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Sample records for longitudinal cognitive decline

  1. Longitudinal Modeling of Functional Decline Associated with Pathologic Alzheimer's Disease in Older Persons without Cognitive Impairment.

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    Wang, Dai; Schultz, Tim; Novak, Gerald P; Baker, Susan; Bennett, David A; Narayan, Vaibhav A

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutic research on Alzheimer's disease (AD) has moved to intercepting the disease at the preclinical phase. Most drugs in late development have focused on the amyloid hypothesis. To understand the magnitude of amyloid-related functional decline and to identify the functional domains sensitive to decline in a preclinical AD population. Data were from the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Cognitive decline was measured by a modified version of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite. The trajectories of functional decline, as measured by the instrumental and basic activities of daily living, were longitudinally modeled in 484 participants without cognitive impairment at baseline and having both a final clinical and a postmortem neuropathology assessment of AD. Individuals with different final clinical diagnoses had different trajectories of cognitive and functional decline. Individuals with AD dementia, minor cognitive impairment, and no cognitive impairment had the most, intermediate, and least declines. While individuals with pathologic AD had significantly more cognitive decline over time than those without, the magnitude of difference in functional decline between these two groups was small. Functional domains such as handling finance and handling medications were more sensitive to decline. Demonstrating the functional benefit of an amyloid-targeting drug represents a significant challenge as elderly people experience functional decline due to a wide range of reasons with limited manifestation attributable to AD neuropathology. More sensitive functional scales focusing on the functional domains sensitive to decline in preclinical AD are needed.

  2. Renal function and long-term decline in cognitive function: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

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    Seliger, Stephen L; Wendell, Carrington R; Waldstein, Shari R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Renal disease has been associated with greater risk of dementia and greater cognitive impairment. However, the relationship of lower renal function with long-term decline in specific domains of cognitive function remains unclear among community-dwelling, non-demented individuals. Stroke- and dementia-free participants (n = 2,116) were enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based, prospective, longitudinal study. Renal function was estimated by the inverse of serum creatinine adjusted for age, sex and race and (in sensitivity analyses) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Outcome measures were changes in scores on 6 cognitive tests encompassing a range of cognitive functions, measured at 2-year intervals. Mixed-effects regression models examined the longitudinal relations of renal function with cognitive functions after adjusting for demographics, comorbidity and other potential confounders. Mean age at initial testing was 53.9 years (SD 17.1), and 94 participants (4.4%) had an eGFR age, longitudinal increases in creatinine concentrations were associated with more rapid decline in performance on several cognitive measures, including the learning slope of the California Verbal Learning Test, a test of verbal learning (p renal function independently associated with greater long-term declines in visual memory and verbal memory and learning. © 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. HbA1c, diabetes and cognitive decline: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

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    Zheng, Fanfan; Yan, Li; Yang, Zhenchun; Zhong, Baoliang; Xie, Wuxiang

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate longitudinal associations between HbA 1c levels, diabetes status and subsequent cognitive decline over a 10 year follow-up period. Data from wave 2 (2004-2005) to wave 7 (2014-2015) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were analysed. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline (wave 2) and reassessed every 2 years at waves 3-7. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate longitudinal associations. The study comprised 5189 participants (55.1% women, mean age 65.6 ± 9.4 years) with baseline HbA 1c levels ranging from 15.9 to 126.3 mmol/mol (3.6-13.7%). The mean follow-up duration was 8.1 ± 2.8 years and the mean number of cognitive assessments was 4.9 ± 1.5. A 1 mmol/mol increment in HbA 1c was significantly associated with an increased rate of decline in global cognitive z scores (-0.0009 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0014, -0.0003), memory z scores (-0.0005 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0009, -0.0001) and executive function z scores (-0.0008 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0013, -0.0004) after adjustment for baseline age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, BMI, education, marital status, depressive symptoms, current smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, CHD, stroke, chronic lung disease and cancer. Compared with participants with normoglycaemia, the multivariable-adjusted rate of global cognitive decline associated with prediabetes and diabetes was increased by -0.012 SD/year (95% CI -0.022, -0.002) and -0.031 SD/year (95% CI -0.046, -0.015), respectively (p for trend cognitive decline with diabetes. Significant longitudinal associations between HbA 1c levels, diabetes status and long-term cognitive decline were observed in this study. Future studies are required to determine the effects of maintaining optimal glucose control on the rate of cognitive decline in people with diabetes.

  4. Social relationships and cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies.

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    Kuiper, Jisca S; Zuidersma, Marij; Zuidema, Sytse U; Burgerhof, Johannes Gm; Stolk, Ronald P; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Smidt, Nynke

    2016-08-01

    Although poor social relationships are assumed to contribute to cognitive decline, meta-analytic approaches have not been applied. Individual study results are mixed and difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in measures of social relationships. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relation between poor social relationships and cognitive decline. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched for longitudinal cohort studies examining various aspects of social relationships and cognitive decline in the general population. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were explored and likelihood of publication bias was assessed. We stratified analyses according to three aspects of social relationships: structural, functional and a combination of these. We identified 43 articles. Poor social relationships predicted cognitive decline; for structural (19 studies): pooled OR: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.05-1.11); functional (8 studies): pooled OR: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00-1.32); and combined measures (7 studies): pooled OR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01-1.24). Meta-regression and subgroup analyses showed that the heterogeneity could be explained by the type of social relationship measurement and methodological quality of included studies. Despite heterogeneity in study design and measures, our meta-analyses show that multiple aspects of social relationships are associated with cognitive decline. As evidence for publication bias was found, the association might be overestimated and should therefore be interpreted with caution. Future studies are needed to better define the mechanisms underlying these associations. Potential causality of this prognostic association should be examined in future randomized controlled studies. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. Cognitive decline over time in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1: A 9-year longitudinal study.

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    Gallais, Benjamin; Gagnon, Cynthia; Mathieu, Jean; Richer, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited neuromuscular disease with multisystemic involvement including the central nervous system. The evolution of the cognitive profile is a matter of debate, whether an eventual decline could be global or process-specific. Study aims are to describe, compare and document the clinical relevance of the progression of cognitive abilities in DM1 patients with adult and late-onset phenotypes. A total of 115 DM1 patients (90 adult; 25 late-onset) were assessed twice within a 9-year period on cognitive abilities (language, memory, visual attention, processing speed, visuoconstructive abilities and executive functions) and intellectual functioning (WAIS-R 7). A significant worsening over time was observed for verbal memory, visual attention, and processing speed. The progression in cognitive scores correlated with age and disease duration, but not with nCTG, muscular impairment nor education at baseline. Intellectual functioning remained stable. The rate of decline was higher among the late-onset phenotype than in the adult phenotype. Results showed that executive functions, language, and visual memory are impaired earlier in adult life, while verbal memory, visual attention, and processing speed decline later. Globally, results suggest an early and accelerated normal ageing process. This longitudinal study was based on the largest sample and the longest time period studied to date. These findings are highly relevant for clinical practice and genetic counselling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship of bilingualism to cognitive decline: The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

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    Mukadam, Naaheed; Jichi, Fatima; Green, David; Livingston, Gill

    2018-02-01

    We wished to clarify the link between bilingualism and cognitive decline, and examine whether improved executive function due to bilingualism may be a factor in preventing cognitive decline. We used the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing which collected data on 2087 participants aged over 65 over 20 years. We compared baseline demographics, health, and social characteristics between bilingual and non-bilingual participants. We used linear mixed models analysis to explore the effect of bilingualism on MMSE score over time and linear regression to explore the effect of bilingualism on baseline MMSE scores, controlling for pre-specified potential confounders. Bilingual participants had lower baseline MMSE scores than the non-bilingual population (mean difference = -2.3 points; 95% confidence intervals = 1.56-2.90). This was fully explained by education and National Adult Reading Test scores (17.4; standard deviation [SD] =7.7 versus 28.1; SD = 8.2) which also partly explained baseline executive function test scores differences. Bilingual and non-bilingual participants did not differ in MMSE decline over time (-0.33 points, P = 0.31) nor on baseline tests of executive function (-0.26, P = 0.051). In this cohort, education rather than bilingualism was a predictor of MMSE score, and being bilingual did not protect from cognitive decline. We conclude that bilingualism is complex, and when it is not the result of greater educational attainment, it does not always protect from cognitive decline. Neuroprotective effects of bilingualism over time may be attributable to the precise patterns of language use but not to bilingualism per se. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Biomarker clusters are differentially associated with longitudinal cognitive decline in late midlife

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    Racine, Annie M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Berman, Sara E.; Nicholas, Christopher R.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Rowley, Howard A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gleason, Carey E.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect preclinical Alzheimer’s disease is of great importance, as this stage of the Alzheimer’s continuum is believed to provide a key window for intervention and prevention. As Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by multiple pathological changes, a biomarker panel reflecting co-occurring pathology will likely be most useful for early detection. Towards this end, 175 late middle-aged participants (mean age 55.9 ± 5.7 years at first cognitive assessment, 70% female) were recruited from two longitudinally followed cohorts to undergo magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture. Cluster analysis was used to group individuals based on biomarkers of amyloid pathology (cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42/amyloid-β40 assay levels), magnetic resonance imaging-derived measures of neurodegeneration/atrophy (cerebrospinal fluid-to-brain volume ratio, and hippocampal volume), neurofibrillary tangles (cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau181 assay levels), and a brain-based marker of vascular risk (total white matter hyperintensity lesion volume). Four biomarker clusters emerged consistent with preclinical features of (i) Alzheimer’s disease; (ii) mixed Alzheimer’s disease and vascular aetiology; (iii) suspected non-Alzheimer’s disease aetiology; and (iv) healthy ageing. Cognitive decline was then analysed between clusters using longitudinal assessments of episodic memory, semantic memory, executive function, and global cognitive function with linear mixed effects modelling. Cluster 1 exhibited a higher intercept and greater rates of decline on tests of episodic memory. Cluster 2 had a lower intercept on a test of semantic memory and both Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 had steeper rates of decline on a test of global cognition. Additional analyses on Cluster 3, which had the smallest hippocampal volume, suggest that its biomarker profile is more likely due to hippocampal vulnerability and not to detectable specific volume loss exceeding the rate of normal

  8. Daily Stress Magnifies the Association between Cognitive Decline and Everyday Memory Problems: An Integration of Longitudinal and Diary Methods

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    Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Almeida, David M.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether long-term fluid cognitive decline was associated with memory problems in everyday life, and whether stress plays a moderating role. We expected that the association between cognitive decline and everyday memory problems would be magnified in the context of self-reported and physiological stress. Data are from the Boston Longitudinal Study, a subsample of the Midlife in the United States study. Participants in the current study (n=112) completed a battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning at Time 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) over ten years. At T2, participants completed weekly diaries of self-reported daily stressors and everyday memory problems for twelve consecutive weeks. Also at T2, participants provided four saliva samples over the course of one day to assess physiological stress using diurnal cortisol profiles [cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS)]. Self-reported daily stressors and a less healthy DCS were associated with more everyday memory problems, and participants with greater cognitive decline reported more memory problems compared to those with less or no decline. Self-reported daily stressors and CAR moderated the relationship of cognitive decline and memory problems. As expected, more cognitive decline was associated with greater increases in memory problems on weeks when individuals reported more daily stressors and for individuals with a less healthy CAR. The current findings can inform interventions aimed to identify factors, such as daily stress, that contribute to daily functioning in the context of cognitive decline. PMID:25365691

  9. Personality and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: Data From a Longitudinal Sample and Meta-Analysis

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    Terracciano, Antonio; Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Personality traits are associated with risk of dementia; less is known about their association with the trajectory of cognitive functioning. This research examines the association between the 5 major dimensions of personality and cognitive function and decline in older adulthood and includes a meta-analysis of published studies. Method: Personality traits, objective and subjective memory, and cognitive status were collected in a large national sample (N = 13,987) with a 4-year follow-up period. For each trait, the meta-analysis pooled results from up to 5 prospective studies to examine personality and change in global cognition. Results: Higher Neuroticism was associated with worse performance on all cognitive measures and greater decline in memory, whereas higher Conscientiousness and Openness were associated with better memory performance concurrently and less decline over time. All traits were associated with subjective memory. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Extraversion were associated with better cognitive status and less decline. Although modest, these associations were generally larger than that of hypertension, diabetes, history of psychological treatment, obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity. The meta-analysis supported the association between Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and cognitive decline. Discussion: Personality is associated with cognitive decline in older adults, with effects comparable to established clinical and lifestyle risk factors. PMID:25583598

  10. Whole-brain atrophy rate and cognitive decline: longitudinal MR study of memory clinic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, J.D.; van der Flier, W.M.; Karas, G.B.; Fox, N.C.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Vrenken, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whole-brain atrophy rate in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) and its association with cognitive decline, and investigate the risk of progression to dementia in initially non-demented patients given baseline brain volume and whole-brain

  11. The associations between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, potential confounders, and cognitive decline: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Nettiksimmons

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a role in the maintenance and function of neurons. Although persons with Alzheimer's disease have lower cortical levels of BDNF, evidence regarding the association between circulating BDNF and cognitive function is conflicting. We sought to determine the correlates of BDNF level and whether BDNF level was prospectively associated with cognitive decline in healthy older adults. We measured serum BDNF near baseline in 912 individuals. Cognitive status was assessed repeatedly with the modified Mini-Mental Status Examination and the Digit Symbol Substitution test over the next 10 years. We evaluated the association between BDNF and cognitive decline with longitudinal models. We also assessed the association between BDNF level and demographics, comorbidities and health behaviors. We found an association between serum BDNF and several characteristics that are also associated with dementia (race and depression, suggesting that future studies should control for these potential confounders. We did not find evidence of a longitudinal association between serum BDNF and subsequent cognitive test trajectories in older adults, although we did identify a potential trend toward a cross-sectional association. Our results suggest that serum BDNF may have limited utility as a biomarker of prospective cognitive decline.

  12. Longitudinal cognitive decline in subcortical ischemic vascular disease--the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Kalska, Hely; Ylikoski, Raija

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD), as defined according to imaging criteria, is associated with a specific clinical and cognitive profile. Much less is known about the long-term cognitive consequences of SIVD. The aim of the study...... was to investigate the longitudinal cognitive performance and incident dementia in subjects with and without SIVD in a sample of older adults with white matter lesions. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study, 639 participants were examined with annual clinical and neuropsychological evaluations...... for 3 years. The subjects meeting the MRI criteria of SIVD at baseline were compared to the other subjects of the sample with linear mixed models. RESULTS: The overall level of cognitive performance over the follow-up period was inferior in multiple cognitive domains in SIVD subjects as compared...

  13. Social relationships and cognitive decline : a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Jisca S.; Zuidersma, Marij; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Smidt, Nynke

    Background: Although poor social relationships are assumed to contribute to cognitive decline, meta-analytic approaches have not been applied. Individual study results are mixed and difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in measures of social relationships. We conducted a systematic review and

  14. Social relationships and cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.S.; Zuidersma, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Burgerhof, J.G.; Stolk, R.P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Smidt, N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although poor social relationships are assumed to contribute to cognitive decline, meta-analytic approaches have not been applied. Individual study results are mixed and difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in measures of social relationships. We conducted a systematic review and

  15. Brain Amyloid Deposition and Longitudinal Cognitive Decline in Nondemented Older Subjects: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population.

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    Yian Gu

    Full Text Available We aimed to whether the abnormally high amyloid-β (Aβ level in the brain among apparently healthy elders is related with subtle cognitive deficits and/or accelerated cognitive decline.A total of 116 dementia-free participants (mean age 84.5 years of the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project completed 18F-Florbetaben PET imaging. Positive or negative cerebral Aβ deposition was assessed visually. Quantitative cerebral Aβ burden was calculated as the standardized uptake value ratio in pre-established regions of interest using cerebellar cortex as the reference region. Cognition was determined using a neuropsychological battery and selected tests scores were combined into four composite scores (memory, language, executive/speed, and visuospatial using exploratory factor analysis. We examined the relationship between cerebral Aβ level and longitudinal cognition change up to 20 years before the PET scan using latent growth curve models, controlling for age, education, ethnicity, and Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype.Positive reading of Aβ was found in 41 of 116 (35% individuals. Cognitive scores at scan time was not related with Aβ. All cognitive scores declined over time. Aβ positive reading (B = -0.034, p = 0.02 and higher Aβ burden in temporal region (B = -0.080, p = 0.02 were associated with faster decline in executive/speed. Stratified analyses showed that higher Aβ deposition was associated with faster longitudinal declines in mean cognition, language, and executive/speed in African-Americans or in APOE ε4 carriers, and with faster memory decline in APOE ε4 carriers. The associations remained significant after excluding mild cognitive impairment participants.High Aβ deposition in healthy elders was associated with decline in executive/speed in the decade before neuroimaging, and the association was observed primarily in African-Americans and APOE ε4 carriers. Our results suggest that measuring cerebral Aβ may give us

  16. Validation and diagnostic accuracy of predictive curves for age-associated longitudinal cognitive decline in older adults

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    Bernier, Patrick J.; Gourdeau, Christian; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Beauchemin, Jean-Pierre; Verreault, René; Bouchard, Rémi W.; Kröger, Edeltraut; Laforce, Robert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental State Examination continues to be used frequently to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults, but it remains unclear how to interpret changes in its score over time to distinguish age-associated cognitive decline from an early degenerative process. We aimed to generate cognitive charts for use in clinical practice for longitudinal evaluation of age-associated cognitive decline. METHODS: We used data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging from 7569 participants aged 65 years or older who completed a Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline, and at 5 and 10 years later to develop a linear regression model for the Mini-Mental State Examination score as a function of age and education. Based on this model, we generated cognitive charts designed to optimize accuracy for distinguishing participants with dementia from healthy controls. We validated our model using a separate data set of 6501 participants from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set. RESULTS: For baseline measurement, the cognitive charts had a sensitivity of 80% (95% confidence interval [CI] 75% to 84%) and a specificity of 89% (95% CI 88% to 90%) for distinguishing healthy controls from participants with dementia. Similar sensitivities and specificities were observed for a decline over time greater than 1 percentile zone from the first measurement. Results in the validation sample were comparable, albeit with lower sensitivities. Negative predictive value was 99%. INTERPRETATION: Our innovative model, which factors in age and education, showed validity and diagnostic accuracy for determining whether older patients show abnormal performance on serial Mini-Mental State Examination measurements. Similar to growth curves used in pediatrics, cognitive charts allow longitudinal cognitive evaluation and enable prompt initiation of investigation and treatment when appropriate. PMID:29203616

  17. Physical Frailty Is Associated with Longitudinal Decline in Global Cognitive Function in Non-Demented Older Adults: A Prospective Study.

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    Chen, S; Honda, T; Narazaki, K; Chen, T; Kishimoto, H; Haeuchi, Y; Kumagai, S

    2018-01-01

    To assess the relationship between physical frailty and subsequent decline in global cognitive function in the non-demented elderly. A prospective population-based study in a west Japanese suburban town, with two-year follow-up. Community-dwellers aged 65 and older without placement in long-term care, and not having a history of dementia, Parkinson's disease and depression at baseline, who participated in the cohort of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study and underwent follow-up assessments two years later (N = 1,045). Global cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physical frailty was identified according to the following five components: weight loss, low grip strength, exhaustion, slow gait speed and low physical activities. Linear regression models were used to examine associations between baseline frailty status and the MoCA scores at follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of cognitive decline (defined as at least two points decrease of MoCA score) according to baseline frailty status. Seven hundred and eight non-demented older adults were included in the final analyses (mean age: 72.6 ± 5.5 years, male 40.3%); 5.8% were frail, and 40.8% were prefrail at baseline. One hundred and fifty nine (22.5%) participants experienced cognitive decline over two years. After adjustment for baseline MoCA scores and all confounders, being frail at baseline was significantly associated with a decline of 1.48 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.37 to -0.59) in MoCA scores, as compared with non-frailty. Frail persons were over two times more likely to experience cognitive decline (adjusted odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 5.08), compared to non-frail persons. Physical frailty is associated with longitudinal decline in global cognitive function in the non-demented older adults over a period of two years. Physically frail older community-dwellers should be closely monitored for cognitive decline that can be

  18. Cognitive decline in Parkinson disease

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    Aarsland, Dag; Creese, Byron; Politis, Marios; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; ffytche, Dominic H.; Weintraub, Daniel; Ballard, Clive

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a frequent problem encountered in advanced stages of Parkinson disease (PD). In recent years, research has focused on the pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in PD, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Several longitudinal studies have shown that MCI is a harbinger of dementia in PD, although the course is variable, and stabilization of cognition — or even reversal to normal cognition — is not uncommon. In addition to limbic and cortical spread of Lewy pathology, several other mechanisms are likely to contribute to cognitive decline in PD, and a variety of biomarker studies, some using novel structural and functional imaging techniques, have documented in vivo brain changes associated with cognitive impairment. The evidence consistently suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid-β42, a marker of comorbid Alzheimer disease (AD), predict future cognitive decline and dementia in PD. Emerging genetic evidence indicates that in addition to the APOE*ε4 allele (an established risk factor for AD), GBA mutations and SCNA mutations and triplications are associated with cognitive decline in PD, whereas the findings are mixed for MAPT polymorphisms. Cognitive enhancing medications have some effect in PD dementia, but no convincing evidence that progression from MCI to dementia can be delayed or prevented is available, although cognitive training has shown promising results. PMID:28257128

  19. Vitamin D Levels and the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Chinese Elderly People: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

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    Matchar, David B; Chei, Choy-Lye; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Koh, Victoria; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Zeng, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D has a neuroprotective function, potentially important for the prevention of cognitive decline. Prospective studies from Western countries support an association between lower vitamin D level and future cognitive decline in elderly people. No prospective study has examined this association in Asia. This community-based cohort study of elderly people in China follows 1,202 cognitively intact adults aged ≥60 years for a mean duration of 2 years. Plasma vitamin D level was measured at the baseline. Cognitive state of participants was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE score vitamin D levels with cognitive decline and incidence of cognitive impairment. Participants with low vitamin D level had an increased risk of cognitive decline. Compared with the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the multivariable odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval) for cognitive decline were 2.1 (1.3-3.4) for the second highest quartile, 2.2 (1.4-3.6) for the third highest quartile, and 2.0 (1.2-3.3) for the lowest quartile. The multivariable ORs of incident cognitive impairment for the second highest, third highest, and lowest versus highest quartiles of vitamin D levels were 1.9 (0.9-4.1), 2.6 (1.2-5.6), and 3.2 (1.5-6.6), respectively. This first follow-up study of elderly people, including the oldest-old, in Asia shows that low vitamin D levels were associated with increased risk of subsequent cognitive decline and impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An inflammatory and trophic disconnect biomarker profile revealed in Down syndrome plasma: Relation to cognitive decline and longitudinal evaluation.

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    Iulita, M Florencia; Ower, Alison; Barone, Concetta; Pentz, Rowan; Gubert, Palma; Romano, Corrado; Cantarella, Rita Anna; Elia, Flaviana; Buono, Serafino; Recupero, Marilena; Romano, Carmelo; Castellano, Sabrina; Bosco, Paolo; Di Nuovo, Santo; Drago, Filippo; Caraci, Filippo; Cuello, A Claudio

    2016-11-01

    Given that Alzheimer's pathology develops silently over decades in Down syndrome (DS), prognostic biomarkers of dementia are a major need. We investigated the plasma levels of Aβ, proNGF, tPA, neuroserpin, metallo-proteases and inflammatory molecules in 31 individuals with DS (with and without dementia) and in 31 healthy controls. We examined associations between biomarkers and cognitive decline. Aβ40 and Aβ42 were elevated in DS plasma compared to controls, even in DS individuals without dementia. Plasma Aβ correlated with the rate of cognitive decline across 2 years. ProNGF, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 activity, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were higher in DS plasma, even at AD-asymptomatic stages. Declining plasma Aβ42 and increasing proNGF levels correlated with cognitive decline. A combined measure of Aβ and inflammatory molecules was a strong predictor of prospective cognitive deterioration. Our findings support the combination of plasma and cognitive assessments for the identification of DS individuals at risk of dementia. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive decline affects diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzyński Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DM provokes peripheral complications and changes in central nervous system. Central changes in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM include changes in brain tissue structure, electrophysiological abnormalities but also disturbances in neurotransmission leading to cognitive decline.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells can modulate longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and its related cognitive decline in patients with multiple system atrophy

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    Mun Kyung eSunwoo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is an adult-onset sporadic neurodegenerative disease. Because the prognosis of MSA is fatal, neuroprotective or regenerative strategies may be invaluable in MSA treatment. Previously, we obtained clinical and imaging evidence that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC treatment could have a neuroprotective role in MSA patients. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MSC therapy on longitudinal changes in subcortical deep grey matter volumes and cortical thickness and their association with cognitive performance. Clinical and imaging data were obtained from our previous randomized trial of autologous MSC in MSA patients. During 1-year follow-up, we assessed longitudinal differences in subcortical deep grey matter volumes and cortical thickness between placebo (n=15 and MSC groups (n=11. Next, we performed correlation analysis between the changes in cortical thickness and changes in the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores and detailed cognitive performance. There were no significant differences in age, gender ratio, disease duration, clinical severity, MoCA score, or education level between the groups. The subcortical volumetric analysis revealed that the changes in deep grey matter volumes of the caudate, putamen, and thalamus did not differ significantly between the groups. The areas of cortical thinning over time in the placebo group were more extensive, including the frontal, temporal, and parietal areas, whereas these areas in the MSC group were less extensive. Correlation analysis indicated that declines in MoCA scores and phonemic fluency were significantly correlated with cortical thinning of the frontal and posterior temporal areas and anterior temporal areas in MSA patients, respectively. These results suggest that MSC treatment in patients with MSA may modulate cortical thinning over time and related cognitive performance, inferring a future therapeutic candidate for cognitive

  3. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

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    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells can modulate longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and its related cognitive decline in patients with multiple system atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Song, Sook K.; Ham, Ji Hyun; Hong, Jin Yong; Lee, Ji E.; Lee, Hye S.; Sohn, Young H.; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset, sporadic neurodegenerative disease. Because the prognosis of MSA is fatal, neuroprotective or regenerative strategies may be invaluable in MSA treatment. Previously, we obtained clinical and imaging evidence that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment could have a neuroprotective role in MSA patients. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MSC therapy on longitudinal changes in subcortical deep gray matter volumes and cortical thickness and their association with cognitive performance. Clinical and imaging data were obtained from our previous randomized trial of autologous MSC in MSA patients. During 1-year follow-up, we assessed longitudinal differences in automatic segmentation-based subcortical deep gray matter volumes and vertex-wise cortical thickness between placebo (n = 15) and MSC groups (n = 11). Next, we performed correlation analysis between the changes in cortical thickness and changes in the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores and cognitive performance of each cognitive subdomain using a multiple, comparison correction. There were no significant differences in age at baseline, age at disease onset, gender ratio, disease duration, clinical severity, MoCA score, or education level between the groups. The automated subcortical volumetric analysis revealed that the changes in subcortical deep gray matter volumes of the caudate, putamen, and thalamus did not differ significantly between the groups. The areas of cortical thinning over time in the placebo group were more extensive, including the frontal, temporal, and parietal areas, whereas these areas in the MSC group were less extensive. Correlation analysis indicated that declines in MoCA scores and phonemic fluency during the follow-up period were significantly correlated with cortical thinning of the frontal and posterior temporal areas and anterior temporal areas in MSA patients, respectively. In contrast, no

  5. Outcomes of stable and unstable patterns of subjective cognitive decline – results from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Roehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective cognitive decline (SCD, i.e., the self-perceived feeling of worsening cognitive function, may be the first notable syndrome of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. However, not all individuals with SCD progress. Stability of SCD, i.e., repeated reports of SCD, could contribute to identify individuals at risk, as stable SCD may more likely reflect the continuous neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer’s and other dementias. Methods Cox regression analyses were used to assess the association between stability of SCD and progression to MCI and dementia in data derived from the population-based Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+. Results Of 453 cognitively unimpaired individuals with a mean age of 80.5 years (SD = 4.2, 139 (30.7 % reported SCD at baseline. Over the study period (M = 4.8 years, SD = 2.2, 84 (18.5 % individuals had stable SCD, 195 (43.1 % unstable SCD and 174 (38.4 % never reported SCD. Stable SCD was associated with increased risk of progression to MCI and dementia (unadjusted HR = 1.8, 95 % CI = 1.2–2.6; p < .01, whereas unstable SCD yielded a decreased progression risk (unadjusted HR = 0.5, 95 % CI = 0.4–0.7; p < .001 compared to no SCD. When adjusted for baseline cognitive functioning, progression risk in individuals with stable SCD was significantly increased in comparison to individuals with unstable SCD, but not compared to individuals without SCD. Conclusions Our results, though preliminary, suggest that stable SCD, i.e., repeated reports of SCD, may yield an increased risk of progression to MCI and dementia compared to unstable SCD. Baseline cognitive scores, though within a normal range, seem to be a driver of progression in stable SCD. Future research is warranted to investigate whether stability could hold as a SCD research feature.

  6. Trajectories of cognitive decline in different types of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, L.L.; van Harten, A.C.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Koedam, E.L.G.E.; Bouwman, F.H.; Sistermans, N.; Reuling, I.E.W.; Prins, N.D.; Lemstra, A.W.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To investigate trajectories of cognitive decline in patients with different types of dementia compared to controls in a longitudinal study. Method. In 199 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 10 with vascular dementia (VaD), 26 with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 20 with behavioural

  7. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC).......Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC)....

  8. Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ide

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer's disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with increased dementia severity and a more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine if periodontitis in Alzheimer's disease is associated with both increased dementia severity and cognitive decline, and an increased systemic pro inflammatory state. In a six month observational cohort study 60 community dwelling participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for systemic inflammatory markers. Dental health was assessed by a dental hygienist, blind to cognitive outcomes. All assessments were repeated at six months. The presence of periodontitis at baseline was not related to baseline cognitive state but was associated with a six fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by the ADAS-cog over a six month follow up period. Periodontitis at baseline was associated with a relative increase in the pro-inflammatory state over the six month follow up period. Our data showed that periodontitis is associated with an increase in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease, independent to baseline cognitive state, which may be mediated through effects on systemic inflammation.

  9. Brain Metastases Treatment Worsens Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In some patients with cancer that has spread to the brain, whole brain radiation following radiosurgery causes more severe cognitive decline and does not improve survival compared with radiosurgery alone, a new study has found.

  10. Predictors of combined cognitive and physical decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, H.H.; Cesari, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Fried, L.P.; Guralnik, J.M.; Williamson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and correlates of combined declines in cognitive and physical performance. DESIGN: Cohort study of community-dwelling older women with moderate to severe disability. SETTING: The community surrounding Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the

  11. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  12. Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Tetiana; Pudas, Sara; Lundquist, Anders; Orädd, Greger; Josefsson, Maria; Salami, Alireza; de Luna, Xavier; Nyberg, Lars

    2017-03-01

    There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of retirement on age related cognitive decline - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Annette; Nexø, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2017-07-21

    Knowledge on factors affecting the rate of cognitive decline and how to maintain cognitive functioning in old age becomes increasingly relevant. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the evidence for the impact of retirement on cognitive functioning and on age related cognitive decline. We conducted a systematic literature review, following the principles of the PRISMA statement, of longitudinal studies on the association between retirement and cognition. Only seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We found weak evidence that retirement accelerates the rate of cognitive decline in crystallised abilities, but only for individuals retiring from jobs high in complexity with people. The evidence of the impact of retirement on the rate of decline in fluid cognitive abilities is conflicting. The review revealed a major knowledge gap in regards to the impact of retirement on cognitive decline. More knowledge on the association between retirement and age related cognitive decline as well as knowledge on the mechanisms behind these associations is needed.

  14. Thinner cortex in patients with subjective cognitive decline is associated with steeper decline of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Sander C J; Slot, Rosalinde E; Tijms, Betty M; Bouwman, Femke; Benedictus, Marije R; Overbeek, Jozefien M; Koene, Teddy; Vrenken, Hugo; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate associations between regional cortical thickness and rate of decline over time in 4 cognitive domains in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 233 SCD patients with the total number of 654 neuropsychological assessments (median = 3, range = 2-8) and available baseline magnetic resonance imaging from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (125 males, age: 63 ± 9, Mini-Mental State Examination score: 28 ± 2). We assessed longitudinal cognitive functioning at baseline and follow-up in 4 cognitive domains (composite Z-scores): memory, attention, executive function, and language. Thickness (millimeter) was estimated using FreeSurfer for frontal, temporal, parietal, cingulate, and occipital cortices. We used linear mixed models to estimate effects of cortical thickness on cognitive performance (dependent variables). There were no associations between cortical thickness and baseline cognition, but a faster subsequent rate of memory loss was associated with thinner cortex of the frontal [β (SE) = 0.20 (0.07)], temporal [β (SE) = 0.18 (0.07)], and occipital [β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09)] cortices (all p cognitive decline related to neurodegenerative diseases, most prominently Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional network integrity presages cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Rachel F; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Papp, Kathryn V; Hanseeuw, Bernard J; Marshall, Gad; Sepulcre, Jorge; Smith, Emily E; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P

    2017-07-04

    To examine the utility of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) measurements of network integrity as a predictor of future cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). A total of 237 clinically normal older adults (aged 63-90 years, Clinical Dementia Rating 0) underwent baseline β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging with Pittsburgh compound B PET and structural and rs-fcMRI. We identified 7 networks for analysis, including 4 cognitive networks (default, salience, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control) and 3 noncognitive networks (primary visual, extrastriate visual, motor). Using linear and curvilinear mixed models, we used baseline connectivity in these networks to predict longitudinal changes in preclinical Alzheimer cognitive composite (PACC) performance, both alone and interacting with Aβ burden. Median neuropsychological follow-up was 3 years. Baseline connectivity in the default, salience, and control networks predicted longitudinal PACC decline, unlike connectivity in the dorsal attention and all noncognitive networks. Default, salience, and control network connectivity was also synergistic with Aβ burden in predicting decline, with combined higher Aβ and lower connectivity predicting the steepest curvilinear decline in PACC performance. In clinically normal older adults, lower functional connectivity predicted more rapid decline in PACC scores over time, particularly when coupled with increased Aβ burden. Among examined networks, default, salience, and control networks were the strongest predictors of rate of change in PACC scores, with the inflection point of greatest decline beyond the fourth year of follow-up. These results suggest that rs-fcMRI may be a useful predictor of early, AD-related cognitive decline in clinical research settings. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Longitudinal decline of driving safety in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uc, Ergun Y; Rizzo, Matthew; O'Shea, Amy M J; Anderson, Steven W; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2017-11-07

    To longitudinally assess and predict on-road driving safety in Parkinson disease (PD). Drivers with PD (n = 67) and healthy controls (n = 110) drove a standardized route in an instrumented vehicle and were invited to return 2 years later. A professional driving expert reviewed drive data and videos to score safety errors. At baseline, drivers with PD performed worse on visual, cognitive, and motor tests, and committed more road safety errors compared to controls (median PD 38.0 vs controls 30.5; p < 0.001). A smaller proportion of drivers with PD returned for repeat testing (42.8% vs 62.7%; p < 0.01). At baseline, returnees with PD made fewer errors than nonreturnees with PD (median 34.5 vs 40.0; p < 0.05) and performed similar to control returnees (median 33). Baseline global cognitive performance of returnees with PD was better than that of nonreturnees with PD, but worse than for control returnees ( p < 0.05). After 2 years, returnees with PD showed greater cognitive decline and larger increase in error counts than control returnees (median increase PD 13.5 vs controls 3.0; p < 0.001). Driving error count increase in the returnees with PD was predicted by greater error count and worse visual acuity at baseline, and by greater interval worsening of global cognition, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living score, executive functions, visual processing speed, and attention. Despite drop out of the more impaired drivers within the PD cohort, returning drivers with PD, who drove like controls without PD at baseline, showed many more driving safety errors than controls after 2 years. Driving decline in PD was predicted by baseline driving performance and deterioration of cognitive, visual, and functional abnormalities on follow-up. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Cognitive declines precede and predict functional declines in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Zahodne

    Full Text Available To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD.A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière in Paris, France (the Predictors Study.3,443 initially non-demented older adults (612 with eventual incident dementia and 517 patients with AD.Cognitive measures included the modified Mini-Mental State Exam and composite scores of memory and language derived from a standardized neuropsychological battery. Function was measured with the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, completed by the participant (in the sample of non-demented older adults or an informant (in the sample of prevalent AD patients. Data were analyzed with autoregressive cross-lagged panel analysis.Cognitive scores more consistently predicted subsequent functional abilities than vice versa in non-demented older adults, participants with eventual incident dementia, and patients with prevalent AD.Cognitive declines appear to precede and cause functional declines prior to and following dementia diagnosis. Standardized neuropsychological tests are valid predictors of later functional changes in both non-demented and demented older adults.

  18. Dietary Patterns, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia: A Systematic Review12

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Rest, Ondine; Berendsen, Agnes AM; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette CPGM

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy between nutrients. Over the past few years, dietary patterns have increasingly been investigated to better understand the link between diet, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this systematic review we provide an overview of the literature on human studies up to May 2014 that examined the role of dietary patterns (derived both a priori as well as a posteriori) in relation to cognitive decline or dementia. The results suggest that better adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with less cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer disease, as shown by 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies, 6 of 12 longitudinal studies, 1 trial, and 3 meta-analyses. Other healthy dietary patterns, derived both a priori (e.g., Healthy Diet Indicator, Healthy Eating Index, and Program National Nutrition Santé guideline score) and a posteriori (e.g., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression), were shown to be associated with reduced cognitive decline and/or a reduced risk of dementia as shown by all 6 cross-sectional studies and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. More conclusive evidence is needed to reach more targeted and detailed guidelines to prevent or postpone cognitive decline. PMID:25770254

  19. Differential diagnosis for cognitive decline in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline has a spectrum of presentations, which manifest from normality as part of senility to the established form of various neurodegenerative illnesses causing dementia. Understanding these various differential diagnoses is of great clinical significance as they have different management and interventional strategies. The neuropsychological deficits which are identified should follow known neuropathological disease patterns that helps in distinguishing different types of cognitive impairment to established dementia. It is important to look at different cognitive impairment in elderly with core diagnostic sense to define severity, type of cognitive impairments, identifying patients need for accommodation or adaptation, associated risks, effectiveness of therapies and predict mortality. This would help clinicians to identify and plan management based on individual needs in cases with variable cognitive impairment.

  20. Functional and cognitive decline in hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGÉNIA MENDES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim – Understand if functional and cognitive decline is accentuated during hospitalization in elderly patients. Method – It was design a descriptive and correlational study. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were used. Results – Were evaluated at admission and discharge 51 elderly (75.53 ± 7.16 years, 53% women, admitted in an internal medicine unit with a length of stay of 14.27±6.45 days. For FIM and MMSE were found statistically significant differences with lower scores from admission to discharge. Negative correlations between age and length of stay and the scores of all measures were found. Except for the Cognitive FIM at admission, all elderly residents at home fared better than the institutionalized in all measures. Conclusions – The hospitalization contributes to a greater weakness/frailty of the elderly and is considered high risk for decline in physical fitness and cognitive function.

  1. Longitudinal decline in speech production in Parkinson's disease spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; Jester, Charles; York, Collin; Kofman, Olga L; Langey, Rachel; Halpin, Amy; Firn, Kim; Dominguez Perez, Sophia; Chahine, Lama; Spindler, Meredith; Dahodwala, Nabila; Irwin, David J; McMillan, Corey; Weintraub, Daniel; Grossman, Murray

    2017-08-01

    We examined narrative speech production longitudinally in non-demented (n=15) and mildly demented (n=8) patients with Parkinson's disease spectrum disorder (PDSD), and we related increasing impairment to structural brain changes in specific language and motor regions. Patients provided semi-structured speech samples, describing a standardized picture at two time points (mean±SD interval=38±24months). The recorded speech samples were analyzed for fluency, grammar, and informativeness. PDSD patients with dementia exhibited significant decline in their speech, unrelated to changes in overall cognitive or motor functioning. Regression analysis in a subset of patients with MRI scans (n=11) revealed that impaired language performance at Time 2 was associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume at Time 1 in regions of interest important for language functioning but not with reduced GM volume in motor brain areas. These results dissociate language and motor systems and highlight the importance of non-motor brain regions for declining language in PDSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Body Mass Index and Decline of Cognitive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea.A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24 at baseline (2006, was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions.During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2 were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03. This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01 and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24-26 at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01. In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline.In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population.

  3. The impact of retirement on age related cognitive decline - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Nexø, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge on factors affecting the rate of cognitive decline and how to maintain cognitive functioning in old age becomes increasingly relevant. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the evidence for the impact of retirement on cognitive functioning and on age...... related cognitive decline. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature review, following the principles of the PRISMA statement, of longitudinal studies on the association between retirement and cognition. RESULTS: Only seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We found weak evidence...... that retirement accelerates the rate of cognitive decline in crystallised abilities, but only for individuals retiring from jobs high in complexity with people. The evidence of the impact of retirement on the rate of decline in fluid cognitive abilities is conflicting. CONCLUSION: The review revealed a major...

  4. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-05-01

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  5. Folic Acid Supplements: Can They Slow Cognitive Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive decline? I've heard that folic acid supplements can improve cognitive function in older adults. Could ... D. There's no conclusive evidence that folic acid supplements improve cognitive function in older adults or in ...

  6. Prevention of cognitive decline: Lifestyle and other issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyriac George

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing often leads to decline in cognitive abilities. Significant cognitive impairment leads to functional impairment and need for care. Prevention of cognitive decline and delaying its progression would help to reduce the need for long-term care. Both genetic and environmental factors are important determinants of cognitive health in late life. A better cognitive reserve helps to prevent cognitive decline. Cognitive reserve is now considered as a functional reserve rather than a structural reserve. Cognitive reserve can be enhanced through experience. People with higher level of education tend to have higher cognitive reserve. Better cognitive reserve can act as a buffer. Engagement in cognitively stimulating activities may prevent cognitive decline in late life. Physical exercise also improves cognitive health. Aerobic exercises, which improve cardiorespiratory fitness, improve cognitive functions like motor functions, cognitive speed, and auditory and visual attention. Beneficial effects on executive functions are also reported. Healthy diet, especially adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeDi, is considered to be useful in preserving cognitive health. Engagement in social activities might also reduce cognitive decline. Encouraging adherence to a healthy lifestyle and continuing to be physically, socially, and cognitively active seems to be a promising strategy to prevent cognitive decline.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome and 16-year Cognitive Decline in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Linda K.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; von Mühlen, Denise

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with accelerated cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS Longitudinal study of 993 adults (mean 66.8 ± 8.7 years) from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Metabolic syndrome components, defined by 2001 NCEP-ATP III criteria, were measured in 1984–87. Cognitive function was first assessed in 1988–92. Cognitive assessments were repeated approximately every four years, for a maximum 16-year follow-up. Mixed-effects models examined longitudinal rate of cognitive decline by metabolic syndrome status, controlling for factors plausibly associated with cognitive function (diabetes, inflammation). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more common in men than women (14% vs. 9%, p=0.01). In women, metabolic syndrome was associated with greater executive function and long term memory decline. These associations did not differ by inflammatory biomarker levels. Diabetes did not alter the association of metabolic syndrome with long-term recall but modified the association with executive function: metabolic syndrome was associated with accelerated executive function decline in diabetic women only. Metabolic syndrome was not related to rate of decline on any cognitive measure in men. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome was a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline, but only in women. Prevention of metabolic syndrome may aid in maintenance of cognitive function with age. PMID:22285865

  8. Bereavement and behavioral changes as risk factors for cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Melaine Cristina; de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, Laura Maria; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrao; Bottino, Cássio Mc

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease often affect older adults with Down syndrome (DS) much earlier than those in the general population. There is also growing evidence of the effects of negative life events on the mental health and behavior of individuals with intellectual disability. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating objective cognitive decline following bereavement in aging individuals with DS. The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of a caregiver or with behavioral changes in a sample of adult individuals with DS who do not meet the criteria for dementia or depression, using the longitudinal assessment of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), together with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). We evaluated 18 subjects at baseline and over a follow-up period of 14-22 months, attempting to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of the main caregiver or with behavioral changes (as assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory). The mean rate of change in CAMCOG was -1.83 (standard deviation 4.51). Behavioral changes had a significant direct influence on cognitive decline. When bereavement was accompanied by behavioral changes, the probability of cognitive decline was 87% (odds ratio 3.82). The occurrence of behavioral changes attributed to bereavement following the loss of the primary caregiver significantly increases the probability of cognitive decline in individuals with DS. Longitudinal comparison of the CAMCOG and use of the IQCODE appear to enrich the analysis of cognitive decline in individuals with DS. Further studies involving larger samples are needed in order to corroborate and expand upon our findings, which can have implications for the clinical management of older adults with DS.

  9. Cerebral amyloidosis associated with cognitive decline in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Gordon, Brian A; Ryman, Davis C; Ma, Shengmei; Xiong, Chengjie; Hassenstab, Jason; Goate, Alison; Fagan, Anne M; Cairns, Nigel J; Marcus, Daniel S; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Farlow, Martin R; Sperling, Reisa; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Rossor, Martin N; Jucker, Mathias; Danek, Adrian; Förster, Stefan; Lane, Christopher A S; Morris, John C; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the associations of cerebral amyloidosis with concurrent cognitive performance and with longitudinal cognitive decline in asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). Two hundred sixty-three participants enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study underwent neuropsychological evaluation as well as PET scans with Pittsburgh compound B. One hundred twenty-one participants completed at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological evaluation. Four composite cognitive measures representing global cognition, episodic memory, language, and working memory were generated using z scores from a battery of 13 standard neuropsychological tests. General linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the relationship between baseline cerebral amyloidosis and baseline cognitive performance and whether baseline cerebral amyloidosis predicts cognitive change over time (mean follow-up 2.32 years ± 0.92, range 0.89-4.19) after controlling for estimated years from expected symptom onset, APOE ε4 allelic status, and education. In asymptomatic mutation carriers, amyloid burden was not associated with baseline cognitive functioning but was significantly predictive of longitudinal decline in episodic memory. In symptomatic mutation carriers, cerebral amyloidosis was correlated with worse baseline performance in multiple cognitive composites and predicted greater decline over time in global cognition, working memory, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Cerebral amyloidosis predicts longitudinal episodic memory decline in presymptomatic ADAD and multidomain cognitive decline in symptomatic ADAD. These findings imply that amyloidosis in the brain is an indicator of early cognitive decline and provides a useful outcome measure for early assessment and prevention treatment trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Aging and the shape of cognitive change before death: terminal decline or terminal drop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2011-05-01

    Relative to typical age-related cognitive decrements, the terms "terminal decline" and "terminal drop" refer to the phenomenon of increased cognitive decline in proximity to death. Given that these terms are not necessarily synonymous, we examined the important theoretical distinction between the two alternative trajectories or shapes of changes they imply. We used 12-year (5-wave) data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study to directly test whether pre-death cognitive decrements follow a terminal decline (generally gradual) or a terminal drop (more abrupt) shape. Pre-death trajectories of cognitive decline for n=265 decedents (Mage = 72.67 years, SD = 6.44) were examined separately for 5 key cognitive constructs (verbal speed, working memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, and crystallized ability). Several classes of linear mixed models evaluated whether cognitive decline increased per additional year closer to death. Findings indicated that the shape of pre-death cognitive change was predominantly characterized by decline that is steeper as compared with typical aging-related change, but still best described as slow and steady decline, especially as compared with precipitous drop. The present findings suggest that terminal decline and terminal drop trajectories may not be mutually exclusive but could rather reflect distinct developmental trajectories within the same individual.

  11. Evaluating the Association between Diabetes, Cognitive Decline and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review the association between diabetes mellitus, cognitive decline and dementia, including the effects of cognitive decline and dementia on self management of diabetes. This is a literature review of primary research articles. A number of contemporary research articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected for this review paper. These articles were selected using a number of search strategies and electronic databases, such as EBSCOhost Research and SwetsWise databases. The duration of diabetes, glycated haemoglobin levels and glycaemic fluctuations were associated with cognitive decline and dementia. Similarly, hypoglycaemia was significantly related to increased risk of developing cognitive decline and dementia. Furthermore, cognitive decline and dementia were associated with poorer diabetes management. There is evidence of the association between diabetes, cognitive decline and dementia including the shared pathogenesis between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the self management of diabetes is affected by dementia and cognitive decline. It could be suggested that the association between diabetes and dementia is bidirectional with the potential to proceed to a vicious cycle. Further studies are needed in order to fully establish the relationship between diabetes, cognitive decline and dementia. Patients who have diabetes and dementia could benefit from structured education strategies, which should involve empowerment programmes and lifestyle changes. The detection of cognitive decline should highlight the need for education strategies.

  12. Bereavement and behavioral changes as risk factors for cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca LM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca,1 Melaine Cristina de Oliveira,2 Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto,3,4 Esper Abrao Cavalheiro,3,4 Cássio MC Bottino1 1Old Age Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, 2Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of São Paulo, 3Association of Parents and Friends of People with Intellectual Disability of São Paulo, 4Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease often affect older adults with Down syndrome (DS much earlier than those in the general population. There is also growing evidence of the effects of negative life events on the mental health and behavior of individuals with intellectual disability. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating objective cognitive decline following bereavement in aging individuals with DS.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of a caregiver or with behavioral changes in a sample of adult individuals with DS who do not meet the criteria for dementia or depression, using the longitudinal assessment of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG, together with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE.Methods: We evaluated 18 subjects at baseline and over a follow-up period of 14–22 months, attempting to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of the main caregiver or with behavioral changes (as assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.Results: The mean rate of change in CAMCOG was -1.83 (standard deviation 4.51. Behavioral changes had a significant direct influence on cognitive decline. When bereavement was accompanied by behavioral changes, the probability of cognitive decline was 87% (odds ratio 3.82. Conclusion: The occurrence of behavioral changes attributed to bereavement following the loss of

  13. Predicting cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: an integrated analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Oscar L; Schwam, Elias; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined.......Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined....

  14. Prognostic Factors for Cognitive Decline After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, M.R.; Hochart, A.; Rossi, C.; Boulouis, G.; Henon, H.; van der Flier, W.M.; Cordonnier, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Stroke and dementia are closely related, but no prospective study ever focused on poststroke cognitive decline in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to determine prognostic factors for cognitive decline in patients with ICH. Methods-We prospectively

  15. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin B-12 status was associated with more rapid cognitive decline. Randomized trials are required to determine the relevance of vitamin B-12 supplementation for prevention of dementia. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov......BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...... status in a longitudinal cohort study performed from 1993 to 2003 in Oxford, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination on >/=3 occasions during 10 y and related to serum concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), tHcy, methylmalonic...

  16. Late life leisure activities and risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Xin; Jin, Yinlong; Hendrie, Hugh C; Liang, Chaoke; Yang, Lili; Cheng, Yibin; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Ma, Feng; Hall, Kathleen S; Murrell, Jill R; Li, Ping; Bian, Jianchao; Pei, Jin-Jing; Gao, Sujuan

    2013-02-01

    Studies concerning the effect of different types of leisure activities on various cognitive domains are limited. This study tests the hypothesis that mental, physical, and social activities have a domain-specific protection against cognitive decline. A cohort of a geographically defined population in China was examined in 2003-2005 and followed for an average of 2.4 years. Leisure activities were assessed in 1,463 adults aged 65 years and older without cognitive or physical impairment at baseline, and their cognitive performances were tested at baseline and follow-up examinations. High level of mental activity was related to less decline in global cognition (β = -.23, p Leisure activities in old age may protect against cognitive decline for both women and men, and different types of activities seem to benefit different cognitive domains.

  17. Use it or lose it: engaged lifestyle as a buffer of cognitive decline in aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, D F; Hertzog, C; Small, B J; Dixon, R A

    1999-06-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the hypothesis that maintaining intellectual engagement through participation in everyday activities buffers individuals against cognitive decline in later life. The sample consisted of 250 middle-aged and older adults tested 3 times over 6 years. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the relationships among changes in lifestyle variables and an array of cognitive variables. There was a relationship between changes in intellectually related activities and changes in cognitive functioning. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that intellectually engaging activities serve to buffer individuals against decline. However, an alternative model suggested the findings were also consistent with the hypothesis that high-ability individuals lead intellectually active lives until cognitive decline in old age limits their activities.

  18. Associations between cognitively stimulating leisure activities, cognitive function and age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nicola; Owen, Adrian; Mohan, Anita; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2015-04-01

    Emerging literature suggests that lifestyle factors may play an important role in reducing age-related cognitive decline. There have, however, been few studies investigating the role of cognitively stimulating leisure activities in maintaining cognitive health. This study sought to identify changes in cognitive performance with age and to investigate associations of cognitive performance with several key cognitively stimulating leisure activities. Over 65,000 participants provided demographic and lifestyle information and completed tests of grammatical reasoning, spatial working memory, verbal working memory and episodic memory. Regression analyses suggested that frequency of engaging in Sudoku or similar puzzles was significantly positively associated with grammatical reasoning, spatial working memory and episodic memory scores. Furthermore, for participants aged under 65 years, frequency of playing non-cognitive training computer games was also positively associated with performance in the same cognitive domains. The results also suggest that grammatical reasoning and episodic memory are particularly vulnerable to age-related decline. Further investigation to determine the potential benefits of participating in Sudoku puzzles and non-cognitive computer games is indicated, particularly as they are associated with grammatical reasoning and episodic memory, cognitive domains found to be strongly associated with age-related cognitive decline. Results of this study have implications for developing improved guidance for the public regarding the potential value of cognitively stimulating leisure activities. The results also suggest that grammatical reasoning and episodic memory should be targeted in developing appropriate outcome measures to assess efficacy of future interventions, and in developing cognitive training programmes to prevent or delay cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Pattern and Rate of Cognitive Decline in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, predominantly affecting processing speed and executive function, is an important consequence of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. To date, few longitudinal studies of cognition in SVD have been conducted. We determined the pattern and rate of cognitive decline in SVD and used the results to determine sample size calculations for clinical trials of interventions reducing cognitive decline.121 patients with MRI confirmed lacunar stroke and leukoaraiosis were enrolled into the prospective St George's Cognition And Neuroimaging in Stroke (SCANS study. Patients attended one baseline and three annual cognitive assessments providing 36 month follow-up data. Neuropsychological assessment comprised a battery of tests assessing working memory, long-term (episodic memory, processing speed and executive function. We calculated annualized change in cognition for the 98 patients who completed at least two time-points.Task performance was heterogeneous, but significant cognitive decline was found for the executive function index (p<0.007. Working memory and processing speed decreased numerically, but not significantly. The executive function composite score would require the smallest samples sizes for a treatment trial with an aim of halting decline, but this would still require over 2,000 patients per arm to detect a 30% difference with power of 0.8 over a three year follow-up.The pattern of cognitive decline seen in SVD over three years is consistent with the pattern of impairments at baseline. Rates of decline were slow and sample sizes would need to be large for clinical trials aimed at halting decline beyond initial diagnosis using cognitive scores as an outcome measure. This emphasizes the importance of more sensitive surrogate markers in this disease.

  20. Hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in elderly people at high risk for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Michael; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Dahlman, Karen; Lesser, Gerson T; Grossman, Hillel; Haroutunian, Vahram; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension (HTN) have been shown to increase the risk of Alzheimer disease. The current study investigated whether individuals with HTN are more susceptible to increased cognitive decline and whether the influence of HTN on cognitive decline varied as a function of dementia severity. A total of 224 nursing home and assisted living residents, with a mean age of 84.9 (±7.6) years, were assessed longitudinally with Mini Mental State Exams (MMSEs) and Clinical Dementia Ratings (CDR). Baseline dementia status was defined by the CDR score. As described in , MMSE scores in persons with HTN and questionable dementia (CDR = 0.5) declined significantly faster than nonhypertensive questionably demented persons. Hypertensive participants did not decline significantly faster than nonhypertensive participants in persons with intact cognition (CDR = 0) or frank dementia (CDR ≥ 1). These results suggest an increased risk of subsequent cognitive decline in hypertensive individuals who are especially vulnerable to developing dementia and raises the possibility that avoiding or controlling HTN might reduce the rate of cognitive decline in cognitively vulnerable individuals, potentially delaying their conversion to full-fledged dementia.

  1. Vascular disease and risk factors are associated with cognitive decline in the alzheimer disease spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorius, Natacha; Locascio, Joseph J; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between vascular disease and risk factors versus cognitive decline cross-sectionally and longitudinally in normal older control, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia subjects. A total of 812 participants (229 normal older control, 395 mild cognitive impairment, 188 AD) underwent cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical evaluations at baseline and over a period of 3 years. General linear, longitudinal mixed-effects, and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Greater homocysteine level and white matter hyperintensity volume were associated with processing speed impairment (homocysteine: P=0.02; white matter hyperintensity: Prisk factors with cognitive impairment at baseline and over time in the AD spectrum in a sample that was selected to have low vascular burden at baseline.

  2. Subjective cognitive decline: The first clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Studart Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Mild cognitive impairment is considered as the first clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD, when the individual exhibits below performance on standardized neuropsychological tests. However, some subjects before having a lower performance on cognitive assessments already have a subjective memory complaint. Objective: A review about subjective cognitive decline, the association with AD biomarkers and risk of conversion to dementia. Methods: We performed a comprehensive non-systematic review on PubMed. The keywords used in the search were terms related to subjective cognitive decline. Results: Subjective cognitive decline is characterized by self-experience of deterioration in cognitive performance not detected objectively through formal neuropsychological testing. However, various terms and definitions have been used in the literature and the lack of a widely accepted concept hampers comparison of studies. Epidemiological data have shown that individuals with subjective cognitive decline are at increased risk of progression to AD dementia. In addition, there is evidence that this group has a higher prevalence of positive biomarkers for amyloidosis and neurodegeneration. However, Alzheimer's disease is not the only cause of subjective cognitive decline and various other conditions can be associated with subjective memory complaints, such as psychiatric disorders or normal aging. The features suggestive of a neurodegenerative disorder are: onset of decline within the last five years, age at onset above 60 years, associated concerns about decline and confirmation by an informant. Conclusion: These findings support the idea that subjective cognitive complaints may be an early clinical marker that precedes mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Vascular Risk Factors as Treatment Target to Prevent Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and lack of physical exercise are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroradiological and neuropathological studies

  4. Bilingualism and cognitive decline : a story of pride and prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Woumans, Evy; Versijpt, Jan; Sieben, Anne; Santens, Patrick; Duyck, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    In a recent review, Mukadam, Sommerlad, and Livingston (2017) argue that bilingualism offers no protection against cognitive decline. The authors examined the results of 13 studies (five prospective, eight retrospective) in which monolinguals and bilinguals were compared for cognitive decline and onset of dementia symptoms. Analysis of four of the five prospective studies resulted in the conclusion that there was no difference between monolinguals and bilinguals, whereas seven of the eight re...

  5. Longitudinal course of cortical thickness decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Kasper, Elisabeth; Machts, Judith; Bittner, Daniel; Kaufmann, Jörn; Benecke, Reiner; Teipel, Stefan; Vielhaber, Stefan; Prudlo, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    To determine longitudinal rates of cortical atrophy in classical Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS variants. Rates of cortical thinning were determined between 2 scans, 3-15 months apart, in 77 ALS patients: 51 classical, 12 upper motor neuron (UMN), and 14 lower motor neuron (LMN) ALS variants. Cortical thickness at the first assessment was compared with 60 healthy controls matched by age and gender. Atrophy rates were compared between patient sub-groups and correlated with disease duration, progression, and severity. Using a cross-sectional analysis, we found a significant difference in cortical thickness between ALS patients and controls in the motor and extra-motor areas (left medial orbito frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal gyrus, bilateral insular cortex, right fusiform gyrus, bilateral precuneus). Using a longitudinal analysis, we found a significant decline of cortical thickness in frontal, temporal, and parietal regions over the course of the study in ALS patients. Effects were independent of the clinical subtype, with exception of the precentral gyrus (p gyrus, the UMN-dominant subjects exhibited intermediate rates of atrophy, and the classical ALS patients exhibited no such change. Atrophy of the precentral gyrus in classical ALS indicates a floor effect at the first assessment, resulting in a lack of further atrophy over time. Structural loss of the precentral gyrus appears to be an early sign of classical ALS. Over time, patterns of cortical thinning in extra-motor areas can be identified in ALS, regardless of the phenotype.

  6. The association between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in a sample of older Puerto Rican adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tyler; Dávila, Ana Luisa; Clay, Olivio; Markides, Kyriakos S; Andel, Ross; Crowe, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Older Puerto Rican adults have particularly high risk of diabetes compared to the general US population. Diabetes is associated with both higher depressive symptoms and cognitive decline, but less is known about the longitudinal relationship between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in those with diabetes. This study investigated the association between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in older Puerto Rican adults with diabetes over a four-year period. Households across Puerto Rico were visited to identify a population-based sample of adults aged 60 years and over for the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions study (PREHCO); 680 participants with diabetes at baseline and no baseline cognitive impairment were included in analyses. Cognitive decline and depressive symptoms were measured using the Mini-Mental Cabán (MMC) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. We examined predictors of incident depressive symptoms (GDS ≥ 5 at follow-up but not baseline) and cognitive decline using regression modeling. In a covariate-adjusted logistic regression model, cognitive decline, female gender, and greater diabetes-related complications were each significantly associated with increased odds of incident depressive symptoms (p Puerto Ricans with diabetes who also experienced cognitive decline. Efforts are needed to optimize diabetes management and monitor for depression and cognitive decline in this population.

  7. The effects of cognitive reserve and lifestyle on cognition and dementia in Parkinson's disease--a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, John V; Hurt, Catherine S; Burn, David J; Brown, Richard G; Samuel, Mike; Wilson, Kenneth C; Clare, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve theory seeks to explain the observed mismatch between the degree of brain pathology and clinical manifestations. Early-life education, midlife social and occupational activities and later-life cognitive and social interactions are associated with a more favourable cognitive trajectory in older people. Previous studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) have suggested a possible role for the effects of cognitive reserve, but further research into different proxies for cognitive reserve and longitudinal studies is required. This study examined the effects of cognitive lifestyle on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of cognition and dementia severity in people with PD. Baseline assessments of cognition, and of clinical, social and demographic information, were completed by 525 participants with PD. Cognitive assessments were completed by 323 participants at 4-year follow-up. Cognition was assessed using the measures of global cognition dementia severity. Cross-sectional and longitudinal serial analyses of covariance for cognition and binomial regression for dementia were performed. Higher educational level, socio-economic status and recent social engagement were associated with better cross-sectional global cognition. In those with normal cognition at baseline, higher educational level was associated with better global cognition after 4 years. Increasing age and low levels of a measure of recent social engagement were associated with an increased risk of dementia. Higher cognitive reserve has a beneficial effect on performance on cognitive tests and a limited effect on cognitive decline and dementia risk in PD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A lipid storage-like disorder contributes to cognitive decline in HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Mielke, Michelle M; Sacktor, Ned; McArthur, Justin C; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Chang, Linda; Wojna, Valerie; Pardo, Carlos; Calabresi, Peter; Munsaka, Sody; Haughey, Norman J

    2013-10-22

    In this multicenter cohort study, we sought to identify prognostic and associative metabolic indicators for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A quantitative lipidomic analysis was conducted on 524 longitudinal CSF samples collected from 7 different performance sites across the mainland United States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Subjects included HIV-infected individuals with longitudinal clinical and cognitive testing data and cognitively normal HIV-negative healthy controls. At baseline, HIV+ subjects could be differentiated from HIV- controls by reductions in a single ceramide species and increases in multiple forms of cholesterol. Perturbations in cholesterol metabolism and ceramide were influenced by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) use. There were no cross-sectional baseline differences in any lipid metabolite when HIV+ subjects were grouped according to cognitive status. However, a single sphingolipid metabolite and reduced levels of esterified cholesterols were prognostic indicators of incident cognitive decline. Longitudinal patterns of these disturbances in sphingolipid and sterol metabolism suggest that a progressive disorder of lipid metabolism that is similar to disorders of lipid storage may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. These findings suggest that HIV infection and cART are independently associated with a CNS metabolic disturbance, identify surrogate markers that are prognostic for cognitive decline, and implicate a lipid storage-like disorder in the progression of HAND.

  9. Chocolate Consumption is Associated with a Lower Risk of Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Afonso; Diógenes, Maria José; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Lunet, Nuno; Barros, Henrique

    2016-05-06

    Cocoa-related products like chocolate have taken an important place in our food habits and culture. In this work, we aim to examine the relationship between chocolate consumption and cognitive decline in an elderly cognitively healthy population. In the present longitudinal prospective study, a cohort of 531 participants aged 65 and over with normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; median 28) was selected. The median follow-up was 48 months. Dietary habits were evaluated at baseline. The MMSE was used to assess global cognitive function at baseline and at follow-up. Cognitive decline was defined by a decrease ≥ 2 points in the MMSE score between evaluations. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) estimates were adjusted for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. Chocolate intake was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.38-0.92). This protective effect was observed only among subjects with an average daily consumption of caffeine lower than 75 mg (69% of the participants; RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.82). To our knowledge, this is the first prospective cohort study to show an inverse association between regular long-term chocolate consumption and cognitive decline in humans.

  10. Cognitively Stimulating Activities: Effects on Cognition across Four Studies with up to 21 Years of Longitudinal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan B. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in cognitively stimulating activities has been considered to maintain or strengthen cognitive skills, thereby minimizing age-related cognitive decline. While the idea that there may be a modifiable behavior that could lower risk for cognitive decline is appealing and potentially empowering for older adults, research findings have not consistently supported the beneficial effects of engaging in cognitively stimulating tasks. Using observational studies of naturalistic cognitive activities, we report a series of mixed effects models that include baseline and change in cognitive activity predicting cognitive outcomes over up to 21 years in four longitudinal studies of aging. Consistent evidence was found for cross-sectional relationships between level of cognitive activity and cognitive test performance. Baseline activity at an earlier age did not, however, predict rate of decline later in life, thus not supporting the concept that engaging in cognitive activity at an earlier point in time increases one's ability to mitigate future age-related cognitive decline. In contrast, change in activity was associated with relative change in cognitive performance. Results therefore suggest that change in cognitive activity from one's previous level has at least a transitory association with cognitive performance measured at the same point in time.

  11. Vitamin K Status Is not Associated with Cognitive Decline in Middle Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, E G H M; van Schoor, N M; Vermeer, C; Zwijsen, R M L; den Heijer, M; Comijs, H C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between dephospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP), an indicator of vitamin K status, and cognitive decline, and the modifying role of 25(OH)D. Longitudinal study with six years follow-up. Community based. 599 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (aged 55-65 years). Information processing speed and a composite Z-score by combining three domains of cognition reflecting general cognitive functioning. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) showed no significant associations between dp-ucMGP and decline in general cognitive functioning. Vitamin D modified the association between dp-ucMGP and speed of information processing (p 50 nmol/l, the highest tertile of dp-ucMGP (>406 pmol/l), which corresponds to lower vitamin K levels, was associated with 1.5 higher score on information processing speed (p=0.023) as compared to the lowest tertile of dp-ucMGP. In contrast to our hypothesis, a suboptimal vitamin K was not associated with cognitive decline in middle-aged adults.

  12. The Cognitive Change Index as a Measure of Self and Informant Perception of Cognitive Decline: Relation to Neuropsychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabannakit, Chatchawan; Risacher, Shannon L; Gao, Sujuan; Lane, Kathleen A; Brown, Steven A; McDonald, Brenna C; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Apostolova, Liana G; Saykin, Andrew J; Farlow, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    The perception of cognitive decline by individuals and those who know them well ("informants") has been inconsistently associated with objective cognitive performance, but strongly associated with depressive symptoms. We investigated associations of self-report, informant-report, and discrepancy between self- and informant-report of cognitive decline obtained from the Cognitive Change Index (CCI) with cognitive test performance and self-reported depressive symptoms. 267 participants with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or mild dementia were included from a cohort study and memory clinic. Association of test performance and self-rated depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) with CCI scores obtained from subjects (CCI-S), their informants (CCI-I), and discrepancy scores between subjects and informants (CCI-D; CCI-S minus CCI-I) were analyzed using correlation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models. CCI-S and CCI-I scores showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). Higher scores on CCI-S and CCI-I, and lower scores on the CCI-D, were associated with lower performance on various cognitive tests in both univariate and in ANCOVA models adjusted for age, gender, and education. Adjustment for GDS slightly weakened the relationships between CCI and test performance but most remained significant. Self- and informant-report of cognitive decline, as measured by the CCI, show moderately strong relationships with objective test performance independent of age, gender, education, and depressive symptoms. The CCI appears to be a valid cross-sectional measure of self and informant perception of cognitive decline across the continuum of functioning. Studies are needed to address the relationship of CCI scores to longitudinal outcome.

  13. Cognitive decline is associated with risk aversion and temporal discounting in older adults without dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D James

    Full Text Available Risk aversion and temporal discounting are preferences that are strongly linked to sub-optimal financial and health decision making ability. Prior studies have shown they differ by age and cognitive ability, but it remains unclear whether differences are due to age-related cognitive decline or lower cognitive abilities over the life span. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive decline is associated with higher risk aversion and temporal discounting in 455 older persons without dementia from the Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal cohort study of aging in Chicago. All underwent repeated annual cognitive evaluations using a detailed battery including 19 tests. Risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions: participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment versus a gamble in which they could gain more or nothing; potential gamble gains varied across questions. Temporal discounting: participants were asked to choose between an immediate, smaller payment and a delayed, larger one; two sets of questions addressed small and large stakes based on payment amount. Regression analyses were used to examine whether prior rate of cognitive decline predicted level of risk aversion and temporal discounting, controlling for age, sex, and education. Over an average of 5.5 (SD=2.9 years, cognition declined at an average of 0.016 units per year (SD=0.03. More rapid cognitive decline predicted higher levels of risk aversion (p=0.002 and temporal discounting (small stakes: p=0.01, high stakes: p=0.006. Further, associations between cognitive decline and risk aversion (p=0.015 and large stakes temporal discounting (p=0.026 persisted in analyses restricted to persons without any cognitive impairment (i.e., no dementia or mild cognitive impairment; the association of cognitive decline and small stakes temporal discounting was no longer statistically significant (p=0.078. These findings are consistent with the

  14. Cognitive decline is associated with risk aversion and temporal discounting in older adults without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Han, S Duke; Bennett, David A

    2015-01-01

    Risk aversion and temporal discounting are preferences that are strongly linked to sub-optimal financial and health decision making ability. Prior studies have shown they differ by age and cognitive ability, but it remains unclear whether differences are due to age-related cognitive decline or lower cognitive abilities over the life span. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive decline is associated with higher risk aversion and temporal discounting in 455 older persons without dementia from the Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal cohort study of aging in Chicago. All underwent repeated annual cognitive evaluations using a detailed battery including 19 tests. Risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions: participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment versus a gamble in which they could gain more or nothing; potential gamble gains varied across questions. Temporal discounting: participants were asked to choose between an immediate, smaller payment and a delayed, larger one; two sets of questions addressed small and large stakes based on payment amount. Regression analyses were used to examine whether prior rate of cognitive decline predicted level of risk aversion and temporal discounting, controlling for age, sex, and education. Over an average of 5.5 (SD=2.9) years, cognition declined at an average of 0.016 units per year (SD=0.03). More rapid cognitive decline predicted higher levels of risk aversion (p=0.002) and temporal discounting (small stakes: p=0.01, high stakes: p=0.006). Further, associations between cognitive decline and risk aversion (p=0.015) and large stakes temporal discounting (p=0.026) persisted in analyses restricted to persons without any cognitive impairment (i.e., no dementia or mild cognitive impairment); the association of cognitive decline and small stakes temporal discounting was no longer statistically significant (p=0.078). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that

  15. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Sleep quality and cognitive decline in a community of older adults in Daqing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jinya; Han, Huijun; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiang; Liao, Susu

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive decline one year later. A longitudinal study of 1010 cognitively intact adults, aged 65-80 years at baseline, from two urban communities in China was performed. Sleep quality at baseline was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cognitive function was determined by using the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) at the baseline and one year later. Substantial CMMSE decline was defined as the CMMSE score decreases by three or more points during the follow-up. Potential confounders, such as age, sex, education, baseline CMMSE score, depression, physical activity level, drinking status, smoking status, body mass index, snoring frequency, history of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease were measured via questionnaires or physical examination. After adjusting for potential confounders, individuals with poor sleep quality (PSQI > 7), relative to whose with good sleep quality, had 0.32 (95% CI: -0.62, -0.02; p = 0.04) CMMSE-points more decline and tended to have a higher likelihood of developing substantial CMMSE decline (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.18; p = 0.06). Among seven subscales of the PSQI, poor sleep efficiency was associated with greater CMMSE decline (beta = -0.16, 95% CI: -0.29, -0.03; p = 0.01) and higher risk of substantial CMMSE decline (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.46; p = 0.01). Short sleep duration (sleeping ≤5 h/night) was also significantly associated with more CMMSE decline and a higher likelihood of developing substantial CMMSE decline (p sleep quality may be an indicator of early cognitive decline for elderly people and should be paid particular attention by clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve protect against cognitive decline over 4.5 years in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Rocca, Maria A; Leavitt, Victoria M; Dackovic, Jelena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2014-05-20

    Based on the theories of brain reserve and cognitive reserve, we investigated whether larger maximal lifetime brain growth (MLBG) and/or greater lifetime intellectual enrichment protect against cognitive decline over time. Forty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent baseline and 4.5-year follow-up evaluations of cognitive efficiency (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task) and memory (Selective Reminding Test, Spatial Recall Test). Baseline and follow-up MRIs quantified disease progression: percentage brain volume change (cerebral atrophy), percentage change in T2 lesion volume. MLBG (brain reserve) was estimated with intracranial volume; intellectual enrichment (cognitive reserve) was estimated with vocabulary. We performed repeated-measures analyses of covariance to investigate whether larger MLBG and/or greater intellectual enrichment moderate/attenuate cognitive decline over time, controlling for disease progression. Patients with MS declined in cognitive efficiency and memory (p improve prediction of future cognitive decline in patients with MS. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Rapid cognitive decline: not always Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, A; Ellis, R; Hywel, B; Davies, R R; Alusi, S H; Larner, A J

    2015-01-01

    A patient with rapidly progressive cognitive decline over an approximately four month period was suspected to have sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Features thought to support this diagnosis included psychiatric symptoms (anxiety and depression), visual hallucinations and a visual field defect. However, the finding of papilloedema broadened the differential diagnosis. Although standard brain imaging and electroencephalography had shown only non-specific abnormalities, subsequent cerebral angiography disclosed an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula. Following embolisation, the patient made a good functional recovery. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula merits consideration in any patient with subacute cognitive decline, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  19. Hypothesis testing of a change point during cognitive decline among Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ming; Xiong, Chengjie; Grundman, Michael

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical hypothesis test for detecting a change point over the course of cognitive decline among Alzheimer's disease patients. The model under the null hypothesis assumes a constant rate of cognitive decline over time and the model under the alternative hypothesis is a general bilinear model with an unknown change point. When the change point is unknown, however, the null distribution of the test statistics is not analytically tractable and has to be simulated by parametric bootstrap. When the alternative hypothesis that a change point exists is accepted, we propose an estimate of its location based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. We applied our method to a data set from the Neuropsychological Database Initiative by implementing our hypothesis testing method to analyze Mini Mental Status Exam scores based on a random-slope and random-intercept model with a bilinear fixed effect. Our result shows that despite large amount of missing data, accelerated decline did occur for MMSE among AD patients. Our finding supports the clinical belief of the existence of a change point during cognitive decline among AD patients and suggests the use of change point models for the longitudinal modeling of cognitive decline in AD research.

  20. Including persistency of impairment in mild cognitive impairment classification enhances prediction of 5-year decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermorris, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Strauss, Esther

    2011-02-01

    Although older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) show elevated rates of conversion to dementia as a group, heterogeneity of outcomes is common at the individual level. Using data from a prospective 5-year longitudinal investigation of cognitive change in healthy older adults (N = 262, aged 64-92 years), this study addressed limitations in contemporary MCI identification procedures which rely on single occasion assessment ("Single-Assessment [SA] MCI") by evaluating an alternate operational definition of MCI requiring evidence of persistent cognitive impairment over multiple-testing sessions ("Multiple-Assessment [MA] MCI"). As hypothesized, prevalence of SA-MCI exceeded that of MA-MCI. Further, the MA-MCI groups showed lower baseline cognitive and functional performance and steeper cognitive decline compared with Control and SA-MCI group. Results are discussed with reference to retest effects and clinical implications.

  1. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results : Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion : Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  2. Face-Name Associative Recognition Deficits in Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcher, Alexandra; Frommann, Ingo; Koppara, Alexander; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Jessen, Frank; Wagner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for more sensitive neuropsychological tests to detect subtle cognitive deficits emerging in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associative memory is a cognitive function supported by the hippocampus and affected early in the process of AD. We developed a short computerized face-name associative recognition test (FNART) and tested whether it would detect memory impairment in memory clinic patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We recruited 61 elderly patients with either SCD (n = 32) or MCI (n = 29) and 28 healthy controls (HC) and compared performance on FNART, self-reported cognitive deterioration in different domains (ECog-39), and, in a reduced sample (n = 46), performance on the visual Paired Associates Learning of the CANTAB battery. A significant effect of group on FNART test performance in the total sample was found (p < 0.001). Planned contrasts indicated a significantly lower associative memory performance in the SCD (p = 0.001, d = 0.82) and MCI group (p < 0.001, d = 1.54), as compared to HCs, respectively. The CANTAB-PAL discriminated only between HC and MCI, possibly because of reduced statistical power. Adjusted for depression, performance on FNART was significantly related to ECog-39 Memory in SCD patients (p = 0.024) but not in MCI patients. Associative memory is substantially impaired in memory clinic patients with SCD and correlates specifically with memory complaints at this putative preclinical stage of AD. Further studies will need to examine the predictive validity of the FNART in SCD patients with regard to longitudinal (i.e., conversion to MCI/AD) and biomarker outcomes.

  3. Haemoglobin, anaemia, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly, a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulter Ruth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia may increase risk of dementia or cognitive decline. There is also evidence that high haemoglobin levels increase risk of stroke, and consequently possible cognitive impairment. The elderly are more at risk of developing dementia and are also more likely to suffer from anaemia, although there is relatively little longitudinal literature addressing this association. Methods To evaluate the evidence for any relationship between incident cognitive decline or dementia in the elderly and anaemia or haemoglobin level, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of peer reviewed publications. Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched for English language publications between 1996 and 2006. Criteria for inclusion were longitudinal studies of subjects aged ≥65, with primary outcomes of incident dementia or cognitive decline. Other designs were excluded. Results Three papers were identified and only two were able to be combined into a meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratio for these two studies was 1.94 (95 percent confidence intervals of 1.32–2.87 showing a significantly increased risk of incident dementia with anaemia. It was not possible to investigate the effect of higher levels of haemoglobin. Conclusion Anaemia is one factor to bear in mind when evaluating risk of incident dementia. However, there are few data available and the studies were methodologically varied so a cautionary note needs to be sounded and our primary recommendation is that further robust research be carried out.

  4. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Raikkonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  5. Use of the Internet as a prevention tool against cognitive decline in normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blanka Klimova Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Abstract: Recent demographic trends indicate that older people appear to be one of the fastest growing population groups worldwide. In the year 2000, people older than 65 years represented 12.4% of the population. This number is expected to rise to 19% by 2030, particularly in developed countries. Therefore, there is sustained effort at both national and international levels to prolong the active life of these people as long as possible. Since the present older generation at the age of 55 years is already digitally literate, the use of technologies is one of the solutions. The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of the Internet in the prevention of cognitive decline in normal aging. The author examines clinical studies that exploit the use of the Internet, including online training programs, in the prevention of cognitive decline in healthy older individuals. The findings of the clinical studies indicate that the use of the Internet, especially online cognitive training programs, may have a positive effect on the improvement of cognitive functions in healthy older adults. Nevertheless, larger sample longitudinal randomized controlled clinical trials aimed at the prevention of cognitive decline among healthy older adults are needed. Keywords: healthy older individuals, Internet, prevention, cognitive functions, training

  6. Association Between Persistent Pain and Memory Decline and Dementia in a Longitudinal Cohort of Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Elizabeth L; Diaz-Ramirez, L Grisell; Glymour, M Maria; Boscardin, W John; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Smith, Alexander K

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pain is common among the elderly and is associated with cognitive deficits in cross-sectional studies; the population-level association between chronic pain and longitudinal cognition is unknown. To determine the population-level association between persistent pain, which may reflect chronic pain, and subsequent cognitive decline. Cohort study with biennial interviews of 10 065 community-dwelling older adults in the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study who were 62 years or older in 2000 and answered pain and cognition questions in both 1998 and 2000. Data analysis was conducted between June 24 and October 31, 2016. "Persistent pain," defined as a participant reporting that he or she was often troubled with moderate or severe pain in both the 1998 and 2000 interviews. Coprimary outcomes were composite memory score and dementia probability, estimated by combining neuropsychological test results and informant and proxy interviews, which were tracked from 2000 through 2012. Linear mixed-effects models, with random slope and intercept for each participant, were used to estimate the association of persistent pain with slope of the subsequent cognitive trajectory, adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities measures in 2000 and applying sampling weights to represent the 2000 US population. We hypothesized that persistent pain would predict accelerated memory decline and increased probability of dementia. To quantify the impact of persistent pain on functional independence, we combined our primary results with information on the association between memory and ability to manage medications and finances independently. Of the 10 065 eligible HRS sample members, 60% were female, and median baseline age was 73 years (interquartile range, 67-78 years). At baseline, persistent pain affected 10.9% of participants and was associated with worse depressive symptoms and more limitations in activities of daily living. After covariate

  7. Crowdsourced estimation of cognitive decline and resilience in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Genevera I; Amoroso, Nicola; Anghel, Catalina; Balagurusamy, Venkat; Bare, Christopher J; Beaton, Derek; Bellotti, Roberto; Bennett, David A; Boehme, Kevin L; Boutros, Paul C; Caberlotto, Laura; Caloian, Cristian; Campbell, Frederick; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Beibei; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chien, Ting-Ying; Clark, Tim; Das, Sudeshna; Davatzikos, Christos; Deng, Jieyao; Dillenberger, Donna; Dobson, Richard J B; Dong, Qilin; Doshi, Jimit; Duma, Denise; Errico, Rosangela; Erus, Guray; Everett, Evan; Fardo, David W; Friend, Stephen H; Fröhlich, Holger; Gan, Jessica; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Glaab, Enrico; Green, Robert C; Guan, Yuanfang; Hong, Ming-Yi; Huang, Chao; Hwang, Jinseub; Ibrahim, Joseph; Inglese, Paolo; Iyappan, Anandhi; Jiang, Qijia; Katsumata, Yuriko; Kauwe, John S K; Klein, Arno; Kong, Dehan; Krause, Roland; Lalonde, Emilie; Lauria, Mario; Lee, Eunjee; Lin, Xihui; Liu, Zhandong; Livingstone, Julie; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Lovestone, Simon; Ma, Tsung-Wei; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Mangravite, Lara M; Maxwell, Taylor J; Merrill, Emily; Nagorski, John; Namasivayam, Aishwarya; Narayan, Manjari; Naz, Mufassra; Newhouse, Stephen J; Norman, Thea C; Nurtdinov, Ramil N; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Pawitan, Yudi; Peng, Shengwen; Peters, Mette A; Piccolo, Stephen R; Praveen, Paurush; Priami, Corrado; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y; Senger, Philipp; Shen, Xia; Simmons, Andrew; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Tangaro, Sabina; Tateo, Andrea; Tung, Yi-An; Tustison, Nicholas J; Varol, Erdem; Vradenburg, George; Weiner, Michael W; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Lei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Jia; Yang, Hojin; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yunyun; Zhu, Fan; Zhu, Hongtu; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2016-06-01

    Identifying accurate biomarkers of cognitive decline is essential for advancing early diagnosis and prevention therapies in Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's disease DREAM Challenge was designed as a computational crowdsourced project to benchmark the current state-of-the-art in predicting cognitive outcomes in Alzheimer's disease based on high dimensional, publicly available genetic and structural imaging data. This meta-analysis failed to identify a meaningful predictor developed from either data modality, suggesting that alternate approaches should be considered for prediction of cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Obesity and cognitive decline: role of inflammation and vascular changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C.D. Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity in middle age is increasing markedly, and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes is also rising. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both obesity and metabolic disorders are associated with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this review we discuss the effects of obesity on cognitive performance, including both clinical and preclinical observations, and discuss some of the potential mechanisms involved, namely inflammation and vascular and metabolic alterations.

  9. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.G.E.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis, but these considered mainly syndromal depression. In this prospective study, 32 subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12

  10. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC) may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological an...

  11. Education amplifies brain atrophy effect on cognitive decline: implications for cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Dan; Gavett, Brandon; Fletcher, Evan; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce

    2018-08-01

    Level of education is often regarded as a proxy for cognitive reserve in older adults. This implies that brain degeneration has a smaller effect on cognitive decline in those with more education, but this has not been directly tested in previous research. We examined how education, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of brain degeneration, and their interaction affect cognitive decline in diverse older adults spanning the spectrum from normal cognition to dementia. Gray matter atrophy was strongly related to cognitive decline. While education was not related to cognitive decline, brain atrophy had a stronger effect on cognitive decline in those with more education. Importantly, high education was associated with slower decline in individuals with lesser atrophy but with faster decline in those with greater atrophy. This moderation effect was observed in Hispanics (who had high heterogeneity of education) but not in African-Americans or Caucasians. These results suggest that education is an indicator of cognitive reserve in individuals with low levels of brain degeneration, but the protective effect of higher education is rapidly depleted as brain degeneration progresses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Lifestyle Behaviors on 20-Year Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cadar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between smoking, physical activity and dietary choice at 36 and 43 years, and change in these lifestyle behaviors between these ages, and decline in verbal memory and visual search speed between 43 and 60–64 years in 1018 participants from MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD, the British 1946 birth cohort. ANCOVA models were adjusted for sex, social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment, adult social class, and depression; then the lifestyle behaviors were additionally mutually adjusted. Results showed that healthy dietary choice and physical activity were associated, respectively, with slower memory and visual search speed decline over 20 years, with evidence that increasing physical activity was important. Adopting positive health behaviors from early midlife may be beneficial in reducing the rate of cognitive decline and ultimately reducing the risk of dementia.

  13. Accelerated cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Sandra; Aalbers, Marlien W.; Rijkers, Kim; Lagiere, Melanie; Bogaarts, Jan G.; Blokland, Arjan; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Hoogland, Govert; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive impairment is frequently observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is hypothesized that cumulative seizure exposure causes accelerated cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. We investigated the influence of seizure frequency on cognitive decline in a rodent

  14. Cognitive decline, mortality, and organophosphorus exposure in aging Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kimberly C; Ling, Chenxiao; Lee, Anne; To, Tu My; Cockburn, Myles; Haan, Mary; Ritz, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major health concern among older Mexican Americans, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and may be influenced by environmental exposures. To investigate whether agricultural based ambient organophosphorus (OP) exposure influences 1) the rate of cognitive decline and mortality and 2) whether these associations are mediated through metabolic or inflammatory biomarkers. In a subset of older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (n = 430), who completed modified mini-mental state exams (3MSE) up to 7 times (1998-2007), we examined the relationship between estimated ambient OP exposures and cognitive decline (linear repeated measures model) and time to dementia or being cognitively impaired but not demented (CIND) and time to mortality (cox proportional hazards model). We then explored metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers as potential mediators of these relationships (additive hazards mediation). OP exposures at residential addresses were estimated with a geographic information system (GIS) based exposure assessment tool. Participants with high OP exposure in the five years prior to baseline experienced faster cognitive decline (β = 0.038, p = 0.02) and higher mortality over follow-up (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.26). The direct effect of OP exposure was estimated at 241 (95% CI = 27-455) additional deaths per 100,000 person-years, and the proportion mediated through the metabolic hormone adiponectin was estimated to be 4% 1.5-19.2). No other biomarkers were associated with OP exposure. Our study provides support for the involvement of OP pesticides in cognitive decline and mortality among older Mexican Americans, possibly through biologic pathways involving adiponectin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Visuomotor adaptability in older adults with mild cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, Jeffrey; Lee, Chi-Mei; Neill, Rebecca; Bo, Jin

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined the augmentation of error feedback on visuomotor adaptability in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive decline (assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MoCA). Twenty-three participants performed a center-out computerized visuomotor adaptation task when the visual feedback of their hand movement error was presented in a regular (ratio=1:1) or enhanced (ratio=1:2) error feedback schedule. Results showed that older adults with lower scores on the MoCA had less adaptability than those with higher MoCA scores during the regular feedback schedule. However, participants demonstrated similar adaptability during the enhanced feedback schedule, regardless of their cognitive ability. Furthermore, individuals with lower MoCA scores showed larger after-effects in spatial control during the enhanced schedule compared to the regular schedule, whereas individuals with higher MoCA scores displayed the opposite pattern. Additional neuro-cognitive assessments revealed that spatial working memory and processing speed were positively related to motor adaptability during the regular scheduled but negatively related to adaptability during the enhanced schedule. We argue that individuals with mild cognitive decline employed different adaptation strategies when encountering enhanced visual feedback, suggesting older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may benefit from enhanced visual error feedback during sensorimotor adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lack of Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Cognitive Decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wod, Mette; Hallas, Jesper; Andersen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    from surveys of middle-aged individuals (46-67 years old; the Middle Aged Danish Twin study) and older individuals (the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins) who underwent cognitive assessments (a 5-component test battery) over a 10-year period (middle-age study, n=2346) or a 2-year period...... PPI use and a composite score of cognitive function at baseline and decreases in scores during the follow-up periods. RESULTS: Use of PPIs before study enrollment was associated with a slightly lower mean cognitive score at baseline in the middle age study. The adjusted difference in mean score......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies of association between use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and dementia have yielded conflicting results. We investigated the effects of PPIs on cognitive decline in a study of middle-aged and elderly twins in Denmark. METHODS: In a prospective study, we collected data...

  17. Use of the Internet as a prevention tool against cognitive decline in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka

    Recent demographic trends indicate that older people appear to be one of the fastest growing population groups worldwide. In the year 2000, people older than 65 years represented 12.4% of the population. This number is expected to rise to 19% by 2030, particularly in developed countries. Therefore, there is sustained effort at both national and international levels to prolong the active life of these people as long as possible. Since the present older generation at the age of 55 years is already digitally literate, the use of technologies is one of the solutions. The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of the Internet in the prevention of cognitive decline in normal aging. The author examines clinical studies that exploit the use of the Internet, including online training programs, in the prevention of cognitive decline in healthy older individuals. The findings of the clinical studies indicate that the use of the Internet, especially online cognitive training programs, may have a positive effect on the improvement of cognitive functions in healthy older adults. Nevertheless, larger sample longitudinal randomized controlled clinical trials aimed at the prevention of cognitive decline among healthy older adults are needed.

  18. Poor Decision Making Is a Consequence of Cognitive Decline among Older Persons without Alzheimer’s Disease or Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Gamble, Keith; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Decision making is an important determinant of health and well-being across the lifespan but is critical in aging, when many influential decisions are made just as cognitive function declines. Increasing evidence suggests that older adults, even those without dementia, often make poor decisions and are selectively vulnerable to scams. To date, however, the factors associated with poor decision making in old age are unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment. Methods Participants were 420 non-demented persons from the Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal, clinical-pathologic cohort study of aging in the Chicago metropolitan area. All underwent repeated cognitive evaluations and subsequently completed assessments of decision making and susceptibility to scams. Decision making was measured using 12 items from a previously established performance-based measure and a self-report measure of susceptibility to scams. Results Cognitive function data were collected over an average of 5.5 years prior to the decision making assessment. Regression analyses were used to examine whether the prior rate of cognitive decline predicted the level of decision making and susceptibility to scams; analyses controlled for age, sex, education, and starting level of cognition. Among 420 persons without dementia, more rapid cognitive decline predicted poorer decision making and increased susceptibility to scams (p’s<0.001). Further, the relations between cognitive decline, decision making and scams persisted in analyses restricted to persons without any cognitive impairment (i.e., no dementia or even mild cognitive impairment). Conclusions Poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment, those widely considered “cognitively

  19. Diabetes and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Carlson, Michelle C; Crum, Rosa M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Sharrett, A Richey; Yasar, Sevil; Nahin, Richard L; DeKosky, Steven T; Snitz, Beth; Lopez, Oscar; Williamson, Jeff D; Furberg, Curt D; Rapp, Stephen R; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-12-12

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with diabetes exhibit accelerated cognitive decline. However, methodological limitations have limited the quality of this evidence. Heterogeneity in study design, cognitive test administration, and methods of analysis of cognitive data have made it difficult to synthesize and translate findings to practice. We analyzed longitudinal data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study to test our hypothesis that older adults with diabetes have greater test-specific and domain-specific cognitive declines compared to older adults without diabetes. Tests of memory, visuo-spatial construction, language, psychomotor speed, and executive function were administered. Test scores were standardized to z-scores and averaged to yield domain scores. Linear random effects models were used to compare baseline differences and changes over time in test and domain scores among individuals with and without diabetes. Among the 3,069 adults, aged 72-96 years, 9.3% reported diabetes. Over a median follow-up of 6.1 years, participants with diabetes exhibited greater baseline differences in a test of executive function (trail making test, Part B) and greater declines in a test of language (phonemic verbal fluency). For the composite cognitive domain scores, participants with diabetes exhibited lower baseline executive function and global cognition domain scores, but no significant differences in the rate of decline. Identifying cognitive domains most affected by diabetes can lead to targeted risk modification, possibly in the form of lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical activity, which we know to be beneficial for improving vascular risk factors, such as diabetes, and therefore may reduce the risk of executive dysfunction and possible dementia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Implementation of Subjective Cognitive Decline criteria in research studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinuevo, José L; Rabin, Laura A.; Amariglio, Rebecca; Buckley, Rachel; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Ewers, Michael; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sikkes, Sietske; Smart, Colette M.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) manifesting prior to clinical impairment could serve as a target population for early intervention trials in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A working group, the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I), published SCD research criteria in the context of preclinical AD. To successfully apply them, a number of issues regarding assessment and implementation of SCD needed to be addressed. METHODS Members of the SCD-I met to identify and agree upon topics relevant to SCD criteria operationalization in research settings. Initial ideas and recommendations were discussed with other SCD-I working group members and modified accordingly. RESULTS Topics included SCD inclusion and exclusion criteria, together with the informant’s role in defining SCD presence and the impact of demographic factors. DISCUSSION Recommendations for the operationalization of SCD in differing research settings, with the aim of harmonization of SCD measurement across studies are proposed, to enhance comparability and generalizability across studies. PMID:27825022

  1. Cognitive decline and amyloid accumulation in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivunen, Jaana; Karrasch, Mira; Scheinin, Noora M

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: The relationship between baseline (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB) uptake and cognitive decline during a 2-year follow-up was studied in 9 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 7 who remained with MCI. Methods: (11)C......: At baseline, there were statistically significant differences in (11)C-PIB uptake, but not in cognitive test performances between the converters and nonconverters. Memory and executive function declined only in the converters during follow-up. In the converters, lower baseline frontal (11)C-PIB uptake...... was associated with faster decline in verbal learning. Higher baseline uptake in the caudate nucleus was related to faster decline in memory consolidation, and higher temporal uptake was associated with decline in executive function. Conclusion: Higher (11)C-PIB uptake in the caudate nucleus and temporal lobe...

  2. Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer?s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Mark; Harris, Marina; Stevens, Annette; Sussams, Rebecca; Hopkins, Viv; Culliford, David; Fuller, James; Ibbett, Paul; Raybould, Rachel; Thomas, Rhodri; Puenter, Ursula; Teeling, Jessica; Perry, V. Hugh; Holmes, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Background. Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer’s disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with in...

  3. Bilingualism and Cognitive Decline: A Story of Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woumans, Evy; Versijpt, Jan; Sieben, Anne; Santens, Patrick; Duyck, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    In a recent review, Mukadam, Sommerlad, and Livingston (2017) argue that bilingualism offers no protection against cognitive decline. The authors examined the results of 13 studies (five prospective, eight retrospective) in which monolinguals and bilinguals were compared for cognitive decline and onset of dementia symptoms. Analysis of four of the five prospective studies resulted in the conclusion that there was no difference between monolinguals and bilinguals, whereas seven of the eight retrospective studies actually showed bilingualism to result in a four-to-five year delay of symptom onset. The authors decided to ignore the results from the retrospective studies in favor of those from the prospective studies, reasoning that the former may be confounded by participants' cultural background and education levels. In this commentary, we argue that most of these studies actually controlled for these two variables and still found a positive effect of bilingualism. Furthermore, we argue that the meta-analysis of the prospective studies is not complete, lacking the results of two crucial reports. We conclude that the literature offers substantial evidence for a bilingual effect on the development of cognitive decline and dementia.

  4. Cognitive decline is associated with systemic oxidative stress: the EVA study. Etude du Vieillissement Artériel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, C; Balansard, B; Arnaud, J; Roussel, A M; Alpérovitch, A

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether systemic oxidative stress status is associated with cognitive decline. A longitudinal population-based study. A cohort study of older subjects in Nantes, France. A total of 1166 high cognitive functioning subjects aged 60 to 70 in the Etude du Vieillissement Arteriel (EVA) cohort with a 4 year follow-up. Subjects completed a baseline interview and a global cognitive test (Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE)). Blood samples were obtained at baseline to determine plasma levels of selenium, carotenoids, thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS), an indicator of lipoperoxidation, and red blood cell vitamin E. Risk of cognitive decline, defined as a loss of 3 points in MMSE score between baseline and the 4 year follow-up, was assessed by oxidative stress level. Subjects with the highest levels of TBARS show an increased risk of cognitive decline (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.25; confidence interval (CI) 95% = 1.26-4.02). This result is reinforced in the lower antioxidant status subgroup. Subjects with low levels of selenium have an increased risk of cognitive decline (OR = 1.58; CI 95% = 1.08-2.31) after adjustment for various confounding factors. These results suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress and/or antioxidant deficiencies may pose risk factors for cognitive decline. The direct implication of oxidative stress in vascular and neurodegenerative mechanisms that lead to cognitive impairment should be further explored.

  5. Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina; Lampe, Fiona; Gilson, Richard; Speakman, Andrew; Antinori, Andrea; Bruun, Tina; Vassilenko, Anna; Collins, Simon; Rodger, Alison

    2017-11-01

    We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment. We also estimated the diagnostic accuracy of both questionnaires as tests for cognitive impairment. Four hundred forty-eight patients completed the assessments [mean age 45.8 years, 84% male, 87% white, median CD4 count 550 cells/mm, median time since HIV diagnosis 9.9 years, 81% virologically suppressed (HIV-1 plasma RNA symptoms of cognitive impairment were both associated with worse performance on some cognitive tests. There were also strong associations with financial difficulties, depressive and anxiety symptoms, unemployment, and longer time since HIV diagnosis. Both questionnaires performed poorly as diagnostic tests for cognitive impairment. Patients' own assessments of everyday function and symptoms were associated with objectively measured cognitive function. However, there were strong associations with other psychosocial issues including mood and anxiety disorders and socioeconomic hardship. This should be considered when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.

  6. Adiposity predicts cognitive decline in older persons with diabetes: a 2-year follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marie Abbatecola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms related to cognitive impairment in older persons with Type 2 diabetes (DM remains unclear. We tested if adiposity parameters and body fat distribution could predict cognitive decline in older persons with DM vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT. METHODOLOGY: 693 older persons with no dementia were enrolled: 253 with DM in good metabolic control; 440 with NGT (age range:65-85 years. Longitudinal study comparing DM and NGT individuals according to the association of baseline adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, waist circumference (WC and total body fat mass to cognitive change (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a composite score of executive and attention functioning (CCS over time. FINDINGS: At baseline, in DM participants, MMSE correlated with WHR (beta = -0.240; p = 0.043, WC (beta = -0.264; p = 0.041 while CCS correlated with WHR (beta = -0.238; p = 0.041, WC (beta = -0.326; p = 0.013 after adjusting for confounders. In NGT subjects, no significant correlations were found among any adiposity parameters and MMSE, while CCS was associated with WHR (beta = -0.194; p = 0.036 and WC (beta = -0.210; p = 0.024. Participants with DM in the 3(rd tertile of total fat mass showed the greatest decline in cognitive performance compared to those in 1(st tertile (tests for trend: MMSE(p = 0.007, CCS(p = 0.003. Logistic regression models showed that 3(rd vs. 1(st tertile of total fat mass, WHR, and WC predicted an almost two-fold decline in cognitive function in DM subjects at 2(nd yr (OR 1.68, 95%IC 1.08-3.52. CONCLUSIONS: Total fat mass and central adiposity predict an increased risk for cognitive decline in older person with DM.

  7. Cognitive decline in normal aging and its prevention: a review on non-pharmacological lifestyle strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blanka Klimova,1,2 Martin Valis,2 Kamil Kuca3,4 1Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, 2Department of Neurology, 3Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the selected non-pharmacological lifestyle activities on the delay of cognitive decline in normal aging. This was done by conducting a literature review in the four acknowledged databases Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, and Springer, and consequently by evaluating the findings of the relevant studies. The findings show that physical activities, such as walking and aerobic exercises, music therapy, adherence to Mediterranean diet, or solving crosswords, seem to be very promising lifestyle intervention tools. The results indicate that non-pharmacological lifestyle intervention activities should be intense and possibly done simultaneously in order to be effective in the prevention of cognitive decline. In addition, more longitudinal randomized controlled trials are needed in order to discover the most effective types and the duration of these intervention activities in the prevention of cognitive decline, typical of aging population groups. Keywords: cognitive impairment, healthy older individuals, intervention, benefits

  8. Metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline: the role of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of conditions, each of which represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Any of these conditions and MetS itself have been associated to Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia. In recent years there is a growing evidence for the role of physical activity in preventing metabolic diseases and cognitive decline. In our research we assessed the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 154 elderly people. Furthermore, we evaluated cognition (with Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE  and the physical activity level in every patient. We found a significant association between MetS, borderline cognitive impairment and sedentary lifestyle.

  9. Longitudinal Decline in Lung Function Measurements among Saskatchewan Grain Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punam Pahwa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the long term effects of grain dust and decline in lung function among grain elevator workers in Saskatchewan, studied over a 15-year period.

  10. Gait Rather Than Cognition Predicts Decline in Specific Cognitive Domains in Early Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rosie; Lord, Sue; Lawson, Rachael A; Coleman, Shirley; Galna, Brook; Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Yarnall, Alison J; Burn, David J; Rochester, Lynn

    2017-11-09

    Dementia is significant in Parkinson's disease (PD) with personal and socioeconomic impact. Early identification of risk is of upmost importance to optimize management. Gait precedes and predicts cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. We aimed to evaluate gait characteristics as predictors of cognitive decline in newly diagnosed PD. One hundred and nineteen participants recruited at diagnosis were assessed at baseline, 18 and 36 months. Baseline gait was characterized by variables that mapped to five domains: pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry, and postural control. Cognitive assessment included attention, fluctuating attention, executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function. Mixed-effects models tested independent gait predictors of cognitive decline. Gait characteristics of pace, variability, and postural control predicted decline in fluctuating attention and visual memory, whereas baseline neuropsychological assessment performance did not predict decline. This provides novel evidence for gait as a clinical biomarker for PD cognitive decline in early disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  11. Neuroanatomic changes and their association with cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Kleiman, Alexandra; Schulz, Jörg B.; Schneider, Frank; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Reetz, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an acquired syndrome characterised by cognitive decline not affecting activities of daily living. Using a quantitative meta-analytic approach, we aimed to identify consistent neuroanatomic correlates of MCI and how they are related to cognitive dysfunction. The meta-analysis enrols 22 studies, involving 917 MCI (848 amnestic MCI) patients and 809 healthy controls. Only studies investigating local changes in grey matter and reporting whole-brain results in st...

  12. Internet use, social engagement and health literacy decline during ageing in a longitudinal cohort of older English adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Health literacy skills tend to decline during ageing, which is often attributed to age-related cognitive decline. Whether health literacy skills may be influenced by technological and social factors during ageing is unknown. We investigated whether internet use and social engagement protect against health literacy decline during ageing, independent of cognitive decline. We used prospective data from 4368 men and women aged ≥52 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing from 2004 to 2011. Health literacy was measured at baseline (2004-2005) and at follow-up (2010-2011) using a reading comprehension test of a fictitious medicine label. The influences of consistent internet use and engagement in each of the civic, leisure and cultural activities on health literacy decline over the follow-up were estimated. After adjusting for cognitive decline and other covariates, consistent internet use (1379/4368; 32%) was protectively associated with health literacy decline (OR=0.77; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99), as was consistent engagement in cultural activities (1715/4368; 39%; OR=0.73; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.93). As the number of activities engaged in increased, the likelihood of health literacy decline steadily decreased (ptrendcinema, art galleries, museums and the theatre), may help older adults to maintain health literacy during ageing. Support for older adults to maintain socially engaged lives and to access the internet should help promote the maintenance of functional literacy skills during ageing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised accurately detects cognitive decline in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeti, Faye; Tan, Adrian Y K; Cummins, Gemma A; Collins, Lucy M; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive features, which begin before manifestation of the motor features, are an integral part of Huntington's disease and profoundly affect quality of life. A number of neuropsychological batteries have been used to assess this aspect of the condition, many of which are difficult to administer and time consuming, especially in advanced disease. We, therefore, investigated a simple and practical way to monitor cognition using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in 126 manifest Huntington's disease patients, 28 premanifest gene carriers and 21 controls. Using this test, we demonstrated a selective decrease in phonemic, but not semantic, fluency in premanifest participants Cognitive decline in manifest Huntington's disease varied according to disease severity with extensive cognitive decline observed in early-stage Huntington's disease patients, indicating that this would be an optimal stage for interventions designed to halt cognitive decline, and lesser changes in the advanced cases. We next examined cognitive performance in patients prescribed antidopaminergic drugs as these drugs are known to decrease cognition when administered to healthy volunteers. We paradoxically found that these drugs may be beneficial, as early-stage Huntington's disease participants in receipt of them had improved attention and Mini-Mental State Examination scores. In conclusion, this is the first study to test the usefulness of the ACE-R in a Huntington's disease population and demonstrates that this is a brief, inexpensive and practical way to measure global cognitive performance in clinical practice with potential use in clinical trials.

  14. Differential effects of enriched environment at work on cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-05-26

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how different mentally demanding work conditions during the professional life-i.e., enriched environments at work-might influence the rate of cognitive decline in old age. Individuals (n = 1,054) of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a representative population-based cohort study of individuals aged 75 years and older, underwent cognitive testing via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in up to 6 measurement waves. Type and level of mentally demanding work conditions in the participants' former professional life were classified based on the O*NET job descriptor database. In multivariate mixed-model analyses (controlling for sociodemographic and health-related factors), a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence was significantly associated with a better cognitive functioning at baseline (on average 5 MMSE points higher) as well as a lower rate of cognitive decline (on average 2 MMSE points less) over the 8-year follow-up period compared with a low level. The rate of cognitive decline in old age was also significantly lower (on average 3 MMSE points less) in individuals who had a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating executive functions than those who had a low level. The results suggest that a professional life enriched with work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence and executive functions may help to sustain a good cognitive functioning in old age (75+ years). The findings thus emphasize that today's challenging work conditions may also promote positive health effects. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Pharmacological interventions for cognitive decline in people with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Nuala; Hanratty, Jennifer; McShane, Rupert; Macdonald, Geraldine

    2015-10-29

    People with Down syndrome are vulnerable to developing dementia at an earlier age than the general population. Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in people with Down syndrome can place a significant burden on both the person with Down syndrome and their family and carers. Various pharmacological interventions, including donepezil, galantamine, memantine and rivastigmine, appear to have some effect in treating cognitive decline in people without Down syndrome, but their effectiveness for those with Down syndrome remains unclear. To assess the effectiveness of anti-dementia pharmacological interventions and nutritional supplements for treating cognitive decline in people with Down syndrome. In January 2015, we searched CENTRAL, ALOIS (the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, seven other databases, and two trials registers. In addition, we checked the references of relevant reviews and studies and contacted study authors, other researchers and relevant drug manufacturers to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of anti-dementia pharmacological interventions or nutritional supplements for adults (aged 18 years and older) with Down syndrome, in which treatment was administered and compared with either placebo or no treatment. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included trials and extracted the relevant data. Review authors contacted study authors to obtain missing information where necessary. Only nine studies (427 participants) met the inclusion criteria for this review. Four of these (192 participants) assessed the effectiveness of donepezil, two (139 participants) assessed memantine, one (21 participants) assessed simvastatin, one study (35 participants) assessed antioxidants, and one study (40 participants) assessed acetyl-L-carnitine.Five studies focused on adults aged 45 to 55 years, while the remaining four studies focused on

  16. The longitudinal impact of hearing impairment on cognition differs according to cognitive domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Uchida

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification and modification of the risk factors for cognitive decline throughout the adult life span are priority subjects in a progressively aging society; however, much remains to be learned. The aim of this study was to understand whether changes in cognitive function can be affected by hearing impairment (HI and whether the impact of HI differs depending on the cognitive domain. A total of 1,109 individuals aged 60 – 79 years at baseline who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging at the National Institute for Longevity Sciences (NILS-LSA was followed up for a maximum of 13.3 years. Cognitive function was evaluated using four subtests of the Japanese Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Short Forms: namely, Information, Similarities, Picture Completion, and the Digit Symbol Substitution subtests. The HI was defined as a pure-tone average of the better ear greater than 25 dB. A longitudinal analysis was performed of 4,437 observations obtained during a follow-up period of approximately 12 years. We estimated linear changes in subtest scores by HI status, using the time-varying mixed-effects regression model, which included fixed terms for the intercept, HI status at baseline, time (years elapsed since baseline, and an HI × time interaction term adjusted for age at baseline, sex, education, and other possible confounders. There were significant main effects of HI on the scores of the four subtests after adjustment. The HI × time interaction was significant for the scores of the Information (p = 0.001 and Digit Symbol Substitution subtests (p = 0.001. The scores of the HI group declined faster in the Information and Digit Symbol Substitution subtests compared to those of the no-HI group. The model-predicted 12-year slope using a mean baseline age (68.7 years indicated no significant decline in the individuals without HI at baseline for the Information and Similarities subtests, however, this tolerance was lost in the

  17. Plasma cytokine IL-6 levels and subjective cognitive decline: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Andrew P; Paris, Daniel; Luis, Cheryl A; Abdullah, Laila; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Pryor, Makenzie; Chaykin, Jillian; Crynen, Gogce; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prior to clinical inception will be paramount for introducing disease modifying treatments. We have begun collecting baseline characteristics of a community cohort for longitudinal assessment and testing of antecedent blood-based biomarkers. We describe the baseline visit from the first 131 subjects in relationship to a commonly described cytokine, interleukin 6 (IL-6). Subjects from the community presented for a free memory screening with varying degrees of memory concern. We quantified the baseline plasma levels of the cytokine IL-6 and assessed cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA) and mood (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) in relationship to their memory concern. Baseline MoCA scores were inversely related to age, and this association was influenced by an AD risk factor, Apolipoprotein E (APOE4) carrier status. The degree of subjective cognitive decline correlated with GDS and was inversely related to MoCA scores. Interleukin 6 levels were related to age, body mass index, and years of education. It will be important to assess how these baseline IL-6 levels and forthcoming novel biomarkers relate to future cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Affective problems and decline in cognitive state in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, A; Patel, U; Rusted, J; Richards, M; Gaysina, D

    2018-05-24

    Evidence suggests that affective problems, such as depression and anxiety, increase risk for late-life dementia. However, the extent to which affective problems influence cognitive decline, even many years prior to clinical diagnosis of dementia, is not clear. The present study systematically reviews and synthesises the evidence for the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state (i.e., decline in non-specific cognitive function) in older adults. An electronic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect was conducted to identify studies of the association between depression and anxiety separately and decline in cognitive state. Key inclusion criteria were prospective, longitudinal designs with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the STROBE checklist were conducted independently by two raters. A total of 34 studies (n = 71 244) met eligibility criteria, with 32 studies measuring depression (n = 68 793), and five measuring anxiety (n = 4698). A multi-level meta-analysis revealed that depression assessed as a binary predictor (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.76, p = 0.02) or a continuous predictor (B = -0.008, 95% CI -0.015 to -0.002, p = 0.012; OR 0.992, 95% CI 0.985-0.998) was significantly associated with decline in cognitive state. The number of anxiety studies was insufficient for meta-analysis, and they are described in a narrative review. Results of the present study improve current understanding of the temporal nature of the association between affective problems and decline in cognitive state. They also suggest that cognitive function may need to be monitored closely in individuals with affective disorders, as these individuals may be at particular risk of greater cognitive decline.

  19. Blood pressure control to prevent decline in cognition after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihle-Hansen H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hege Ihle-Hansen,1 Bente Thommessen,2 Morten W Fagerland,3 Anne R Øksengård,4 Torgeir B Wyller,5 Knut Engedal,6 Brynjar Fure7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum Hospital, Bærum, Norway; 2Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway; 3Oslo Centre for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Support Services, Oslo University Hospital, Norway; 4Department of Internal medicine, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum Hospital, Bærum, Norway; 5Department of Geriatric Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 6Norwegian Centre for Dementia Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 7Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway Background: Treatment of hypertension post-stroke preserves cognition through prevention of recurrent stroke, but it is not clear whether it prevents cognitive decline through other mechanisms. We aimed to describe changes in blood pressure from baseline to 1 year post-stroke and to evaluate the association between achieved blood pressure targets and cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and dementia.Methods: We included patients with first-ever stroke, and defined achieved blood pressure goals as systolic blood pressure (SBP in the categories ≤125 mmHg, ≤140 mmHg, and ≤160 mmHg, SBP reduction of ≥10 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP reduction of ≥5 mmHg. The main outcome variables were cognitive assessments 1 year post stroke. Secondary outcomes were diagnoses of MCI or dementia.Results: Forty-one of 166 patients (25% reached SBP ≤125 mmHg after 1 year, 92/166 (55% reached SBP ≤140 mmHg, and 150/166 (90% reached SBP ≤160 mmHg. SBP was reduced by ≥10 mmHg in 44/150 (29% and DBP by ≥5 mmHg in 57/150 (38%. We did not find any statistically significant associations between cognitive test performances and different blood pressure goals (P=0.070–1.0. Nor was there any significant association

  20. Cereal Intake Increases and Dairy Products Decrease Risk of Cognitive Decline among Elderly Female Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, R; Kato, Y; Nishita, Y; Tange, C; Nakamoto, M; Tomida, M; Imai, T; Ando, F; Shimokata, H

    2014-01-01

    If cognitive decline can be prevented through changes in daily diet with no medical intervention, it will be highly significant for dementia prevention. This longitudinal study examined the associations of different food intakes on cognitive decline among Japanese subjects. Prospective cohort study. The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based study. Participants included 298 males and 272 females aged 60 to 81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study (third to seventh wave) at least one time. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in all study waves. Nutritional intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record in the second wave. Cumulative data among participants with an MMSE >27 in the second wave were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for an MMSE score ≤27 in each study wave according to a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of each food intake at baseline were estimated, after adjusting for age, follow-up time, MMSE score at baseline, education, body mass index, annual household income, current smoking status, energy intake, and history of diseases. In men, after adjusting for age, and follow-up period, MMSE score at baseline, the adjusted OR for a decline in MMSE score was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42; p=0.032) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake. After adjusting for education and other confounding variables, the OR for a decrease in MMSE score did not reach statistical significance for this variable. In women, multivariate adjusted OR for MMSE decline was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.15-1.77; p=0.001) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65-0.98; p=0.034) with a 1-SD increase in milk and dairy product intake. This study indicates that a 1-SD (108 g/day) decrease in cereal intake and a 1-SD (128 g/day) increase in milk and dairy product intake may have an

  1. Effects of education and race on cognitive decline: An integrative analysis of generalizability versus study-specific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L.; Mungas, Dan M.; Crane, Paul K.; Gibbons, Laura E.; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Manly, Jennifer J.; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Romero, Heather; Sachs, Bonnie; Thomas, Michael; Potter, Guy G.; Jones, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine variability across multiple prospective cohort studies in level and rate of cognitive decline by race/ethnicity and years of education. Method To compare data across studies, we harmonized estimates of common latent factors representing overall or general cognitive performance, memory, and executive function derived from the: 1) Washington Heights, Hamilton Heights, Inwood Columbia Aging Project (N=4,115), 2) Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (N=525), 3) Duke Memory, Health, and Aging study (N=578), and 4) Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly (N=585). We modeled cognitive change over age for cognitive outcomes by race, education, and study. We adjusted models for sex, dementia status, and study-specific characteristics. Results For baseline levels of overall cognitive performance, memory, and executive function, differences in race and education tended to be larger than between-study differences and consistent across studies. This pattern did not hold for rate of cognitive decline: effects of education and race/ethnicity on cognitive change were not consistently observed across studies, and when present were small, with racial/ethnic minorities and those with lower education declining at faster rates. Discussion In this diverse set of datasets, non-Hispanic whites and those with higher education had substantially higher baseline cognitive test scores. However, differences in the rate of cognitive decline by race/ethnicity and education did not follow this pattern. This study suggests that baseline test scores and longitudinal change have different determinants, and future studies to examine similarities and differences of causes of cognitive decline in racially/ethnically and educationally diverse older groups is needed. PMID:26523693

  2. Mild cognitive decline: Concept, types, presentation, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Subramanyam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As advancements are being made in the medical field, the average life span is increasing and more complaints related to the elderly are coming into notice. Of these, mild cognitive decline (MCD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI is recently becoming an increasingly recognized entity that is often considered a precursor of dementia but is found to have other outcomes as well. It also has variations in presentations; it does not present only as memory complaint but also in the form of other cognitive or behavioral manifestations and has always been a point of controversy regarding the objectivity of the diagnosis. It is considered as the appropriate stage for intervention to prevent its progression to dementia and therefore, requires early identification for which various diagnostic modalities such as neuroimaging, neuropsychological tests, and biological markers are considered. Currently, there are no specific treatment guidelines for MCD. Drugs used in Alzheimer′s disease (AD, lifestyle modifications, and other nonpharmacological approaches have shown some benefit in MCI but the results are variable; hence, the need for further research is warranted for effective preventive therapy. In this article, we will be discussing MCD as a clinical construct, evaluation of a person suspected of having MCD, and management of the same.

  3. A more randomly organized grey matter network is associated with deteriorating language and global cognition in individuals with subjective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Sander C J; Slot, Rosalinde E R; Dicks, Ellen; Prins, Niels D; Overbeek, Jozefien M; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Tijms, Betty M

    2018-03-30

    Grey matter network disruptions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with worse cognitive impairment cross-sectionally. Our aim was to investigate whether indications of a more random network organization are associated with longitudinal decline in specific cognitive functions in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 231 individuals with SCD who had annually repeated neuropsychological assessment (3 ± 1 years; n = 646 neuropsychological investigations) available from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (54% male, age: 63 ± 9, MMSE: 28 ± 2). Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from baseline 3D-T1 MRI scans and we computed basic network (size, degree, connectivity density) and higher-order (path length, clustering, betweenness centrality, normalized path length [lambda] and normalized clustering [gamma]) parameters at whole brain and/or regional levels. We tested associations of network parameters with baseline and annual cognition (memory, attention, executive functioning, language composite scores, and global cognition [all domains with MMSE]) using linear mixed models, adjusted for age, sex, education, scanner and total gray matter volume. Lower network size was associated with steeper decline in language (β ± SE = 0.12 ± 0.05, p organized grey matter network was associated with a steeper decline of cognitive functioning, possibly indicating the start of cognitive impairment. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Relation between age-related decline in intelligence and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities in healthy octogenarians: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, E; Mortensen, E L; Krabbe, K

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: White-matter hyperintensities are commonly found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of elderly people with or without dementia. Studies of the relation between severity of white-matter hyperintensities and cognitive impairment have had conflicting results. We undertook a longitudinal...... study of age-related decline in intellectual function and MRI at age 80 years. METHODS: From a cohort of 698 people born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in Denmark, 68 healthy non-demented individuals had been tested with the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) at ages 50, 60, and 70...

  5. Late-onset Alzheimer's risk variants in memory decline, incident mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Crook, Julia E; Pedraza, Otto; Thomas, Colleen S; Pankratz, V Shane; Allen, Mariet; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly G; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D; Roberts, Rosebud O; Lucas, John A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Machulda, Mary M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    We tested association of nine late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with memory and progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or LOAD (MCI/LOAD) in older Caucasians, cognitively normal at baseline and longitudinally evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Jacksonville (n>2000). Each variant was tested both individually and collectively using a weighted risk score. APOE-e4 associated with worse baseline memory and increased decline with highly significant overall effect on memory. CLU-rs11136000-G associated with worse baseline memory and incident MCI/LOAD. MS4A6A-rs610932-C associated with increased incident MCI/LOAD and suggestively with lower baseline memory. ABCA7-rs3764650-C and EPHA1-rs11767557-A associated with increased rates of memory decline in subjects with a final diagnosis of MCI/LOAD. PICALM-rs3851179-G had an unexpected protective effect on incident MCI/LOAD. Only APOE-inclusive risk scores associated with worse memory and incident MCI/LOAD. The collective influence of the nine top LOAD GWAS variants on memory decline and progression to MCI/LOAD appears limited. Discovery of biologically functional variants at these loci may uncover stronger effects on memory and incident disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Relationship between cognitive function and physical activities: a longitudinal study among community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Yoko; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Ohta, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether physical activities reduce the risk of cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly. We investigated correlations between cognitive functions at baseline and physical activities, correlations between cognitive functions at baseline and cognitive decline over 4 years, as well as correlations between physical activity at baseline and cognitive decline over 4 years. At baseline, 2,431 community-dwelling elderly completed the cognitive screening by telephone (TICS-J), and answered the questionnaires about physical activities. Of these, 1,040 subjects again completed the TICS-J over 4 years. Physical activities contained moving ability, walking frequency, walking speed, the exercise frequency. At baseline, 870 elderly (age 75.87±4.96 (mean±SD) years, duration of education 11.05±2.41) showed normal cognitive functions and 170 (79.19±6.22, 9.61±2.23) showed cognitive impairment. The total TICS-J score was significantly higher in cognitive normal subjects compared with that of cognitive impaired subjects (36.02±1.89, 30.19±2.25, respectively, p<0.001). Logistic regression analyses showed that moving ability significantly reduced the risk of cognitive impairment in an unadjusted model, and walking speed also reduced the risk of cognitive impairment at baseline even in an adjusted model. Cognitive function at baseline might be a predictor of cognitive function over 4 years. The longitudinal study revealed that walking speed and exercise frequency significantly correlate with maintenance of cognitive function over 4 years. This study provides that physical activities, especially walking speed have significant correlation with cognitive function.

  7. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Cognitive Function, and Cognitive Decline in American Older Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.M.; Kang, Jae H.; Rest, van de O.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Grodstein, F.

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesTo examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingThe Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US

  8. Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires...

  9. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  10. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC) may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients.

  11. Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Birks, Jacqueline; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate...

  12. Association of Source of Memory Complaints and Increased Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Cognitive Decline: A Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xue-Mei; Gu, Lin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Chen, Sheng-Di; Ma, Jian-Fang

    2018-04-20

    Memory complaint is common in the elderly. Recently, it was shown that self-report memory complaint was predictive of cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of the source of memory complaints on the risk of cognitive impairment and cognitive decline in a community-based cohort. Data on memory complaints and cognitive function were collected among 1840 Chinese participants (aged ≥55 years old) in an urban community at baseline interview and 5-year follow-up. Incident cognitive impairment was identified based on education-adjusted Mini-Mental State Examination score. Logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between the source of memory complaints and risk of cognitive impairment conversion and cognitive decline, after adjusting for covariates. A total of 1840 participants were included into this study including 1713 normal participants and 127 cognitive impairment participants in 2009. Among 1713 normal participants in 2009, 130 participants were converted to cognitive impairment after 5 years of follow-up. In 2014, 606 participants were identified as cognitive decline. Both self- and informant-reported memory complaints were associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.48) and cognitive decline (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01-1.68). Furthermore, this association was more significant in males (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.04-4.24 for cognitive impairment and OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.20-2.99 for cognitive decline) and in higher education level (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.02-3.15 for cognitive impairment and OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.91 for cognitive decline). Both self- and informant-reported memory complaints were associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment conversion and cognitive decline, especially in persons with male gender and high educational background.

  13. Dietary diversity decreases the risk of cognitive decline among Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Nakamoto, Mariko; Imai, Tomoko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    To clarify the effectiveness of dietary diversity, calculated by dietary records, on cognitive decline. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants comprised 298 men and 272 women aged 60-81 years at baseline (second wave) who participated in the follow-up study (third to seventh wave) at least once. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination in all study waves. Dietary diversity was determined using the Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity based on a 3-day dietary record in the second wave. Cumulative data among participants with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >27 in the second wave were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≤27 in each study wave according to a 1 standard deviation (increase), or quartiles of the Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity at baseline, were adjusted for sex, age, follow-up time, baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score, education, body mass index, annual household income, current smoking status, energy intake and disease history. Multivariate adjusted odds ratio for a decline in Mini-Mental State Examination score was 0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.89; P < 0.001) with a 1 SD increase in dietary diversity score, or 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (95% CI 0.70-1.43), 0.68 (95% CI 0.46-0.99) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.38-0.83) according to the lowest through highest quartiles of dietary diversity score, respectively (trend P = 0.001). Daily intake of various kinds of food might be a protective factor against cognitive decline in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 937-944. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Tooth loss associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G; Rouxel, Patrick L; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of total tooth loss (edentulousness) on decline in physical and cognitive functioning over 10 years in older adults in England. Secondary data analysis. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a national prospective cohort study of community-dwelling people aged 50 and older. Individuals aged 60 and older (N = 3,166). Cognitive function (memory) was measured using a 10-word recall test. Physical function was assessed using gait speed (m/s). Generalized estimating equations were used to model associations between baseline edentulousness and six repeated measurements of gait speed and memory from 2002-03 to 2012-13. Models were sequentially adjusted for time, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, health behaviors, depressive symptoms, and anthropometric measurements and mutually adjusted for gait speed or memory. Edentulous participants recalled 0.88 fewer words and were 0.09 m/s slower than dentate participants after adjusting for time and demographics. Only the latter association remained significant after full adjustment, with edentulous participants being 0.02 m/s slower than dentate participants. In age-stratified analyses, baseline edentulousness was associated with both outcomes in fully adjusted models in participants aged 60 to 74 but not in those aged 75 and older. Supplementary analysis indicated significant associations between baseline edentulousness and 4-year change in gait speed and memory in participants aged 60 to 74; the former was fully explained in the fully adjusted model and the latter after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Total tooth loss was independently associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults in England. Tooth loss is a potential early marker of decline in older age. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Does cognitive decline decrease health utility value in older adult patients with cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Tatsuo; Aiki, Sayo; Sugano, Koji; Uchida, Megumi; Yamada, Atsuro; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Ishida, Takashi; Kusumoto, Shigeru; Iida, Shinsuke; Okuyama, Toru

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive decline is common among older adults with cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of cognitive decline on health utility value in older adults suffering from cancer. Consecutive patients aged 65 years or older with a primary diagnosis of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma were recruited. Patients were asked to complete the EuroQoL-5 (EQ-5D) scale to measure health utility and the Mini-Mental State Examination to assess cognitive decline. The potential impact of cognitive decline was investigated with univariate analysis. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to control for potential confounding factors. Complete data were obtained from 87 patients, 29% of whom had cognitive decline. The mean ± SE EQ-5D score for patients with cognitive decline was significantly lower than that for those without cognitive decline (0.67 ± 0.04 vs 0.79 ± 0.03, t = 2.38, P = 0.02). However, multiple regression analysis showed that cognitive decline was not significantly associated with EQ-5D scores. Female sex and lower performance scores (worse physical condition) were significantly associated with EQ-5D scores. Cognitive decline may be involved in decreased health utility value in older adult patients with cancer. However, this effect does not seem to be independent, and the patient's physical condition may be a relevant confounding factor. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes: the LADIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla; Ferro, José M; O'Brien, John T; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC). The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly) prospective study evaluated the impact of WMC on the transition of independent older subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated annually over a 3 year period with a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Previous episodes of depression and current DS were assessed during each interview. Severity of DS was assessed using the self-rated 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale. A neuropsychological battery and clinical criteria for cognitive impairments were applied in all clinical visits, and cognitive compound measures were made based on neuropsychological results. MRI was performed at baseline and at year 3. 639 subjects were included (74.1 ± 5 years old, 55% women, 9.6 ± 3.8 years of schooling). Dementia was diagnosed in 90 patients and cognitive impairment not dementia in 147 patients at the last clinical evaluation. DS were an independent predictor of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia) during follow-up, independent of the effect of the severity of WMC, medial temporal lobe atrophy, age, education or global cognitive function at baseline. DS are associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline, independent of the effect of WMC, probably due to an additive or synergistic effect. In this context, DS probably represent a subtle ongoing organic dysfunction.

  17. Comparing three methods of computerised cognitive training for older adults with subclinical cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Amanda L; Choi, Jimmy; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Wilkins, Kirsten; Kirwin, Paul D; van Dyck, Christopher H; Devanand, Davangere; Bell, Morris D; Rivera Mindt, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease is readily available to the geriatric population. Initial evidence suggests that techniques incorporating motivational strategies to enhance treatment engagement may provide more benefit than computerised training alone. Seventy four adults with subclinical cognitive decline were randomly assigned to computerised cognitive training (CCT), Cognitive Vitality Training (CVT), or an Active Control Group (ACG), and underwent neuropsychological evaluations at baseline and four-month follow-up. Significant differences were found in changes in performance on the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (mMMSE) and measures of verbal learning and memory across treatment groups. Experimental groups showed greater preservation of functioning on the mMMSE than the ACG group, the CVT group performed better than the ACG group on one measure of verbal learning and both measures of verbal memory, and the CCT group performed better than the ACG group on one measure of verbal learning and one measure of verbal memory. There were no significant group differences between the CVT and CCT groups on measures of verbal learning or memory. It was concluded that computerised cognitive training may offer the most benefit when incorporated into a therapeutic milieu rather than administered alone, although both appear superior to more generic forms of cognitive stimulation.

  18. Learning to remember: Cognitive training-induced attenuation of age-related memory decline depends on sex and cognitive demand, and can transfer to untrained cognitive domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talboom, Joshua S.; West, Stephen G.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Enders, Craig K.; Crain, Ian; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive changes in learning and memory. A potential approach to attenuate age-related cognitive decline is cognitive training. In this study, adult male and female rats were given either repeated exposure to a T-maze, or no exposure to any maze, and then tested on a final battery of cognitive tasks. Two groups of each sex were tested from 6-18 months old on the same T-maze; one group received a version testing spatial reference memory, and the other group received only the procedural testing components with minimal cognitive demand. Groups three and four of each sex had no maze exposure until the final battery, and were comprised of aged or young rats. The final maze battery included the practiced T-maze plus two novel tasks, one with a similar, and one with a different, memory type to the practice task. The fifth group of each sex was not maze tested, serving as an aged control for the effects of maze testing on neurotrophin protein levels in cognitive brain regions. Results showed that adult intermittent cognitive training enhanced performance on the practice task when aged in both sexes, that cognitive training benefits transferred to novel tasks only in females, and that cognitive demand was necessary for these effects since rats receiving only the procedural testing components showed no improvement on the final maze battery. Further, for both sexes, rats that showed faster learning when young demonstrated better memory when aged. Age-related increases in neurotrophin concentrations in several brain regions were revealed, which was related to performance on the training task only in females. This longitudinal study supports the tenet that cognitive training can help one remember later in life, with broader enhancements and associations with neurotrophins in females. PMID:25104561

  19. Lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve against white matter integrity declines in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Brian T; Johnson, Nathan F; Powell, David K

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N=20) and monolinguals (N=20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated With Cognitive Decline In Executive Function In Patients With Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Uiterwijk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a total SVD score was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4 in each patient. Results: Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (p=0.017, executive functioning (p<0.001 and information processing speed (p=0.037, but not with memory (p=0.911. The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group and baseline cognitive performance.Conclusions: Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.

  1. C-reactive protein, APOE genotype and longitudinal cognitive change in an older population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thomas A. S.; Adler, Amanda L.; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; Marioni, Riccardo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: circulating measures of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with an increased risk of future cognitive decline. However, the nature of the relationship among the very old (>75 years) is unclear. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that elevated CRP may even be protective in this age group. This study examines these associations longitudinally. Methods: logistic regression was used to investigate the association between CRP and drop in cognitive performance (≥3 point change on the Mini-Mental State Examination) over a 4-year period in a population of 266 people, mean age 77 years. Results: increased levels of CRP were associated with a decreased risk of a drop in cognitive performance; however, this association was only seen in those without an APOE e4 allele [odds ratio of decline per unit increase in ln(CRP) 0.57, P = 0.04]. The magnitude of the finding remained consistent after adjustment for cardiovascular confounders (smoking, drinking, MI, stroke, diabetes, education, medication and blood pressure). For those with an e4 allele, the relationship with longitudinal cognitive decline was neither statistically significant nor in a consistent direction after controlling for acute inflammation. Conclusions: this study strengthens previous cross-sectional findings and shows elevated levels of CRP to be linked to a decreased risk of longitudinal cognitive decline in the very old. However, as with prior analyses, this was only observed in those not carrying an APOE e4 allele. Future work on larger APOE e4 allele carrying samples is required to determine the nature of the association in this population. PMID:24305621

  2. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Cognitive Function, and Cognitive Decline in American Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; Kang, Jae H; van de Rest, Ondine; Feskens, Edith J M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Grodstein, Francine

    2017-05-01

    To examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women. Prospective cohort study. The Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US states. A total of 16,144 women from the Nurses' Health Study, aged ≥70 years, who underwent cognitive testing a total of 4 times by telephone from 1995 to 2001 (baseline), with multiple dietary assessments between 1984 and the first cognitive examination. DASH adherence for each individual was based on scoring of intakes of 9 nutrient or food components. Long-term DASH adherence was calculated as the average DASH adherence score from up to 5 repeated measures of diet. Primary outcomes were cognitive function calculated as the average scores of the 4 repeated measures, as well as cognitive change of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score and composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. Greater adherence to long-term DASH score was associated with better average cognitive function, irrespective of apolipoprotein E ε4 allele status [multivariable-adjusted differences in mean z-scores between extreme DASH quintiles = 0.04 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.01-0.07), P trend = .009 for global cognition; 0.04 (95% CI 0.01-0.07), P trend = .002 for verbal memory and 0.16 (95% CI 0.03-0.29), and P trend = .03 for Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, P interaction >0.24]. These differences were equivalent to being 1 year younger in age. Adherence to the DASH score was not associated with change in cognitive function over 6 years. Our findings in the largest cohort on dietary patterns and cognitive function to date indicate that long-term adherence to the DASH diet is important to maintain cognitive function at older ages. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk and protective factors associated with cognitive decline in aging - a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Martins Foroni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review, in SciELO and PubMed databases, about the cognitive and linguistic changes associated with aging, focusing on risk and protective factors. Methods: Articles conducted with people aged 60 or more and published between 2002 and 2008 were searched in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: 72 studies were reviewed in 38 different journals, being 9.7% (7 from national journals and 90.3% (65 from international ones, and 26.3% (10 in the area of Neurology, 23.7% (9 Geriatrics and Aging, 13.2% (5 Epidemiology and Public Health, 10.5% (4 Psychiatry and the rest from magazines of different health issues. The longitudinal design was used in 51.3% (37 and the cross-sectional one, in 36.1% (26. About the data collection instruments, 48.6% (35 of the works used the Mini-Mental State Examination, 15.1% (11 used the Verbal Fluency Test, 12.5% (9 the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 9.7% (7 the Boston Naming Test and 13.8% (10 Geriatric Depression Scale. We identified relationships between cognition in aging and biological factors in 69.4% (50 of the researches. Some studies have indicated increased likelihood of cognitive impairment among elderly people with depressive symptoms and among smokers. Studies have shown a positive effect of education and participation in physical and social activities on cognition. Conclusions: Studies in the analyzed period specifically investigated the relationship between biological risk factors and cognitive decline. Little attention was given to linguistic changes and protective factors associated with aging.

  4. Longitudinal mixed-effects models for latent cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects regression model with a bent-cable change-point predictor is formulated to describe potential decline of cognitive function over time in the older population. For the individual trajectories, cognitive function is considered to be a latent variable measured through an item response

  5. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and educational attainment predict the rate of cognitive decline in normal aging? A 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, P.W.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Bekers, O.; Ausems, E.E.B.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Method: Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were

  6. Marital status and living situation during a 5-year period are associated with a subsequent 10-year cognitive decline in older men: The FINE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Kalmijn, S.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the association between marital status and living situation (over 5 years) on 10-year subsequent cognitive decline. The study population consisted of 1,042 men aged 70-89 years in 1990, who participated in the longitudinal Finland, Italy, the Netherlands Elderly (known as FINE) Study.

  7. Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

  8. Feasibility and validity of mobile cognitive testing in the investigation of age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Pierre; Husky, Mathilde; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel

    2017-09-01

    Mobile cognitive testing may be used to help characterize subtle deficits at the earliest stages of cognitive decline. Despite growing interest in this approach, comprehensive information concerning its feasibility and validity has been lacking in elderly samples. Over a one-week period, this study applied mobile cognitive tests of semantic memory, episodic memory and executive functioning in a cohort of 114 elderly non-demented community residents. While the study acceptance rate was moderate (66%), the majority of recruited individuals met minimal compliance thresholds and responded to an average of 82% of the repeated daily assessments. Missing data did not increase over the course of the study, but practice effects were observed for several test scores. However, even when controlling for practice effects, traditional neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with mobile cognitive test scores. In particular, the Isaacs Set Test was associated with mobile assessments of semantic memory (γ = 0.084, t = 5.598, p mobile assessments of episodic memory (γ = 0.069, t = 3.156, p mobile assessments of executive functioning (γ = 0.168, t = 4.562, p Mobile cognitive testing in the elderly may provide complementary and potentially more sensitive data relative to traditional neuropsychological assessment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of longitudinal 12 and 24 month cognitive outcomes in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Julie C; Jones, Rebecca; Labuschagne, Izelle; O'Regan, Alison M; Say, Miranda J; Dumas, Eve M; Queller, Sarah; Justo, Damian; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Coleman, Allison; Hart, Ellen P; Dürr, Alexandra; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund A; Langbehn, Doug R; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Frost, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Deterioration of cognitive functioning is a debilitating symptom in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD). To date, there are no effective treatments for the cognitive problems associated with HD. Cognitive assessment outcomes will have a central role in the efforts to develop treatments to delay onset or slow the progression of the disease. The TRACK-HD study was designed to build a rational basis for the selection of cognitive outcomes for HD clinical trials. There were a total of 349 participants, including controls (n=116), premanifest HD (n=117) and early HD (n=116). A standardised cognitive assessment battery (including nine cognitive tests comprising 12 outcome measures) was administered at baseline, and at 12 and 24 months, and consisted of a combination of paper and pencil and computerised tasks selected to be sensitive to cortical-striatal damage or HD. Each cognitive outcome was analysed separately using a generalised least squares regression model. Results are expressed as effect sizes to permit comparisons between tasks. 10 of the 12 cognitive outcomes showed evidence of deterioration in the early HD group, relative to controls, over 24 months, with greatest sensitivity in Symbol Digit, Circle Tracing direct and indirect, and Stroop word reading. In contrast, there was very little evidence of deterioration in the premanifest HD group relative to controls. The findings describe tests that are sensitive to longitudinal cognitive change in HD and elucidate important considerations for selecting cognitive outcomes for clinical trials of compounds aimed at ameliorating cognitive decline in HD.

  10. Association of long-term adherence to the mind diet with cognitive function and cognitive decline in American women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes; Kang, J.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Grodstein, F.; Rest, van de O.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: There is increasing attention for dietary patterns as a potential strategy to prevent cognitive decline. We examined the association between adherence to a recently developed Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet with cognitive function and cognitive

  11. Decline in Memory, Visuospatial Ability, and Crystalized Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: Normative Aging or Terminal Decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bendayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline. Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms, memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory, and visuospatial ability were included. The sample consisted of 671 older Swedish adult participants of the OCTO Twin Study. Linear mixed models with random coefficients were used to analyse change patterns and BIC indexes were used to compare models. Results showed that the time to death model was the best option in analyses of change in all the cognitive measures considered (except for the Information Test. A significant cognitive decline over time was found for all variables. Individuals diagnosed with dementia had lower scores at the study entrance and a faster decline. More educated individuals performed better in all the measures of cognition at study entry than those with poorer education, but no differences were found in the rate of change. Differences were found in age, sex, or time to death at baseline across the different measures. These results support the terminal decline hypothesis when compared to models assuming that cognitive changes are driven by normative aging processes.

  12. Longitudinal changes in white matter disease and cognition in the first year of the Alzheimer disease neuroimaging initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Owen; Schwarz, Christopher; Drucker, David; Fletcher, Evan; Harvey, Danielle; Beckett, Laurel; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael; Decarli, Charles; Abdi, Herve; Abeliovich, Asa; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Abner, Erin; Acharya, Deepa; Adams, Nicholas; Adler, Daniel; Agrusti, Antonella; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahn, Jae Eun; Aisen, Paul; Aksu, Yaman; Al-Akhras, Mousa; Alarcon, Marcelo; Alberca, Roman; Alexander, Gene; Alexander, Daniel; Almeida, Fabio; Anand, Rishi; Anand, Shyam; Andrew, Marilee; Anjum, Ayesha; Aoyama, Eiji; Ard, Michael Colin; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Armor, Tom; Arnold, Steven; Asatryan, Albert; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Assareh, Arezoo; Aubry, Florent; Avants, Brian; Avinash, Gopal; Awasthi, Sukrati; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Bagci, Ulas; Bai, Shuyang; Baker, John; Banks, Sarah; Bard, Jonathan; Barnes, Josephine; Barret, Olivier; Bartzokis, George; Barua, Neil; Bauer, Corinna; Becker, James; Bednar, Martin; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Bek, Stephan; Bernard, Charlotte; Bertram, Lars; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Biffi, Alessandro; Bilgic, Basar; Bishnoi, Mahesh; Bishop, Courtney; Bittner, Daniel; Black, Ronald; Blennow, Kaj; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Boppana, Madhu; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bowes, Mike; Bowman, Gene; Bowman, DuBois; Braskie, Meredith; Brewer, James; Brickman, Adam; Broadbent, Steve; Brooks, David; Browndyke, Jeffrey; Bruat, Vanessa; Brunton, Simon; Buchert, Ralph; Buchsbaum, Monte; Buckley, Chris; Burger, Cyrill; Burns, Jeffrey; Burton, David; Butman, John; Cabeza, Rafael; Cairns, Nigel; Callhoff, Johanna; Calvini, Piero; Campbell, Aaron; Cantillon, Marc; Capella, Heraldo; Cardona-Sanclemente, Luis Eduardo; Carle, Adam; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carranza-Ath, Fredy; Casanova, Ramon; Cash, David; Cella, Massimo; Celsis, Pierre; Chan, Lung Tat Andrew; Chaney, Megan; Chanu, Pascal; Chao, Linda; Charil, Arnaud; Chemali, Zeina; Chen, Baojiang; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Ting; Chen, Minhua; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Rong; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Chertkow, Howard; Chiang, Gloria; Chiba, Koji; Chisholm, Jane; Cho, Youngsang; Choe, John; Choubey, Suresh; Christensen, Anette Luther; Clark, Chris; Clark, David; Clarkson, Matt; Clayton, David; Clunie, David; Coimbra, Alexandre; Compton, David; Crane, Paul; Crans, Gerald; Croop, Robert; Crowther, Daniel; Crum, William; Cui, Yue; Curry, Charles; Curtis, Steven; Cutter, Gary; Daiello, Lori; Dake, Michael; Dale, Anders; Damato, Vito Domenico; Darby, Eveleen; Darkner, Sune; Davatzikos, Christos; Dave, Jay; David, Renaud; Davidson, Julie; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Meyer, Geert; de Nunzio, Giorgio; de Santi, Susan; Dechairo, Bryan; DeDuck, Kristina; Dejkam, Arsalan; Delfino, Manuel; Delpassand, Ebrahim; Deniz, Oscar; Denney, Douglas; DeOrchis, Vincent; Depy Carron, Delphine; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Devanand, Davangere; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Diaz, Gloria; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Dickerson, Bradford; Dinov, Ivo; Dodge, Hiroko; Donohue, Michael; Dowling, Maritza; Drzezga, Alex; Duan, Xujun; Duchesne, Simon; Duff, Kevin; Dukart, Jurgen; Durazzo, Timothy; Dykstra, Kevin; Earl, Nancy; Edula, Goutham; Ekin, Ahmet; Engelman, Corinne; Epstein, Noam; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Eskildsen, Simon; Falcone, Guido; Fan, Yong; Farnum, Michael; Farrer, Lindsay; Farzan, Ali; Feldman, Howard; Feng, Yan; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fernandes, Michel; Fernandez, Elsa; Ferrarini, Luca; Ferreira, Luiz; Ferrer, Eugene; Figurski, Michal; Filipovych, Roman; Finch, Stephen; Finlay, Daniel; Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Flenniken, Derek; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Flynn Longmire, Crystal; Forman, Mark; Forsythe, Alan; Fox-Bosetti, Sabrina; Francis, Alexander L.; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Franko, Edit; Freeman, Stefanie; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Fujimoto, Yoko; Fujiwara, Ken; Fullerton, Terence; Furney, Simon; Gallins, Paul; Gamst, Anthony; Gan, Ke; Garcia, Maria Teresa; Garcia-Linares, Antonio; Garg, Gaurav; Gaser, Christian; Gastineau, Edward; Gavidia, Giovana; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Ge, Qi; Gemme, Gianluca; German, Dwight; Ghassabi, Zeinab; Gil, Juan E.; Gill, Ryan; Gitelman, Darren; Gleason, Carey; Godbey, Michael; Goghari, Vina; Gold, Michael; Goldberg, Terry; Gomeni, Roberto; Gong, Shangwenyan; Gonzales, Celedon; Gordon, Brian; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Grachev, Igor; Grandey, Emily; Grasela, Thaddeus; Gratt, Jeremy; Gray, Katherine; Greenberg, Barry; Gregg, Keith; Gregory, Erik; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Grill, Joshua; Gross, Alan; Guo, Lianghao; Guo, Hongbin; Guo, Jeffrey; Habeck, Christian; Hai, Yizhen; Haight, Thaddeus; Hakansson, Kristina; Hammarstrom, Per; Hampel, Harald; Han, Tony; Han, Jian; Hanif, Muhammad; Hanna, Yousef; Hardy, Peter; Hasan, Md Kamrul; Hazart, Aurelien; Hazel, James; He, Yong; He, Huiguang; Head, Denise; Heckemann, Rolf; Heidebrink, Judith; Henderson, David; Henrard, Sebastien; Herholz, Karl; Hernandez, Monica; Hess, Christopher; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoffman, John; Holder, Daniel; Honigberg, Lee; Horsfield, Mark; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hsu, Ailing; Hu, Zhenghui; Hu, Zhiwei; Hu, Xiaolan; Hu, William; Huang, Shu-Pang; Huang, Chun-Jung; Huang, Fude; Huang, Yifan; Huang, Juebin; Huang, Chingwen; Hubbard, Rebecca; Huentelman, Matthew; Hui, Shen; Huppertz, Hans-Jurgen; Hurko, Orest; Hurt, Stephen; Huyck, Susan; Hwang, Scott; Hyun, JungMoon; Ifeachor, Emmanuel; Iglesias, Martina; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Immermann, Fred; Inoue, Lurdes; Insel, Philip; Irizarry, Michael; Irungu, Benson mwangi; Ishibashi, Taro; Ishii, Kenji; Ismail, Shahina; Ito, Kaori; Ito, Momoyo; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Iyer, Madhumitha; Jacobson, Mark; Jacobson, Alex; Jafari, Aria; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jaffe, Carl; Jagust, William; Jara, Hernan; Jaros, Mark; Jefferson, Angela; Jiang, Tianzi; Johnson, David K.; Juengling, Freimut; Juh, Rahyeong; Julin, Per; Bhaskar, Uday; Kadish, Bill; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Kallam, Hanimi Reddy; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Karantzoulis, Stella; Karasev, Peter; Kauwe, John; Kawakami, Hirofumi; Kazimipoor, Borhan; Kelleher, Thomas; Kennedy, Richard; Kerr, Douglas; Kerrouche, Nacer; Khalil, Iya; Khalil, Andre; Khatry, Deepak; Kihel, Badra; Killeen, Neil; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Yeonhee; Kim, Jong Hun; Kimberg, Daniel; Kimura, Tokunori; King, Richard; Kirby, Justin; Kita, Hiroshi; Klimas, Michael; Klopfenstein, Erin; Kobayashi, Dione; Koikkalainen, Juha; Kokomoor, Anders; Kolasny, Anthony; Kondo, Yusuke; Koppel, Jeremy; Korolev, Igor; Kotran, Nickolas; Kouassi, Alex; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Kozma, Lynn; Kramer, Joel; Kratzer, Martina; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhn, Felix Pierre; Kulkarni, Mauktik; Kumar, Sreedhar; Kuo, Hsun Ting; Kuo, Julie; Kurosawa, Ken; Kwon, Oh Hun; Laforet, Genevieve; Lai, Song; Lakatos, Anita; Landau, Susan; Landen, Jaren; Lane, Richard; Langbaum, Jessica; Lanius, Vivian; Lavault, Romain; Laxamana, Joel; Le, Trung; Leahy, Richard; Lee, Noah; Lee, Vita; Lee, Joseph H.; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Dongsoo; Lee, Junyoung; Lefkimmiatis, Stamatis; Lemaitre, Herve; Lenz, Robert; Lester, Gayle; Levey, Allan; Li, Rui; Li, Wenjun; Li, Shanshan; Li, Lexin; Li, Shi-jiang; Li, Gang; Li, Lin; Li, Yi; Li, Jinhe; Li, Chin-Shang; Liang, Peipeng; Liang, Lichen; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Lin, Mingkuan; Lin, Lan; Lin, Ling-chih; Liu, Tao; Liu, Meijie; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dazhong; Liu, Pu; Liu, Songling; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Tianming; Lo, Raymond; Logovinsky, Veronika; Lois, Augusto; Long, Xiaojing; Long, Ziyi; Looi, Jeffrey; Lu, Yuan; Lu, Po-Haong; Lukic, Ana; Lull, Juan J.; Lynch, John; Ma, Lei; Mackin, Scott; Magda, Sebastian; Maglio, Silvio; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Malave, Vicente; Mandal, Pravat; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Manohar, Deepak; Mansouri, Chemseddine; Mantri, Ninad; Manzour, Amir; Marambaud, Philippe; Marchewka, Artur; Marek, Kenneth; Markind, Samuel; Marshall, Gad; Martin, Jacob; Mather, Mara; Mathis, Chester; Matoug, Sofia; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Matthews, Dawn; Mayo, Agustin; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McIntyre, John; McQuail, Joseph; Meadowcroft, Mark; Meda, Shashwath; Mehta, Nirav; Mele, Valeria; Mendonca, Brian; Menendez, Manuel; Meredith, Jere; Merrill, David; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Meyer, Carsten; Mez, Jesse; Mickael, Guedj; Miftahof, Roustem; Mikhno, Arthur; Miller, David; Min, Ye; Miri, Roham; Mirza, Mubeena; Mitsis, Effie; Mohan, Ananth; Monno, Laura; Montana, Giovanni; Moore, Dana; Birgani, Parmida Moradi; Moratal, David; Morimoto, Bruce; Mortamet, Benedicte; Motyl, Rafal; Mueller, Notger; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Mulder, Emma; Murphy, Michael; Murray, Brian; Musiek, Erik; Myers, Amanda; Najafi, Shahla; Nazeri, Arash; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Neu, Scott; Neves, Simone; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Danh; Nguyen, Nghi; Nguyen Xuan, Tuong; Nielsen, Casper; Nuneez Benjumea, Francisco; O'Neil, Alison; Obisesan, Thomas; Oh, Dong Hoon; Oh, Joonmi; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Ollesch, Julian; Olmos, Salvador; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Oswald, Annahita; Ott, Brian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Paiva, Renata; Pan, Zhifang; Pande, Yogesh; Pardoe, Heath; Park, Kee Hyung; Park, Hyunjin; Parsey, Ramin; Parveen, Riswana; Paskavitz, James; Patel, Yogen; Patil, Manasi; Paul, Robert; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Peavy, Guerry; Peng, Yahong; Pepin, Jean louis; Perea, Rodrigo; Perneczky, Robert; Petitti, Diana; Petrella, Jeffrey; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Pezoa, Jorge; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Phillips, Nicole; Piovezan, Mauro; Podhorski, Adam; Pollari, Mika; Pontecorvo, Michael; Poppenk, Jordan; Posner, Holly; Potkin, Steven; Poulin, Stephane; Prasad, Gautam; Prenger, Kurt; Prieto, Elena; Prince, Jerry; Puchakayala, Shashidhar Reddy; Qin, Wei; Qiu, Ruolun; Qiu, Wendy; Qiu, Anqi; Qualls, Constance Dean; Rabie, Huwaida; Rajeesh, Rajeesh; Rajeesh, J. Rajeesh; Rallabandi, V. P. Subramanyam; Ramage, Amy; Randolph, Christopher; Raniga, Parnesh; Rao, Divya; Rao, Anil; Raubertas, Richard; Ray, Debashis; Razak, Hana; Redolfi, Alberto; Reid, Andrew; Reilhac, Anthonin; Reinsberger, Claus; Restrepo, Lucas; Retico, Alessandra; Rezaeitabar, Yousef; Richards, John; Richter, Mirco; Riddle, William; Ries, Michele; Rincon, Mariano; Rischall, Matt; Robieson, Weining; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, Elizabeth; Rojas, Ignacio; Romero, Klaus; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosen, Ori; Rosen, Allyson; Rosenberg, Paul; Ross, David; Ross, Joel; Rousseau, Francois; Rowe, Christopher; Rubin, Daniel; Ruiz, Agustin; Rusinek, Henry; Ryan, Laurie; Saad, Ahmed; Sabbagh, Marway; Sabuncu, Mert; Sachs, Michael; Sacuiu, Simona; Sadeghi, Ali; Said, Yasmine; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Sakata, Muneyuki; Salat, David; Salmon, David; Salomi, Sharmila; Salter, Hugh; Samwald, Matthias; Sanchez, Luciano; Sanjo, Nobuo; Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Sato, Shinji; Sato, Hajime; Saumier, Daniel; Savio, Alexandre; Sawada, Ikuhisa; Saykin, Andrew; Schaffer, J. David; Scharre, Douglas; Schlosser, Gretchen; Schmand, Ben; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Mark; Schneider, Lon; Schramm, Hauke; Schuerch, Markus; Schwartz, Eben; Schwartz, Craig; Schwarz, Adam; Seethamraju, Ravi; Seixas, Flavio; Selnes, Per; Senjem, Matthew; Senlin, Wang; Seo, Sang Won; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sevigny, Jeffrey; Sfikas, Giorgos; Shahbaba, Babak; Shams, Soheil; Shankle, William; Shattuck, David; Shaw, Leslie; Sheela, Jaba; Shen, Weijia; Shera, David; Sherman, John; Sherman, Michelle; Sherva, Richard; Shimizu, Keiji; Shuler, Catherine; Shulman, Joshua; Siegel, Rene; Siemers, Eric; Silveira, Margarida; Silver, Michael; Silverman, Daniel; Simmons, Andy; Simpson, Ivor; Singh, Simer Preet; Singh, Nikhil; Siuciak, Judy; Sjogren, Niclas; Skup, Martha; Small, Gary; Smith, Benjamin; Smith, Michael; Smith, Charles; Smyth, Timothy; Snow, Sarah; Soares, Holly; Soldea, Octavian; Solomon, Paul; Solomon, Alan; Song, Mingli; Song, Changhong; Sorensen, Greg; Soudah, Eduardo; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Spenger, Christian; Sperling, Reisa; Spiegel, Rene; Spies, Lothar; Squarcia, Sandro; Squire, Larry; Staff, Roger; Stern, Yaakov; Strittmatter, Stephen; Styren, Scot; Sugishita, Morihiro; Sugishita, Kazuyuki; Sukkar, Rafid; Sun, Jia; Sun, Yu; Sundell, Karen; Suri, Muhammad; Swan, Melanie; Takagi, Toshihisa; Takahasi, Tetsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Tang, Songyuan; Tanner, William; Tao, Wenwen; Tao, Dacheng; Tariot, Pierre; Tarjoman, Mana; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Terlizzi, Rita; Thiele, Frank; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Benjamin; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Wesley; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Thurfjell, Lennart; Titeux, Laurence; Tolli, Tuomas; Toma, Ahmed; Tomita, Naoki; Toro, Roberto; Tosun, Duygu; Toussaint, Paule; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Trittschuh, Emily; Truran, Diana; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Tucker-Drob, Elliot; Tung, Joyce; Uesugi, Humito; Ullrich, Lauren; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Umar, Nisser; Uzunbas, Gokhan; Valdivia, Fernando; van Horn, John; van Leemput, Koen; van Train, Kenneth; van Zeeland, Ashley; Vargas, Gabriel; Vasanawala, Minal; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Verwaerde, Philippe; Videbaek, Charlotte; Vidoni, Eric; Vigneron, Vincent; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Vitolo, Ottavio; Vlassenko, Andrei; Volkau, Ihar; Vounou, Maria; Wade, Sara; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Wallace, Douglas; Wan, Hong; Wang, Angela; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Yongmei Michelle; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Alex; Wang, Lubin; Wang, Yalin; Wang, Tiger; Wang, Yue; Wang, Huanli; Wang, Huali; Ward, Michael; Warfield, Simon; Waring, Stephen; Webb, David; Wei, Lili; Wen, Shu-Hui; Wenjing, Li; Wenzel, Fabian; Westlye, Lars T.; Whitcher, Brandon; Whitwell, Jennifer; WilliamFaltaos, Demiana; Williams, David; Wilmot, Beth; Wingo, Thomas; Winkler, Andreas; Wiste, Heather; Wolfson, Tanya; Wolke, Ira; Wolz, Robin; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Ellen; Woods, Lynn; Worth, Andrew; Worth, Eric; Wouters, Hans; Wu, Liang; Wu, Xiaoling; Wu, Yi Gen; Wu, Teresa; Wyman, Bradley; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Xiao, Liu; Xu, Guofan; Xu, Jun; Yamane, Tomohiko; Yamashita, Fumio; Yamazawa, Maki; Yan, Yunyi; Yan, Pingkun; Yang, Qing X.; Yang, Zhitong; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ye, Jieping; Yee, Laura; Yesavage, Jerome; Yip, WaiKuan; Yoo, Bongin; Yuan, Kai; Yushkevich, Paul; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Zagorski, Michael; Zawadzki, Rezi; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhang, Huixiong; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Kurt; Zhao, Qinying; Zhao, Peng; Zhen, Xiantong; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhijun, Yao; Zhou, Sheng; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Luping; Zhu, Wanlin; Zhu, Hongtu; Zou, Heng

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate relationships between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), measured at baseline and longitudinally, and 1-year cognitive decline using a large convenience sample in a clinical trial design with a relatively mild profile of

  13. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods influence reports of cognitive decline. The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded to results from the other scale. Scales were not used for diagnostic classification. Cognitive performances and depressive symptoms were also rated. We studied the association between the two measures and investigated the scales' relation to depressive symptoms, age, and cognitive status. SMC and MAC-Q were significantly associated (r = 0.44, N = 121, p = 0.015) and both scales had a wide range of scores. In this mixed cohort of patients, younger age was associated with higher SMC scores. There were no significant correlations between cognitive test performances and scales measuring subjective decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. Measures for subjective cognitive decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration should be taken as to which questions are relevant and have validity when operationalizing subjective cognitive decline.

  14. Declines in swimming performance with age: a longitudinal study of Masters swimming champions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin RT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert T Rubin,1,2 Sonia Lin,3 Amy Curtis,4 Daniel Auerbach,5 Charlene Win6 1Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2UCLA Bruin Masters Swim Club, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA; 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 5University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; 6Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA, USA Introduction: Because of its many participants and thorough records, competitive Masters swimming offers a rich data source for determining the rate of physical decline associated with aging in physically fit individuals. The decline in performance among national champion swimmers, both men and women and in short and long swims, is linear, at about 0.6% per year up to age 70–75, after which it accelerates in quadratic fashion. These conclusions are based primarily on cross-sectional studies, and little is known about individual performance declines with aging. Herein we present performance profiles of 19 male and 26 female national and international champion Masters swimmers, ages 25 to 96 years, participating in competitions for an average of 23 years. Methods and results: Swimmers’ longitudinal data were compared with the fastest times of world record holders across ages 35–100 years by two regression methods. Neither method proved to accurately model this data set: compared with the rates of decline estimated from the world record data, which represent the best recorded times at given ages, there was bias toward shallower rates of performance decline in the longitudinal data, likely owing to a practice effect in some swimmers as they began their Masters programs. In swimmers’ later years, once maximum performance had been achieved, individual profiles followed the decline represented in the world records, and a few swimmers became the world record holders. In some instances

  15. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...... decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive...... decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration...

  16. Job Strain and Cognitive Decline: A Prospective Study of the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Agbenyikey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. Objective: To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Methods: Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429, were assessed on job strain, and received neuropsychological assessment approximately 15 years and 21 years afterwards. Results: High job strain and low control were associated with decline in verbal learning and memory. Job strain was associated with decline in word recognition skills. Active job and passive job predicted decline in verbal learning and memory relative to low strain jobs in the younger subgroup. Active job and demands were positively associated with abstract reasoning skills. Conclusions: Job strain and job control may influence decline in cognitive performance.

  17. Aging Audiences: Association of Live Performance Attendance and Cognitive Decline in a Biracial Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kumar B; Rajan, Rekha S; Manning, Lydia K; Evans, Denis A

    2018-03-01

    To examine if attendance in live performances was associated with change in cognition among African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). The study consisted of 5,567 older adults with at least follow-up interview and analyzed using a linear mixed effects regression model adjusting for demographic and health variables. We found that frequent performance attendance was associated with slower decline in composite cognitive function among older AAs and EAs. Attending 10 or more performances per year was associated with 23% slower cognitive decline among AAs and 31% slower cognitive decline among EAs compared with those who never attend any performance. However, this difference was not significant ( p = .56). Attending live performances was also associated with slower decline in individual tests of perceptual speed, episodic memory, and mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Our findings suggest that live performances form a valuable component of arts engagement and should be encouraged for potential cognitive benefits.

  18. A systematic review on the association between inflammatory genes and cognitive decline in non-demented elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, David; Ciobanu, Liliana G; Baune, Bernhard T

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, or decline, is not only a feature of Alzheimer׳s disease and other forms of dementia but also normal ageing. Abundant evidence from epidemiological studies points towards perturbed inflammatory mechanisms in aged individuals, though the cause-effect nature of this apparent relationship is difficult to establish. Genetic association studies focusing on polymorphism in and around inflammatory genes represent a viable approach to establish whether inflammatory mechanisms might play a causal role in cognitive decline, whilst also enabling the identification of specific genes potentially influencing specific cognitive facets. Thus, here we provide a review of published genetic association studies investigating inflammatory genes in the context of cognitive decline in elderly, non-demented, samples. Numerous candidate gene association studies have been performed to date, focusing almost exclusively on genes encoding major cytokines. Some of these studies report significant cognitive domain-specific associations implicating Interleukin 1β (IL1β) (rs16944), Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) (rs1800629) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in various domains of cognitive function. However, the majority of these studies are lacking in statistical power and have other methodological limitations, suggesting some of them may have yielded false positive results. Genome-wide association studies have implicated less direct and less obvious regulators of inflammatory processes (i.e., PDE7A, HS3ST4, SPOCK3), indicating that a shift away from the major cytokine-encoding genes in future studies will be important. Furthermore, better cohesion across studies with regards to the cognitive test batteries administered to participants along with the continued application of longitudinal designs will be vital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, and cognitive function in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Shari R; Wendell, Carrington Rice; Seliger, Stephen L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Metter, E Jeffrey; Zonderman, Alan B

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relations between the use of nonaspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin and age-related change in multiple domains of cognitive function in community-dwelling individuals without dementia. Longitudinal, with measures obtained on one to 18 occasions over up to 45 years. General community. A volunteer sample of up to 2,300 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging free of diagnosed dementia. At each visit, reported NSAID or aspirin use (yes/no) and tests of verbal and visual memory, attention, perceptuo-motor speed, confrontation naming, executive function, and mental status. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that NSAID use was associated with less prospective decline on the Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration (I-M-C) Test, a mental status test weighted for memory and concentration (Prelated to greater prospective decline on the Blessed I-M-C Test (Pfunction, but on only two cognitive measures. In contrast, aspirin use was associated with greater prospective cognitive decline on select measures, potentially reflecting its common use for vascular disease prophylaxis. Effect sizes were small, calling into question clinical significance, although overall public health significance may be meaningful.

  1. Neighborhoods, sleep quality, and cognitive decline: Does where you live and how well you sleep matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jaimie C; Handing, Elizabeth P; Casanova, Ramon; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Lutz, Michael W; Saldana, Santiago; Plassman, Brenda L; Hayden, Kathleen M

    2018-04-01

    We evaluated the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and sleep quality on cognitive decline in the Health and Retirement Study. Health and Retirement Study participants (n = 8090), aged 65+ with DNA and multiple biennial cognitive observations (abbreviated Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status), were included. Participants were grouped into quartiles of NSES and sleep quality scores. We adjusted for apolipoprotein E ε4, demographic, and cardiovascular risk factors. Random effects modeling evaluated cognitive change over time. NSES and sleep were significantly associated with cognitive decline, and there was a significant interaction between them (P = .02). Significant differences between high/low NSES and high/low sleep quality (P Sleep and NSES were associated with cognitive decline; the association between sleep and cognition appeared stronger among those with low NSES. The association between low NSES, poor sleep quality, and cognitive decline was roughly equivalent to the association between apolipoprotein E ε4 and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular levels of nucleotides have been hypothesized as early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing relative decline of cognitive ability as a predictor of AD risk, we evaluated the correlation between change...... of cognitive ability and mitochondrial bioenergetics, ROS and cellular levels of deoxyribonucleotides. Change of cognitive abilities, scored at ages of approximately 20 and 57 was determined for a cohort of 1985 male participants. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial ROS and whole-cell levels...... of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a total of 103 selected participants displaying the most pronounced relative cognitive decline and relative cognitive improvement. We show that relative cognitive decline is associated with higher PBMC content...

  3. Central obesity, leptin and cognitive decline: the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N; Whitmer, Rachel A; Yaffe, Kristine; Neuhaus, John

    2012-01-01

    Central obesity is a risk factor for cognitive decline. Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and has been associated with better cognitive function. Aging Mexican Americans have higher levels of obesity than non-Hispanic Whites, but no investigations examined the relationship between leptin and cognitive decline among them or the role of central obesity in this association. We analyzed 1,480 dementia-free older Mexican Americans who were followed over 10 years. Cognitive function was assessed every 12-15 months with the Modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MSE) and the Spanish and English Verbal Learning Test (SEVLT). For females with a small waist circumference (≤35 inches), an interquartile range difference in leptin was associated with 35% less 3MSE errors and 22% less decline in the SEVLT score over 10 years. For males with a small waist circumference (≤40 inches), an interquartile range difference in leptin was associated with 44% less 3MSE errors and 30% less decline in the SEVLT score over 10 years. There was no association between leptin and cognitive decline among females or males with a large waist circumference. Leptin interacts with central obesity in shaping cognitive decline. Our findings provide valuable information about the effects of metabolic risk factors on cognitive function. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Neurodegenerative properties of chronic pain: cognitive decline in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijtje L A Jongsma

    Full Text Available Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance, use of opioids, and premorbid alcohol abuse. The cognitive profiles of 16 patients with severe pain due to chronic pancreatitis were determined using an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data from three cognitive domains (psychomotor performance, memory, executive functions were compared to data from healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Multivariate multilevel analysis of the data showed decreased test scores in patients with chronic pancreatitis pain in different cognitive domains. Psychomotor performance and executive functions showed the most prominent decline. Interestingly, pain duration appeared to be the strongest predictor for observed cognitive decline. Depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, opioid use and history of alcohol abuse provided additional explanations for the observed cognitive decline in some of the tests, but to a lesser extent than pain duration. The negative effect of pain duration on cognitive performance is compatible with the theory of neurodegenerative properties of chronic pain. Therefore, early and effective therapeutic interventions might reduce or prevent decline in cognitive performance, thereby improving outcomes and quality of life in these patients.

  5. Asymmetry of Hippocampus and Amygdala Defect in Subjective Cognitive Decline Among the Community Dwelling Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yue

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD may be the first clinical sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD. SCD individuals with normal cognition may already have significant medial temporal lobe atrophy. However, few studies have been devoted to exploring the alteration of left-right asymmetry with hippocampus and amygdala in SCD. The aim of this study was to compare SCD individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients and the normal population for volume and asymmetry of hippocampus, amygdala and temporal horn, and to assess their relationship with cognitive function in elderly population living in China.Methods: 111 SCD, 30 MCI, and 67 healthy controls (HC underwent a standard T1-weighted MRI, from which the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala were calculated and compared. Then we evaluated the pattern and extent of asymmetry in hippocampus and amygdala of these samples. Furthermore, we also investigated the relationship between the altered brain regions and cognitive function.Results: Among the three groups, SCD showed more depressive symptoms (p < 0.001 and higher percentage of heart disease (16.4% vs. 35.1%, p = 0.007 than controls. In terms of brain data, significant differences were found in the volume and asymmetry of both hippocampus and amygdala among the three groups (P < 0.05. In logistic analysis controlled by age, gender, education level, depression symptoms, anxiety symptom, somatic disease and lifestyle in terms of smoking, both SCD and MCI individuals showed significant decreased right hippocampal and amygdala volume than controls. For asymmetry pattern, a ladder-shaped difference of left-larger-than-right asymmetry was found in amygdala with MCI>SCD>HC, and an opposite asymmetry of left-less-than-right pattern was found with HC>SCD>MCI in hippocampus. Furthermore, correlation was shown between the volume of right hippocampus and right amygdala with MMSE and MoCA in SCD group.Conclusion: Our results supported

  6. Apolipoprotein e4 allele and cognitive decline in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Havekes, L.M.; Kalmijn, S.; Knijff, P. de; Launer, L.J.; Kromhout, D.

    1994-01-01

    Objectives - To determine whether polymorphism of apolipoprotein E - notably, the e4 allele - predicts cognitive deterioration in the general population. Design - Population based cohort investigated in 1990 and in 1993. Setting - Zutphen, the Netherlands. Subjects - Representative cohort of 538

  7. The importance of being subtle: small changes in calcium homeostasis control cognitive decline in normal aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toescu, E.C.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2007), s. 267-273 ISSN 1474-9718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Aging * Ca homeostasis * Cognitive decline Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2007

  8. Impact of Physical Activity on Cognitive Decline, Dementia, and Its Subtypes: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris B. Guure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of physical activity with dementia and its subtypes has remained controversial in the literature and has continued to be a subject of debate among researchers. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on the relationship between physical activity and the risk of cognitive decline, all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia among nondemented subjects are considered. A comprehensive literature search in all available databases was conducted up until April 2016. Well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed with focus on prospective studies ≥ 12 months. The overall sample from all studies is 117410 with the highest follow-up of 28 years. The analyses are performed with both Bayesian parametric and nonparametric models. Our analysis reveals a protective effect for high physical activity on all-cause dementia, odds ratio of 0.79, 95% CI (0.69, 0.88, a higher and better protective effect for Alzheimer’s disease, odds ratio of 0.62, 95% CI (0.49, 0.75, cognitive decline odds ratio of 0.67, 95% CI (0.55, 0.78, and a nonprotective effect for vascular dementia of 0.92, 95% CI (0.62, 1.30. Our findings suggest that physical activity is more protective against Alzheimer’s disease than it is for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia, and cognitive decline.

  9. Caffeine and Alcohol Intakes and Overall Nutrient Adequacy Are Associated with Longitudinal Cognitive Performance among U.S. Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628–1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

  10. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. The effects of exercise on cognition in older adults with and without cognitive decline: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the effect of physical exercise on cognition in older adults with and without cognitive decline. Data sources: Randomized controlled trials were identified by literature searches in PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and AgeLine. Study selection: Papers were

  12. [Physical activity diminishes aging-related decline of physical and cognitive performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter; Babai, László

    2014-05-25

    Aging-related decline of muscle force, walking speed, locomotor coordination, aerobic capacity and endurance exert prognostic impact on life expectancy. Proper use of training may diminish the aging process and it may improve the quality of life of elderly persons. This paper provides a brief summary on the impact of training on aging-related decline of physical and cognitive functions.

  13. The Relationship of Bilingualism Compared to Monolingualism to the Risk of Cognitive Decline or Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukadam, Naaheed; Sommerlad, Andrew; Livingston, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve, protect against cognitive decline, and delay the onset of dementia. We systematically reviewed evidence about the effect of bilingualism on subsequent cognitive decline or dementia. We searched electronic databases and references for longitudinal studies comparing cognitive decline in people who were bilingual with those who were monolingual and evaluated study quality. We conducted meta-analyses using random effects models to calculate pooled odds ratio of incident dementia. We included 13/1,156 eligible articles. Meta-analysis of prospective studies of the effects of bilingualism on future dementia gave a combined Odds Ratio of dementia of 0.96 (95% CI 0.74-1.23) in bilingual participants (n = 5,527) compared to monolinguals. Most retrospective studies found that bilingual people were reported to develop symptoms of cognitive decline at a later age than monolingual participants. We did not find that bilingualism protects from cognitive decline or dementia from prospective studies. Retrospective studies are more prone to confounding by education, or cultural differences in presentation to dementia services and are therefore not suited to establishing causative links between risk factors and outcomes.

  14. Accelerated cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Sandra; Aalbers, Marlien W; Rijkers, Kim; Lagiere, Melanie; Bogaarts, Jan G; Blokland, Arjan; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Hoogland, Govert; Vles, Johan S H

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is frequently observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is hypothesized that cumulative seizure exposure causes accelerated cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. We investigated the influence of seizure frequency on cognitive decline in a rodent model for temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobehavioral assessment was performed before and after surgery, after the induction of self-sustaining limbic status epilepticus (SSLSE), and in the chronic phase in which rats experienced recurrent seizures. Furthermore, we assessed potential confounders of memory performance. Rats showed a deficit in spatial working memory after the induction of the SSLSE, which endured in the chronic phase. A progressive decline in recognition memory developed in SSLSE rats. Confounding factors were absent. Seizure frequency and also the severity of the status epilepticus were not correlated with the severity of cognitive deficits. The effect of the seizure frequency on cognitive comorbidity in epilepsy has long been debated, possibly because of confounders such as antiepileptic medication and the heterogeneity of epileptic etiologies. In an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we showed that a decrease in spatial working memory does not relate to the seizure frequency. This suggests for other mechanisms are responsible for memory decline and potentially a common pathophysiology of cognitive deterioration and the occurrence and development of epileptic seizures. Identifying this common denominator will allow development of more targeted interventions treating cognitive decline in patients with epilepsy. The treatment of interictal symptoms will increase the quality of life of many patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical decision-making capacity in mild cognitive impairment: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, O C; Griffith, H R; Copeland, J N; Belue, K; Lanza, S; Zamrini, E Y; Harrell, L E; Brockington, J C; Clark, D; Raman, R; Marson, D C

    2008-11-04

    To investigate longitudinal change in the medical decision-making capacity (MDC) of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) under different consent standards. Eighty-eight healthy older controls and 116 patients with MCI were administered the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument at baseline and at 1 to 3 (mean = 1.7) annual follow-up visits thereafter. Covariate-adjusted random coefficient regressions were used to examine differences in MDC trajectories across MCI and control participants, as well as to investigate the impact of conversion to Alzheimer disease on MCI patients' MDC trajectories. At baseline, MCI patients performed significantly below controls only on the three clinically relevant standards of appreciation, reasoning, and understanding. Compared with controls, MCI patients experienced significant declines over time on understanding but not on any other consent standard. Conversion affected both the elevation (a decrease in performance) and slope (acceleration in subsequent rate of decline) of MCI patients' MDC trajectories on understanding. A trend emerged for conversion to be associated with a performance decrease on reasoning in the MCI group. Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a relatively slow but detectable process. Over a 3-year period, patients with amnestic MCI show progressive decline in the ability to understand consent information. This decline accelerates after conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD), reflecting increasing vulnerability to decisional impairment. Clinicians and researchers working with MCI patients should give particular attention to the informed consent process when conversion to AD is suspected or confirmed.

  16. Albumin, Hemoglobin, and the Trajectory of Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Japanese: A 13-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, H; Shinkai, S; Nishi, M; Taniguchi, Y; Amano, H; Seino, S; Yokoyama, Y; Yoshida, H; Fujiwara, Y; Ito, H

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive function can substantially decline over a long period, and understanding the trajectory of cognitive function is important. However, little is known about the linkage between nutritional biomarkers and long-term cognitive change. We analyzed 13-year longitudinal data for older Japanese to examine the associations of serum albumin and hemoglobin levels with the trajectory of cognitive function. Longitudinal study. Community-based. A total of 1,744 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who participated in annual health examinations in Kusatsu town, Gunma Prefecture, Japan, from 2002-2014. Cognitive function was assessed annually by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Albumin and hemoglobin levels at baseline (the year when a respondent first participated in the health examination) were divided into quartiles. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze intrapersonal and interpersonal differences in cognitive function. Participants' MMSE scores decreased at an accelerated rate over the 13-year period. Participants with the lowest baseline albumin level (below the first quartile line) showed a greater accelerated decline in MMSE scores over time, compared with those with the highest level (above the third quartile line). Moreover, MMSE scores in participants with a lower hemoglobin level and lower MMSE score at baseline tended to decline faster over time at an accelerated rate. These findings yield new insights about the complex and diverse roles of these nutritional biomarkers on the trajectory of cognitive function in old age.

  17. Preventing cognitive decline, sedentariness and malnutrition: the DOREMI approach

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, Oberdan; Vozzi, Federico; Ferro, Erina; Fortunati, Luigi; Micheli, Alessio; Bacciu, Davide; Gallicchio, Claudio; Chessa, Stefano; Ascolese, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    All countries in Europe are experiencing an ageing of their populations, with a decrease in the number of people of working age per retiree. Health trends among the elderly are mixed: severe disability is declining in some countries but increasing in others, while mild disability and chronic disease are generally increasing. As a consequence, long-term care costs are certain to increase with the ageing of the population, unless appropriate measures are implemented and elderly people empowered...

  18. Determinants of cognitive decline in older European men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In our ageing population, the number of persons with cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer's disease still increase and cause many problems for the elderly themselves, their relatives and caregivers and for health care. Therefore, the need for preventive action is high. In this thesis we

  19. IANA task force on nutrition and cognitive decline with aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Abellan van Kan, G.; Andrieu, S.; Barberger-Gateau, P.; Berr, C.; Bonnefoy, M.; Dartigues, J.F.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Ferry, M.; Galan, P.; Hercberg, S.; Jeandel, C.; Morris, M.C.; Nourhashemi, F.; Payette, H.; Poulain, J.P.; Portet, F.; Roussel, A.M.; Ritz, P.; Rolland, Y.; Vellas, B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive impairment can be influenced by a number of factors. The potential effect of nutrition has become a topic of increasing scientific and public interest. In particular, there are arguments that nutrients (food and/or supplements) such as vitamins, trace minerals, lipids, can affect the risk

  20. The role of B-vitamins in preventing and treating cognitive impairment and decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiologic studies have considered the question of whether markers of B-vitamin status are associated with cognitive function and cognitive decline. This avenue of research was sparked by the homocysteine (Hcy) theory of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which was extended to Alzheimer’s disease...

  1. Physical activity in relation to cognitive decline in elderly men: the FINE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be associated with better cognition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether change in duration and intensity of physical activity is associated with 10-year cognitive decline in elderly men. METHODS: Data of 295 healthy survivors, born between 1900 and 1920, from the

  2. Diet and cognitive decline at middle age : The role of antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Milder, Ivon E J; Van Gelder, Boukje M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, lutein, flavonoids and lignans) and cognitive decline at middle age, analyses were performed on data from the population based Doetinchem Cohort Study. Habitual diet and cognitive function were

  3. Sub-Clinical Cognitive Decline and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Middle Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Hansen, Naja Liv; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94) and poorer (Group B, n = 95) on cognitive testing at age 57 than...

  4. Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mudrák

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors Relationship between the age-related cognitive decline and decline in cognitive processing speed, in a variety of cognitive motor tasks was examined. The sample consisted of 33 well-adjusted older adults (on average 68 years old, recruited from several physical activity programs. The participants performed five cognitive tests selected from the Vienna test system battery. Subsequently, the relationship of their age and the measures of cognitive function was analyzed. It was found that the age of respondents was related only to their performance in complex tasks which included a processing speed component. The participant’s performance in simple tasks and in measures unaffected by processing speed was unrelated to age. Results are consistent with the processing speed theory of adult age differences in cognition (Salthouse, 1996. Furthermore, the performance in complex cognitive tasks was influenced by the level of participation in leisure physical activities; this suggests that physically active lifestyle may limit the impact of age on cognitive function. Stárnutí a rychlost zpracování kognitivních funkcí V předkládáné studii se zabýváme některými aspekty věkem podmíněného úbytku kognitivních funkcí. Konkrétně zkoumáme předpoklady vycházející z teorie rychlosti zpracování (Salthouse, 1996 týkající se toho, že věkem podmíněný pokles kognitivních funkcí je dán především poklesem rychlosti kognitivních procesů, což se projevuje především u komplexních kognitivních úkolů. Vzorek v naší studii se skládal z 33 seniorů a seniorek (průměrný věk byl 68 let, které jsme oslovili prostřednictvím několika programů pro seniory. Respondenti byli testováni prostřednictvím pěti testů kognitivních funkcí, které jsme vybrali z testové baterie Vienna test systém. Následně jsme analyzovali

  5. Declining financial capacity in patients with mild Alzheimer disease: a one-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roy; Griffith, H Randall; Belue, Katherine; Harrell, Lindy; Zamrini, Edward; Anderson, Britt; Bartolucci, Alfred; Marson, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate change over time in financial abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD). The authors conducted a prospective 1-year longitudinal study at a large southern U.S. metropolitan-area medical school university. Participants included healthy older adults (N=63) and patients with mild AD (N=55). The authors conducted a standardized performance measure of financial capacity. Performance was assessed on 18 financial tasks, nine domains of financial activity, and overall financial capacity. Capacity outcomes classifications (capable, marginally capable, or incapable) for domains and overall performance were made using cut scores referenced to comparison group performance. At baseline, patients with mild AD performed significantly below healthy older adults on 16 of 18 tasks, on all nine domains, and on overall financial capacity. At one-year follow up, comparison group performance was stable on all variables. In contrast, patients with mild AD showed substantial declines in overall financial capacity, on eight of nine domains, and on 12 of 18 tasks. Similarly, the proportion of the mild AD group classified as marginally capable and incapable increased substantially over one year for the two overall scores and for five financial domains. Financial capacity is already substantially impaired in patients with mild AD at baseline and undergoes rapid additional decline over one year. Relative to the comparison group, overall financial capacity performance in the AD group declined 10%, from approximately 80% of the comparison group performance at baseline to 70% at follow up. Financial skills showed differential rates of decline on both simple and complex tasks. Of clinical and public policy interest was the declining judgment of patients with mild AD regarding simple fraud schemes. The study supports the importance of prompt financial supervision and planning for patients newly diagnosed with AD.

  6. Predicting early cognitive decline in newly-diagnosed Parkinson's patients: A practical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Olivia; Fernandez, Hubert H; Floden, Darlene P

    2018-06-19

    To create a multivariable model to predict early cognitive decline among de novo patients with Parkinson's disease, using brief, inexpensive assessments that are easily incorporated into clinical flow. Data for 351 drug-naïve patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Baseline demographic, disease history, motor, and non-motor features were considered as candidate predictors. Best subsets selection was used to determine the multivariable baseline symptom profile that most accurately predicted individual cognitive decline within three years. Eleven per cent of the sample experienced cognitive decline. The final logistic regression model predicting decline included five baseline variables: verbal memory retention, right-sided bradykinesia, years of education, subjective report of cognitive impairment, and REM behavior disorder. Model discrimination was good (optimism-adjusted concordance index = .749). The associated nomogram provides a tool to determine individual patient risk of meaningful cognitive change in the early stages of the disease. Through the consideration of easily-implemented or routinely-gathered assessments, we have identified a multidimensional baseline profile and created a convenient, inexpensive tool to predict cognitive decline in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease. The use of this tool would generate prediction at the individual level, allowing clinicians to tailor medical management for each patient and identify at-risk patients for clinical trials aimed at disease modifying therapies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Claudia B; Weitlauf, Julie C; Rosen, Allyson C; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B; Naughton, Michelle J; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R; Stefanick, Marcia L; Goldstein, Mary K; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We studied 7,330 women aged 65-79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans' greater cognitive reserve. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Claudia B.; Weitlauf, Julie C.; Rosen, Allyson C.; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Naughton, Michelle J.; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Goldstein, Mary K.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Design and Methods: We studied 7,330 women aged 65–79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Results: Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Implications: Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans’ greater cognitive reserve. PMID:26615021

  9. Efficacy of Cognitive Training in Older Adults with and without Subjective Cognitive Decline Is Associated with Inhibition Efficiency and Working Memory Span, Not with Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Higes, Ramón; Martín-Aragoneses, María T; Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; Delgado-Losada, María L; Montejo, Pedro; Montenegro, Mercedes; Prados, José M; de Frutos-Lucas, Jaisalmer; López-Sanz, David

    2018-01-01

    The present study explores the role of cognitive reserve, executive functions, and working memory (WM) span, as factors that might explain training outcomes in cognitive status. Eighty-one older adults voluntarily participated in the study, classified either as older adults with subjective cognitive decline or cognitively intact. Each participant underwent a neuropsychological assessment that was conducted both at baseline (entailing cognitive reserve, executive functions, WM span and depressive symptomatology measures, as well as the Mini-Mental State Exam regarding initial cognitive status), and then 6 months later, once each participant had completed the training program (Mini-Mental State Exam at the endpoint). With respect to cognitive status the training program was most beneficial for subjective cognitive decline participants with low efficiency in inhibition at baseline (explaining a 33% of Mini-Mental State Exam total variance), whereas for cognitively intact participants training gains were observed for those who presented lower WM span.

  10. Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne A Ligthart

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne A Ligthart1, Eric P Moll van Charante1, Willem A Van Gool2, Edo Richard21Department of General Practice, 2Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that vascular risk factors increase the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD. So far, few randomized controlled trials have focused on lowering the vascular risk profile to prevent or postpone cognitive decline or dementia.Objective: To systematically perform a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating drug treatment effects for cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of dementia or cognitive decline.Selection criteria: RCTs studying the effect of treating hypertension, dyslipidemia, ­hyperhomocysteinemia, obesity, or diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive decline or dementia, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year in elderly populations.Outcome measure: Cognitive decline or incident dementia.Main results: In the identified studies, dementia was never the primary outcome. Statins (2 studies and intensified control of type II DM (1 study appear to have no effect on prevention of cognitive decline. Studies on treatment of obesity are lacking, and the results of lowering homocysteine (6 studies are inconclusive. There is some evidence of a preventive effect of antihypertensive medication (6 studies, but results are inconsistent.Conclusion: The evidence of a preventive treatment effect aimed at vascular risk factors on cognitive decline and dementia in later life is scarce and mostly based on secondary outcome parameters. Several important sources of bias such as differential dropout may importantly affect interpretation of trial results.Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia, prevention

  11. Habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos: um estudo longitudinal Cognitive abilities in older seniors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani I. de Lima Argimon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos longitudinais com idosos com mais de oitenta anos são escassos na literatura. A pesquisa foi delineada com o objetivo de analisar as modificações no perfil de algumas habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos, em dois momentos, com um intervalo de três anos. Pesquisa do tipo quantitativo, com delineamento longitudinal e prospectivo. A amostra, randômica, foi constituída por 66 indivíduos de 80 a 95 anos de idade na etapa I e, três anos após, na etapa II, por 46 idosos. Os instrumentos usados foram: Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Span de Números, Teste de Lembranças Livres e com Pistas de Buschke, Teste de Fluência Verbal - Categoria Animal. Houve uma pequena tendência de decréscimo no desempenho cognitivo em um período de três anos. Maior número de atividades de lazer e mais anos de escolaridade foram fatores preditivos de menor variação no desempenho cognitivo. Apesar da idade avançada, os idosos apresentaram um desempenho de habilidades cognitivas cujo declínio foi de intensidade leve, não sendo suficiente para acarretar mudanças significativas no seu padrão cognitivo.Longitudinal studies of older seniors (over 80 years are rare in the literature. This research was designed to study cognitive abilities in the oldest old at two different moments with a three-year interval. The research was quantitative, with a longitudinal and prospective design. The sample consisted of 66 individuals from 80 to 95 years of age, randomly selected for phase I, with 46 of these individuals tested again three years later, in phase II. The instruments used were: Geriatric Depression Scale, Subjective Perception of Memory Problems, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Buschke Test of Free and Cued Recall, and the Verbal Fluency Test - Animal Category. The results indicated that there was a small downward trend in the older

  12. Is low cognitive functioning a predictor or consequence of major depressive disorder? A test in two longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Scult, Matthew A; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Belsky, Daniel W; Hariri, Ahmad R; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-11-16

    Cognitive impairment has been identified as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested two theories regarding the association between MDD and cognitive functioning using data from longitudinal cohort studies. One theory, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, suggests that higher cognitive ability in childhood decreases risk of later MDD. The second, the scarring hypothesis, instead suggests that MDD leads to persistent cognitive deficits following disorder onset. We tested both theories in the Dunedin Study, a population-representative cohort followed from birth to midlife and assessed repeatedly for both cognitive functioning and psychopathology. We also used data from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study to test whether childhood cognitive functioning predicts future MDD risk independent of family-wide and genetic risk using a discordant twin design. Contrary to both hypotheses, we found that childhood cognitive functioning did not predict future risk of MDD, nor did study members with a past history of MDD show evidence of greater cognitive decline unless MDD was accompanied by other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Our results thus suggest that low cognitive functioning is related to comorbidity, but is neither an antecedent nor an enduring consequence of MDD. Future research may benefit from considering cognitive deficits that occur during depressive episodes from a transdiagnostic perspective.

  13. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Diagnosis, Longitudinal Course, and Emerging Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jennifer N.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is widely regarded as the intermediate stage of cognitive impairment between the changes seen in normal cognitive aging and those associated with dementia. Elderly patients with MCI constitute a high-risk population for developing dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although the core clinical criteria for MCI have remained largely unchanged, the operational definition of MCI has undergone several revisions over the course of the last decade and remains an evolving diagnosis. Prognostic implications of this diagnosis are becoming clearer with regard to the risk of progressive cognitive deterioration. Although patients with MCI may represent an optimal target population for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, results from clinical trials have been mixed and a definitive effective treatment remains elusive. This article provides a brief overview of the evolution of the concept of MCI and reviews current diagnostic criteria, the longitudinal course of the disorder, and current and emerging treatments for MCI. PMID:25160795

  14. Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4,809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the E3N study, a French longitudinal cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative/friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy dessert and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intake of vitamins B2, B6, and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats, and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline. PMID:19203415

  15. Declines in Connected Language Are Associated with Very Early Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. Mueller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes to everyday spoken language (“connected language” are evident in persons with AD dementia, yet little is known about when these changes are first detectable on the continuum of cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to determine if participants with very early, subclinical memory declines were also showing declines in connected language. We analyzed connected language samples obtained from a simple picture description task at two time points in 264 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP. In parallel, participants were classified as either “Cognitively Healthy” or “Early Mild Cognitive Impairment” based on longitudinal neuropsychological test performance. Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze language parameters that were extracted from the connected language samples using automated feature extraction. Participants with eMCI status declined faster in features of speech fluency and semantic content than those who were cognitively stable. Measures of lexical diversity and grammatical complexity were not associated with eMCI status in this group. These findings provide novel insights about the relationship between cognitive decline and everyday language, using a quick, inexpensive, and performance-based method.

  16. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Nagesh, Vijaya; Sundgren, Pia C.; Buchtel, Henry; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Junck, Larry; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity (λ ‖ ) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity (λ ⊥ ) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p ⊥ at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in λ ⊥ at 3 and 6 weeks (p ‖ (30 weeks, p ‖ changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

  17. Predictors of cognitive decline in older adult type 2 diabetes from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Zimering

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cognitive decline disproportionately affects older adult type 2 diabetes. We tested whether randomized intensive glucose-lowering reduces the rate(s of cognitive decline in adults with advanced type 2 diabetes (mean: age, 60 years; diabetes duration, 11 years from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial. Methods: A battery of neuropsychological tests (digit span, digit symbol substitution (DSym, and Trails-making Part B (TMT-B was administered at baseline in ~1700 participants and repeated at year 5. Thirty-six risk factors were evaluated as predictors of cognitive decline in multivariable regression analyses.Results: The mean age-adjusted, DSym or TMT-B declined significantly in all study participants (P < 0.001. Randomized intensive glucose-lowering did not significantly alter the rate of cognitive decline. The final model of risk factors associated with 5-year decline in age-adjusted TMT-B included as significant predictors: longer baseline diabetes duration (beta = -0.028; P = 0.0057, lower baseline diastolic blood pressure (beta = 0.028; P < 0.001, and baseline calcium channel blocker medication use (beta = -0.639; P < 0.001. Higher baseline pulse pressure was significantly associated with decline in age-adjusted TMT-B suggesting a role for both higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressure. Baseline thiazide diuretic use (beta= -0.549; P =0.015 was an additional significant predictor of 5-year decline in age-adjusted digit symbol score. Post-baseline systolic blood pressure-lowering was significantly associated (P < 0.001 with decline in TMT-B performance. There was a significant inverse association between post-baseline plasma triglyceride- lowering (P = 0.045 and decline in digit symbol substitution task performance.Conclusions: A five-year period of randomized intensive glucose-lowering did not significantly reduce the rate of cognitive decline in older-aged adults with type 2 diabetes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure as

  18. Physical Exercise-Induced Adult Neurogenesis: A Good Strategy to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-yu Yau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative evidence has indicated that there is an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive function. With the increasing prevalence of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases among the ageing population, physical exercise, a potent enhancer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, has emerged as a potential preventative strategy/treatment to reduce cognitive decline. Here we review the functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, and how this form of structural plasticity is altered in neurodegenerative diseases known to involve cognitive impairment. We further discuss how physical exercise may contribute to cognitive improvement in the ageing brain by preserving adult neurogenesis, and review the recent approaches for measuring changes in neurogenesis in the live human brain.

  19. Cognitive decline in temporal lobe epilepsy due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carolina Mattos; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; da Silva, Tatiana Indelicato; Noffs, Maria Helena da Silva; Carrete, Henrique; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2007-05-01

    We assessed the cognitive performance of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) caused by unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS), in comparison with that of matched, healthy controls. We report the relationship between cognitive measures and duration of epilepsy, correlating with hippocampal volumes, and the impact of educational level on cognitive decline. This study involved 61 outpatients (40 with 8 years of formal education) with unilateral HS and 61 controls. Volumetric MRI was performed on all patients and 10 controls. The results (mean, SD) of the neuropsychological tests of healthy subjects and patients were compared using the Student t and Mann-Whitney tests. Patients performed worse than controls in the neuropsychological evaluation. When adjusted z scores were used to calculate the impairment index, patients had a greater percentage of abnormal tests compared with controls. The cognitive decline, assessed through the impairment index, correlated with duration of epilepsy. Higher level of education did not protect against this decline, thus not supporting the hypothesis of cerebral reserve in this population. A significant correlation between hippocampal volumetric measures and duration of epilepsy was observed only in patients with left HS. Patients with TLE caused by HS present with cognitive morbidity that extends beyond memory deficits. Cognitive decline is associated with duration of epilepsy, and in patients with left-sided HS, duration may correlate with volumetric hippocampal loss.

  20. Telmisartan prevented cognitive decline partly due to PPAR-γ activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Masaki; Li Jianmei; Tsukuda, Kana; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Sakata, Akiko; Fujita, Teppei; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-01-01

    Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function evaluated by shuttle avoidance test. Pretreatment with a non-hypotensive dose of telmisartan significantly inhibited such cognitive decline. Interestingly, co-treatment with GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist, partially inhibited this improvement of cognitive decline. Another ARB, losartan, which has less PPAR-γ agonistic effect, also inhibited Aβ-injection-induced cognitive decline; however the effect was smaller than that of telmisartan and was not affected by GW9662. Immunohistochemical staining for Aβ showed the reduced Aβ deposition in telmisartan-treated mice. However, this reduction was not observed in mice co-administered GW9662. These findings suggest that ARB has a preventive effect on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease, and telmisartan, with PPAR-γ activation, could exert a stronger effect

  1. Longitudinal Associations Between Formal Volunteering and Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Christine M; Curl, Angela L; Ermer, Ashley E

    2018-03-02

    The present study examines the association between formal volunteering and cognitive functioning over time. We also examine the moderating roles of race, sex, education, and time. Using 11,100 participants aged 51 years and older and nine waves of data from the Health and Retirement Survey, we simultaneously modeled the longitudinal associations between engaging in formal volunteering and changes in cognitive functioning using multilevel models. Formal volunteering was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning over time, especially with aspects of cognitive functioning related to working memory and processing. This association was stronger for women than it was for men, and for those with below average levels of education. The positive association between formal volunteering and cognitive functioning weakened over time when cognitive functioning was conceptualized as memory, but strengthened over time when conceptualized as working memory and processing. Volunteering is a productive activity that is beneficial not just to society, but to volunteers' levels of cognitive functioning in older age. For women and those with lower levels of education, formal volunteering appears particularly beneficial to working memory and processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Career-span analyses of track performance: longitudinal data present a more optimistic view of age-related performance decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bradley W; Starkes, Janet L

    2005-01-01

    Sport scientists (Starkes, Weir, Singh, Hodges, & Kerr, 1999; Starkes, Weir, & Young, 2003) have suggested that prolonged training is critical for the maintenance of athletic performance even in the face of predicted age-related decline. This study used polynomial regression analyses to examine the relationship between age and running performance in the 1500 and 10,000 metre events. We compared the age and career-longitudinal performances for 15 male Canadian Masters athletes with a cross-sectional sample of performances at different ages. We hypothesized that the 30 years of uninterrupted training characteristic of this longitudinal sample would moderate the patterns of age-related decline (retention hypothesis); alternatively, the cross-sectional data were expected to demonstrate pronounced age-related decline (quadratic hypothesis). Investigators performed multimodel regression analyses on the age and performance data. Based on the absence (for longitudinal data) or presence (for the cross-sectional data) of significant quadratic components in second-order polynomial models, the authors found support for their respective hypotheses. The longitudinal data showed that running performance declined with age in a more linear fashion than did cross-sectional data. Graphical trends showed that the moderation of age-related decline appeared greater for the longitudinal 10 km performances than for the 1500m event.

  3. Are malnutrition and stress risk factors for accelerated cognitive decline? A prisoner of war study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulway, M R; Broe, G A; Creasey, H; Dent, O F; Jorm, A F; Kos, S C; Tennant, C C

    1996-03-01

    We set out to test the hypothesis that severe malnutrition and stress experienced by prisoners of war (POWs) are associated with cognitive deficits later in life. We assessed 101 former Australian POWs of the Japanese and 108 veteran control subjects using a battery of neuropsychological tests, a depression scale, a clinical examination for dementia, and CT. We divided the POWs into high weight loss (>35%) and low weight loss groups (malnutrition is a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline nor the theory that severe stress can lead to hippocampal neuronal loss and cognitive deficits. Cognitive deficits in earlier studies of former POWs may have been associated with concurrent depression.

  4. Ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of intensified emotions and an increase in motivated behaviors and passions. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that this heightened emotionality occurs, in part, due to a peak in functional reactivity to rewarding stimuli, which renders adolescents more oriented toward reward-seeking behaviors. Most prior work has focused on how reward sensitivity may create vulnerabilities, leading to increases in risk taking. Here, we test whether heightened reward sensitivity may potentially be an asset for adolescents when engaged in prosocial activities. Thirty-two adolescents were followed over a one-year period to examine whether ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts decreases in risk taking over a year. Results show that heightened ventral striatum activation to prosocial stimuli relates to longitudinal declines in risk taking. Therefore, the very same neural region that has conferred vulnerability for adolescent risk taking may also be protective against risk taking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced brain perfusion in basal forebrain associated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer's diseases: a Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kang, H.; Kang, E.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.S.; Lee, D.W.; Cho, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Reduction of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in various cerebral regions and decline of cognitive function have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas showing correlation between longitudinal changes of rCBFs and decline of general mental function, measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in probable Alzheimer's disease patients. Materials and Methods: Nine probable AD patients according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and DSM-IV were studied with Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT at an initial point and at the follow-up after a period of average 1.8 year. MMSE score was obtained in both occasions (average MMSE 16.4 at initial study; average MMSE = 8.1 at follow-up). Single SPECT was performed in 30 age-matched normal controls. Each SPECT image was normalized to the cerebellar activity. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99), correlation was analyzed between individual changes in rCBF of two SPECT scans and the MMSE scores at the time of each study in AD patients. In addition, the SPECT images of the initial study and the follow-up study were compared with SPECT images of the age-matched normal group respectively. Results: Significant correlation between longitudinal changes of rCBFs and MMSE scores was found in left basal forebrain region including substantia innominata (x, y, z = -24, 16, -23; P < .05, corrected). Within a short follow-up period of 1.8 years, cerebral hypoperfusion extended to various cortical regions from bilateral temporo-parietal to bilateral frontal regions and cingulate cortex, compared to normal controls. Conclusion: The decline of cognitive function in individual AD patients was correlated with rCBF reduction in left basal forebrain. This finding supports the cholinergic hypothesis of AD since hypoperfusion in basal forebrain region might indicate deterioration of cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis of Meynert or substantia innominata

  6. Association between age associated cognitive decline and health related quality of life among Iranian older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazazi, Leila; Foroughan, Mahshid; Nejati, Vahid; Shati, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    Age associated cognitive decline or normal cognitive aging is related with lower levels of functioning in real life, and may interfere with maintaining independence and health related quality of life (HRQL). In this study, health related quality of life and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults were evaluated with the aim of exploring the association between them by adjusting for potential confounders. This cross-sectional study, was implemented on 425 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over, between August 2016 and October 2016 in health centers of the municipality of Tehran, Iran, using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess cognitive function and Short Form-36 scales (SF-36) to assess HRQL. The relation between HRQL and cognitive function was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the impact of cognitive function on HRQL adjusted for potential confounders was estimated by linear regression model. All analyses were done using SPSS, version 22.0. A positive significant correlation between cognitive function and quality of life (r=0.434; pcognitive function was associated with HRQL in older adults with age associated cognitive function. Two variables of educational level and depression can affect the relation between cognitive decline and HRQL.

  7. Syndromes of rapidly progressive cognitive decline-our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. Aims: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center. Settings and Design: Patients who presented with rapid deterioration of cognitive functions within weeks to 1 year between 2011 and December 2016 were evaluated. Patients and Methods: All patients underwent all mandatory tests for dementia including brain imaging. Complete vasculitis workup, autoimmune encephalitis profile including Voltage Gated Potassium Channel, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, glutamic acid-decarboxylase, thyroid-peroxidase antibody, cerebrospinal fluid, and other special tests such as duodenal biopsy and paraneoplastic workup were done based on clinical indications. Results and Conclusions: Out of 144 patients 42 had immune-mediated encephalopathy, 18 had Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 3 had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 63 had infection with neurocysticercosis, 7 had tuberculosis, 2 had HIV, 1 had herpes simplex encephalitis, 1 had neurosyphilis, 1 Whipples disease, 1 had Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, 1 had Mass lesion, 3 had Frontotemporal dementia, and 3 had small vessel disease. Good majority of these patients have infective and immune-mediated causes and less number belong to degenerative group. Therefore, caution is needed to look for treatable cause as it carries a different treatment options and outcome.

  8. Genetic variants affecting cross-sectional lung function in adults show little or no effect on longitudinal lung function decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Catherine; Soler Artigas, María; Hui, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic regions that influence cross-sectional lung function. Longitudinal decline in lung function also includes a heritable component but the genetic determinants have yet to be defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether...... regions associated with cross-sectional lung function were also associated with longitudinal decline and to seek novel variants which influence decline. METHODS: We analysed genome-wide data from 4167 individuals from the Busselton Health Study cohort, who had undergone spirometry (12 695 observations...... across eight time points). A mixed model was fitted and weighted risk scores were calculated for the joint effect of 26 known regions on baseline and longitudinal changes in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Potential additional regions of interest were identified and followed up in two independent cohorts. RESULTS...

  9. Insulin is Differentially Related to Cognitive Decline and Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M.; Honea, Robyn A.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Hutfles, Lewis; Brooks, William M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship of insulin resistance with cognitive decline and brain atrophy over two years in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=48) and nondemented controls (n=61). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were conducted at baseline to determine insulin area-under-the-curve (AUC). A standard battery of cognitive tasks and MRI were conducted at baseline and 2-year follow-up. In nondemented controls, higher baseline insulin AUC was associated with 2-year decline in global cognitive performance (beta=−0.36, p=0.005). In early AD, however, higher insulin AUC was associated with less decline in global cognitive performance (beta=0.26, p=0.06), slower global brain atrophy (beta=0.40, p=0.01) and less regional atrophy in the bilateral hippocampi and cingulate cortices. While insulin resistance is associated with cognitive decline in nondemented aging, higher peripheral insulin may have AD-specific benefits or insulin signaling may be affected by systemic physiologic changes associated with AD. PMID:21745566

  10. Aging children of long-lived parents experience slower cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ambarish; Henley, William; Robine, Jean-Marie; Llewellyn, David; Langa, Kenneth M; Wallace, Robert B; Melzer, David

    2014-10-01

    Parental longevity confers lower risks for some age-related diseases in offspring. We tested the association between parental longevity and late-life cognitive decline or dementia. Data were from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a US national sample. Biennial cognitive assessment (Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-Modified [TICS-m]) occurred for ages 64 years or older in 1996 through 2008 (maximum, 79 years), including physician-diagnosed memory disorder. Offspring were categorized into parental longevity groups based on gender-specific distributional cut points. Model covariates included race, respondents' education, and income status during childhood and adulthood. Offspring groups did not differ on TICS-m scores at baseline. During follow-up, offspring of two long-lived parents experienced 40% slower rates of TICS-m decline than those with no long-lived parents (95% confidence interval, 12-72; P=.003; n=4731). Increased parental longevity was also associated with lower risk of physician-diagnosed memory disorder. Estimates did not change after controlling for environmental variables. Parental longevity is associated inversely with cognitive decline and self-reported diagnosed memory disorders in aging offspring. Parental longevity may be a valuable trait for identifying early biomarkers for resistance to cognitive decline in aging. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristic of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease: a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Audrey; Grace, Randolph C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to track the evolution of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients 1 year after baseline testing. Thirty-three PD patients, divided according to three previously determined subgroups based on their initial cognitive performance, and a healthy comparison group were reassessed after a 1-year interval. Participants were assessed in the following five domains: Executive Function, Problem Solving, Working Memory/Attention, Memory, and Visuospatial Ability. The PD groups differed on the domains of Executive Function, Problem Solving, and Working Memory, with the most severe deficits being evident for the group that had previously shown the greatest level of impairment. Increased cognitive problems were also associated with decreased functioning in activities of daily living. The most severely impaired group had evidence of global cognitive decline, possibly reflecting a stage of preclinical dementia.

  12. Cognitive Decline in Neuronal Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Role of NMDA Receptors and Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Avila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular changes associated with neuronal aging lead to a decrease in cognitive capacity. Here we discuss these alterations at the level of brain regions, brain cells, and brain membrane and cytoskeletal proteins with an special focus in NMDA molecular changes through aging and its effect in cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease. Here, we propose that some neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's disease (AD, are characterized by an increase and acceleration of some of these changes.

  13. A prospectus for ethical analysis of ageing individuals' responsibility to prevent cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Hall, Wayne

    2017-11-01

    As the world's population ages, governments and non-governmental organizations in developed countries are promoting healthy cognitive ageing to reduce the rate of age-related cognitive decline and sustain economic productivity in an ageing workforce. Recommendations from the Productivity Commission (Australia), Dementia Australia, Government Office for Science (UK), Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (USA), Institute of Medicine (USA), among others, are encouraging older adults to engage in mental, physical, and social activities. These lifestyle recommendations for healthy cognitive ageing are timely and well supported by scientific evidence but they make implicit normative judgments about the responsibility of ageing individuals to prevent cognitive decline. Ethical tensions arise when this individual responsibility collides with social and personal realities of ageing populations. First, we contextualize the priority given to healthy cognitive ageing within the current brain-based medical and social discourses. Second, we explore the individual responsibility by examining the economic considerations, medical evidence and individual interests that relate to the priority given to healthy cognitive ageing. Third, we identify three key ethical challenges for policymakers seeking to implement lifestyle recommendations as an effective population-level approach to healthy cognitive ageing. The result is a prospectus for future in-depth analysis of ethical tensions that arise from current policy discussions of healthy cognitive ageing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sub-Clinical Cognitive Decline and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Middle Aged Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Mølby Henriksen

    Full Text Available Although dementia is associated with both global and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF changes, little is known about cerebral perfusion in the early pre-clinical stages of cognitive decline preceding overt cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF.The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94 and poorer (Group B, n = 95 on cognitive testing at age 57 than expected from testing at age 20. Participants underwent supplementary cognitive testing, blood sampling and MRI including measurements of regional and global CBF.Regional CBF was lower in group B than in group A in the posterior cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. The associations were attenuated when corrected for global atrophy, but remained significant in regions of interest based analysis adjusting for regional gray matter volume and vascular risk factors. No influence of group on global CBF was observed.We conclude that early sub-clinical cognitive decline is associated with reduced perfusion in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus independently of regional atrophy and vascular risk factors, but cannot be statistically separated from an association with global atrophy.

  15. Dietary pattern, inflammation and cognitive decline: The Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Mio; Shipley, Martin; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-04-01

    Low-grade inflammation appears to play an etiological role in cognitive decline. However the association between an inflammatory dietary pattern and cognitive decline has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with inflammation and whether such diet is associated with cognitive decline. We analyzed 5083 participants (28.7% women) from the Whitehall II cohort study. Diet and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed in 1991-1993 and 1997-1999. We used reduced rank regression methods to determine a dietary pattern associated with elevated IL-6. Cognitive tests were performed in 1997-1999 and repeated in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. The association between dietary pattern and cognitive decline between ages 45 and 79 was assessed using linear mixed models. We identified an inflammatory dietary pattern characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, peas and legumes, and fried food, and lower intake of whole grains which correlated with elevated IL-6 both in 1991-1993 and 1997-1999. A greater decline in reasoning was seen in participants in the highest tertile of adherence to the inflammatory dietary pattern (-0.37 SD; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.40, -0.34) compared to those in the lowest tertile (-0.31; 95% CI -0.34, -0.28) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, occupational status, education, and total energy intake (p for interaction across tertiles = 0.01). This association remained significant after multivariable adjustment. Similarly for global cognition, the inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with faster cognitive decline after multivariable adjustment (p for interaction across tertiles = 0.04). Associations were stronger in younger participants (dietary pattern characterized as higher intake of red and processed meat, peas, legumes and fried food, and lower intake of whole grains was associated with higher inflammatory markers and accelerated cognitive decline at older ages. This supports the

  16. Semantic memory and depressive symptoms in patients with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, J; Coutinho, G; Mattos, P; Moser, D; Pflüger, M; Gleiss, A; Auff, E; Dal-Bianco, P; Pusswald, G; Stögmann, E

    2017-07-01

    Semantic memory may be impaired in clinically recognized states of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationship between semantic memory and depressive symptoms (DS) in patients with cognitive impairment. 323 cognitively healthy controls and 848 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included. Semantic knowledge for famous faces, world capitals, and word vocabulary was investigated. Compared to healthy controls, we found a statistically significant difference of semantic knowledge in the MCI groups and the AD group, respectively. Results of the SCD group were mixed. However, two of the three semantic memory measures (world capitals and word vocabulary) showed a significant association with DS. We found a difference in semantic memory performance in MCI and AD as well as an association with DS. Results suggest that the difference in semantic memory is due to a storage loss rather than to a retrieval problem.

  17. Cognitive Aging in the Seattle Longitudinal Study: Within-Person Associations of Primary Mental Abilities with Psychomotor Speed and Cognitive Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Hülür

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has long been proposed that cognitive aging in fluid abilities is driven by age-related declines of processing speed. Although study of between-person associations generally supports this view, accumulating longitudinal between-person and within-person evidence indicates less strong associations between speed and fluid cognitive performance. Initial evidence also suggests that cognitive flexibility may explain within-person variability in cognitive performance. In the present study, we used up to nine waves of data over 56 years from a subsample of 582 participants of the Seattle Longitudinal Study to examine (a within-person associations of psychomotor speed and cognitive flexibility with cognitive aging in primary mental abilities (including inductive reasoning, number ability, verbal meaning, spatial orientation, and word fluency; and (b how these within-person associations change with age. In line with the processing speed theory, results revealed that within persons, primary mental abilities (including fluid, crystallized, and visualization measures were indeed associated with psychomotor speed. We also observed age-related increases in within-person couplings between primary mental abilities and psychomotor speed. While the processing speed theory focuses primarily on associations with fluid abilities, age-related increases in coupling were found for a variety of ability domains. Within-person associations between primary mental abilities and cognitive flexibility were weaker and relatively stable with age. We discuss the role of speed and flexibility for cognitive aging.

  18. Brain-Derived neurotrophic factor levels in late-life depression and comorbid mild cognitive impairment: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno Satler; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Dew, Mary Amanda; Anderson, Stewart J.; Lotrich, Francis; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar; Aizenstein, Howard; Sibille, Etienne L.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level are implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline in depression and neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association over two years between BDNF and persistent cognitive decline in individuals with remitted late-life depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment (LLD+MCI) compared to either individuals with remitted LLD and no cognitive decline (LLD+NCD) or never-depressed, cognitively normal, elderly control participants. We additionally evaluated the effect of double-blind, placebo-controlled donepezil treatment on BDNF levels in all of the remitted LLD participants (across the levels of cognitive function). We included 160 elderly participants in this study (72 LLD+NCD, 55 LLD+MCI and 33 never-depressed cognitively normal elderly participants). At the same visits, cognitive assessments were conducted and blood sampling to determine serum BDNF levels were collected at baseline assessment and after one and two years of follow-up. We utilized repeated measure, mixed effect models to assess: (1) the effects of diagnosis (LLD+MCI, LLD+NCD, and controls), time, and their interaction on BDNF levels; and (2) the effects of donepezil treatment (donepezil vs. placebo), time, baseline diagnosis (LLD+MCI vs. LLD+NCD), and interactions between these contrasts on BDNF levels. We found a significant effect of time on BDNF level (p=0.02) and a significant decline in BDNF levels over 2 years of follow-up in participants with LLD+MCI (p=0.004) and controls (p=0.04). We found no effect of donepezil treatment on BDNF level. The present results suggest that aging is an important factor related to decline in BDNF level. PMID:24290367

  19. Cognitive decline in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT: a potential role for exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Niamh L; Daly, Robin M; Macpherson, Helen; Fraser, Steve F

    2017-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective and widely prescribed treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), but it is associated with multiple treatment-induced adverse effects that impact on various musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health outcomes. Emerging research has shown that ADT is also associated with cognitive impairment, which has been linked to a loss of independence, increased falls and fracture risk and greater use of medical services. The aim of this review is to outline the evidence related to the effect of ADT use on cognitive function, and propose a role for exercise training as part of usual care to prevent and/or manage cognitive impairments for PCa survivors on ADT. The following results have been obtained from this study. ADT has been shown to adversely affect specific cognitive domains, particularly verbal memory, visuomotor function, attention and executive function. However, current clinical guidelines do not recommend routine assessment of cognitive function in these men. No studies have examined whether exercise training can preserve or improve cognitive function in these men, but in healthy adults', multimodal exercise training incorporating aerobic training, progressive resistance training (PRT) and challenging motor control exercises have the potential to attenuate cognitive decline. In conclusion, as treatment with ADT for men with PCa has been associated with a decline in cognition, it is recommended that cognitive function be routinely monitored in these men and that regular exercise training be prescribed to preserve (or improve) cognitive function. Assessment of cognition and individualised exercise training should be considered in the usual treatment plan of PCa patients receiving ADT. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Crowdsourced estimation of cognitive decline and resilience in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Genevera I; Amoroso, Nicola; Anghel, Catalina; Balagurusamy, Venkat; Bare, Christopher J; Beaton, Derek; Bellotti, Roberto; Bennett, David A; Boehme, Kevin; Boutros, Paul C; Caberlotto, Laura; Caloian, Cristian; Campbell, Frederick; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Beibei; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chien, Ting-Ying; Clark, Tim; Das, Sudeshna; Davatzikos, Christos; Deng, Jieyao; Dillenberger, Donna; Dobson, Richard JB; Dong, Qilin; Doshi, Jimit; Duma, Denise; Errico, Rosangela; Erus, Guray; Everett, Evan; Fardo, David W; Friend, Stephen H; Fröhlich, Holger; Gan, Jessica; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Glaab, Enrico; Green, Robert C; Guan, Yuanfang; Hong, Ming-Yi; Huang, Chao; Hwang, Jinseub; Ibrahim, Joseph; Inglese, Paolo; Jiang, Qijia; Katsumata, Yuriko; Kong, Dehan; Krause, Roland; Lalonde, Emilie; Lauria, Mario; Lee, Eunjee; Lin, Xihui; Liu, Zhandong; Livingstone, Julie; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Lovestone, Simon; Lyappan, Anandhi; Ma, Michelle; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Maxwell, Taylor J; Merrill, Emily; Nagorski, John; Namasivayam, Aishwarya; Narayan, Manjari; Naz, Mufassra; Newhouse, Stephen J; Norman, Thea C; Nurtdinov, Ramil N; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Pawitan, Yudi; Peng, Shengwen; Piccolo, Stephen R; Praveen, Paurush; Priami, Corrado; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y; Senger, Philipp; Shen, Xia; Simmons, Andrew; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Tangaro, Sabina; Tateo, Andrea; Tung, Yi-An; Tustison, Nicholas J; Varol, Erdem; Vradenburg, George; Weiner, Michael W; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Lei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Jia; Yang, Hojin; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yunyun; Zhu, Fan; Zhu, Hongtu; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2017-01-01

    Identifying accurate biomarkers of cognitive decline is essential for advancing early diagnosis and prevention therapies in Alzheimer’s Disease. The Alzheimer’s Disease DREAM Challenge was designed as a computational crowdsourced project to benchmark the current state-of-the-art in predicting cognitive outcomes in Alzheimer’s Disease based on high-dimensional, publicly available genetic and structural imaging data. This meta-analysis failed to identify a meaningful predictor developed from either data modality, suggesting that alternate approaches should be considered for to prediction of cognitive performance. PMID:27079753

  1. Thickness in Entorhinal and Subicular Cortex Predicts Episodic Memory Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Burggren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI most likely to decline in cognition over time is a major focus in Alzheimer's disease (AD research. Neuroimaging biomarkers that predict decline would have great potential for increasing the efficacy of early intervention. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI, combined with a cortical unfolding technique to increase visibility of the convoluted medial temporal lobe (MTL, to assess whether gray matter thickness in subjects with MCI correlated to decline in cognition over two years. We found that thickness in the entorhinal (ERC and subicular (Sub cortices of MCI subjects at initial assessment correlated to change in memory encoding over two years (ERC: r=0.34; P=.003 and Sub (r=0.26; P=.011 but not delayed recall performance. Our findings suggest that aspects of memory performance may be differentially affected in the early stages of AD. Given the MTL's involvement in early stages of neurodegeneration in AD, clarifying the relationship of these brain regions and the link to resultant cognitive decline is critical in understanding disease progression.

  2. Plasma levels of antioxidants are not associated with Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhart, M.J.; Ruitenberg, A.; Meijer, J.T.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Swieten, J. van; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.; Breteler, M.M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress that possibly causes neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined whether high plasma levels of the antioxidant vitamins A and E were associated with lower prevalence of AD or cognitive decline (CD). We performed a cross-sectional study within the

  3. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.; Buijsse, B.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Kalmijn, S.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether coffee consumption is associated with 10-year cognitive decline in elderly men, as results of previous studies obtained hitherto have been controversial and prospective information on this association has been lacking. Design, subjects and setting: Six hundred and

  4. Longitudinal associations between physical and cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Morris, John C; Galvin, James E

    2015-01-01

    To assess the directionality of the association between physical and cognitive decline in later life, we compared patterns of decline in performance across groups defined by baseline presence of cognitive and/or physical impairment [none (n = 217); physical only (n = 169); cognitive only (n = 158), or both (n = 220)] in a large sample of participants in a cognitive aging study at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis who were followed for up to 8 years (3,079 observations). Rates of decline reached 20% for physical performance and varied across cognitive tests (global, memory, speed, executive function, and visuospatial skills). We found that physical decline was better predicted by baseline cognitive impairment (slope = -1.22, pphysical impairment not contributing to further decline in physical performance (slope = -0.25, p = 0.294). In turn, baseline physical impairment was only marginally associated with rate of cognitive decline across various cognitive domains. The cognitive-functional association is likely to operate in the direction of cognitive impairment to physical decline although physical impairment may also play a role in cognitive decline/dementia. Interventions to prevent further functional decline and development of disability and complete dependence may benefit if targeted to individuals with cognitive impairment who are at increased risk.

  5. Prayer at midlife is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline in Arabic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzelberg, Rivka; Afgin, Anne E; Massarwa, Magda; Schechtman, Edna; Israeli-Korn, Simon D; Strugatsky, Rosa; Abuful, Amin; Kravitz, Efrat; Farrer, Lindsay A; Friedland, Robert P

    2013-03-01

    Midlife habits may be important for the later development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We estimated the contribution of midlife prayer to the development of cognitive decline. In a door-to-door survey, residents aged ≥65 years were systematically evaluated in Arabic including medical history, neurological, cognitive examination, and a midlife leisure-activities questionnaire. Praying was assessed by the number of monthly praying hours at midlife. Stepwise logistic regression models were used to evaluate the effect of prayer on the odds of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD versus cognitively normal individuals. Of 935 individuals that were approached, 778 [normal controls (n=448), AD (n=92) and MCI (n=238)] were evaluated. A higher proportion of cognitively normal individuals engaged in prayer at midlife [(87%) versus MCI (71%) or AD (69%) (pprayer, the effect on cognitive decline could not be assessed in men. Among women, stepwise logistic regression adjusted for age and education, showed that prayer was significantly associated with reduced risk of MCI (p=0.027, OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.94), but not AD. Among individuals endorsing prayer activity, the amount of prayer was not associated with MCI or AD in either gender. Praying at midlife is associated with lower risk of mild cognitive impairment in women.

  6. Trajectories of social withdrawal and cognitive decline in the schizophrenia prodrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn; Guimaraes, Angela; Wozniak, Jeffrey; Anjum, Afshan; Schulz, S Charles; White, Tonya

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. Patients with high levels of negative symptoms have been identified as a specific subtype, but little is known about how the neurodevelopmental course may differ in this group. This study aimed to characterize developmental trajectories of premorbid social withdrawal and cognitive decline between patients with high versus low levels of negative symptoms in youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A standardized timeline was used to delineate the emergence of psychosis, social withdrawal, and cognitive decline in 52 subjects aged 8 to 19 with schizophrenia (n=36), schizophreniform (n=6), or schizoaffective disorder (n=10). The sample was divided into subgroups of high- (n=26) versus low- (n=26) negative symptoms, and developmental trajectories of premorbid symptoms were compared between groups. Mean ages for emergence of social withdrawal, cognitive decline, and psychosis were 11.1 years (SD=2.5), 11.9 (SD=4.4) and 13.2 years (SD=1.2), respectively. In the high-negative symptom group, the premorbid developmental trajectory for social withdrawal was more protracted. This group also had more severe cognitive decline at the onset of psychosis, but the premorbid trajectories for cognitive decline did not differ significantly between groups. This work documents a more severe and protracted trajectory of premorbid social withdrawal in patients with high levels of negative symptoms in comparison to those with low-negative symptoms. The findings reported here are supportive of the hypothesis that patients with illness characterized by high levels of negative symptoms may represent a subgroup with distinct neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

  7. Positive affect and cognitive decline: a 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Lotte; van Boxtel, Martin; Köhler, Sebastian; van Os, Jim

    2017-12-01

    In cross-sectional studies, positive affect (PA) has been associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning. This study examined whether positive affect (PA) is associated with change in cognitive function over 12 years in an adult population sample. Participants (n = 258), aged 40 to 82 years, were drawn from a subsample of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) and assessed at baseline, 6 years and 12 years. PA was measured at baseline with a Dutch translation of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). PA scores and associations with cognitive decline were tested in random-effects models. Controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms, there was no significant association with PA scores and decline in memory (χ 2  = 1.52; df = 2; P = 0.47), executive functions (χ 2  = 0.99; df = 2; P = 0.61), and information processing speed (χ 2  = 0.52; df = 2; P = 0.77) at 6- and 12-year follow-up. PA did not predict cognitive change over time. These findings question the extent of protective effects of PA on cognitive aging in adulthood, and are discussed in terms of age range and types of measures used for PA and cognition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Can Training in a Real-Time Strategy Videogame Attenuate Cognitive Decline in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Boot, Walter R.; Voss, Michelle W.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. Yet, recent research indicates that videogame training of young adults may engender broad transfer to skills of visual attention. In the current study, we used a real-time strategy videogame to attempt to train executive functions in older adults, such as working memory, task switching, short-term memory, inhibition, and reasoning. Older adults were either trained in a real-time strategy videogame for 23.5 hours (RON, n=20) or not (CONTROLS, n=20). A battery of cognitive tasks, including tasks of executive control and visuo-spatial skills, were assessed before, during, and after video game training. The trainees improved significantly in the measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the controls in a subset of the cognitive tasks, such as task switching, working memory, visual short term memory, and mental rotation. Trends in improvement were also observed, for the video game trainees, in inhibition and reasoning. Individual differences in changes in game performance were correlated with improvements in task-switching. The study has implications for the enhancement of executive control processes of older adults. PMID:19140648

  9. Patterns of longitudinal neural activity linked to different cognitive profiles in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Nagano-Saito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD has been linked with functional brain changes. Previously, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we reported reduced cortico-striatal activity in patients with PD who also had mild cognitive impairment (MCI versus those who did not (non-MCI. We followed up these patients to investigate the longitudinal effect on the neural activity. Twenty-four non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease (non-MCI: 12, MCI; 12 were included in the study. Each participant underwent two fMRIs while performing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task 20 months apart. The non-MCI patients recruited the usual cognitive corticostriatal loop at the first and second sessions (Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. However, decreased activity was observed in the cerebellum and occipital area and increased activity was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex and parietal lobe during planning set-shift at Time 2. Increased activity in the precuneus was also demonstrated while executing set-shifts at Time 2. The MCI patients revealed more activity in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes during planning set-shifts, and in the parietal and occipital lobes, precuneus, and cerebellum, during executing set-shift at Time 2. Analysis regrouping of both groups of PD patients revealed that hippocampal and thalamic activity at Time 1 was associated with less cognitive decline over time. Our results reveal that functional alteration along the time-points differed between the non-MCI and MCI patients. They also underline the importance of preserving thalamic and hippocampal function with respect to cognitive decline over time.

  10. Delirium symptoms are associated with decline in cognitive function between ages 53 and 69 years: Findings from a British birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Alex; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Davis, Daniel

    2017-11-21

    Few population studies have investigated whether longitudinal decline after delirium in mid-to-late life might affect specific cognitive domains. Participants from a birth cohort completing assessments of search speed, verbal memory, and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination at age 69 were asked about delirium symptoms between ages 60 and 69 years. Linear regression models estimated associations between delirium symptoms and cognitive outcomes. Period prevalence of delirium between 60 and 69 years was 4% (95% confidence interval 3.2%-4.9%). Self-reported symptoms of delirium over the seventh decade were associated with worse scores in the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (-1.7 points; 95% confidence interval -3.2, -0.1; P = .04). In association with delirium symptoms, verbal memory scores were initially lower, with subsequent decline in search speed by the age of 69 years. These effects were independent of other Alzheimer's risk factors. Delirium symptoms may be common even at relatively younger ages, and their presence may herald cognitive decline, particularly in search speed, over this time period. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracking Cognitive Decline in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early-Stage Alzheimer Dementia: Mini-Mental State Examination versus Neuropsychological Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonho; Na, Han Kyu; Byun, Justin; Shin, Jiwon; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Byung Hwa; Na, Duk L

    2017-01-01

    Although the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and neuropsychological batteries are widely used for evaluating cognitive function, it remains elusive which instrument best reflects the longitudinal disease progression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and probable Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated whether changes in these three instruments over time correlate with loss of cortical gray matter volume (cGMV). We retrospectively investigated 204 patients (aMCI, n = 114; AD, n = 90) who had undergone MMSE, CDR-SOB, the dementia version of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB-D), and 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images at least twice. We investigated the partial correlation between annual decline in test scores and percent change of cGMV. In aMCI patients, changes in the SNSB-D total score (r = 0.340, p < 0.001) and CDR-SOB (r = 0.222, p = 0.020), but not MMSE, showed a correlation with cGMV loss, with the SNSB-D total score showing the strongest correlation. In AD patients, decline in all three test scores correlated significantly with cGMV loss, with MMSE exhibiting the strongest correlation (r = 0.464, p < 0.001). In aMCI patients, neuropsychological battery, though time-consuming, was the most adequate tool in tracking disease progression. In AD patients, however, MMSE may be the most effective longitudinal monitoring tool when considering cost-effectiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.

  13. Homocysteine, progression of ventricular enlargement, and cognitive decline: the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, Hadassa M.; Kloppenborg, Raoul P.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Kampman, Ellen; Mali, Willem P. T. M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Doevendans, P. A.; van der Graaf, Y.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rutten, G. E. H. M.; Kappelle, L. J.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F. L.; Visseren, F. L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Homocysteine may be a modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline and brain atrophy, particularly in older persons. We examined whether homocysteine increased the risk for cognitive decline and brain atrophy, and evaluated the modifying effect of age. Within the Second Manifestations of ARTerial

  14. Reduction of Endogenous Melatonin Accelerates Cognitive Decline in Mice in a Simulated Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Mei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals afflicted with occupational formaldehyde (FA exposure often suffer from abnormal behaviors such as aggression, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and in particular, cognitive impairments. Coincidentally, clinical patients with melatonin (MT deficiency also complain of cognitive problems associated with the above mental disorders. Whether and how FA affects endogenous MT metabolism and induces cognitive decline need to be elucidated. To mimic occupational FA exposure environment, 16 healthy adult male mice were exposed to gaseous FA (3 mg/m3 for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that FA exposure impaired spatial memory associated with hippocampal neuronal death. Biochemical analysis revealed that FA exposure elicited an intensive oxidative stress by reducing systemic glutathione levels, in particular, decreasing brain MT concentrations. Inversely, intraperitoneal injection of MT markedly attenuated FA-induced hippocampal neuronal death, restored brain MT levels, and reversed memory decline. At tissue levels, injection of FA into the hippocampus distinctly reduced brain MT concentrations. Furthermore, at cellular and molecular levels, we found that FA directly inactivated MT in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that MT supplementation contributes to the rescue of cognitive decline, and may alleviate mental disorders in the occupational FA-exposed human populations.

  15. Do apolipoprotein E genotype and educational attainment predict the rate of cognitive decline in normal aging? A 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, Pascal W M; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Ausems, Eleonora E B; Bekers, Otto; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-07-01

    We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were performed with four measurement time points: baseline, 3-year, 6-year, and 12-year follow-up. Covariates included age at baseline, sex, and self-perceived physical and mental health. Dependent measures were global cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975), Stroop performance (Stroop Color-Word Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006a), set-shifting performance (Concept Shifting Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006b), cognitive speed (Letter-Digit Substitution Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006c), verbal learning (Verbal Learning Test: Sum of five trials; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2005), and long-term memory (Verbal Learning Test: Delayed recall). We found only faint evidence that older, high-educated carriers of the APOE-ε4 allele (irrespective of zygosity) show a more pronounced decline than younger, low-educated carriers and noncarriers (irrespective of educational attainment). Moreover, this outcome was confined to concept-shifting performance and was especially observable between 6- and 12-year follow-ups. No protective effects of higher education were found on any of the six cognitive measures. We conclude that the combination of APOE-ε4 allele and high educational attainment may be a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline in older age, as has been reported before, but only to a very limited extent. Moreover, we conclude that, within the cognitive reserve framework, education does not have significant protective power against age-related cognitive decline.

  16. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sydenham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies suggests that diets high in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may protect people from cognitive decline and dementia. The strength of this potential protective effect has recently been tested in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of dementia and cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older people. METHODS: Search: We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on - 6 April 2012 using the terms: "omega 3", PUFA, "fatty acids", "fatty acid", fish, linseed, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of an omega-3 PUFA intervention which was provided for a minimum of six months to participants aged 60 years and over who were free from dementia or cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study. Two review authors independently assessed all trials. Data collection and analysis: The review authors sought and extracted data on incident dementia, cognitive function, safety and adherence, either from published reports or by contacting the investigators for original data. Data were extracted by two review authors. We calculated mean difference (MD or standardised mean differences (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI on an intention-to-treat basis, and summarized narratively information on safety and adherence. MAIN RESULTS: Information on cognitive function at the start of a study was available on 4080 participants randomised in three trials. Cognitive function data were available on 3536 participants at final follow-up. In two studies participants received gel capsules containing either omega-3 PUFA (the intervention or olive or sunflower oil (placebo for six or 24 months. In one study, participants received margarine spread for 40 months; the margarine for the intervention group contained omega-3 PUFA. Two studies

  17. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sydenham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies suggests that diets high in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may protect people from cognitive decline and dementia. The strength of this potential protective effect has recently been tested in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of dementia and cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older people. METHODS: Search: We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on - 6 April 2012 using the terms: "omega 3", PUFA, "fatty acids", "fatty acid", fish, linseed, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of an omega-3 PUFA intervention which was provided for a minimum of six months to participants aged 60 years and over who were free from dementia or cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study. Two review authors independently assessed all trials. Data collection and analysis: The review authors sought and extracted data on incident dementia, cognitive function, safety and adherence, either from published reports or by contacting the investigators for original data. Data were extracted by two review authors. We calculated mean difference (MD or standardised mean differences (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI on an intention-to-treat basis, and summarized narratively information on safety and adherence. MAIN RESULTS: Information on cognitive function at the start of a study was available on 4080 participants randomised in three trials. Cognitive function data were available on 3536 participants at final follow-up. In two studies participants received gel capsules containing either omega-3 PUFA (the intervention or olive or sunflower oil (placebo for six or 24 months. In one study, participants received margarine spread for 40 months; the margarine for the intervention group contained omega-3 PUFA. Two studies

  18. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  19. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, H.; Frederiksen, K.S.; Garde, E.; Skimminge, A.; Siebner, H.; Waldemar, G.; Ylikoski, R.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Barkhof, F.; Fazekas, F.; Schmidt, R.; Pantoni, L.; Inzitari, D.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have suggested that corpus callosum (CC) atrophy is related to impairment in global cognitive function, mental speed, and executive functions in the elderly. Longitudinal studies confirming these findings have been lacking. We investigated whether CC tissue loss is associated

  20. Food for thought: the role of appetitive peptides in age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Jim R; Jolivalt, Corinne G; Reagan, Lawrence P

    2013-06-01

    Through their well described actions in the hypothalamus, appetitive peptides such as insulin, orexin and leptin are recognized as important regulators of food intake, body weight and body composition. Beyond these metabolic activities, these peptides also are critically involved in a wide variety of activities ranging from modulation of immune and neuroendocrine function to addictive behaviors and reproduction. The neurological activities of insulin, orexin and leptin also include facilitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and enhancement of cognitive performance. While patients with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes have greater risk of developing cognitive deficits, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for, or contribute to, age-related cognitive decline are poorly understood. In view of the importance of these peptides in metabolic disorders, it is not surprising that there is a greater focus on their potential role in cognitive deficits associated with aging. The goal of this review is to describe the evidence from clinical and pre-clinical studies implicating insulin, orexin and leptin in the etiology and progression of age-related cognitive decline. Collectively, these studies support the hypothesis that leptin and insulin resistance, concepts normally associated with the hypothalamus, are also applicable to the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Boot, Walter R; Voss, Michelle W; Kramer, Arthur F

    2008-12-01

    Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. In the current study, the authors trained older adults in a real-time strategy video game for 23.5 hr in an effort to improve their executive functions. A battery of cognitive tasks, including tasks of executive control and visuospatial skills, were assessed before, during, and after video-game training. The trainees improved significantly in the measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in executive control functions, such as task switching, working memory, visual short-term memory, and reasoning. Individual differences in changes in game performance were correlated with improvements in task switching. The study has implications for the enhancement of executive control processes of older adults. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2.  Cortical Atrophy is Associated with Accelerated Cognitive Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment with Subsyndromal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Mitzi M; Insel, Philip S; Nelson, Craig; Tosun, Duygu; Mattsson, Niklas; Mueller, Susanne G; Sacuiu, Simona; Bickford, David; Weiner, Michael W; Mackin, R Scott

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the association between cognitive decline and cortical atrophy in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and chronic subsyndromal symptoms of depression (SSD) over a 4-year period. Prospective cohort study. Multicenter, clinic-based. Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to identify individuals with MCI and stable endorsement (SSD group N = 32) or no endorsement (non-SSD group N = 69) of depressive symptoms across time points. Repeated measures of cognitive outcomes, cortical atrophy, and their associations were evaluated with mixed effects models adjusting for age, education, sex, and APOE genotype. The SSD group demonstrated accelerated decline on measures of global cognition (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale; df = 421, t = 2.242, p = 0.025), memory (Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory II; df = 244, t = -2.525, p = 0.011), information processing speed (Trail Making Test Parts A [df = 421, t = 2.376, p = 0.018] and B [df = 421, t = 2.533, p = 0.012]), and semantic fluency (Category Fluency; df = 424, t = -2.418, p = 0.016), as well as accelerated frontal lobe (df = 341, t = -2.648, p = 0.008) and anterior cingulate (df = 341, t = -3.786, p confrontation naming or for rate of atrophy in any other regions. Accelerated frontal lobe and anterior cingulate atrophy was associated with cognitive decline on measures of global cognition, information processing speed, and semantic fluency (all p < 0.05), but not memory. Individuals with chronic SSD may represent an MCI subgroup that is highly vulnerable to accelerated cognitive decline, an effect that may be governed by frontal lobe and anterior cingulate atrophy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Optimizing Cognitive Development over the Life Course and Preventing Cognitive Decline: Introducing the Cognitive Health Environment Life Course Model (CHELM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal cognitive development is defined in this article as the highest level of cognitive function reached in each cognitive domain given a person's biological and genetic disposition, and the highest possible maintenance of cognitive function over the adult life course. Theoretical perspectives underpinning the development of a framework…

  4. Amyloid β deposition, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline in sporadic Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemagne, Victor L; Burnham, Samantha; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Brown, Belinda; Ellis, Kathryn A; Salvado, Olivier; Szoeke, Cassandra; Macaulay, S Lance; Martins, Ralph; Maruff, Paul; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Masters, Colin L

    2013-04-01

    Similar to most chronic diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) develops slowly from a preclinical phase into a fully expressed clinical syndrome. We aimed to use longitudinal data to calculate the rates of amyloid β (Aβ) deposition, cerebral atrophy, and cognitive decline. In this prospective cohort study, healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with AD were assessed at enrolment and every 18 months. At every visit, participants underwent neuropsychological examination, MRI, and a carbon-11-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET scan. We included participants with three or more (11)C-PiB PET follow-up assessments. Aβ burden was expressed as (11)C-PiB standardised uptake value ratio (SUVR) with the cerebellar cortex as reference region. An SUVR of 1·5 was used to discriminate high from low Aβ burdens. The slope of the regression plots over 3-5 years was used to estimate rates of change for Aβ deposition, MRI volumetrics, and cognition. We included those participants with a positive rate of Aβ deposition to calculate the trajectory of each variable over time. 200 participants (145 healthy controls, 36 participants with MCI, and 19 participants with AD) were assessed at enrolment and every 18 months for a mean follow-up of 3·8 (95% CI CI 3·6-3·9) years. At baseline, significantly higher Aβ burdens were noted in patients with AD (2·27, SD 0·43) and those with MCI (1·94, 0·64) than in healthy controls (1·38, 0·39). At follow-up, 163 (82%) of the 200 participants showed positive rates of Aβ accumulation. Aβ deposition was estimated to take 19·2 (95% CI 16·8-22·5) years in an almost linear fashion-with a mean increase of 0·043 (95% CI 0·037-0·049) SUVR per year-to go from the threshold of (11)C-PiB positivity (1·5 SUVR) to the levels observed in AD. It was estimated to take 12·0 (95% CI 10·1-14·9) years from the levels observed in healthy controls with low Aβ deposition (1·2 [SD 0·1] SUVR) to the

  5. Longitudinal effects of physical activity on self-efficacy and cognitive processing of active and sedentary elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Rosanti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Previous studies support that regular physical activity in aging contributes as a protective factor against cognitive decline and improves mood states. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies in this area. Objective: To observe possible changes in cognition related with physical activity. Methods: This study reassessed, after one-year period, 31 elderly women divided into two groups, sedentary versus active, using behavioral scales and cognitive tests. Results: The active group exhibited significantly enhanced performance in general cognitive function, particularly on tasks of episodic memory and praxis, and also on the mood states scale compared to the sedentary group. The active women also reported higher self-efficacy. Conclusion: Long-term physical activity promoted improvement on quality of life in the elderly women.

  6. Role of metal ions in the cognitive decline of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakisa eMalakooti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of whole or part of chromosome 21 is the most common mental impairment. All Down syndrome (DS individuals suffer from cognitive decline and develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD by the age of forty. The appearance of enlarged early endosomes, followed by Amyloid β peptide deposition, the appearance of tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN degeneration are the neuropathological characteristics of this disease. In this review we will examine the role of metal ion dyshomeostasis and the genes which may be involved in these processes, and relate these back to the manifestation of age-dependant cognitive decline in DS.

  7. Evidence for age-associated cognitive decline from Internet game scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Jason; Insel, Philip; Farzin, Faraz; Sternberg, Daniel; Hardy, Joseph L; Scanlon, Michael; Mungas, Dan; Kramer, Joel; Mackin, R Scott; Weiner, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    Lumosity's Memory Match (LMM) is an online game requiring visual working memory. Change in LMM scores may be associated with individual differences in age-related changes in working memory. Effects of age and time on LMM learning and forgetting rates were estimated using data from 1890 game sessions for users aged 40 to 79 years. There were significant effects of age on baseline LMM scores (β = -.31, standard error or SE = .02, P game performance. Online memory games have the potential to identify age-related decline in cognition and to identify subjects at risk for cognitive decline with smaller sample sizes and lower cost than traditional recruitment methods.

  8. Association of quality of sleep with cognitive decline among the patients of chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, U.B.; Butt, B.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between the subjective quality of sleep and cognitive decline among the patients of chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 106 patients of chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis at a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan were included in the final analysis. Cognitive decline was measured by British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI). Sleep quality was measured by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Relationship of age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, BMI, duration of dialysis, dialysis count per week, family income, tobacco smoking and use of naswar was assessed with the cognitive decline. Results: Out of 106 patients screened through BC-CCI and PSQI, 13.1% had no cognitive decline while 86.9% had significant cognitive decline. Relationship between quality of sleep and cognitive decline was significant on binary logistic regression. Conclusion: This study showed significant relationship between the sleep quality and cognitive decline among the patients of CKD undergoing haemodialysis. The findings of our study also call for a greater degree of understanding of the physical and psychological state of patients of CKD undergoing haemodialysis. (author)

  9. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) as a marker of cognitive decline in normal ageing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frater, Julanne; Lie, David; Bartlett, Perry; McGrath, John J

    2018-03-01

    Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and its signaling pathway play a primary role in normal growth and ageing, however serum IGF-1 is known to reduce with advancing age. Recent findings suggest IGF-1 is essential for neurogenesis in the adult brain, and this reduction of IGF-1 with ageing may contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Experimental studies have shown manipulation of the GH/GF-1 axis can slow rates of cognitive decline in animals, making IGF-1 a potential biomarker of cognition, and/or its signaling pathway a possible therapeutic target to prevent or slow age-related cognitive decline. A systematic literature review and qualitative narrative summary of current evidence for IGF-1 as a biomarker of cognitive decline in the ageing brain was undertaken. Results indicate IGF-1 concentrations do not confer additional diagnostic information for those with cognitive decline, and routine clinical measurement of IGF-1 is not currently justified. In cases of established cognitive impairment, it remains unclear whether increasing circulating or brain IGF-1 may reverse or slow down the rate of further decline. Advances in neuroimaging, genetics, neuroscience and the availability of large well characterized biobanks will facilitate research exploring the role of IGF-1 in both normal ageing and age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.

  11. Is impaired cerebral vasoreactivity an early marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aude; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jeremy; Molino, François; Maréchal, Bénédicte; Picot, Marie-Christine; Ayrignac, Xavier; Carra, Clarisse; Bauchet, Luc; Krainik, Alexandre; Labauge, Pierre; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment. Cerebral vasoreactivity, measured as the cerebral blood flow percent increase normalised by end-tidal carbon dioxide variation, was assessed globally and by regions of interest using the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Non-parametric statistics tests were used to assess differences between groups, and associations were estimated using linear models. Cerebral vasoreactivity was lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in cognitively normal patients (p=0.004) and was associated with education level in patients (R 2 = 0.35; p = 0.047). There was no decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity between patients and controls. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis may be mediated through decreased cerebral vasoreactivity. Cerebral vasoreactivity could therefore be considered as a marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis. • Cerebral vasoreactivity does not differ between multiple sclerosis patients and controls. • Cerebral vasoreactivity measure is linked to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. • Cerebral vasoreactivity is linked to level of education in multiple sclerosis.

  12. Video Games as a Means to Reduce Age-related Cognitive Decline: Attitudes, Compliance, and Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Boot

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a brain fitness game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants’ ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.

  13. Microembolization is associated with transient cognitive decline in patients undergoing carotid interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchner, Elizabeth; Baughman, Brittanie D; Soman, Salil; Long, Becky; Rosen, Allyson; Zhou, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Carotid interventions are important in helping to reduce the risk of stroke for patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis; however, subclinical cerebral microemboli can occur during these procedures. Associations have been found between the incidence of microemboli and postoperative decline in memory. We therefore sought to determine whether this decline persisted long-term and to assess changes in other cognitive domains. Patients were prospectively recruited under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol at a single academic center. Neuropsychological testing was administered preoperatively and at 1-month and 6-month intervals postoperatively. Cognitive domains that were evaluated included verbal memory, visual memory, psychomotor speed, dexterity, and executive function. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequencing was performed preoperatively and ≤48 hours postoperatively to identify procedure-related microemboli. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used to identify relationships among microembolization, demographics, and cognition. Included were 80 male patients with an average age of 69 years. Forty patients underwent carotid artery stenting and 40 underwent carotid endarterectomy. Comorbidities included diabetes in 45%, coronary artery disease in 50%, and prior neurologic symptoms in 41%. New postoperative microemboli were found in 45 patients (56%). Microembolization was significantly more common in the carotid artery stenting cohort (P memory and Trail Making A measures. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that procedurally related embolization (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; P = .04) and preoperative symptomatic stenosis (OR, 3.2; P = .026) were independent predictors of decline for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Short Delay measure at 1 month. At 6 months, no significant relationship was found between emboli and decline on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Short Delay, but age (OR, 1.1, P = .005) and

  14. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, G; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I; Taudorf, E; Sigsgaard, T

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), height and weight were measured, and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, wood dust exposure and smoking habits were collected. Cumulative inhalable wood dust exposure was assessed using a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure time. The median (range) for cumulative wood dust exposure was 3.75 (0-7.55) mg x year x m(-3). A dose-response relationship between cumulative wood dust exposure and percent annual decrease in FEV(1) was suggested for female workers. This was confirmed in a linear regression model adjusted for confounders, including smoking, height and age. An additional difference of -14.50 mL x yr(-1) and -27.97 mL x yr(-1) was revealed for females exposed to 3.75-4.71 mg x yr x m(-3) or to >4.71 mg x yr x m(-3), respectively, compared with non-/low-exposed females. For females, a positive trend between wood dust exposure and the cumulative incidence proportion of FEV(1)/FVC <70% was suggested. In conclusion, in the present low-exposed cohort, female woodworkers had an accelerated decline in lung function, which may be clinically relevant.

  15. Microbleeds do not affect rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vlies, Annelies E; Goos, Jeroen D C; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M

    2012-08-21

    To investigate the relationship between brain microbleeds (MBs) and the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this cohort study, we studied 221 patients with AD with available baseline MRI scans (1.0 or 1.5 T) and at least 2 Mini-Mental State Examinations (MMSE) scores obtained more than 1 year apart from our memory clinic. Mean ± SD follow-up time was 3 ± 1 years, and patients had a median of 4 MMSE scores (range 2-17). We used linear mixed models with sex and age as covariates to investigate whether MBs influenced the rate of cognitive decline. Mean age was 68 ± 9 years, 109 (49%) patients were female, and the baseline MMSE score was 22 ± 4. There were 39 patients (18%) with MBs (median 2, range 1-27) and 182 without. Linear mixed models showed that overall patients declined 2 MMSE points per year. We found no association of the presence of MBs with baseline MMSE or change in MMSE. Adjustment for atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, and vascular risk factors did not change the results nor did stratification for MB location, APOE ε4 carriership, or age at onset (≤65 years vs >65 years). Repeating the analyses with number of MBs as predictor rendered similar results. MBs did not influence the rate of cognitive decline in patients with AD. The formerly reported increased risk of mortality in patients with MBs seems not to be attributable to a steeper rate of decline per se but might be due to vascular events, including (hemorrhagic) stroke.

  16. Cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and senile dementia of Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C; Patel, A; Oyebode, F; Wilcock, G

    1996-05-01

    One hundred and twenty-four patients with DSM-III-R dementia were assessed with a standardized battery which included the Geriatric Mental State Schedule, the History and Aetiology Schedule, the Secondary Dementia Schedule and the CAMCOG. Patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) all had a similar degree of cognitive impairment at the time of the baseline interview. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia each experienced a mean decline of 27 points in patients with SDLT. Patients with SDLT had a significantly greater decline of verbal fluency than both the other groups. Women were significantly more impaired than men at the time of the baseline assessment but experienced a similar decline during the year of follow-up.

  17. The relationship between long-term sunlight radiation and cognitive decline in the REGARDS cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Howard, Virginia J.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Peace, Fredrick; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-04-01

    Sunlight may be related to cognitive function through vitamin D metabolism or circadian rhythm regulation. The analysis presented here sought to test whether ground and satellite measures of solar radiation are associated with cognitive decline. The study used a 15-year residential history merged with satellite and ground monitor data to determine sunlight (solar radiation) and air temperature exposure for a cohort of 19,896 cognitively intact black and white participants aged 45+ from the 48 contiguous United States. Exposures of 15, 10, 5, 2, and 1-year were used to predict cognitive status at the most recent assessment in logistic regression models; 1-year insolation and maximum temperatures were chosen as exposure measures. Solar radiation interacted with temperature, age, and gender in its relationships with incident cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, the odds ratio (OR) of cognitive decline for solar radiation exposure below the median vs above the median in the 3rd tertile of maximum temperatures was 1.88 (95 % CI: 1.24, 2.85), that in the 2nd tertile was 1.33 (95 % CI: 1.09, 1.62), and that in the 1st tertile was 1.22 (95 % CI: 0.92, 1.60). We also found that participants under 60 years old had an OR = 1.63 (95 % CI: 1.20, 2.22), those 60-80 years old had an OR = 1.18 (95 % CI: 1.02, 1.36), and those over 80 years old had an OR = 1.05 (0.80, 1.37). Lastly, we found that males had an OR = 1.43 (95 % CI: 1.22, 1.69), and females had an OR = 1.02 (0.87, 1.20). We found that lower levels of solar radiation were associated with increased odds of incident cognitive impairment.

  18. Iso-α-acids, bitter components of beer, prevent obesity-induced cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Tatsuhiro; Ohya, Rena; Kondo, Keiji; Ano, Yasuhisa

    2018-03-19

    Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD). Body weight, epididymal fat weight, and plasma triglyceride levels were increased in HFD-fed mice, and significantly decreased in iso-α-acids supplemented HFD-fed mice. HFD feeding enhances the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, which was significantly suppressed by iso-α-acids administration. HFD-induced neuroinflammation caused lipid peroxidation, neuronal loss, and atrophy in hippocampus, and those were not observed in iso-α-acids-treated mice. Furthermore, iso-α-acids intake significantly improved cognitive decline induced by HFD-feeding. Iso-α-acids are food derived components that suppressing both lipid accumulation and brain inflammation, thus iso-α-acids might be beneficial for the risk of dementia increased by obesity and lifestyle-related diseases.

  19. Cognitive function trajectories and their determinants in older people: 8 years of follow-up in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninotto, Paola; Batty, G David; Allerhand, Michael; Deary, Ian J

    2018-04-24

    Maintaining cognitive function is an important aspect of healthy ageing. In this study, we examined age trajectories of cognitive decline in a large nationally representative sample of older people in England. We explored the factors that influence such decline and whether these differed by gender. Latent growth curve modelling was used to explore age-specific changes, and influences on them, in an 8-year period in memory, executive function, processing speed and global cognitive function among 10 626 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We run gender-specific models with the following exposures: age, education, wealth, childhood socioeconomic status, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, physical function, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, depression and dementia. After adjustment, women had significantly less decline than men in memory (0.011, SE 0.006), executive function (0.012, SE 0.006) and global cognitive function (0.016, SE 0.004). Increasing age and dementia predicted faster rates of decline in all cognitive function domains. Depression and alcohol consumption predicted decline in some cognitive function domains in men only. Poor physical function, physical inactivity and smoking were associated with faster rates of decline in specific cognitive domains in both men and women. For example, relative to study members who were physically active, the sedentary experienced greater declines in memory (women -0.018, SE 0.009) and global cognitive function (men -0.015, SE 0.007 and women -0.016, SE 0.007). The potential determinants of cognitive decline identified in this study, in particular modifiable risk factors, should be tested in the context of randomised controlled trials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Bilingualism does not alter cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Schofield, Peter W; Farrell, Meagan T; Stern, Yaakov; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-03-01

    Clinic-based studies suggest that dementia is diagnosed at older ages in bilinguals compared with monolinguals. The current study sought to test this hypothesis in a large, prospective, community-based study of initially nondemented Hispanic immigrants living in a Spanish-speaking enclave of northern Manhattan. Participants included 1,067 participants in the Washington/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP) who were tested in Spanish and followed at 18-24 month intervals for up to 23 years. Spanish-English bilingualism was estimated via both self-report and an objective measure of English reading level. Multilevel models for change estimated the independent effects of bilingualism on cognitive decline in 4 domains: episodic memory, language, executive function, and speed. Over the course of the study, 282 participants developed dementia. Cox regression was used to estimate the independent effect of bilingualism on dementia conversion. Covariates included country of origin, gender, education, time spent in the United States, recruitment cohort, and age at enrollment. Independent of the covariates, bilingualism was associated with better memory and executive function at baseline. However, bilingualism was not independently associated with rates of cognitive decline or dementia conversion. Results were similar whether bilingualism was measured via self-report or an objective test of reading level. This study does not support a protective effect of bilingualism on age-related cognitive decline or the development of dementia. In this sample of Hispanic immigrants, bilingualism is related to higher initial scores on cognitive tests and higher educational attainment and may not represent a unique source of cognitive reserve. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Personality-Related Determinants of Subtle Cognitive Decline in Old Age: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristelle Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recent studies of cases with mild cognitive impairment (MCI suggested that besides Alzheimer disease (AD-related biomarkers, some personality dimensions are associated with progression to AD. To date, there are no studies addressing the psychological determinants of subtle cognitive decline in healthy elderly controls. Methods: 488 community-dwelling healthy controls were assessed with a detailed neuropsychological battery at baseline and an 18-month follow-up. Personality factors and facets were investigated at baseline using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R. Upon follow-up, there were 264 stable controls (sCON and 224 deteriorating controls (dCON. Their personality data were compared to those of the 102 MCI cases using one-way analysis of variance and logistic regression models. Results: Significantly higher scores of Openness factor (as well as Aesthetics, Ideas and Values facets were found in sCON than in both dCON and MCI cases. The three groups did not differ in the other NEO-PI-R factor and facet scores. Openess factor (and the same facets was associated with cognitive preservation in healthy controls (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.87. Lower scores in the same factor and facets conferred higher risk to have MCI (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.79. Conclusion: Higher openness to new experiences and thoughts may be a protective factor against early cognitive decline in brain aging.

  2. Sleep disturbances and cognitive decline: recommendations on clinical assessment and the management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Biancamaria; Cerroni, Gianluigi; Sorbi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, in Genoa (Italy), the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) was born. The first congress of this new scientific society took place in Rome in 2006. SINDem soon recognized the importance to investigate sleep problems in cognitive decline and created a national "sleep study group "composed by neurologists and sleep specialists. In 2012, The SINDem study group, in close relationship with the Italian Association of sleep medicine (AIMS), published the study "Prevalence of sleep disturbances in mild cognitive impairment and dementing disorders: a multicenter Italian clinical cross-sectional study on 431 patients ", confirming the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in a wide Italian population of persons with cognitive decline. The study was supported by a grant from the Italian Minister of Health and was conducted with the fundamental contribution of the Italian National Research Center (CNR). In 2014, the same group published the paper "Recommendations of the Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) on clinical assessment and management of sleep disorders in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a clinical review". The recommendations are wide and directed to professionals (neurologists but not exclusively) to try to establish uniform levels of care, promote collaborative studies into areas of uncertainty, and define the qualitative characteristics of Dementia Reference Centers about sleep disturbances.

  3. Thyroid Antibodies, Autoimmunity and Cognitive Decline: Is There a Population-Based Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Napthali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autoimmunity is considered an uncommon but under-recognised cause of cognitive decline. Methods: Serum samples from 3,253 randomly selected subjects enrolled in the Hunter Community Study, aged 55-85 years, were assayed for thyrotropin stimulatory hormone, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab, anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA. Cognitive function was assessed using the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS tool. Results: TPO-Ab were found in 8.4% and ANA in 27.9% of the study population, of whom 3% had positive ENA findings. No relationship was found between the ARCS score and either TPO-Ab (coefficient = 0.133; 95% CI -0.20, 0.82, p = 0.616, ANA at a low (coefficient = 1.01; 95% CI -2.58, 0.55, p = 0.203 or a high titre (coefficient = -0.65; 95% CI -2.59, 1.28, p = 0.508, or ENA antibodies (coefficient = 5.12; 95% CI -0.53, 10.77; p = 0.076. Conclusions: Autoantibody findings are common in an aging population and are not associated with cognitive decline.

  4. Caffeine impact on working memory-related network activation patterns in early stages of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70.0 ± 4.3 years, 11 women), while the remaining 21 showed subtle cognitive deterioration (dCON, 73.4 ± 5.9 years, 14 women). All participants underwent an established 2-back working task in a crossover design of 200 mg caffeine versus placebo. Data analysis included task-related general linear model and functional connectivity tensorial independent component analysis. Working memory behavioral performances did not differ between sCON and dCON, while MCI was slower and less accurate than both control groups (p effect of acute caffeine administration essentially restricted to the right hemisphere (p caffeine effects on brain activation and DMN deactivation. These complex fMRI patterns possibly reflect the instable status of these cases with intact behavioral performances despite already existing functional alterations in neocortical circuits.

  5. Comparison of semantic and episodic memory BOLD fMRI activation in predicting cognitive decline in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Nathan; Nielson, Kristy A; Woodard, John L; Breting, Leslie M Guidotti; Butts, Alissa; Seidenberg, Michael; Carson Smith, J; Durgerian, Sally; Lancaster, Melissa; Matthews, Monica; Sugarman, Michael A; Rao, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that task-activated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can predict future cognitive decline among healthy older adults. The present fMRI study examined the relative sensitivity of semantic memory (SM) versus episodic memory (EM) activation tasks for predicting cognitive decline. Seventy-eight cognitively intact elders underwent neuropsychological testing at entry and after an 18-month interval, with participants classified as cognitively "Stable" or "Declining" based on ≥ 1.0 SD decline in performance. Baseline fMRI scanning involved SM (famous name discrimination) and EM (name recognition) tasks. SM and EM fMRI activation, along with Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status, served as predictors of cognitive outcome using a logistic regression analysis. Twenty-seven (34.6%) participants were classified as Declining and 51 (65.4%) as Stable. APOE ε4 status alone significantly predicted cognitive decline (R(2) = .106; C index = .642). Addition of SM activation significantly improved prediction accuracy (R(2) = .285; C index = .787), whereas the addition of EM did not (R(2) = .212; C index = .711). In combination with APOE status, SM task activation predicts future cognitive decline better than EM activation. These results have implications for use of fMRI in prevention clinical trials involving the identification of persons at-risk for age-associated memory loss and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Is impaired cerebral vasoreactivity an early marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, Aude; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jeremy; Molino, Francois; Marechal, Benedicte; Picot, Marie-Christine; Ayrignac, Xavier; Carra, Clarisse; Labauge, Pierre; Bauchet, Luc; Krainik, Alexandre; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment. Cerebral vasoreactivity, measured as the cerebral blood flow percent increase normalised by end-tidal carbon dioxide variation, was assessed globally and by regions of interest using the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Non-parametric statistics tests were used to assess differences between groups, and associations were estimated using linear models. Cerebral vasoreactivity was lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in cognitively normal patients (p=0.004) and was associated with education level in patients (R 2 = 0.35; p = 0.047). There was no decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity between patients and controls. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis may be mediated through decreased cerebral vasoreactivity. Cerebral vasoreactivity could therefore be considered as a marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  7. Is impaired cerebral vasoreactivity an early marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Aude [University Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Montpellier (France); University Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Memory Ressource and Research Center, Montpellier (France); Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jeremy [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Departement de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Institut d' Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine (I2FH), Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Universite de Montpellier, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221, Montpellier (France); Molino, Francois [Universite de Montpellier, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221, Montpellier (France); Universite de Montpellier, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, CNRS UMR 5203, INSERM U661, Montpellier (France); Marechal, Benedicte [Siemens Healthcare, Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); CHUV, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); LTS5, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Picot, Marie-Christine [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Departement de Biostatistiques, Montpellier (France); Ayrignac, Xavier; Carra, Clarisse; Labauge, Pierre [University Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Montpellier (France); Bauchet, Luc [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Departement de Neurochirurgie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Hopital Saint Eloi, Institut de Neurosciences de Montpellier, INSERM U1051, Montpellier (France); Krainik, Alexandre [University Hospital of Grenoble, MR Unit CS 10217, Grenoble (France); Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Departement de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Montpellier, Institut d' Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine (I2FH), Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier (France); Universite de Montpellier, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221, Montpellier (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Caremeau, Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Nimes (France)

    2018-03-15

    The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment. Cerebral vasoreactivity, measured as the cerebral blood flow percent increase normalised by end-tidal carbon dioxide variation, was assessed globally and by regions of interest using the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Non-parametric statistics tests were used to assess differences between groups, and associations were estimated using linear models. Cerebral vasoreactivity was lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in cognitively normal patients (p=0.004) and was associated with education level in patients (R{sup 2} = 0.35; p = 0.047). There was no decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity between patients and controls. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis may be mediated through decreased cerebral vasoreactivity. Cerebral vasoreactivity could therefore be considered as a marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  8. Frontotemporal dysregulation of the SNARE protein interactome is associated with faster cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Miguel, Alfredo; Jones, Andrea A; Sawada, Ken; Barr, Alasdair M; Bayer, Thomas A; Falkai, Peter; Leurgans, Sue E; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Honer, William G

    2018-06-01

    variables were associated with different cognitive domains. In addition, linear mixed effect models of global cognitive decline estimated that both 150-kDa SNARE levels and CPLX1/CPLX2 ratio were associated with better cognition and less decline over time. The results are consistent with previous studies reporting that synapse dysfunction (i.e. dysplasticity) may be initiated early, and relatively independent of neuropathology-driven synapse loss. Frontotemporal dysregulation of the GABAergic/glutamatergic stimuli might be a target for future drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 7C.02: TRAINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT TO COUNTERACT COGNITIVE DECLINE: TRAIN THE BRAIN - EFFECTS ON CAROTID STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, F; Bruno, R; Ghiadoni, L; Faita, F; Di Lascio, N; Del Turco, S; Maffei, L; Tognoni, G; Taddei, S; Picano, E; Sicari, R

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to vascular health; on the other hand, vascular damage is associated with cognitive impairment. Both physical activity and a cognitively stimulating environment are known to delay the onset of dementia. The Train The Brain study evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive program of physical training and mental activity in delaying cognitive decline in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment, at the same time investigating the relationship between physical, vascular, neurological, and cognitive fitness : Elders age 65-89 were recruited with the help of family physicians and territorial services. All participants underwent a neurological and cardiologic evaluation. In the vascular study, carotid pressure was measured with the SphygmoCor system (AtCor, Australia); longitudinal ultrasound scans of the common carotid were performed and 10-second video clips were recorded to be analyzed offline through the Cardiovascular Suite software (Quipu srl, Italy), with the computation of diameter, intima-media thickness, wall cross-sectional area, distensibility coefficient, compliance, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Subjects classified as mild cognitive impairment at the neurological examination were randomized either to standard care, or a 7-month program of physical training and environmental stimulation (lectures, games, music, social activities) three hours a week. The evaluation was then repeated. Data were obtained for 57 patients who underwent training (T) and 30 controls (C). The only significant difference at baseline was in the distensibility coefficient (p = 0.045).(Figure is included in full-text article.)Vessel diameter increased in C and decreased in T; distensibility decreased in C; all carotid parameters were influenced by the combination of time and treatment, in a diverging trend, at a statistically significant level, while there was no effect on pressure. Introducing arterial pressures as covariates did not affect

  10. Relationship between cerebral blood flow and later cognitive decline in hypertensive patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo; Oku, Naohiko; Yagita, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Sakoda, Saburo; Kimura, Yasuyuku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Vascular risk factors are thought to be important for dementia. However, there is little evidence for a prospective association between cerebral blood flow and the risk of cognitive decline. Twenty-seven cognitively intact hypertensive patients aged 55 years and older with lacunar infarction or white matter lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 3 years later with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Patients whose MMSE score fell by more than three points were classified as having cognitive decline. Six patients showed cognitive decline. Baseline CBF in these patients was significantly lower than that of the 21 patients without cognitive decline (31.2±2.4 vs. 42.6±5.9 ml per 100 gmin -1 , respectively; P<0.001). A moderate linear association was found between CBF and change in MMSE score over a 3-year period (r=0.59, P=0.001), not between CBF and baseline MMSE score. In contrast, no association between CVR and later cognitive decline was found. This study suggests that cerebral hypoperfusion is associated with later cognitive decline. (author)

  11. Personality and cognitive decline in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Rebecca S; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Nestadt, Gerald; Samuels, Jack F; Parisi, Jeanine M; Costa, Paul T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between personality domains and 11-year cognitive decline in a sample from a population-based study. Data from Waves 3 (1993-1996) and 4 (2003-2004) of the Baltimore cohort of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study were used for analyses. The sample included 561 adults (mean age ± SD: 45.2 ± 10.78 years) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised prior to Wave 4. Participants also completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and immediate and delayed word recall tests at Wave 3, and at Wave 4, 10.9 ± 0.6 years later. In models adjusted for baseline cognitive performance, demographic characteristics, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, and psychotropic medication use, each 10-point increase in Neuroticism T-scores was associated with a 0.15-point decrease in MMSE scores (B = -0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.30, -0.01), whereas each 10-point increase in Conscientiousness T-scores was associated with a 0.18-point increase on the MMSE (B = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) and a 0.21-point increase in immediate recall (B = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.41) between baseline and follow-up. Findings suggest that greater Neuroticism is associated with decline, and greater Conscientiousness is associated with improvement in performance on measures of general cognitive function and memory in adults. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which personality traits in midlife are associated with clinically significant cognitive outcomes in older adults, such as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and to identify potential mediators of the association between personality and cognitive trajectories. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequency and Predictors of Cognitive Decline in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.; Khan, A. R.; Afridi, M. I.; Saeed, A.; Jan, A. F.; Amjad, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cognitive impairment and its predictors in patients, who underwent first time coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGS). Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, from December 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Study included patients > 18 years, who underwent first-time elective CABGS. Emergency CABGS, with additional cardiac procedures, myocardial infarction (MI) within one month and known psychiatric illness were excluded. Patients were evaluated for their socio-demographic profile, medical history, intra-operative, anesthetic and surgical techniques and postoperative complications/therapy in ICU. Cognitive functioning, before the surgery, at discharge, 6 weeks and 6 months post-CABG was evaluated by McNair's and MMSE scales. HDRS was added to see if depression was a confounding factor for cognitive decline. Results: One hundred and thirty four patients were followed-up at discharge, 74 at 6 weeks and 73 at 6 months. There were 113 (84.3%) males and 21 (15.7%) females, with mean age of 53.7 +- 8.36 years. Prevalence of cognitive disturbance at baseline was 44.8%, which increased to 54.5% at discharge, and improvement was seen at 6 months, it was 39.7%. Older age, female gender, higher bleeding episodes, and high post-surgery creatinine level were more frequently associated with cognitive decline. Conclusion: Postoperative cognitive deficit was common and remained persistent at short-term. Older age, females and high postoperative creatinine were identified as its important predictors. There was high frequency of acute depression before surgery with significant reduction over time. (author)

  13. Effects of a computer-based cognitive exercise program on age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoki, Andrea; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Winn, Brian; Heeter, Carrie; Anthony, James C

    2013-01-01

    We developed a 'senior friendly' suite of online 'games for learning' with interactive calibration for increasing difficulty, and evaluated the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that seniors aged 60-80 can improve key aspects of cognitive ability with the aid of such games. Sixty community-dwelling senior volunteers were randomized to either an online game suite designed to train multiple cognitive abilities, or to a control arm with online activities that simulated the look and feel of the games but with low level interactivity and no calibration of difficulty. Study assessment included measures of recruitment, retention and play-time. Cognitive change was measured with a computerized assessment battery administered just before and within two weeks after completion of the six-week intervention. Impediments to feasibility included: limited access to in-home high-speed internet, large variations in the amount of time devoted to game play, and a reluctance to pursue more challenging levels. Overall analysis was negative for assessed performance (transference effects) even though subjects improved on the games themselves. Post hoc analyses suggest that some types of games may have more value than others, but these effects would need to be replicated in a study designed for that purpose. We conclude that a six-week, moderate-intensity computer game-based cognitive intervention can be implemented with high-functioning seniors, but the effect size is relatively small. Our findings are consistent with Owen et al. (2010), but there are open questions about whether more structured, longer duration or more intensive 'games for learning' interventions might yield more substantial cognitive improvement in seniors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of brief language tests in the detection of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic

    Full Text Available Abstract Lexical access difficulties are frequent in normal aging and initial stages of dementia. Verbal fluency tests are valuable to detect cognitive decline, evidencing lexico-semantic and executive dysfunction. Objectives: To establish which language tests can contribute in detecting dementia and to verify schooling influence on subject performance. Method: 74 subjects: 33 controls, 17 Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR 0.5 and 24 (Brief Cognitive Battery - BCB e Boston Naming Test - BNT 1 were compared in tests of semantic verbal fluency (animal and fruit, picture naming (BCB and BNT and the language items of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results: There were significant differences between the control group and both CDR 0.5 and CDR 1 in all tests. Cut-off scores were: 11 and 10 for animal fluency, 8 for fruit fluency (in both, 8 and 9 for BCB naming. The CDR 0.5 group performed better than the CDR 1 group only in animal fluency. Stepwise multiple regression revealed fruit fluency, animal fluency and BCB naming as the best discriminators between patients and controls (specificity: 93.8%; sensitivity: 91.3%. In controls, comparison between illiterates and literates evidenced schooling influence in all tests, except for fruit fluency and BCB naming. In patients with dementia, only fruit fluency was uninfluenced by schooling. Conclusion: The combination of verbal fluency tests in two semantic categories along with a simple picture naming test is highly sensitive in detecting cognitive decline. Comparison between literate and illiterate subjects shows a lesser degree of influence of schooling on the selected tests, thus improving discrimination between low performance and incipient cognitive decline.

  15. Predicting loss of employment over three years in multiple sclerosis: clinically meaningful cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Sarah A; Drake, Allison; Zivadinov, Robert; Munschauer, Frederick; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the magnitude of change on objective neuropsychological (NP) tests that is clinically meaningful is unclear. We endeavored to determine NP markers of the transition from employment to work disability in MS, as indicated by degree of decline on individual tests. Participants were 97 employed MS patients followed over 41.3 ± 17.6 months with a NP battery covering six domains of cognitive function. Deterioration at follow-up was designated as documented and paid disability benefits (conservative definition) or a reduction in hours/work responsibilities (liberal definition). Using the conservative definition, 28.9% reported deteriorated employment status and for the liberal definition, 45.4%. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and California Verbal Learning Test, Total Learning (CVLT2-TL) measures distinguished employed and disabled patients at follow-up. Controlling for demographic and MS characteristics, the odds ratio of a deterioration based on a change of 2.0 on the CVLT2-TL was 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-11.4 and SDMT by 4.0 was 4.2 (95% CI 1.2-14.8), accounting for 86.7% of the area under the ROC curve. We conclude that decline on NP testing over time is predictive of deterioration in vocational status, establishing a magnitude of decline on NP tests that is clinically meaningful.

  16. Do Arterial Hemodynamic Parameters Predict Cognitive Decline Over a Period of 2 Years in Individuals Older Than 80 Years Living in Nursing Homes? The PARTAGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watfa, Ghassan; Benetos, Athanase; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Labat, Carlos; Gautier, Sylvie; Hanon, Olivier; Salvi, Paolo; Joly, Laure

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have highlighted a link between vascular alterations and cognitive decline. The PARTAGE study showed that arterial stiffness as evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was associated with a more pronounced cognitive decline over a 1-year period in very old frail institutionalized individuals. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the role of hemodynamic parameters, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cfPWV, and central/peripheral pulse pressure amplification (PPA) on cognitive decline over 2 years in very old frail individuals. A total of 682 individuals from the PARTAGE study cohort, aged older than 80 years (mean age at inclusion: 87.5 ± 5.0 years) and living in French and Italian nursing homes, were analyzed. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was assessed at baseline (BL) and at the end of the first and second year of follow-up (2y-FU). Those with a decrease in MMSE of 3 or more points between BL and 2y-FU were considered as "decliners." The cfPWV and PPA at baseline were assessed with an arterial tonometer. After adjustment for baseline MMSE, HR, body mass index, age, education level, and activities of daily living (ADLs), cfPWV was higher and PPA lower in "decliners" compared with "nondecliners," whereas BP did not differ between the 2 groups. Logistic multivariate analysis also revealed that high cfPWV, low PPA, high HR, and low ADLs were all determinants of MMSE decline. This 2-year longitudinal study in very old institutionalized individuals shows that arterial stiffness and high HR enabled us to identify subjects at higher risk of cognitive decline, whereas BP alone did not appear to have a significant predictive value. These findings highlight the contribution of vascular determinants in cognitive decline even in this very old population. Copyright © 2015 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying elderly people at risk for cognitive decline by using the 2-step test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Kohei; Fujita, Hiroaki; Arai, Tomoyuki; Hosoi, Toshiki; Ogiwara, Kennichi; Moriyama, Shunnichiro; Ishibashi, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose is to verify the effectiveness of the 2-step test in predicting cognitive decline in elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred eighty-two participants aged over 65 years underwent the 2-step test, cognitive function tests and higher level competence testing. Participants were classified as Robust, step test, variables were compared between groups. In addition, ordered logistic analysis was used to analyze cognitive functions as independent variables in the three groups, using the 2-step test results as the dependent variable, with age, gender, etc. as adjustment factors. [Results] In the crude data, the step test was related to the Stroop test (β: 0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.12). [Conclusion] The finding is that the risk stage of the 2-step test is related to cognitive functions, even at an initial risk stage. The 2-step test may help with earlier detection and implementation of prevention measures for locomotive syndrome and mild cognitive impairment.

  18. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Potential role of marine derived food products on Alzheimer\\'s disese and cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsan Assadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer's disese is the most frequent cause of dementia and is one of important cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Although, there are different therapeutic options for its treatment , the results of these therapies are disappointing. Omega-3 fatty acids in marine- derived food products, affect on different mechanisms, improve cognitive function, memory.in this study, effect Omega-3 fatty acids in marine- derived food products of cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's are reviewed. Methods: The method employed in this research was a systematic bibiliographic review,in which only the double-blind placebo-controlled studies or the clinically detailed enough open-labeled studies using validated scales were retained. Results: Many studies have shown that Omega-3 fatty acids in marine- derived food products, affect by different mechanisms include decrease inflammation and oxidative stress, synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis promotion in neuroprotection and improvement cognitive function and memory, also omega3 fatty acid could lead to a decrease in risk of Alzheimer's diseas and the other cognitive impairements. Conclusion: However, more and large clinical trials are needed to confirm the beneficial effects of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the management of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline.

  20. Computerized Assessment of Communication for Cognitive Stimulation for People with Cognitive Decline Using Spectral-Distortion Measures and Phylogenetic Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Truong, Cong-Thang; Okamoto, Kazushi; Futaba, Terufumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Masahide; Lampe, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline. PMID:25803586

  1. Computerized assessment of communication for cognitive stimulation for people with cognitive decline using spectral-distortion measures and phylogenetic inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan D Pham

    Full Text Available Therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationships in care homes can help people to improve their mental wellbeing. Assessment of the efficacy of these dynamic and complex processes are necessary for psychosocial planning and management. This paper presents a pilot application of photoplethysmography in synchronized physiological measurements of communications between the care-giver and people with dementia. Signal-based evaluations of the therapy can be carried out using the measures of spectral distortion and the inference of phylogenetic trees. The proposed computational models can be of assistance and cost-effectiveness in caring for and monitoring people with cognitive decline.

  2. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    in a compound measure of cognitive speed and motor control, but not in those of executive functions, memory, or global cognitive function. Total CC area and midbody remained significant predictors of speed also after adjusting for baseline WML volume, WML progression, and global brain atrophy. However......, the relationship between anterior CC and speed performance was mediated by WML volume. In conclusion, the overall and regional rate of CC tissue loss parallels longitudinal slowing of psychomotor performance. The adverse effect of CC tissue loss on psychomotor function may be driven by altered interhemispheric...

  3. Moving Forward: Age Effects on the Cerebellum Underlie Cognitive and Motor Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2014-01-01

    Though the cortical contributions to age-related declines in motor and cognitive performance are well-known, the potential contributions of the cerebellum are less clear. The diverse functions of the cerebellum make it an important structure to investigate in aging. Here, we review the extant literature on this topic. To date, there is evidence to indicate that there are morphological age differences in the cerebellum that are linked to motor and cognitive behavior. Cerebellar morphology is often as good as -- or even better -- at predicting performance than the prefrontal cortex. We also touch on the few studies using functional neuroimaging and connectivity analyses that further implicate the cerebellum in age-related performance declines. Importantly, we provide a conceptual framework for the cerebellum influencing age differences in performance, centered on the notion of degraded internal models. The evidence indicating that cerebellar age differences associate with performance highlights the need for additional work in this domain to further elucidate the role of the cerebellum in age differences in movement control and cognitive function. PMID:24594194

  4. Network Disruption in the Preclinical Stages of Alzheimer's Disease: From Subjective Cognitive Decline to Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanz, David; Garcés, Pilar; Álvarez, Blanca; Delgado-Losada, María Luisa; López-Higes, Ramón; Maestú, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) is a largely unknown state thought to represent a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) previous to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the course of network disruption in these stages is scarcely characterized. We employed resting state magnetoencephalography in the source space to calculate network smallworldness, clustering, modularity and transitivity. Nodal measures (clustering and node degree) as well as modular partitions were compared between groups. The MCI group exhibited decreased smallworldness, clustering and transitivity and increased modularity in theta and beta bands. SCD showed similar but smaller changes in clustering and transitivity, while exhibiting alterations in the alpha band in opposite direction to those showed by MCI for modularity and transitivity. At the node level, MCI disrupted both clustering and nodal degree while SCD showed minor changes in the latter. Additionally, we observed an increase in modular partition variability in both SCD and MCI in theta and beta bands. SCD elders exhibit a significant network disruption, showing intermediate values between HC and MCI groups in multiple parameters. These results highlight the relevance of cognitive concerns in the clinical setting and suggest that network disorganization in AD could start in the preclinical stages before the onset of cognitive symptoms.

  5. Autoimmune encephalitis: A potentially reversible cause of status epilepticus, epilepsy, and cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadh Kishor Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review clinical characteristics and response to immunomodulation therapy in autoimmune encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus (SE, epilepsy, and cognitive decline. Design: Observational, prospective case series. Setting: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: Prospective analysis of 15 patients, who presented with SE, epilepsy, cognitive decline, and other neurological symptoms with positive autoantibodies. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cerebrospinal-fluid analysis (CSF, and tumor screening were done periodically. Treatment received and responses (categorized as per patients and treating doctor′s information were noted. Results: There were 15 (males = 10 patients of autoimmune encephalitis. The mean age of presentation was 24 years (range: 2-64 years. The most common onset was subacute (64% and four (29% patients presented as SE. Predominant clinical presentations were seizures (100% almost of every semiology. CSF was done in 10 patients; it was normal in 60%. Brain MRI was done in all patients, in six (40% it was normal, six (40% showed T2W and FLAIR hyperintensities in bilateral limbic areas. Antibodies found were the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody in seven (50%, voltage-gated potassium channel antibody in five (36%, two of antiglutamic acid decarboxylase, and one patient with double stranded DNA (dsDNA antibodies. None showed evidence of malignancy. Patients received immunotherapy, either steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or both. Follow-up showed significant improvement in majority of cases, neither further seizures nor relapse in nine (67% cases. One death occurred, due to delayed presentation. Conclusions: Uncommon but potentially reversible causes of SE, epilepsy, and cognitive decline may be immune-related and high index of suspicion will prevent missing the diagnosis.

  6. A longitudinal study on dual-tasking effects on gait: cognitive change predicts gait variance in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K MacAulay

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological abilities have found to explain a large proportion of variance in objective measures of walking gait that predict both dementia and falling within the elderly. However, to this date there has been little research on the interplay between changes in these neuropsychological processes and walking gait overtime. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate intra-individual changes in neurocognitive test performance and gait step time at two-time points across a one-year span. Neuropsychological test scores from 440 elderly individuals deemed cognitively normal at Year One were analyzed via repeated measures t-tests to assess for decline in cognitive performance at Year Two. 34 of these 440 individuals neuropsychological test performance significantly declined at Year Two; whereas the "non-decliners" displayed improved memory, working memory, attention/processing speed test performance. Neuropsychological test scores were also submitted to factor analysis at both time points for data reduction purposes and to assess the factor stability overtime. Results at Year One yielded a three-factor solution: Language/Memory, Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Year Two's test scores also generated a three-factor solution (Working Memory, Language/Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Memory. Notably, language measures loaded on Executive Attention/Processing Speed rather than on the Memory factor at Year Two. Hierarchal multiple regression revealed that both Executive Attention/Processing Speed and sex significantly predicted variance in dual task step time at both time points. Remarkably, in the "decliners", the magnitude of the contribution of the neuropsychological characteristics to gait variance significantly increased at Year Two. In summary, this study provides longitudinal evidence of the dynamic relationship between intra-individual cognitive change and its influence on dual task gait

  7. Relation between age-related decline in intelligence and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities in healthy octogenarians: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Krabbe, K

    2000-01-01

    , but no participant scored more than 75% of maximum for deep white-matter hyperintensities. Neither type was related to the WAIS IQs of the 80-year assessment, but both were significantly associated with decline in performance IQ from age 50 to age 80 years (bivariate correlation coefficients 0.32, p=0.0087, and 0......, and they agreed to further WAIS testing at age 80, and cerebral MRI at age 80-82 (mean age 82.3 years). We scored separately the numbers of periventricular and deep white-matter hyperintensities. FINDINGS: Scores for periventricular hyperintensities in this sample included all possible degrees of severity.......28, p=0.0227, respectively). An analysis based on two WAIS subtests showed that the association between white-matter hyperintensities and cognitive impairment was significant only for cognitive decline in the decade 70-80 years. INTERPRETATION: Both periventricular and deep white-matter hyperintensities...

  8. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Roberts DrPH, MSN, FNP-BC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs and focus groups (FGs were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: ( N = 75. Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a personal expectations about aging, (b societal value of older adults, (c model of care preferred, and (d community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes.

  9. Hypometabolism in Posterior and Temporal Areas of the Brain is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tard, Céline; Demailly, Franck; Delval, Arnaud; Semah, Franck; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy; Moreau, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Brain metabolic profiles of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and cognitive impairment or dementia are now available. It would be useful if data on brain metabolism were also predictive of the risk of a pejorative cognitive evolution - especially in the multidisciplinary management of advanced PD patients. The primary objective was to determine whether a specific brain metabolic pattern is associated with cognitive decline in PD. Sixteen advanced PD patients were screened for the absence of cognitive impairment (according to the Mattis dementia rating scale, MDRS) and underwent [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain imaging in the "off drug" state. The MDRS was scored again about two years later, categorizing patients as having significant cognitive decline (decliners) or not (stables). The two groups were then compared in terms of their brain metabolism at inclusion. There were six decliners and ten stables. Significant hypometabolism in the two precunei (Brodmann area (BA) 31), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA21) and the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) was found in the decliner group compared withthe stables. In advanced PD, a particular metabolic pattern may be associated with the onset of significant cognitive decline.

  10. 75 FR 3243 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... performance remain stable over the course of their lifetime, with only a gradual and slight decline in short-term memory and reaction times. But for others, this normal, age-related decline in cognitive function... female patient who had experienced memory loss, language problems, and unpredictable behavior: abnormal...

  11. Caffeine impact on working memory-related network activation patterns in early stages of cognitive decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Sven [Affidea Centre de Diagnostic Radiologique de Carouge CDRC, Geneva (Switzerland); Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon [University Hospitals of Geneva, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Direction, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70.0 ± 4.3 years, 11 women), while the remaining 21 showed subtle cognitive deterioration (dCON, 73.4 ± 5.9 years, 14 women). All participants underwent an established 2-back working task in a crossover design of 200 mg caffeine versus placebo. Data analysis included task-related general linear model and functional connectivity tensorial independent component analysis. Working memory behavioral performances did not differ between sCON and dCON, while MCI was slower and less accurate than both control groups (p < 0.05). The dCON group had a less pronounced effect of acute caffeine administration essentially restricted to the right hemisphere (p < 0.05 corrected) and reduced default mode network (DMN) deactivation compared to sCON (p < 0.01 corrected). dCON cases are characterized by decreased sensitivity to caffeine effects on brain activation and DMN deactivation. These complex fMRI patterns possibly reflect the instable status of these cases with intact behavioral performances despite already existing functional alterations in neocortical circuits. (orig.)

  12. Monitoring the early signs of cognitive decline in elderly by computer games: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Sirály

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that current and future preventive therapies will likely be more effective in the early stages of dementia, when everyday functioning is not affected. Accordingly the early identification of people at risk is particularly important. In most cases, when subjects visit an expert and are examined using neuropsychological tests, the disease has already been developed. Contrary to this cognitive games are played by healthy, well functioning elderly people, subjects who should be monitored for early signs. Further advantages of cognitive games are their accessibility and their cost-effectiveness.The aim of the investigation was to show that computer games can help to identify those who are at risk. In order to validate games analysis was completed which measured the correlations between results of the 'Find the Pairs' memory game and the volumes of the temporal brain regions previously found to be good predictors of later cognitive decline.34 healthy elderly subjects were enrolled in the study. The volume of the cerebral structures was measured by MRI. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed by Freesurfer.There was a correlation between the number of attempts and the time required to complete the memory game and the volume of the entorhinal cortex, the temporal pole, and the hippocampus. There was also a correlation between the results of the Paired Associates Learning (PAL test and the memory game.The results gathered support the initial hypothesis that healthy elderly subjects achieving lower scores in the memory game have increased level of atrophy in the temporal brain structures and showed a decreased performance in the PAL test. Based on these results it can be concluded that memory games may be useful in early screening for cognitive decline.

  13. Caffeine impact on working memory-related network activation patterns in early stages of cognitive decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70.0 ± 4.3 years, 11 women), while the remaining 21 showed subtle cognitive deterioration (dCON, 73.4 ± 5.9 years, 14 women). All participants underwent an established 2-back working task in a crossover design of 200 mg caffeine versus placebo. Data analysis included task-related general linear model and functional connectivity tensorial independent component analysis. Working memory behavioral performances did not differ between sCON and dCON, while MCI was slower and less accurate than both control groups (p < 0.05). The dCON group had a less pronounced effect of acute caffeine administration essentially restricted to the right hemisphere (p < 0.05 corrected) and reduced default mode network (DMN) deactivation compared to sCON (p < 0.01 corrected). dCON cases are characterized by decreased sensitivity to caffeine effects on brain activation and DMN deactivation. These complex fMRI patterns possibly reflect the instable status of these cases with intact behavioral performances despite already existing functional alterations in neocortical circuits. (orig.)

  14. [Impact of postoperative cognitive decline in quality of life: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Joana; Moreira, Joana; Moreira, Adriano; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando J

    Regardless the progress in perioperative care postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) has been accepted unequivocally as a significant and frequent complication of surgery in older patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of postoperative cognitive decline and its influence on quality of life three months after surgery. Observational, prospective study in a Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) in patients aged above 45 years, after elective major surgery. Cognitive function was assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA); Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Assessments were performed preoperatively (T0) and 3 months after surgery (T3). Forty-one patients were studied. The incidence of PCD 3 months after surgery was 24%. At T3 MOCA scores were lower in patients with PCD (median 20 vs. 25, p=0.009). When comparing the median scores for each of SF-36 domains, there were no differences between patients with and without PCD. In patients with PCD, and comparing each of SF-36 domains obtained before and three months after surgery, had similar scores for every of the 8 SF-36 areas while patients without PCD had better scores for six domains. At T3 patients with PCD presented with higher levels of dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADL). Three months after surgery patients without PCD had significant improvement in MOCA scores. Patients with PCD obtained no increase in SF-36 scores but patients without PCD improved in almost all SF-36 domains. Patients with PCD presented higher rates of dependency in personal ADL after surgery. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Monitoring the early signs of cognitive decline in elderly by computer games: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirály, Enikő; Szabó, Ádám; Szita, Bernadett; Kovács, Vivienne; Fodor, Zsuzsanna; Marosi, Csilla; Salacz, Pál; Hidasi, Zoltán; Maros, Viktor; Hanák, Péter; Csibri, Éva; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    It is anticipated that current and future preventive therapies will likely be more effective in the early stages of dementia, when everyday functioning is not affected. Accordingly the early identification of people at risk is particularly important. In most cases, when subjects visit an expert and are examined using neuropsychological tests, the disease has already been developed. Contrary to this cognitive games are played by healthy, well functioning elderly people, subjects who should be monitored for early signs. Further advantages of cognitive games are their accessibility and their cost-effectiveness. The aim of the investigation was to show that computer games can help to identify those who are at risk. In order to validate games analysis was completed which measured the correlations between results of the 'Find the Pairs' memory game and the volumes of the temporal brain regions previously found to be good predictors of later cognitive decline. 34 healthy elderly subjects were enrolled in the study. The volume of the cerebral structures was measured by MRI. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed by Freesurfer. There was a correlation between the number of attempts and the time required to complete the memory game and the volume of the entorhinal cortex, the temporal pole, and the hippocampus. There was also a correlation between the results of the Paired Associates Learning (PAL) test and the memory game. The results gathered support the initial hypothesis that healthy elderly subjects achieving lower scores in the memory game have increased level of atrophy in the temporal brain structures and showed a decreased performance in the PAL test. Based on these results it can be concluded that memory games may be useful in early screening for cognitive decline.

  16. Decline in Weight and Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment: Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhurani, Rabe E.; Vassilaki, Maria; Aakre, Jeremiah; Mielke, Michelle M.; Kremers, Walter K.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Knopman, David S.; Peterson, Ronald C.; Roberts, Rosebud O.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Unintentional weight loss has been associated with risk of dementia. Since mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prodromal stage for dementia, we sought to evaluate whether changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) may predict incident MCI. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of change in weight and BMI with risk of MCI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A population-based, prospective study of participants aged 70 years and older from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Maximum weight and height in midlife (aged 40 to 65 years old) were retrospectively ascertained from the medical records of participants using a medical records linkage system. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES Participants were evaluated for cognitive outcomes of normal cognition, MCI, or dementia at baseline and prospectively assessed for incident events at each 15-month evaluation. The association of rate of change in weight and body mass index with risk of MCI was investigated using proportional hazards models. RESULTS Over a mean follow-up of 4.4 years, 524 of 1895 cognitively normal participants developed incident MCI. The mean (standard deviation) rate of weight change per decade from midlife to study entry was greater for individuals who developed incident MCI vs. those who remained cognitively normal (−2.0 (5.1) vs. −1.2 (4.9) kg; p = 0.006). A greater decline in weight per decade was associated with an increased risk of incident MCI (hazard ratio [HR] 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 [1.02, 1.06], p weight loss of 5 kg/decade corresponds to a 24% increase in risk of MCI (HR=1.24). Higher decline in BMI per decade was also associated with incident MCI (HR, 1.08, 95% CI = [1.03, 1.13], p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that declining weight from midlife to late-life is a marker for MCI and may help identify persons at increased risk for MCI. PMID:26831542

  17. White matter microstructure and cognitive decline in metabolic syndrome: a review of diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Freddy J; Gavrieli, Anna; Saade-Lemus, Patricia; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Novak, Vera

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors defined by the presence of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. It is a major public health epidemic worldwide, and a known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and worse cognitive outcomes, however, evidence of brain structure pathology is limited. Diffusion tensor imaging has offered new opportunities to detect microstructural white matter changes in metabolic syndrome, and a possibility to detect associations between functional and structural abnormalities. This review analyzes the impact of metabolic syndrome on white matter microstructural integrity, brain structure abnormalities and their relationship to cognitive function. Each of the metabolic syndrome components exerts a specific signature of white matter microstructural abnormalities. Metabolic syndrome and its components exert both additive/synergistic, as well as, independent effects on brain microstructure thus accelerating brain aging and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prospective Study of Arterial Stiffness and Subsequent Cognitive Decline Among Community-Dwelling Older Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Taniguchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV is inversely associated with cognitive function. However, it is not known whether baPWV predicts cognitive decline (CD in later life. We examined whether or not baPWV is an independent risk marker of subsequent CD in a population of older Japanese. Methods: Among 982 adults aged 65 years or older who participated in a baseline survey, 526 cognitively intact adults (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥24; mean [SD] age, 71.7 [5.6] years; women, 57.8% were followed for a period of up to 5 years. Pulse wave velocity was determined using an automated waveform analyser. Cognition was assessed by the MMSE, and CD was defined as a decrease of two points or more on the MMSE. Results: During an average follow-up of 3.4 years, 85 participants (16.2% developed CD. After controlling for important confounders, the odds ratios for CD in the highest and middle tertiles of baPWV, as compared with the lowest tertile, were 2.95 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–6.74 and 2.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.11–5.15, respectively. Conclusions: High baPWV was an independent predictor of CD in a general population of older adults and may be useful in the clinical evaluation of elders.

  19. A Link between Subjective Perceptions of Memory and Physical Function: Implications for Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Devanand, Davangere; Gurland, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Subjective impairment in memory is a frequently defining feature of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a state hypothesized to precede objectively apparent cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to hold promise as a non-invasive, inexpensive, preclinical indicator of AD. However, a full model of the factors that contribute to subjective memory (SM), and therefore to SCD, has yet to be articulated. While SM impairment is widely known to be associated with negative affect, the extent to which SM functioning may also reflect other factors, particularly subjective beliefs or perceptions about one's health, is not known. To examine the extent to which SM is associated with subjective perceptions of health more broadly, the current study investigated the link between SM and subjective physical functioning (independent of depressive affect, and objective cognitive and physical function) in an ethnically diverse sample of 471 older adults enrolled in the population-based Northern Manhattan Aging Project. 199 (42%) participants endorsed no difficulty on a 5-point SM index while 272 (58%) endorsed some degree of difficulty. As hypothesized, SM correlated with both depression and subjective physical function, but not with age, education, global cognition, or objective physical function. When objective and subjective physical function were entered in two separate, adjusted linear regressions predicting SM, only subjective physical function and depressive affect independently predicted SM. Subjective perceptions of memory appear to reflect individuals' broader health perceptions in part. Articulating the various correlates of SM will improve identification of SCD specific to preclinical AD.

  20. A novel radial water tread maze tracks age-related cognitive decline in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no treatment and cure for age-related dementia and cognitive impairment in humans. Mice suffer from age-related cognitive decline just as people do, but assessment is challenging because of cumbersome and at times stressful performance tasks. We developed a novel radial water tread (RWT maze and tested male C57BL/6 (B6 and C57BL/6 x Balb/c F1 (CB6F1 mice at ages 4, 12, 20, and 28 months. B6 mice showed a consistent learning experience and memory retention that gradually decreased with age. CB6F1 mice showed a moderate learning experience in the 4 and 12 month groups, which was not evident in the 20 and 28 month groups. In conclusion, CB6F1 mice showed more severe age-related cognitive impairment compared to B6 mice and might be a suitable model for intervention studies. In addition, the RWT maze has a number of operational advantages compared to currently accepted tasks and can be used to assess age-related cognition impairment in B6 and CB6F1 mice as early as 12 months of age.

  1. Development of a subjective cognitive decline questionnaire using item response theory: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Romano, Raymond; Jones, Richard N; Jefferson, Angela L

    2015-12-01

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may indicate unhealthy cognitive changes, but no standardized SCD measurement exists. This pilot study aims to identify reliable SCD questions. 112 cognitively normal (NC, 76±8 years, 63% female), 43 mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 77±7 years, 51% female), and 33 diagnostically ambiguous participants (79±9 years, 58% female) were recruited from a research registry and completed 57 self-report SCD questions. Psychometric methods were used for item-reduction. Factor analytic models assessed unidimensionality of the latent trait (SCD); 19 items were removed with extreme response distribution or trait-fit. Item response theory (IRT) provided information about question utility; 17 items with low information were dropped. Post-hoc simulation using computerized adaptive test (CAT) modeling selected the most commonly used items (n=9 of 21 items) that represented the latent trait well (r=0.94) and differentiated NC from MCI participants (F(1,146)=8.9, p=0.003). Item response theory and computerized adaptive test modeling identified nine reliable SCD items. This pilot study is a first step toward refining SCD assessment in older adults. Replication of these findings and validation with Alzheimer's disease biomarkers will be an important next step for the creation of a SCD screener.

  2. Brain-predicted age in Down syndrome is associated with beta amyloid deposition and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Annus, Tiina; Wilson, Liam R; Remtulla, Ridhaa; Hong, Young T; Fryer, Tim D; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Smith, Robert; Menon, David K; Zaman, Shahid H; Nestor, Peter J; Holland, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are more likely to experience earlier onset of multiple facets of physiological aging. This includes brain atrophy, beta amyloid deposition, cognitive decline, and Alzheimer's disease-factors indicative of brain aging. Here, we employed a machine learning approach, using structural neuroimaging data to predict age (i.e., brain-predicted age) in people with DS (N = 46) and typically developing controls (N = 30). Chronological age was then subtracted from brain-predicted age to generate a brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD) score. DS participants also underwent [ 11 C]-PiB positron emission tomography (PET) scans to index the levels of cerebral beta amyloid deposition, and cognitive assessment. Mean brain-PAD in DS participants' was +2.49 years, significantly greater than controls (p brain-PAD was associated with the presence and the magnitude of PiB-binding and levels of cognitive performance. Our study indicates that DS is associated with premature structural brain aging, and that age-related alterations in brain structure are associated with individual differences in the rate of beta amyloid deposition and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neighborhood socioeconomic context and cognitive decline among older Mexican Americans: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N; Osypuk, Theresa; Abdou, Cleopatra; Hinton, Ladson; Aiello, Allison E

    2011-08-15

    In 1 previous study, it was shown that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with cognitive decline among Latinos. No studies have explored whether and to what extent individual-level socioeconomic factors account for the relation between neighborhood disadvantage and cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on cognitive decline and examine how individual-level SEP factors (educational level, annual income, and occupation) influenced neighborhood associations over the course of 10 years. Participants (n = 1,789) were community-dwelling older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Neighborhood SEP was derived by linking the participant's individual data to the 2000 decennial census. The authors assessed cognitive function with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Analyses used 3-level hierarchical linear mixed models of time within individuals within neighborhoods. After adjustment for individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, higher neighborhood SEP was significantly associated with cognitive function (β = -0.033; P cognition but not with rates of decline. Differences in individual educational levels explained most of the intra- and interneighborhood variance. These results suggest that the effect of neighborhood SEP on cognitive decline among Latinos is primarily accounted for by education.

  4. Longitudinal changes in total brain volume in schizophrenia: relation to symptom severity, cognition and antipsychotic medication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Veijola

    Full Text Available Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999-2001 at the age of 33-35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008-2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p = 0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain. The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p = 0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain. In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions.

  5. Corpus callosum atrophy as a marker of clinically meaningful cognitive decline in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Impact on employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Messinis, Lambros; Zampakis, Petros; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is more frequent and pronounced in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Cognitive decline is an important predictor of employment status in patients with MS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers have been used to associate tissue damage with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to designate the MRI marker that predicts cognitive decline in SPMS and explore its effect on employment status. 30 SPMS patients and 30 healthy participants underwent neuropsychological assessment using the Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, semantic and phonological verbal fluency task and a computerized cognitive screening battery (Central Nervous System Vital Signs). Employment status was obtained as a quality of life measure. Brain MRI was performed in all participants. We measured total lesion volume, third ventricle width, thalamic and corpus callosum atrophy. The frequency of cognitive decline for our SPMS patients was 80%. SPMS patients differed significantly from controls in all neuropsychological measures. Corpus callosum area was correlated with cognitive flexibility, processing speed, composite memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time and phonological verbal fluency task. Processing speed and composite memory were the most sensitive markers for predicting employment status. Corpus callosum area was the most sensitive MRI marker for memory and processing speed. Corpus callosum atrophy predicts a clinically meaningful cognitive decline, affecting employment status in our SPMS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly, a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burch Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine may aid reaction time, learning and memory, but smoking increases cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to increased risk of dementia. A previous meta-analysis found that current smokers were at higher risk of subsequent dementia, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and cognitive decline. Methods In order to update and examine this further a systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out using different search and inclusion criteria, database selection and more recent publications. Both reviews were restricted to those aged 65 and over. Results The review reported here found a significantly increased risk of Alzheimer's disease with current smoking and a likely but not significantly increased risk of vascular dementia, dementia unspecified and cognitive decline. Neither review found clear relationships with former smoking. Conclusion Current smoking increases risk of Alzheimer's disease and may increase risk of other dementias. This reinforces need for smoking cessation, particularly aged 65 and over. Nicotine alone needs further investigation.

  7. Genetic contributions to age-related decline in executive function: a 10-year longitudinal study of COMT and BDNF polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk I Erickson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the COMT (Val158/108Met gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age.

  8. Decline in word-finding: The objective cognitive finding most relevant to patients after mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carla; de Oliveira Thais, Maria Emilia Rodrigues; Guarnieri, Ricardo; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; Ben, Juliana; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Markowitsch, Hans Joachim; Wolf, Peter; Wiebe, Samuel; Lin, Katia; Walz, Roger

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the following: i) the objective impairment in neuropsychological tests that were associated with the subjective perception of cognitive function decline in Brazilian patients who underwent mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) surgery and ii) the predictive variables for those impaired objective neuropsychological tests. Forty-eight adults with MTLE (27 right HS and 23 male) were divided according to their perception of changes (Decline or No-decline) of cognitive function domain of the QOLIE-31 questionnaire applied before and 1year after the ATL. The mean (SD) of changes in the raw score difference of the neuropsychological tests before and after the ATL was compared between Decline and No-decline groups. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were used to assess the optimum cutoff points of neuropsychological test score changes to predict patient-reported subjective cognitive decline. Six (12.5%) patients reported a perception of cognitive function decline after ATL. Among the 25 cognitive tests analyzed, only changes in the Boston Naming Test (BNT) were associated with subjective cognitive decline reported by patients. A reduction of ≥8 points in the raw score of BNT after surgery had 91% of sensitivity and 45% specificity for predicting subjective perception of cognitive function decline by the patient. Left side surgery and age older than 40years were more associated with an important BNT reduction with overall accuracy of 91.7%, 95% predictive ability for no impairment, and 75% for impairment of cognitive function. Impairment in word-finding seems to be the objective cognitive finding most relevant to Brazilian patients after mesial temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Similar to American patients, the side of surgery and age are good predictors for no decline in the BNT, but shows a lower accuracy to predict its decline. If replicated in other populations, the

  9. Use of spoken and written Japanese did not protect Japanese-American men from cognitive decline in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Paul K; Gruhl, Jonathan C; Erosheva, Elena A; Gibbons, Laura E; McCurry, Susan M; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon

    2010-11-01

    Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900-1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve.

  10. Testing cognitive performance of socially housed monkeys: possibilities and limitations of the study of social influences on age-related cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toxopeus, Ido Bart

    2004-01-01

    In both humans and monkeys not all individuals show the same rate of age-related cognitive decline. One important factor to influence the rate of decline is extended exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids, which play a central role in the response to stress. Furthermore, studies with humans

  11. Cognitive decline impairs financial and health literacy among community-based older persons without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A

    2013-09-01

    Literacy is an important determinant of health and well-being across the life span but is critical in aging, when many influential health and financial decisions are made. Prior studies suggest that older persons exhibit lower literacy than younger persons, particularly in the domains of financial and health literacy, but the reasons why remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to: (a) examine pathways linking diverse resources (i.e., education, word knowledge, cognitive function, and decision making style) to health and financial literacy among older persons and determine the extent to which the relation of age with literacy represents a direct effect versus an indirect effect due to decrements in specific cognitive functions (i.e., executive functions and episodic memory); and (b) test the hypothesis that declines in executive function and episodic memory are associated with lower literacy among older persons without dementia. Six-hundred and forty-five community-based older persons without dementia underwent detailed assessments of diverse resources, including education, word knowledge, cognitive function (i.e., executive function, episodic memory) and decision making style (i.e., risk aversion), and completed a measure of literacy that included items similar to those used in the Health and Retirement Study, such as numeracy, financial concepts such as compound inflation and knowledge of stocks and bonds, and important health concepts such as understanding of drug risk and Medicare Part D. Path analysis revealed a strong effect of age on literacy, with about half of the effect of age on literacy due to decrements in executive functions and episodic memory. In addition, executive function had an indirect effect on literacy via decision making style (i.e., risk aversion), and education and word knowledge had independent effects on literacy. Finally, among (n = 447) persons with repeated cognitive assessments available for up to 14 years, regression

  12. Medical Complications Predict Cognitive Decline in Nondemented Hip Fracture Patients-Results of a Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Juliana; Eschbach, Daphne; Aigner, Rene; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Bliemel, Christopher; Buecking, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that are associated with cognitive decline in the long-term follow-up after hip fractures in previously nondemented patients. A consecutive series of 402 patients with hip fractures admitted to our university hospital were analyzed. After exclusion of all patients with preexisting dementia, 266 patients were included, of which 188 could be examined 6 months after surgery. Additional to several demographic data, cognitive ability was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients with 19 or less points on the MMSE were considered demented. Furthermore, geriatric scores were recorded, as well as perioperative medical complications. Mini-Mental State Examination was performed again 6 months after surgery. Of 188 previously nondemented patients, 12 (6.4%) patients showed a cognitive decline during the 6 months of follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age ( P = .040) and medical complications ( P = .048) were the only significant independent influencing factors for cognitive decline. In our patient population, the incidence of dementia exceeded the average age-appropriate cognitive decline. Significant independent influencing factors for cognitive decline were age and medical complications.

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  14. Age-related cognitive decline as a function of daytime testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiu, Andrei Alexandru

    2017-05-01

    The current study investigates the effects of age, cognitive load, optimal time-of-day testing, and irrelevant background noise suppression on mental processing. One hundred and seventy-eight young (M = 22.97 years) and 114 old adults (M = 56.38 years) were assessed for implicit learning and speed of information processing under irrelevant sound interference early during daytime (7AM-2.30PM) or in the afternoons (3PM-midnight). No direct effect of irrelevant speech effect was found on implicit learning. An optimal time of testing per age group was identified according to the ability to suppress irrelevant auditory information. If no semantic meaning was derived from the sound conditions, irrelevant sound was easily inhibited leaving no room for declined cognitive performance. This suggests an intact phonological inhibition in older adults and a further circumvention of the phonological loop. However, when difficulty was increased, a widened performance gap between young and old people could be observed. Education modulated difficult performance irrespective of age. With increasing age, task demand fulfillment becomes a function of a limited time mechanism. If extraneous time is not adapted to cognitive skills and performance, higher order processing cannot be reached, rendering older adults slower than their younger counterparts.

  15. Meditation and successful aging: can meditative practices counteract age-related cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Makowski, Dominique; Blondé, Philippe; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-06-01

    Life expectancy is constantly increasing in the developed countries due to medical, hygiene and socio-economic advances. Unfortunately, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, aging is associated with growing risk factors for illness associated with societal conditions (isolation, maltreatment), and neurodegenerative diseases. Even normal aging is associated with a cognitive decline that can hinder independence and quality of life of elderly. Thus, one major societal challenge is to build policies that support people of all ages to maintain a maximum health and functional capacity throughout their lives. Meditation could be a promising intervention in contrasting the negative effects of aging. Indeed, it has been shown to enhance cognitive efficiency in several domains, such as attention and executive functions in young adults. Nevertheless, whether these effects extend to old participants is still a matter of debate. Few studies have directly investigated this issue, reporting encouraging results in a large panel of cognitive functions, such as: attention, executive functions and memory. However, a final conclusion about the causal role of meditation and the generalization of these results is made difficult due to several methodological limitations. We propose a roadmap for future studies to pass these limitations with the hope that the present work would contribute to the development of the young research field of meditation in gerontology.

  16. Associations of centrally acting ACE inhibitors with cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Karim; Perera, Gayan; Khondoker, Mizanur; Howard, Robert; Stewart, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. In the 9 months after Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, MMSE scores significantly increased by 0.72 and 0.19 points per year in patients on C-ACEIs and neither respectively, but deteriorated by 0.61 points per year in those on NC-ACEIs. There were no significant group differences in score trajectories from 9 to 36 months and no differences in survival. In people with Alzheimer's disease receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, those also taking C-ACEIs had stronger initial improvement in cognitive function, but there was no evidence of longer-lasting influence on dementia progression. R.S. has received research funding from Pfizer, Lundbeck, Roche, Janssen and GlaxoSmithKline. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  17. Glia and zinc in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease: A mechanism for cognitive decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eHancock

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal ageing is characterised by cognitive decline across a range of neurological functions, which are further impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Recently, alterations in zinc concentrations, particularly at the synapse, have emerged as a potential mechanism underlying the cognitive changes that occur in both ageing and AD. Zinc is now accepted as a potent neuromodulator, affecting a variety of signalling pathways at the synapse that are critical to normal cognition. While the focus has principally been on the neuron: zinc interaction, there is a growing literature suggesting that glia may also play a modulatory role in maintaining both zinc ion homeostasis and the normal function of the synapse. Indeed, zinc transporters have been demonstrated in glial cells where zinc has also been shown to have a role in signalling. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the pathogenesis of AD critically involves glial cells (such as astrocytes, which have been reported to contribute to amyloid-beta neurotoxicity. This review discusses the current evidence supporting a complex interplay of glia, zinc dyshomeostasis and synaptic function in ageing and AD.

  18. Correlation between white matter alterations and cognitive function decline in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Hongyan; Qi Ji; Wang Mingshi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter (WM) integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its relationship with cognitive function decline. Methods: DTI was performed in 32 subjects, including 14 early AD patients and 18 elder controls (ON) with a 1.5 T MR scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (b) values were computed and compared for 9 regions of interest (ROI). Eight standard neuropsychological tests were performed and compared between AD and ON to evaluate basic cognitive capacities of AD. Correlation analysis was applied between FA, D values and scores of neuropsychological tests for all subjects. Results: FA significantly decreased in splenium of the corpus callosum and the posterior parietal-temporal region (S2), and (D)-bar significantly increased in the splenium in AD patients (P<0.05). AD patients showed lower scores compared with ON in all neuropsychological tests (P<0.05). FA of the splenium and S2 positively correlated with several tests scores, while D of multiple ROIs negatively correlated with several tests scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: In the early stage of AD, neuropathology has effect not only on cognitive function, but also on white matter structure, and they have strong relationship. AD patients show white matter changes in specific regions, which reflect loss in cortico-cortical connections. (authors)

  19. Value of FDG-PET scans of non-demented patients in predicting rates of future cognitive and functional decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosyan, Nare; Mason, Kelsey; Dahlbom, Magnus; Silverman, Daniel H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting subsequent rates of functional and cognitive decline among subjects considered cognitively normal (CN) or clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Analyses of 276 subjects, 92 CN subjects and 184 with MCI, who were enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, were conducted. Functional decline was assessed using scores on the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) obtained over a period of 36 months, while cognitive decline was determined using the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. PET images were analyzed using clinically routine brain quantification software. A dementia prognosis index (DPI), derived from a ratio of uptake values in regions of interest known to be hypometabolic in Alzheimer's disease to regions known to be stable, was generated for each baseline FDG-PET scan. The DPI was correlated with change in scores on the neuropsychological examinations to examine the predictive value of baseline FDG-PET. DPI powerfully predicted rate of functional decline among MCI patients (t = 5.75, p < 1.0E-8) and pooled N + MCI patient groups (t = 7.02, p < 1.0E-11). Rate of cognitive decline on MMSE was also predicted by the DPI among MCI (t = 6.96, p < 1.0E-10) and pooled N + MCI (t = 8.78, p < 5.0E-16). Rate of cognitive decline on ADAS-cog was powerfully predicted by the DPI alone among N (p < 0.001), MCI (t = 6.46, p < 1.0E-9) and for pooled N + MCI (t = 8.85, p = 1.1E-16). These findings suggest that an index, derivable from automated regional analysis of brain PET scans, can be used to help predict rates of functional and cognitive deterioration in the years following baseline PET. (orig.)

  20. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  1. Interactive Associations of Vascular Risk and β-Amyloid Burden With Cognitive Decline in Clinically Normal Elderly Individuals: Findings From the Harvard Aging Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jennifer S; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A; Kilpatrick, Emily; Klein, Hannah; Buckley, Rachel F; Yang, Hyun-Sik; Properzi, Michael; Rao, Vaishnavi; Kirn, Dylan R; Papp, Kathryn V; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P

    2018-05-21

    Identifying asymptomatic individuals at high risk of impending cognitive decline because of Alzheimer disease is crucial for successful prevention of dementia. Vascular risk and β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology commonly co-occur in older adults and are significant causes of cognitive impairment. To determine whether vascular risk and Aβ burden act additively or synergistically to promote cognitive decline in clinically normal older adults; and, secondarily, to evaluate the unique influence of vascular risk on prospective cognitive decline beyond that of commonly used imaging biomarkers, including Aβ burden, hippocampal volume, fludeoxyglucose F18-labeled (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and white matter hyperintensities, a marker of cerebrovascular disease. In this longitudinal observational study, we examined clinically normal older adults from the Harvard Aging Brain Study. Participants were required to have baseline imaging data (FDG-PET, Aβ-PET, and magnetic resonance imaging), baseline medical data to quantify vascular risk, and at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological visit. Data collection began in 2010 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed on data collected between 2010 and 2017. Vascular risk was quantified using the Framingham Heart Study general cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) risk score. We measured Aβ burden with Pittsburgh Compound-B PET. Cognition was measured annually with the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite. Models were corrected for baseline age, sex, years of education, and apolipoprotein E ε4 status. Of the 223 participants, 130 (58.3%) were women. The mean (SD) age was 73.7 (6.0) years, and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 3.7 (1.2) years. Faster cognitive decline was associated with both a higher FHS-CVD risk score (β = -0.064; 95% CI, -0.094 to -0.033; P < .001) and higher Aβ burden (β = -0.058; 95% CI, -0.079 to -0.037; P < .001). The interaction of the FHS-CVD risk score and Aβ burden with time

  2. A study of longitudinal data examining concomitance of pain and cognition in an elderly long-term care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burfield AH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Allison H Burfield1, Thomas TH Wan2, Mary Lou Sole3, James W Cooper41Gerontology Program, School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, USA; 2Health Services, Administration, and Medical Education, Director, Doctoral Program in Public Affairs, Associate Dean for Research, College of Health and Public Affairs, 3College of Nursing, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USAPurpose: To examine if a concomitant relationship exists between cognition and pain in an elderly population residing in long-term care.Background/significance: Prior research has found that cognitive load mediates interpretation of a stimulus. In the presence of decreased cognitive capacity as with dementia, the relationship between cognition and increasing pain is unknown in the elderly.Patients and methods: Longitudinal cohort design. Data collected from the Minimum Data Set-Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI from the 2001–2003 annual assessments of nursing home residents. A covariance model was used to evaluate the relationship between cognition and pain at three intervals.Results: The sample included 56,494 subjects from nursing homes across the United States, with an average age of 83 ± 8.2 years. Analysis of variance scores (ANOVAs indicated a significant effect (P < 0.01 for pain and cognition, with protected t test revealing scores decreasing significantly with these two measures. Relative stability was found for pain and cognition over time. Greater stability was found in the cognitive measure than the pain measure. Cross-legged effects observed between cognition and pain measures were inconsistent. A concomitant relationship was not found between cognition and pain. Even though the relationship was significant at the 0.01 level, the correlations were low (r ≤ 0.08, indicating a weak association between cognition and pain

  3. Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Palta, Priya; Couper, David; Meyer, Katie; Graff, Misa; Haring, Bernhard; Sharrett, Richey; Heiss, Gerardo

    2017-10-17

    Background : Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective : Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods : A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks). Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results : Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03) z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting "almost never" consuming milk. Conclusions : Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.

  4. Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petruski-Ivleva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective: Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods: A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks. Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results: Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03 z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting “almost never” consuming milk. Conclusions: Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.

  5. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Longitudinal association of hypertension and diabetes mellitus with cognitive functioning in a general 70-year-old population: the SONIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuno, Hirochika; Kamide, Kei; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kabayama, Mai; Oguro, Ryosuke; Nakama, Chikako; Yokoyama, Serina; Nagasawa, Motonori; Maeda-Hirao, Satomi; Imaizumi, Yuki; Takeya, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Takeda, Masao; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sugimoto, Ken; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Yasumoto, Saori; Ikebe, Kazunori; Inagaki, Hiroki; Masui, Yukie; Takayama, Michiyo; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-07-01

    Both hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals have been suggested to be predictive indicators of cognitive decline. However, the association of hypertension, diabetes and their combination with cognitive functioning is still controversial in older people. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive decline and hypertension, diabetes, and their combination in 70-year-old people based on a 3-year longitudinal analysis. Four hundred and fifty-four people aged 70 (±1) years who participated in the Japanese longitudinal cohort study of Septuagenarians, Octogenarians and Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC) were recruited randomly from a general population and were monitored for 3 years. The data, including most of the demographics, cognitive functioning measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Japanese version (MoCA-J), blood pressure, blood chemistry and other medical histories, were collected at baseline and during the follow-up. The prevalence of hypertension noted in the follow-up survey was significantly higher than than noted at baseline. The mean MoCA-J score at follow-up was not significantly different from the score obtained at baseline. However, the participants with diabetes, especially combined with hypertension at baseline, had significantly lower MoCA-J scores than those without lifestyle-related diseases. The combination of hypertension and diabetes was still a significant risk factor for cognitive decline, considering the MoCA-J scores obtained during the follow-up after adjustments at baseline, relative to sex, body mass index, dyslipidemia, smoking, excessive alcohol intake, antihypertensive treatment and education level (β=-0.14; Pdiabetes and the combination of hypertension and diabetes are clear risk factors for future cognitive decline in elderly individuals who are 70 years of age.

  7. Association Between Brain Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Alteration of Ex Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Transverse Relaxation in Late-Life Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Dawe, Robert J; Boyle, Patricia A; Gaiteri, Chris; Yang, Jingyun; Buchman, Aron S; Schneider, Julie A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; De Jager, Philip L; Bennett, David A

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation is associated with late-life cognitive decline even after controlling for common neuropathologic conditions. However, the underlying neurobiology of this association is unknown. To investigate the association between brain gene expression, DNA methylation, and alteration of magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation in late-life cognitive decline. Data came from 2 community-based longitudinal cohort studies of aging and dementia, the Religious Orders Study, which began in 1993, and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, which began in 1997. All participants agreed to undergo annual clinical evaluations and to donate their brains after death. By October 24, 2016, a total of 1358 individuals had died and had brain autopsies that were approved by board-certified neuropathologists. Of those, 552 had undergone ex vivo imaging. The gene expression analysis was limited to 174 individuals with both imaging and brain RNA sequencing data. The DNA methylation analysis was limited to 225 individuals with both imaging and brain methylation data. Maps of ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation were generated using fast spin echo imaging. The target was a composite measure of the transverse relaxation rate (R2) that was associated with cognitive decline after controlling for common neuropathologic conditions. Next-generation RNA sequencing and DNA methylation data were generated using frozen tissue from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Genome-wide association analysis was used to investigate gene expression and, separately, DNA methylation for signals associated with the R2 measure. Of the 552 individuals with ex vivo imaging data, 394 were women and 158 were men, and the mean (SD) age at death was 90.4 (6.0) years. Four co-expressed genes (PADI2 [Ensembl ENSG00000117115], ZNF385A [Ensembl ENSG00000161642], PSD2 [Ensembl ENSG00000146005], and A2ML1 [Ensembl ENSG00000166535]) were

  8. Opportunities for New Insights on the Life-Course Risks and Outcomes of Cognitive Decline in the Kavli HUMAN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, Kenneth M; Cutler, David

    2015-09-01

    The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) will provide groundbreaking insights into how biological, medical, and social factors interact and impact the risks for cognitive decline from birth through older age. It will richly measure the effect of cognitive decline on the ability to perform key activities of daily living. In addition, due to its family focus, the KHP will measure the impact on family members, including the amount of time that family members spend providing care to older adults with dementia. It will also clarify the division of caregiving duties among family members and the effects on caregivers' work, family life, and balance thereof. At the same time, for care that the family cannot provide, it will clarify the extent to which cognitive decline impacts healthcare utilization and end-of-life decision making.

  9. Predictors of Cognitive and Functional Decline in Patients With Alzheimer Disease Dementia From Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabricio F; Chen, Elizabeth S; Smith, Marilia C; Bertolucci, Paulo H F

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia affect disease progression, much less for populations with low mean schooling, whereas the transcription of APOE may be regulated by nongenetic factors. In this 44-month cohort study, 214 consecutive outpatients with late-onset AD were assessed for rates of cognitive and functional decline by way of Clinical Dementia Rating and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, keeping blinded assessment of APOE haplotypes. Subjects were evaluated for sex, schooling, age of dementia onset, and cerebrovascular risk factors (including Framingham risk scores). Of the 214 patients, there were 146 (68.2%) women and 113 (52.8%) APOE4+ carriers. The mean age of AD onset was 73.4±6.5 years-old, negatively correlated with time to Clinical Dementia Rating >1.0 (β=-0.132; ρrisk was correlated with time to MMSE=20 only for APOE4+ carriers (ρ=0.015). These outcomes suggest interactions among genomic effects of cognitive reserve, cerebral perfusion, and hormonal changes over mechanisms of neurodegeneration.

  10. An Examination of Age-Based Stereotype Threat About Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    "Stereotype threat" is often thought of as a singular construct, with moderators and mechanisms that are stable across groups and domains. However, this is not always true. To illustrate this, the current review focuses on the stereotype threat that older adults face about their cognitive abilities. Drawing upon the multithreat framework, I first provide evidence that this is a self-concept threat and not a group-reputation threat. Because this differs from the forms of stereotype threat experienced by other groups (e.g., the threat that minority students face about their intellectual abilities), the moderators of stereotype threat observed in other groups (i.e., group identification) do not always generalize to age-based stereotype threat about cognitive decline. Looking beyond the forms of stereotype threat elicited, this review also provides evidence that the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects may vary across the adult life span. Because of age-related improvements in emotion-regulation abilities, stereotype threat does not seem to reduce older adults' executive-control resources. Overall, this review highlights the need to approach the concept of stereotype threat with more granularity, allowing researchers to design more effective stereotype-threat interventions. It will also shed light on why certain stereotype threat effects "fail to replicate" across domains or groups.

  11. More on the benefits of wine for cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe beneficial impact of moderate and regular consumption of alcohol and wine for cognitive decline and the risks of dementia has been widely studied and reported.1-4 The pages of the International Journal of Wine Research have seen two reviews of the field,5,6 while our sister journal, Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, has also focused on this issue, first in 2006 with a research investigation in Danish women,7 and now in a more recent comprehensive review including 143 published papers.8 One of the more poignant aspects of the new publication is that the authors, Edward Neafsey and Michael Collins from Loyola University in Chicago, come from a background of experimental molecular pharmacology and wondered why moderate alcohol exposure appeared to protect rat hippocampal-entorhinal cortex brain slice cultures from the toxicity of amyloid-β, the protein that has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Their curiosity led to a literature search on whether alcohol protects against AD and other forms of cognitive impairment in humans, an endeavor that rather overwhelmed them with the immensity of the data.

  12. Protocol for project FACT: a randomised controlled trial on the effect of a walking program and vitamin B supplementation on the rate of cognitive decline and psychosocial wellbeing in older adults with mild cognitive impairment [ISRCTN19227688

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uffelen, J.G.Z.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of individuals with cognitive decline is increasing since the number of elderly adults is growing considerably. The literature provides promising results on the beneficial effect of exercise and vitamin supplementation on cognitive function both in cognitively

  13. Physical activity, healthy diet and good cognitive functioning: findings from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Visser, M.; Hobbelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background. In an ageing society cognitive decline is expected to become an important health problem. Previous studies showed that a healthy lifestyle, i.e. sufficient physical activity and a healthy diet,can benefit cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to assess the (synergistic) association

  14. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T and methionine synthase 2756A>G mutations: no impact on survival, cognitive functioning, or cognitive decline in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Christiansen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown an association between homocysteine, cognitive functioning, and survival among the oldest-old. Two common polymorphisms in the genes coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and methionine synthase (MTR 2756A>G) have an impact on plasma...... homocysteine level. METHODS: We examined the effect of the MTHFR 677C>T and MTR 2756A>G genotypes on baseline cognitive functioning, cognitive decline over 5 years measured in three assessments, and survival in a population-based cohort of 1581 nonagenarians. Cognitive functioning was assessed by using...

  15. The Nordic Prudent Diet Reduces Risk of Cognitive Decline in the Swedish Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Shakersain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic Sea Diet indices. A total of 2223 dementia-free adults aged ≥60 were followed for 6 years. Mini-Mental State Examination was administrated at baseline and follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by 98-item food frequency questionnaire, and the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP was identified. Data were analysed using mixed-effects and parametric survival models and receiver operating characteristic curves with adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate (β = 0.139, 95% CI 0.077−0.201 and high adherence (β = 0.238, 95% CI 0.175−0.300 to NPDP were associated with less cognitive decline compared to other four indices. High adherence to NPDP was also associated with the lowest risk of MMSE decline to ≤24 (HR = 0.176, 95% CI 0.080−0.386 and had the greatest ability to predict such decline (area under the curve = 0.70. Moderate-to-high adherence to the NPDP may predict a better-preserved cognitive function among older adults in Nordic countries. Regional dietary habits should be considered in developing dietary guidelines for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  16. The Nordic Prudent Diet Reduces Risk of Cognitive Decline in the Swedish Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakersain, Behnaz; Rizzuto, Debora; Larsson, Susanna C; Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Fratiglioni, Laura; Xu, Wei-Li

    2018-02-17

    Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic Sea Diet indices. A total of 2223 dementia-free adults aged ≥60 were followed for 6 years. Mini-Mental State Examination was administrated at baseline and follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by 98-item food frequency questionnaire, and the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) was identified. Data were analysed using mixed-effects and parametric survival models and receiver operating characteristic curves with adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate (β = 0.139, 95% CI 0.077-0.201) and high adherence (β = 0.238, 95% CI 0.175-0.300) to NPDP were associated with less cognitive decline compared to other four indices. High adherence to NPDP was also associated with the lowest risk of MMSE decline to ≤24 (HR = 0.176, 95% CI 0.080-0.386) and had the greatest ability to predict such decline (area under the curve = 0.70). Moderate-to-high adherence to the NPDP may predict a better-preserved cognitive function among older adults in Nordic countries. Regional dietary habits should be considered in developing dietary guidelines for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  17. Small scale homelike special care units and traditional special care units: effects on cognition in dementia; a longitudinal controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jeroen S; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Berg, Ina J; Scherder, Erik J A

    2016-02-16

    Evidence shows that living in small scale homelike Special Care Units (SCU) has positive effects on behavioural and psychological symptoms of patients with dementia. Effects on cognitive functioning in relation to care facilities, however, are scarcely investigated. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into the effects of living in small scale homelike Special Care Units, compared to regular SCU's, on the course of cognitive functioning in dementia. A group of 67 patients with dementia who moved from a regular SCU to a small scale homelike SCU and a group of 48 patients with dementia who stayed in a regular SCU participated in the study. Cognitive and behavioural functioning was assessed by means of a neuropsychological test battery and observation scales one month before (baseline), as well as 3 (post) and 6 months (follow-up) after relocation. Comparing the post and follow-up measurement with the baseline measurement, no significant differences on separate measures of cognitive functioning between both groups were found. Additional analyses, however, on 'domain clusters' revealed that global cognitive functioning of the small scale homelike SCU group showed significantly less cognitive decline three months after the transfer (p Effect sizes (95% CI) show a tendency for better aspects of cognition in favour of the homelike small scaled SCU group, i.e., visual memory, picture recognition, cognitive decline as observed by representatives and the clustered domains episodic memory and global cognitive functioning. While there is no significant longitudinal effect on the progression of cognitive decline comparing small scaled homelike SCU's with regular SCU's for patients with dementia, analyses on the domain clusters and effect sizes cautiously suggest differences in favour of the small scaled homelike SCU for different aspects of cognition.

  18. A molecular network of the aging human brain provides insights into the pathology and cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Sara; Gaiteri, Chris; Sullivan, Sarah E; White, Charles C; Tasaki, Shinya; Xu, Jishu; Taga, Mariko; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Patrick, Ellis; Komashko, Vitalina; McCabe, Cristin; Smith, Robert; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M; Root, David E; Regev, Aviv; Yu, Lei; Chibnik, Lori B; Schneider, Julie A; Young-Pearse, Tracy L; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L

    2018-06-01

    There is a need for new therapeutic targets with which to prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major contributor to aging-related cognitive decline. Here we report the construction and validation of a molecular network of the aging human frontal cortex. Using RNA sequence data from 478 individuals, we first build a molecular network using modules of coexpressed genes and then relate these modules to AD and its neuropathologic and cognitive endophenotypes. We confirm these associations in two independent AD datasets. We also illustrate the use of the network in prioritizing amyloid- and cognition-associated genes for in vitro validation in human neurons and astrocytes. These analyses based on unique cohorts enable us to resolve the role of distinct cortical modules that have a direct effect on the accumulation of AD pathology from those that have a direct effect on cognitive decline, exemplifying a network approach to complex diseases.

  19. Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokenberger, Kathleen; Ström, Peter; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998-2002 was available from a subsample (N=320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men. Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of "any-type" or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand. Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  20. APOE e4 and the associations of seafood and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de Ondine; Wang, Yamin; Barnes, Lisa L.; Tangney, Christine; Bennett, David A.; Morris, Martha Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between consumption of seafood and long-chain n-3 fatty acids with change in 5 cognitive domains over an average of 4.9 years. Methods: From an ongoing longitudinal, community-based epidemiologic study of aging and dementia (the Rush Memory and Aging

  1. Association between Exposure to the Chinese Famine in Different Stages of Early Life and Decline in Cognitive Functioning in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Yu; Yu, Huanling; Feng, Lingli; Liu, Quanri; Lu, Yanhui; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether exposure to the Chinese Famine in different life stages of early life is associated with cognitive functioning decline in adulthood. We recruited 1366 adults born between 1950 and 1964 and divided them into fetal-exposed, early childhood-exposed (1-3 years old during the famine), mid childhood-exposed (4-6 years old during the famine), late childhood-exposed (7-9 years old during the famine), and non-exposed groups. A selection of cognitive tests was administered to assess their cognitive performance. Association between malnutrition in different famine exposure periods and adult cognitive performance was estimated by multivariate logistic and multiple linear regression analyses. There were significant differences in cognitive performance between subjects exposed to famine during different life stages. For the general cognitive tests, fetal-exposed period was associated with decreased scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and late childhood-exposed with decreased scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We also found exposure to famine during mid and late childhood was associated with worse performance on the Stroop color and word test. Famine exposure in utero and during childhood is associated with overall and specific cognitive decline, affecting selective attention and response inhibition particularly.

  2. Evolving Evidence for the Value of Neuroimaging Methods and Biological Markers in Subjects Categorized with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, Jose L; Cavedo, Enrica; Rami, Lorena; Amouyel, Philippe; Teipel, Stefan J; Garaci, Francesco; Toschi, Nicola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bokde, Arun L W; Broich, Karl; Herholz, Karl; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Dubois, Bruno; Jessen, Frank; Carrillo, Maria C; Aisen, Paul S; Hampel, Harald

    2015-09-24

    There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials.

  3. Temporal Change of Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Results of Turquoise Alzheimer’s Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Çınar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the temporal change of the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease (AD. For this reason, the factorial analysis of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE Test was used in first visit and six months later. METHODS: In this multicenter, longitudinal study, data of 268 (n: 152 mild, n: 116 moderate cases, obtained from the ‘Turquoise Alzheimer Working Group’ in Turkey, were evaluated. The patients who were diagnosed with probable AD according to the DSM-IV criteria were included in the study. Disability was assessed by means of global deterioration scale. The MMSE, which has 7 components (time orientation, spatial orientation, immediate memory, attention/concentration, delayed recall, language, and constructional praxis, was applied to all patients at the baseline visit and 6 months later. RESULTS: The baseline evaluation revealed a significant correlation between orientation and attention subscales in the mild AD group. At the second evaluation of mild AD group and at both evaluations of moderate AD group, there were stronger correlations among all subscales. Subscales of time orientation, attention/concentration and immediate memory had higher factorial load in the first evaluation in mild AD group. Subscales of delayed recall and language were more significant in second evaluation. Subscale of spatial orientation was added in moderate AD group in both evaluation periods. CONCLUSION: Factor analysis of MMSE subscales varied according to the stage and duration of the disease. Generally, disturbances in attention and orientation might be the first findings in AD groups. When assessing AD cases, the properties of subscales in MMSE should be considered

  4. Performance variability is related to change in cognition: evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-09-01

    Performance variability across repeated task administrations may be an important indicator of age-related cognitive functioning. In the present investigation, the authors examined whether age differences and change in inconsistency were related to 6-year (3 occasion) cognitive change. Inconsistency scores were computed from 4 reaction time tasks performed by 446 older adults (54-89 years). Replicating previous cross-sectional results, greater inconsistency was observed for older participants even after controlling for differences in response speed. New longitudinal results demonstrated (a) associations between inconsistency at baseline measurement and 6-year change in cognitive performance; (b) longitudinal change in inconsistency; and (c) intraindividual covariation between 6-year change in inconsistency and 6-year change in level of cognitive function. These findings support the view that performance variability serves as a marker of cognitive aging.

  5. Type 2 diabetes, depressive symptoms and trajectories of cognitive decline in a national sample of community-dwellers: A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotes Demakakos

    Full Text Available We examined the individual and synergistic effects of type 2 diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms on memory and executive function trajectories over 10 and eight years of follow-up, respectively. Our sample comprised 10,524 community-dwellers aged ≥50 years in 2002-03 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. With respect to memory (word recall, participants with either diabetes or elevated depressive symptoms recalled significantly fewer words compared with those free of these conditions (reference category, but more words compared with those with both conditions. There was a significant acceleration in the rate of memory decline in participants aged 50-64 years with both conditions (-0.27, 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.08, per study wave, which was not observed in those with either condition or aged ≥65 years. With respect to executive function (animal naming, participants aged ≥65 years with diabetes or those with elevated depressive symptoms named significantly fewer animals compared with the reference category, while those with both conditions named fewer animals compared with any other category. The rate of executive function decline was significantly greater in participants with both conditions (-0.54, 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.10; and -0.71, 95% CI, -1.16 to -0.27, per study wave, for those aged 50-64 and ≥65 years, respectively, but not in participants with either condition. Diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms are inversely associated with memory and executive function, but, individually, do not accelerate cognitive decline. The co-occurrence of diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms significantly accelerates cognitive decline over time, especially among those aged 50-64 years.

  6. Effects of polymorphic variations in tumor necrosis factor alpha and occupational exposure to grain dust on longitudinal decline in pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Punam; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Koehncke, Niels; McDuffie, Helen H

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal declines in pulmonary function are associated with individuals experiencing occupational exposure to organic dusts in combination with lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking and with genetic factors, and interactions between these factors. To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of genes encoding Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) and longitudinal lung function decline in grain workers exposed to grain dust. Male grain handlers who participated in the Saskatchewan Grain Workers Surveillance Program from 2002 through 2005 provided demographic, occupational, lifestyle, and respiratory symptoms information as well as pulmonary function measurements and DNA for genotyping. Marginal models using the generalized estimating equations approach were fitted by using a SAS PROC GENMOD to predict the annual decline in Forced Expired Volume in one second (FEV(1)) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). Smoking intensity contributed to the decline in FEV(1.)Among *1/*1 homozygotes and *1/*2 heterozygotes, grain workers with grain industry had significantly lower FEV(1)declines compared to those of the other two exposure groups (>10 and 20 years in the grain industry). The annual declines in FEV(1)for grain workers who were either *1/*1 homozygote or *1/*2 heterozygote and had been in the grain industry for grain workers who were *2/*2 genotype and had been in the industry for grain industry is an effect modifier between TNF-alpha 308 genotype and longitudinal decline in FEV(1)in male subjects exposed to grain dust.

  7. Needs in nursing homes and their relation with cognitive and functional decline, behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.

  8. Cognitive decline preceding the onset of psychosis in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstman, Jacob A S; Breetvelt, Elemi J.; Duijff, Sasja N.; Eliez, Stephan; Schneider, Maude; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Shashi, Vandana; Hooper, Stephen R.; Chow, Eva W C; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J.; Young, Donald A.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Vogels, Annick; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Gothelf, Doron; Weinberger, Ronnie; Weizman, Abraham; Klaassen, Petra W J; Koops, Sanne; Kates, Wendy R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Simon, Tony J.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Swillen, Ann; Gur, Raquel E.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Kahn, René S.; Bassett, Anne S.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Kushan, Leila; Fremont, Wanda; Schoch, Kelly; Stoddard, Joel; Cubells, Joseph; Fu, Fiona; Campbell, Linda E.; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Vergaelen, Elfi; Neeleman, Marjolein; Boot, Erik; Debbané, Martin; Philip, Nicole; Green, Tamar; Van DenBree, Marianne B M; Murphy, Declan; Canyelles, Jaume Morey; Arango, Celso; Murphy, Kieran C.; Pontillo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Importance: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have an elevated (25%) risk of developing schizophrenia. Recent reports have suggested that a subgroup of children with 22q11DS display a substantial decline in cognitive abilities starting at a young age.Objective: To determine whether

  9. Visual function and cognitive speed of processing mediate age-related decline in memory span and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Olivio J; Edwards, Jerri D; Ross, Lesley A; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Wadley, Virginia G; Roth, David L; Ball, Karlene K

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sensory and cognitive decline, particularly with respect to speed of processing, memory span, and fluid intelligence. In addition, the common cause, sensory degradation and speed of processing hypotheses were compared. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the complex relationships among age-related decrements in these areas. Cross-sectional data analyses included 842 older adult participants (M = 73 years). After accounting for age-related declines in vision and processing speed, the direct associations between age and memory span and between age and fluid intelligence were nonsignificant. Older age was associated with visual decline, which was associated with slower speed of processing, which in turn was associated with greater cognitive deficits. The findings support both the sensory degradation and speed of processing accounts of age-related, cognitive decline. Furthermore, the findings highlight positive aspects of normal cognitive aging in that older age may not be associated with a loss of fluid intelligence if visual sensory functioning and processing speed can be maintained.

  10. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. Objective: We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. Methods: We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Results: Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate of cognitive decline in very old adults. PMID:26740685

  11. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-02-01

    Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate of cognitive decline in very old adults.

  12. Atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline-the role of subclinical cerebral infarcts: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin Y; Lopez, Faye L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Huxley, Rachel R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura; Mosley, Thomas; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism underlying the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals is unclear. We examined the association of incident AF with cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals, stratified by subclinical cerebral infarcts (SCIs) on brain MRI scans. We analyzed data from 935 stroke-free participants (mean age±SD, 61.5±4.3 years; 62% women; and 51% black) from 1993 to 1995 through 2004 to 2006 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a biracial community-based prospective cohort study. Cognitive testing (including the digit symbol substitution and the word fluency tests) was performed in 1993 to 1995, 1996 to 1998, and 2004 to 2006 and brain MRI scans in 1993 to 1995 and 2004 to 2006. During follow-up, there were 48 incident AF events. Incident AF was associated with greater annual average rate of decline in digit symbol substitution (-0.77; 95% confidence interval, -1.55 to 0.01; P=0.054) and word fluency (-0.80; 95% confidence interval, -1.60 to -0.01; P=0.048). Among participants without SCIs on brain MRI scans, incident AF was not associated with cognitive decline. In contrast, incident AF was associated with greater annual average rate of decline in word fluency (-2.65; 95% confidence interval, -4.26 to -1.03; P=0.002) among participants with prevalent SCIs in 1993 to 1995. Among participants who developed SCIs during follow-up, incident AF was associated with a greater annual average rate of decline in digit symbol substitution (-1.51; 95% confidence interval, -3.02 to -0.01; P=0.049). The association of incident AF with cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals can be explained by the presence or development of SCIs, raising the possibility of anticoagulation as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline in AF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailean, Anamaria; Huisman, Martijn; Prince, Martin; Prina, A Matthew; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie

    2016-09-30

    This study aims to examine cohort differences in cognitive performance and rates of change in episodic memory, processing speed, inductive reasoning, and general cognitive performance and to investigate whether these cohort effects may be accounted for by education attainment. The first cohort (N = 705) was born between 1920 and 1930, whereas the second cohort (N = 646) was born between 1931 and 1941. Both birth cohorts were aged 65 to 75 years at baseline and were followed up 3 and 6 years later. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. The later born cohort had better general cognitive performance, inductive reasoning, and processing speed at baseline, but cohort differences in inductive reasoning and general cognitive performance disappeared after adjusting for education. The later born cohort showed steeper decline in processing speed. Memory decline was steeper in the earlier born cohort but only from Time 1 to Time 3 when the same memory test was administered. Education did not account for cohort differences in cognitive decline. The later born cohort showed better initial performance in certain cognitive abilities, but no better preservation of cognitive abilities overtime compared with the earlier born cohort. These findings carry implications for healthy cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  14. Value of FDG-PET scans of non-demented patients in predicting rates of future cognitive and functional decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torosyan, Nare; Mason, Kelsey; Dahlbom, Magnus; Silverman, Daniel H.S. [David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Ahmanson Translational Imaging Division, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Collaboration: the Alzheimer' sDisease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting subsequent rates of functional and cognitive decline among subjects considered cognitively normal (CN) or clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Analyses of 276 subjects, 92 CN subjects and 184 with MCI, who were enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, were conducted. Functional decline was assessed using scores on the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) obtained over a period of 36 months, while cognitive decline was determined using the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. PET images were analyzed using clinically routine brain quantification software. A dementia prognosis index (DPI), derived from a ratio of uptake values in regions of interest known to be hypometabolic in Alzheimer's disease to regions known to be stable, was generated for each baseline FDG-PET scan. The DPI was correlated with change in scores on the neuropsychological examinations to examine the predictive value of baseline FDG-PET. DPI powerfully predicted rate of functional decline among MCI patients (t = 5.75, p < 1.0E-8) and pooled N + MCI patient groups (t = 7.02, p < 1.0E-11). Rate of cognitive decline on MMSE was also predicted by the DPI among MCI (t = 6.96, p < 1.0E-10) and pooled N + MCI (t = 8.78, p < 5.0E-16). Rate of cognitive decline on ADAS-cog was powerfully predicted by the DPI alone among N (p < 0.001), MCI (t = 6.46, p < 1.0E-9) and for pooled N + MCI (t = 8.85, p = 1.1E-16). These findings suggest that an index, derivable from automated regional analysis of brain PET scans, can be used to help predict rates of functional and cognitive deterioration in the years following baseline PET. (orig.)

  15. Acute parietal lobe infarction presenting as Gerstmann’s syndrome and cognitive decline mimicking senile dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen TY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tien-Yu Chen,1 Chun-Yen Chen,1,3 Che-Hung Yen,2,3 Shin-Chang Kuo,1,3 Yi-Wei Yeh,1,3 Serena Chang,1 San-Yuan Huang1,31Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Neurology, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Gerstmann’s syndrome encompasses the tetrad of finger agnosia, agraphia, acalculia, and right-left confusion. An elderly man with a history of several cardiovascular diseases was initially brought to the psychiatric outpatient department by his family because of worsening of recent memory, executive function, and mixed anxious-depressive mood. Gerstmann’s syndrome without obvious motor function impairment and dementia-like features could be observed at first. Emergent brain computed tomography scan revealed new left-middle cerebral artery infarction over the left posterior parietal lobe. This case reminds us that acute cerebral infarction involving the parietal lobe may present as Gerstmann’s syndrome accompanied by cognitive decline mimicking dementia. As a result, emergent organic workups should be arranged, especially for elderly patients at high risk for cerebral vascular accident.Keywords: Gerstmann’s syndrome, dementia, parietal lobe infarction

  16. Pathogenesis of Cognitive Decline Following Therapeutic Irradiation for Head and Neck Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abayomi, Olubunmi K.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a significant but largely unrecognized sequela following irradiation for several head and neck tumors, particularly cancer of the nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses. In this article the cellular mechanisms of radiation-induced vascular damage in the temporal lobe and its effects on the medial temporal lobe memory systems are described. Recognition of the mechanisms and site of the injury should permit the use of treatment planning systems, such as 3-dimensional (3-D) conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques, to spare large volumes of the temporal lobe from receiving a high dose. Furthermore, the emerging concepts of vascular irradiation damage as an inflammatory fibroproliferative response to endothelial injury may permit the application of measures directed at inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory genes and thus mitigate the inflammatory response. Moreover, comorbid factors such as hypertension, diabetes, lipidemia, obesity and smoking are known to promote atherogenesis and therefore may exacerbate radiation-induced vascular damage. Control of these factors may also reduce the incidence and severity of this sequela

  17. MRI Markers of Neurodegenerative and Neurovascular Changes in Relation to Postoperative Delirium and Postoperative Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ilse M J; de Bresser, Jeroen; van Montfort, Simone J T; Slooter, Arjen J C; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) are common in elderly patients. The aim of the present review was to explore the association of neurodegenerative and neurovascular changes with the occurrence of POD and POCD. Fifteen MRI studies were identified by combining multiple search terms for POD, POCD, and brain imaging. These studies described a total of 1,422 patients and were all observational in design. Neurodegenerative changes (global and regional brain volumes) did not show a consistent association with the occurrence of POD (four studies) or POCD (two studies). In contrast, neurovascular changes (white matter hyperintensities and cerebral infarcts) were more consistently associated with the occurrence of POD (seven studies) and POCD (five studies). In conclusion, neurovascular changes appear to be consistently associated with the occurrence of POD and POCD, and may identify patients at increased risk of these conditions. Larger prospective studies are needed to study the consistency of these findings and to unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Activation of Gαq Signaling Enhances Memory Consolidation and Slows Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arey, Rachel N; Stein, Geneva M; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Murphy, Coleen T

    2018-05-02

    Perhaps the most devastating decline with age is the loss of memory. Therefore, identifying mechanisms to restore memory function with age is critical. Using C. elegans associative learning and memory assays, we identified a gain-of-function G αq signaling pathway mutant that forms a long-term (cAMP response element binding protein [CREB]-dependent) memory following one conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) pairing, which usually requires seven CS-US pairings. Increased CREB activity in AIM interneurons reduces the threshold for memory consolidation through transcription of a set of previously identified "long-term memory" genes. Enhanced G αq signaling in the AWC sensory neuron is both necessary and sufficient for improved memory and increased AIM CREB activity, and activation of G αq specifically in aged animals rescues the ability to form memory. Activation of G αq in AWC sensory neurons non-cell autonomously induces consolidation after one CS-US pairing, enabling both cognitive function maintenance with age and restoration of memory function in animals with impaired memory performance without decreased longevity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive Decline in Patients with Chronic Hydrocephalus and Normal Aging: ‘Growing into Deficits'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlijn H. de Beer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To explore the theory of ‘growing into deficits', a concept known from developmental neurology, in a series of cases with chronic hydrocephalus (CH. Methods: Patients were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and underwent extensive dementia screening. Results: Twelve patients with CH were selected, in whom Alzheimer's disease was considered unlikely, based on biomarker information and follow-up. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 24 (range 7-30. Most patients were functioning on a level of mild dementia [Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5 in 8/11 (66.7% patients]. On neuropsychological examination, memory and executive functions, as well as processing speed were most frequently impaired. Conclusion: In our opinion, the theory of ‘growing into deficits' shows a parallel with the clinical course of CH and normal aging when Alzheimer's disease was considered very unlikely, because most of these patients were functioning well for a very large part of their lives. The altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics might make the brain more vulnerable to aging-related changes, leading to a faster cognitive decline in CH patients compared to healthy subjects, especially in case of concomitant brain damage such as traumatic brain injury or meningitis.

  20. Longitudinal Alterations of Frontoparietal and Frontotemporal Networks Predict Future Creative Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qunlin; Beaty, Roger E; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Sun, Jiangzhou; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Creative cognition is important to academic performance and career success during late adolescence and adulthood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal data on whether brain structural development could predict improvements in creative thinking, and how such changes interact with other cognitive abilities to support creative performance. Here we examined longitudinal alterations of brain structure and their relation to creative cognitive ability in a sample of 159 healthy young adults who were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging 2-3 times over the course of 3 years. The most robust predictor of future creative ability was the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which in conjunction with baseline creative capacity showed a 31% prediction rate. Longitudinal analysis revealed that slower decreases in gray matter density within left frontoparietal and right frontotemporal clusters predicted enhanced creative ability. Moreoever, the relationship between longitudinal alterations within frontal-related clusters and improved creative ability was moderated by the right DLPFC and working memory ability. We conclude that continuous goal-directed planning and accumulated knowledge are implemented in the right DLPFC and temporal areas, respectively, which in turn support longitudinal gains in creative cognitive ability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  2. Spatiotemporal Gait Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Impairment: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study, the Intercontinental "Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline" Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchet, Olivier; Blumen, Helena M; Callisaya, Michele L; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Kressig, Reto W; Srikanth, Velandai; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2018-01-23

    The study aims to determine the spatiotemporal gait parameters and/or their combination(s) that best differentiate between cognitively healthy individuals (CHI), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those with mild and moderate dementia, regardless of the etiology of cognitive impairment. A total of 2099 participants (1015 CHI, 478 patients with MCI, 331 patients with mild dementia and 275 with moderate dementia) were selected from the intercontinental "Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline" (GOOD) initiative, which merged different databases from seven cross-sectional studies. Mean values and coefficients of variation (CoV) of spatiotemporal gait parameters were recorded during usual walking with the GAITRite® system. The severity of cognitive impairment was associated with worse performance on all gait parameters. Stride velocity had the strongest association with cognitive impairment, regardless of cognitive status. High mean value and CoV of stride length characterized moderate dementia, whereas increased CoV of stride time was specific to MCI status. The findings support the existence of specific cognitive impairment-related gait disturbances with differences related to stages of cognitive impairment, which may be used to screen individuals with cognitive impairment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Cognitive predictors and risk factors of PTSD following stillbirth: a short-term longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, A.; Jacobs, I.; McKenzie-McHarg, K.

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated cognitive predictors and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers following stillbirth. After a stillbirth at ≥ 24 weeks gestational age, 65 women completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, cognitive predictors (appraisals, dysfunctional strategies), and risk factors (perceived social support, trauma history, obstetric history) at 3 and 6 months. PTSD symptoms decreased between 3 a...

  4. Use of Spoken and Written Japanese Did Not Protect Japanese-American Men From Cognitive Decline in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhl, Jonathan C.; Erosheva, Elena A.; Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan M.; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Nguyen, Viet; Arani, Keerthi; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Spoken bilingualism may be associated with cognitive reserve. Mastering a complicated written language may be associated with additional reserve. We sought to determine if midlife use of spoken and written Japanese was associated with lower rates of late life cognitive decline. Methods. Participants were second-generation Japanese-American men from the Hawaiian island of Oahu, born 1900–1919, free of dementia in 1991, and categorized based on midlife self-reported use of spoken and written Japanese (total n included in primary analysis = 2,520). Cognitive functioning was measured with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scored using item response theory. We used mixed effects models, controlling for age, income, education, smoking status, apolipoprotein E e4 alleles, and number of study visits. Results. Rates of cognitive decline were not related to use of spoken or written Japanese. This finding was consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. Discussion. We did not find evidence to support the hypothesis that multilingualism is associated with cognitive reserve. PMID:20639282

  5. Resting-state networks associated with cognitive processing show more age-related decline than those associated with emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Braskie, Meredith N; Mather, Mara

    2017-06-01

    Correlations in activity across disparate brain regions during rest reveal functional networks in the brain. Although previous studies largely agree that there is an age-related decline in the "default mode network," how age affects other resting-state networks, such as emotion-related networks, is still controversial. Here we used a dual-regression approach to investigate age-related alterations in resting-state networks. The results revealed age-related disruptions in functional connectivity in all 5 identified cognitive networks, namely the default mode network, cognitive-auditory, cognitive-speech (or speech-related somatosensory), and right and left frontoparietal networks, whereas such age effects were not observed in the 3 identified emotion networks. In addition, we observed age-related decline in functional connectivity in 3 visual and 3 motor/visuospatial networks. Older adults showed greater functional connectivity in regions outside 4 out of the 5 identified cognitive networks, consistent with the dedifferentiation effect previously observed in task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Both reduced within-network connectivity and increased out-of-network connectivity were correlated with poor cognitive performance, providing potential biomarkers for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive function and advanced kidney disease: longitudinal trends and impact on decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyasere, Osasuyi; Okai, David; Brown, Edwina

    2017-02-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment commonly affects renal patients. But little is known about the influence of dialysis modality on cognitive trends or the influence of cognitive impairment on decision-making in renal patients. This study evaluated cognitive trends amongst chronic kidney disease (CKD), haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The relationship between cognitive impairment and decision-making capacity (DMC) was also assessed. Methods: Patients were recruited from three outpatient clinics. Cognitive function was assessed 4-monthly for up to 2 years, using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool. Cognitive trends were assessed using mixed model analysis. DMC was assessed using the Macarthur Competency Assessment tool (MacCAT-T). MacCAT-T scores were compared between patients with cognitive impairment (MoCA cognitive impairment had lower MacCAT-T compared with those without [median (interquartile range) 19 (17.9-19.6) versus 17.4 (16.3-18.4); P = 0.049]. Conclusions: Cognition declines faster in dialysis patients compared with CKD patients and in HD patients compared with PD patients. Cognitive impairment affects DMC in patients with advanced kidney disease.

  7. Brain activity changes in cognitive networks in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis - insights from a longitudinal FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Loitfelder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extrapolations from previous cross-sectional fMRI studies suggest cerebral functional changes with progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, but longitudinal studies are scarce. We assessed brain activation changes over time in MS patients using a cognitive fMRI paradigm and examined correlations with clinical and cognitive status and brain morphology. METHODS: 13 MS patients and 15 healthy controls (HC underwent MRI including fMRI (go/no-go task, neurological and neuropsychological exams at baseline (BL and follow-up (FU; minimum 12, median 20 months. We assessed estimates of and changes in fMRI activation, total brain and subcortical grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, and T2-lesion load. Bland-Altman (BA plots served to assess fMRI signal variability. RESULTS: Cognitive and disability levels remained largely stable in the patients. With the fMRI task, both at BL and FU, patients compared to HC showed increased activation in the insular cortex, precuneus, cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, and occipital cortex. At BL, patients vs. HC also had lower caudate nucleus, thalamus and putamen volumes. Over time, patients (but not HC demonstrated fMRI activity increments in the left inferior parietal lobule. These correlated with worse single-digit-modality test (SDMT performance. BA-plots attested to reproducibility of the fMRI task. In the patients, the right caudate nucleus decreased in volume which again correlated with worsening SDMT performance. CONCLUSIONS: Given preserved cognitive performance, the increased activation at BL in the patients may be viewed as largely adaptive. In contrast, the negative correlation with SDMT performance suggests increasing parietal activation over time to be maladaptive. Several areas with purported relevance for cognition showed decreased volumes at BL and right caudate nucleus volume decline correlated with decreasing SDMT performance. This highlights the dynamics of functional changes and

  8. Brain activity changes in cognitive networks in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis - insights from a longitudinal FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loitfelder, Marisa; Fazekas, Franz; Koschutnig, Karl; Fuchs, Siegrid; Petrovic, Katja; Ropele, Stefan; Pichler, Alexander; Jehna, Margit; Langkammer, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold; Neuper, Christa; Enzinger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Extrapolations from previous cross-sectional fMRI studies suggest cerebral functional changes with progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but longitudinal studies are scarce. We assessed brain activation changes over time in MS patients using a cognitive fMRI paradigm and examined correlations with clinical and cognitive status and brain morphology. 13 MS patients and 15 healthy controls (HC) underwent MRI including fMRI (go/no-go task), neurological and neuropsychological exams at baseline (BL) and follow-up (FU; minimum 12, median 20 months). We assessed estimates of and changes in fMRI activation, total brain and subcortical grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, and T2-lesion load. Bland-Altman (BA) plots served to assess fMRI signal variability. Cognitive and disability levels remained largely stable in the patients. With the fMRI task, both at BL and FU, patients compared to HC showed increased activation in the insular cortex, precuneus, cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, and occipital cortex. At BL, patients vs. HC also had lower caudate nucleus, thalamus and putamen volumes. Over time, patients (but not HC) demonstrated fMRI activity increments in the left inferior parietal lobule. These correlated with worse single-digit-modality test (SDMT) performance. BA-plots attested to reproducibility of the fMRI task. In the patients, the right caudate nucleus decreased in volume which again correlated with worsening SDMT performance. Given preserved cognitive performance, the increased activation at BL in the patients may be viewed as largely adaptive. In contrast, the negative correlation with SDMT performance suggests increasing parietal activation over time to be maladaptive. Several areas with purported relevance for cognition showed decreased volumes at BL and right caudate nucleus volume decline correlated with decreasing SDMT performance. This highlights the dynamics of functional changes and the strategic importance of specific brain areas for

  9. The Dynamic Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Positive Well-Being in Older People: A Prospective Study Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999

  10. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For a-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We

  11. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro K. Curiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results: A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09, better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06 and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = -0.012, p = 0.07 at baseline. Conclusion: Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings.

  12. [Aging of cognitive functions. Results of a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrenaud, J; Barrère, H; Darcet, P; Driss, F

    1983-12-29

    This study had the two following purposes: to assess the age-related changes in the fluid and crystallized components of intelligence in subjects over age sixty five; to examine whether these age-related changes were linked to any biological, psychological and social factors. The sample was composed of 50 male subjects who were examined three times: in 1968, 1973 and 1977. At the beginning of the study, their age ranged from 60 to 79 years and they were all in good health. In the whole, their socio-economic level was high. At each wave of the study, these subjects were given the same battery of three mental tests: a vocabulary test, selected to assess crystallized intelligence; a perceptual test and a speeded digit coding test, both selected to assess fluid intelligence. Results show that the two components of intelligence have different aging trajectories over age sixty. On the vocabulary test, performances hold until an advanced age (about 75-80), then significantly decline. On the perceptual and digit coding tests, performances sharply and significantly decline with age, this decline looking approximately linear. Whatever the test used, individual differences in age-related changes in performance are found to be great. On vocabulary test, this variability is linked to two factors, independently of age: among subjects who have suffered from a cardio-arterial disease between wave 1 and wave 3, as well as in those who have not maintained an occupational activity, decline in performance is greater than in other subjects. On the two other tests, no factor was found to be significantly linked with change in performance between wave 1 and wave 3.

  13. Time Out-of-Home and Cognitive, Physical, and Emotional Wellbeing of Older Adults: A Longitudinal Mixed Effects Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Petersen

    Full Text Available Time out-of-home has been linked with numerous health outcomes, including cognitive decline, poor physical ability and low emotional state. Comprehensive characterization of this important health metric would potentially enable objective monitoring of key health outcomes. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between time out-of-home and cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state.Participants included 85 independent older adults, age 65-96 years (M = 86.36; SD = 6.79 who lived alone, from the Intelligent Systems for Assessing Aging Changes (ISAAC and the ORCATECH Life Laboratory cohorts. Factors hypothesized to affect time out-of-home were assessed on three different temporal levels: yearly (cognitive status, loneliness, clinical walking speed, weekly (pain and mood or daily (time out-of-home, in-home walking speed, weather, and season. Subject characteristics including age, race, and gender were assessed at baseline. Total daily time out-of-home in hours was assessed objectively and unobtrusively for up to one year using an in-home activity sensor platform. A longitudinal tobit mixed effects regression model was used to relate daily time out-of-home to cognitive status, physical ability and emotional state. More hours spend outside the home was associated with better cognitive function as assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Scale, where higher scores indicate lower cognitive function (βCDR = -1.69, p<0.001. More hours outside the home was also associated with superior physical ability (βPain = -0.123, p<0.001 and improved emotional state (βLonely = -0.046, p<0.001; βLow mood = -0.520, p<0.001. Weather, season, and weekday also affected the daily time out-of-home.These results suggest that objective longitudinal monitoring of time out-of-home may enable unobtrusive assessment of cognitive, physical and emotional state. In addition, these results indicate that the factors affecting out

  14. The association of periodontal disease with kidney function decline: a longitudinal retrospective analysis of the MrOS dental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Vittinghoff, Eric; Taylor, George; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Powe, Neil; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Ishani, Areef; Cummings, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Identifying modifiable risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is essential for reducing its burden. Periodontal disease is common, modifiable and has been implicated as a novel potential CKD risk factor, but evidence of its association with kidney function decline over time is limited. In a longitudinal retrospective cohort of 761 elderly men with preserved kidney function [estimated glomerular filtration rate > 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using a calibrated creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) equation] at baseline, we performed multivariable Poisson's regression to examine the association of severe periodontal disease with incident CKD, defined as incident eGFRcr-cys 5% annualized) eGFRcr-cys decline. Severe periodontal disease was defined in two ways: (i) ≥5 mm proximal attachment loss in 30% of teeth examined (European Workshop in Periodontology Group C, European Workshop); and (ii) 2+ interproximal sites with attachment loss ≥6 mm and 1+ interproximal sites with probing depth ≥5 mm (Centers for Disease Control/American Academy of Periodontology, CDC/AAP). At baseline, the mean age was 73.4 (SD 4.8) years, the median eGFRcr-cys was 82.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 35.5 and 25.4% of participants had severe periodontal disease by European Workshop and CDC/AAP criteria, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (SD 0.3), 56 (7.4%) participants had incident CKD. Severe periodontal disease was associated with a 2-fold greater rate of incident CKD [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.01 (1.21-3.44), P = 0.007] after adjusting for confounders compared with not severe periodontal disease by European Workshop criteria but did not reach statistical significance by CDC/AAP criteria [IRR 1.10 (0.63-1.91), P = 0.9]. Severe periodontal disease may be associated with incident clinically significant kidney function decline among a cohort of elderly men. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  16. Brain activity and cognitive transition during childhood: A longitudinal event-related brain potential study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauder, J.E.A.; Molenaar, P.C.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relation between brain activation and cognitive development using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and a longitudinal design. 5 yr old females performed a visual recognition ('oddball') task and an experimental analogue of the Piagetian conservation of liquid quantity task At three

  17. The Longitudinal Effect of Bilingual Immersion Schooling on Cognitive Control and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woumans, Evy; Surmont, Jill; Struys, Esli; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the past century, the effects of bilingualism on general cognition have been extensively explored. Studies evolved from a negative to a more positive perspective, but longitudinal assessments of effects of bilingualism are scarce. This study investigated the long-term effect of becoming a bilingual on the development of general…

  18. A longitudinal study of computerized cognitive training in stroke patients - effects on cognitive function and white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Claudia Kim; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Becker, Frank; Rohani, Darius A; Sederevicius, Donatas; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2018-05-01

    Background Computerized cognitive training is suggested to enhance attention and working memory functioning following stroke, but effects on brain and behavior are not sufficiently studied and longitudinal studies assessing brain and behavior relationships are scarce. Objective The study objectives were to investigate relations between neuropsychological performance post-stroke and white matter microstructure measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), including changes after 6 weeks of working memory training. Methods In this experimental training study, 26 stroke patients underwent DTI and neuropsychological tests at 3 time points - before and after a passive phase of 6 weeks, and again after 6 weeks of working memory training (Cogmed QM). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from stroke-free brain areas to assess the white matter microstructure. Twenty-two participants completed the majority of training (≥18/25 sessions) and were entered into longitudinal analyses. Results Significant correlations between FA and baseline cognitive functions were observed (r = 0.58, p = 0.004), however, no evidence was found of generally improved cognitive functions following training or of changes in white matter microstructure. Conclusions While white matter microstructure related to baseline cognitive function in stroke patients, the study revealed no effect on cognitive functions or microstructural changes in white matter in relation to computerized working memory training.

  19. Synergistic effects of aerobic exercise and cognitive training on cognition, physiological markers, daily function, and quality of life in stroke survivors with cognitive decline: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Ting; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lee, Lin-Chien; Hung, Jen-Wen; Lin, Keh-Chung; Teng, Ching-Hung; Liao, Yi-Han

    2017-08-31

    Aerobic exercise and cognitive training have been effective in improving cognitive functions; however, whether the combination of these two can further enhance cognition and clinical outcomes in stroke survivors with cognitive decline remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the treatment effects of a sequential combination of aerobic exercise and cognitive training on cognitive function and clinical outcomes. Stroke survivors (n = 75) with cognitive decline will be recruited and randomly assigned to cognitive training, aerobic exercise, and sequential combination of aerobic exercise and cognitive training groups. All participants will receive training for 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. The aerobic exercise group will receive stationary bicycle training, the cognitive training group will receive cognitive-based training, and the sequential group will first receive 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, followed by 30 minutes of cognitive training. The outcome measures involve cognitive functions, physiological biomarkers, daily function and quality of life, physical functions, and social participation. Participants will be assessed before and immediately after the interventions, and 6 months after the interventions. Repeated measures of analysis of variance will be used to evaluate the changes in outcome measures at the three assessments. This trial aims to explore the benefits of innovative intervention approaches to improve the cognitive function, physiological markers, daily function, and quality of life in stroke survivors with cognitive decline. The findings will provide evidence to advance post-stroke cognitive rehabilitation. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02550990 . Registered on 6 September 2015.

  20. Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden and risk of cognitive decline and dementia among very old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Vittinghoff, Eric; Byers, Amy; Covinsky, Ken; Blazer, Dan; Diem, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    Depressive symptoms and cognitive outcomes are strongly interrelated. Despite that rates of depressive symptoms fluctuate during late life, little is known about the impact of long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden on cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. This study examines the association of nearly 20 years of cumulative depressive symptoms with cognitive outcomes in a cohort of older women. We assessed depressive symptoms in 7,240 women using the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS) at serial visits. We used a Poisson model with random slopes to estimate GDS trajectories for each participant from baseline to death or end of follow-up, and then characterized depressive symptom burden by quartile of the area under the curve. We assessed cognitive outcomes using repeated measures of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Trails B score over 20 years, Year-20 neuropsychological test battery, and adjudicated dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Adjusting for potential confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of cumulative depressive symptoms burden, women in the highest quartile had 21% more MMSE errors over time (95% CI = 17%, 26%), 20% worse Trails B score over time (95% CI = 17%, 23%), worse scores on most of the Year-20 cognitive tests, and a twofold greater likelihood of developing dementia or MCI (95% CI = 1.48, 3.11). Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden was associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia or MCI. Older adults with a history of depression should be closely monitored for recurrent episodes or unresolved depressive symptoms as well as any cognitive deficits.

  1. The value of structural MRI measurements of cerebral atrophy in predicting the rate of cognitive decline in the non-demented elderly: a GEE analysis based on data from the Vienna transdanube aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was the assessment of various structural measurements of cerebral atrophy at baseline and the evaluation of their potential value in predicting future cognitive decline in a longitudinal study design. Data were drawn from the Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study. Magnetic resonance images of 532 subjects aged 75-76 years at baseline were analyzed to assess 8 different cerebral atrophy markers. A population averaged model with the corresponding analytical technique of generalized estimating equations (GEE) were applied to the birth-cohort to assess associations between the MRI-based atrophy markers and 6 cognitive test scores at baseline and two follow-up investigations. Cognitive tests were comprised of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME), Verbal Fluency (VF) and the Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA, TMTB). Vascular risk factors and several other covariates that were available in the VITA database were included as additional predictors in the longitudinal data analysis. Severity of right hippocampal head atrophy predicted the rate of cognitive decline in all 6 test scores. (MMSE: β =-0.507; p = 0.002, BNT: β = -1.090; p = 0.004, FOME: β = -0.291; p = 0.003, VF: β = 0.718; p = 0.025, TMTA: Exp(β) = 0.123; p [de

  2. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  3. Muscle mass decline, arterial stiffness, white matter hyperintensity, and cognitive impairment: Japan Shimanami Health Promoting Program study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Katsuhiko; Okada, Yoko; Ochi, Masayuki; Ohara, Maya; Nagai, Tokihisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Igase, Michiya

    2017-08-01

    There is a close association between frailty and cognitive impairment. However, the underlying contribution of sarcopenia to the development of cognitive impairment is unclear. We investigated the possible association between muscle mass decline and cognitive impairment in a cross-sectional study of 1518 subjects aged 55 years or above. We also evaluated arterial stiffness and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) as possible underlying mechanisms for this association. Two sarcopenic indices were measured: thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA; calculated by computed tomography) and skeletal muscle mass (bioelectric impedance). Muscle mass decline was defined as either the bottom 10% or 20% of participants for each sex. Cognitive function was assessed using the Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured as an index of arterial stiffness. Both sarcopenic indices were modestly but significantly associated with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in male and female subjects. The presence of WMHs was significantly associated with low thigh muscle CSA in men and with low skeletal muscle mass in women. The Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale score was modestly but significantly and positively associated with thigh muscle CSA in men and skeletal muscle mass in women. Muscle mass decline in the bottom 10% of participants on both sarcopenic indices was significantly and independently related to cognitive impairment in women. Lower sarcopenic indices are significantly related to lower cognitive scores. Arterial stiffness and WMHs could account, at least in part, for this association. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  4. Factors Associated with Cognition in Adults: The Seattle Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Ryan, Lindsay H.; Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Kolanowski, Ann

    2010-01-01

    A better understanding of factors that affect cognition could lead to improved health and greater independence for older adults. We examined the association of four modifiable factors (leisure-time physical activity, leisure-time cognitive activity, self-directed work, and hypertension) with changes in two aspects of fluid intelligence (verbal memory and inductive reasoning). Data for 626 adults collected over 14 years (three time points) were analyzed by multi-level modeling. A component of self-directed work, higher work control, was associated with better verbal memory (p inductive reasoning (p < .01). There were no significant interactions among these factors. The findings suggest that a strong sense of control at work may be protective for fluid intelligence in adults. PMID:19606423

  5. Emotional exhaustion and cognitive performance in apparently healthy teachers: a longitudinal multi-source study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Stamov-Roßnagel, Christian; Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-10-01

    We investigate how emotional exhaustion (EE), the core component of burnout, relates to cognitive performance, job performance and health. Cognitive performance was assessed by self-rated cognitive stress symptoms, self-rated and peer-rated cognitive impairments in everyday tasks and a neuropsychological test of learning and memory (LGT-3); job performance and physical health were gauged by self-reports. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses in a sample of 100 teachers confirm that EE is negatively related to cognitive performance as assessed by self-rating and peer-rating as well as neuropsychological testing (all p Longitudinal linear regression analyses confirm similar trends (p longitudinal analyses, EE also significantly predicts physical health. Contrary to our expectations, EE does not affect job performance. When reversed causation is tested, none of the outcome variables at Time 1 predict EE at Time 2. This speaks against cognitive dysfunctioning serving as a vulnerability factor for exhaustion. In sum, results underpin the negative consequences of EE for cognitive performance and health, which are relevant for individuals and organizations alike. In this way, findings might contribute to the understanding of the burnout syndrome. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The CogBIAS longitudinal study protocol: cognitive and genetic factors influencing psychological functioning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Charlotte; Songco, Annabel; Parsons, Sam; Heathcote, Lauren; Vincent, John; Keers, Robert; Fox, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    Optimal psychological development is dependent upon a complex interplay between individual and situational factors. Investigating the development of these factors in adolescence will help to improve understanding of emotional vulnerability and resilience. The CogBIAS longitudinal study (CogBIAS-L-S) aims to combine cognitive and genetic approaches to investigate risk and protective factors associated with the development of mood and impulsivity-related outcomes in an adolescent sample. CogBIAS-L-S is a three-wave longitudinal study of typically developing adolescents conducted over 4 years, with data collection at age 12, 14 and 16. At each wave participants will undergo multiple assessments including a range of selective cognitive processing tasks (e.g. attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias) and psychological self-report measures (e.g. anxiety, depression, resilience). Saliva samples will also be collected at the baseline assessment for genetic analyses. Multilevel statistical analyses will be performed to investigate the developmental trajectory of cognitive biases on psychological functioning, as well as the influence of genetic moderation on these relationships. CogBIAS-L-S represents the first longitudinal study to assess multiple cognitive biases across adolescent development and the largest study of its kind to collect genetic data. It therefore provides a unique opportunity to understand how genes and the environment influence the development and maintenance of cognitive biases and provide insight into risk and protective factors that may be key targets for intervention.

  7. AdBo: A mobile application to boost adherence of physical exercises for elderly suffering from cognitive decline

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaqer, Mohammed; Chatterjee, Samir

    2016-01-01

    According to the UN, the number of elderly people over the age of 60 will reach 2 billion by 2050. Aging is accompanied with functional and cognitive decline that impact elderly independence and quality of life. This often results in issues such as forgetting, fall, and depression. Physical exercises can help. However, only 16% of elderly above the age 65 years do enough exercise to meet HHS (Department of Health and Human Services) physical activity guidelines for Americans. Several barriers...

  8. A critical review of Vitamin C for the prevention of age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Fiona E

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants in the diet have long been thought to confer some level of protection against the oxidative damage that is involved in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease as well as general cognitive decline in normal aging. Nevertheless, support for this hypothesis in the literature is equivocal. In the case of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in particular, lack of consideration of some of the specific features of vitamin C metabolism has led to studies in which classification of participants accord...

  9. Normative values of cognitive and physical function in older adults: findings from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Rose Anne; Coen, Robert F; Frewen, John; Donoghue, Orna A; Cronin, Hilary; Savva, George M

    2013-05-01

    To provide normative values of tests of cognitive and physical function based on a large sample representative of the population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Data were used from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a prospective cohort study that includes a comprehensive health assessment. Health assessment was undertaken at one of two dedicated health assessment centers or in the study participant's home if travel was not practicable. Five thousand eight hundred ninety-seven members of a nationally representative sample of the community-living population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Those with severe cognitive impairment, dementia, or Parkinson's disease were excluded. Measurements included height and weight, normal walking speed, Timed Up-and-Go, handgrip strength, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Color Trails Test, and bone mineral density. Normative values were estimated using generalized additive models for location shape and scale (GAMLSS) and are presented as percentiles, means, and standard deviations. Generalized additive models for location shape and scale fit the observed data well for each measure, leading to reliable estimates of normative values. Performance on all tasks decreased with age. Educational attainment was a strong determinant of performance on all cognitive tests. Tests of walking speed were dependent on height. Distribution of body mass index did not change with age, owing to simultaneous declines in weight and height. Normative values were found for tests of many aspects of cognitive and physical function based on a representative sample of the general older Irish population. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Hélène; Meillon, Céline; Helmer, Catherine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean François

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan®) and piracetam (Nootropyl®) on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. Methods and Findings The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study ‘Paquid’. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the ‘neither treatment’ group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the ‘neither treatment’ group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = −0.6). Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the ‘neither treatment’ group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = −0.03), whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = −1.40 and β = −0.44). When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = −1.07, β = −1.61 and β = −0.41). Conclusion Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in

  11. Ginkgo biloba extract and long-term cognitive decline: a 20-year follow-up population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Amieva

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan® and piracetam (Nootropyl® on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period.The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study 'Paquid'. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the 'neither treatment' group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the 'neither treatment' group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = -0.6. Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the 'neither treatment' group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = -0.03, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = -1.40 and β = -0.44. When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = -1.07, β = -1.61 and β = -0.41.Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in those who did not. This effect may be a specific medication

  12. T-Tau is Associated with Objective Memory Decline Over Two Years in Persons Seeking Help for Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Report from the Gothenburg-Oslo MCI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik; Nordlund, Arto; Stålhammar, Jacob; Eckerström, Marie; Bjerke, Maria; Eckerström, Carl; Göthlin, Mattias; Fladby, Tormod; Reinvang, Ivar; Wallin, Anders

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to find very early markers for pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease as interventions early in the disease process are thought to be most effective. The present study aimed to address the potential relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and reduced cognitive function in a relatively young cohort of memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive decline. 122 patients (mean age 63 years) with subjective cognitive decline were recruited from two university memory clinics and followed for two years. The main finding was that the subgroup with objective memory decline during the study period had significantly higher T-tau at baseline than the group with improved memory. Baseline CSF variables showed a trend toward more pathological values in the patients with memory decline compared to those who improved or remained stable. The baseline memory score of those who declined was significantly better than the baseline score of those who improved over two years. The general trend for the whole group was improved memory and executive test scores. There were no differences in cognitive scores based on CSF quartiles at baseline, nor were there differences in cognitive outcome for patients with early amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus average cognitive function at baseline. The main finding that T-tau rather than amyloid-β was associated with memory decline do not support the prevailing opinion about the chain of events assumed to take place in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, memory decline was not associated with poor baseline memory score. Thus, a memory cut-off indicating low baseline memory would not would have identified the declining group.

  13. Liraglutide prevents cognitive decline in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes independently from its peripheral metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleria, Caterina; Leo, Antonio; Andreozzi, Francesco; Citraro, Rita; Iannone, Michelangelo; Spiga, Rosangela; Sesti, Giorgio; Constanti, Andrew; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Arturi, Franco; Russo, Emilio

    2017-03-15

    Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for cognitive dysfunctions. Glucagone like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have neuroprotective effects in preclinical animal models. We evaluated the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (LIR), on cognitive decline associated with diabetes. Furthermore, we studied LIR effects against hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by streptozotocin (STZ), a well-validated animal model of diabetes and neurodegeneration associated with cognitive decline. Diabetes and/or cognitive decline were induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injection of STZ and then rats were treated with LIR (300μg/kg daily subcutaneously) for 6 weeks. Rats underwent behavioral tests: Morris water maze, passive avoidance, forced swimming (FST), open field, elevated plus maze, rotarod tests. Furthermore, LIR effects on hippocampal neurodegeneration and mTOR pathway (AKT, AMPK, ERK and p70S6K) were assessed. LIR improved learning and memory only in STZ-treated animals. Anxiolytic effects were observed in all LIR-treated groups but pro-depressant effects in CTRL rats were observed. At a cellular/molecular level, intracerebroventricular STZ induced hippocampal neurodegeneration accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of AMPK, AKT, ERK and p70S6K. LIR reduced hippocampal neuronal death and prevented the decreased phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K; AMPK was hyper-phosphorylated in comparison to CTRL group, while LIR had no effects on ERK. LIR reduced animal endurance in the rotarod test and this effect might be also linked to a reduction in locomotor activity during only the last two minutes of the FST. LIR had protective effects on cognitive functions in addition to its effects on blood glucose levels. LIR effects in the brain also comprised anxiolytic and pro-depressant actions (although influenced by reduced endurance). Finally, LIR protected from diabetes-dependent hippocampal neurodegeneration likely through an

  14. A longitudinal analysis of cognitive dysfunction, coping, and depression in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Arnett, Peter A

    2009-09-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the authors examined coping and cognitive functioning in the development of depression in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Coping style was evaluated in 2 conceptually distinct roles: as moderator and mediator of the impact of cognitive dysfunction on depression. Using indices derived from the COPE (C. S. Carver, M. F. Scheier, & J. K. Weintraub, 1989), the authors operationalized coping in 3 ways-as active, avoidant, and an index accounting for relative levels of both. Coping both moderated and partially mediated the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and depression. Moderation results suggest that the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and depression is dependent on coping style-adaptive coping protects individuals from experiencing depression related to their cognitive deficits; however, when individuals use maladaptive coping, cognitive dysfunction puts them at risk for depression. Mediational results suggest that cognitive dysfunction leads to depression partially due to cognitive dysfunction's effects on coping. That is, cognitive deficits may impair individuals' ability to use adaptive coping strategies, leaving them more likely to use maladaptive strategies. Clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Addiction, cognitive decline and therapy: seeking ways to escape a vicious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C J; Lawrence, A J

    2017-01-01

    Any type of behavioral change is an effortful process. Thus, the process of behavioral therapy, where clients seek to change maladaptive behavioral patterns, requires high-level cognitive engagement. It is unfortunate, then, that cognitive impairment is a feature of substance use disorders (SUDs), and especially because the domains that tend to be impaired are the very ones involved in the process of therapeutic behavioral change. In this review, we compare the cognitive profile that is frequently observed with chronic SUD with the skills that are required to initiate and sustain behavioral change during rehabilitation. Furthermore, we look to new therapeutic developments that seek to improve cognitive function. We propose that the use of these cognitive enhancing agents as adjuncts to behavioral therapy should help to overcome some of the cognitive barriers imposed by the disorder itself, and hence reduce the chance of relapse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  17. Examining the impact of grape consumption on brain metabolism and cognitive function in patients with mild decline in cognition: A double-blinded placebo controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyeon; Torosyan, Nare; Silverman, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Natural compounds in grapes such as resveratrol are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some studies have shown a potential role for grapes or wine in slowing cognitive decline and other effects of aging. However, well-controlled experimental data obtained in human subjects are still in need of further development. Here we aimed to systematically assess effects of grapes on regional cerebral metabolism. Ten subjects with mild decline in cognition (mean, 72.2±4.7years; 50% female) were included in this analysis. Participants were randomized into an active grape formulation arm or a placebo arm which consumed a formulation free of polyphenols for six months. Cognitive performance was measured through neuropsychological assessments performed at baseline and 6months after initiation of therapy. Changes in brain metabolism occurring with each therapy regimen were assessed by brain PET scans with the radiotracer [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), obtained during initial evaluation and 6months later. Standardized volumes of interest (sVOI) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) methods were applied to FDG-PET scans to identify significant regional cerebral metabolic changes. In contrast to participants taking the active grape formulation, who displayed no significant decline in metabolism, the placebo arm underwent significant metabolic decline in sVOI's of the right posterior cingulate cortex (p=0.01), and left superior posterolateral temporal cortex (p=0.04). SPM analyses also found significant declines in the placebo group, particularly in left prefrontal, cingulate, and left superior posterolateral temporal cortex (pbrain metabolism in the active formulation arm. No significant differences were seen in scores on the neuropsychological battery of tests between the two groups. However, metabolism in right superior parietal cortex and left inferior anterior temporal cortex was correlated with improvements in attention/working memory, as

  18. Association of Social Support and Cognitive Aging Modified by Sex and Relationship Type: A Prospective Investigation in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Scholes, Shaun

    2017-10-01

    We examined whether between-persons differences and within-person changes in levels of social support were associated with age-related cognitive decline and whether these associations varied by sex and by relationship type. Executive function and memory scores over 8 years (2002-2010) were analyzed by mixture models among 10,241 adults aged ≥50 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Between-persons differences and within-person changes in positive social support and negative social support were independently associated with cognitive decline in different ways according to sex and relationship type. Among men, higher-than-average positive social support from a spouse/partner was associated with slower cognitive decline (for executive function, βperson-mean×time-in-study = 0.005, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.010; for memory, βperson-mean×time-in-study = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.012); whereas high negative social support from all relationship types was associated with accelerated decline in executive function (for all relationships combined, βperson-mean×time-in-study = -0.005, 95% CI: -0.008, -0.002). For women, higher-than-average positive social support from children (β = 0.037, 95% CI: 0.010, 0.064) and friends (β = 0.115, 95% CI: 0.081, 0.150)-but not from a spouse/partner (β = -0.034, 95% CI: -0.059, -0.009) or extended family (β = -0.035, 95% CI: -0.064, -0.006)-was associated with higher executive function. Associations between social support and age-related cognitive decline vary across different relationship types for men and women. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  19. A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eLaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behaviour that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behaviour of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behaviour, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinalexperiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eyeintegrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for furtherfast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning.

  20. Self-Efficacy as a Longitudinal Predictor of Perceived Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Abbey J.; Beier, Meghan; Hartoonian, Narineh; Turner, Aaron P.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Ehde, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-efficacy plays an important role in symptom management and may be predictive of perceived cognitive impairment (PCI) for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The primary aim of this study was to determine if self-efficacy longitudinally predicts two types of PCI in MS: general cognitive functioning and executive functioning. The secondary aim was to assess whether self-efficacy mediates the relationships between depression, fatigue, and PCI. Design Longitudinal analysis of self-report survey data collected over three years. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the relationship between self-efficacy and PCI, adjusting for depression and fatigue. Additional analyses tested self-efficacy as a mediator between depression, fatigue, and PCI. Setting Community-dwelling individuals with MS. Participants 233 individuals (age range 22-83 years) were recruited from a larger longitudinal survey study of 562 individuals with MS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome measures were the Applied Cognition General Concerns (ACGC) and Executive Function (ACEF) domains of the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (NeuroQoL) measures. Results Self-efficacy was significantly correlated with PCI at baseline (r = .40 to .53) and three years later (r = .36 to .44). In multivariate regression analyses, self-efficacy was a significant longitudinal predictor of PCI, both for general cognitive functioning (β = .20, p Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationships between depression, fatigue, and PCI. Conclusions Self-efficacy may influence how individuals with MS will perceive their cognitive functioning over time. Interventions that target self-efficacy, particularly early in the disease course, may lead to improvements in PCI, as well as improvements in fatigue and depression. PMID:25597915

  1. Differential rate in decline in ovarian reserve markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with control subjects: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asima K; Kao, Chia-Ning; Quinn, Molly; Lenhart, Nikolaus; Rosen, Mitchell; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather

    2018-03-01

    To estimate rates of ovarian aging in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) subjects versus a community control population. Longitudinal. Tertiary academic center. PCOS subjects diagnosed according to the 2004 Rotterdam criteria were systematically enrolled in a PCOS cohort study. The comparison control subjects were from the Ovarian Aging study, a prospective longitudinal study of ovarian aging in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. Clinical data collection over two study visits. Antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume (OV), and antimüllerian hormone level (AMH). PCOS subjects were found to have higher baseline values for all ovarian reserve markers compared with control subjects. Univariate models indicated that, compared with control subjects, PCOS patients experienced significantly faster rates of decline for both AFC and AMH. Change in OV did not differ significantly. To account for potential confounder effects, multiple analysis of covariance models were evaluated for the best fit, considering age, body mass index, and baseline ovarian reserve markers. Adjusted models demonstrated that PCOS patients do not experience a significant difference in AFC decline compared with control subjects, but they do experience a faster rate of decline in AMH (POvarian aging in PCOS is characterized by a more rapid decline in AMH and a slower decline in OV compared with control subjects. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CLU Genetic Variants and Cognitive Decline among Elderly and Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Thinggaard, Mikael; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    birth cohort (effect on intercept: 0.50 95% CI [0.12; 0.91]) and carriers of a rare TCC haplotype (1%) performed worse on the cognitive composite score (effect on intercept: -1.51 95% CI [-2.92; -0.06]). The association between the TTC haplotype and better cognitive composite score was higher among...

  3. Cognitive Reserve as a Protective Factor in Older HIV-Positive Patients at Risk for Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Jessica M.; Ettenhofer, Mark L.; Kim, Michelle S.; Behdin, Nina; Castellon, Steven A.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of cognitive reserve in maintaining intact neuropsychological (NP) function among older HIV-positive individuals, a uniquely at-risk subgroup. Participants included 129 individuals classified by HIV serostatus, age group, and NP impairment. A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a series of within-group ANOVA and multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the pattern of cognitive reserve (vs. other protective) influence among...

  4. Longitudinal brain metabolic changes from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Marine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; Duchesnay, Edouard; Mézenge, Florence; De La Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Baron, Jean-Claude; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive marker for monitoring progression of early Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) would help to develop and test new therapeutic strategies. The present study aimed at investigating brain metabolism changes over time, as potential monitoring marker, in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), according to their clinical outcome (converters or non-converters), and in relation to their cognitive decline. Seventeen aMCI patients underwent MRI and 18FDG-PET scans both at inclusion and 18 months later. Baseline and follow-up PET data were corrected for partial volume effects and spatially normalized using MRI data, scaled to the vermis and compared using SPM2. ‘PET-PAC’ maps reflecting metabolic percent annual changes were created for correlation analyses with cognitive decline. In the whole sample, the greatest metabolic decrease concerned the posterior cingulate-precuneus area. Converters had significantly greater metabolic decrease than nonconverters in two ventro-medial prefrontal areas, the subgenual (BA25) and anterior cingulate (BA24/32). PET-PAC in BA25 and BA24/32 combined allowed complete between-group discrimination. BA25 PET-PAC significantly correlated with both cognitive decline and PET-PAC in the hippocampal region and temporal pole, while BA24/32 PET-PAC correlated with posterior cingulate PET-PAC. Finally, the metabolic change in BA8/9/10 was inversely related to that in BA25 and showed relative increase with cognitive decline, suggesting that compensatory processes may occur in this dorso-medial prefrontal region. The observed ventro-medial prefrontal disruption is likely to reflect disconnection from the hippocampus, both indirectly through the cingulum bundle and posterior cingulate cortex for BA24/32, and directly through the uncinate fasciculus for BA25. Altogether, our findings emphasize the potential of 18FDG-PET for monitoring early AD progression. PMID:19477964

  5. Physical Activity Throughout the Adult Life Span and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Old Age: A Systematic Review of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Ingmann, Tobias; Banzer, Winfried

    2018-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that physical activity might alleviate the age-related neurodegeneration and decline of cognitive function. However, most of this evidence is based on data investigating the association of exercise interventions or current physical activity behavior with cognitive function in elderly subjects. We performed a systematic review and hypothesize that physical activity during the adult life span is connected with maintained domain-specific cognitive functions during late adulthood defined as age 60+ years. We performed a systematic literature search up to November 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar without language limitations for studies analyzing the association of leisure physical activity during the adult life span (age 18+ years) and domain-specific cognitive functions in older adults (age 60+ years). The literature review yielded 14,294 articles and after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine cross-sectional and 14 longitudinal studies were included. Moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure physical activity was associated with global cognitive function and specific cognitive domains including executive functions and memory but not attention or working memory. Most studies assessed mid- to late-adulthood physical activity, thus information concerning the influence of young adult life-span physical activity is currently lacking. Observational evidence that moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure physical activity is beneficially associated with maintained cognitive functions during old age is accumulating. Further studies are necessary to confirm a causal link by assessing objective physical activity data and the decline of cognitive functions at multiple time points during old age.

  6. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet and effects on cognition in adults: A qualitative evaluation of the systematic review of longitudinal and prospective trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy J Hardman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet involves substantial intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish, and a lower consumption of dairy, red meat, and sugars. Over the past 15 years much empirical evidence supports the suggestion that a MedDiet may be beneficial with respect to reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and dementia. A number of cross-sectional studies that have examined the impact of MedDiet on cognition have yielded largely positive results. The objective of this review is to evaluate longitudinal and prospective trials to gain an understanding of how a MedDiet may impact cognitive processes over time. The included studies were aimed at improving cognition or minimizing of cognitive decline. Studies reviewed included assessments of dietary status using either a food frequency questionnaire or a food diary assessment. Eighteen articles meeting our inclusion criteria were subjected to systematic review. These revealed that higher adherence to a MedDiet is associated with slower rates of cognitive decline, reduced conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD and improvements in cognitive function. The specific cognitive domains that were found to benefit with improved Mediterranean Diet Score (MedDietS were memory (delayed recognition, long-term and working memory executive function, and visual constructs. The current review has also considered a number of methodological issues in making recommendations for future research. The utilisation of a dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean style diet will be essential as part of the armamentarium to maintain quality of life and reduce the potential social and economic burden of dementia. Key Words: Nutrition, cognition, Mediterranean diet, clinical trials

  7. Kidney function and cognitive decline in frail elderly: two faces of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Giuseppe; Bolignano, Davide; Gareri, Pietro; Ruberto, Carmen; Andreucci, Michele; Ruotolo, Giovanni; Rocca, Maurizio; Castagna, Alberto

    2018-06-04

    Cognitive and renal impairment are pervasive among elderly frails, a high-risk, geriatric sub-population with peculiar clinical characteristics. In a series of frail individuals with non-advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), we aimed at assessing the entity of functional, general health and cognitive impairment and the possible relationship between these types of dysfunction and the severity of renal impairment. 2229 geriatric subjects were screened for frailty and CKD. Severity of CKD was assessed by eGFR (CKD-EPI formula). Frailty was established by the Fried Index. Functional, general health and cognitive status were assessed by validated score measures. Final analysis included 271 frail CKD subjects (162 women, 109 men). Mean eGFR was 64.25 ± 25.04 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Prevalence of mild-to-moderate CKD (stage 3-4) was 44%. Twenty-six percent of patients had severe cognitive impairment, while mild and moderate impairment was found in 7 and 67% of individuals, respectively. All subjects had poor functional and general health status. Cognitive capacities significantly decreased across CKD stages (p for trend cognitive status remained an independent predictor of eGFR (β = 0.465; p cognitive impairment. Future studies are advocated to clarify whether the combination of kidney and mental dysfunction may portend a higher risk of worsen outcomes in this high-risk population.

  8. Prospective study of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption and cognitive decline among elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengreen, H; Nelson, C; Munger, R G; Corcoran, C

    2011-03-01

    To examine associations between frequency of ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumption and cognitive function among elderly men and women of the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging in Utah. A population-based prospective cohort study established in Cache County, Utah in 1995. 3831 men and women > 65 years of age who were living in Cache County, Utah in 1995. Diet was assessed using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed using an adapted version of the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS) at baseline and three subsequent interviews over 11 years. RTEC consumption was defined as daily, weekly, or infrequent use. In multivariable models, more frequent RTEC consumption was not associated with a cognitive benefit. Those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily scored higher on their baseline 3MS than did those consuming RTEC more or less frequently (91.7, 90.6, 90.6, respectively; p-value < 0.001). This association was maintained across 11 years of observation such that those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily declined on average 3.96 points compared to an average 5.13 and 4.57 point decline for those consuming cereal more or less frequently (p-value = 0.0009). Those consuming RTEC at least daily had poorer cognitive performance at baseline and over 11 years of follow-up compared to those who consumed cereal more or less frequently. RTEC is a nutrient dense food, but should not replace the consumption of other healthy foods in the diets' of elderly people. Associations between RTEC consumption, dietary patterns, and cognitive function deserve further study.

  9. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  10. Disruptions in brain networks of older fallers are associated with subsequent cognitive decline: a 12-month prospective exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Liang Hsu

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and impaired mobility are major public health concerns. There is growing recognition that impaired mobility is an early biomarker of cognitive impairment and dementia. The neural basis for this association is currently unclear. We propose disrupted functional connectivity as a potential mechanism. In this 12-month prospective exploratory study, we compared functional connectivity of four brain networks- the default mode network (DMN, fronto-executive network (FEN, fronto-parietal network (FPN, and the primary motor sensory network (SMN--between community-dwelling older adults with ≥ two falls in the last 12 months and their non-falling counterparts (≤ one fall in the last 12 months. Functional connectivity was examined both at rest and during a simple motor tapping task. Compared with non-fallers, fallers showed more connectivity between the DMN and FPN during right finger tapping (p  = 0.04, and significantly less functional connectivity between the SMN and FPN during rest (p ≤ 0.05. Less connectivity between the SMN and FPN during rest was significantly associated with greater decline in both cognitive function and mobility over the12-month period (r =  -0.32 and 0.33 respectively; p ≤ 0.04. Thus, a recent history of multiple falls among older adults without a diagnosis of dementia may indicate sub-clinical changes in brain function and increased risk for subsequent decline.

  11. Does blood pressure lowering treatment prevents dementia or cognitive decline in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery; Ratnasabapathy, Yogini; Anderson, Craig

    2005-03-15

    There is increasing evidence that both hypertension and stroke play important roles in the development of cognitive decline and dementia. Despite five high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this area to date, there remains uncertainty about the role of blood pressure lowering therapy in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. It appears that lack of definitive results from these trials can be explained on the basis of (a) insufficient power to detect modest treatment effects; (b) measurement error in the diagnosis of dementia; (c) variations in the treatment effects between different types of antihypertensive agents; and (d) bias due to missing data, variation in baseline factors such as levels of blood pressure, and the inclusion of patients with cognitive impairment at entry. Preliminary meta-analysis of RCTs supports the hypothesis that blood pressure lowering may prevent dementia in high-risk patients, that is those with vascular disease. However, a meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from these, and other relevant trials in patients with vascular disease, would provide much more reliable data. If the hypothesis were confirmed, it would certainly be of considerable importance not only in terms of our understanding of the aetiology of dementia, but also in promoting blood pressure lowering strategies for broader public health good.

  12. Computer-Based Cognitive Programs for Improvement of Memory, Processing Speed and Executive Function during Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-kun Shao

    Full Text Available Several studies have assessed the effects of computer-based cognitive programs (CCP in the management of age-related cognitive decline, but the role of CCP remains controversial. Therefore, this systematic review evaluated the evidence on the efficacy of CCP for age-related cognitive decline in healthy older adults.Six electronic databases (through October 2014 were searched. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The standardized mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI of a random-effects model were calculated. The heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and quantified with the I2 index.Twelve studies were included in the current review and were considered as moderate to high methodological quality. The aggregated results indicate that CCP improves memory performance (SMD, 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45; p < 0.0001 and processing speed (SMD, 0.50; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.87; p = 0.007 but not executive function (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI -0.33 to 0.09; p = 0.27. Furthermore, there were long-term gains in memory performance (SMD, 0.59; 95% CI 0.13 to 1.05; p = 0.01.CCP may be a valid complementary and alternative therapy for age-related cognitive decline, especially for memory performance and processing speed. However, more studies with longer follow-ups are warranted to confirm the current findings.

  13. Is residual memory variance a valid method for quantifying cognitive reserve? A longitudinal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Brickman, Adam M.; Narkhede, Atul; Griffith, Erica Y.; Guzman, Vanessa A.; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve describes the mismatch between brain integrity and cognitive performance. Older adults with high cognitive reserve are more resilient to age-related brain pathology. Traditionally, cognitive reserve is indexed indirectly via static proxy variables (e.g., years of education). More recently, cross-sectional studies have suggested that reserve can be expressed as residual variance in episodic memory performance that remains after accounting for demographic factors and brain pathology (whole brain, hippocampal, and white matter hyperintensity volumes). The present study extends these methods to a longitudinal framework in a community-based cohort of 244 older adults who underwent two comprehensive neuropsychological and structural magnetic resonance imaging sessions over 4.6 years. On average, residual memory variance decreased over time, consistent with the idea that cognitive reserve is depleted over time. Individual differences in change in residual memory variance predicted incident dementia, independent of baseline residual memory variance. Multiple-group latent difference score models revealed tighter coupling between brain and language changes among individuals with decreasing residual memory variance. These results suggest that changes in residual memory variance may capture a dynamic aspect of cognitive reserve and could be a useful way to summarize individual cognitive responses to brain changes. Change in residual memory variance among initially non-demented older adults was a better predictor of incident dementia than residual memory variance measured at one time-point. PMID:26348002

  14. Is residual memory variance a valid method for quantifying cognitive reserve? A longitudinal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Manly, Jennifer J; Brickman, Adam M; Narkhede, Atul; Griffith, Erica Y; Guzman, Vanessa A; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive reserve describes the mismatch between brain integrity and cognitive performance. Older adults with high cognitive reserve are more resilient to age-related brain pathology. Traditionally, cognitive reserve is indexed indirectly via static proxy variables (e.g., years of education). More recently, cross-sectional studies have suggested that reserve can be expressed as residual variance in episodic memory performance that remains after accounting for demographic factors and brain pathology (whole brain, hippocampal, and white matter hyperintensity volumes). The present study extends these methods to a longitudinal framework in a community-based cohort of 244 older adults who underwent two comprehensive neuropsychological and structural magnetic resonance imaging sessions over 4.6 years. On average, residual memory variance decreased over time, consistent with the idea that cognitive reserve is depleted over time. Individual differences in change in residual memory variance predicted incident dementia, independent of baseline residual memory variance. Multiple-group latent difference score models revealed tighter coupling between brain and language changes among individuals with decreasing residual memory variance. These results suggest that changes in residual memory variance may capture a dynamic aspect of cognitive reserve and could be a useful way to summarize individual cognitive responses to brain changes. Change in residual memory variance among initially non-demented older adults was a better predictor of incident dementia than residual memory variance measured at one time-point. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Do bonding and bridging social capital affect self-rated health, depressive mood and cognitive decline in older Japanese? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have

  16. Leisure activities, education, and cognitive impairment in Chinese older adults: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyi; Qiu, Chengxuan; Zeng, Yi; Li, Juan

    2017-05-01

    We examine the association between leisure-time activities and the risk of developing cognitive impairment among Chinese older people, and further investigate whether the association varies by educational level. This follow-up study included 6,586 participants (aged 79.5 ± 9.8 years, range 65-105 years, 51.7% female) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey who were aged ≥65 years and were free of cognitive impairment in 2002. Incident cognitive impairment was defined at the 2005 or 2008/2009 survey following an education-based cut-off on the adapted Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Participation in cognitive activities (e.g. reading) and non-exercise physical activity (e.g. housework) was assessed by a self-reported scale. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to examine the association of leisure activities with incident cognitive impairment while controlling for age, gender, education, occupation, residence, physical exercise, smoking, drinking, cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, negative well-being, and physical functioning, and baseline MMSE score. During a five-year follow-up, 1,448 participants developed incident cognitive impairment. Overall, a high level of participation in leisure activities was associated with a 41% decreased risk of cognitive impairment compared to low-level engagement in leisure activities after controlling for age, gender, education, and other confounders. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between leisure activity and educational level, such that the beneficial effect of leisure activities on cognitive function was larger in educated elderly than their uneducated counterparts, and only educated elderly benefited from cognitive activities. Late-life leisure activities protect against cognitive impairment among elderly Chinese people, and the protective effects are more profound for educated elderly.

  17. Carotid disease at age 73 and cognitive change from age 70 to 76 years: A longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerhand, Michael; Eadie, Elizabeth; Thomas, Avril; Corley, Janey; Pattie, Alison; Taylor, Adele; Shenkin, Susan D; Cox, Simon; Gow, Alan; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline and carotid artery atheroma are common at older ages. In community-dwelling subjects, we assessed cognition at ages 70, 73 and 76 and carotid Doppler ultrasound at age 73, to determine whether carotid stenosis was related to cognitive decline. We used latent growth curve models to examine associations between four carotid measures (internal carotid artery stenosis, velocity, pulsatility and resistivity indices) and four cognitive ability domains (memory, visuospatial function, crystallised intelligence, processing speed) adjusted for cognitive ability at age 11, current age, gender and vascular risk factors. Amongst 866 participants, carotid stenosis (median 12.96%) was not associated with cognitive abilities at age 70 or cognitive decline from age 70 to 76. Increased ICA pulsatility and resistivity indices were associated with slower processing speed (both P function (P = 0.036, 0.031, respectively) at age 70, and declining crystallised intelligence from ages 70 to 76 (P = 0.008, 0.006, respectively). The findings suggest that vascular stiffening, rather than carotid luminal narrowing, adversely influences cognitive ageing and provides a potential target for ameliorating age-related cognitive decline. PMID:28155579

  18. Carotid disease at age 73 and cognitive change from age 70 to 76 years: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; Allerhand, Michael; Eadie, Elizabeth; Thomas, Avril; Corley, Janey; Pattie, Alison; Taylor, Adele; Shenkin, Susan D; Cox, Simon; Gow, Alan; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive decline and carotid artery atheroma are common at older ages. In community-dwelling subjects, we assessed cognition at ages 70, 73 and 76 and carotid Doppler ultrasound at age 73, to determine whether carotid stenosis was related to cognitive decline. We used latent growth curve models to examine associations between four carotid measures (internal carotid artery stenosis, velocity, pulsatility and resistivity indices) and four cognitive ability domains (memory, visuospatial function, crystallised intelligence, processing speed) adjusted for cognitive ability at age 11, current age, gender and vascular risk factors. Amongst 866 participants, carotid stenosis (median 12.96%) was not associated with cognitive abilities at age 70 or cognitive decline from age 70 to 76. Increased ICA pulsatility and resistivity indices were associated with slower processing speed (both P < 0.001) and worse visuospatial function ( P = 0.036, 0.031, respectively) at age 70, and declining crystallised intelligence from ages 70 to 76 ( P = 0.008, 0.006, respectively). The findings suggest that vascular stiffening, rather than carotid luminal narrowing, adversely influences cognitive ageing and provides a potential target for ameliorating age-related cognitive decline.

  19. Genetic and Vascular Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline and Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Reitz (Christiane)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOne of the earliest known written reports on dementia is attributed to Pythagoras in the 7th century BC, who described old age as a period of decline and decay of the human body and regression of mental capacities. In 1907, Alois Alzheimer, a german psychiatrist and scientist, observed

  20. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons. PMID:24600211

  1. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; De Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I]) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]). We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total). Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation), in the middle (after 24 sessions), and at the end (after 48 sessions) of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion, language tests should be routinely adopted in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects, and long-term-care institutions need to include regular sensorimotor, social, and cognitive stimulation as a public health policy for elderly persons.

  2. Art therapy and music reminiscence activity in the prevention of cognitive decline: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Rawtaer, Iris; Fam, Johnson; Wong, Jonathan; Kumar, Alan Prem; Gandhi, Mihir; Jing, Kenny Xu; Feng, Lei; Kua, Ee Heok

    2017-07-12

    Attention has shifted to the use of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent cognitive decline as a preventive strategy, as well as for those at risk and those with mild cognitive impairment. Early introduction of psycho-social interventions can address cognitive decline and significantly impact quality of life and the wellbeing of elderly individuals. This pilot study explores the feasibility of using art therapy and music reminiscence activity to improve the cognition of community living elderly with mild cognitive impairment. This open-label, interventional study involves a parallel randomized controlled trial design with three arms (two intervention arms and a control group) over a nine-month period. Participants will be community-living elderly individuals aged 60-85 years, both genders, who meet predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the initial three months, interventions will be provided weekly and for the remaining six months fortnightly. A sample size of 90 participants is targeted based on expected neuropsychological test performance, a primary outcome measure, and drop-out rates. The randomization procedure will be carried out via a web-based randomization system. Interventions will be provided by trained staff with a control group not receiving any intervention but continuing life as usual. Assessments will be done at baseline, three months, and nine months, and include neuroimaging to measure cerebral changes and neuropsychological tests to measure for changes in cognition. Secondary outcome measures will include mood changes in anxiety and depression and telomere lengths. Statistical analysis will be undertaken by statisticians; all efficacy analysis will be carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Primary and secondary outcomes will be modeled using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements and further analysis may be undertaken to adjust for potential confounders. This will be the first study to compare the effectiveness of

  3. Protocol for Project FACT: A randomised controlled trial on the effect of a walking program and vitamin B supplementation on the rate of cognitive decline and psychosocial wellbeing in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Hopman-Rock, M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: the prevalence of individuals with cognitive decline is increasing since the number of elderly adults is growing considerably. The literature provides promising results on the beneficial effect of exercise and vitamin supplementation on cognitive function both in cognitively healthy as

  4. A change in social activity affect cognitive function in middle-aged and older Koreans: analysis of a Korean longitudinal study on aging (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Park, Sohee; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-08-01

    To examine the association between a changes in social activity and cognitive function in Koreans aged 45 years or older. Data were obtained from 6076 participants aged 45 years and older included in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2012). Cognitive function was measured using the mini-mental state examination-Korean version (MMSE-K). Participation in social activities was classified as "consistent participation," "consistent non-participation," "participation to non-participation," and "non-participation to participation." Linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between type of social activity (religious organizations, friendship organizations, leisure/culture/sports clubs, family or school reunion, volunteering work, and political organizations), and cognitive function. Individuals who reported "no participation to participation" (b = 0.778, p cognitive decline than those who reported "consistent non-participation" (p cognitive function and consistent participation in religious activities, friendship organizations, and family/school reunions was particularly strong (b = 0.325, p older persons) may help preserve cognitive function in individuals aged 45 years or older in Korea. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Systolic blood pressure decline in very old individuals is explained by deteriorating health: Longitudinal changes from Umeå85+/GERDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidung, Bodil; Toots, Annika; Nordström, Peter; Carlberg, Bo; Gustafson, Yngve

    2017-12-01

    Declining systolic blood pressure (SBP) is common in very old age and is associated with adverse events, such as dementia. Knowledge of factors associated with SBP changes could explain the etiology of this decline in SBP. This study investigated longitudinal changes in socioeconomic factors, medical conditions, drug prescriptions, and assessments and their associations with SBP changes among very old followed individuals.The study was based on data from the Umeå85+/Gerontological Regional Database (GERDA) cohort study, which provided cross-sectional and longitudinal data on participants aged 85, 90, and ≥95 years from 2000 to 2015. Follow-up assessments were conducted after 5 years. The main outcome was a change in SBP. Factors associated with SBP changes were assessed using multivariate linear regression models.In the Umeå85+/GERDA study, 454 surviving individuals underwent follow-up assessment after 5 years. Of these, 297 had SBP measured at baseline and follow-up. The mean change ± standard deviation in SBP was -12 ± 25 mm Hg. SBP decline was associated independently with later investigation year (P = .009), higher baseline SBP (P < .001), baseline antidepressant prescription (P = .011), incident acute myocardial infarction during follow-up (P = .003), new diuretic prescription during follow-up (P = .044), and a decline in the Barthel Activities of Daily Living index at follow-up (P < .001).In conclusion, SBP declines among very old individuals. This decline seems to be associated with initial SBP level, investigation year, and health-related factors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory factors in Rey AVLT: Implications for early staging of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Ostberg, Per; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Hellström, Ake

    2014-12-01

    Supraspan verbal list learning is widely used to assess dementia and related cognitive disorders where declarative memory deficits are a major clinical sign. While the overall learning rate is important for diagnosis, serial position patterns may give insight into more specific memory processes in patients with cognitive impairment. This study explored these patterns in a memory clinic clientele. One hundred eighty three participants took the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The major groups were patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI) as well as healthy controls (HC). Raw scores for the five trials and five serial partitions were factor analysed. Three memory factors were found and interpreted as Primacy, Recency, and Resistance to Interference. AD and MCI patients had impaired scores in all factors. SCI patients were significantly impaired in the Resistance to Interference factor, and in the Recency factor at the first trial. The main conclusion is that serial position data from word list testing reflect specific memory capacities which vary with levels of cognitive impairment. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate and cocoa flavanols have been associated with improvements in a range of health complaints dating from ancient times, and has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on neurocognition and behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intake was associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 968 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intake was related to cognitive performance, measured with an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. More frequ