the PCL split on the FU MRI (n = 3). One patient revealed both change of posterior instability on FU stress testing and insufficiency during arthroscopy. Combined injuries were revealed in seven patients. Five patients had isolated LS-PCL: two patients underwent arthroscopic PCL reconstructions; and another three patients revealed knee instability on stress testing. Conclusion: Although LS-PCL has not been described before, it can be a type of partial tear of the PCL, which causes PCL insufficiency.

  13. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  14. Personality, Schizophrenia, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candini, Valentina; Ghisi, Marta; Bottesi, Gioia; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bulgari, Viola; Iozzino, Laura; Boero, Maria Elena; De Francesco, Alessandra; Maggi, Paolo; Segalini, Beatrice; Zuccalli, Vanessa; Giobbio, Gian Marco; Rossi, Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2017-07-31

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the presence of clinically significant personality traits and personality disorders (PD) in patients living in residential facilities, with or without a history of violence (69 and 46, respectively); and (b) to investigate any associations between clinically significant personality traits and PDs, aggression, impulsivity, hostility, and violent behavior during a 1-year follow-up. The most frequent primary diagnoses were schizophrenia (58.3%) and PD (20.9%). Those with a history of violence demonstrated more antisocial and alcohol dependence features and lower depressive PD symptoms than the control group. Hostility levels, antisocial symptoms, and drug dependence, as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II diagnosis of PD, predicted aggressive and violent behavior during follow-up. The study confirms the relevance of assessing PDs both to evaluate the risk of violent behavior and to plan appropriate preventive and treatment intervention.

  15. Accounting for dropout reason in longitudinal studies with nonignorable dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Camille M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Forster, Jeri E; Carlson, Nichole E; Allshouse, Amanda; Wang, Xinshuo; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Conway, Brian; Connick, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Dropout is a common problem in longitudinal cohort studies and clinical trials, often raising concerns of nonignorable dropout. Selection, frailty, and mixture models have been proposed to account for potentially nonignorable missingness by relating the longitudinal outcome to time of dropout. In addition, many longitudinal studies encounter multiple types of missing data or reasons for dropout, such as loss to follow-up, disease progression, treatment modifications and death. When clinically distinct dropout reasons are present, it may be preferable to control for both dropout reason and time to gain additional clinical insights. This may be especially interesting when the dropout reason and dropout times differ by the primary exposure variable. We extend a semi-parametric varying-coefficient method for nonignorable dropout to accommodate dropout reason. We apply our method to untreated HIV-infected subjects recruited to the Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program HIV cohort and compare longitudinal CD4 + T cell count in injection drug users to nonusers with two dropout reasons: anti-retroviral treatment initiation and loss to follow-up.

  16. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  17. Plasma HVA in psychiatric patients: longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Sharma, R P; Janicak, P G; Davis, J M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) was measured in 40 inpatients (25 schizophrenic and 15 nonschizophrenic patients) who underwent up to 3 weeks of drug washout. Schizophrenic patients were then treated with trifluoperazine for 4 weeks, and weekly behavioral and pHVA measures were obtained. The baseline pHVA had no relationship to age, sex, washout period, diagnosis, or behavioral rating scores. In schizophrenic patients, the baseline pHVA did not differ significantly from any value obtained during 4 weeks of treatment. Although there was significant improvement in clinical symptoms, this was not related to changes in pHVA. Further, changes in any of the four Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) factors (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms, hostility/suspicion, or anxiety/depression) were not correlated with changes in pHVA. Although other studies have reported a positive correlation between pHVA and psychotic symptoms, results of this study suggest that any observed relationship between pHVA and psychosis must be carefully interpreted.

  18. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    investigated four different proximity markers which lead to significantly improved marker values between NC and AD after correction for whole brain and hippocampus volume. Based on the different proximity markers we have chosen the surface connectivity marker that gave the best separation to investigate......This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning....... The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...

  19. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Language Teaching and Learning: A Longitudinal Study (Creencias de profesores principiantes acerca de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de lengua: un estudio longitudinal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota Grijalva, Sofía D.; Ruiz-Esparza Barajas, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains the description of a research project that was carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English Language Teaching program at a Mexican university. The study was longitudinal and it tracked fourteen students for four semesters of the eight semester program. The aim was to identify pre-service teachers' beliefs about English…

  20. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velden, Peter G.; Bosmans, Mark W.G.; van der Meulen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE’s are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. Design A longitudinal study with a 6 months’ time ...

  1. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  2. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  3. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  4. Residents' perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents' perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident's role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents' understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  5. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Manzanaro Miriam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd (NCT01062607 aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales, adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio, quality of life (EQ-5D scale, healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale

  6. The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description, baseline findings and implications. Stephen M Tollman, Kobus Herbst, Michel Garenne, John S.S. Gear, KathJeen Kahn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  7. Project description and crowdfunding success: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi Jamie; Lu, Baozhou; Fan, Weiguo Patrick; Wang, G Alan

    2018-01-01

    Existing research on antecedent of funding success mainly focuses on basic project properties such as funding goal, duration, and project category. In this study, we view the process by which project owners raise funds from backers as a persuasion process through project descriptions. Guided by the unimodel theory of persuasion, this study identifies three exemplary antecedents (length, readability, and tone) from the content of project descriptions and two antecedents (past experience and past expertise) from the trustworthy cue of project descriptions. We then investigate their impacts on funding success. Using data collected from Kickstarter, a popular crowdfunding platform, we find that these antecedents are significantly associated with funding success. Empirical results show that the proposed model that incorporated these antecedents can achieve an accuracy of 73 % (70 % in F-measure). The result represents an improvement of roughly 14 percentage points over the baseline model based on informed guessing and 4 percentage points improvement over the mainstream model based on basic project properties (or 44 % improvement of mainstream's performance over informed guessing). The proposed model also has superior true positive and true negative rates. We also investigate the timeliness of project data and find that old project data is gradually becoming less relevant and losing predictive power to newly created projects. Overall, this study provides evidence that antecedents identified from project descriptions have incremental predictive power and can help project owners evaluate and improve the likelihood of funding success.

  8. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  9. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children......, born in 1995, who currently are or formerly have been placed in care. The first data collection was conducted in the spring 2003, where the children were 7-8 years of age. It is the intention to follow up the children every third year during childhood, adolescence, and adult life. At each new data...

  10. Leadership in transformation: a longitudinal study in a nursing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitala, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change. The empirical material was gathered in a longitudinal case study in a nursing organisation in two different historical and situational points. It consists of written narratives produced by nurse leaders that are analysed by applying discourse analysis. The empirical study revealed that the constructions of leadership were dramatically different at the two different historical and situational points. Leadership showed up as a complex, fragile and changing phenomenon, which fluctuates along with the other organisational changes. The results signal the importance of agency in leadership and the central role of "significant others". The paper questions the traditional categorisation and labelling of leadership as well as the cross-sectional studies in understanding leadership transformation. Its originality relates to the longitudinal perspective on transformation of leadership in the context of a health care organisation.

  11. Academic dishonesty among nursing students: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeci, Ayla; Bulduk, Serap; Oruç, Deniz; Çelik, Serpil

    2011-09-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aims to evaluate academic dishonesty among university nursing students in Turkey. The study's sample included 196 students. Two instruments were used for gathering data. The first instrument, a questionnaire, which included some socio-demographic variables (age, class, gender, education, family structure, parents' attitude and educators' attitude) formed the first part. The second part included the Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale developed by Eminoğlu and Nartgün. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Kruskall Wallis, One-way Anova, t- test and Mann-Whitney U test. It was found that academic dishonesty was at medium-level (2.60-3.39) in nursing students.

  12. The Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study: Protocol and sample description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Parra, Jose; Rivas, Fabio; Strohmaier, Jana; Forstner, Andreas; Streit, Fabian; Auburger, Georg; Propping, Peter; Orozco-Diaz, Guillermo; González, Maria José; Gil-Flores, Susana; Cabaleiro-Fabeiro, Francisco Javier; Del Río-Noriega, Francisco; Perez-Perez, Fermin; Haro-González, Jesus; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Mayoral, Fermin

    2017-06-12

    Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Health and aging: development of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hilary; O'Regan, Clare; Finucane, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-05-01

    To assist researchers planning studies similar to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), concerning the development of the health assessment component, to promote use of the archived data set, to inform researchers of the methods employed, and to complement the accompanying article on normative values. Prospective, longitudinal study of older adults. Republic of Ireland. Eight thousand five hundred four community-dwelling adults who participated in wave 1 of the TILDA study. The main areas of focus for the TILDA health assessments are neurocardiovascular instability, locomotion, and vision. The article describes the scientific rationale for the choice of assessments and seeks to determine the potential advantages of incorporating novel biomeasures and technologies in population-based studies to advance understanding of aging-related disorders. The detailed description of the physical measures will facilitate cross-national comparative research and put into context the normative values outlined in the subsequent article. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  15. Association between bacterial vaginosis and partner concurrency: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien; Klebanoff, Mark; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to test if there was an association between prevalent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and women reporting that their partner had other partners at the same time (partner concurrency). This association has not been assessed in a longitudinal cohort. The Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora recruited a cohort of 3620 non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years who presented for routine primary healthcare at 12 clinics in Birmingham, Alabama. Behavioural questionnaires and vaginal smears were obtained quarterly for a year and BV was defined by a Nugent score 7 or higher as well as Amsel criteria. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between prevalent BV and reporting that one's partner had other partners in the preceding 3-6 months time interval. Nugent score prevalent BV was associated with both reporting that one's partner definitely (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) and possibly (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) engaged in partner concurrency in the preceding 3-6 months time period. Prevalent BV diagnosed by Amsel criteria was similar. A diagnosis of prevalent BV was associated with reporting that one's partner possibly or definitely engaged in partner concurrency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-04-01

    The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Prospective descriptive study. In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  17. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  18. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  19. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  20. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  2. Predictors of Dental Care Use: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I.; Visotcky, Alexis (Dye); Szabo, Aniko

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine longitudinal trends and associated factors in dental service utilization by adolescents progressing to early adulthood in the United States. Data Source The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health from Waves I (1994-95), II (1996), III (2001-2002) and IV (2007-2008). Study Design This is a retrospective, observational study of adolescents' transition to early adulthood. We obtained descriptive statistics and performed logistic regression analyses to identify the effects of baseline and concurrent covariates on dental service utilization from adolescence to early adulthood over time. Principal Findings Dental service utilization within the prior 12 months peaked at age 16 (72%), gradually decreased until age 21 (57%), and thereafter remained flat. Whites and Asians had a 10-20 percentage points higher proportion of dental service utilization at most ages compared to Blacks and Hispanics. Dental service utilization at later follow-up visits was strongly associated with baseline utilization with OR= 10.7, 2.4 and 1.5 at the 1-year, 7-year and 13-year follow-ups respectively. These effects decreased when adjusted for current income, insurance and education. Compared to Whites, Blacks were consistently less likely to report any dental examination. Conclusion Dental service utilization was highest in adolescents. Gender, education, health insurance and income in young adulthood were significant predictors of reporting a dental examination. Blacks had lower odds of reporting a dental examination either as adolescents or as young adults. PMID:23850156

  3. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... (emphatic frication) and a phonemic Dari contrast (fricative voicing) as stimuli for both groups. We saw an effect of learning on the Dari learners’ identification of the Dari stimuli already after three weeks of language training, which was sustained, but not improved, after six and 20 months. The extents...

  4. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  5. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy′s (RNoN vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226. STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports. This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  6. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  7. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  8. A descriptive review of qualitative studies in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive review of published qualitative research studies on first episode psychosis (FEP). A review was undertaken to describe the findings of qualitative studies in early psychosis. Keyword searches in Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA, PsychINFO databases, as well as manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers, were conducted. Thirty-one qualitative papers (representing 27 discrete studies) were identified. The majority reported research concerning young people based in community settings. The research studies were organized according to the following generic social processes: (i) achieving identity; (ii) acquiring perspectives; (iii) doing activity; and, (iv) experiencing relationships. The papers reviewed are based on first-person accounts obtained from individuals who have experienced FEP, their family members and service providers. This descriptive review contributes to our understanding of the complex social processes of achieving identity, acquiring perspectives, doing activities and developing relationships as experienced by young people and the significant others in their world. The cumulative findings highlight the contextually rich and detailed information made possible through qualitative studies of FEP. They begin to account for the active engagement of individuals affected by psychosis in making sense of their experience and suggest that this experience should be understood from within young people's own framework of meaning.

  9. Evolution of ANB and SN-GoGn angles during craniofacial growth: A retrospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Oyonarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of the ANB and SN-GoGn angles throughout development, in a longitudinal sample of Caucasian patients. Materials and Methods: Historical cephalometric records from North American individuals available at the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Legacy Growth Collection website were used to carry out an exploratory longitudinal study. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontically untreated males and females were included. Individuals with three or more longitudinal cephalometric records at pre- and post-pubertal stages, with at least one postpubertal radiograph available in vertebral cervical maturation stage (cervical vertebral maturation 5 or 6, were selected. Seventy-one individuals met the inclusion criteria. ANB, SNA, SNB, and SN-GoGn angles were measured. Individuals were classified according to the latest postpubertal ANB angle available and grouped by CVM. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the cephalometric variables, and differences between genders were analyzed. Results: Forty-five individuals were classified as skeletal Class I at the end of growth, 17 as Class II, and 9 as Class III. ANB values decrease as growth occurs in every group (average ANB decrease between the stages CVM 1 and 6: Class I - 1.5°, Class II - 0.7°, and Class III - 3.1°. For SN-GoGn angle, a constant reduction was observed as skeletal maturation increased (Average SN-GoGn decrease between the stages CVM 1 and 6: Class I - 4°, Class II - 2.5°, and Class III - 4.9°. Conclusions: ANB and SN-GoGn angles decrease during growth. The magnitude varies depending on individual sagittal characteristics, Class III individuals displaying the greatest reduction, and Class II individuals the least.

  10. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  11. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  12. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  13. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somu Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. Aims: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Settings and Design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3% had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%, followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%, omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%, and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  14. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. AIMS: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit. PMID:23741110

  15. Quality of life of elderly individuals receiving literacy training: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of population aging in Brazil, educational programs directed to young and adult individuals now have to absorb a large number of 60 year old or older individuals. Objectives: Identify the relationships among the variables quality of life, time attending the program, depressive symptoms, and cognitive status; and longitudinally compare the scores concerning the quality of life of these individuals. Method: Descriptive, correlational, comparative, longitudinal and quantitative study. The participants were elderly individuals who attended literacy training provided in a Brazilian city from 2012 to 2014. The instruments to collect data included sociodemographic characterization, the WHOQOL-bref, WHOQOL-old, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, and the Mini Mental State Examination. Results: The participants were predominantly young-elderly women, with low incomes. Scores obtained on the GDS were related with the domains: Physical (p<0.05; Environment (p<0.01; Autonomy (p<0.01, Past, Present and Future Activities (p<0.05, Intimacy (p<0.01; and Social Relationships (p<0.01. The scores concerning cognition were related to the Autonomy domain (p<0.01. The physical domain of quality of life presented significant worsening in 2013 when compared to 2012 (M1=70.23; M2=61.20;M3=62.40. These results cannot be generalized because they concern only elderly individuals receiving literacy training provided in a midsized city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil.

  16. Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Sefcik, Justine S; Bradway, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Qualitative description (QD) is a term that is widely used to describe qualitative studies of health care and nursing-related phenomena. However, limited discussions regarding QD are found in the existing literature. In this systematic review, we identified characteristics of methods and findings reported in research articles published in 2014 whose authors identified the work as QD. After searching and screening, data were extracted from the sample of 55 QD articles and examined to characterize research objectives, design justification, theoretical/philosophical frameworks, sampling and sample size, data collection and sources, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In this review, three primary findings were identified. First, although there were some inconsistencies, most articles included characteristics consistent with the limited available QD definitions and descriptions. Next, flexibility or variability of methods was common and effective for obtaining rich data and achieving understanding of a phenomenon. Finally, justification for how a QD approach was chosen and why it would be an appropriate fit for a particular study was limited in the sample and, therefore, in need of increased attention. Based on these findings, recommendations include encouragement to researchers to provide as many details as possible regarding the methods of their QD studies so that readers can determine whether the methods used were reasonable and effective in producing useful findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Parent and Child Cigarette Use: A Longitudinal, Multigenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using longitudinal data from the multigenerational Youth Development Study (YDS), this article documents how parents’ long-term smoking trajectories are associated with adolescent children’s likelihood of smoking. Prospective data from the parents (from age 14–38 years) enable unique comparisons of the parents’ and children’s smoking behavior, as well as that of siblings. METHODS: Smoking trajectories are constructed using latent class analysis for the original YDS cohort (n = 1010). Multigenerational longitudinal data from 214 parents and 314 offspring ages 11 years and older are then analyzed by using logistic regression with cluster-corrected SEs. RESULTS: Four latent smoking trajectories emerged among the original cohort: stable nonsmokers (54%), early-onset light smokers who quit/reduce (16%), late-onset persistent smokers (14%), and early-onset persistent heavy smokers (16%). Although 8% of children of stable nonsmokers smoked in the last year, the other groups’ children had much higher percentages, ranging from 23% to 29%. Multivariate logistic regression models confirm that these significant differences were robust to the inclusion of myriad child- and parent-level measures (for which child age and grade point average [GPA] are significant predictors). Older sibling smoking, however, mediated the link between parental heavy smoking and child smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Even in an era of declining rates of teenage cigarette use in the United States, children of current and former smokers face an elevated risk of smoking. Prevention efforts to weaken intergenerational associations should consider parents’ long-term cigarette use, as well as the smoking behavior of older siblings in the household. PMID:23918887

  18. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF HONORIFIC USE IN KOREAN EMAIL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegu Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a relatively new field that examines how Korean culture affects Korean language use in terms of age difference in a corpus of computer mediated email discourse. The purpose of this descriptive study and experiment is to prove the close relationship between Korean language and culture. This paper shows the descriptive study of Korean culture in relation to language use. Korean culture acknowledges an inherent hierarchy with regard to age, and considers [+age] as relating socially to [+power]. When younger Koreans converse with older ones, they express different morpho-syntactic patterns, which is an age complex. The main task of the experiment was to examine the way through which the age complex is reflected by Korean honorific linguistic system in email discourse. I asked 15 Korean native speakers between the ages of 20 to 25 to write emails expressing an impositive request to [+age (46-50 years old], [-age (below 25 years old] and [=age] recipients. The results show significant differences in the use of grammatical features in emails written to [+age] recipients, as compared to emails written to [-age] and [=age] recipients. The implication of the findings is that the cultural values that are attached to age and aging in the Korean society affects Koreans’ language use, which means Korean language and culture are closely intermingled.

  19. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study...... was to investigate the prevalence and anatomic distribution of injuries acquired through disc-golf participation in Danish disc golf players. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on Danish disc-golf players. In May 2015, invitations to complete a web-based questionnaire were spread online via...... social media, and around disc-golf courses in Denmark. The questionnaire included questions regarding disc-golf participation and the characteristics of injuries acquired through disc golf participation. The data was analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: An injury prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.7% to 19...

  20. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical

  1. Experiences of adolescents living with cancer: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Sin Hui; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; Lee, Xiu Hua Hideka Tamamura; Shorey, Shefaly

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of adolescents from Singapore, aged 10-18 years old, living with cancer and their perceptions on how their psychosocial outcomes can be improved. A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 participants from a pediatric oncology ward in a Singapore hospital. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Five major themes emerged: (1) experience of physical symptoms, (2) emotional response to their condition, (3) changes in social dynamics, and (4) falling behind in academics. The psychosocial outcomes of Singaporean adolescents with cancer could be improved by thorough pain assessments and creating a more conducive hospital environment.

  2. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  3. Studies of the longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Goals for our first-year period are as follows: To study the evolution of a small perturbation in the current pulse (introduced via the grid voltage on the electron gun) when the beam propagates through our 5-m long periodic solenoid channel. Specifically, to see if the perturbation is reflected from the rear end of the pulse. So far these objectives have been met without any delays. We were able to launch different perturbations on the beam resulting in either a slow space-charge wave or a fast wave or both waves. The relative strength of each wave was found to depend on the electron emission temperature of the cathode. The propagation of these waves on an initially rectangular longitudinal beam profile was measured with fast current monitors and the kinetic energy was measured with sensitive energy analyzers at various positions along the 5-m long solenoidal focusing channel. We have also begun to study the behavior of the waves when they reach the respective edge of the beam. But this work is still of a preliminary nature, and we need to refine the beam conditions and measurements in future studies to reach any firm conclusions. Preparations for the resistive-wall instability experiment are in progress

  4. A longitudinal study of language learners’ images about Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Larisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.

  5. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  6. Clustering of unhealthy behaviors in the aerobics center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Participants were 13,621 adults (aged 20-84) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Four health behaviors were observed (diet, fitness, smoking, and drinking). Baseline characteristics of the study population and bivariate relations between pairs of the health behaviors were evaluated separately for those with and without chronic disease using cross-tabulation and a chi-square test. The odds of partaking in unhealthy behaviors were also calculated. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assess clustering. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors and mortality. The four health behaviors were related to each other. LCA results suggested that two classes existed. Participants in class 1 had a higher probability of partaking in each of the four unhealthy behaviors than participants in class 2. No differences in health behavior clustering were found between participants with and without chronic disease. Mortality risk increased relative to the number of unhealthy behaviors participants engaged in. Unhealthy behaviors cluster together irrespective of chronic disease status. Such findings suggest that multi-behavioral intervention strategies can be similar in those with and without chronic disease.

  7. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  8. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  9. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  10. Longitudinal study of prognostic factors in established periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtei, E E; Dunford, R; Hausmann, E; Grossi, S G; Powell, J; Cummins, D; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1997-02-01

    Numerous indicators for disease progression have been described in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to examine, longitudinally, a large battery of clinical, microbiological, and immunological indicators, to try to determine whether the presence of one or a combination of these parameters at baseline, would correlate positively with increased attachment and or bone loss (true prognostic factors). Following initial screening, 79 patients with established periodontitis were monitored longitudinally for one year. Whole mouth clinical measurements, plaque gingival and calculus indices, together with pocket depth and attachment level measurements, were repeated every three months. Full mouth radiographic survey, performed at baseline and 12 months, served to determine changes in crestal bone height using an image enhancement technique. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and every 3 months. Immunofluorescence assays were performed for the a battery of target microorganisms. Serum and GCF samples for IgG subclasses analysis were obtained at each visit and assayed using ELISA techniques. Likewise blood, samples were also drawn at each visit for a quantitative analysis of serum cotinine level. The overall mean attachment loss (AL) and bone loss (BL) were almost identical (0.159 mm and 0.164 mm, respectively). Individual patients variation was large (-0.733 to +1.004 mm). An overall 6.89% of sites were active; individual patients' means ranged from 0-28.9%. Mean pocket depth (PD) showed minimal change over the study period (-0.033 mm) thus suggesting that most if not all the AL was accompained by concomitant gingival recession. Smokers exhibited greater AL and radiographic BL compared to non-smokers. Likewise, patients' cotinine level showed direct correlation with outcomes of progressive periodontal breakdown. Past severity of periodontal involvement, as reflected in the patients baseline PD, AL and crestal bone height, showed good correlation

  11. Indicadores precoces da dislexia de desenvolvimento: um estudo longitudinal || Early indicators of dyslexia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dislexia do desenvolvimento é frequentemente diagnosticada quando os problemas na aprendizagem da leitura já afetaram negativamente outras áreas académicas e até o bem-estar emocional. A pesquisa internacional aponta para a existência de alguns preditores desta perturbação da aprendizagem, permitindo uma intervenção atempada e preventiva. No entanto, as diferenças relativas ao código ortográfico do Português Europeu não nos permitem tirar ilações de estudos realizados noutros contextos linguísticos. Com este problema em mente, desenvolvemos um estudo longitudinal que pretende destacar os preditores da dislexia em crianças portuguesas. A investigação seguiu um plano longitudinal ao longo de três anos e os resultados obtidos junto de uma amostra de 200 crianças permitem identificar a existência de poder preditivo em duas variáveis: no conhecimento que a criança tem do nome das letras e no seu desempenho em tarefas de fluência verbal, mostrando a influência que os fatores relativos às dificuldades na aquisição do princípio alfabético e no acesso ao léxico terão na manifestação posterior de problemas na aquisição da leitura.

  12. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  13. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  14. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  15. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  16. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Janssen, Nikki; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-07-01

    Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory, attention, and executive functioning. This longitudinal study is the first to investigate intellectual development in a group of individuals with Noonan syndrome. Sixteen patients with Noonan syndrome underwent intelligence assessment both in childhood and in adulthood, using Wechsler's intelligence scales. IQ scores and Wechsler standard scores achieved in childhood and adulthood were compared. Subsequently, verbal and performance IQ in childhood were used as predictors for adult IQ and index scores. Compared with childhood scores, adult full-scale IQ and performance IQ significantly increased. Adult performance IQ was higher than verbal IQ. Childhood performance IQ and verbal IQ together predicted all adult IQ and index scores, except for the processing speed index. Childhood IQ was a significant predictor of adult intelligence in patients with Noonan syndrome. Performance IQ advanced to a normal level in adulthood, while verbal IQ did not develop proportionately, resulting in a discrepancy between adult performance IQ and verbal IQ. This finding could suggest a delay in the development of executive functioning in patients with Noonan syndrome, which seems to be outgrown in adulthood.

  17. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

  18. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  19. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  20. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  1. Orotracheal intubation and temporomandibular disorder: a longitudinal controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Branco Battistella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in elective surgery patients who underwent orotracheal intubation. METHODS: This was a longitudinal controlled study with two groups. The study group included patients who underwent orotracheal intubation and a control group. We used the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire to assess the temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms one-day postoperatively (T1, and the patients' baseline status prior to surgery (T0 was also recorded. The same questionnaire was used after three months (T2. The mouth opening amplitude was measured at T1 and T2. We considered a pvalue of less than 0.05 to be significant. RESULTS: We included 71 patients, with 38 in the study group and 33 in the control. There was no significant difference between the groups in age (study group: 66.0 [52.5-72.0]; control group: 54.0 [47.0-68.0]; p = 0.117 or in their belonging to the female gender (study group: 57.9%; control group: 63.6%; p = 0.621. At T1, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the incidence of mouth opening limitation (study group: 23.7% vs. control group: 18.2%;p = 0.570 or in the mouth opening amplitude (study group: 45.0 [40.0-47.0] vs. control group: 46.0 [40.0-51.0];p = 0.278. At T2 we obtained similar findings. There was no significant difference in the affirmative response to all the individual questions in the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder of muscular origin was not different between the groups.

  2. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vargas-Prada

    Full Text Available Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%. The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3, and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six, and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count, although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  5. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  6. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  7. Mild traumatic brain injury and fatigue: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Joan; Heitger, Marcus; Leathem, Janet; Anderson, Tim; Jones, Richard; Flett, Ross

    2010-01-01

    To examine fatigue prevalence, severity, predictors and co-variates over 6 months post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Longitudinal prospective study including 263 adults with MTBI. Participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey-Version 2 (SF-36v2). Complete data were available for 159 participants. Key measures; prevalence--RPSQ Item 6: severity--FSS. The effect of time on fatigue prevalence and severity was examined using ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis identified statistically significant covariates. Post-MTBI fatigue prevalence was 68%, 38% and 34% at 1 week, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a strong effect for time over the first 3 months and moderate-to-high correlations between fatigue prevalence and severity. Early fatigue strongly predicted later fatigue; depression, but not anxiety was a predictor. Fatigue was seen as laziness by family or friends in 30% of cases. Post-MTBI fatigue is a persistent post-concussion symptom, exacerbated by depression but not anxiety. It diminishes in the first 3 months and then becomes relatively stable, suggesting the optimum intervention placement is at 3 months or more post-MTBI.

  8. Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison

    2007-10-01

    The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.

  9. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE's are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. A longitudinal study with a 6 months' time interval ( N  =   103). At T1 demographics, workplace violence and potentially traumatic events in the past year, mental health, personality, handling of rules, coping and social organizational stressors were assessed. Confrontations with aggression were also examined at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only problems with superiors independently predicted repeated verbal aggression and that only the (absence of the) ability to compromise very easily predicted repeatedly being on guard and repeatedly confronted with any form of aggression. Due to very low prevalences, we could not examine predictors of repeated confrontations with physical aggression ( N  =   5) and serious threat ( N  =   7). A large majority reported that in most workplace violence cases they could prevent further escalations. About 2% reported a potentially traumatic event in the year before T1 that was WPV related and perceived as very stressful.

  10. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

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    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  11. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  12. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  13. Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J F; van der Does, A J Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults. Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004-2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control. Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55-2.12; P testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80; P psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression. © Copyright 2011

  14. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

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    Salines Georges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  15. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  16. Professional values of Turkish nurses: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya-Uslusoy, Esin; Paslı-Gürdogan, Eylem; Aydınlı, Ayse

    2017-06-01

    Professional values improve the quality of nurses' professional lives, reduce emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, increase personal success, and help to make collaborations with the members of the healthcare team more frequent. The purpose of this study was to describe the professional values of Turkish nurses and to explore the relationships between nurses' characteristics. This was a descriptive study of a convenience sample consisting of 269 clinical nurses. A questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics, and the Nurses' Professional Values Scale was applied. Ethical considerations: Permission to conduct the study was received from the hospital and the Institutional Review Boards of the Süleyman Demirel University ethic committee. The mean scale score of the participant nurses was 165.41 ± 20.79. The results of this study revealed that human dignity was the most important professional value for nurses, and the importance attached to these values showed statistically significant differences by age, length of service, educational level, marital status, position at work, and receiving relevant in-service training. Nurses' Professional Values Scale scores showed that nurses give above average and attached importance to professional values.

  17. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  18. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  19. Changes in taste preference after colorectal surgery: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Sophie; Hiotis, Perryhan; Pengelly, Steven; Hughes, Georgina; Halford, Jason; Christiansen, Paul; Lewis, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition is a key component of surgical enhanced recovery programmes. However, alterations in food preferences are often reported as reasons for patients not eating in the early postoperative period. We hypothesised that taste preferences are altered in the early postoperative period and this dysgeusia affects patients' food choices during this critical time. This is a longitudinal study looking at taste preferences of patients recovering from surgery. Patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited. Using visual analogue scales participants completed a questionnaire, taste tests and preference scoring of food images for the 6 groups of taste (bitter, salty, savoury, sour, spicy and sweet) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1-3. Patients were also offered snacks postoperatively, which represented foods from the six groups and consumption was measured. Differences from baseline were assessed using the Friedman's and Wilcoxon tests. 31 patients were studied. In the immediate postoperative period participants reported deterioration in their sense of taste (p ≤ 0.001), increased nausea (p palatability for salty taste increased (p = 0.001) following surgery. The highest rated images were for savoury food with only the ratings for salty food increasing after surgery (p foods in the postoperative period. Bitter, sour and spicy foods were the least frequently consumed. This is the first study to investigate postsurgical patients' food preferences. A consistent change in all the individual tastes with the exception of salty in the postoperative period was observed. The most desirable tastes were for savoury and sweet, reflecting patients' preoperative preferences. An improved understanding of taste may improve the resumption of eating after colonic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. A prospective, longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and sedentary behaviour in young children with cerebral palsy

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    Weir Kelly A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in later childhood. The impact of modifiable factors (dietary intake and physical activity on growth, nutritional status, and body composition (taking into account motor severity in this population is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between a range of factors - linear growth, body composition, oral motor and feeding dysfunction, dietary intake, and time spent sedentary (adjusting for motor severity - and health outcomes, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in young children with cerebral palsy (from corrected age of 18 months to 5 years. Design/Methods This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year. Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 ± 1 months and 60 ± 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary and their impact on the growth, body composition and

  1. A prospective, longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and sedentary behaviour in young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Tweedy, Sean M; Weir, Kelly A; Stevenson, Richard D; Davies, Peter S W

    2010-04-06

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in later childhood. The impact of modifiable factors (dietary intake and physical activity) on growth, nutritional status, and body composition (taking into account motor severity) in this population is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between a range of factors - linear growth, body composition, oral motor and feeding dysfunction, dietary intake, and time spent sedentary (adjusting for motor severity) - and health outcomes, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in young children with cerebral palsy (from corrected age of 18 months to 5 years). This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year). Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 +/- 1 months and 60 +/- 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life. This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary) and their impact on the growth, body composition and nutritional status of young children with cerebral palsy across

  2. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  3. Stair negotiation in women with fibromyalgia: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Domínguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-10-01

    Walking up and down stairs is a common and important activity of daily living. Women with fibromyalgia often show a reduced ability to perform this task.The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of stair negotiation tasks and to assess the impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on the ability to negotiate stairs.Forty-two women with fibromyalgia participated in this descriptive correlational study. The relevance of the stair negotiation (both walking up and down) was evaluated by assessing its association with the revised version of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ-R) and other health-related variables. Test-retest reliability was also analyzed. The main outcome measures were time spent walking up and down stairs and impact of fibromyalgia, quality of life, number of falls, weight, and lower limb strength and endurance.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for stair descent was 0.929 whereas that for ascent was 0.972. The score in these tests correlated significantly with the total score for the FIQ-R and the score for many of dimensions and symptoms: that is, physical function, overall impact of fibromyalgia, pain, energy, stiffness, restorative sleep, tenderness, self-perceived balance problems, and sensitivity.Given the importance of the stair negotiation as activity of daily living and the high reliability, both stair ascent and descent tasks may be useful as outcome measures in studies on patients with fibromyalgia.

  4. Postural sway changes during pregnancy: a descriptive study using stabilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Liliam F; Vieira, Taian M M; Macedo, Adriana R; Simpson, David M; Nadal, Jurandir

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to analyse changes in body sway over the course of pregnancy. This is a descriptive study in which stabilometric tests were applied at three stages of pregnancy and with a combination of different visual conditions (eyes open/closed) and support base configuration (feet together/apart). Twenty healthy pregnant women participated in the study. Changes in postural control with pregnancy were analysed via the elliptical area of the stabilograms and spectral analysis of the displacements of the centre of pressure (COP) along the lateral and anterior/posterior directions. The elliptical area encompassing the COP significantly increased over the course of the pregnancy for the feet apart and eyes closed test protocols. The spectral analysis revealed a significant increase of COP oscillations along the anterior-posterior direction when subjects stood with the eyes open/feet together and feet apart. A reduction (significant) of the lateral oscillations of COP was observed for the eyes open/feet together protocol. Pregnancy induced significant changes in the postural control when pregnant women stood with a reduced support base or with eyes closed.

  5. Knowledge on management of anemia during pregnancy: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Baby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study: The growing fetus depends entirely on its mother′s healthy body for all needs. However, sometimes it can be a time of fear of suffering and death, in case women begin pregnancy with low or absent stores of iron because of previous pregnancy, poor iron intake, substance abuse; increased fetal demands of iron leads to iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition in the world and is the eighth leading cause of death in pregnant women in developing countries leading to the low birth weight, which is in turn an important risk factor for infant mortality. Objectives: To determine the knowledge of antenatal mothers regarding management of anemia during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Non-experimental descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge of antenatal mothers from Yenepoya Medical College Hospital. A sample size consists of 50 antenatal mothers were selected through non-probability purposive sampling. The data was collected by using pretested structured knowledge questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and the results expressed as proportions. Results: The majority of the antenatal mothers (54% had satisfactory knowledge, 38% had poor knowledge, and 8% had good knowledge regarding anemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: The overall knowledge in the study population was 29.9%. Hence, the researcher emphasizes the need for more research to improve the knowledge of antenatal mothers on anemia during pregnancy.

  6. Approaches in methodology for population-based longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (TUA) among Malaysian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Omar, Azahadi; Vanoh, Divya; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mukari, Siti Zamratol Mai-Sarah; Din, Normah Che; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Mohammed, Zainora; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Loo, Won Hui; Meramat, Asheila; Kamaruddin, Mohd Zul Amin; Bagat, Mohamad Fazdillah; Razali, Rosdinom

    2016-12-01

    A number of longitudinal studies on aging have been designed to determine the predictors of healthy longevity, including the neuroprotective factors, however, relatively few studies included a wide range of factors and highlighted the challenges faced during data collection. Thus, the longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (LRGS TUA) has been designed to prospectively investigate the magnitude of cognitive decline and its risk factors through a comprehensive multidimensional assessment comprising of biophysical health, auditory and visual function, nutrition and dietary pattern and psychosocial aspects. At baseline, subjects were interviewed for their status on sociodemographic, health, neuropsychological test, psychosocial and dietary intake. Subjects were also measured for anthropometric and physical function and fitness. Biospecimens including blood, buccal swap, hair and toenail were collected, processed and stored. A subsample was assessed for sensory function, i.e., vision and auditory. During follow-up, at 18 and 36 months, most of the measurements, along with morbidity and mortality outcomes will be collected. The description of mild cognitive impairment, successful aging and usual aging process is presented here. A total 2322 respondents were recruited in the data analysis at baseline. Most of the respondents were categorized as experiencing usual aging (73 %), followed by successful aging (11 %) and mild cognitive impairment (16 %). The LRGS TUA study is the most comprehensive longitudinal study on aging in Malaysia, and will contribute to the understanding of the aging process and factors associated with healthy aging and mental well-being of a multiethnic population in Malaysia.

  7. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  8. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  9. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  11. Ultrafast X-ray absorption study of longitudinal-transverse phonon coupling in electrolyte aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...

  12. A descriptive study of urethral discharge among men in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunavinaka, Lavenia; Balak, Dashika; Varman, Sumanthla; Ram, Sharan; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-10-17

    Urethral discharge is a common presentation of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in men and known pathogens include Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. There are no published data of the burden of urethral discharge among men in Fiji. To evaluate urethral discharge among men to determine the incidence, the frequency of recurrence and reported at-risk behaviour. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of clinical records of all men presenting with urethral discharge to two major reproductive health clinics. Data collected included self-reported at-risk behaviours, results of abnormal syphilis serology and antibiotics prescribed. The frequency of recurrence in the following 1-2 years of initial presentation was determined along with microbiological findings from urethral swab in this group. A total of 748 males presented with urethral discharge to the clinic in one year. This represents an incidence rate of at least 295 per 100,000 adult males per year in the study population. Within the next 1-2 years of the initial presentation, 102 (14%) of these re-presented out of which 42 had urethral swab taken for etiological diagnosis. The commonest isolate was Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results of syphilis tests were available for 560 (75%) of patients and 29 (5%) were positive. Recurrence was not associated with self-reported at-risk behaviours. The incidence of urethral discharge among males in Fiji is very high and prevention strategies are urgently needed.

  13. Workloads in Australian emergency departments a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneham, Joy; Cloughessy, Liz; Martin, Valmai

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to identify the current workload of clinical nurses, managers and educators in Australian Emergency Departments according to the classification of the department Additionally the relationship of experienced to inexperienced clinical staff was examined. A descriptive research method utilising a survey distributed to 394 Australian Emergency departments with a 21% response rate. Nursing workloads were calculated and a ratio of nurse to patient was established. The ratios included nurse to patient, management and educators to clinical staff. Additionally the percentage of junior to senior clinical staff was also calculated. Across all categories of emergency departments the mean nurse:patient ratios were 1:15 (am shift), 1:7 (pm shift) and 1:4 (night shift). During this period an average of 17.1% of attendances were admitted to hospital. There were 27 staff members for each manager and 23.3 clinical staff for each educator. The percentage of junior staff rostered ranged from 10% to 38%. Emergency nurses cannot work under such pressure as it may compromise the care given to patients and consequently have a negative effect on the nurse personally. However, emergency nurses are dynamically adjusting to the workload. Such conditions as described in this study could give rise to burnout and attrition of experienced emergency nurses as they cannot resolve the conflict between workload and providing quality nursing care.

  14. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sánchez M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population.MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a prospectively descriptive study, including 4 patients, and all of them were considered major burn patients, who underwent escharotomy with general anesthesia and neuromuscular relaxation. The main variable was the time for recovery of a TOF higher than 0.9 after the administration of sugammadex before extubation.RESULTS: Mean time of recovery from a TOF ratio higher than 0.9 following the administration of Sugammadex was of 4.95 min 95% CI (3.25-6.64, p= .53.CONCLUSIONS: The reversion of neuromuscular relaxation with sugammadex appears to be effective and safe in the burn patient. More analytical, comparative studies of larger populations would be necessary to confirm these data.

  15. Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs about Language Teaching and Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cota Grijalva Sofía D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the description of a research project that was carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English Language Teaching program at a Mexican university. The study was longitudinal and it tracked fourteen students for four semesters of the eight semester program. The aim was to identify pre-service teachers’ beliefs about English language teaching and learning at different stages of instruction while they were taking the teaching practice courses in the program. The instruments employed were questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The results demonstrated that students made links between theory and practice creating some changes in previous beliefs. The study revealed an increase of awareness and a better understanding of the complex processes involved in teaching and learning. En este artículo se describe una investigación que se llevó a cabo en el programa de Licenciatura en Enseñanza del Inglés de una universidad mexicana. El estudio fue longitudinal, el cual siguió la trayectoria de catorce estudiantes de la licenciatura durante cuatro de los ocho semestres del programa académico. El propósito fue identificar las creencias de estos maestros principiantes, quienes cursabansus clases de práctica docente del programa, acerca de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje del inglés en diferentes etapas de sus estudios. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron cuestionarios y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los resultados demostraron que los estudiantes articularon la teoría con la práctica, lo cual incidió en sus creencias anteriores. El estudio también reveló que comprendieron mejor los complejos procesos involucrados en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje.

  16. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  17. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  19. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  20. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  1. Electronic cigarette: a longitudinal study of regular vapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-06-07

    It is unclear how vaping behaviour changes over time in regular vapers, and what occurs when vapers relapse to smoking or when they stop vaping. We assessed change in vaping and smoking behaviours over 12 months in regular vapers. A longitudinal study of 3868 regular vapers enrolled on the Internet in 2012-2015 ("baseline"), followed after one (n=1631, 42%), three (n=1337, 35%), six (n=1148, 30%) and 12 months (n=893, 23%). Participants had been vaping for a median of five months at baseline. Most (77%) were former smokers, who had not smoked for a median of three months at baseline. Over 12 months, enjoyment gradually became the most frequently cited reason to vape (93%), and vaping to deal with craving for tobacco gradually decreased (from 87% to 56%). In exclusive vapers (ex-smokers), nicotine concentration in e-liquids decreased over time (from 12 to 9 mg/mL), but puffs/day remained stable (200 puffs/day). After 12 months, 9% of 687 former smokers relapsed to smoking and 28% of 64 daily smokers (dual users) stopped smoking. After 12 months, when participants stopped vaping, they tended to relapse to smoking (+18% daily smokers among those who stopped vaping versus -2% in permanent vapers, preasons to vape. Rates of relapse to smoking were low in former smokers and quit rates were high in current smokers. Stopping vaping was associated with relapsing to smoking. Even in established vapers, vaping behaviour and reasons to vape change over time. This should be taken into account by clinicians, manufacturers and regulators. Results from this non-representative sample can help generate hypotheses that can later be tested in representative samples of vapers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  3. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  4. Measuring Youths’ Perceptions of Counseling Impact: Description, Psychometric Evaluation, and Longitudinal Examination of the Youth Counseling Impact Scale v.2

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Marcia A.; Athay, M. Michele; Riemer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The Youth Counseling Impact Scale (YCIS) is an empirically validated treatment progress measure that assesses youths’ perceptions of the short term effectiveness of therapy. Since its initial publication, the original 10-item measure has been shortened to ease measurement burden and revised to include a question about a youth’s insight into his or her strengths. The current study describes the development of the revised YCIS (v.2) and evaluates its psychometric properties. A...

  5. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  6. Barriers to first time parent groups: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Norma; Hanna, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Owen Vincent

    2018-06-19

    First-time parents' groups are offered to new parents in Australia to support their transition to parenthood. Not all parents avail of the service, some cease attendance, and fathers are under-represented. In the present descriptive, qualitative study, we examined first-time mothers' perspectives on the barriers to parental participation in the groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of eight first-time mothers in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. Interviews revealed groups were perceived as sites strongly reinforcing traditional social norms of parenting. From this central theme, six gendered subthemes emerged as barriers to attendance. Barriers to mothers included non-normative mothering narratives, such as experiencing stillbirth or having a disabled child, perceived dissonance in parenting ethos, and group size. Barriers to fathers, as perceived by mothers, included groups as female spaces, dads as a minority, and female gatekeeping. A multi-faceted approach is required to change the common perception that groups are for mothers only. Groups need to be more inclusive of different parenting experiences and philosophies. Segregated groups might better address the needs of both parents. Further research is required to capture fathers' perspectives. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  8. Parental decision making involvement and decisional conflict: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Laura; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Saarimaki, Anton; Lawson, Margaret L

    2017-06-13

    Decisional conflict is a state of uncertainty about the best treatment option among competing alternatives and is common among adult patients who are inadequately involved in the health decision making process. In pediatrics, research shows that many parents are insufficiently involved in decisions about their child's health. However, little is known about parents' experience of decisional conflict. We explored parents' perceived decision making involvement and its association with parents' decisional conflict. We conducted a descriptive survey study in a pediatric tertiary care hospital. Our survey was guided by validated decisional conflict screening items (i.e., the SURE test). We administered the survey to eligible parents after an ambulatory care or emergency department consultation for their child. Four hundred twenty-nine respondents were included in the analysis. Forty-eight percent of parents reported not being offered treatment options and 23% screened positive for decisional conflict. Parents who reported being offered options experienced less decisional conflict than parents who reported not being offered options (5% vs. 42%, p conflict after their clinical consultation. Involving parents in the decision making process might reduce their risk of decisional conflict. Evidence based interventions that support parent decision making involvement, such as shared decision making, should be evaluated and implemented in pediatrics as a strategy to reduce parents' decisional conflict.

  9. Descriptive study of 192 adults with speech and language disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Lessa Mansur

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Aphasia is a very disabling condition caused by neurological diseases. In Brazil, we have little data on the profile of aphasics treated in rehabilitation centers. OBJECTIVE: To present a descriptive study of 192 patients, providing a reference sample of speech and language disturbances among Brazilians. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Speech Pathology Unit linked to the Neurology Division of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. SAMPLE: All patients (192 referred to our Speech Pathology service from 1995 to 2000. PROCEDURES: We collected data relating to demographic variables, etiology, language evaluation (functional evaluation, Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming and Token Test, and neuroimaging studies. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The results obtained in language tests and the clinical and neuroimaging data were organized and classified. Seventy aphasics were chosen for constructing a profile. Fourteen subjects with left single-lobe dysfunction were analyzed in detail. Seventeen aphasics were compared with 17 normal subjects, all performing the Token Test. RESULTS: One hundred subjects (52% were men and 92 (48% women. Their education varied from 0 to 16 years (average: 6.5; standard deviation: 4.53. We identified the lesion sites in 104 patients: 89% in the left hemisphere and 58% due to stroke. The incidence of aphasia was 70%; dysarthria and apraxia, 6%; functional alterations in communication, 17%; and 7% were normal. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing the subgroup to controls in the Token Test. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this sample contributes to a better understanding of neurological patients with speech and language disturbances and may be useful as a reference for health professionals involved in the rehabilitation of such disorders.

  10. Respiratory support in oncology ward setting: a prospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Gupta, Deepak; Goyal, Gaurav Nirvani; Agrawal, Ravi; Jain, Roopesh; Chauhan, Himanshu

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation in cancer patients is a critical issue The present prospective descriptive study was designed (1) to assess the patient population needing respirator support in ward setting at a premier state-run oncology institute in India, (2) to observe and analyze the course of their disease while on respirator, and (3) to coordinate better quality of life measures in cancer patients at the institute based on the present study's outcomes. Beginning from March 2005 to March 2006, all cancer patients who were connected to respirator in the wards were enrolled in the current study. Our anesthesiology department at the cancer institute also has primary responsibility for airway management and mechanical ventilation in high dependency units of oncology wards. Preventilation variables in cancer patients were assessed to judge the futility of mechanical ventilation in ward setting. Subsequently, patients were observed for disease course while on respirator. Final outcome with its etio-pathogenesis was correlated with predicted futility of mechanical ventilation. Over a period of 1 year, 132 (46 men and 86 women) cancer patients with median age 40 years (range 1-75 years) were connected to respirator in oncology wards. Based on the preventilation variables and indications for respirator support, right prediction of medical futility and hospital discharge was made in 77% of patients. Underestimation and overestimation of survival to hospital discharge was made in 10% cases and 13% cases, respectively. Based on preventilation variables, prediction of outcome in cancer patients needing respirator support can be made in 77% cases. This high probability of prediction can be used to educate patients, and their families and primary physicians, for well-informed and documented advance directives, formulated and regularly revised DNAR policies, and judicious use of respirator support for better quality-of-life outcomes.

  11. Descriptive study of healthcare professionals’ management of tick bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buller Viqueira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rural primary health centers frequently treat patients with tick bites. This study compares everyday clinical practice at our primary healthcare center to practices recommended by current scientific evidence. Purpose To describe the everyday management of tick bites by different healthcare professionals and to compare this management to evidence-based therapy guidelines. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive observational study. Methods Data was collected through an anonymous self-completed questionnaire. The form was filled out by a consecutive sample of nurses, physicians and pediatricians of the clinical management unit of Medina-Sidonia (Cádiz. Results Most nurses in the sample group use some type of product to facilitate the extraction of the tick (10 of the 11 surveyed nurses, 90.9%. The most frequently used products were chloroethyl and local anesthetic. In addition, nine nurses use gentle traction with tweezers (81.82% to remove the tick. In the physician sample group, 3 out of 12 respondents (25% prescribe antibiotics in all cases and nine stated that they knew which antibiotic should be used as first choice. In both cases, a high number of healthcare providers confirm giving post-extraction advice to patients: 11 in the medical community (91.66% and nine nurses (81.82%. Conclusions We conclude that the performance of the healthcare providers that integrate this study does not closely follow general recommendations for extraction, treatment and follow-up care in patients with tick bites. Therefore, there is a need to improve the level of knowledge to ensure quality care in these instances.

  12. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  13. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  14. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: Cohort description.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh T Hoang

    Full Text Available The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium (PCGC designed the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to provide phenotype and genotype data for a large congenital heart defects (CHDs cohort. This article describes the PCGC cohort, overall and by major types of CHDs (e.g., conotruncal defects and subtypes of conotrucal heart defects (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions (e.g., hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Cases with CHDs were recruited through ten sites, 2010-2014. Information on cases (N = 9,727 and their parents was collected through interviews and medical record abstraction. Four case characteristics, eleven parental characteristics, and thirteen parent-reported neurodevelopment outcomes were summarized using counts and frequencies and compared across CHD types and subtypes. Eleven percent of cases had a genetic diagnosis. Among cases without a genetic diagnosis, the majority had conotruncal heart defects (40% or left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (21%. Across CHD types, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in the distribution of all four case characteristics (e.g., sex, four parental characteristics (e.g., maternal pregestational diabetes, and five neurodevelopmental outcomes (e.g., learning disabilities. Several characteristics (e.g., sex were also significantly different across CHD subtypes. The PCGC cohort is one of the largest CHD cohorts available for the study of genetic determinants of risk and outcomes. The majority of cases do not have a genetic diagnosis. This description of the PCGC cohort, including differences across CHD types and subtypes, provides a reference work for investigators who are interested in collaborating with or using publically available resources from the PCGC.

  15. Mental health consultations in a prison population: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustad Aase-Bente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates. Methods Six medium/large prisons (n = 928 representing 1/3 of the Norwegian prison population and with female and preventive detention inmates over-sampled, were investigated cross-sectionally. All non-pharmacological psychiatric interventions, excluding pure correctional programs, were recorded. Those receiving interventions were investigated further and compared to the remaining prison population. Results A total of 230 of the 928 inmates (25 % had some form of psychiatric intervention: 184 (20 % were in individual psychotherapy, in addition 40 (4 % received ad hoc interventions during the registration week. Group therapy was infrequent (1 %. The psychotherapies were most often of a supportive (62 % or behavioural-cognitive (26 % nature. Dynamic, insight-oriented psychotherapies were infrequent (8 %. Concurrent psychopharmacological treatment was prevalent (52 %. Gender and age did not correlate with psychiatric interventions, whereas prisoner category (remanded, sentenced, or preventive detention did (p Conclusion Our results pertain only to prisons with adequate primary and mental health services and effective diversion from prison of individuals with serious mental disorders. Given these important limitations, we do propose that the service estimates found may serve as a rough guideline to the minimum number of sessions a prison's psychiatric health services should be able to fulfil in order to serve the inmates psychiatric needs. The results rely on the specialist services' own estimates only. Future studies should

  16. Anxiety and its time courses during radiotherapy for non-metastatic breast cancer: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Florence; Merckaert, Isabelle; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Paul, Van Houtte; Coucke, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To our knowledge, no study has specifically assessed the time course of anxiety during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to assess anxiety time courses in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. Material and methods: This multicenter, descriptive longitudinal study included 213 consecutive patients with breast cancer who completed visual analog scales (VASs) assessing state anxiety before and after the RT simulation and the first and last five RT sessions. Results: Pre- and post-session anxiety mean levels were highest at the RT simulation (respectively, 2.9 ± 2.9 and 1.6 ± 2.5) and first RT session (respectively, 3.4 ± 2.9 and 2.0 ± 2.4), then declined rapidly. Clinically relevant mean differences (⩾1 cm on the VAS) between pre- and post-simulation/session VAS scores were found only for the RT simulation (−1.3 ± 2.7; p < 0.001) and first RT session (−1.4 ± 2.4; p < 0.001). Five percent to 16% of patients presented clinically relevant anxiety (pre- and post-simulation/session VAS scores ⩾ 4 cm) throughout treatment. Conclusions: To optimize care, RT team members should offer all patients appropriate information about treatment at the simulation, check patients’ understanding, and identify patients with clinically relevant anxiety requiring appropriate support throughout RT

  17. Cohort description: The Danish study of Functional Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantoft TM

    2017-02-01

    , delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18–76 years from the general population examined from 2011 to 2015. The survey comprises screening questionnaires for five types of FSS, ie, fibromyalgia, whiplash-associated disorder, multiple chemical sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and for the unifying diagnostic category of bodily distress syndrome. Additional data included a telephone-based diagnostic interview assessment for FSS, questionnaires on physical and mental health, personality traits, lifestyle, use of health care services and social factors, and a physical examination with measures of cardiorespiratory and morphological fitness, metabolic fitness, neck mobility, heart rate variability, and pain sensitivity. A biobank including serum, plasma, urine, DNA, and microbiome has been established, and central registry data from both responders and nonresponders are similarly available on morbidity, mortality, reimbursement of medicine, heath care use, and social factors. A complete 5-year follow-up is scheduled to take place from year 2017 to 2020, and further reexaminations will be planned. Several projects using the DanFunD data are ongoing, and findings will be published in the coming years. Keywords: functional somatic syndromes, medically unexplained symptoms, epidemiology, longitudinal cohort study, pathophysiology, risk factors 

  18. Incidence of depression, anxiety and stress following traumatic injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Taneal A; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Foster, Kim

    2015-03-28

    Traumatic injury and mental health disorders are co-associated. Early identification of depression, anxiety and stress following injury, and subsequent preventive intervention, may reduce the long-term symptoms and negative impacts associated with depression and anxiety. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence, severity and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in injured patients in the acute phase of care, and at six months following injury, as well as the effectiveness of an in-hospital screening tool. This descriptive longitudinal study of trauma patients was conducted at a Level 1 Metropolitan Trauma Centre in Australia over 14 months. Participants were interviewed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale short-form version (DASS-21) during hospital admission then at 3 and 6 months after injury. Descriptive statistics were performed to evaluate participant characteristics and incidence of depression, anxiety and stress. Correlations and logistic regression were conducted to investigate the ability of the DASS-21 to predict symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and to investigate factors associated with depression, anxiety and stress 6 months after injury. 201 participants ranging in age (18-94 years) and injury severity participated in the baseline interview and 109 completed all 3 interviews over 6 months. Over half (54%) reported above normal scores for depression, anxiety and/or stress in at least one of the 3 time points. Intensive care unit admission and high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 3 months post injury were predictors for high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 6 months. Low scores for depression, anxiety and stress during admission were correlated with low scores for depression, anxiety and stress at 3 and 6 months. Depression, anxiety and stress in patients hospitalised following injury is common and should be anticipated in patients who have had an intensive care admission. Screening at 3

  19. Simulation Use in Paramedic Education Research (SUPER): A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kim D; Carhart, Elliot; Bercher, Daniel; Spain, Andrew; Todaro, John; Freel, Joann

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the use of simulation in initial paramedic education programs in order assist stakeholders' efforts to target educational initiatives and resources. This group sought to provide a snapshot of what simulation resources programs have or have access to and how they are used; faculty perceptions about simulation; whether program characteristics, resources, or faculty training influence simulation use; and if simulation resources are uniform for patients of all ages. This was a cross-sectional census survey of paramedic programs that were accredited or had a Letter of Review from the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for the EMS Professions at the time of the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses. Of the 638 surveys sent, 389 valid responses (61%) were analyzed. Paramedic programs reported they have or have access to a wide range of simulation resources (task trainers [100%], simple manikins [100%], intermediate manikins [99%], advanced/fully programmable manikins [91%], live simulated patients [83%], computer-based [71%], and virtual reality [19%]); however, they do not consistently use them, particularly advanced (71%), live simulated patients (66%), computer-based (games, scenarios) (31%), and virtual reality (4%). Simulation equipment (of any type) reportedly sits idle and unused in (31%) of programs. Lack of training was cited as the most common reason. Personnel support specific to simulation was available in 44% of programs. Programs reported using simulation to replace skills more frequently than to replace field or clinical hours. Simulation goals included assessment, critical thinking, and problem-solving most frequently, and patient and crew safety least often. Programs using advanced manikins report manufacturers as their primary means of training (87%) and that 19% of faculty had no training specific to those manikins. Many (78%) respondents felt

  20. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Nurses' Professional Competence Early in Their Career: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numminen, Olivia; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Isoaho, Hannu; Meretoja, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Research on newly graduated nurses' competence development and associated factors is relatively scarce. Data for this longitudinal, descriptive, correlation study were collected during 2012-2014 from 318 Finnish nurses to explore their competence development during the first 3 years after graduation and to estimate the extent to which given work-related factors predicted change in competence. Data were analyzed using NCSS 10 statistical software. Nurses' initially fairly high level of competence showed an increase in the third year, as measured by the Nurse Competence Scale. Empowerment increased minimally, whereas perceptions of practice environment, ethical climate, and occupational commitment decreased. Willingness to leave the profession and dissatisfaction with current job and nursing profession increased. Empowerment, satisfaction with current job and quality of care, time from graduation, and work experience explained 25.6% of the change in competence. Competence development was modest but increasing. Willingness to leave the profession was concerning. Factors enhancing or preventing competence development need further studying and developing proactive interventions. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(1):29-39. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. A descriptive study of the morbidity pattern of older persons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using Stata version 13 (Texas, USA). Frequency distributions were used for descriptive analysis, and chi-square test was used to test associations. Results: More than a half, 2919 (59.7%), of the respondents were females and almost three quarters 3501 (71.7%) were aged between 60 and 74 years.

  3. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  4. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF CLOSED GLOBE INJURIES WITH HYPHAEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Philip

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Eye injuries still remain one of the most common causes of unilateral blindness worldwide. In addition to the physical and psychological trauma to the patient, the direct and indirect costs to the society are enormous. Blunt eye injuries commonly result in traumatic hyphaema and are not an infrequent cause of presentation to the emergency units of many eye clinics. Aims of this study were- 1. To study the cause, clinical presentation, complications and visual outcome of closed globe injury with hyphaema. 2. To know the association between mode of injuries and associated lesions and visual outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design and Statistical Analysis- A descriptive case series study was conducted at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram for a period of one year, from October 2010 to September 2011, in all patients coming to the institute with hyphaema due to closed globe injury and willing to participate in the study. Patients with pre-existing ocular diseases were excluded. Data were analysed using computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 10. Data are expressed in its frequency and percentage. To elucidate the associations and comparisons between different parameters, Chi square ( 2 test was used as a nonparametric test. For all statistical evaluations, a two-tailed probability of value, 6/60 either maintained that vision or improved. Only 10% of the study population had corneal blood staining. Majority of those who had initial hyphaema <1/3 rd , had normal initial intraocular pressure. Of the total 36 patients who had initial hyphaema less than 1/3 rd , 29 (80.6% had normal intraocular pressure on presentation. Of the 36 patients with initial hyphaema <1/3 rd , 28 (77.8% had normal intraocular pressure at 3 rd day. Those who had lenticular and posterior segment injury had poor visual outcome. In our study, initially only 15% had vision better than 6/12, but at the end of 180

  5. The Perinatal Guidelines Evaluation Project HIV and Pregnancy Study: overview and cohort description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Kathleen A.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Wilson, Tracey E.; Royce, Rachel A.; Koenig, Linda J.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The HIV and Pregnancy Study of the Perinatal Guidelines Evaluation Project is a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study established to: (a) assess the implementation of Public Health Service guidelines regarding the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission and (b) evaluate the psychosocial consequences of HIV infection among pregnant women. A distinctive aspect of the study is the use of an HIV-negative comparison group. This article describes the methodology of the study and baseline characteristics of the study sample. Methods and Results. HIV-infected (n = 336) and uninfected (n = 298) pregnant women were enrolled from four geographic areas: Connecticut, North Carolina, Brooklyn, NY, and Miami, FL. The study included three structured face-to-face interviews from late pregnancy to six months postpartum for HIV-infected and uninfected women. Additional self-reports of medication adherence were collected for the HIV-infected participants, and the medical records of infected mothers and their infants were reviewed. Electronic monitoring of medication adherence was conducted for a subset of the infected women. The groups were successfully matched on self-reported characteristics, including HIV-risk behaviors. More than half of the uninfected women reported a high-risk sexual partner. Baseline comparisons indicated that both the HIV-infected and uninfected women had high levels of depressive symptoms, stress, and recent negative life events. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a unique description of the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of a population of low-income women. The results of this study suggest that HIV infection is one of many stressors faced by the women in this study. PMID:12356998

  6. Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference? : A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, Clara

    2001-01-01

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly. Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates o...

  7. Descriptive Study: Anesthesia for Awake Craniotomy in Siriraj Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipin Muangman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of awake craniotomy is to test neurological functions to ensure accurate lesion surgery and lessen postoperative neurological complications. There are several methods to provide anesthesia during awake craniotomy including local anesthesia infiltration, local anesthesia plus conscious sedation, general anesthesia and wake-up during surgery and sleep again (asleep-awake-asleep or AAA. Each method has its pro and con with different complications. In Siriraj Hospital, there was no prior study of anesthetic techniques and complications of awake craniotomy. Methods: The retrospective descriptive study of awake craniotomy was carried out with 60 patients in Siriraj Hospital 2007-2011. Results: There were 35 males (58.3% with average age 40.7±12.6 years and weight 64.2±12 kilograms undergoing awake craniotomy. Twenty patients (33.3% presented with seizure before surgery. Most diagnosis was oligodendroglioma in 25 patients (41.7%, mostly at the frontal lobe (44 patients or 73.3%. The most common position was supine(46patientsor76.7%. ICU lengthof stay was1.4±0.9(0,6days. Hospital stay was11.1±9 (4,55days. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA was mostlyused(52patientsor90% while18patients (30% received scalp block. Most patients (85% did not require nasal airways while 8 patients (13.3% did, and only 1 patient (1.7% required laryngeal mask airway (LMA to help open up air passage. The drugs used during asleep1 and asleep2 were propofol together with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in 34 patients (56.7% and 23 patients (38.3%, respectively. Whilebeingawake (15patientsor20%,dexmedetomidine and/or fentanyl were administered. Complications during anesthesia were hypertension (33.3%, hypotension (26.7%, upper airway obstruction(23.3%, bradycardia (15%, tachycardia (10%, seizure (1.7% andnausea (1.7%. Conclusion: The most common anesthesia method inSiriraj Hospital for awake craniotomy was TIVA (90%, using propofol together with

  8. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Monique

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games. A new generation of video games that require body movements to play them, so-called "active games", could serve to increase physical activity in adolescents. The activity level while playing these games is comparable to light-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current study aims to increase our understanding of 1 the demographic characteristics of adolescents who play active games regularly (≥ 1 hour per week and non-regularly ( Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Dutch internet panel, questioning adolescents in conjunction with one of their parents. A random sample of 320 households (with stratification on gender of the parent and the adolescent, the age of the adolescent and the region of the household was selected that owned a console or application for active video games and that had a child aged 12 through 16 years. 201 child–parent couples (63% response completed an internet survey with questions about demographics, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and gaming behaviour. The questionnaire also contained questions designed to assess whether and how active gaming replaces other activities. Besides descriptive analyses, independent t-test, Pearson’s chi-square and Mann–Whitney test (when data were not normally distributed were used for comparisons between regular and non-regular active gamers. Results Eleven percent of the adolescents with an active game in their household never used the game. There were no significant differences in gender, education level (of adolescent and

  9. Personality factors and breast cancer development: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, E M; van der Ploeg, H M; Hendriks, J H; Adèr, H J

    1996-10-16

    It has been estimated that approximately 25% of all breast cancers in women can be explained by currently recognized somatic (i.e., hereditary and physiologic) risk factors. It has also been hypothesized that psychological factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the extent to which personality factors, in addition to somatic risk factors, may be associated with the development of primary breast cancer. We employed a prospective, longitudinal study design. From 1989 through 1990, a personality questionnaire was sent to all female residents of the Dutch city of Nijmegen who were 43 years of age or older. This questionnaire was sent as part of an invitation to participate in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women who developed breast cancer among those who returned completed questionnaires were compared with women without such a diagnosis in regard to somatic risk factors and personality traits, including anxiety, anger, depression, rationality, anti-emotionality (i.e., an absence of emotional behavior or a lack of trust in one's own feelings), understanding, optimism, social support, and the expression and control of emotions. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best explain group membership (i.e., belonging to the case [breast cancer] or the control [without disease] group). Personality questionnaires were sent to 28 940 women, and 9705 (34%) were returned in such a way that they could be used for statistical analyses. Among the 9705 women who returned useable questionnaires, 131 were diagnosed with breast cancer during the period from 1989 through 1994. Seven hundred seventy-one age-matched control subjects (up to six per case patient) were selected for the analyses. Three variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: 1) having a first-degree family member with breast cancer (versus not having an

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  11. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  12. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the

  13. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer

    1994-01-01

    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...... are used to describe patterns of wealth mobility. These results and regression models of change in percentile position identify winners and losers. The losers include students, singles with children, those who changed residence and those who experienced unemployment, while the winners were the houseowners...

  14. Self-stigma and suicidality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Rüsch, Nicolas; Viering, Sandra; Wyss, Christine; Seifritz, Erich; Xu, Ziyan; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness stigma is a source of distress for persons with mental illness. Self-stigma occurs when negative stereotypes are internalized, leading to low self-esteem, shame and hopelessness. Due to its consequences self-stigma may contribute to suicidality and be a modifiable target for suicide prevention. Based on 222 disability pensioners with mental illness we examined whether self-stigma at baseline is associated with suicidal ideation over a 2-year period, controlling for baseline suicidal ideation, symptoms, age and gender. More self-stigma predicted suicidal ideation at baseline and longitudinally. Interventions on different levels to reduce self-stigma could improve suicide prevention.

  15. Psychological predictors of eco-driving: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauper Elisabeth; Moser Stephanie; Fischer Maja; Matthies Ellen; Kaufmann-Hayoz Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Eco-driving has well-known positive effects on fuel economy and greenhouse-gas emissions. Moreover, eco-driving reduces road-traffic noise, which is a serious threat to the health and well-being of many people. We investigated the psychological predictors of the adoption of eco-driving from the perspective of road-traffic noise abatement. The data came from 890 car drivers who participated in a longitudinal survey over four months. Specifically, we tested the effects of the intention to preve...

  16. Sick leave during pregnancy: a longitudinal study of rates and risk factors in a Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dørheim, S K; Bjorvatn, B; Eberhard-Gran, M

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of, reasons given for, and factors associated with sick leave during pregnancy. Longitudinal, population-based descriptive study. Akershus University Hospital, Norway. All women scheduled to give birth at the hospital (November 2008 to April 2010). Consenting women were handed a questionnaire at the routine ultrasound check at 17 weeks of gestation. Women returning this questionnaire received a second questionnaire at 32 weeks of gestation. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations with somatic, psychiatric and social factors. Rates and duration of sick leave. By 32 weeks of gestation, 63.2% of the 2918 women included were on sick leave, and 75.3% had been on sick leave at some point during their pregnancy. Pelvic girdle pain and fatigue/sleep problems were the main reasons given for sick leave. Being on sick leave in all trimesters was strongly associated with hyperemesis, exercising less than weekly, chronic pain before or during pregnancy, infertility treatment (all P workplace (both P pregnancy, but sick leave might not be caused by pregnancy alone. Previous medical and psychiatric history, work conditions and socio-economic factors need to be addressed to understand sick leave during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  17. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  18. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  19. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  20. Effects of errors in velocity tilt on maximum longitudinal compression during neutralized drift compression of intense beam pulses: I. general description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Massidda, Scottt; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-21

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the

  1. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions

  2. Habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos: um estudo longitudinal Cognitive abilities in older seniors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani I. de Lima Argimon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos longitudinais com idosos com mais de oitenta anos são escassos na literatura. A pesquisa foi delineada com o objetivo de analisar as modificações no perfil de algumas habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos, em dois momentos, com um intervalo de três anos. Pesquisa do tipo quantitativo, com delineamento longitudinal e prospectivo. A amostra, randômica, foi constituída por 66 indivíduos de 80 a 95 anos de idade na etapa I e, três anos após, na etapa II, por 46 idosos. Os instrumentos usados foram: Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Span de Números, Teste de Lembranças Livres e com Pistas de Buschke, Teste de Fluência Verbal - Categoria Animal. Houve uma pequena tendência de decréscimo no desempenho cognitivo em um período de três anos. Maior número de atividades de lazer e mais anos de escolaridade foram fatores preditivos de menor variação no desempenho cognitivo. Apesar da idade avançada, os idosos apresentaram um desempenho de habilidades cognitivas cujo declínio foi de intensidade leve, não sendo suficiente para acarretar mudanças significativas no seu padrão cognitivo.Longitudinal studies of older seniors (over 80 years are rare in the literature. This research was designed to study cognitive abilities in the oldest old at two different moments with a three-year interval. The research was quantitative, with a longitudinal and prospective design. The sample consisted of 66 individuals from 80 to 95 years of age, randomly selected for phase I, with 46 of these individuals tested again three years later, in phase II. The instruments used were: Geriatric Depression Scale, Subjective Perception of Memory Problems, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Buschke Test of Free and Cued Recall, and the Verbal Fluency Test - Animal Category. The results indicated that there was a small downward trend in the older

  3. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  4. Use of sugammadex on burn patients: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sánchez M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A burn patient is a challenge for any anesthesiologist, undergoing several surgeries during admission, and requiring general anesthesia and muscle relaxation most of the times. The victim may have respiratory system impairment and a response to muscle relaxants that differs from the healthy patient, thus proper monitoring and reversal is crucial. We analyzed sugammadex effectiveness and safety in this population. Materials and methods: It was a prospectively descriptive study, including 4 patients, and all of them were considered major burn patients, who underwent escharotomy with general anesthesia and neuromuscular relaxation. The main variable was the time for recovery of a TOF higher than 0.9 after the administration of sugammadex before extubation. Results: Mean time of recovery from a TOF ratio higher than 0.9 following the administration of Sugammadex was of 4.95 min 95% CI (3.25–6.64, p = .53. Conclusions: The reversion of neuromuscular relaxation with sugammadex appears to be effective and safe in the burn patient. More analytical, comparative studies of larger populations would be necessary to confirm these data. Resumo: Objetivos: O paciente queimado representa um desafio para o anestesiologista, pois submete-se a várias intervenções cirúrgicas durante sua hospitalização, necessitando de anestesia geral e relaxamento muscular na maior parte delas. Apresenta sistema respiratório comprometido e uma resposta aos relaxantes musculares que difere do paciente sadio; portanto, um monitoramento correto e reversão tornam-se imprescindíveis. Avaliamos a eficácia e segurança do sugamadex nesta população. Material e métodos: Estudo descritivo com caráter prospectivo que inclui quatro pacientes, todos eles considerados grandes queimados, submetidos a escarectomia com anestesia geral e relaxamento neuromuscular. Como variável principal tomou-se o tempo de recuperação de TOF superior a 0,9 após a administra

  5. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  6. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  10. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  11. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among schoolchildren in Cyprus: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratis, Sokratous; Christos, Ζilides; Despo, Panagi; Maria, Karanikola

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in the young constitute a public health issue. The current study aims to estimate: (a) the frequency of depressive symptoms in a sample of final grade elementary-school children in Cyprus, (b) the association among frequency of depressive symptoms, gender and nationality and, (c) the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the children's depression inventory (CDI). A descriptive cross-sectional study with internal comparison was performed. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was assessed with the CDI, which includes 5 subscales: depressive mood, interpersonal difficulties, ineffectiveness, anhedonia and negative self-esteem. Clinical depressive symptoms were reported as CDI score ≥19. CDI was anonymously and voluntarily completed by 439 schoolchildren [mean age 12.3 (±0.51) years old] from fifteen public elementary schools (217 boys and 222 girls), yielding a response rate of 58.2%. The metric properties of the CDI were assessed in terms of internal consistency reliability and construct validity via exploratory factor analysis (rotated and unrotated principal component analysis). Descriptive and inferential statistics were explored. 10.25% of Cypriot schoolchildren reported clinical depressive symptoms (CDI score ≥19). Statistically significant differences were reported between boys and girls in all five subscales of the CDI. Girls reported higher scores in "Depressive mood", "Negative self-esteem" and "Anhedonia" subscales, while boys scored higher in "Interpersonal difficulties" and "Ineffectiveness" subscales. There were no statistically significant differences among ethnicity groups regarding the entire CDI or the subscales of it. Concerning the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI, internal consistency reliability was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in five factors explaining 42% of the variance. The Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI is a reliable

  13. Perianesthesia Nurses Are My Second Family: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Julanne; Wood, Stacey; Bolton, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Tara; Stegenga, Kristin; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-12-01

    Identify the perceptions of perianesthesia nurses regarding behaviors that promote or detract from sustaining a safe, efficient, and satisfying work environment. Two focus groups and seven individual interviews (n=14) were conducted exploring the perceptions regarding team behavior of registered nurses in one pediatric perianesthesia unit. Qualitative descriptive data collection, inductive content analysis. Nurses described a responsive, engaged health care team whose leadership is available and directive when needed, as creating an effective, satisfying work environment. Primary themes that emerged were Leadership Sets the Tone, Playing Fair, No One Gets Hurt, and Why We Stay. This nursing team acknowledged that inattentive, distracted team members cause frustration, work inequities, and care delays, potentially undermining patient safety. Results demonstrate the need to create and sustain consistently respectful perianesthesia work cultures. Research focusing on unit specific approaches to work distribution, communication, leadership, and technology use is needed. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  15. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  16. Palliative sedation, not slow euthanasia: a prospective, longitudinal study of sedation in Flemish palliative care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Patricia; Menten, Johan; Schotsmans, Paul; Broeckaert, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Palliative sedation remains a much debated and controversial issue. The limited literature on the topic often fails to answer ethical questions concerning this practice. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients who are being sedated for refractory symptoms in palliative care units (PCUs) from the time of admission until the day of death. A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive design was used to assess data in eight PCUs. The total sample consisted of 266 patients. Information on demographics, medication, food and fluid intake, decision making, level of consciousness, and symptom experience were gathered by nurses and researchers three times a week. If patients received palliative sedation, extra information was gathered. Of all included patients (n=266), 7.5% received palliative sedation. Sedation started, on average, 2.5 days before death and for half of these patients, the form of sedation changed over time. At the start of sedation, patients were in the end stage of their illness and needed total care. Patients were fully conscious and had very limited oral food or fluid intake. Only three patients received artificial fluids at the start of sedation. Patients reported, on average, two refractory symptoms, the most important ones being pain, fatigue, depression, drowsiness, and loss of feeling of well-being. In all cases, the patient gave consent to start palliative sedation because of increased suffering. This study revealed that palliative sedation is only administered in exceptional cases where refractory suffering is evident and for those patients who are close to the ends of their lives. Moreover, this study supports the argument that palliative sedation has no life-shortening effect. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  18. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  19. Designing and implementing a longitudinal study of children with neurological, genetic or metabolic conditions: charting the territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Betty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with progressive metabolic, neurological, or chromosomal conditions and their families anticipate an unknown lifespan, endure unstable and often painful symptoms, and cope with erratic emotional and spiritual crises as the condition progresses along an uncertain trajectory towards death. Much is known about the genetics and pathophysiology of these diseases, but very little has been documented about the trajectory of symptoms for children with these conditions or the associated experience of their families. A longitudinal study design will help to close this gap in knowledge. Methods/Design Charting the Territory is a longitudinal descriptive, correlational study currently underway with children 0-19 years who are diagnosed with progressive neurological, metabolic, or chromosomal conditions and their families. The purpose of the study is to determine and document the clinical progression of the condition and the associated bio-psychosocial-spiritual experiences of the parents and siblings age 7-18 years. Approximately 300 families, both newly diagnosed children and those with established conditions, are being recruited in six Canadian cities. Children and their families are being followed for a minimum of 18 months, depending on when they enroll in the study. Family data collection will continue after the child's death if the child dies during the study period. Data collection includes monthly parental assessment of the child's symptoms; an annual functional assessment of the child; and completion of established instruments every 6 months by parents to assess family functioning, marital satisfaction, health status, anxiety, depression, stress, burden, grief, spirituality, and growth, and by siblings to assess coping and health. Impact of participation on parents is assessed after 1 year and at the end of the study. Chart reviews are conducted at enrollment and at the conclusion of the study or at the time of the

  20. Relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance: a cross-sectional and retrospective-longitudinal correlational cohort study in midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2015-01-01

    increasingly, reflection is highlighted as integral to core practice competencies but empirical research into the relationship between reflection and performance in the clinical workplace is scarce. this study investigated the relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance. we designed a cross-sectional and a retrospective-longitudinal cohort study. Data from first, second and third year midwifery students were collected to study the variables 'clinical performance' and 'reflection ability'. Data were analysed with SPSS for Windows, Release 20.0. Descriptive statistics, Pearson׳s Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) and r² values were computed to investigate associations between the research variables. the results showed a moderate observed correlation between reflection ability and clinical performance scores. When adopting a cross-sectional perspective, all correlation values were significant (p0.6). The results based on the retrospective-longitudinal data set explained a moderate proportion of the variance after correction for attenuation. Finally, the results indicate that 'reflection ability' scores of earlier years are significant related with 'clinical performance' scores of subsequent years. These results suggest that (1) reflection ability is linked to clinical performance; (2) that written reflections are an important, but not the sole way to assess professional competence and that (3) reflection is a contributor to clinical performance improvement. the data showed a moderate but significant relationship between 'reflection ability' and 'clinical performance' scores in clinical practice of midwifery students. Reflection therefore seems an important component of professional competence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  2. A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; San Miguel, Claudia; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica M

    2012-02-01

    In 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating violence as potential consequences of violent video game exposure using well-validated clinical outcome measures and controlling for other relevant predictors of youth aggression. A sample of 165, mainly Hispanic youth, were tested at 3 intervals, an initial interview, and 1-year and 3-year intervals. Results indicated that exposure to video game violence was not related to any of the negative outcomes. Depression, antisocial personality traits, exposure to family violence and peer influences were the best predictors of aggression-related outcomes. The current study supports a growing body of evidence pointing away from video game violence use as a predictor of youth aggression. Public policy efforts, including funding, would best be served by redirecting them toward other prevention programs for youth violence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  4. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sang, B.; Deng, X.; Luan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion

  5. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  6. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  7. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes? : a descriptive study of teacher activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson - Hessler, M.G.M.; Jong, de T.

    1993-01-01

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of

  8. A Service Member's Self in Transition : A Longitudinal Case Study Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a narrative approach with a dialogical framework, a longitudinal case study is presented that describes a service member's self in transition from active service into the civilian population. An analysis and interpretation of the case study leads to the hypothesis that if a dominant

  9. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study

  10. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  11. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  12. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  14. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  15. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors : A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374886970; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors.

  16. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  17. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  18. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  19. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the

  20. Longitudinal Examination of Aggression and Study Skills from Middle to High School: Implications for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. Methods: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  2. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  3. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  4. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  5. The Need for Large-Scale, Longitudinal Empirical Studies in Middle Level Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Steven B.; Caskey, Micki M.; Flowers, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes and discusses the ongoing need for large-scale, longitudinal, empirical research studies focused on middle grades education. After a statement of the problem and concerns, the essay describes and critiques several prior middle grades efforts and research studies. Recommendations for future research efforts to inform policy…

  6. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  7. Empathy and Extracurricular Involvement in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Flege, Matthew; Thompson, Martie P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Perspective Taking subscale scores for male college students in a 2008-2011 longitudinal study at a large public university in the Southeast. Findings suggest that empathy is amenable to change among college males in the period of emerging adulthood. Through repeated measures analyses…

  8. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being Among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Meerkerk, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15

  9. Serum albumin and muscle strength: a longitudinal study in older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, B.W.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Visser, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether low serum albumin is associated with low muscle strength and future decline in muscle strength in community-dwelling older men and women. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred seventy-six women

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  11. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  12. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...) of the U.S. Department of Education (ED), is a survey that focuses on children's early school... child assessments. Like its sister study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of..., early learning, and school progress, drawing together information from multiple sources to provide rich...

  13. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  14. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P.; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M[subscript age] 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed…

  15. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  16. Weaner production with low antimicrobial usage: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health, productivity and antimicrobial use in the production of pigs are expected to be interrelated to some extent. Previous studies on register-based data have investigated these correlations with a subsequent large variation residing at the farm level. In order to study such farm f...

  17. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  18. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  19. A micromechanical study of porous composites under longitudinal shear and transverse normal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of porous unidirectional composites under transverse normal and longitudinal shear loading is studied using the finite element analysis. The 3D model includes discrete and random distribution of fibers and voids. The micromechanical failure mechanisms are taken into account....... Finally, the computational prediction of the porous composite in the transverse normal-longitudinal shear stress space is obtained and compared with Puck's model. The results show that both interfaces with low fracture toughness and microvoids with even small void volume fraction can significantly reduce...

  20. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid at 3 months of age. Conclusions: Plasma levels of several small, polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid....

  1. A Comparative Study on Fatigue Life Optimization of the Intersection between a Longitudinal and a Webframe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk-Sørensen, Martin

    1996-01-01

    to improve the design. A new improved slot for the longitudinal intersection in the web plate is found on the basis of a shape optimization of the conventional slot. The new slot has an unique shape (tongue form) resulting in a stress relaxation around the slot. Both the conventional and the new slot...... structure were analyzed by FEM followed by fatigue life calculations and subsequently compared. The overall expected fatigue life for the shape optimized slot will increase by approximately 12 %. The results were compared with an another study concerning a slot for a T-longitudinal....

  2. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Katherine A; Clément, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model) to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic) are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly). It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1) perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2) understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman). In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  3. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Collins

    Full Text Available Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly. It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1 perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2 understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman. In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  4. Pathologically confirmed breast cancer in Malawi: a descriptive study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-12

    Mar 12, 2015 ... Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Africa, yet no published studies have ... receptor (HR) negative. However, HR ... to develop early diagnosis efforts to address high mortality rates. .... High Incidence of Triple-.

  5. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  6. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman's work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. A Descriptive Study of Music Teacher Educators' Beliefs about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carla E.; Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    While policies at all levels affect music educators, and music education researchers have called for increased attention to policy issues, few have explored preservice music teacher educators' beliefs about policy. This study examined music teacher educators' (N = 81) familiarity with and attitudes toward contemporary education and music education…

  8. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of ...

  9. A Descriptive Study on EFL Learners' Perceptions of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong need to investigate English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' perceptions of Facebook as a language-learning environment, as their perceptions that directly influence their language development and achievement have not been examined within the EFL learning context. Thus, this study aims to investigate EFL learners'…

  10. A Descriptive Study of Differing School Health Delivery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sherri I.; Maughan, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify and describe emerging models of school health services. Participants (N = 11) provided information regarding their models in semistructured phone interviews. Results identified a variety of funding sources as well as different staffing configurations and supervision. Strengths of…

  11. Dutch transmural nurse clinics for chronic patients: a descriptive study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, D.; Francke, A.L.; Kerkstra, A.; Huyer Abu-Saad, H.

    2000-01-01

    'Transmural care' can be defined as patient-tailored care provided on the basis of close collaboration and joint responsibility between hospitals and home care organizations. One form of transmural care is transmural nurse clinics for chronically ill. This study describes 62 transmural nurse clinics

  12. Exacerbations of asthma - A descriptive study of 425 severe exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersfield, AE; Postma, DS; Barnes, PJ; Svensson, K; Bauer, CA; O'Byrne, PM; Lofdahl, CG; Pauwels, RA; Ullman, A

    The identification, prevention, and prompt treatment of exacerbations are major objectives of asthma management. We looked at change in PEF, symptoms, and use of rescue p-agonists during the 425 severe exacerbations that occurred during a 12-mo parallel group study (FACET) in which low and high

  13. Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa I. Waly

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman.Methods: This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat.Conclusion: Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  14. Nutritional practices of athletes in oman: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Kilani, Hashem A; Al-Busafi, Majid S

    2013-09-01

    Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  15. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gyenwali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER form. Results A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5% for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population, women (77.53/100000 population and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population. Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0% and rodenticides (20.8%. The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3% and pyrethroids (36.7%. Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. Conclusions This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  16. Weaner production with low antimicrobial usage: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health, productivity and antimicrobial use in the production of pigs are expected to be interrelated to some extent. Previous studies on register-based data have investigated these correlations with a subsequent large variation residing at the farm level. In order to study such farm...... factors in more detail we designed an elaborate interview-guide. By in-depth interviews of farmers with well-managed 7-30 kg (weaner) productions we sought to describe a set of common key-factors characterizing their management practices. Identification of such common practices could be used in follow......-up projects, investigating whether identified factors really are characteristic for good-practicing famers.Results: Eleven farms were selected for a farm visit and in-depth interview. Participating farms used less antimicrobials than the national median (8.2 animal daily doses/100 weaners/day), had...

  17. Female Sexual Homicide Offenders: A Descriptive and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skott, Sara; Beauregard, Eric; Darjee, Rajan

    2018-04-23

    Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests. The findings show that although female sexual homicide offenders are similar to both female nonsexual homicide offenders and male sexual homicide offenders in certain aspects, there are important differences that distinguish sexual homicides involving female offenders from both groups. Female sexual homicide offenders can arguably be seen as a distinct group of offenders, with specific characteristics and specific needs. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Nailfold video capillaroscopy in Turner syndrome: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho,Simone C. S.; Ramos,Andressa D.; Pinheiro,Virgínia S.; Solberg,Paulo F. C.; Faria,Janaina P. de; Naliato,Erika C. O.; Fernandes,Therezinha J.; Guimarães,Marília M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of impaired glucose homeostasis is reported in Turner syndrome. Endothelial changes are described in patients with insulin resistance, which may be present in patients with Turner syndrome. Video capillaroscopy is a noninvasive examination that allows assessment of vascular patency. OBJECTIVE: To describe the nailfold morphology of capillaries in Turner syndrome using video capillaroscopy. METHODS: Subjects were studied in a temperature-controlled room, 20 ...

  19. Workplace bullying in the OR: Results of a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Esther; Stelmaschuk, Stephanie; Albert, Nancy M; Bernhard, Linda; Holloman, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the incidence of workplace bullying among perioperative RNs, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel in two academic medical centers. The study sought to determine whether the demographic variables of gender, ethnicity, hospital, years of experience on the unit, years in the profession, and job title predict the experience of workplace bullying; whether a relationship exists between workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion; and whether bullying is associated with perceptions of patient safety in the OR. The cross-sectional design included perioperative nurses, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel (N = 167). Fifty-nine percent of the study participants reported witnessing coworker bullying weekly, and 34% reported at least two bullying acts weekly. Having one's opinion ignored is the most common bullying act, with 28% of respondents experiencing being ignored. Differences in the experience of bullying can be found between hospitals and among ethnicities. Emotional exhaustion also was correlated with bullying. The participants did not perceive bullying as affecting patient safety. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relation between Mastery Goals and Intrinsic Motivation among University Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Sonja; Reindl, Marion; Dresel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The present work broadens previous research on students' mastery goals and intrinsic motivation by exploring their reciprocal effects using a longitudinal approach. To this end, a study using four measurement points was conducted during 10 weeks of one semester. The sample comprised 1156 students enrolled in psychology courses at a medium-sized…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  2. Basic Aspects of Infant-Grandparent "Interaction": An Eight-Month Longitudinal and Naturalistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…

  3. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  4. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  5. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  6. Variations in Student Perceptions of Service Quality of Higher Education Institutions in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Domingos Fernandes; dos Santos, Guido Salvi; Castro, Felipe Nalon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, through a longitudinal study, undergraduate student perceptions of service expectations, priorities and quality of the higher education institution that they attend, using an importance-performance rating matrix. Design/methodology/approach: This research was carried out with students exposed to a…

  7. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control

  8. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  9. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  10. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  11. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  12. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  13. What Happens to a Nursing Home Chain When Private Equity Takes Over? A Longitudinal Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Harrington, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5

  14. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  15. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Laterality Expression and Teacher Evaluation of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Sarah S.

    1978-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study conducted to assess the incidence of mixed laterality in elementary school children showed that thirty-seven percent of the eighty-two subjects had mixed laterality. No relationship was found between perceptual motor and academic achievement as measured by teacher ratings and mixed laterality. (MF)

  17. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  18. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING AFTER TREATMENT FOR CANCER OF THE CERVIX - A COMPARATIVE AND LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULTZ, WCMW; VANDEWIEL, HBM; BOUMA, J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six couples participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of sexual functioning before and after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix. Sexual functioning was measured on admission prior to their treatment and at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up and made operational in terms of current sexual

  19. Changes in Domain Specific Self-Perception amongst Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…

  20. Predictors of Reading Skills for Kindergartners and First Grade Students in Spanish: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…

  1. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  2. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  3. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  4. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  5. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  6. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…

  7. Ten Years On: A Longitudinal Study of Families of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results of a longitudinal, ethnographic study of the psychosocial adaptation of parents of children with autism. Most parents reported improvements in their psychological well being, the social experiences of their immediate family, and their relations with their extended family. They also reported changes in stressful…

  8. The Effects of CLIL on Oral Comprehension and Production: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa; Lancaster, Nina Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a longitudinal case study to gauge the impact of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) on two of the least researched language skills: oral comprehension and production. It worked with 24 students in the fourth grade of Compulsory Secondary Education in a public school in Andalusia (southern Spain)…

  9. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  10. Attachment and Infant Night Waking: A Longitudinal Study From Birth Through the First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Jansen, J.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Night wakings are common in infancy. Although a link between infant night wakings and attachment to the primary caregiver has been previously proposed, empirical support is limited so far. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the early history of night waking in infants who

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  12. The Relationship between Early Language, Cognitive and Social Development through a Longitudinal Study of Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tamiko

    The development of and relationship between early language, symbolic play, sensorimotor skills, and social development were examined in a longitudinal study conducted in Japan with two young autistic males who were observed from the approximate ages of 2 to 4 years in clinic, day care, and home settings. One child acquired speech; the other did…

  13. Immigrant Status, Gender, and School Burnout in Finnish Lower Secondary School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Minkkinen, Jaana; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Rimpelä, Arja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study among 9223 students from grade 7 and grade 9 (age 13-14 and 15-16) was to assess whether immigrant status and gender are associated with the level and change (slope) in school burnout among lower secondary school students in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Ninety-seven percent of the variation in school burnout…

  14. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  15. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  16. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  17. Age, intelligence, and event-related brain potentials during late childhood: A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Molen, M.W.; Stauder, J.E.A.

    2003-01-01

    he relation between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence was studied using a visual oddball task presented longitudinally to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. The event-related brain potential (ERP) components showed typical gradual decrements in latency and amplitude with

  18. "A Writer More than . . . A Child": A Longitudinal Study Examining Adolescent Writer Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jayne C.; Marsh, Valerie L.

    2018-01-01

    This article reconsiders theoretical claims of identity fluidity, stability, and agency through a longitudinal case study investigating one adolescent's writing over time and across spaces. Qualitative data spanning her four years of high school were collected and analyzed using a grounded theory approach with literacy-and-identity theory…

  19. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  20. Video-Based Interaction, Negotiation for Comprehensibility, and Second Language Speech Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Akiyama, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video-based conversational interaction on the longitudinal development (one academic semester) of second language production by college-level Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners. Students in the experimental group engaged in weekly dyadic conversation exchanges with native speakers in the United States…

  1. Reckoning HIV/AIDS care: A longitudinal study of community home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better understand the potential significance of global and national health policy/programming reliance on community health workers (task shifting), we analysed longitudinal data on both care supporter and client cohorts from 2008 to 2013. Most CHBC studies report data from only one cohort. Foremost, our analysis ...

  2. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  3. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  4. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  5. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  6. The Importance of Additive Reasoning in Children's Mathematical Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relative importance of counting ability, additive reasoning, and working memory in children's mathematical achievement (calculation and story problem solving). In Hong Kong, 115 Chinese children aged 6 years old participated in 2 waves of assessments (T1 = first grade and T2 = second grade). Multiple regression…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)

  9. Removed from the List: A Comparative Longitudinal Case Study of a Reconstitution-Eligible School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Ruby, Allen; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal case study of reform efforts centering on the Talent Development Middle School model at low-performing, high-poverty middle school in Philadelphia. Finds that student gains in mathematics, science, and reading achievement at subject school exceeded that of students in comparable school. (Contains 19 references.) (PKP)

  10. The contingency of intermedia agenda setting: a longitudinal study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2008-01-01

    This large-scale study investigates how intermedia agenda-setting effects are moderated by five factors: (1) lag length; (2) medium type; (3) language/institutional barriers; (4) issue type; and (5) election or non-election context. Longitudinal analyses of daily attention to twenty-five issues in

  11. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  12. Interpersonal stress, performance level, and parental support : A Longitudinal study among highly skilled young soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.

  13. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  14. Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction Effects from First through Third Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Randall J.; Burton, Jennifer Lyn; Silberg, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-year longitudinal study, the authors examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) on students' reading achievement, teacher perceptions, nature of the classroom, and special education referral rate. Urban and suburban students completed the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests in the fall of Grade 1 and spring of Grades 1, 2, and 3. Teachers…

  15. Developmental Associations between Working Memory and Language in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Hendriks, Marc; Cuperus, Juliane; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined differences in the development of working memory (WM) between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Further, it explored to what extent language at ages 7-8 years could be predicted by measures of language and/or WM at ages 4-5 years. Method: Thirty…

  16. Relationship between Screen-Time and Motor Proficiency in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Lemay, Lise; Lehrer, Joanne; Lemire, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between screen time (ST) and children's motor proficiency. The amount of time 113 children spent watching television, using a computer, and playing video games as reported by parents at ages 4, 5, and 7 was measured and children's motor skills were evaluated at age 7 with the…

  17. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  18. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  19. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  20. Longitudinal genetic study of verbal and nonverbal IQ from early childhood to young adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7,

  1. Effects of attitude dissimilarity and time on social integration : A longitudinal panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    A longitudinal panel study in 25 work groups of elementary school teachers examined the effect of attitudinal dissimilarity and time on social integration across a 9-month period. In line with the prediction based on both the similarity-attraction approach and social identity theory, cross-lagged

  2. DNA methylation age is associated with mortality in a longitudinal Danish twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene; Lenart, Adam; Tan, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    included a 10-year longitudinal study of the 86 oldest-old twins (mean age of 86.1 at follow-up), which subsequently were followed for mortality for 8 years. We found that the DNAm age is highly correlated with chronological age across all age groups (r = 0.97), but that the rate of change of DNAm age...

  3. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the

  4. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Resting State Functional Connectivity in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkemeijer, Anne; Möller, Christiane; Dopper, Elise G P; Jiskoot, Lize C; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A; van Swieten, John C; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Vrenken, Hugo; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Grond, Jeroen; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. We applied longitudinal resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to delineate functional brain connections relevant for disease progression and diagnostic accuracy. We used two-center resting state fMRI data of 20 AD patients (65.1±8.0 years), 12 bvFTD patients (64.7±5.4 years), and 22 control subjects (63.8±5.0 years) at baseline and 1.8-year follow-up. We used whole-network and voxel-based network-to-region analyses to study group differences in functional connectivity at baseline and follow-up, and longitudinal changes in connectivity within and between groups. At baseline, connectivity between paracingulate gyrus and executive control network, between cuneal cortex and medial visual network, and between paracingulate gyrus and salience network was higher in AD compared with controls. These differences were also present after 1.8 years. At follow-up, connectivity between angular gyrus and right frontoparietal network, and between paracingulate gyrus and default mode network was lower in bvFTD compared with controls, and lower compared with AD between anterior cingulate gyrus and executive control network, and between lateral occipital cortex and medial visual network. Over time, connectivity decreased in AD between precuneus and right frontoparietal network and in bvFTD between inferior frontal gyrus and left frontoparietal network. Longitudinal changes in connectivity between supramarginal gyrus and right frontoparietal network differ between both patient groups and controls. We found disease-specific brain regions with longitudinal connectivity changes. This suggests the potential of longitudinal resting state fMRI to delineate regions relevant for disease progression and for diagnostic accuracy, although no group differences in longitudinal changes in the direct comparison of AD and bvFTD were found.

  6. Being a quantitative interviewer: qualitatively exploring interviewers' experiences in a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrett Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinal study in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS. Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months. Key themes were: 1 the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback, 2 difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support, and 3 meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy. Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in

  7. Removable denture-related oral mucosal lesions: descriptive clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Akçiçek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between removable denture-related oral mucosal lesions and denture type, and demographic characteristics. Materials and Method: The age, sex, denture type, systemic condition and medication use, presence of denture-related oral mucosal lesions (DROML, their locations and patients’ awareness of above mentioned lesions were recorded for 199 patients. Pearson chi-square test was used to analyse the relationship between the DROML and denture type, and demographic characteristics of the patients. Results: Among the patients included to the study, 122 (61.3% were female and 77 (38.7% were male. Ninety-six patients (48.2% exhibited DROML, whereas 103 patients (51.8% had no DROML. No relationship was detected between DROML and age, and sex (p>0.05. The most commonly detected DROML was denture stomatitis (34.7%. Denture stomatitis was significantly more frequently seen in partial denture wearers (p<0.05, while epulis fissuratum and flabby ridge were statistically more frequent in complete denture wearers (p<0.001. Traumatic ulcer was more frequently found in mandibular complete denture wearers (p<0.05, while epulis fissuratum and flabby ridge were significantly more common in maxillary complete denture wearers (p<0.001. Among the patients with DROML, 57.3% stated that they were unaware of these lesions. Conclusion: In this study sample, the rate of DROML was high in patients wearing removable dentures (48.2%, and more than half of the patients with DROML were not aware of these lesions. Upon these findings, it is considered that removable denture wearers should follow the denture usage instructions and should be informed about the importance of periodic controls.

  8. Dysphonia in adults with developmental stuttering: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Anél; Ras, Elizbé; Abdoola, Shabnam; Van der Linde, Jeannie

    2017-06-26

    Persons with stuttering (PWS) often present with other co-occurring conditions. The World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) proposes that it is important to understand the full burden of a health condition. A few studies have explored voice problems among PWS, and the characteristics of voices of PWS are relatively unknown. The importance of conducting future research has been emphasised. This study aimed to describe the vocal characteristics of PWS. Acoustic and perceptual data were collected during a comprehensive voice assessment. The severity of stuttering was also determined. Correlations between the stuttering severity instrument (SSI) and the acoustic measurements were evaluated to determine the significance. Twenty participants were tested for this study. Only two participants (10%) obtained a positive Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) score of 1.6 or higher, indicating that no dysphonia was present, while 90% of participants (n = 18) scored lower than 1.6, indicating that those participants presented with dysphonia. Some participants presented with weakness (asthenia) of voice (35%), while 65% presented with a slightly strained voice quality. Moderately positive correlations between breathiness and SSI (r = 0.40, p = 0.08) have been reported. In addition, participants with high SSI scores also scored a poor DSI of below 1.6, as observed by a moderate positive correlation between SSI and DSI (r = 0.41). The majority of PWS presented with dysphonia, evident in the perceptual or acoustic parameters of their voices. These results can be used for further investigation to create awareness and to establish intervention strategies for voice disorders among PWS.

  9. [Giant-cell arteritis: a descriptive study in southwestern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Romero, J M; Magro Ledesma, D; Ramos Salado, J L; Bureo Dacal, J C; de Dios Arrebola García, J; Bureo Dacal, P; Pérez Miranda, M

    2000-02-01

    To study the clinical and laboratory features of a series of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) or temporal arteritis in south-western Spain (Extremadura). Retrospective study of 25 patients with GCA diagnosed by temporal artery biopsy between 1990 and 1998. Nine patients were males and 16 (64%) females. Sixteen cases (64%) presented polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Other clinical findings were: fever/febricula (64%), constitutional syndrome (64%), new headache (96%), visual symptoms (48%), jaw claudication (17%) and abnormal temporal arteries (17%). All patients had an ESR of more than 50 mm/hour and a raised C-reactive protein. Thirteen patients (52%) had anemia (hemoglobin level < 12 g/dl). Eleven cases (44%) presented a platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3. Four patients (16%) had an elevated AST and/or ALT levels and 8 patients (32%) had an elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase levels. In patients with PMR, there was a higher frequency of constitutional syndrome (81 vs 33%, p = 0.02). In females, there was a higher frequency of anemia (75 vs 11%, p < 0.01), platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3 (75 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated AST and/or ALT (25 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase (50 vs 0%, p < 0.01) levels. The clinical and laboratory features of GCA in our series of patients in south-western Spain are similar to that described in other spanish populations, with the exception of a slightly higher frequency of PMR and a lower frequency of jaw claudication and abnormal temporal arteries. In our study, the clinical picture of GCA was more severe in patients with PMR and in females.

  10. Nurses’ Knowledge Levels of Chest Drain Management: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Tarhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The physician is responsible for inserting one or more chest tubes into the pleural space or the mediastinal space and connecting them to an appropriate drainage system. When the general principles about care of patients with chest drains were implemented correctly and effectively by nurses, nurse will contribute to accelerate the healing process of patients. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the nurses’ level of knowledge regarding the care of patients with chest drains. Methods: The study was conducted with 153 nurses who worked in a chest diseases and thoracic surgery hospital in July 2014. Questionnaire form of 35 questions prepared by investigators was used to collect data. For the analysis of results, frequency tests, independent sample t-test and oneway ANOVA test were used. Results: 69.3% of nurses stated that they had obtained information from colleguages. 35.3% considered their knowledge about chest drain management to be inadequate. 55.6% scored 13 points and above from knowledge questionnaire about chest drain management. There were statistically significant difference between knowledge level and educational background, clinic work type, working unit, years of professional experience and institutional experience, frequency of contact patients with chest drain and perception of knowledge level (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that lack of evidence-based nursing care and insufficient training has resulted in uncertainty and knowledge deficit in important aspects of chest drain care. It can be concluded that nurses receive training needs and training protocols are about chest drain management.

  11. Rugae pattern determination in periodontitis patients: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forensic sciences, a well-established branch in the field of medicine and dentistry always aids in revealing person identity by various methods. Commonly used techniques are analysis of teeth, fingerprints, and DNA comparison, which allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, these techniques cannot always be applied, in some cases, it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the uniqueness of palatal rugae pattern in Himachal ethnicity population and whether there is any relation between pattern of rugae in gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, and aggressive periodontitis. Settings and Design: The present study includes maxillary impressions cast in dental stone of patients attending and were divided into three groups of gingivitis, aggressive periodontitis, and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In our study, palatal rugae pattern were then evaluated on maxillary casts for the number and shape using calcorrugoscopy. Statistical Analysis: Comparison of means of number of rugae in three groups was done using independent sample t-test, and comparison of mean of different shapes was done employing analysis of variance. The level of significance was fixed at P< 0.05. Results: The most prevalent palatal rugae shape in aggressive periodontitis was found to be angle followed by Sinuous and in chronic and aggressive periodontitis was sinuous followed by line pattern. Conclusions: The differences in rugae shape between the three groups may be attributed to genetic factors, disease progression, and recent shared ancestry has probably rendered their differences to moderate levels.

  12. Study population, questionnaire, data management and sample description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara de Waure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article describes methodological issues of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk", a multicenter study aimed at assessing the health status and attitudes and behaviours of university students in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire used to carry out the study was adapted from the Italian health behaviours in school-aged children (HBSC project and consisted of 93 items addressing: demographics; nutritional habits and status; physical activity; lifestyles; reproductive and preconception health; health and satisfaction of life; attitudes and behaviours toward academic study and new technologies. The questionnaire was administered to a pool of 12 000 students from 18 to 30 years of age who voluntary decided to participate during classes held at different Italian faculties or at the three "Sportello Salute Giovani" centers which were established in the three sites of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome. RESULTS: The final study sample was composed by 8516 university students. The mean age of responders was 22.2 (Standard Deviation 2.0 and 5702 (67.0% were females. According to the distribution in age classes, 3601 (43.3% belonged to the 18-21 one, 3796 (44.5% to the 22-24 class and 1019 (12.2% to the 25-30 class. With respect to socio-economic status, data were available for 8410 responders and showed that 50.3% of students belonged to the middle class. DISCUSSION: The project took into consideration a large number of individuals from different regions of the country and therefore may be considered representative of the general population of Italian university students. Furthermore, it is the first to address, at the same time, several issues, in particular attitudes and behaviours toward health, in Italian university students. CONCLUSION: The analysis of data from such a large sample of university students sets the basis for

  13. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work : a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45–64, of the longitudinal Study on

  14. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  15. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, J.F.; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  16. Sustaining Continuous Improvement: A Longitudinal and Regional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Quesada-Pineda

    2013-09-01

    companies, no changes in perception were found during the period of study for any of the factors. For the other two, however, changes were perceived in at least one of the five constructs in the study. Changes were also found across the regions included. By leveraging the quantitative analysis with qualitative data collected through interviews and visits to the case study companies, we were able to explain the changes in perception and single out the best CI management process to sustain CI in the long term.

  17. Dysphonia in adults with developmental stuttering: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anél Botha

    2017-06-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to describe the vocal characteristics of PWS. Method: Acoustic and perceptual data were collected during a comprehensive voice assessment. The severity of stuttering was also determined. Correlations between the stuttering severity instrument (SSI and the acoustic measurements were evaluated to determine the significance. Twenty participants were tested for this study. Result: Only two participants (10% obtained a positive Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI score of 1.6 or higher, indicating that no dysphonia was present, while 90% of participants (n = 18 scored lower than 1.6, indicating that those participants presented with dysphonia. Some participants presented with weakness (asthenia of voice (35%, while 65% presented with a slightly strained voice quality. Moderately positive correlations between breathiness and SSI (r = 0.40, p = 0.08 have been reported. In addition, participants with high SSI scores also scored a poor DSI of below 1.6, as observed by a moderate positive correlation between SSI and DSI (r = 0.41. Conclusion: The majority of PWS presented with dysphonia, evident in the perceptual or acoustic parameters of their voices. These results can be used for further investigation to create awareness and to establish intervention strategies for voice disorders among PWS.

  18. Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Depression : A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. E.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is

  19. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  20. Ethical problems and moral sensitivity in physiotherapy: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulju, Kati; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2013-08-01

    This study identified and described ethical problems encountered by physiotherapists in their practice and physiotherapists' moral sensitivity in ethical situations. A questionnaire-based survey was constructed to identify ethical problems, and the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire Revised version was used to measure moral sensitivity. Physiotherapists (n = 116) working in public health services responded to the questionnaire. Based on the results, most of the physiotherapists encounter ethical problems weekly. They concern mainly financial considerations, equality and justice, professionalism, unethical conduct of physiotherapists or other professions and patients' self-determination. The dimension of moral strength was emphasised in physiotherapists' self-evaluations of their moral sensitivity. As a conclusion, ethical problems do occur not only at individual level but also at organisational and society level. Physiotherapists seem to have moral strength for speaking on behalf of the patient. Scarce resources make them feel insufficient but much could still be done to provide quality care in co-operation with other health-care professionals.

  1. Descriptive study of the quality control in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Perdigon C, G.M.; Casian C, G.A.; Azorin N, J.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Arreola, M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of mammography is to provide contrast between a lesion that is possible residing within the breast and normal surrounding tissue. Quality control is essential for maintaining the contrast imaging performance of a mammography system and incorporate tests that are relevant in that they are predictive of future degradation of contrast imaging performance. These tests will also be done at frequency that is high enough to intercept most drifts in quality imaging or performance before they become diagnostically significant. The quality control study has as objective to describe the results of the assessment of quality imaging elements (film optical density, contrast (density difference), uniformity, resolution and noise) of 62 mammography departments without quality control program and comparison these results with a mammography reference department with a quality control program. When comparing the results they allow seeing the clinical utility of to have a quality control program to reduce the errors of mammography interpretation. (Author)

  2. Descriptive Study of Patients Receiving Excision and Radiotherapy for Keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranza, Giovanna; Sultanem, Khalil M.D.; Muanza, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review and describe our institution's outcomes in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy after keloid excision. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study. Patients who received radiotherapy between July 1994 and January 2004 after keloid excision were identified. A questionnaire was mailed regarding sociodemographic factors, early and late radiation toxicities, the need for additional therapy, and satisfaction level. All patients had received a total of 15 Gy in three daily 5-Gy fractions. Treatment started within 24 h after surgery and was delivered on a Siemens orthovoltage machine. The data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package. Results: A total of 234 patients were approached. The response rate was 41%, and 75% were female. The mean age was 36.5 years (range, 16-69 years). The patients were mainly of European (53.1%) or African (19.8%) descent. For early toxicity outcomes, 54.2% reported skin redness and 24% reported skin peeling. For late toxicity outcomes, 27% reported telangiectasia and 62% reported permanent skin color changes. No association was found with gender, skin color, or age for the late toxicity outcomes. Of the patients responding, 14.6% required adjuvant treatment. On a visual scale of 1-10 for the satisfaction level, 60% reported a satisfaction level of ≥8. Telangiectasia was the most significant predictor of a low satisfaction level (≤3, p < 0.005). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that orthovoltage-based radiotherapy after surgical excision for keloids is a good method for the prevention of relapse. It is well tolerated, causes little toxicity, and leads to a high patient satisfaction level

  3. A descriptive study of plasma cell dyscrasias in Egyptian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, N.M.; Kassem, H.A.; EL Zawam, H.; EL Nahas, T.; Abd El Azeeim, H.; Abd El Azeeim; El Husseiny, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) refer to a spectrum of disorders characterized by the monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and, sometimes, tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their components. These disorders include multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, as well as rare conditions such as light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and heavy-chain diseases (HCDs). The worldwide annual incidence of MM is estimated at 86,000, which is approximately 0.8% of all new cancer cases. Purpose: Our retrospective study aims to highlight the immunologic and epidemiological features of PCDs mainly MM in Egyptian patients and compare our results with those of other populations. Methods: Two hundred seventeen Egyptian patients with PCD were enrolled in the study. Serum, urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation were used to demonstrate M protein. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients (63.6%) had IgG monoclonal band, 38 patients (17.5%) had IgA, 12 patients (5.5%) had Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (IgM monoclonal band) and 29 patients (13.4%) were light chain myeloma. One hundred fifty-one (70%) were Kappa chain positive and 66 patients (30%) were lumbda positive. Conventional cytogenetics was available for 40 patients; of them12 patients (30%) showed 13q-. Mean OS was 37.5 months (1-84 months). Survival analysis was statistically insignificant according to age, sex and ISS or type of treatment (P value >0.05). Conclusion: Long term follow up is required to further define the role of different therapeutic lines of treatment including ASCT in the various stages of PCD based on OS data.

  4. A descriptive study of plasma cell dyscrasias in Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Neemat M; El Zawam, Hamdy; Kassem, Heba A; El Nahas, Tamer; El Husseiny, Noha M; El Azeeim, Hamdy Abd

    2014-06-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) refer to a spectrum of disorders characterized by the monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and, sometimes, tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their components. These disorders include multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, as well as rare conditions such as light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and heavy-chain diseases (HCDs). The worldwide annual incidence of MM is estimated at 86,000, which is approximately 0.8% of all new cancer cases. Our retrospective study aims to highlight the immunologic and epidemiological features of PCDs mainly MM in Egyptian patients and compare our results with those of other populations. Two hundred seventeen Egyptian patients with PCD were enrolled in the study. Serum, urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation were used to demonstrate M protein. One hundred thirty-eight patients (63.6%) had IgG monoclonal band, 38 patients (17.5%) had IgA, 12 patients (5.5%) had Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (IgM monoclonal band) and 29 patients (13.4%) were light chain myeloma. One hundred fifty-one (70%) were Kappa chain positive and 66 patients (30%) were lumbda positive. Conventional cytogenetics was available for 40 patients; of them12 patients (30%) showed 13q-. Mean OS was 37.5months (1-84months). Survival analysis was statistically insignificant according to age, sex and ISS or type of treatment (P value>0.05). Long term follow up is required to further define the role of different therapeutic lines of treatment including ASCT in the various stages of PCD based on OS data. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Nurses' Work Environment and Spirituality: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zastrow Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of care is a major health concern in the hospital setting. A work environment thatsupports professional nursing as well as the spirituality of nurses, or the meaning/purpose nurses find intheir work may contribute to quality of patient care. Yet, little is known about the nursing workenvironment and even less about the spirituality of nurses. Thus, the aims of this study were to measuremedical-surgical nurses’ perceived professional work environment score and perceived spiritual well-beingscore and determine if the two instruments are related. This cross-sectional survey consisted of aconvenience sample of 68 nurses who completed the Professional Practice Environment Scale (PPE andSpiritual Well-Being Scale (SWB on the hospital website during working hours. Several PPE subscalescores differed significantly among the various clinical units. As the nurse’s age, and years of clinicalexperience increased, specific PPE subscale scores also increased. The nurses’ mean SWB scores were allwithin the moderate range and did not differ significantly among the clinical units. The overall PPE andSWB scores were not significantly correlated. Nursing administrators can use the PPE scores from thisstudy to address the specific needs of individual clinical units. Older and more experienced nurses mayserve as resources for younger, less experienced nurses. Both instruments can be administered repeatedlyover time to monitor trends. Based on the SWB data, nurses in this study reported average levels ofspiritual well-being. However, there is a need to learn more about the specific spiritual needs of nurses.Spirituality of nurses as well as the nurse’s work environment are separate concepts that each merit furtherinvestigation and may add to the knowledge base for increased quality patient care.

  6. Understanding developmental language disorder - the Helsinki longitudinal SLI study (HelSLI): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Smolander, Sini; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Leminen, Miika; Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Heinonen, Kati; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Bailey, Todd M; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Kujala, Teija; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Bartlett, Christopher W; Geneid, Ahmed; Lauronen, Leena; Service, Elisabet; Kunnari, Sari; Arkkila, Eva

    2018-05-21

    Developmental language disorder (DLD, also called specific language impairment, SLI) is a common developmental disorder comprising the largest disability group in pre-school-aged children. Approximately 7% of the population is expected to have developmental language difficulties. However, the specific etiological factors leading to DLD are not yet known and even the typical linguistic features appear to vary by language. We present here a project that investigates DLD at multiple levels of analysis and aims to make the reliable prediction and early identification of the difficulties possible. Following the multiple deficit model of developmental disorders, we investigate the DLD phenomenon at the etiological, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial levels, in a longitudinal study of preschool children. In January 2013, we launched the Helsinki Longitudinal SLI study (HelSLI) at the Helsinki University Hospital ( http://tiny.cc/HelSLI ). We will study 227 children aged 3-6 years with suspected DLD and their 160 typically developing peers. Five subprojects will determine how the child's psychological characteristics and environment correlate with DLD and how the child's well-being relates to DLD, the characteristics of DLD in monolingual versus bilingual children, nonlinguistic cognitive correlates of DLD, electrophysiological underpinnings of DLD, and the role of genetic risk factors. Methods include saliva samples, EEG, computerized cognitive tasks, neuropsychological and speech and language assessments, video-observations, and questionnaires. The project aims to increase our understanding of the multiple interactive risk and protective factors that affect the developing heterogeneous cognitive and behavioral profile of DLD, including factors affecting literacy development. This accumulated knowledge will form a heuristic basis for the development of new interventions targeting linguistic and non-linguistic aspects of DLD.

  7. Longitudinal Study of Body Mass Index in Young Males and the Transition to Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Gutina, Anna; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Despite a growing understanding that the social determinants of health have an impact on body mass index (BMI), the role of fatherhood on young men's BMI is understudied. This longitudinal study examines BMI in young men over time as they transition from adolescence into fatherhood in a nationally representative sample. Data from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health supported a 20-year longitudinal analysis of 10,253 men beginning in 1994. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created and changes in BMI were examined based on fatherhood status (nonfather, nonresident father, resident father), fatherhood years, and covariates. Though age is positively associated with BMI over all years for all men, comparing nonresident and resident fathers with nonfathers reveals different trajectories based on fatherhood status. Entrance into fatherhood is associated with an increase in BMI trajectory for both nonresident and resident fathers, while nonfathers exhibit a decrease over the same period. In this longitudinal, population-based study, fatherhood and residence status play a role in men's BMI. Designing obesity prevention interventions for young men that begin in adolescence and carry through young adulthood should target the distinctive needs of these populations, potentially improving their health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Late urologic morbidity in 177 consecutive patients after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: a longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajer, Henrik; Thranov, Ingrid R.; Skovgaard, Lene T.; Engelholm, Svend Aa

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To provide longitudinal data on urologic morbidity after radiotherapy and brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Five-year longitudinal urologic morbidity data were recorded from 177 consecutive patients of median age 59 years (range: 22-86 years) with cervical carcinoma receiving radiotherapy with curative intent at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. FIGO stages (%) were as follows: Stage I (15), Stage II (30), Stage III (54), and Stage IV (1). Late morbidity was calculated as cumulative incidence based on actuarial estimates. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence based on actuarial estimates of urologic morbidity Grades 1 + 2 + 3, Grades 2 + 3, and Grade 3 were 62%, 32%, and 5%, respectively. Frequencies of urologic morbidity in the 54 recurrence-free survivors at the end of follow-up indicated some reversibility in the case of Grades 1 and 2 morbidity. Conclusion: With the longitudinal design used in the present study, a rate of mild and moderate morbidity higher than that found in most of the previously reported literature was observed, giving cause for concern and underlining the importance of further longitudinal studies on this subject, specifically studies that relate to the background urologic morbidity in the female population, as well as to the fact that urologic morbidity might regress

  9. Childhood maltreatment and adulthood poor sleep quality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel A; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake M

    2017-08-01

    Available evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that childhood maltreatment may be associated with a range of sleep disorders. However, these studies have not controlled for potential individual-, familial- and environmental-level confounders. To determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lower sleep quality after adjusting for potential confounders. Data for the present study were obtained from a pre-birth cohort study of 3778 young adults (52.6% female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy follow up at a mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first obstetric clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital in 1981-1983. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at the 21-year follow up. We linked this dataset to agency-recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. A series of separate logistic regression models was used to test whether childhood maltreatment predicted lower sleep quality after adjustment for selected confounders. Substantiated physical abuse significantly predicted lower sleep quality in males. Single and multiple forms of childhood maltreatment, including age of maltreatment and number of substantiations, did not predict lower sleep quality in either gender in both crude and adjusted models. Not being married, living in a residential problem area, cigarette smoking and internalising were significantly associated with lower sleep quality in a fully adjusted model for the male-female combined sample. Childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict young adult poor sleep quality, with the exception of physical abuse for males. While childhood maltreatment has been found to predict a range of mental health problems, childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict sleep problems occurring in young adults. Poor sleep quality was

  10. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To measure reduction in exposure to smoke in two population-based studies of self-reported smoking reduction not using nicotine replacement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of biomarkers and smoking. SETTING: Data from two time-points in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), 1981....../83 and 1991/94, and the Copenhagen Male Study (CMS) in 1976 and 1985/86, respectively. PARTICIPANTS: There were 3026 adults who were smokers at both time-points in the CCHS and 1319 men smoking at both time-points in the CMS. MEASUREMENTS: Smoking status and tobacco consumption were assessed by self...... a reduction in cigarettes per day of 50% or more without quitting were compared with continuing medium, heavy and light smokers (1-14 g/day) using linear regression. Sex (CCHS only), age, self-reported inhalation of smoke, duration of smoking, type of tobacco and amount smoked were included as covariates...

  11. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  12. [Descriptive study of cerebrovascular accidents in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasseu, Mbeumi M T; Mbahe, S

    2011-10-01

    A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is a sudden-onset cerebral deficit of vascular origin lasting more than 24 hours. These events represent the second leading cause of death in the world and take a particularly heavy toll in third world countries. The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular lesions (type, location, size) as well as patient age and gender in Cameroon. Brain CT-scan and MRI findings from 50 stroke patients admitted to two health centers in Douala were reviewed. Data showed that 74% of patients were over 50 years of age, the 51-60 year group being the most affected. Patients were male in 64% of cases. Ischemic stroke accounted for 60% of cases versus 40% for hemorrhagic stroke. The most affected sites were the sylvian territory site in ischemic stroke and the temporal lobe in hemorrhagic stroke, acconting for 43.3% and 35% of cases respectively. The median size of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions were 2.81 cm3, and 26.98 cm3 respectively. Hemorrhagic stroke and lacunar infarcts were more common in this sample. Discrepancies between results at the two hospitals may be due to the use of different imaging techniques. Indeed, MRI is known to be more sensitive than CT-scan for acute detection of stroke lesions.

  13. [Primary focal dystonia: descriptive study of 205 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, F M; Fanjul, S; Cantarero, S; Hernández, J; García Ruiz, P J

    2003-03-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of different types of focal dystonia. A total of 205 patients with primary focal dystonia were studied retrospectively and the following variables were analyzed: gender, age of onset, age at examination, evolution time, history of trauma, association with other movement disorders, fluctuations of dystonic symptoms as well as a family history of dystonia, Parkinson's disease, tremor, and lefthandedness or stuttering. We compared these variables among the different clinical categories of focal dystonia. Those patients with cranial and laryngeal dystonia were significantly older at the onset of symptoms compared with patients with writer's cramp. Males were more prevalent than females in all categories of focal dystonia except for cranial dystonia. Prior history of trauma and association with tremor were more frequent in patients with cervical dystonia than in those with others dystonic categories. Most patients with cranial, cervical and laryngeal dystonia had fluctuations in the intensity of dystonic symptoms, unlike the patients with writer's cramp. There is a caudo-cranial gradient in age of onset and the age of onset increases as the cranial presentation becomes greater. Females are more prevalent in cranial dystonia and there is a preponderance of males in the dystonias with a lower location. The dystonias with cranial distribution frequently present fluctuations of symptoms during the day. Association with other movement disorders, such as tremor, and prior history of trauma, is common in patients with cervical dystonia.

  14. Sexting by high school students: an exploratory and descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassberg, Donald S; McKinnon, Ryan K; Sustaíta, Michael A; Rullo, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a phenomenon known as sexting, defined here as the transfer of sexually explicit photos via cell phone, has received substantial attention in the U.S. national media. To determine the current and potential future impact of sexting, more information about the behavior and the attitudes and beliefs surrounding it must be gathered, particularly as it relates to sexting by minors. The present study was designed to provide preliminary information about this phenomenon. Participants were 606 high school students (representing 98 % of the available student body) recruited from a single private high school in the southwestern U.S. Nearly 20 % of all participants reported they had ever sent a sexually explicit image of themselves via cell phone while almost twice as many reported that they had ever received a sexually explicit picture via cell phone and, of these, over 25 % indicated that they had forwarded such a picture to others. Of those reporting having sent a sexually explicit cell phone picture, over a third did so despite believing that there could be serious legal and other consequences attached to the behavior. Given the potential legal and psychological risks associated with sexting, it is important for adolescents, parents, school administrators, and even legislators and law enforcement to understand this behavior.

  15. 'Zhonghua' tobacco advertisement in Shanghai: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Ge, Xin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Fu, Hua; Berg, Carla J; Kegler, Michelle C

    2014-09-01

    To document tobacco advertising practices of a popular, high-grade, domestic cigarette in China across a broad spectrum of channels. Media monitoring and direct observations were conducted to assess tobacco advertisements for Zhonghua cigarettes in Shanghai, China, through the following channels: newspapers, TV, internet, outdoor advertisements and point-of-sale advertisements. Consistent with the national ban, no direct tobacco advertisements were found in newspapers or on TV. However, statements about counterfeit 'Zhonghua' cigarettes indirectly promoted Zhonghua tobacco through newspapers. Although no tobacco advertisements were found in Shanghai mainstream websites or in channels of national mainstream sites, a great amount of information was communicated about Zhonghua cigarettes via websites, using patriotic themes and associations with Chinese culture. Large outdoor tobacco advertisements of 'Loving my China' were found in downtown Shanghai. Zhonghua tobacco advertisements were present in almost all of the points-of-sale observed (95%). Zhonghua cigarettes are promoted directly and indirectly through a variety of channels. This study suggests there is an urgent need to establish comprehensive bans that prohibit all types of tobacco advertisements in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Necrobiosis lipoidica: a descriptive study of 35 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoval, J; Gómez-Armayones, S; Valentí-Medina, F; Bonfill-Ortí, M; Martínez-Molina, L

    2015-06-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a chronic idiopathic granulomatous disease considered to occur in association with diabetes mellitus. Data on the frequency of this association, however, are inconsistent. Our aim was to retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with NL at our hospital and to investigate the association with diabetes mellitus and other diseases. We performed a chart review of all patients with a clinical and histologic diagnosis of NL treated and followed in the dermatology department of Hospital de Bellvitge in Barcelona, Spain between 1987 and 2013. Thirty-five patients (6 men and 29 women with a mean age of 47.20 years) were diagnosed with NL in the study period. At the time of diagnosis, 31 patients had pretibial lesions. Thirteen patients (37%) had a single lesion at diagnosis, and the mean number of lesions was 3.37. Twenty-three patients (65.71%) had diabetes mellitus (type 1 in 10 cases and type 2 in 13). In 20 patients, onset of diabetes preceded that of NL by a mean of 135.70 months. The 2 conditions were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 patients. None of the 35 patients developed diabetes mellitus during follow-up. Six patients had hypothyroidism, and 4 of these also had type 1 diabetes. NL is frequently associated with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Although diabetes tends to develop before NL, it can occur simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Descriptive study of the Socratic method: evidence for verbal shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Elvira, Ana; Froján-Parga, María Xesús; Ruiz-Sancho, Elena María; Alpañés-Freitag, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    In this study we analyzed 65 fragments of session recordings in which a cognitive behavioral therapist employed the Socratic method with her patients. Specialized coding instruments were used to categorize the verbal behavior of the psychologist and the patients. First the fragments were classified as more or less successful depending on the overall degree of concordance between the patient's verbal behavior and the therapeutic objectives. Then the fragments were submitted to sequential analysis so as to discover regularities linking the patient's verbal behavior and the therapist's responses to it. Important differences between the more and the less successful fragments involved the therapist's approval or disapproval of verbalizations that approximated therapeutic goals. These approvals and disapprovals were associated with increases and decreases, respectively, in the patient's behavior. These results are consistent with the existence, in this particular case, of a process of shaping through which the therapist modifies the patient's verbal behavior in the overall direction of his or her chosen therapeutic objectives. © 2013.

  19. Substance Misuse in the Psychiatric Emergency Service; A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance misuse is frequently encountered in the psychiatric emergency service (PES and may take many forms, ranging from formal DSM-IV diagnoses to less obvious entities such as hazardous consumption. Detecting such patients using traditional screening instruments has proved problematic. We therefore undertook this study to more fully characterize substance misuse in the PES and to determine whether certain variables might help better screen these patients. We used a prospectively acquired database of over 18,000 visits made to four PESs during a 2-year period in the province of Quebec, Canada. One of the variables acquired was a subjective rating by the nursing staff as to whether substance misuse was a contributing factor to the visit (graded as direct, indirect, or not at all. Substance misuse accounted for 21% of all diagnoses and alcohol was the most frequent substance used. Patients were divided into those with primary (PSM, comorbid (CSM or no substance misuse (NSM. Depressive disorders were the most frequent primary diagnoses in CSM, whereas personality and substance misuse disorders were frequent secondary diagnoses in PSM. Although many variables significantly differentiated the three groups, few were sufficiently detailed to be used as potential screening tools. Those situations that did have sufficient details included those with a previous history of substance misuse, substance misuse within 48 hours of the visit, and visits graded by the nursing staff as being directly and/or indirectly related to substance misuse. Variables related to substance misuse itself were the primary predictors of PSM and, less significantly, CSM. The nursing staff rating, although promising, was obtained in less than 30% of all visits, rendering its practical use difficult to assess.

  20. Friendlessness and Theory of Mind: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, E.; Begeer, S.M.; Peterson, C.; Slaughter, V.; De Rosnay, M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic friendlessness in childhood predicts adverse mental health outcomes throughout life, yet its earliest roots are poorly understood. In theory, developing a theory of mind (ToM) should help children gain mutual friends and one preschool study (Peterson and Siegal, 2002. Br J Dev Psychol, 20,

  1. Financing Community Colleges: A Longitudinal Study of 11 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenton, Carol Piper; Huba, Mary E.; Schuh, John H.; Shelley II, Mack C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the financing patterns of 212 community colleges in 11 midwestern states during the decade of the 1990s using the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). Support from state appropriations declined between 1990 and 2000, and reliance on tuition and fees increased between 1990 and 1995, although both trends were…

  2. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  3. Adolescent Ethnolinguistic Stability and Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Most sociolinguistic studies rely on apparent time, cross-sectional methods to analyze language change. On the basis of apparent time data, sociolinguists have hypothesized that cultural processes of lifespan change create predictable cycles of linguistic behavior in which adolescents lead in the use of vernacular variants and advance sound change…

  4. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  5. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, R.L.; Janssen, N.; Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory,

  6. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  7. Depression and mortality in a longitudinal study: 1952-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E; Sucha, Ewa; Kingsbury, Mila; Horton, Nicholas J; Murphy, Jane M; Colman, Ian

    2017-10-23

    Many studies have shown that depression increases mortality risk. We aimed to investigate the duration of time over which depression is associated with increased risk of mortality, secular trends in the association between depression and mortality, and sex differences in the association between depression and mortality. We conducted a cohort study of 3410 adults enrolled in 3 representative samples of a county in Atlantic Canada in 1952 ( n = 1003), 1970 ( n = 1203) or 1992 ( n = 1402) (the Stirling County Study). Depression was measured using a diagnostic algorithm based on the presence of depressed mood and associated symptoms, duration of more than 1 month, and substantial impairment. Vital status of participants through 2011 was determined using probabilistic linkages to the Canadian Mortality Database. Depression was associated with a heightened risk of mortality among men during the 3 time periods of the study, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-4.98) between 1952 and 1967, 1.97 (CI 1.34-2.89) between 1968 and 1990, and 1.52 (CI 1.09-2.13) between 1991 and 2011. Elevated risk of mortality was noted among women only between 1990 and 2011 (HR = 1.51; CI = 1.11-2.05). The association between depression and mortality persists over long periods of time and has emerged among women in recent decades, despite contemporaneous improvements in the treatment of depression and reduction of stigma associated with depression. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Social Competence Development and Sleeping Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Tomisaki, Etsuko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Hirano, Maki; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    Background It is known that sleep problems impact children’s health, learning, and school performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between sleeping habits and social competence development. Methods Three hundred and nine caregiver-child dyads participated in this study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. The caregivers answered some questionnaires about sleeping habits when the child was 9 months and 18 months old. C...

  9. Clustering of Unhealthy Behaviors in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. Objectives To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Methods Participants were ...

  10. Acute-phase proteins in pregnant goats: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Witkowski, Lucjan; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    We documented changes in serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentration in goats during pregnancy, as measured by competitive ELISAs. Fifteen does (pregnant group) and 20 castrated males (control group) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected on the same day from all 35 goats, 7 times throughout the study period: at mating, then once every month, during the week preceding kidding, and 1 mo after kidding. Baseline SAA and Hp concentrations at mating were identical in the 2 groups. In the pregnant group, SAA concentration rose significantly in the second month and remained elevated until the end of pregnancy, with the peak concentration at kidding. In the control group, SAA concentration remained unchanged compared to the baseline concentration throughout the study. SAA concentration was significantly higher in the pregnant than control group only at the end of the fourth month of pregnancy and at kidding. Hp concentration did not change during pregnancy or between groups. SAA concentration at kidding was affected only by parity of does - it was highest in does in the third and fourth pregnancy and gradually lower in older does.

  11. I and Us: A Longitudinal Study on the Interplay of Personal and Social Identity in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Flavia; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rubini, Monica

    2018-04-01

    The development of personal and social identity is crucial in adolescence. On the one hand, adolescents face the task of forming and consolidating their personal identity in multiple domains, with educational and interpersonal domains particularly salient. On the other hand, they enlarge their social horizon and increasingly define themselves as members of multiple peer groups, such as groups of classmates and friends met outside school. There is however a lack of integrative research on the interplay among and between personal and social identity processes. Hence the purpose of this study was threefold. First, we examined how personal identity processes in the educational and interpersonal domains are associated longitudinally. Second, we investigated to what extent social identifications with classmates and with the group of friends are associated over time. Third, with an original approach we examined the longitudinal interplay between personal and social identity processes, to connect theoretical contributions that have so far proceeded largely in parallel. Participants were 304 adolescents (61.84% female, M age  = 17.49) involved in a three-wave longitudinal study. We found that (a) the ways in which adolescents develop their identity in the educational and interpersonal domains become more closely intertwined over time; (b) identifications with classmates and with the group of friends are interconnected; and (c) personal and social identity processes are associated both concurrently and longitudinally, with most cross-lagged effects showing that social identifications influence personal identity formation and consolidation in the interpersonal identity domain. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  12. Renal function and long-term decline in cognitive function: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Stephen L; Wendell, Carrington R; Waldstein, Shari R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Renal disease has been associated with greater risk of dementia and greater cognitive impairment. However, the relationship of lower renal function with long-term decline in specific domains of cognitive function remains unclear among community-dwelling, non-demented individuals. Stroke- and dementia-free participants (n = 2,116) were enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based, prospective, longitudinal study. Renal function was estimated by the inverse of serum creatinine adjusted for age, sex and race and (in sensitivity analyses) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Outcome measures were changes in scores on 6 cognitive tests encompassing a range of cognitive functions, measured at 2-year intervals. Mixed-effects regression models examined the longitudinal relations of renal function with cognitive functions after adjusting for demographics, comorbidity and other potential confounders. Mean age at initial testing was 53.9 years (SD 17.1), and 94 participants (4.4%) had an eGFR age, longitudinal increases in creatinine concentrations were associated with more rapid decline in performance on several cognitive measures, including the learning slope of the California Verbal Learning Test, a test of verbal learning (p renal function independently associated with greater long-term declines in visual memory and verbal memory and learning. © 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Aging of cognitive functions. Results of a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrenaud, J; Barrère, H; Darcet, P; Driss, F

    1983-12-29

    This study had the two following purposes: to assess the age-related changes in the fluid and crystallized components of intelligence in subjects over age sixty five; to examine whether these age-related changes were linked to any biological, psychological and social factors. The sample was composed of 50 male subjects who were examined three times: in 1968, 1973 and 1977. At the beginning of the study, their age ranged from 60 to 79 years and they were all in good health. In the whole, their socio-economic level was high. At each wave of the study, these subjects were given the same battery of three mental tests: a vocabulary test, selected to assess crystallized intelligence; a perceptual test and a speeded digit coding test, both selected to assess fluid intelligence. Results show that the two components of intelligence have different aging trajectories over age sixty. On the vocabulary test, performances hold until an advanced age (about 75-80), then significantly decline. On the perceptual and digit coding tests, performances sharply and significantly decline with age, this decline looking approximately linear. Whatever the test used, individual differences in age-related changes in performance are found to be great. On vocabulary test, this variability is linked to two factors, independently of age: among subjects who have suffered from a cardio-arterial disease between wave 1 and wave 3, as well as in those who have not maintained an occupational activity, decline in performance is greater than in other subjects. On the two other tests, no factor was found to be significantly linked with change in performance between wave 1 and wave 3.

  14. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  15. Longitudinal study among children of parents exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the fact that there is a general lack of experience in consultancy to patients treated by radiation therapy, the Radiotherapy Dept. of the 'Carl Gustav Carus' Medical Academy in Dresden started to carry out investigations among the off-spring of radiotherapy patients of procreative age. The first phase of the study carried out with the help of the residents' registration system of the former GDR found 21 children of patients treated by radiotherapy. Encouraged by the first experience, the author of the paper since then has continued the investigations on a regular and comprehensive basis, collecting the data of all offspring of patients treated by the Dept., and performing follow-up examinations every five years (1975, 1980, 1985), assisted by an experienced pediatrician. A major result of the study is the fact that it confirms the permissible dose to the testes or ovaries which has been observed so far for radiation treatment, but has been the subject of controversial debates among experts. Doses exceeding 1.5 Gy to a man, or 3.0 Gy to a woman, applied at the usual clinical conditions, have to be regarded as sterilising doses. The author developes conclusions and advice for medical consultancy to patients. (orig./MG) [de

  16. A longitudinal study of the Friedreich Ataxia Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Geneieve; Yiu, Eppie M; Corben, Louise A; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-05-15

    Quality of life in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) has been explored using various generic health status measurement tools, most commonly the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2). The tool did not address many specific issues related to disease impact in people with FRDA. The Friedreich Ataxia Impact Scale (FAIS) was developed to examine clinically relevant areas in FRDA. The aims of the current study were to assess the relationship between the FAIS and clinical characteristics of FRDA, as well as to determine the responsiveness of the FAIS to change over one and two years. One hundred and four individuals with FRDA, homozygous for the GAA expansion in intron 1 of FXN, completed the FAIS at baseline. Seventy individuals completed the FAIS again 12 months later and 49 completed the FAIS at 24 months. Clinical parameters and neurologic scales (Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS)) were also recorded. The total FARS score, onset age and disease duration correlated significantly with FAIS subscales measuring symptoms and physical functioning. The physical and mental summary measures of the SF-36 V2 also correlated well with the FAIS subscales. Speech was the only subscale that demonstrated significant change over one and two years. The FAIS provides valuable insight into the perspective of individuals with FRDA on their health status, and is an important measure of morbidity. It has, however, limited responsiveness to change and its use in intervention studies is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Postprocedural problems in an overdenture population: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Qian, Fang

    2004-05-01

    This study reports on endodontic and other post-procedural problems experienced by overdenture patients from 1973 to 1996. There were 395 subjects enrolled in the study; 273 fulfilled the recall criteria. At recall, all subjects were examined by a single examiner, and appropriate maintenance care was performed. The 273 subjects had 666 abutments and 626 endodontically treated teeth; of these, 51 subjects had postprocedural problems in 81 teeth. Thus, 87.1% of the endodontically treated teeth had no postprocedural problems, and 12.9% had postprocedural problems. Of the subpopulation with postprocedural problems, the most common problem was endodontically treated teeth developing periradicular lesions (37.0%) because of recurrent caries causing loss of the restoration sealing the root canal. Twenty of the 30 teeth were successfully retreated. The next most common problem was vertical root fractures (30.9%), followed by vital teeth developing periradicular lesions (19.8%). Most of the failures could have been prevented by better oral hygiene. Vertical root fractures were statistically associated with abutments in the maxilla and opposed by natural teeth; protection of these abutments with thimble crowns could prevent fractures.

  18. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  19. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  20. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  1. Work-to-family conflict and its relationship with satisfaction and well-being: A one-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Mauno, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study produced new knowledge about gender differences with respect to work-to-family conflict and its longitudinal relations with indicators of satisfaction and well-being. The study examined the longitudinal relations between work-to-family conflict and self-reported satisfaction and

  2. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): Base-Year Data File Documentation. NCES 2011-328

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Burns, Laura J.; Dever, Jill A.; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Jin, Ying; Leinwand, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) secondary longitudinal studies. The core research questions for HSLS:09 explore secondary to postsecondary transition plans and the evolution of those plans; the paths into and out of science, technology, engineering,…

  3. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A.J. van der Beek (Allard); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal

  4. Children's motivation in elementary physical education: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Guan, Jianmin

    2004-03-01

    The present study examined relationships among variables drawn from achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice as well as mean level changes of these variables over time in elementary physical education. Participants (N = 207) completed questionnaires over a 2-year period: once while in the second and fourth grades and again when they were in the third and fifth grades. Results indicated that achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, and subjective task values were related to one another and were predictive of children's intention for future participation in physical education. Children's subjective task values of physical education decreased over time. Children in Cohort 1 (across second to third grades) generally had stronger motivation for learning in physical education than children in Cohort 2 (across fourth to fifth grades). Findings suggest the importance of integrating achievement goal theory and the expectancy-value model of achievement choice in understanding student motivation.

  5. A longitudinal study of CMRGlu in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    We studied the serial changes of CMRGlu in 6 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. All patients demonstrated moderately severe dementia at the initial PET scan. Serial PET scans were performed at an interval of 12 to 24 months. Five of the 6 patients showed a deterioration of clinical symptoms at the second scan. The global CMRGlu serially decreased in all patients. An asymmetry of CMRGlu in both the frontal and parietal regions was observed at the initial PET scan, while the direction of asymmetry was preserved at the second PET scan. The ratios (frontal/parietal and parietal/striatum) of CMRGlu showed no interval change. Therefore, CMRGlu was considered to decrease progressively throughout the entire brain in patients with moderately severe dementia of Alzheimer type. (author).

  6. A longitudinal study of CMRGlu in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji

    1994-01-01

    We studied the serial changes of CMRGlu in 6 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. All patients demonstrated moderately severe dementia at the initial PET scan. Serial PET scans were performed at an interval of 12 to 24 months. Five of the 6 patients showed a deterioration of clinical symptoms at the second scan. The global CMRGlu serially decreased in all patients. An asymmetry of CMRGlu in both the frontal and parietal regions was observed at the initial PET scan, while the direction of asymmetry was preserved at the second PET scan. The ratios (frontal/parietal and parietal/striatum) of CMRGlu showed no interval change. Therefore, CMRGlu was considered to decrease progressively throughout the entire brain in patients with moderately severe dementia of Alzheimer type. (author)

  7. A descriptive study of employment patterns and work environment outcomes of specialist nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Duffield, Christine; Rizk, Paul; Nahm, Sang; Chu, Charlene H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the number, demographic characteristics, work patterns, exit rates, and work perceptions of nurses in Ontario, Canada, in 4 specialty classifications: advanced practice nurse (APN)-clinical nurse specialist (CNS), APN-other, primary healthcare nurse practitioner [RN(extended class [EC])], and registered nurse (RN) with specialty certification. The objectives were to (1) describe how many qualified nurses are available by specialty class; (2) create a demographic profile of specialist nurses; (3) determine the proportions of specialist and nonspecialist nurses who leave (a) direct patient care and (b) nursing practice annually; (4) determine whether specialist and nonspecialist nurses differ in their self-ratings of work environment, job satisfaction, and intention to remain in nursing. Employment patterns refer to nurses' employment status (eg, full-time, part-time, casual), work duration (ie, length of employment in nurses and in current role), and work transitions (ie, movement in and out of the nursing workforce, and movement out of current role). A longitudinal analysis of the Ontario nurses' registration database from 2005 to 2010 and a survey of specialist nurses in Canada was conducted. The setting was Canada. The database sample consisted of 3 specialist groups, consisting of RN(EC), CNS, and APN-other, as well as 1 nonspecialist RN staff nurse group. The survey sample involved 359 nurses who were classified into groups based on self-reported job title and RN specialty-certification status. Data sources included College of Nurses of Ontario registration database and survey data. The study measures were the Nursing Work Index, a 4-item measure of job satisfaction, and 1-item measure of intent to leave current job. Nurses registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario were tracked over the study period to identify changes in their employment status with comparisons made between nurses employed in specialist roles and those

  8. Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokenberger, Kathleen; Ström, Peter; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998-2002 was available from a subsample (N=320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men. Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of "any-type" or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand. Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  9. Longitudinal tDCS: Consistency across Working Memory Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Berryhill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in enhancing and maintaining cognitive function. In recent years, advances in noninvasive brain stimulation devices, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, have targeted working memory in particular. Despite controversy surrounding outcomes of single-session studies, a growing field of working memory training studies incorporate multiple sessions of tDCS. It is useful to take stock of these findings because there is a diversity of paradigms employed and the outcomes observed between research groups. This will be important in assessing cognitive training programs paired with stimulation techniques and identifying the more useful and less effective approaches. Here, we treat the tDCS+ working memory training field as a case example, but also survey training benefits in other neuromodulatory techniques (e.g., tRNS, tACS. There are challenges associated with the broad parameter space including: individual differences, stimulation intensity, duration, montage, session number, session spacing, training task selection, timing of follow up testing, near and far transfer tasks. In summary, although the field of assisted cognitive training is young, some design choices are more favorable than others. By way of heuristic, the current evidence supports including more training/tDCS sessions (5+, applying anodal tDCS targeting prefrontal regions, including follow up testing on trained and transfer tasks after a period of no contact. What remains unclear, but important for future translational value is continuing work to pinpoint optimal values for the tDCS parameters on a per cognitive task basis. Importantly the emerging literature shows notable consistency in the application of tDCS for WM across various participant populations compared to single session experimental designs.

  10. Longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in heavy cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, L; Lorenzetti, V; de Haan, L; Suo, C; Vingerhoets, Wam; van den Brink, W; Wiers, R W; Meijer, C J; Machielsen, Mwj; Goudriaan, A E; Veltman, D J; Yücel, M; Cousijn, J

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2.4). Cannabis users started smoking around 16 years and smoked on average five days per week. A novel aspect of the current study is that hippocampal volume estimates were obtained from manual tracing the hippocampus on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a previously validated protocol. Compared to controls, cannabis users did not show hippocampal volume alterations at either baseline or follow-up. Hippocampal volumes increased over time in both cannabis users and controls, following similar trajectories of increase. Cannabis dose and age of onset of cannabis use did not affect hippocampal volumes. Continued heavy cannabis use did not affect hippocampal neuroanatomical changes in early adulthood. This contrasts with prior evidence on alterations in this region in samples of older adult cannabis users. In young adults using cannabis at this level, cannabis use may not be heavy enough to affect hippocampal neuroanatomy.

  11. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  12. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Erwin; Wanner Miriam; Zimmermann-Sloutskis Dorith; Martin Brian W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a longitudinal study...

  13. Socioeconomic gradients of cardiovascular risk factors in China and India: results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study and longitudinal aging study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peifeng; Wang, Serena; Lee, Jinkook

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become a major public health challenge in developing countries. The goal of this study is to compare socioeconomic status (SES) gradients of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) both within and between China and India. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between SES and CVRF, using data from the China health and retirement longitudinal study and the longitudinal aging study in India. The results showed that, compared to illiteracy, the odds ratios of completing junior high school for high-risk waist circumference were 4.99 (95% confidence interval: 1.77-14.06) among Indian men, 3.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.66-7.05) among Indian women, but 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.92) among Chinese women. Similar patterns were observed between educational attainment and high-risk body mass index, and between education and hypertension, based on self-reported physician diagnosis and direct blood pressure measurements. SES is associated with CVRF in both China and India. However, this relationship showed opposite patterns across two countries, suggesting that this association is not fixed, but is subjective to underlying causal pathways, such as patterns of risky health behaviors and different social and health policies.

  14. A longitudinal study of gene expression in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessier Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene expression in venous blood either as a pharmacodynamic marker in clinical trials of drugs or as a diagnostic test requires knowledge of the variability in expression over time in healthy volunteers. Here we defined a normal range of gene expression over 6 months in the blood of four cohorts of healthy men and women who were stratified by age (22–55 years and > 55 years and gender. Methods Eleven immunomodulatory genes likely to play important roles in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and infection in addition to four genes typically used as reference genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, as well as the full genome as represented by Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Results Gene expression levels as assessed by qRT-PCR and microarray were relatively stable over time with ~2% of genes as measured by microarray showing intra-subject differences over time periods longer than one month. Fifteen genes varied by gender. The eleven genes examined by qRT-PCR remained within a limited dynamic range for all individuals. Specifically, for the seven most stably expressed genes (CXCL1, HMOX1, IL1RN, IL1B, IL6R, PTGS2, and TNF, 95% of all samples profiled fell within 1.5–2.5 Ct, the equivalent of a 4- to 6-fold dynamic range. Two subjects who experienced severe adverse events of cancer and anemia, had microarray gene expression profiles that were distinct from normal while subjects who experienced an infection had only slightly elevated levels of inflammatory markers. Conclusion This study defines the range and variability of gene expression in healthy men and women over a six-month period. These parameters can be used to estimate the number of subjects needed to observe significant differences from normal gene expression in clinical studies. A set of genes that varied by gender was also identified as were a set of genes with elevated

  15. A longitudinal study of multicultural curriculum in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Mary L; Dinh, An; Hunter, Laura; Godkin, Michael A; Ferguson, Warren

    2014-02-22

    To evaluate impact a multicultural interclerkship had on students' perception of knowledge, interview skills, and empathy towards serving culturally diverse populations and role student demographics played in learning. Data extracted from students' self-reported course evaluations and pre/post questionnaires during multiculturalism interclerkship across 11 academic years. Inquired students' opinion about four areas: effectiveness, small group leaders, usefulness, and overall experience. Subscale and item ratings were compared using trend tests including multivariate analyses. During studied years, 883 students completed course evaluation with high overall mean rating of 3.08 (SD=0.45) and subscale mean scores ranging from 3.03 to 3.30. Trends in three of four subscales demonstrated clear uptrend (p<0.0001). Positive correlations between ratings of leaders and "usefulness" were observed (p<0.0001). Pre/post matched dataset (n=967) indicated majority of items (19/23) had statistically significant higher post interclerkship ratings compared to pre scores with nine of 19 having statistically significant magnitudes of change. Questionnaire had high overall reliability (Cronbach alpha=0.8), and item-to-group correlations ranged from 0.40 to 0.68 (p<0.0001). By increasing students' exposure and interaction with diverse patients, their knowledge, attitude, and skills were increased and expanded in positive manner. These findings might inform those who are interested in enhancing this important competence. This is especially true given increasing scrutiny this global topic is receiving within and across healthcare professions around the world.

  16. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p < .05) predicted changes in habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks.

  17. Psychosis Is Mutable over Time: A Longitudinal Psychopathology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Moritz E; Lang, Fabian U; Müller-Stierlin, Annabel S; Reichhardt, Lea; Trif, Silvana; Schulze, Thomas G; Strik, Werner; Becker, Thomas; Jäger, Markus

    2018-03-14

    A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months. The BPS groups symptoms into the 3 domains language, affectivity and motor behaviour; each domain is rated as being normal, inhibited or disinhibited. In addition, we collected qualitative psychopathological data in the form of case reports. Forty-eight patients completed at least 2 assessments over the course of at least 1 year. Of these, 16 patients (33.3%) showed a bipolar course pattern (i.e., a switch from inhibited to disinhibited or vice versa) in 1 domain and 6 patients (12.5%) in more than 1 domain. Shifts from 1 dominant domain to another were seen frequently (n = 20, 41.7%), but shifts between 1 dominant domain and a combination of dominant domains were more common (n = 33, 68.8%). The course of schizophrenia is heterogeneous and shows frequent changes in psychopathology. This should be taken into account in the communication with patients and in the research on underlying illness mechanisms and treatment. A major limitation of this study is the small sample size. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Longitudinal Studies of Angiogenesis in Hormone-Dependent Shionogi Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Wade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel size imaging was used to assess changes in the average vessel size of Shionogi tumors throughout the tumor growth cycle. Changes in R2 and R2* relaxivities caused by the injection of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (ferumoxtran-10 were measured using a 2.35-T animal magnetic resonance imaging system, and average vessel size index (VSI was calculated for each stage of tumor progression: growth, regression, and relapse. Statistical analysis using Spearman rank correlation test showed no dependence between vessel size and tumor volume at any stage of the tumor growth cycle. Paired Student's t test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in average vessel size for the three stages of the tumor growth cycle. The average VSI for regressing tumors (15.1 ± 6.6 wm was significantly lower than that for growing tumors (35.2 ± 25.5 μm; P < .01. Relapsing tumors also had an average VSI (45.4 ± 41.8 μm higher than that of regressing tumors, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .067. This study shows that VSI imaging is a viable method for the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis during the progression of a Shionogi tumor from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  19. A longitudinal study on social competence development and sleeping habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomisaki, Etsuko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tong, Lian; Hirano, Maki; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    It is known that sleep problems impact children's health, learning, and school performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between sleeping habits and social competence development. Three hundred and nine caregiver-child dyads participated in this study, which was conducted as part of a Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. The caregivers answered some questionnaires about sleeping habits when the child was 9 months and 18 months old. Caregiver-child interaction was observed when the child was 30 months old, and the features of the interaction were examined using the Interaction Rating Scale (IRS) as a measure of social competence. The caregivers' attitude toward sleeping in the 9-month period was found to be significantly correlated with the children's social competence at 30 months. Moreover the caregivers' attitude toward sleeping in the 9-month period significantly correlated with the children's sleeping habits at 9 and 18 months. These findings show that the caregivers' attitude toward sleeping is an important factor influencing the development of children's social competence.

  20. Ecologically unequal exchange, recessions, and climate change: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaorui

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates how the ecologically unequal exchange of carbon dioxide emissions varies with economic recessions. I propose a country-specific approach to examine (1) the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries and the "vertical flow" of exports to the United States; and (2) the variations of the relationship before, during, and after two recent economic recessions in 2001 and 2008. Using data on 69 developing nations between 2000 and 2010, I estimate time-series cross-sectional regression models with two-way fixed effects. Results suggest that the vertical flow of exports to the United States is positively associated with carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries. The magnitude of this relationship increased in 2001, 2009, and 2010, and decreased in 2008, but remained stable in non-recession periods, suggesting that economic recessions in the United States are associated with variations of ecologically unequal exchange. Results highlight the impacts of U.S. recessions on carbon emissions in developing countries through the structure of international trade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  2. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Biao; Deng, Xinmei; Luan, Ziyan

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion regulation and explored the contributions of different regulatory strategies to emotion experience regarding the early adolescent development period in a Chinese population. A total of 303 Chinese adolescents (age range = 10-14 years) were followed up in a three-phase longitudinal study for 3 years. In each phase of the study, participants completed Adolescents Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Daily Emotion Scale. Results of hierarchical linear regressions revealed that Chinese adolescents reported more down-regulation. Down-regulation is more effective than up-regulation in enhancing desirable emotion experience and reducing undesirable emotion experience during adolescents' development. Also, the adaptive functions of emotional regulatory strategies in Chinese background were discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Neuromuscular training in construction workers: a longitudinal controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars; Bopp, Micha; Hofmann, Sara; Erlacher, Daniel; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-08-01

    Many accidents at construction sites are due to falls. An exercise-based workplace intervention may improve intrinsic fall risk factors. In this pilot study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of neuromuscular exercise on static and functional balance performance as well as on lower limb explosive power in construction workers. Healthy middle-aged construction workers were non-randomly assigned to an intervention [N = 20, age = 40.3 (SD 8.3) years] or a control group [N = 20, age = 41.8 (9.9) years]. The intervention group performed static and dynamic balance and strength exercises (13 weeks, 15 min each day). Before and after the intervention and after an 8-week follow-up, unilateral postural sway, backward balancing (on 3- and 4.5-cm-wide beams) as well as vertical jump height were assessed. We observed a group × time interaction for postural sway (p = 0.002) with a reduction in the intervention group and no relevant change in the control group. Similarly, the number of successful steps while walking backwards on the 3-cm beam increased only in the intervention group (p = 0.047). These effects were likely to most likely practically beneficial from pretest to posttest and to follow-up test for postural sway (+12%, standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.65 and 17%, SMD = 0.92) and backward balancing on the 3-cm beam (+58%, SMD = 0.59 and 37%, SMD = 0.40). Fifteen minutes of neuromuscular training each day can improve balance performance in construction workers and, thus, may contribute to a decreased fall risk.

  4. Multimodal microscopy of immune cells and melanoma for longitudinal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entenberg, David; Aranda, Iana; Li, Yongbiao; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Schaer, David; Li, Yanyun

    2006-02-01

    Intravital microscopy of cancer is a well established tool that provides direct visualization of the tumor cycle. It traditionally involves one of several strategies: invasive subcutaneous (SC) implantation of tumors followed by surgical opening of skin flaps for imaging, techniques utilizing skin fold chambers and implanted optical windows or intradermal injections under 200μm from the skin surface. All of these techniques allow the use of fluorescent proteins as markers for biologically significant constituents. However, observation methods utilizing skin-flaps, skin-fold chambers and optical windows are invasive and tend to alter the immune environment of the tissue and/or limit the duration of studies that can be performed. If implanted correctly, intradermally injected tumors can be minimally invasive, will not require biopsies or surgical intervention to observe and are accessible for direct transdermal imaging with a number of in vivo modalities. We present our work in the development of a small animal intravital microscopy workstation that allows the acquisition of different contrast imaging modalities: reflectance confocal, wide field epifluorescence, multiphoton and second harmonic generation (SHG). The images are acquired pair-wise simultaneously and sequentially in time. The aim of our instrumentation is to gather all information generated by the single probing beam via the reflected or back-scattered signal, SHG signal and various fluorescence signals. Additionally, we also present our development of a microscopic tissue navigation technique to mark, label and track sites of interest. This technique enables us to revisit sites periodically and record, with different imaging contrasts, their biological changes over time.

  5. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods: Data came from FACHS, 1997–2017, which followed 889 children aged 10–12 years old at Wave 1 (n = 478; 53.8% females and n = 411; 46.2% males for up to 18 years. Data were collected in seven waves. The main predictors of interest were gender, SES (parent education and annual family income, age, and place of residence. Main outcomes of interest were baseline and slope of PRD. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM was used for data analysis. Results: Gender, SES, place, and age were correlated with baseline and change in PRD over time. Male, high family income, and younger Black youth reported lower PRD at baseline but a larger increase in PRD over time. Youth who lived in Iowa (in a predominantly White area reported higher PRD at baseline and also an increase in PRD over time. High parental education was not associated with baseline or change in PRD. Conclusion: In the United States, Black youth who are male, high income, and live in predominantly White areas experience an increase in PRD over time. Future research is needed on the interactions between gender, SES, and place on exposure and vulnerability of Black youth to PRD. Such research may explain the increased risk of depression in high SES Black males.

  6. Estudo psicológico longitudinal na distrofia miotônica Longitudinal psychologie study in myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Duarte Wigg

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo longitudinal das alterações cognitivas de 12 casos de distrofia miotônica comparando os resultados de dois exames com intervalo de tempo entre eles, pois em uma primeira avaliação detectaram-se alterações vísuo-espaciais e construtivas que poderiam evoluir ou não com o passar do tempo. Foram aplicados os seguintes instrumentos de medidas psicológicas: matrizes progressivas de Raven (escala especial forma caderno para as crianças, adolescentes e adultos com dificuldades cognitivas graves e escala geral para adolescentes e adultos sem dificuldades cognitivas graves, Wechsler (escala para crianças, subtestes semelhanças e números, cubos de Kohs e Piaget-Head. A seleção dos testes e respectivas escalas e formas teve como referencial as entrevistas psicológicas realizadas caso a caso. Estes instrumentos com respectivos resultados foram comparados em cada caso através de duas avaliações, com um intervalo de aproximadamente três anos e meio entre a primeira e a segunda avaliações de cada teste. Quanto ao desempenho nos testes, verificamos: (a melhor desempenho estatisticamente significante na segunda avaliação pelo teste dos Cubos de Kohs, porém tanto o primeiro quanto o segundo exame denotaram desempenhos bastante insuficientes; (b leve queda do desempenho no teste de Head 1-3; (c leve melhora nos demais testes.The authors studied in two occasions a group of 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy in a mean interval of three years and a half between the examinations. The neuro - psychological battery included the following tests: Raven's progressive matrices (coloured and general scales , Wechsler children intelligence scale (WISC, Kohs' blocks and Piaget-Head. 50% of the patients had better scores on the second examination on RCPM, 81.89% on WISC-digit span, 63.67% on WISC-numbers, 44.44% on Piaget-Head 2 and 60% on Kohs' blocks. However, on Piaget-Head 1-3, the majority had worse results (87.56% with

  7. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multidomain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van der Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Dekovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to

  8. Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational

  9. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-05-01

    Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors. A systematic literature search was performed in 2015. Studies were included if (1) they had a longitudinal design; (2) shift work was studied as the exposure; and (3) the outcome involved a metabolic risk factor, including anthropometric, blood glucose, blood lipid, or blood pressure measures. Eligible studies were assessed for their methodologic quality in 2015. A best-evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions per outcome. Thirty-nine articles describing 22 studies were included. Strong evidence was found for a relation between shift work and increased body weight/BMI, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. For the remaining outcomes, there was insufficient evidence. Shift work seems to be associated with body weight gain, risk for overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance. Overall, lack of high-methodologic quality studies and inconsistency in findings led to insufficient evidence in assessing the relation between shift work and other metabolic risk factors. To strengthen the evidence, more high-quality longitudinal studies that provide more information on the shift work schedule (e.g., frequency of night shifts, duration in years) are needed. Further, research to the (mediating) role of lifestyle behaviors in the health effects of shift work is recommended, as this may offer potential for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Relationships between eating quickly and weight gain in Japanese university students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kataoka, Kota; Sakumoto-Kataoka, Masami; Kawabata, Yuya; Omori, Chie; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2014-10-01

    Many cross-sectional studies have reported a relationship between overweight/obesity and eating quickly, but there have been few longitudinal studies to address this relationship in younger populations. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate whether eating quickly was related to being overweight in Japanese university students. Of 1,396 students who underwent a general examination and completed questionnaires at the start of university and before graduation, 1,314 students (676 male and 638 female) of normal body composition [body mass index (BMI) students whose BMIs were ≥ 25 kg m(-2) were defined as overweight. In this study, 38 participants (2.9%) became overweight. In the logistic regression analysis, the risk of being overweight was increased in males [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-5.79; P university students. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Configurations of gambling change and harm : qualitative findings from the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs)

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Eva; Sundqvist, Kristina; Binde, Per

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gambling participation and problems change over time and are influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, gambling research has only to a small extent studied gamblers’ own perceptions of transitions in and out of problem gambling. Method: Qualitative telephone interviews were made with 40 gamblers who had repeatedly participated in the Swelogs Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study. The framework approach was used for analyses, resulting in a multiple-linka...

  12. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  13. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - a representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Knecht, Michaela; Bauer, Georg F; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hämmig, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 ...

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Child Siblings and Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Anna; Peterson, Candida

    2007-01-01

    This study tested a sample of 63 children twice in a longitudinal design over 14 months to examine their theory-of-mind (ToM) understanding in relation to their number of child-aged siblings (1-12 years). Age-appropriate batteries of ToM tests emphasising false belief were given at the start of the study, when children had a mean age of 4-2…

  15. Family Structure and Childhood Obesity, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...

  16. Recovery from social phobia in the community and its predictors : data from a longitudinal epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, N.; Becker, E. S.; Meyer, A. H.; Williams, S. L.; Lutz, R.; Margraf, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to determine rate of natural recovery from DSM-IV social phobia in the community and to examine predictors of recovery. Data were derived from the Dresden Predictor Study of a representative sample of 1396 young German women. The participants completed a diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaires at two survey points approximately 1.5 years apart. Of the 91 women with social phobia at baseline 64% were at least partially recovered and 36% showed f...

  17. The ONS Longitudinal Study--a prestigious past and a bright future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Shayla; Newman, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This issue of Population Trends includes a number of articles and reports resulting from research based on the ONS Longitudinal Study (ONS LS). They have been drawn together in one issue to highlight the value of this type of study for demographic research.2009 marked the 35th anniversary of the establishment of the ONS LS. The study now contains data from the last four censuses (1971 to 2001), linked to vital events data since 1971, for a sample of one per cent of the population of England and Wales.More recently, sister studies have been established in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) started with 1991 Census data and the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS)started with 2001 Census data.The lead article in this issue comes from an exemplar project that was established to explore how to utilise the three studies to carry out UK-wide longitudinal analysis. Two different methods were used to analyse socio-economic and country level differences in health and mortality across the studies. The article summarises the results of this analysis, reports on the relative strengths of the different methods used, and draws attention to a number of new resources that have been developed by the project researchers as aids to using all three studies.This is an excellent example of collaborative working across the UK, involving researchers from the Centre for Longitudinal Study Information and User Support (CeLSIUS) at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Longitudinal Studies Centre - Scotland (LSCS) at the University of St.Andrews and the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study - Research Support Unit (NILS-RSU) at Queen's University Belfast. The project also involved collaboration between ONS, the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) to ensure the secure transfer and handling of data from the three studies so that it could be brought together in one

  18. Modelling variable dropout in randomised controlled trials with longitudinal outcomes: application to the MAGNETIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Powell, Colin; Williamson, Paula Ruth

    2016-04-28

    Clinical trials with longitudinally measured outcomes are often plagued by missing data due to patients withdrawing or dropping out from the trial before completing the measurement schedule. The reasons for dropout are sometimes clearly known and recorded during the trial, but in many instances these reasons are unknown or unclear. Often such reasons for dropout are non-ignorable. However, the standard methods for analysing longitudinal outcome data assume that missingness is non-informative and ignore the reasons for dropout, which could result in a biased comparison between the treatment groups. In this article, as a post hoc analysis, we explore the impact of informative dropout due to competing reasons on the evaluation of treatment effect in the MAGNETIC trial, the largest randomised placebo-controlled study to date comparing the addition of nebulised magnesium sulphate to standard treatment in acute severe asthma in children. We jointly model longitudinal outcome and informative dropout process to incorporate the information regarding the reasons for dropout by treatment group. The effect of nebulised magnesium sulphate compared with standard treatment is evaluated more accurately using a joint longitudinal-competing risk model by taking account of such complexities. The corresponding estimates indicate that the rate of dropout due to good prognosis is about twice as high in the magnesium group compared with standard treatment. We emphasise the importance of identifying reasons for dropout and undertaking an appropriate statistical analysis accounting for such dropout. The joint modelling approach accounting for competing reasons for dropout is proposed as a general approach for evaluating the sensitivity of conclusions to assumptions regarding missing data in clinical trials with longitudinal outcomes. EudraCT number 2007-006227-12 . Registration date 18 Mar 2008.

  19. Transforming Verbal Counts in Reports of Qualitative Descriptive Studies Into Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, YunKyung; Voils, Corrine I.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Hasselblad, Vic; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of qualitative studies typically do not offer much information on the numbers of respondents linked to any one finding. This information may be especially useful in reports of basic, or minimally interpretive, qualitative descriptive studies focused on surveying a range of experiences in a target domain, and its lack may limit the ability to synthesize the results of such studies with quantitative results in systematic reviews. Accordingly, the authors illustrate strategies for deriving plausible ranges of respondents expressing a finding in a set of reports of basic qualitative descriptive studies on antiretroviral adherence and suggest how the results might be used. These strategies have limitations and are never appropriate for use with findings from interpretive qualitative studies. Yet they offer a temporary workaround for preserving and maximizing the value of information from basic qualitative descriptive studies for systematic reviews. They show also why quantitizing is never simply quantitative. PMID:19448052

  20. A systematic review of health-related quality of life in longitudinal studies of myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Kongsgaard; Jarden, Mary Ellen; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard

    2017-01-01

    in HRQoL scores, which is perceived as beneficial to the patient according to two published guidelines. METHODS: A literature search was performed May 2016. Publications with longitudinal follow-up using the EORTC QLQ-C30 instrument for HRQoL measurement of physical functioning, global quality of life......OBJECTIVES: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients report high symptom burden and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to patients with other haematological malignancies. The aim of this review was to analyse published longitudinal studies including MM patients according to a change...... during first-line compared to relapsed treatment regimens. The background of these findings should be in focus in future studies, and HRQoL measurements should be integrated in maintenance studies....

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of the operation of longitudinal sidewalls in reinforced concrete superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokarev, Sergey; Efimov, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    In the present article, we report results of a laboratory experimental study of reinforced-concrete superstructure fragments with extended longitudinal boxing sidewalls. The study included laboratory tests and numerical experiments performed using a finite element model of fragments generated in specialized simulation software. The distribution of horizontal pressures over the height of longitudinal boxing sidewalls, the dependence of the bending moment in the root section of the sidewalls on the ballast-bed thickness under sleepers, and some other characteristics were examined. The results of the experimental and theoretical study have shown a good convergence of obtained data to each other and to the data obtained by an improved engineering calculation procedure proposed by the present authors.

  2. A crisis resolution and home treatment team in Norway: a longitudinal survey study Part 2. Provision of professional services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Bengt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crisis resolution and home treatment (CRHT is an emerging mode of delivering acute mental health care in the community. There is a paucity of knowledge regarding the workings of CRHT in the literature. This is the second paper in a series of three from the longitudinal survey of patients of a CRHT team in Norway, which was aimed at describing the characteristics of patients served, professional services provided, and clinical outcomes. This report focuses on the provision of professional services by the team. Methods The project was a descriptive, quantitative study based on the patient data from a longitudinal survey of one CRHT team in Norway. The participants of the survey, a total of 363 patients, constituted the complete registration of patients of this team in the period from February 2008 to July 2009. Results The average length of service by the team was about 15 days, and those with depression as the major symptom had the longest mean length of stay on the team. The team was engaged in providing a variety of services including individual treatments involving multiple professionals, group treatment meetings, and coordination activities involving external service sectors. While the type of professionals providing individual treatment was not associated with the severity level of clinical problems, those receiving various group treatment meetings had more serious level of clinical symptoms than those not receiving group treatment meetings. In addition coordination activities involving healthcare professionals and social services in the community were in line with the patients' clinical and social needs. The results of the study show that the team functioned effectively in addressing the general guidelines for the functioning of CRHT teams.

  3. Longitudinal gradient in limnological variables in the Upper Paraná River: a brief description and the importance of undammed tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Fernanda Santana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Describe the limnological pattern in a longitudinal gradient in the Paraná River, a highly dammed river, in a stretch localized between two dams, but rich in undammed tributaries. Methods Twelve transects in the longitudinal gradient of the Paraná River were sampled, with the first transect being placed right after Porto Primavera dam, and the last one in the lotic region of the Itaipu dam. In each of these transects, water transparency, electrical conductivity, pH, total nitrogen and total phosphorous were analyzed. Results In those regions nearer Porto Primavera dam it was observed high values of water transparency and low values of nitrogen and phosphorous. The values of water transparency decreased and the values of nitrogen and phosphorous increased as the distance from Porto Primavera dam increased. Because the new tributaries connect to the Paraná River, with the sites farer from Porto Primavera dam presenting values similar to those prior its construction. Conclusions Increase in the nutrients concentration and changes in ecological integrity are probably due to the presence of the undammed tributaries. They are originate in different river basins and therefore contribute to the Paraná River in distinct manners. Results presented here are an indicative of the fundamental importance of undammed tributaries in mitigating damming negative impacts in extremely dammed rivers and highlight the importance of keeping such tributaries free of dams.

  4. The Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes: I. Description of methods and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuluxananan, Somrat; Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Somboonviboon, Wanna; Nipitsukarn, Thana; Sothikarnmanee, Thepakorn; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Werawatganon, Thewarug; Tanudsintum, Surasak; Lekprasert, Varinee; Hintong, Thanoo

    2005-11-01

    Since anesthesia, unlike medical or surgical specialties, does not constitute treatment, The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand host the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes to determine factors related to anesthesia related adverse events. A prospective descriptive study of occurrence screening was conducted in 20 hospitals comprised of 7 university, 4 general and 4 district hospitals across Thailand. Anesthesia personnels were required to fill up patient-related, surgical-related, anesthesia-related variables and adverse outcomes on a strutured data entry form. The data included preanesthetic evaluation intraoperative period and 24 hr postoperative period. Adverse events specific form was recorded when adverse events occurred. All data were keyed in data management unit with double entry technique and descriptive statistics was used in the first phase of this study. A total of 163403 consecutive cases were recorded in one year. The mean (S.D.) of age, weight and height of patients were 38.6(2.3) yrs, 53.9(17.7) kgs and 153.4(22.7) cm respectively. There were more female (52.9%) than male (47. 1%) patients with ASA PS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = 50.8%, 36.3%, 10.7%, 2.0%, 0.2% respectively. Hypertension (11.6%), anemia (7.7%) and diabetes melitus (6.8%) were the three most common abnormalities in preanesthetic history taking. Mallampati score of 111870 patients grade 1, 2, 3, 4 were 54.0%, 39.7%, 5.6%, 0.7% and laryngoscopic grade 1, 2, 3, 4 of 74888 patients were 81.0%, 15.5%, 3.0% and 0.5% respectively. The first phase of THAI study epidemiological project can represent both the anesthesia and surgical profiles in Thailand. The collected data available should be useful for the improvement of the quality of anesthesia, guidelines for clinical practices, medical education and for further research.

  5. First-year success in a nursing baccalaureate plan of study: A descriptive research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Vivian; Thomas, Jessica A; Fernando, Harshini

    2018-08-01

    Predicting students' aptitude for post-secondary success remains a widely studied topic. This descriptive study explored demographic variables contributing to success in quantitative courses required by the nursing degree plan. Identification of an "at risk" student profile may inform interventions with which to support attainment of an academic degree. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between demographic characteristics and successful completion of baccalaureate nursing courses thought to enhance quantitative reasoning skills: first-year math, first-year chemistry, and second-year pathopharmacology nursing. This retrospective analysis accessed 4521 academic records of students who took these three courses at a United States university sometime between Fall 2008 and Fall 2015. De-identified student data included course grades, gender, full-time study, income, marital status, first generation, secondary school (also known as high school) location, dual credit, and high school and university grade point averages. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to describe the important features of the data. Of the 4521 records, 2556 undergraduates (57%) passed the courses in which they were enrolled. Among successful students, females outnumbered males (66%), ages ranged from 20 to 24 years, 86% were classified as low income, 54% fit the designation of first generation, and 12% earned dual credit (university credit during secondary school). Our data demonstrate a positive relationship between dual credit and success, with the strongest correlation (0.62) noted for students in pathopharmacology. In the baccalaureate-nursing plan of study, courses thought to enhance students' quantitative reasoning skills remain difficult for some to successfully complete. We conclude that the more successful students tend to be older, have a higher income, and a higher high school grade point average, while those less successful are directly out of high

  6. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, H.; Frederiksen, K.S.; Garde, E.; Skimminge, A.; Siebner, H.; Waldemar, G.; Ylikoski, R.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Barkhof, F.; Fazekas, F.; Schmidt, R.; Pantoni, L.; Inzitari, D.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have suggested that corpus callosum (CC) atrophy is related to impairment in global cognitive function, mental speed, and executive functions in the elderly. Longitudinal studies confirming these findings have been lacking. We investigated whether CC tissue loss is associated

  7. Baccalaureate Student Nurses' Study Habits Prior to Admission to Nursing Program: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Rhea Faye D; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Bigley, Louise; Adams, Kathryn

    2017-06-01

    Faculty continue to observe students struggling as they adapt their study strategies to learn nursing core content. This study described the study habits of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students prior to admission to the program. This study used a descriptive qualitative research design. A purposive sample of 19 BSN students (juniors [n=10] and seniors [n=9]) from a 4-year public Midwestern university were included in this study. Two focus group sessions, using a semi-structured interview guide, were conducted in the spring semester of 2013. The four themes which emerged from the analysis of data were: "I just got it," "I had a lot of time then," "I studied alone" mostly, and "…a little struggle with the sciences." The findings suggest the BSN students did not study much or employed poor study strategies during their years completing general education courses. Academic support is needed by students prior to admission to the nursing program so they can learn effective study skills and modify their study habits for easier adaptation to the rigors of nursing education. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Longitudinal Study of the Market Penetration of Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Harry Paul, III; Sireli, Yesim; Ozan, Erol; Kauffmann, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research of the market penetration of cockpit weather information systems (CWIS) is to contribute to the body of knowledge on modeling advanced technology feasibility in aviation by tracking and analyzing the market adoption of CWIS over a three year period. This research takes advantage of a previous study, conducted by Dr. Paul Kauffmann in 2000, which demonstrated an integrated and cost effective approach to evaluate advanced technology feasibility, examining the feasibility of CWIS in five market segments: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. The longitudinal research consists of two consecutive studies and produced two reports. The first report was submitted in August 2003 and included general market analysis about the CWIS products in the market at the time, identified their characteristics and examined developing market dynamics.

  9. A longitudinal study of growth, sex steroids and IGF-1 in boys with physiological gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Raket, Lars Lau; Hagen, Casper P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physiological gynaecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, though this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. Objective: This study aimed to describe the frequency...... of physiological gynaecomastia, and to determine possible etiological factors (e.g. auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal set-up. Design, Settings and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8–16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of “the COPENHAGEN Puberty......, pubertal development and the presence of gynaecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Results: 52 of 106 boys (49 developed gynaecomastia of which 10 (19 presented with intermittent gynaecomastia. Boys with physiological gynaecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who...

  10. Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) in children: A twenty-year study from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Roshan; Alfutaisi, Amna M; Mani, Renjith; Abdel Rahim, Rana A; Sankhla, Dilip K; Al Azri, Faisal M

    2017-04-01

    The data on children with diagnosis of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) was searched to find the pattern of myelitis in Oman. A retrospective study was carried out from January1995 to December 2014. Electronic medical records and patient medical files were seen to get the complete data of the children with ITM. This work was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University hospital, Muscat, Oman. The ethical committee of the hospital had approved the study. The diagnosis was based on the established criteria. Other causes of myelopathy were excluded. 19 children with idiopathic transverse myelitis were found. There were 18 out of 19 (94.6%) children with longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Longitudinal transverse extensive myelitis is the most common form of ITM in Oman.

  11. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Steel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1 as well as in a large correlational data set (N = 7400; Study 2. The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People’s pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  12. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; Svartdal, Frode; Thundiyil, Tomas; Brothen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1) as well as in a large correlational data set ( N = 7400; Study 2). The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People's pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  13. Findings From a Nursing Care Audit Based on the Nursing Process: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahnavard, Zahra; Maleki, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background Although using the nursing process improves nursing care quality, few studies have evaluated nursing performance in accordance with nursing process steps either nationally or internationally. Objectives This study aimed to audit nursing care based on a nursing process model. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which a nursing audit checkl...

  14. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  15. The CogBIAS longitudinal study protocol: cognitive and genetic factors influencing psychological functioning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Charlotte; Songco, Annabel; Parsons, Sam; Heathcote, Lauren; Vincent, John; Keers, Robert; Fox, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    Optimal psychological development is dependent upon a complex interplay between individual and situational factors. Investigating the development of these factors in adolescence will help to improve understanding of emotional vulnerability and resilience. The CogBIAS longitudinal study (CogBIAS-L-S) aims to combine cognitive and genetic approaches to investigate risk and protective factors associated with the development of mood and impulsivity-related outcomes in an adolescent sample. CogBIAS-L-S is a three-wave longitudinal study of typically developing adolescents conducted over 4 years, with data collection at age 12, 14 and 16. At each wave participants will undergo multiple assessments including a range of selective cognitive processing tasks (e.g. attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias) and psychological self-report measures (e.g. anxiety, depression, resilience). Saliva samples will also be collected at the baseline assessment for genetic analyses. Multilevel statistical analyses will be performed to investigate the developmental trajectory of cognitive biases on psychological functioning, as well as the influence of genetic moderation on these relationships. CogBIAS-L-S represents the first longitudinal study to assess multiple cognitive biases across adolescent development and the largest study of its kind to collect genetic data. It therefore provides a unique opportunity to understand how genes and the environment influence the development and maintenance of cognitive biases and provide insight into risk and protective factors that may be key targets for intervention.

  16. Odour as a determinant of persistent symptoms after a chemical explosion, a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Tjalvin, Gro; Magerøy, Nils; Bråtveit, Magne; Lygre, Stein Håkon Låstad; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Moen, Bente Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Foul-smelling environmental pollution was a major concern following a chemical workplace explosion. Malodorous pollution has previously been associated with aggravated physical and psychological health, and in persons affected by a trauma, an incidence-related odour can act as a traumatic reminder. Olfaction may even be of significance in the development and persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The present longitudinal study assessed whether perceived smell related to malodor...

  17. Student perceptions of stress, coping, relationships, and academic civility: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Nguyen, Danh T; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2014-01-01

    Academic incivility can increase student stress, jeopardize learning, damage relationships, and negatively impact the academic environment. This 3-year longitudinal study measured a cohort of prelicensure nursing students' progressive perceptions of stress, coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility scores remained mild to moderately high overall, there was a slightly declining trend over the 3-year period. Perceived stressors and coping strategies and ways to improve academic civility are identified and discussed.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF GAMING ON WORKING MEMORY, INATTENTION, READING AND MATH – A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöwall, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown both positive and negative effects of gaming on academic and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of gaming on development of working memory (WM), inattention, reading and math ability using a longitudinal design. A randomly chosen sample of 335 (168 girls) 6–25 year olds performed tests of visuo-spatial and verbal WM, reading and math ability twice, with a two year interval. Gaming and inattention were assed with questionnaires...

  19. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heavies...

  20. A short-term longitudinal study of relational aggression and social skills of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Miyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study was designed to examine relational aggression associated with social skills and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of preschool children. Relational aggression, social skills (self-control skills, friendship making skills, and assertion skills), and anxiety-withdrawn behavior of one hundred and twenty 5-year old children were assessed two times across a 6-months period by using teacher rating measures. For the data analysis, the children were divided according to th...

  1. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangwan; H S Chawla; A Goyal; K Gauba; U Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier ...

  2. Longitudinal MRI Study of Cortical Development through Early Childhood in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, C.M.; Bloss, C.S.; Barnes, C. Carter; Wideman, G.M.; Carper, R.A.; Akshoomoff, N.; Pierce, K.; Hagler, D.; Schork, N.; Lord, C.; Courchesne, E.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional MRI studies have long hypothesized that the brain in children with autism undergoes an abnormal growth trajectory that includes a period of early overgrowth; however this has never been confirmed by a longitudinal study. We carried out the first longitudinal study of brain growth in toddlers at the time symptoms of autism are becoming clinically apparent utilizing structural MRI scans at multiple time points beginning at 1.5 years up to 5 years of age. We collected 193 scans on 41 toddlers who received a confirmed diagnosis of Autistic Disorder at ~48 months of age and 44 typically developing controls. By 2.5 years of age, both cerebral gray and white matter was significantly enlarged in toddlers with Autistic Disorder, with the most severe enlargement occurring in frontal, temporal and cingulate cortices. In the longitudinal analyses, which we accounted for age and gender effect, we found that all regions (cerebral gray, cerebral white, frontal gray, temporal gray, cingulate gray, and parietal gray) except occipital gray developed at an abnormal growth rate in toddlers with Autistic Disorder that was mainly characterized by a quadratic age effect. Females with Autistic Disorder displayed a more pronounced abnormal growth profile in more brain regions than males with the disorder. Given that overgrowth clearly begins before 2 years of age, future longitudinal studies would benefit from inclusion of even younger populations as well as further characterization of genetic and other biomarkers in order to determine the underlying neuropathological processes causing the onset of autistic symptoms. PMID:20335478

  3. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006

    OpenAIRE

    K.T. Moagabo; K.B. Monyame; E.K. Baipoledi; M. Letshwenyo; N. Mapitse; J.M.K. Hyera

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2 ...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Drawings of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding and children's drawings of play in 26 school-aged children, (16 females, 10 males, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind was assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M =10 y 4 m), as well as children's drawings of play activities.…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Concept, and Gender-Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding, self-perceptions, and perceptions of gender-role orientation in 28 school-aged children, (16 girls, 12 boys, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind and perceptions of self were assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5 m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M = 10 y 4…

  6. Work-Team Implementation and Trajectories of Manufacturing Quality: A Longitudinal Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Joy M. Field; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the sustainability of manufacturing quality improvements following the implementation of work teams on production lines. We posit that the impact on manufacturing quality, measured as the defect rate trajectory, is monotonically nonincreasing over time and may, more specifically, assume the shape of an inverted S-curve. Employing a longitudinal research design, we investigate four work teams over a 28-month period in a field setting. Each team corresponds to one of the four...

  7. Perceived maternal autonomy-support and early adolescent emotion regulation: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between perceived maternal autonomy-supportive parenting and early adolescents' use of three emotion regulation (ER) styles: emotional integration, suppressive regulation, and dysregulation. We tested whether perceived maternal autonomy support predicted changes in ER and whether these ER styles, in turn, related to changes in adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem). Participants (N= 311, mean age at Time 1 = 12.04) reported on per...

  8. Digital Entrepreneurship in a Traditional Production Firm: A Longitudinal Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Hannibal; Erik S. Rasmussen

    2014-01-01

    Through a longitudinal case study this paper explores the repercussions from introducing a mobile commerce platform as just another instrument in the marketing toolbox in a traditional sales-oriented firm. Findings suggest that the implementation of the M-platform in addition to its intended purpose spawns a digital business model that allows the company to change its relations to distributors, retailers and customers enabling access to direct communication with end-users. However, the emergi...

  9. Personality and Eating Disorders: A Longitudinal Study on a Non-Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Caro, Elide Francesca; Di Blas, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study is aimed at analyzing how adolescents change their dysfunctional attitudes towards their body and eating behaviors in relation to personality characteristics across a six-month time span. Via multiple regression analyses we investigated whether MMPI-A Obsessiveness, Low Self-Esteem, Depression, Family Problems and Concern for health are temporal antecedents of EDI-2 eating disorders, and vice versa. Our main findings revealed a bidirectio...

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Neurocognition in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Compared to Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Breitve

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThere are relatively few longitudinal studies on the differences in cognitive decline between Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and the majority of existing studies have suboptimal designs.AimWe investigated the differences in cognitive decline in AD compared to DLB over 4 years and cognitive domain predictors of progression.MethodsIn a longitudinal study, 266 patients with first-time diagnosis of mild dementia were included and followed annually. The patients were tested annually with neuropsychological tests and screening instruments [MMSE (Mini-Mental Status Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, the second edition of California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II, Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B, Stroop test, Controlled Oral Word Associations Test (COWAT animal naming, Boston Naming Test, Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP Cubes and Silhouettes]. Longitudinal analyses were performed with linear mixed effects (LME models and Cox regression. Both specific neuropsychological tests and cognitive domains were analyzed.ResultsThis study sample comprised 119 AD and 67 DLB patients. In TMT A, the DLB patients had a faster decline over 4 years than patients with AD (p = 0.013. No other longitudinal differences in specific neuropsychological tests were found. Higher executive domain scores at baseline were associated with a longer time to reach severe dementia (CDR = 3 or death for the total sample (p = 0.032. High or low visuospatial function at baseline was not found to be associated with cognitive decline (MMSE or progression of dementia severity (CDR over time.ConclusionOver 4 years, patients with DLB had a faster decline in TMT A than patients with AD, but this should be interpreted cautiously. Beyond this, there was little support for faster decline in DLB patients neuropsychologically than in AD patients.

  11. Cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD following stillbirth: a short-term longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, A.; Jacobs, I.; McKenzie-McHarg, K.

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 a...

  12. The predictive power of personality traits on insomnia symptoms: a longitudinal study among shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Larsgård, Borgar

    2015-01-01

    Shift work can have adverse effects on employees' health, including symptoms of insomnia. This may cause severe problems both for employee and employer. The personality variables morningness, neuroticism and extraversion, along with some demographic variables (e.g. gender, age) have been found to correlate with insomnia symptoms, but predictive data have been scarce. This study sought to discover whether personality variables could predict insomnia. A hierarchical longitudinal (six months)...

  13. The relation between internet use and overweight among adolescents: a longitudinal study in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrense-Dias Y; Berchtold A; Akre C; Surís J-C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the characteristics and predictive risk factors of overweight among adolescents. The hypothesis was that baseline overweight predicted most overweight over time compared to other factors especially excessive internet use. SUBJECTS A sample of 621 youths were followed from age 14 (T0 Spring 2012) to age 16 (T1 Spring 2014) in Switzerland. Participants were divided into two groups according to their weight at the final assessment: overweigh...

  14. The effects of ingroup and outgroup friendships on ethnic attitudes in college: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Shana; van Laar, Colette; Sidanius, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Data for this longitudinal study were collected from over 2000 White, Asian, Latino, and African American college students. Results indicated that students who exhibited more ingroup bias and intergroup anxiety at the end of their first year of college had fewer outgroup friends and more ingroup friends during their second and third years of college, controlling for pre-college friendships and other background variables. In addition, beyond these effects of prior ethnic attitudes and orientat...

  15. Development of sedentary behavior across childhood and adolescence: longitudinal analysis of the Gateshead Millennium Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Xanne; Mann, Kay D.; Basterfield, Laura; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Pearce, Mark S.; Reilly, Jessica K.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Reilly, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world policy and research interventions to modify sedentary behavior of children and adolescents are now being developed. However, the evidence to inform these interventions (e.g. how sedentary behavior changes across childhood and adolescence) is limited. This study aimed to assess longitudinal changes in sedentary behavior, and examine the degree of tracking of sedentary behavior from age 7y to 15y. Methods Participants were part of the Gateshead Millennium S...

  16. A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Spicer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a three-year longitudinal study of adolescents from three diverse American Indian cultural groups in the wester...

  17. MMORPG gaming and hostility predict internet addiction symptoms in adolescents: an empirical multilevel longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Stavropoulos, V; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Wilson, P; Motti-Stefanidi, F

    2017-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become an increasingly researched topic. In the present study, IA symptoms in adolescents were investigated longitudinally with specific focus on the individual’s hostility, gaming use (of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games\\ud [MMORPGs]) and gaming on the classroom level (calculated using the percentage of MMORPG players within classes). The sample comprised 648 Greek adolescents who were\\ud assessed over a two-year period (aged 16-18 years). IA sympto...

  18. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Akash Deep, E-mail: akash-deep@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI) at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B.B.; Karnewar, A.K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India)

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  19. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hok, Pavel [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Palacky University, Department of Neurology, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rueb, Udo [Goethe University, Dr. Senckenberg Chronomedical Institute, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Steinmetz, Helmuth [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Klein, Johannes C. [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Deichmann, Ralf [Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon; Hok, Pavel; Rueb, Udo; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Klein, Johannes C.; Deichmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)