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Sample records for longissimus dorsi muscle

  1. Technological Characteristics of the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle of Pig Depending on the Genetic Type

    OpenAIRE

    Consuela Roibu; Ionuţ Beia; Mariana Bran; Elena Popescu-Micloşanu; Răzvan Popa

    2012-01-01

    The processes of technological processing of meat carried out in optimal conditions, require a good knowledge of the water capacity of bearings by the raw material that makes the manufacturing processes of the various preparations. Technological characteristics of pigmeat analyzed in this paper are represented by water retention ability, capacity of hydration and the degree of perselation. The researches have been conducted on 40 samples, taken from the muscle of the longissimus dorsi from br...

  2. Fatty acid and transcriptome profiling of longissimus dorsi muscles between pig breeds differing in meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaifan; Shu, Gang; Yuan, Fangfang; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wang, Songbo; Wang, Lina; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Shouquan; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Yan; Wu, Tongshan; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Qingyan

    2013-01-01

    Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH(45min), pH(24h) and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition.

  3. Release of major ions during rigor mortis development in kid Longissimus dorsi muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidt, C; Brun-Bellut, J

    1999-01-01

    Ionic strength plays an important role in post mortem muscle changes. Its increase is due to ion release during the development of rigor mortis. Twelve alpine kids were used to study the effects of chilling and meat pH on ion release. Free ions were measured in Longissimus dorsi muscle by capillary electrophoresis after water extraction. All free ion concentrations increased after death, but there were differences between ions. Temperature was not a factor affecting ion release in contrast to ultimate pH value. Three release mechanisms are believed to coexist: a passive binding to proteins, which stops as pH decreases, an active segregation which stops as ATP disappears and the production of metabolites due to anaerobic glycolysis.

  4. Biological Differences between Hanwoo longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus Muscles in Collagen Synthesis of Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyan, Sivakumar Allur; Hwang, Inho

    2017-01-01

    Variations in physical toughness between muscles and animals are a function of growth rate and extend of collagen type I and III. The current study was designed to investigate the ability of growth rate, collagen concentration, collagen synthesizing and degrading genes on two different fibroblast cells derived from Hanwoo m. longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Fibroblast cell survival time was determined for understanding about the characteristics of proliferation rate between the two fibroblasts. We examined the collagen concentration and protein expression of collagen type I and III between the two fibroblasts. The mRNA expression of collagen synthesis and collagen degrading genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms on toughness and tenderness through collagen production between the two fibroblast cells. From our results the growth rate, collagen content and protein expression of collagen type I and III were significantly higher in SM than LD muscle fibroblast. The mRNA expressions of collagen synthesized genes were increased whereas the collagen degrading genes were decreased in SM than LD muscle. Results from confocal microscopical investigation showed increased fluorescence of collagen type I and III appearing stronger in SM than LD muscle fibroblast. These results implied that the locomotion muscle had higher fibroblast growth rate, leads to produce more collagen, and cause tougher than positional muscle. This in vitro study mirrored that background toughness of various muscles in live animal is likely associated with fibroblast growth pattern, collagen synthesis and its gene expression.

  5. THE IMPACT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ADDITION ON PH VALUE OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE

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    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunflower oil (SFO in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunflower oil was given into fodder and the highest value of this trait was in group of individuals where also was given sunflower oil in 1 % amount. Statistical significant differences in pH value measured in different time after slaughter i.e. after 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours between tested groups of pigs were not stated. The exception is the result of pH measurement 5 hours after slaughter. Statistical significant differences were between group of pigs getting 0.5 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid characterized by the highest pH value of meat and group of animals fed the fodder with 1 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid (P≤0.01. On the basis of the results obtained in presented paper may be stated that feeding pigs with addition of conjugated linoleic acid in amounts 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impact negatively on meat quality defined by pH value.

  6. Technological Characteristics of the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle of Pig Depending on the Genetic Type

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    Consuela Roibu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The processes of technological processing of meat carried out in optimal conditions, require a good knowledge of the water capacity of bearings by the raw material that makes the manufacturing processes of the various preparations. Technological characteristics of pigmeat analyzed in this paper are represented by water retention ability, capacity of hydration and the degree of perselation. The researches have been conducted on 40 samples, taken from the muscle of the longissimus dorsi from breeds Marele Alb, Landrace, Line S 345 Periş, Duroc, Hampshire and Perhib, F1 hybrids (Marele AlbxLandrace xPietrain and F1 (Marele AlbxLandrace xSeghers. Water retention capacity has been appreciated by many indicators obtained from the pressing of the sample, according to the method Grau-Hamm. The largest capacity aircraft meets the breed Duroc (47.631, followed by the great white (43.33, LSP 345 Periş (42.87 and the hybrid Perhib (42.731. Water retention capacity, expressed as wet surface, stated on the first Landrace breed (30.012, followed by the Hampshire breed and F1xSeghers (29.602 hybrid Perhib (28.6 breed of LSP 345 Periş (28.361, the lowest value is passed to the race Duroc (22.344.

  7. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

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    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF. Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1 are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90, we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ, which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  8. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Zhang, Zhenhai; Yuan, Zhangqin; Lo, Li Jan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yizhen; Peng, Jinrong

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF). Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1) are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90), we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ), which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  9. The Effect of Antioxidant Activity of Liquid Smoke in Feed Supplement Block on Meat Functional of Muscle Longissimus dorsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abustam, E.; Said, M. I.; Yusuf, M.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to look at the role of liquid smoke as an antioxidant added in feed supplement block and administered to cattle for 45 days on the functional properties of meat. The level of liquid smoke in the feed and the time of maturation in Muscle Longissimus dorsi after slaughtering cattle were the two treatment factors observed for the functional properties of meat. The study used a complete randomized design in which factor 1 was a 10% smoke level in the feed (0, 1, 2%) and factor 2 was maturation time (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 days). The parameters observed were water holding capacity (WHC), raw meat shear force (RMSF), fat oxidation rate (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The results showed that liquid smoke levels lowered the WHC, RMSF more or less the same, increased fat oxidation rate, and antioxidant activity more or less the same. While maturation tends to increase WHC, increase RMSF, fat oxidation rate, and antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that liquid smoke as an antioxidant in the diet of block supplements can maintain the functional properties of Muscle Longissimus dorsi of Bali cattle during maturation.

  10. Characterization of rigor mortis of longissimus dorsi and triceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    24 h) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles as well as the shear force (meat tenderness) and colour were evaluated, aiming at characterizing the rigor mortis in the meat during industrial processing. Data statistic treatment demonstrated that carcass temperature and pH decreased gradually during ...

  11. Antioxidant supplementation in pig nutrition: effects on shelf life of longissimus dorsi muscle and consumers’ preferences for smoked cured ham.

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    Federica Maghin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture in medium-heavy swine on oxidative status, nutritional and sensory characteristics of longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and smoked cured ham were evaluated. Seventy-four pigs (PIC x Max Grow, were assigned to two experimental groups: control (CT and treated supplemented with antioxidant mixture (AOX for 45 days before slaughter. The total antiradicalic activity of blood (KRL test and carcass dressing percentage was positively affected (P<0.05 by AOX supplementation. Chemical composition of LD was not affected by dietary treatment. Oxidative stability and colour indices were significantly affected (P<0.05 by dietary treatment and storage time (0, 6, 12, 15 days under modified atmosphere packs - MAP. Sensory analysis revealed that at 12 and 15 days of storage a loss of colour beside presence of off odors was higher (P<0.05 in CT than AOX group. The seasoning losses of smoked cured ham tended to be lower (P=0.06 in AOX group than CT. Physical and chemical composition was not affected by dietary treatment. Sensory analysis revealed a difference between CT and AOX (P<0.05 in salty and sweet taste. Furthermore, the consumer test revealed that smoked cured ham from AOX were preferred (P<0.05 than CT. Dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture improves total antioxidant status, carcass dressing percentage and smoked cured ham seasoning losses. The oxidative, colour stability and sensory parameters of LD muscle was improved in AOX groups during refrigerated storage in MAP. Antioxidant mixture positively affect the consumer preference of smoked cured ham, without affecting other quality parameters.

  12. Effects of Pre and Post-Rigor Marinade Injection on Some Quality Parameters of Longissimus Dorsi Muscles

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    Fadıloğlu, Eylem Ezgi; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre and post-rigor marinade injections on some quality parameters of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. Three marinade formulations were prepared with 2% NaCl, 2% NaCl+0.5 M lactic acid and 2% NaCl+0.5 M sodium lactate. In this study marinade uptake, pH, free water, cooking loss, drip loss and color properties were analyzed. Injection time had significant effect on marinade uptake levels of samples. Regardless of marinate formulation, marinade uptake of pre-rigor samples injected with marinade solutions were higher than post rigor samples. Injection of sodium lactate increased pH values of samples whereas lactic acid injection decreased pH. Marinade treatment and storage period had significant effect on cooking loss. At each evaluation period interaction between marinade treatment and injection time showed different effect on free water content. Storage period and marinade application had significant effect on drip loss values. Drip loss in all samples increased during the storage. During all storage days, lowest CIE L* value was found in pre-rigor samples injected with sodium lactate. Lactic acid injection caused color fade in pre-rigor and post-rigor samples. Interaction between marinade treatment and storage period was found statistically significant (p<0.05). At day 0 and 3, the lowest CIE b* values obtained pre-rigor samples injected with sodium lactate and there were no differences were found in other samples. At day 6, no significant differences were found in CIE b* values of all samples. PMID:29805282

  13. Karakteristik Kimia dan Mikrostruktur Otot Longissimus Dorsi dan Biceps Femoris dari Sapi Glonggong (Chemical Characteristics and Microstructure of Longissimus Dorsi and Biceps Femoris Muscle of Glonggong Beef Cattle

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    Amrih Prasetyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate chemical and microstructure characteristics of glonggong (excessive drink meat compared with the normal meat. The meat samples were taken from Boyolali Regency, came from five glonggong male Ongole grade cattle, and from five normal cattle with the average life weight of 250–300 kg. The chemical data were analyzed by using analysis of variance of 2x2 factorial patterns. The microstructure characteristics were also analyzed descriptively. The water content of glonggong meat was higher compared with that of normal meat on BF and LD muscle, average water content was 80.64% and 80.14% vs 78.60% and 74.57%, respectively. The protein contents of BF (15.98% and LD (16.17% was lower than the protein contents normal meat of BF (21.08% and LD (21.07%, respectively. The Result of statistical analyzed shows significant pengglonggongan of cattle before slaughtered (P<0.05 to meat fat value at every muscle. The meat lactic acid value of glonggong meat of LD muscle was lower than that of normal meat of LD muscle (2815.891 vs 6827.77 ppm. There was a damage of glonggong meat microstructure of LD, BF muscle and also of liver organ. In conclusion, glonggong meat had a lower chemical characteristics compared with the normal meat. (Key words: Chemical, Microstructure, Meat, Glonggong

  14. Evaluation of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Lysosomal Enzymes of the Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) in Various Freezing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Donghun; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and lysosomal enzymes (alpha-glucopyranosidase (AGP) and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (BNAG)) of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) in three freezing conditions. Following freezing at -20, -60, and -196? (liquid nitrogen), LD samples (48 h post-slaughter) were treated as follows: 1) freezing for 14 d, 2) 1 to 4 freeze-thaw cycles (2 d of freezing in each cycl...

  15. The level of heat shock protein 90 in pig Longissimus dorsi muscle and its relationship with meat pH and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Muhan; Wang, Daoying; Geng, Zhiming; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2014-12-15

    The 90 kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that participates in various cellular processes, the role and significance of HSP90 in postmortem muscle though remains unclear. In the present study, pig Longissimus dorsi muscles, categorized into three pH groups, were tested for HSP90 levels and meat quality parameters (i.e. water holding capacity, colour, tenderness and lipid oxidation). The muscles with a high initial pH (pHi) group (pH>6.4) possessing the greatest water holding capacity and lightness, contained the highest HSP90 level, followed by intermediate (6.0-6.4) and low pHi groups (pHwater retention of meat and may be involved in postmortem meat quality development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Composição química e de ácidos graxos do músculo longissimus dorsi e da gordura subcutânea de tourinhos Red Norte e Nelore Chemical composition and of fatty acids of the muscle longissimus dorsi and backfat of Red Norte and young Nellore bulls

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    Leandro Sâmia Lopes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo longissimus dorsi e da gordura subcutânea de tourinhos Red Norte e Nelore terminados em confinamento. Utilizaram-se 44 animais, sendo 22 Red Norte com peso vivo inicial médio de 367±30 kg e 22 do grupo Nelore com peso vivo inicial médio de 361±30 kg. Os animais receberam ração à vontade durante 112 dias e foram abatidos com 519 e 482 kg, respectivamente. Amostras do músculo longissimus dorsi e da gordura subcutânea foram coletadas 24 horas após abate entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas para análise da composição centesimal e do perfil de ácidos graxos. As análises de ácidos graxos foram realizadas por meio de cromatografia gasosa, em coluna capilar de 100 m. Não houve diferença na composição química da carne entre os grupos genéticos. Nos animais Red Norte, foram maiores os teores dos ácidos graxos pentadecanoico, palmítico, palmitoleico, linoleico e ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA, enquanto nos animais Nelore foi encontrado o maior teor de ácido oleico. O músculo longissimus dorsi apresentou maiores teores dos ácidos láurico, heptadecenoico, esteárico, linoleico, α-linolênico e araquidônico. Em comparação ao músculo longissimus dorsi, na gordura subcutânea foram maiores os teores dos ácidos mirístico, miristoleico, pentadecanoico, palmítico, palmitoleico, oleico e CLA. Os animais Red Norte apresentaram maiores teores de ácidos graxos saturados em comparação aos Nelore. Em bovinos, o perfil de ácidos graxos depositados no músculo é diferente do observado na gordura subcutânea. O perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de tourinhos difere entre grupos genéticos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle and the backfat thickness of Red Norte and Nellore young bulls finished in feedlot. Fourty-four animals (22 Red Norte with

  17. Live changes in muscle glycogen concentration of steers due to feeding and fasting as determined through serial biopsies of the Longissimus dorsi muscle

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    Ariel Apaoblaza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient glycogen content in bovine muscle at slaughter produces meat with high final pH (> 5.8 which is undesirable. The objective of this study was to determine through biopsies the live changes in muscle glycogen concentration (MGC of housed steers fed on hay or hay plus energy concentrate for 30 d and then determine the effect of food deprivation (fasting for 24 h on the same variable. Ten steers of similar age, weight, and phenotypic characteristics were housed in individual pens and randomly assigned to two feeding treatments: ad libitum hay only (H, n = 5 and ad libitum hay plus flaked corn (Zea mays L. (HC, n = 5. Biopsies (B were taken from the Longissimus dorsi muscle at four occasions: the day before the start of experiment (B0, after 15 d (Bl, after 30 d (B2, and fasted for 24 h after B2 (B3. Before each biopsy, steers were sedated with xylazine (0.03 mL kg-1 and lidocaine was applied locally; samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen to determine MGC. Results showed a significant (P H and also of time (B2 > Bl on MGC; the decrease in MGC of steers due to fasting (B2 vs. B3 was not significant (P > 0.05. It was concluded that muscle biopsies allowed to detect a difference in the increase of MGC in steers fed an energy supplementation compared to steers fed hay only, and that fasting for 24 h tended to reduce MGC in both groups.

  18. Variation of the Surface of the Longissimus Dorsi (LD Muscle and the Section of the Leg of Mutton at Young Sheep of Different Breed Structures

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    Elena Ilişiu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was done on carcasses from the slaughter of young male sheep intensively fattened belonging to the local Tsigai race of mountain ecotype and its half-breeds with Suffolk and German blackface (GCCN. The purpose of the research was to determine Logissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, because these parts provide information on Ist meat quality. Research results have noted that lots of half-breeds achieved higher Longissimus dorsi (LD and leg of moutton area, compared with the pure breed batch. Compared with Tsigai breed, Longissimus dorsi (LD area deterrmined was higher with 10,75% to Suffolk x Tsigai half-breeds, and 0,07% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Leg of moutton area was higher with 17,27% to Suffolk x Tsigai halfbreeds, and 2,75% respectively to German Blackface x Tsigai half-breeds. Research carried out special information on Ist meat quality on carcass.

  19. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ∆(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

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    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and Δ9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. Δ9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Optimized Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Method for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Qinchuan Cattle Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Containing High Proportion of Marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ruijie; Adoligbe, Camus; Jiang, Bijie; Zhao, Xianlin; Gui, Linsheng; Qu, Kaixing; Wu, Sen; Zan, Linsen

    2015-01-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) proteomics provides a novel opportunity to reveal the molecular mechanism behind intramuscular fat deposition. Unfortunately, the vast amounts of lipids and nucleic acids in this tissue hampered LD proteomics analysis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation is a widely used method to remove contaminants from protein samples. However, the high speed centrifugation employed in this method produces hard precipitates, which restrict contaminant elimination and protein re-dissolution. To address the problem, the centrifugation precipitates were first grinded with a glass tissue grinder and then washed with 90% acetone (TCA/acetone-G-W) in the present study. According to our result, the treatment for solid precipitate facilitated non-protein contaminant removal and protein re-dissolution, ultimately improving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Additionally, we also evaluated the effect of sample drying on 2-DE profile as well as protein yield. It was found that 30 min air-drying did not result in significant protein loss, but reduced horizontal streaking and smearing on 2-DE gel compared to 10 min. In summary, we developed an optimized TCA/acetone precipitation method for protein extraction of LD, in which the modifications improved the effectiveness of TCA/acetone method.

  1. Comparative analysis on genome-wide DNA methylation in longissimus dorsi muscle between Small Tailed Han and Dorper×Small Tailed Han crossbred sheep

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    Yang Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to compare the DNA methylation profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle between Small Tailed Han and Dorper×Small Tailed Han crossbred sheep which were known to exhibit significant difference in meat-production. Methods Six samples (three in each group were subjected to the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq and subsequent bioinformatics analyses to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs between the two groups. Results 23.08 Gb clean data from six samples were generated and 808 DMRs were identified in gene body or their neighboring up/downstream regions. Compared with Small Tailed Han sheep, we observed a tendency toward a global loss of DNA methylation in these DMRs in the crossbred group. Gene ontology enrichment analysis found several gene sets which were hypo-methylated in gene-body region, including nucleoside binding, motor activity, phospholipid binding and cell junction. Numerous genes were found to be differentially methylated between the two groups with several genes significantly differentially methylated, including transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3, acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 1 (ACSL1, ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1, acyl-CoA oxidase 2 (ACOX2, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma2 (PPARG2, netrin 1 (NTN1, ras and rab interactor 2 (RIN2, microtubule associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 2 (ADAMTS2, myomesin 1 (MYOM1, zinc finger, DHHC type containing 13 (ZDHHC13, and SH3 and PX domains 2B (SH3PXD2B. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation showed that the 12 genes are differentially expressed between the two groups. Conclusion In the current study, a tendency to a global loss of DNA methylation in these DMRs in the crossbred group was found. Twelve genes, TGFB3, ACSL1, RYR1, ACOX2, PPARG2, NTN1, RIN2, MAPRE1, ADAMTS2, MYOM1, ZDHHC13, and SH3

  2. Composição Física da Carcaça, Qualidade da Carne e Conteúdo de Colesterol no Músculo Longissimus dorsi de Novilhos Red Angus Superprecoces, Terminados em Confinamento e Abatidos com Diferentes Pesos Carcass Composition, Meat Quality and Cholesterol Content in the Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Young Red Angus Steers Confined and Slaughtered with Different Weights

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    Eduardo Castro da Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a composição física da carcaça, a qualidade da carne e o conteúdo de colesterol no músculo Longissimus dorsi de 24 novilhos Red Angus, terminados em confinamento com diferentes pesos. Os novilhos tinham, em média, 189 kg e oito meses de idade ao início do período de terminação, que foi de 114, 144, 173 e 213 dias, para os respectivos pesos de abate (PA de 340, 373, 400,6 e 433,6 kg . A composição da carcaça foi alterada pelo peso de abate. A percentagem de osso variou de maneira quadrática (%osso= 92,81 -- 0,402PA + 0,0005PA², com valor mínimo de 12% aos 402 kg, enquanto a porcentagem de músculo diminuiu de forma linear (%músc.= 78,38 -- 0,042PA e a porcentagem de gordura aumentou (%gord.= 3,92 + 0,052PA. A relação porção comestível:osso teve resposta quadrática frente aos tratamentos (RPC:O= -31,88 + 0,194PA -- 0,0002PA², apresentando o valor máximo de 6,47 nas carcaças produzidas por animais abatidos com 395 kg. A relação músculo:osso, que não variou com o peso de abate, foi de 4,4 de média para os tratamentos. Cor e textura não foram alteradas pelo aumento do peso de abate, enquanto marmoreio aumentou linearmente (Marm.= -13,35 + 0,051667PA. Maiores pesos de abate resultaram em menor quebra no descongelamento e maior quebra na cocção. A carne foi classificada como macia e muito macia, com suculência e palatabilidade levemente acima da média. Os teores de extrato etéreo e colesterol não foram alterados pelo aumento do peso de abate, sendo a média para os tratamentos de 2,35% e 43,07 mg de colesterol/100 g de músculo, respectivamente.The carcass physical composition, meat quality and cholesterol content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of 24 Red Angus steers finished in feedlot with different weights were evaluated. Steers average age and weight at the beginning of the feedlot were, respectively, eight months and 189 kg. The number of days on feed was 114, 144, 173 and 213 days to reach

  3. Efeito de três alimentos diferentes sobre as características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus dorsi do porco de raça Alentejana Effect of three differents foodstuffs on the physical and chemical characteristics of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the Alentejana breed pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pacheco Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    significativamente quer a quantidade de músculo produzido, quer o seu peso relativo na carcaça.With the aim of evaluating the influence of foodstuff in the meat characteristics of the Alentejano pig, bred for fresh meat production, we tested three different foodstuffs: a commercial foodstuff with 3200 kcal of Digestible Energy (DE per kg and 18,1% Crude Protein (CP, a cereal grain (triticale with 3300 kcal DE per kg and 13% CP and a mixture of cereal (triticale and oat with soybean meal with 3200 kcal DE per kg and 17,4% CP. Each foodstuff was fed to the animals in order to supply 4250 kcal/day of DE to animals between 30 and 40 kg of live weight, and then the amount fed increased gradually, up to 6800 kcal/day, when animals weighted between 60 and 70 kg; finally, the supplied energy decreased down to 4800 kcal/day, to animals from 90 to 100 kg of live weight. The experiment was delineated in 2 randomized blocks, with 3 parks per block and 8 animals in each park. The Alentejana breed animals began the experiment weighting 35 kg, and were sacrificed when they reached 100 kg of live weight. After slaughter, samples from the Longissimus dorsi muscle of 4 animals from each park were taken and frozen at -20 ºC. These samples were kept frozen until the analytical procedures took place. The laboratorial determinations were pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC, colour (CIE LAB, moisture, percentage of intramuscular fat, and total pigments. The results for pH, WHC, colour, intramuscular lipids and total pigments did not present significant differences among themselves. As for moisture, animals fed with triticale showed significantly lower values (68,8% than animals fed with commercial foodstuff and cereal grain (71,1% and 71,3%, respectively, which agrees with their higher percentage of intramuscular fat (even though not statistically different. We concluded that the 3 tested foodstuffs were of little or no influence in the variation of the analysed physicochemical characteristics, but

  4. Technological quality and composition of the M. semimembranosus and M. longissimus dorsi from Large White and Landrace Pigs

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    Vladimir Milo Tomovic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pig breed (Large White and Landrace in combination with muscle type (M. semimembranosus and M. longissimus dorsi on T45min, T24h, pH45min, pH24h, colour (CIEL*a*b* values, water-holding capacity (filter paper press method: ratio of the area of pressed meat film – M and the wet area on the filter paper – T; M/T value and moisture, protein, total fat and total ash content were investigated. Interaction effect between breed and muscle was not found (p>0.05 for any parameter. The T45min, T24h, pH45min, and M/T value were influenced by the muscle, whereas T24h was also influenced by the breed. The pH45min was higher (p<0.01 and water-holding capacity was better (p<0.001 in M. semimembranosus muscle than in M. longissimus dorsi muscle. Based on the criteria for CIEL* and M/T values, pork meat was classified into seven technological quality classes. The percentages of pale and exudative, reddish-pink and exudative, and reddish-pink and non-exudative pork were 23.5, 26.5, and 27.7%, respectively. Composition was in the characteristic range for modern lean pigs.

  5. Effect of ageing time in vacuum package on veal longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris physical and sensory traits

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    G. Baldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study evaluated the effects of vacuum ageing (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 days on veal loin (longissimus dorsi; LD and silverside (biceps femoris; BF physical and sensory characteristics. Ageing did not affect cooking loss, increased LD pH and L*, a* and b* in both muscles. Shear force (SF decreased until day 6 in LD and day 10 in BF. Aroma, flavor and taste were not affected, while texturetraits were improved. SF was negative correlated with tenderness and juiciness and positive correlated with BF fibrousness and stringy sensation. Ageing improved texture properties withoutaltering other sensory traits.

  6. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (Pmaking the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The response of gene expression associated with lipid metabolism, fat deposition and fatty acid profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Gannan yaks to different energy levels of diets.

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    Chao Yang

    Full Text Available The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5.5 MJ/kg, medium-energy (ME: 6.2 MJ/kg and high-energy (HE: 6.9 MJ/kg diets, respectively. All animals were fed ad libitum twice daily at 08:00-09:00 am and 17:00-18:00 pm and with free access to water for 74 days, including a 14-d period to adapt to the diets and the environment. Intramuscular fat (IMF content, fatty acid profile and mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were determined. The energy levels of the diets significantly (P<0.05 affected the content of IMF, total SFA, total MUFA and total PUFA. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9c account for a large proportion of total fatty acids. Relative expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA, fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4 was greater in HE than in LE yaks (P<0.05. Moreover, ME yaks had higher (P<0.05 mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, ACACA, FASN, SCD and FABP4 than did the LE yaks. The results demonstrate that the higher energy level of the diets increased IMF deposition and fatty acid content as well as increased intramuscular lipogenic gene expression during the experimental period.

  8. Efeitos da injeção de cloreto de cálcio pós-morte e tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso Effects of postmortem calcium chloride injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus and Bos taurus animals selected for weight gain

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    Aparecida Carla de Moura

    1999-01-01

    dorsi muscle from Bos indicus and Bos taurus animals selected for weight gain. Sixty-four young bulls (16 Caracu, 16 Guzera, 16 Nellore Control and 16 Nellore Selection were used. Twenty four hours after slaughter a sample from Longissimus dorsi muscle, taken between the 6th and 9th lumbar vertebrae was removed and divided into nine sub-samples. In each sub-samples, randomly selected, an amount correspondent to 10% of sub-sample weight was injected, with one of the following solutions: a water (control, b 200 mM CaCl2 or c 300 mM CaCl2. Each sub-sample was then vacuum-wrapped, cooled to - 2ºC and aged for 1, 7 or 14 days until the realization of the shear force and cooking losses (evaporation, drip, and total losses tests. A completely randomized design with a split-plot arrangement, where breeds corresponded to a whole plots and the combinations among three levels of CaCl2 and three aging times as split-plots, was used. The breed affected the shear force, but did not affected the cooking losses. Higher CaCl2 concentrations resulted on the lowest shear force values and greater evaporation losses although it did not affect either dripping or total losses. The 200 mM CaCl2 concentration showed the best reduction in the shear force. The postmortem injection with CaCl2 hasten the tenderness process without affecting the cooking losses.

  9. Application and optimization of the tenderization of pig Longissimus dorsi muscle by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoying; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-01

    Based on single factor experiments, NaCl concentration, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentration and temperature were selected as independent variables for a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design, and the shear force and cooking loss were response values for regression analysis. According to the statistical models, it showed that all independent variables had significant effects on shear force and cooking loss, and optimal values were at the NaCl concentration of 4.15%, AMP concentration of 22.27 mmol/L and temperature of 16.70°C, which was determined with three-dimensional response surface diagrams and contour plots. Under this condition, the observed shear force and cooking loss were 0.625 kg and 8.07%, respectively, exhibiting a good agreement with their predicted values, showing the good applicability and feasibility of response surface methodology (RSM) for improving pork tenderness. Compared with control pig muscles, AMP combined with NaCl treatment demonstrated significant effects on improvement of meat tenderness and reduction of cooking loss. Therefore, AMP could be regarded as an effective tenderization agent for pork. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Differential expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism in longissimus dorsi of Korean bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Jin Jong; Jeong, Jin Young; Rajasekar, Panchamoorthy; Cho, Young Moo; Kwon, Eung Gi; Kim, Hyeong Cheol; Paek, Bong Hyun; Baik, Myunggi

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expression of genes associated with lipid deposition and removal between bulls and steers in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) tissue of Korean cattle. Castration increased the expression of lipid uptake lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid translocase, and fatty acid transport protein 1 in LM. Castration increased lipogenic gene expression of both acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. In contrast, castration downregulated lipolytic gene expression of both adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and monoglyceride lipase. Steers showed higher expression levels of insulin signaling phospho-v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 than bulls but lower protein levels of nuclear Forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) than bulls, suggesting that increased insulin signaling following castration decreases nuclear FoxO1 levels, leading to downregulation of ATGL gene expression. These findings suggest that castration contributes to increases in lipid uptake and lipogenesis and a decrease in lipolysis, resulting in improved marbling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiological shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat (M. longissimus dorsi

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    Eva Wiklund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study loin muscles (M. longissimus dorsi from six reindeer calves (aged 4 months were used to determine shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat stored at +4 °C, measured as microbiological quality (aerobic microorganisms and Escherichia coli. The loins were collected at boning 3 days post slaughter and divided in five pieces that were randomly assigned to five different storage times; sampling directly after packaging and after chilled storage for 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks at +4 °C. Samples were vacuum packaged and transported chilled to Hjortens Laboratory in Östersund, Sweden (accredited by SWEDAC according to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for food analysis where the storage, microbiological sampling and analysis took place according to the protocols of Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL. The total amount of aerobic microorganisms at the first sampling directly after packaging (three days post slaughter was 3.4 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. After two and three weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage at +4°C the microbiological quality of the samples was on the border-line to poor (6.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. At four and five weeks of chilled storage the levels of aerobic microorganisms were significantly highest (P≤0.05 and the limit for acceptable quality of 7 log10 CFU/g aerobic bacteria had been passed (7.3 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g and 7.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Very few of the reindeer meat samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. The results from the present pilot study suggest that storage time for vacuum packaged fresh, chilled reindeer meat should not exceed 3 weeks at a temperature of +4 °C.

  12. Quality characteristics of the Musculus longissimus dorsi from Pecora dell’Amiata reared in Tuscany

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    Roberto Tocci

    2017-07-01

    The trial was performed with ewes and lambs deriving from the local breed Pecora dell’Amiata. In this work, the Musculus longissimus dorsi (M. longissimus thoracis + lomborum physical-chemical and nutritional characteristics of 23 ewes and 20 lambs were compared. The ewes of the trial were over 7 years old while the lambs were on average 80 days old. Ewe meat has shown lower drip loss (4.14 vs 2.71% and lightness (L* 38.6 vs 45.3 values, and higher PH (6.15±0.07, shear force (8.4 vs 2.31 kg, fat content (5.9 vs 2.0%. The lamb meat lipids had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA: 14.58 vs 9.25% and higher PUFA/Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA ratio (0.31 vs 0.20. The PCA analysis identified two distinct groups regarding ewe and lamb meat respectively for the fatty acids composition and the health indices. Ewe meat showed dietetic and nutritional characteristics similar to that of lamb meat. These characteristics may allow in the future, to the ewe meat valorisation, now not appreciated by Tuscan and Italian market.

  13. Flavour development in pork. Influence of flavour precursor concentrations in longissimus dorsi from pigs with different raw meat qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis

    2009-01-01

    Flavour development and overall eating quality of pan-fried pork chops of longissimus dorsi from eight different raw meat qualities aged for 4 and IS days were assessed by a trained sensory panel. The raw meat qualities were obtained through combinations of strategic feeding/fasting (control vs...... the differences in sensory perception of the pan-fried pork chops. Overall, the differences were small....

  14. Physical and chemical characteristics of the longissimus dorsi from swine reared in climate-controlled and uncontrolled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Juliana Lolli Malagoli; Berton, Mariana Piatto; de Cassia Dourado, Rita; Giampietro-Ganeco, Aline; de Souza, Rodrigo Alves; Ferrari, Fábio Borba; de Souza, Pedro Alves; Borba, Hirasilva

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature on the physical and chemical characteristics of the longissimus dorsi muscle by comparing the quality of meat from pigs reared in a controlled and in an uncontrolled environment, the latter provided with a shallow pool. Twenty castrated male pigs of the Topigs line were randomly allotted to two treatments: a controlled environment, with constant temperature (22 °C) and relative humidity (70%); and an uncontrolled environment in a conventional shed for rearing pigs equipped with a shallow pool, where pigs were subject to climatic variations. Meat from pigs kept in the controlled environment showed a greater capacity to retain intracellular water, higher tenderness, and lower cholesterol levels than meat from pigs reared in the uncontrolled environment, but displayed higher lipid oxidation and a lower concentration of DHA. Treatments had no effect on color, pH, chemical composition, or fatty acid profile (except DHA concentration). Rearing pigs in sheds equipped with a shallow pool minimizes the effects of environmental heat on meat quality, allowing the production of high-quality meat in warm climate regions without expensive investments. Animals reared in an uncontrolled environment equipped with a shallow pool are able to produce meat with characteristics within the quality standards and with similar quality to that of meat from animals raised in controlled environment.

  15. Thermograms of the combined High Hydrostatic Pressure and Sous-vide treated Longissimus dorsi of pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenesei, Gy; Jónás, G.; Salamon, B.; Dalmadi, I.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, slices of Longissimus dorsi of pork was used as raw material to establish the effects of the sous-vide technology and the high hydrostatic pressure treatments (and their combinations) on meat. The state of the proteins in meat has a very important effect on several quality parameters of the product, such as weight loss, water holding capacity, organoleptic properties. Therefore it is important to follow and analyse the denaturation of the protein content during food processing. The samples were cooked sous-vide (60 °C, 5-480 minutes) or pressurized (100-600 MPa, 5 minutes, room temperature). Also two steps treatments were studied combining both technologies, applying high hydrostatic pressure treatment (300 or 600 MPa, 5 minutes, room temperature) after or previous to sous-vide cooking (60 °C, 30 minutes). The changes in the condition of meat proteins were followed by a differential scanning calorimeter. The DSC curves were analysed using the unit’s own software where denaturation heat was determined. Thermograms show through the change of the sample’s protein state the dissimilar effect of the treatments. Using the Polar Qualification System -previously proved to be effective with NIR measurements- the spectral information was reduced to a two dimensional polar co-ordinate system where each DSC curve is represented by a “quality point”. As a new experiment the applied PQS data reduction method compared to the traditional thermal analysis data processing gave us less information on the differences of our samples although the results are promising as we were able to detect the same trends and characteristics.

  16. Comparison the physicochemical quality indicators of Musculus Longissimus Dorsi from Mangalitsa Breed and their crossbreeds

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    Ondrej Debreceni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a current trend in the market of pork to create products based on traditional, regional specialities, where is used technology such as drying, smoking and fermentation of products. These products require a specific quality of meat from pure-bred indigenous breeds or their crossbreeds with emphasis on dry matter content, intramuscular fat content in meat and fatty acid composition with higher share of unsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids. Due to this fact, indigenous breed such as the Mangalitsa has received attention from the aspect of high meat quality and meat products compared to pig meat breeds. The aim of study was to compare the meat quality of Musculus longissimus dorsi from Mangalitsa breed, the crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc and the pig meat breed Slovak Large White. The experimental material comprised of 28 pcs of pigs, which were reared in the same intensive conditions and they were fed ad libitum by complete feed mixtures for fatteners. The fattening period lasted from 30 kg to 100 kg of body weight. In the presented study was found that the crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc had lighter colour of meat and the Mangalitsa had darker colour than Slovak Large White (P < 0.01. From the point of texture of meat, it was found stiffer meat from Slovak Large White and more tender meat from crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc compared to meat of Mangalitsa (P < 0.01. The crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc had the highest intramuscular fat content and cholesterol content in meat (P < 0.01. The intramuscular fat content and cholesterol content was the lowest in Slovak Large White (P < 0.01. The results indicate that utilization of Mangalitsa breed for crossing with pig meat breeds can improve quality meat traits in their crossbreeds, which are requiring for production of special meat products.

  17. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Fatty acid profile in the ruminal fluid and in the m. longissimus dorsi of lambs fed herbage or concentrate with or without tannins

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    Alessandro Priolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight male lambs were divided into two groups at age 45 d. Fourteen lambs were given fresh herbage (vetch; the remaining lambs were fed a concentrate-based diet. Within each treatment, seven lambs received a supplementation of quebracho tannins. At slaughter (age 105 d the ruminal content and the muscle longissimus dorsi (LD were collected. Ruminal fluid and LD fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Among the concentrates-fed lambs, tannins supplementation reduced (P < 0.05 the concentration of C18:0 (- 49 % and increased vaccenic acid (VA; + 69 % in the ruminal fluid. When tannins were included into the concentrate, the LD contained double levels of rumenic acid (RA as compared to the LD of the lambs fed the tannins-free concentrate (0.96 vs. 0.46 % of total extracted fatty acids, respectively; P < 0.05. The concentration of PUFA was higher (P < 0.05 and SFA (P < 0.01 lower in the LD from lambs fed the tannin diets as compared to the animals receiving the tannin-free diets. In conclusion, tannins reduce the biohydrogenation of the PUFA in the rumen. This implies that tannins supplementation could be a strategy to increase the RA and PUFA content and to reduce the SFA into ruminant meats.

  19. Propionato de cálcio no amaciamento do músculo Longissimus dorsi de bovinos de corte

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    Pedreira Aparecida Carla de Moura Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A maciez da carne é influenciada pela atuação do sistema proteolítico das calpaínas, durante o processo de maturação pós-morte. O propionato de cálcio fornece cálcio suficiente para aumentar a concentração de cálcio plasmático e, assim, ativar essas proteases dependentes de cálcio, melhorando a maciez da carne. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram avaliar o efeito do fornecimento via oral de propionato de cálcio nas características quali-quantitativas da carcaça de bovinos de corte. Neste estudo, 24 machos castrados (3/4 Simental+1/4 Nelore receberam, por via oral, os tratamentos 0 ou 630 g de propionato de cálcio, 12 horas antes do abate. Após o abate, foram estudados o amaciamento e as perdas por cozimento após 1, 8 e 15 dias de maturação, a análise sensorial, o pH da carne, a área do olho do lombo, a espessura de gordura, os rendimentos da carcaça e a concentração de cálcio no plasma e no músculo Longissimus dorsi. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com propionato de cálcio não teve efeito sobre as características de carcaça, a concentração de cálcio no músculo Longissimus dorsi, a força de cisalhamento, as perdas por cozimento e a maciez, o sabor e avaliação geral na análise sensorial. O tratamento com propionato de cálcio aumentou a concentração de cálcio plasmático e melhorou a suculência sensorial.

  20. Effects of transportation during the hot season, breed and electrical stimulation on histochemical and meat quality characteristics of goat longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, Isam T; Mahgoub, Osman; Al-Marzooqi, Waleed; Khalaf, Samera; Al-Sinawi, Shadia S H; Al-Amri, Issa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of transportation and electrical stimulation (90 V) on physiological, histochemical and meat quality characteristics of two breeds of Omani goats were assessed. Twenty 1-year-old male goats from each breed (Batina and Dhofari) were divided into two groups: 3 h transported during the hot season (42 degrees C day time temperature) and non-transported. Animals were blood-sampled before loading and prior to slaughter. Electrical stimulation was applied 20 min postmortem to 50% randomly selected carcasses of both breeds. Temperature and pH decline of the Longissimus was monitored. Ultimate pH, shear force, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss and colour were measured from samples of Longissimus dorsi muscles. Electrical stimulation and transportation had a significant effect on most biochemical and meat quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi. The transported goats had higher plasma cortisol (P goats. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (P Meat from transported goats had significantly higher pH, expressed juice and shear force, but contained significantly lower sarcomere length and L* values than non-transported goats. The proportion of the myosin ATPase staining did not change as a function of stimulation, transportation or breed. These results indicated that subjecting goats to transportation for 3 h under high ambient temperatures can generate major physiological and muscle metabolism responses. Electrical stimulation improved quality characteristics of meat from both groups. This indicates that electrical stimulation may reduce detrimental effects of transportation on meat quality of Omani goats.

  1. Differences in intramuscular vascular connections of human and dog latissimus dorsi muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Morris, S F

    1999-02-01

    Distal ischemia and necrosis of the dog latissimus dorsi muscle flap used in experimental cardiomyoplasty have been reported. However, little information on the intramuscular vascular anatomy of the dog latissimus dorsi is available. It is unclear whether there are any anatomic factors relating to the muscle flap ischemia and necrosis, and whether the dog latissimus dorsi is a suitable experimental model. To study the intramuscular vascular territories in the dog latissimus dorsi muscle, and to compare the intramuscular vasculature of the dog with that of the human, 5 fresh dog cadavers and 7 fresh human cadavers were injected with a mixture of lead oxide, gelatin, and water (200 mL/kg) through the carotid artery. Both the dog and the human latissimus dorsi muscles and neurovascular pedicles were dissected and radiographed. The intramuscular vascular anatomy of the latissimus dorsi muscles was compared. Radiographs demonstrate clearly that the pattern of latissimus dorsi intramuscular anastomoses between branches of the thoracodorsal artery and the perforators of posterior intercostal arteries in the proximal half of the muscle are different between the dog and the human. In the dog muscle, vascular connections between the thoracodorsal artery and the posterior intercostal arteries are formed by reduced-caliber choke arteries, whereas four to six true anastomoses without a change in caliber between them are found in the human muscle. The portion of the latissimus dorsi muscle supplied by the dominant thoracodorsal vascular territory was 25.9% +/- 0.3% in the dog and 23.9% +/- 0.5% in the human. For further comparison, an extended vascular territory in the latissimus dorsi muscle was demonstrated, including both the thoracodorsal territory and the posterior intercostal territories. The area of the extended vascular territory was 52% +/- 0.5% of the total muscle. The dog latissimus dorsi model may not be a perfect predictor of the behavior of the human latissimus

  2. A comparative study of Sus scrofa M. longissimus dorsi with different changes in quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Chernukha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of Sus scrofa muscle tissue with different defects of quality was carried out. Such analysis methods as determination of water-binding capacity (WBC and pH values, microstructural studies, proteome methods, mass spectrometric methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and determine the concentration of cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin were applied in current study. DFD meat was characterized by high pH (6.2 and WBC (93.18%, while PSE - low pH (5.5 and WBC (79.19%. pH and WBC values in NOR pork was medium and averaged 5.9 and 92.05%, respectively. Microstructural studies revealed that fiber in exudative pork was the least and averaged 39.7 µm, normal pork was characterized by diameter of muscle of 45.5 µm, while DFD pork ‑ 48.3 µm. Protein composition of Sus scrofa muscle tissues were also investigated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis. 6 protein fractions were identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed as potential biomarkers of pork quality defects in meat and processes meat product. It also has been shown that PSE pork contains 8 characteristic peptides, NOR - 14, DFD - 18. Cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin content were measured in pork of different categories. The highest content of cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin was noticed in PSE pork and averaged 82.16 ±3.30 ng.mL-1; 1.280 ±0.082 ng.mL-1; 3.973 ±0.506 ng.mL-1, respectively. Since the study was carried out on samples of meat 24 hours after slaughter, this work had the prospect to further study of meat with different defects of quality during long-term autolysis.

  3. Tenderness of pre- and post rigor lamb longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesink, Geert; Sujang, Sadi; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2011-08-01

    Lamb longissimus muscle (n=6) sections were cooked at different times post mortem (prerigor, at rigor, 1dayp.m., and 7 days p.m.) using two cooking methods. Using a boiling waterbath, samples were either cooked to a core temperature of 70 °C or boiled for 3h. The latter method was meant to reflect the traditional cooking method employed in countries where preparation of prerigor meat is practiced. The time postmortem at which the meat was prepared had a large effect on the tenderness (shear force) of the meat (PCooking prerigor and at rigor meat to 70 °C resulted in higher shear force values than their post rigor counterparts at 1 and 7 days p.m. (9.4 and 9.6 vs. 7.2 and 3.7 kg, respectively). The differences in tenderness between the treatment groups could be largely explained by a difference in contraction status of the meat after cooking and the effect of ageing on tenderness. Cooking pre and at rigor meat resulted in severe muscle contraction as evidenced by the differences in sarcomere length of the cooked samples. Mean sarcomere lengths in the pre and at rigor samples ranged from 1.05 to 1.20 μm. The mean sarcomere length in the post rigor samples was 1.44 μm. Cooking for 3 h at 100 °C did improve the tenderness of pre and at rigor prepared meat as compared to cooking to 70 °C, but not to the extent that ageing did. It is concluded that additional intervention methods are needed to improve the tenderness of prerigor cooked meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Triceps brachii muscle reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi muscle flap in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavletic, Michael M; Kalis, Russell; Tribou, Patricia; Mouser, Pam J

    2015-01-15

    A 6-year-old spayed female Border Collie was examined for a severe deformity of the right forelimb. Three months prior to examination, the patient awkwardly fell off the couch and became acutely lame in the right forelimb, progressing to non-weight bearing over the following 72 hours. On physical examination, the dog carried the limb caudally against the thoracic wall, with the shoulder flexed and elbow in extension. The right triceps brachii muscle was atrophied and contracted, resulting in a resistant tension band effect that precluded manipulation of the right elbow joint. The physical changes in the triceps muscle were considered the primary cause of the patient's loss of limb function. Surgical treatment by means of elevation and transposition of the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle was performed. The exposed triceps brachii muscles were transected 3 cm proximal to the tendons of insertion. Via a separate incision, the right latissimus dorsi muscle was elevated and tunneled subcutaneously beneath the interposing skin between the 2 surgical incisions. The muscle was then positioned and sutured to the proximal and distal borders of the divided triceps muscle group. Two weeks later, physical therapy was initiated. After 2 months, the patient regularly walked on the limb most of the time (9/10 steps). The surgical procedure for elevation and transposition of the latissimus dorsi muscle was relatively simple to perform. Physical therapy was an essential component to achieving the successful functional outcome in this case. This technique may be considered for treatment of similar patients in which the triceps muscle group is severely compromised.

  5. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of tetracycline administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle samples (L. dorsi)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gratacos-Cubarsi, M.; Castellari, M.; Hortos, M.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of tetracycline (TC) administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle was evaluated by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The TC content at slaughter was determined in L. dorsi samples by HPLC-DAD. Mean residual concentration of TC in the muscle of treated animals, ca...

  7. Acute traumatic tear of latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mesut Çelebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively.

  8. Gene expression studies of developing bovine longissimus muscle from two different beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Keren A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The muscle fiber number and fiber composition of muscle is largely determined during prenatal development. In order to discover genes that are involved in determining adult muscle phenotypes, we studied the gene expression profile of developing fetal bovine longissimus muscle from animals with two different genetic backgrounds using a bovine cDNA microarray. Fetal longissimus muscle was sampled at 4 stages of myogenesis and muscle maturation: primary myogenesis (d 60, secondary myogenesis (d 135, as well as beginning (d 195 and final stages (birth of functional differentiation of muscle fibers. All fetuses and newborns (total n = 24 were from Hereford dams and crossed with either Wagyu (high intramuscular fat or Piedmontese (GDF8 mutant sires, genotypes that vary markedly in muscle and compositional characteristics later in postnatal life. Results We obtained expression profiles of three individuals for each time point and genotype to allow comparisons across time and between sire breeds. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of RNA from developing longissimus muscle was able to validate the differential expression patterns observed for a selection of differentially expressed genes, with one exception. We detected large-scale changes in temporal gene expression between the four developmental stages in genes coding for extracellular matrix and for muscle fiber structural and metabolic proteins. FSTL1 and IGFBP5 were two genes implicated in growth and differentiation that showed developmentally regulated expression levels in fetal muscle. An abundantly expressed gene with no functional annotation was found to be developmentally regulated in the same manner as muscle structural proteins. We also observed differences in gene expression profiles between the two different sire breeds. Wagyu-sired calves showed higher expression of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5 RNA at birth. The developing longissimus muscle of

  9. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: VIII. Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Taylor, J B; Lewis, G S

    2014-07-01

    Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi were evaluated in 514 crossbred wether lambs to assess sire breed differences. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC)-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. One of three harvest groups were randomly assigned to each lamb, and lambs were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir when the mean BW of wethers remaining in the feedlot reached 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg. After harvest, subjective lean quality scores were assigned and LM pH (immediately after and 24 h after harvest), color (quantified as Minolta L*, a*, and b*), intramuscular fat (IMF), cooking loss percentage, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) were determined. Statistical models included fixed effects of sire breed, year of birth, and harvest group and random effects of sire (nested within sire breed and year) and maternal grandsire. Year and harvest group were significant (P 0.28). At comparable numbers of days on feed, Texel-sired wethers had the greatest (more desirable; P lambs were intermediate and Columbia-sired lambs had the lowest (less desirable). Minolta L* values were greater (P lambs, although this difference is not visually discernible by humans. No significant (P > 0.05) sire breed effects were detected for LM pH at or 24 h after harvest, Minolta a* and b*, IMF, percentage of cooking loss, and WBSF at comparable numbers of days on feed. At comparable chilled carcass weight, significant (P lambs had greater scores than Columbia- and Suffolk-sired lambs, but Composite-sired lambs did not differ from lambs sired by the other sire breeds. Sire breed effects were not detected (P > 0.15) for LM pH at or 24 h after harvest, Minolta L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss percentage, IMF, and WBSF at

  10. Proteome profiles of longissimus and biceps femoris porcine muscles related to exercise and resting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F.W.Te Pas, Marinus; Keuning, Els; Van der Wiel, Dick J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects....... The objective of this research was to develop potential protein biomarkers that predict the optimal resting time after exercise related to optimal pork quality. Ten litters of four female pigs were within litter allocated to the four treatment groups: exercise by running on a treadmill for 27 minutes followed...... by rest for 0, 1, or 3 h; control pigs without exercise. Proteome profiles and biochemical traits measuring energy metabolism and meat quality traits expected to be related to exercise were determined in the Longissimus and the Biceps femoris of the pigs. The results indicated associations between protein...

  11. Brachial artery protected by wrapped latissimus dorsi muscle flap in high voltage electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, E.; Eser, C.; Kokacya, O.; Kesiktas, E.; Yavuz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary High voltage electrical injury can disrupt the vascular system and lead to extremity amputations. It is important to protect main vessels from progressive burn necrosis in order to salvage a limb. The brachial artery should be totally isolated from the burned area by a muscle flap to prevent vessel disruption. In this study, we report the use of a wrap-around latissimus dorsi muscle flap to protect a skeletonized brachial artery in a high voltage electrical injury in order to salvage the upper extremity and restore function. The flap wrapped around the exposed brachial artery segment and luminal status of the artery was assessed using magnetic resonance angiography. No vascular intervention was required. The flap survived completely with good elbow function. Extremity amputation was not encountered. This method using a latissimus dorsi flap allows the surgeon to protect the main upper extremity artery and reconstruct arm defects, which contributes to restoring arm function in high voltage electrical injury. PMID:28149236

  12. Transcriptome changes favoring intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle following castration of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J; Bong, J; Kim, G D; Joo, S T; Lee, H-J; Baik, M

    2013-10-01

    Castration increases intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, improving beef quality in cattle. The present study was performed to determine the global transcriptome changes following castration of bulls and to identify genes associated with IMF deposition in the longissimus dorsi (LM) of Korean cattle. A customized bovine CombiMatrix oligonucleotide microarray was constructed, and transcriptome changes following castration were determined by microarray hybridization. Transcriptome comparison between bulls and steers indicated that 428 of 8,407 genes were differentially expressed in the LM by greater than two fold (P castration. Castration upregulated transcription of adipogenic perilipin 2 (PLIN2) and visfatin, lipogenic fatty acid synthase, fatty acid esterification 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5, and many fatty acid oxidation-related genes. Many TCA cycle and OP genes were also transcriptionally upregulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the IMF content in the LM was highly correlated with mRNA levels of PLIN2 (r = 0.70, P castration shifts transcription of lipid metabolism genes, favoring IMF deposition by increasing adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis. This study also indicated that castration increases transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and subsequent energy production (TCA and OP genes). Our microarray analysis provided novel information that castration alters the transcriptome associated with lipid/energy metabolism, favoring IMF deposition in the LM.

  13. Differences in descending control of external oblique and latissimus dorsi muscles in humans: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Francesca; Delves, Suzanne; Alexander, Caroline M; Strutton, Paul H

    2011-07-01

    Descending bilateral control of external oblique (EO) and latissimus dorsi (LD) was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Contralateral (CL) motor evoked potential (MEP) thresholds were lower and latencies were shorter than for ipsilateral (IL) MEPs. Hotspots for EO were symmetrical; this was not the case for LD. The volumes of drive to the left and right muscles were not different. The laterality index was not different between the left and right muscles. The average index for the EO muscles was closer to zero than that for LD, suggesting a stronger IL drive to EO. The symmetry of drive to each muscle did not differ; however, the symmetry of drive varies within a subject for different muscles and between subjects for the same muscle. The findings may be useful in understanding a number of clinical conditions relating to the trunk and also for predicting the outcome of rehabilitative strategies.

  14. Double phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain during rigor mortis of bovine Longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Shibata, Masahiro; Chikuni, Koichi

    2007-05-16

    To investigate changes in myosin light chains (MyLCs) during postmortem aging of the bovine longissimus muscle, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results of fluorescent differential gel electrophoresis showed that two spots of the myosin regulatory light chain (MyLC2) at pI values of 4.6 and 4.7 shifted toward those at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6, respectively, by 24 h postmortem when rigor mortis was completed. Meanwhile, the MyLC1 and MyLC3 spots did not change during the 14 days postmortem. Phosphoprotein-specific staining of the gels demonstrated that the MyLC2 proteins at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6 were phosphorylated. Furthermore, possible N-terminal region peptides containing one and two phosphoserine residues were detected in each mass spectrum of the MyLC2 spots at pI values of 4.5 and 4.6, respectively. These results demonstrated that MyLC2 became doubly phosphorylated during rigor formation of the bovine longissimus, suggesting involvement of the MyLC2 phosphorylation in the progress of beef rigor mortis. Bovine; myosin regulatory light chain (RLC, MyLC2); phosphorylation; rigor mortis; skeletal muscle.

  15. Yin Yang 1 and Adipogenic Gene Network Expression in Longissimus Muscle of Beef Cattle in Response to Nutritional Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia J. Moisá; Daniel W. Shike; William T. Meteer; Duane Keisler; Dan B. Faulkner; Juan J. Loor

    2013-01-01

    Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritional management on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus ? Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch...

  16. Dietary lecithin improves dressing percentage and decreases chewiness in the longissimus muscle in finisher gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akit, H; Collins, C L; Fahri, F T; Hung, A T; D'Souza, D N; Leury, B J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-03-01

    The influence of dietary lecithin at doses of 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg fed to finisher gilts for six weeks prior to slaughter on growth performance, carcass quality and pork quality was investigated. M. longissimus lumborum (loin) was removed from 36 pig carcasses at 24h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, collagen content and colour analyses. Dietary lecithin increased dressing percentage (P=0.009). Pork chewiness and collagen content were decreased by dietary lecithin (Plecithin had no effect on shear force, cohesiveness or hardness (P>0.05, respectively). Dietary lecithin reduced loin muscle L* values and increased a* values (Plecithin improved dressing percentage and resulted in less chewy and less pale pork. © 2013.

  17. Effect of Propafenone on the Contractile Activity of Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Isolated in an Organ Chamber: Experimental Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Simões

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of propafenone on the contractile function of latissimus dorsi muscle isolated from rats in an organ chamber. METHODS: We studied 20 latissimus dorsi muscles of Wistar rats and divided them into 2 groups: group I (n=10, or control group - we studied the feasibility of muscle contractility; group II (n=10, in which the contralateral muscles were grouped - we analyzed the effect of propafenone on muscle contractility. After building a muscle ring, 8 periods of sequential 2-minute baths were performed, with intervals of preprogrammed electrical stimulation using a pacemaker of 50 stimuli/min. In group II, propafenone, at the concentration of 9.8 µg/mL, was added to the bath in period 2 and withdrawn in period 4. RESULTS: In group I, no significant depression in muscle contraction occurred up to period 5 (p>0.05. In group II, a significant depression occurred in all periods, except between the last 2 periods (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Propafenone had a depressing effect on the contractile function of latissimus dorsi muscle isolated from rats and studied in an organ chamber.

  18. Bioinformatics analysis of transcriptome dynamics during growth in angus cattle longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Graugnard, Daniel E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Faulkner, Dan B; Berger, Larry L; Loor, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome dynamics in the longissimus muscle (LM) of young Angus cattle were evaluated at 0, 60, 120, and 220 days from early-weaning. Bioinformatic analysis was performed using the dynamic impact approach (DIA) by means of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) databases. Between 0 to 120 days (growing phase) most of the highly-impacted pathways (eg, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, drug metabolism, cytochrome P450 and Retinol metabolism) were inhibited. The phase between 120 to 220 days (finishing phase) was characterized by the most striking differences with 3,784 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Analysis of those DEGs revealed that the most impacted KEGG canonical pathway was glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis, which was inhibited. Furthermore, inhibition of calpastatin and activation of tyrosine aminotransferase ubiquitination at 220 days promotes proteasomal degradation, while the concurrent activation of ribosomal proteins promotes protein synthesis. Therefore, the balance of these processes likely results in a steady-state of protein turnover during the finishing phase. Results underscore the importance of transcriptome dynamics in LM during growth.

  19. Comparison of the longissimus muscle proteome between obese and lean pigs at 180 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anning; Mo, Delin; Zhao, Xiao; Jiang, Wei; Cong, Peiqing; He, Zuyong; Xiao, Shuqi; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Yaosheng

    2013-02-01

    Production of high-quality meat is important to satisfy the consumer and make the pig industry competitive. Obese and lean breeds of pig show clear differences in adipogenic capacity and meat quality, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. We have compared protein expression of the longissimus muscle between Lantang (LT, obese) and Landrace (LR, lean) pigs at the age of 180 days using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Of the 1,400 protein spots detected per gel, 18 were differentially expressed between the two breeds. Using peptide mass fingerprint and tandem mass spectrometry, 17 protein spots were identified, corresponding to ten different proteins that could be divided into four groups: metabolism-related, structure-related, stress-related, and other (unclassified). Among the metabolism-related proteins, COX5A and ATP5B, which participate in oxidative phosphorylation, were highly expressed in LT, whereas ENO3, which is involved in glycolysis, was highly expressed in LR. These results may contribute valuable information to our understanding of the molecular mechanism responsible for differences between obese and lean pigs, such as growth rate and meat quality.

  20. Moisture migration, microstructure damage and protein structure changes in porcine longissimus muscle as influenced by multiple freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingcheng; Li, Fangfei; Diao, Xinping; Kong, Baohua; Xia, Xiufang

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of multiple freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles on water mobility, microstructure damage and protein structure changes in porcine longissimus muscle. The transverse relaxation time T 2 increased significantly when muscles were subjected to multiple F-T cycles (Pcycles caused sarcomere shortening, Z line fractures, and I band weakening and also led to microstructural destruction of muscle tissue. The decreased free amino group content and increased dityrosine in myofibrillar protein (MP) revealed that multiple F-T cycles caused protein cross-linking and oxidation. In addition, the results of size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectra, UV absorption spectra, and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy indirectly proved that multiple F-T cycles could cause protein aggregation and degradation, α-helix structure disruption, hydrophobic domain exposure, and conformational changes of MP. Overall, repeated F-T cycles changed the protein structure and water distribution within meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Experimental study on potential for cardiac assist by latissimus dorsi myograft--an importance of muscle ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, K; Koyanagi, K; Sakamoto, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Tanaka, K; Horikoshi, S; Matsui, M; Arai, T

    1991-03-01

    We have studied contractile property and fatigue rates of skeletal muscle ventricle (SMV) constructed using the latissimus dorsi muscles of 11 dogs. The role of early interruption of collateral blood supply in the prevention of muscle ischemia and SMV fatigue was evaluated. Systolic function of SMV was measured in a hydraulic test system; afterload was set at 70 mmHg and preload 15 or 25 mmHg. Control SMV (GI: N = 7), which was fashioned immediately after interruption of collateral blood supply, generated an initial SMV pressure of 222 +/- 50 mmHg and stroke volume of 15 +/- 7 ml/beat with muscle stimulation at a burst-frequency of 50 Hz, but could sustain flow for only 3.5 +/- 0.8 minutes. SMV subjected to a vascular delay (Group II: N = 4) demonstrated improvement of fatigue rates; duration of flow 32.4 +/- 14.0 and sufficient contractile property (initial SMV pressure 182 +/- 17 mmHg, stroke volume 1- +/- 2 ml/beat). Thermography surface temperature mapping revealed remarkable improvement of blood distribution in GII muscles. Flow rates of thoracodorsal artery were significantly greater in GII muscles compared to those in GI muscles (15.0 +/- 3.7 ml/min/LD 100 g, 10.1 +/- 3.1 ml/min/LD 100 g, p less than 0.05, respectively). Despite significant improvement of functional durability in GII muscles, the ratio of oxygen consumption to lactate output was not different between 2 groups. These results suggest that early interruption of collateral blood supply can minimize muscle ischemia, resulting in diminishing fatigue of latissimus dorsi muscles without changes in skeletal muscle metabolism.

  2. Yin yang 1 and adipogenic gene network expression in longissimus muscle of beef cattle in response to nutritional management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Meteer, William T; Keisler, Duane; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Among 36 differentially-expressed genes during growth in longissimus muscle (LM) of Angus steers, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) had the most relationships with other genes including some associated with adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutritional management on mRNA expression of YY1 along with its targets genes PPARG, GTF2B, KAT2B, IGFBP5 and STAT5B. Longissimus from Angus and Angus × Simmental steers (7 total/treatment) on early weaning plus high-starch (EWS), normal weaning plus starch creep feeding (NWS), or normal weaning without starch creep feeding (NWN) was biopsied at 0, 96, and 240 days on treatments. Results suggest that YY1 does not exert control of adipogenesis in LM, and its expression is not sensitive to weaning age. Among the YY1-related genes, EWS led to greater IGFBP5 during growing and finishing phases. Pro-adipogenic transcriptional regulation was detected in EWS due to greater PPARG and VDR at 96 and 240 d vs. 0 d. GTF2B and KAT2B expression was lower in response to NWS and EWS than NWN, and was most pronounced at 240 d. The increase in PPARG and GTF2B expression between 96 and 240 d underscored the existence of a molecular programming mechanism that was sensitive to age and dietary starch. Such response partly explains the greater carcass fat deposition observed in response to NWS.

  3. Surgical anatomy of latissimus dorsi muscle in transfers about the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin A; Elhassan, Bassem; Marciniak, Steven; Dunn, Jonathan H

    2009-03-01

    Transfer of the latissimus dorsi to the greater tuberosity has been used successfully in the treatment of massive rotator-cuff deficiency. For safe release and transfer of the tendon, the variations in the tendinous insertions of the latissimus dorsi and teres major onto the humerus need to be understood. In anatomical dissection of 12 cadavers, mean width of the latissimus tendon was 3.3 cm at its insertion, and mean length was 7.3 cm. In all specimens, there were fascial connections between the latissimus and teres major and between the latissimus and the long head of the triceps. There were 3 insertion patterns of the latissimus dorsi tendon onto the humerus with respect to the tendon of the teres major: completely separate (8 cadavers), loosely bound (3 cadavers), and completely joined (1 cadaver). If the latissimus dorsi were being transferred in the last type, the teres major would need to be transferred with the latissimus dorsi as a common musculotendinous unit.

  4. The effect of gender on meat (Longissimus lumborum muscle quality characteristics in the fallow deer (Dama dama L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Piaskowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the quality of meat (Longissimus lumborum muscle from male (11 bucks and female (10 does fallow deer (Dama dama L. aged 17-18 months, hunter-harvested in north-eastern Poland during one hunting season. Muscle samples collected from the carcasses of male fallow deer were characterized by a higher (P≤0.01 content of dry matter, protein, fat and energy, and a lower (P≤0.01 water/protein ratio than male counterparts. An analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the intramuscular fat of male fallow deer contained higher concentrations of C12:0, C20:0, C18:2 and C20:1 fatty acids (P≤0.01, and C16:1, C18:1 and C18:3 fatty acids (P≤0.05, whereas the intramuscular fat of female fallow deer contained higher levels of C16:0 and C17:1 fatty acids (P≤0.01, and C14:0, C17:0 and C20:4 fatty acids (P≤0.05, and higher (P≤0.01 amounts of saturated fatty acids. The fat extracted from the carcasses of bucks had a higher (P≤0.01 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids. An analysis of the physicochemical properties of meat indicated that samples of the Longissimus lumborum muscle collected from the carcasses of male fallow deer were characterized by a lower (P≤0.01 pH and greater (P≤0.01 drip loss, and their colour had a higher (P≤0.01 contribution of redness, yellowness, and higher saturation. The effect of gender on meat quality was also confirmed by a sensory analysis, in which meat from bucks received higher scores for juiciness (P≤0.05, and meat from does for tenderness (P≤0.01.

  5. A Limousin specific myostatin allele affects longissimus muscle area and fatty acid profiles in a Wagyu-Limousin F*2* population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microsatellite-based genome scan of a Wagyu x Limousin F2 cross population previously demonstrated QTL affecting longissimus muscle area (LMA) and fatty acid composition were present in regions near the centromere of BTA 2. In this study we used 70 SNP markers to examine the centromeric 20 megabas...

  6. Propolis or cashew and castor oils effects on composition of Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils, in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10: control (CON, propolis (PRO, or essential oils (OIL. CON diet consists of corn silage (45% DM and concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, glycerin, limestone, and mineral salt, 55% DM. The PRO group received same CON diet plus 3 g animal-1 d-1 of propolis premix added to the concentrate. The OIL group received same CON diet and 3 g animal-1 d-1 of a premix (cashew Anacardium occidentale L. and castor Ricinus communis L. oils added to the concentrate. Fat thickness (5.0 mm, pH (5.9, Longissimus muscle area 58.0 cm², marbling, texture, color (L* = 36.6, a* = 17.3, and b* = 5.9, lipid oxidation (0.08 malonaldehyde kg-1 meat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (3.3 kg were unaffected by the diet. PRO and OIL diets had no effect neither on moisture (73.7%, ashes (1.1%, protein (23.8%, and lipids (1.7%, fatty acid composition or polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/ SFA, 0.13, and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.9 on Longissimus muscle. Addition of natural additives as propolis extract or cashew and castor oils in the diet of bulls when they are finished in a feedlot did not change meat qualities.

  7. Endoscope-assisted breast reconstruction. 1. Immediate breast reconstruction after lateral quadrantectomy with endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi muscle flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Takamitsu; Kurihara, Kazunao; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kim, Shiei; Wakamatsu, Shingo.

    1996-01-01

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) now is widely accepted in Japan. Quadrantectomy has been chosen from among the several available breast conserving operations for its minimal recurrence rate. Quadrantectomy, or excision of one-quarter volume of the breast, leaves a moderate degree of deformity which diminishes the quality of life. The authors have introduced immediate post-ectomy breast reconstruction utilizing an endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap which results in a minimal donor site scar. Five cases of endoscope-assisted LD muscle reconstruction of a quadrantectomized breast have been followed by irradiation therapy. Prior to reconstruction, with the patient in the supine position, quadrantectomy and dissection of axillary lymphnodes are performed through an incision extending from the anterior axillary to the inflamammary line. The patient then is placed in the lateral supine position. LD muscle flap dissection by electrocautery begins through the initial incision. Dissections of posterior portions of the muscle continue, under endoscopic visualization, through one or two ports along the anterior margin of the muscle. Moderate amount of adipose tissue is left attached to the muscle to obtain full augmentation. The raised flap then is transferred and secured to the post-quandrantectomy defect. Some post-irradiation shrinkage of the inserted LD muscle has been a common occurrence of breast reconstruction. An ample amount of adipose tissue left attached to the muscle margin will solve this matter since fatty tissue is more resistant to post-irradiation atrophy. (J.P.N.)

  8. Endoscope-assisted breast reconstruction. 1. Immediate breast reconstruction after lateral quadrantectomy with endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi muscle flap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Takamitsu; Kurihara, Kazunao; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kim, Shiei [Kawaguchi Municipal Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Wakamatsu, Shingo

    1996-08-01

    Breast conserving therapy (BCT) now is widely accepted in Japan. Quadrantectomy has been chosen from among the several available breast conserving operations for its minimal recurrence rate. Quadrantectomy, or excision of one-quarter volume of the breast, leaves a moderate degree of deformity which diminishes the quality of life. The authors have introduced immediate post-ectomy breast reconstruction utilizing an endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap which results in a minimal donor site scar. Five cases of endoscope-assisted LD muscle reconstruction of a quadrantectomized breast have been followed by irradiation therapy. Prior to reconstruction, with the patient in the supine position, quadrantectomy and dissection of axillary lymphnodes are performed through an incision extending from the anterior axillary to the inflamammary line. The patient then is placed in the lateral supine position. LD muscle flap dissection by electrocautery begins through the initial incision. Dissections of posterior portions of the muscle continue, under endoscopic visualization, through one or two ports along the anterior margin of the muscle. Moderate amount of adipose tissue is left attached to the muscle to obtain full augmentation. The raised flap then is transferred and secured to the post-quandrantectomy defect. Some post-irradiation shrinkage of the inserted LD muscle has been a common occurrence of breast reconstruction. An ample amount of adipose tissue left attached to the muscle margin will solve this matter since fatty tissue is more resistant to post-irradiation atrophy. (J.P.N.)

  9. Proteome Profiles of Longissimus and Biceps femoris Porcine Muscles Related to Exercise and Resting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Wiel, van de D.F.M.; Young, J.F.; Oksbjerg, N.; Kruijt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects. The

  10. Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the muscle fatty acid composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the fatty acid (FA) composition of two types of muscles, longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST), of Mangalitsa pigs reared in an extensive system. Fourteen Mangalitsa castrated pigs, 55 ± 8 kg, 240 ± 12 days of age, were randomly assigned ...

  11. Functional analysis of inter-individual transcriptome differential expression in pig longissimus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, S.; Hulsegge, B.; Harders, F.L.; Bossers, R.; Keuning, E.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2013-01-01

    Selection of pigs for increased meat production or improved meat quality changes muscle mass and muscle composition. This will be related to transcriptome expression profile changes in muscle tissue, generating inter-individual differences. This study investigated the differentially expressed genes

  12. Endoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle flap for breast reconstruction after skin-sparing total mastectomy: report of 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Martin; Gonzalez-Chapa, Diego R

    2013-08-01

    Some authors have mentioned that the endoscopic harvesting of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap for breast reconstruction is an uncommon technique that has been abandoned due to its technical complexity. Therefore, its use for immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing total mastectomies is reported for only a few patients, without clinical images of the reconstructed breast or of the donor site. This report describes 14 breast reconstructions using the aforementioned approach, with the latissimus dorsi muscle flap harvested by endoscopy plus the insertion of a breast implant in a single surgical procedure. The objective is to show images of the long-range clinical aesthetic results, both in the reconstructed breast and at the donor site as well as the complications so the reader can evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the technique. From 2008 to 2011, 12 women who experienced skin-sparing total mastectomy and 2 women who underwent modified radical mastectomy were reconstructed using the aforementioned technique. The average age was 42 years (range 30-58 years), and the average body mass index was 29 kg/m(2) (range 22-34 kg/m(2)). Three patients were heavy smokers: one had undergone a previous abdominoplasty; one had hepatitis C; and one had undergone massive weight loss. Immediate reconstructions were performed for 11 patients, and 3 reconstructions were delayed. The implant volume ranged from 355 to 640 ml. The average endoscopic harvesting time was 163.5 min (range 120-240 min), and the average bleeding was 300 ml. Four patients experienced seromas at the donor site. Acceptance of the reconstructed breast was good in six cases, moderate in seven cases, and poor in one case. Acceptance of the donor site was good in 13 cases and moderate for 1 case. Endoscopic harvesting of the latissimus dorsi muscle has technical difficulties that have limited its acceptance. However, this technique offers the same quality of breast reconstruction as the

  13. Variation of the latissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani P Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical muscle variation of latissimus dorsi - the axillary arch is represented by the muscular or fibromuscular slip detached from the anteroinferior border of the musculus latissimus dorsi passing over the axilla under the axillary fascia crossing the medial side of the brachial plexus to continue as a septum intermusculare mediale brachii distally to the medial epicondyle of humerus. The full extent of the muscle is rarely present. Slips of muscle extend from the latissimus dorsi at the inferior angle of scapula to insert into pectoralis major (Langer, coracobrachilis, biceps or coracoid process forming what is described as a common variant - the muscular axillary arch. We report three cases of variants of latissimus dorsi, one of which has not been reported in the literature before.

  14. Longissimus muscle transcriptome profiles related to carcass and meat quality traits in fresh meat Pietrain carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork

  15. The role of pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles in a biomechanical model of massive rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sean T; Ecklund, Kier J; Chu, Eileen H; McGarry, Michelle H; Gupta, Ranjan; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-08-01

    Superior migration of the humeral head after massive rotator cuff tear (mRCT) is thought to lead to cuff tear arthropathy. Previous biomechanical studies have demonstrated the ability of the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi (PM/LD) muscles to resist this migration. This study examined the role of PM/LD muscles on glenohumeral joint forces and acromiohumeral contact pressures in a mRCT model. Six cadaveric shoulders were tested using a custom shoulder-testing system. Muscle insertions of the rotator cuff, deltoid, and PM/LD were preserved and used for muscle loading. Specimens were tested in 3 different humeral rotation positions at 0° abduction and 2 rotation positions at 60° abduction. Testing was performed for intact specimens, after supraspinatus removal, and after supraspinatus/infraspinatus/teres minor removal. PM/LD were loaded or unloaded to determine their effect. Humeral head kinematics, glenohumeral joint forces, and acromiohumeral contact area and pressure were measured. For the mRCT condition at 0° abduction, unloading the PM/LD resulted in superior shift of the humeral head. Acromiohumeral contact pressures were undetectable when the PM/LD were loaded but increased significantly after PM/LD unloading. After mRCT, superior joint forces were increased and compressive forces were decreased compared with intact; loading the PM/LD resolved these abnormal forces in some testing conditions. In mRCT, the PM and LD muscles are effective in improving glenohumeral kinematics and reducing acromiohumeral pressures. Strengthening or neuromuscular training of this musculature, or both, may delay the progression to cuff tear arthropathy. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. Effect of Age and Sex on Histomorphometrical Characteristics of Two Muscles of Laticauda Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Velotto; Ettore Varricchio; Maria Rosa Di Prisco; Tommaso Stasi; Antonio Crasto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine the effect of sex and age on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes) in lambs born by single, twin, triplet and quadruplet birth. Thirty lambs were slaughtered at 60 days of age; thirty were weaned at 60 days and fed until 120 days with flakes (60%) and food supplements, and then slaughtered. Muscle tissues were obtained from two muscles, namely m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi of all lambs. For ea...

  17. New Insights into Muscle Fibre Types in Casertana Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Velotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the Casertana pig. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex on histochemical and morphometrical characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes in this pure breed and to verify the presence of giant fibres as well as vascularity of the muscle. Finally, maximum shortening velocity and isometric tension were measured in single muscle fibres. Sixteen Casertana pigs (8 males, 8 females from a farm in Campania (Italy were slaughtered at one year of age. Muscle tissues were obtained from psoas minor, rhomboideus and longissimus dorsi. Myofibres were stained for myosin adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, and α-amylase-periodic acid schiff. For all fibre types, the area and perimeter were measured. Slowtwitch oxidative fibres, fast-twitch glycolytic fibres and fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibres were histochemically differentiated; an image-analyzing system was used. The results showed significant differences between the sexes in the size of all three fibre types. The psoas minor muscle had a high percentage of slow-twitch oxidative fibres and contained more capillaries per fibre and per mm2 than rhomboideus and longissimus dorsi, in which fast-twitch glycolytic fibres dominated. The cross-sectional area of all fibre types was larger in longissimus dorsi than in rhomboideus and psoas minor muscles; the giant fibres were present in the longissimus dorsi muscle only. Besides, isometric tension values were higher in fast-twitch glycolytic fibres than in the other ones. Variations in fibre type composition may contribute to meat quality.

  18. Fatty acid composition of minced meat, longissimus muscle and omental fat from Small East African goats finished on different levels of concentrate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, D E; Thomassen, M S; Kifaro, G C; Eik, L O

    2010-10-01

    Effects of supplementing Small East African (SEA) goats with concentrate diets on fatty acids composition of minced meat, M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and omental fat were assessed using 23 animals (14.5 months old and 20.1 kg body weight). Goats were subjected to four levels of concentrate supplementation: ad libitum concentrate allowance (T100), 66% (T66), 33% (T33) and 0% (T0) of ad libitum concentrate allowance. All goats were slaughtered after 90 days of experimental period. Minced meat from concentrate-supplemented goats had higher (Pmeat from T00 and T66 goats had similar proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA that were higher (Pgoats whereas margaric and arachidonic acids were in higher (Pgoats. Overall, LD was associated with PUFA, omental fat with saturated fatty acids (SFA), minced meat with MUFA. It is concluded that finishing SEA goats on concentrate diets will increase the proportion of DFA in meat from them. In addition, the proportion of PUFA in meat from such goats will peak at concentrate supplementation equivalent to 66% of their ad libitum intake. Consumers should avoid high intake of internal fat due to their richness in SFA. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Meat quality attributes of the Longissimus lumborum muscle of the Kh'ara genotype of llama (Lama glama) reared extensively in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani-Linares, L W; Gallo, C B

    2013-05-01

    Twenty male llama of the Kh'ara genotype, reared extensively in the north of Chile, were slaughtered at ages between 2 and 4 permanent teeth (2 to 3.5years) and analyses were carried out on the Longissimus lumborum muscle, including composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash, cholesterol, amino acids, fatty acid profile and collagen content) and meat quality parameters (pH, color, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force). Llama meat was characterized by a low cholesterol (39.04mg/100g) and intramuscular fat (1.56%) content, a total collagen content of 6.28mg/g, of which 20.28% was soluble collagen. Amino acid composition and fatty acid profile were similar to those found for beef finished on forage. Llama meat showed a low n-6/n-3 (4.69) and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (1.55) ratio and acceptable values of DFA (65.78%). Quality parameters in llama Longissimus muscle were within the ranges reported for more traditional meats such as beef and lamb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of partial latissimus dorsi muscle tendon tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Huy B.Q.; Lee, Steven T.; Lane, Michael D.; Munk, Peter L.; Malfair, David; Blachut, Piotr A.

    2009-01-01

    There is still a paucity of information about the clinical presentation, treatment and imaging findings of latissimus muscle tears. Only one study has specifically described the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of latissimus tendon tears. We describe a case of a high-grade tear in the latissimus muscle tendon in an active water skier with no significant prior medical history. MRI demonstrated at least a 50% tear of the latissimus tendon, manifesting as increased signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences and surrounding edema, as well as a diminutive tendon at the humeral insertion. (orig.)

  1. Dietary supplementation of Lonicera macranthoides leaf powder improves amino acid profiles in serum and longissimus thoracis muscle of growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimin Long

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 60-days feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of Lonicera macranthoides leaf (LML on growth performance, meat quality, and free amino acid profiles in growing-finishing pigs. L. macranthoides leaves were harvested, air-dried and milled to powder. A total of 288 crossbred barrows (Large White × Landrace with an average initial BW of 54.0 ± 3.4 kg were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups and fed either a basal diet or a diet supplemented with 0.5% or 1.0% LML powder. Results showed that diet supplemented with LML powder did not affect average daily feed intake (ADFI and feed: gain ratio (P > 0.05 in growing-finishing pigs. Moreover, diet supplemented with LML powder showed no significant effects on carcass traits (P > 0.05 including dressing percentage, backfat thickness and loin muscle area, and meat quality traits (P > 0.05 including meat color, intramuscular fat and cooking loss. However, diet supplemented with LML powder significantly improved free amino acid profiles in serum and longissimus thoracis muscle in growing-finishing pigs. Most importantly, dietary LML powder increased total free amino acids content (P < 0.001 and essential free amino acid content (P < 0.001 in longissimus thoracis muscle. These results indicate that LML has the potential to improve the nutritional value of meat through improving free amino acid profiles.

  2. Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4...

  3. Carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle of young bulls from four genetic groups finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Haruyoshi Ito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle of 32 young bulls from four genetic groups: Caracu; Canchin; Aberdeen Angus × Canchin; and Charolais × Caracu, finished in feedlot and slaughtered at 22 months old. Each group was composed of eight animals. There was no difference for moisture, ash, crude protein or total cholesterol between bulls from different genetic groups. However, total lipids percentage was higher for bulls from Caracu and Aberdeen Angus × Canchin and lower for Canchin and Charolais genetic groups. Polyunsaturated fattty acids and n-6 percentage was higher for Canchin and lower for Caracu, Aberdeen Angus × Canchin and Charolais genetic groups. Canchin and Charolais × Caracu genetic groups presented higher n-3 percentage than Caracu and Aberdeen Angus × Canchin. There was no difference for the n-6/n-3 ratio among the bulls from the four genetic groups.

  4. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns and transcription analysis in sheep muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Couldrey

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a central role in regulating many aspects of growth and development in mammals through regulating gene expression. The development of next generation sequencing technologies have paved the way for genome-wide, high resolution analysis of DNA methylation landscapes using methodology known as reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS. While RRBS has proven to be effective in understanding DNA methylation landscapes in humans, mice, and rats, to date, few studies have utilised this powerful method for investigating DNA methylation in agricultural animals. Here we describe the utilisation of RRBS to investigate DNA methylation in sheep Longissimus dorsi muscles. RRBS analysis of ∼1% of the genome from Longissimus dorsi muscles provided data of suitably high precision and accuracy for DNA methylation analysis, at all levels of resolution from genome-wide to individual nucleotides. Combining RRBS data with mRNAseq data allowed the sheep Longissimus dorsi muscle methylome to be compared with methylomes from other species. While some species differences were identified, many similarities were observed between DNA methylation patterns in sheep and other more commonly studied species. The RRBS data presented here highlights the complexity of epigenetic regulation of genes. However, the similarities observed across species are promising, in that knowledge gained from epigenetic studies in human and mice may be applied, with caution, to agricultural species. The ability to accurately measure DNA methylation in agricultural animals will contribute an additional layer of information to the genetic analyses currently being used to maximise production gains in these species.

  5. Study on the apoptosis mediated by cytochrome c and factors that affect the activation of bovine longissimus muscle during postmortem aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Yu, Qunli; Han, Ling; Chen, Cheng; Li, Hang; Han, Guangxing

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates whether bovine longissimus muscle cell apoptosis occurs during postmortem aging and whether apoptosis is dependent on the mitochondria pathway. This study also determines the apoptosis process mediated by cytochrome c after its release from mitochondria and the factors that affect the activation processes. Results indicate that apoptotic nuclei were detected at 12 h postmortem. Cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm activated the caspase-9 and caspase-3 at early postmortem aging and the activation of caspase-9 occurs before the activation of caspase-3. The pH level decreased during the first 48 h postmortem, whereas the mitochondria membrane permeability increased from 6 to 12 h. Results demonstrate that an apoptosis process of bovine muscle occurred during postmortem aging. Apoptosis was dependent on the mitochondria pathway and occurred at early postmortem aging. Increased mitochondria membrane permeability and low pH are necessary conditions for the release of cytochrome c during postmortem aging.

  6. Effect of polymorphisms at the ghrelin gene locus on carcass, microstructure and physicochemical properties of longissimus lumborum muscle of Polish Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Dorota; Kaczor, Urszula

    2011-12-01

    The influence of RFLP-BsrI polymorphisms at the ghrelin gene locus on carcass, meat quality parameters and muscle fiber characteristics of longissimus lumborum was studied in 168 barrows of the Polish Landrace breed. Analysis revealed a high frequency of the 1 allele (0.60) with the frequencies of the 11, 12 and 22 genotypes being 0.45, 0.30 and 0.25, respectively. The most favorable parameters of meat traits were characteristic of pigs with the 22 genotype, together with a higher carcass and loin weight and lower thermal loss compared to 12 heterozygotes. The highest fat content was found in pigs with the 11 genotype, which had the highest abdominal fat weight and mean backfat thickness. Meanwhile, the 12 heterozygotes were characterized by the largest loin eye areas, highest lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, and lowest redness (a*) values, as well as the greatest hardness and chewiness and largest diameter of type IIB muscle fibers compared to the other genotypes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cholesterol and fatty acids oxidation in meat from three muscles of Massese suckling lambs slaughtered at different weights

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Serra; Giuseppe Conte; Alice Cappucci; Laura Casarosa; Marcello Mele

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen Massese male lambs fed mainly with maternal milk were slaughtered at 11, 14 and 17 kg. Samples of Longissimus dorsi (LD), Triceps brachii (TB) and Semimembranosus (Sm) muscles were collected. Total intramuscular lipids were extracted by means of a mixture of chloroform methanol 2/1. Cholesterol content and its oxidation product (COP) were determined by a gas chromatography apparatus equipped with an apolar 30 m column. Fatty acid oxidation was evaluated by means of thiobarbituric aci...

  8. Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    Dadaş, Erdoğan; Petik, Bülent; Akatlı, Ayşe Nur; Çolak, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare soft tissue tumor. Friction of scapula to chest wall excessively in manuel laborers or genetic factors may be responsible for consist of elastofibroma dorsi. Thorax computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are most frequent used imaging methods in diagnosis of elastofibroma dorsi. Surgical excision is a good treatment opsion for cases with symptomatic.

  9. Effects of an enriched housing environment on sensory aspects and fatty-acid composition of the longissimus muscle of light-weight finished lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-Ulloa, L A; Pascual-Alonso, M; Campo, M M; Olleta, J L; Villarroel, M; Pizarro, D M; Miranda-de la Lama, G C; María, G A

    2014-08-01

    We analysed the effect of enriched housing on the sensory meat quality and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle in 60 entire Rasa Aragonesa lambs, housed indoors for 5 weeks in six pens (10 lambs/pen, 0.95 m(2)/lamb, initial weight 17.13±0.18 kg and carcass mean 12.23±0.23 kg); three control pens (barren) and three enriched pens (straw, platform with ramps and a small ramp). The final weight, carcass weight, fatness scores and cooking losses of meat from enriched lambs (EG) were higher and pH 24 was lower (P ≤ 0.05). The EG lambs had more C18:0 and total SFA (P ≤ 0.05). Lamb odour and grass odour were more intense in EG (P ≤ 0.05). Overall liking was higher for EG (P ≤ 0.05) and associated with tenderness (P ≤ 0.0001). The results suggest that environmental enrichment can have effects on fatty acid composition and sensory meat quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of pulsed electric field treatments at various stages during conditioning on quality attributes of beef longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Cristina; Lascorz, Diana; O'Dowd, Louise; Noci, Francesco; Arimi, Joshua; Lyng, James G

    2015-01-01

    Beef longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle was used to evaluate the effect of PEF treatments (1.4 kV/cm, 10 Hz, 20 μs, 300 and 600 pulses) on meat quality attributes (weight loss, colour, cook loss and texture) and its evolution at various stages during ageing (2, 10, 18 and 26 days post-mortem). The length of meat ageing before and after PEF application exerted no influence on weight loss, colour and cook loss. Results also demonstrated that PEF treatments applied at different times post-mortem (2, 10, 18 and 26 days) showed a tendency towards reducing toughness of beef samples but that the application of PEF did not affect the tenderization process provided by ageing itself. 60% of the sensory panellists scored PEF treated samples as tender (≥6.0 points out of 9.0) whereas only 27.5% did so for untreated samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein Supplementation Does Not Further Increase Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Novice Subjects, but Partially Counteracts the Fast-to-Slow Muscle Fiber Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The response to resistance training and protein supplementation in the latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM has never been investigated. We investigated the effects of resistance training (RT and protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and fiber characteristics of the LDM. Eighteen healthy young subjects were randomly assigned to a progressive eight-week RT program with a normal protein diet (NP or high protein diet (HP (NP 0.85 vs. HP 1.8 g of protein·kg−1·day−1. One repetition maximum tests, magnetic resonance imaging for cross-sectional muscle area (CSA, body composition, and single muscle fibers mechanical and phenotype characteristics were measured. RT induced a significant gain in strength (+17%, p < 0.0001, whole muscle CSA (p = 0.024, and single muscle fibers CSA (p < 0.05 of LDM in all subjects. Fiber isometric force increased in proportion to CSA (+22%, p < 0.005 and thus no change in specific tension occurred. A significant transition from 2X to 2A myosin expression was induced by training. The protein supplementation showed no significant effects on all measured outcomes except for a smaller reduction of 2X myosin expression. Our results suggest that in LDM protein supplementation does not further enhance RT-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy nor influence mechanic muscle fiber characteristics but partially counteracts the fast-to-slow fiber shift.

  12. Development of a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray: analysis of differential transcript expression in phenotypically distinct muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stear Michael

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray profiling has the potential to illuminate the molecular processes that govern the phenotypic characteristics of porcine skeletal muscles, such as hypertrophy or atrophy, and the expression of specific fibre types. This information is not only important for understanding basic muscle biology but also provides underpinning knowledge for enhancing the efficiency of livestock production. Results We report on the de novo development of a composite skeletal muscle cDNA microarray, comprising 5500 clones from two developmentally distinct cDNA libraries (longissimus dorsi of a 50-day porcine foetus and the gastrocnemius of a 3-day-old pig. Clones selected for the microarray assembly were of low to moderate abundance, as indicated by colony hybridisation. We profiled the differential expression of genes between the psoas (red muscle and the longissimus dorsi (white muscle, by co-hybridisation of Cy3 and Cy5 labelled cDNA derived from these two muscles. Results from seven microarray slides (replicates correctly identified genes that were expected to be differentially expressed, as well as a number of novel candidate regulatory genes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR on selected genes was used to confirm the results from the microarray. Conclusion We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway.

  13. Fascicular Phrenic Nerve Neurotization for Restoring Physiological Motion in a Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Reconstruction With a Reverse Innervated Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Ricardo; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Costa, Joana; Estevão-Costa, José; Monteiro, Diana; Dias, Mariana; Braga, José; Silva, Alvaro; Azevedo, Inês; Amarante, José Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a severe developmental anomaly characterized by the malformation of the diaphragm. An innervated reversed latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction for recurrent congenital diaphragmatic hernia has been described as an alternative to prosthetic patch repair to achieve pleuroperitoneal separation. However, there is very little supporting scientific data; therefore, there is no real basic understanding of the condition of the phrenic nerve in the absence of diaphragmatic muscle or even the neurotization options for restoring neodiaphragmatic muscle motion. We have reviewed the literature regarding phrenic nerve anatomy and neurotization options, and to our knowledge, this is the first time that the application of a fascicular repair is being described where the continuity of one remaining fascicle of the diaphragm has been preserved close to the phrenic nerve distal division. The procedure was undertaken in a 3 year-old boy, with the diagnosis of congenital large posteromedial diaphragmatic hernia and dependence of mechanical ventilation in consequence of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.The phrenic nerve divides itself into several terminal branches, usually three, at the diaphragm level, or just above it. This allows the selective coaptation of separate fascicular branches. In the case described, videofluoroscopy evaluation showed no evidence of paradoxical neodiaphragmatic motion, with synchronous contraction movements and intact pleura-peritoneal separation. The child is now asymptomatic and shows improvement of his previous restrictive pulmonary disease.We believe that fascicular repair can achieve some reinnervation of the flap without jeopardizing the potential of diaphragmatic function by contraction of reminiscent native diaphragm.

  14. MR image of elastofibroma dorsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Kenji; Hirata, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Makoto; Shidahara, Satoshi; Hori, Yoshihide

    1998-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign tumor-like lesion which occurs in the subscapular region. We investigated MRI findings in 6 cases of this disease. MRI clearly demonstrated all 12 elastofibromas in the bilateral subscapular regions, although clinically the mass was detected on only one side in two cases. On T1- and T2-weighted images, elastofibromas showed low signal intensity similar to that of skeletal muscle, and streaky structures with high signal intensity identical to that of fat tissue were found in all masses. Mild enhancement with Gd-DTPA was noted. These MRI findings corresponded well to the histological features of surgical specimens in three cases. In conclusion, MRI provides useful information for diagnosing elastofibroma dorsi in conjunction with clinical features. (author)

  15. MR image of elastofibroma dorsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Kenji; Hirata, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Makoto; Shidahara, Satoshi [Karatsu Red Cross Hospital, Karatsu, Saga (Japan); Hori, Yoshihide

    1998-08-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign tumor-like lesion which occurs in the subscapular region. We investigated MRI findings in 6 cases of this disease. MRI clearly demonstrated all 12 elastofibromas in the bilateral subscapular regions, although clinically the mass was detected on only one side in two cases. On T1- and T2-weighted images, elastofibromas showed low signal intensity similar to that of skeletal muscle, and streaky structures with high signal intensity identical to that of fat tissue were found in all masses. Mild enhancement with Gd-DTPA was noted. These MRI findings corresponded well to the histological features of surgical specimens in three cases. In conclusion, MRI provides useful information for diagnosing elastofibroma dorsi in conjunction with clinical features. (author)

  16. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  17. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  18. (Artemisia iwayomogi Kitamura) on the pig Longissimus dorsi mus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... 1Department of Animal Resources Technology, Gyeongnam National University ... Woosuk University, 443 Samnye-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeonbuk, 565-701, ... 10 s with a Sonoplus (Bandelin electronic, Germany) and were then.

  19. Characterization of rigor mortis of longissimus dorsi and triceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-19

    Apr 19, 2012 ... 1Rio de Janeiro Agriculture Department, RJ, Graduate student in ... In this work, six bovine carcasses butchered in a slaughterhouse in Rio de Janeiro State, ... in the regulation of industrial and sanitary inspection of animal.

  20. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem chemistry

  1. Anatomical Research of the Three-dimensional Route of the Thoracodorsal Nerve, Artery, and Veins in Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahiro Takahashi, MD

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: The thoracodorsal nerves ran in a shallower layer, and the depth to the nerve in the muscle flap in actual facial reanimation surgery is safe enough to avoid damage to the nerves. The LD muscle may be thinned to half its original thickness safely.

  2. A coincidental variation of the axillary artery: the brachioradial artery and the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Konarik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery was encountered and described in a left upper limb of a male cadaver. A series of 214 upper limbs of Caucasian race was dissected. A variant artery, stemming from the very end of the axillary artery followed a superficial course distally. It passed the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm as usual radial artery, crossed ventrally to the palm and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of the brachioradial artery (incorrectly termed as the “radial artery with high origin”. Moreover, it was associated with another variation, concerning the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is essential for radiodiagnostic, surgical and traumatologic procedures. The superficially located artery brings an elevated danger of heavy bleeding in all unexpected situations, its variant branching can cause problems in radial catheterization procedures and the anomalously coursing other arterial variant poses an elevated danger in surgical procedures concerning the surgical neck of humerus.

  3. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( forage legumes in the silage favored the accumulation of 18:3 -3 ( Forage legumes decreased the -11 18:1 to 30% of T in rumen digesta ( Forage legumes decreased the total concentration of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen digesta (on average, -28%; comparison with T. The dietary treatment tended to affect the proportion of MUFA ( = 0.081) and of PUFA ( = 0.079) in the i.m. fat of the LM, respectively, at the highest and lowest numerical value in the T group. The sum of -3 fatty acids was less in the T and T-SF groups compared with the mixture of legumes without T (SF-RC; comparison with lambs given T-RC, T-SF-RC, and SF-RC. Rumenic acid (-9 -11 CLA) was detected at a greater percentage in the LM from the animals fed the T silage compared with animals fed the T-SF-RC treatment ( = 0.004). Contrarily, -9 -12 -15 18:3 was found at a greater concentration in the muscle from lambs in the SF-RC treatment compared with lambs in the other treatments ( forage for growing lambs in terms of i.m. fatty acid composition.

  4. Composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de bovinos de diferentes grupos genéticos terminados em confinamento = Physical-chemical composition and fatty acid profile in Longissimus muscle of young bulls from different genetic groups finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jorge dos Santos Abrahão

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de bovinos inteiros de diferentes grupos genéticos terminados em confinamento. Foram utilizados 40 animais, com idade média de 22 meses, oriundos de quatro grupos genéticos: NGR (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Guzerá vs. ½ Red Angus; NSM (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Simental vs. ½ Marchigiana; NRL (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Red Angus vs. ½ Limousin eNMM (¼ Nelore vs. ¾ Marchigiana. Após o abate e resfriamento da carcaça, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas. Não houve efeito (p > 0,05 do grupo genético sobre as percentagens de umidade (74,0%, cinzas (1,0%, proteína bruta (19,0% e lipídeos totais (2,0% do músculo Longissimus. O grupo NMM apresentou menor (p 0,05 entre os grupos genéticos. A razão AGI/AGS (0,2 não diferiu. Os grupos genéticos NMM e NGR apresentaram, respectivamente, maior (8,5% e menor (5,6% percentagem de ácidos graxos n-6 e maior (5,5 e menor (4,0 razão n-6 n-3-1.This work was undertaken to study the physical-chemical composition and fatty acid profile in the Longissimus muscle of young bulls from different genetic groups finished in feedlot. Forty animals were used, with average age of 22 months, from four genetic groups: NGR (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Guzerá vs. ½ Red Angus; NSM (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Simental vs. ½ Marchigiana; NRL (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Red Angus vs. ½ Limousin and NMM (¼ Nelore vs. ¾ Marchigiana. After slaughter and carcass chilling, Longissimus muscle samples were collected between the 12th and 13th ribs. There was no genetic group effect (p > 0.05 on muscle moisture (74.0%, ash (1.0%, crude protein (19.0% and total lipids (2.0%. The NMM group presented the lowest (p 0.05 among the genetic groups. The AGS/AGI ratio (0.2 was similar. The NMM and NGR groups presented, respectively, the highest (8.5% and the lowest (5.6% ratios of n-6 fatty acids and the highest (5.5 and thelowest (4.0 n-6 n-3

  5. Proteomic Assessment of the Relevant Factors Affecting Pork Meat Quality Associated with Muscles in Duroc Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Cho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20 and LQLD (n = 20 Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%, ATPase activity (19%, oxidoreductase activity (13%, cytoskeletal protein binding (13%, actin binding (12%, calcium ion binding (6%, and structural constituent of muscle (6%. Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of

  6. Capillarization and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in hypertrophying anterior latissimus dorsi muscle of the Japanese quail.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Anderson, R.K.; Alway, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Hypertrophy may increase the diffusion distances from capillaries to the interior of the muscle fibers. We hypothesized that capillary proliferation occurs during hypertrophy, which is accompanied by an up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Hypertrophy of the left anterior

  7. Rapid maturation of the muscle biochemistry that supports diving in Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, Shawn R.; Jay, Chadwick V.; Burns, Jennifer M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological constraints dictate animals’ ability to exploit habitats. For marine mammals, it is important to quantify physiological limits that influence diving and their ability to alter foraging behaviors. We characterized age-specific dive limits of walruses by measuring anaerobic (acid-buffering capacity) and aerobic (myoglobin content) capacities of the muscles that power hind (longissimus dorsi) and fore (supraspinatus) flipper propulsion. Mean buffering capacities were similar across muscles and age classes (a fetus, five neonatal calves, a 3 month old and 20 adults), ranging from 41.31 to 54.14 slykes and 42.00 to 46.93 slykes in the longissimus and supraspinatus, respectively. Mean myoglobin in the fetus and neonatal calves fell within a narrow range (longissimus: 0.92–1.68 g 100 g−1 wet muscle mass; supraspinatus: 0.88–1.64 g 100 g−1 wet muscle mass). By 3 months post-partum, myoglobin in the longissimus increased by 79%, but levels in the supraspinatus remained unaltered. From 3 months post-partum to adulthood, myoglobin increased by an additional 26% in the longissimus and increased by 126% in the supraspinatus; myoglobin remained greater in the longissimus compared with the supraspinatus. Walruses are unique among marine mammals because they are born with a mature muscle acid-buffering capacity and attain mature myoglobin content early in life. Despite rapid physiological development, small body size limits the diving capacity of immature walruses and extreme sexual dimorphism reduces the diving capacity of adult females compared with adult males. Thus, free-ranging immature walruses likely exhibit the shortest foraging dives while adult males are capable of the longest foraging dives.

  8. Effect of Age and Sex on Histomorphometrical Characteristics of Two Muscles of Laticauda Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Velotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present experiment was to determine the effect of sex and age on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of muscle fibres (myocytes in lambs born by single, twin, triplet and quadruplet birth. Thirty lambs were slaughtered at 60 days of age; thirty were weaned at 60 days and fed until 120 days with flakes (60% and food supplements, and then slaughtered. Muscle tissues were obtained from two muscles, namely m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi of all lambs. For each fibre type, area perimeter and diameter (maximum and minimum were measured and slow-twitch oxidative fibres, fast-twitch glycolytic fibres, fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibres were histochemically differentiated. The muscles were stained for myosin ATPase, and succinic dehydrogenase. At 60 days, females had fibres larger than males, whereas the opposite was observed at 120 days. Besides, at 60 days, the lambs born by single birth had fibres larger than those born by multiple birth, whereas the opposite was observed at 120 days. Single lambs were heavier than twin lambs and multiple lambs. Fast-twitch glycolytic fibres had the largest size, followed by slow-twitch oxidative and fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic fibres. The dimensions of fibre types in m. longissimus dorsi were larger than in m. semitendinosus (P < 0.001.These muscle fibre characteristics are thought to be important factors influencing meat quality, which is often related to metabolic and contractile properties as determined by the muscle fibre type distribution.

  9. The scarless latissimus dorsi flap for full muscle coverage in device-based immediate breast reconstruction: an autologous alternative to acellular dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, L Franklyn; Ghazi, Bahair H; Otterburn, David M

    2011-07-01

    Thin patients have fewer autologous options in postmastectomy reconstruction and are frequently limited to device-based techniques. The latissimus dorsi flap remains a viable option with which to provide autologous coverage, although for certain patients the donor scar can be a point of contention. The scarless latissimus dorsi flap is a way of mitigating these concerns. The authors present their 6-year single-surgeon experience with scarless latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction. A retrospective review of scarless latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction was performed. Charts from 2003 to 2009 were queried for demographic characteristics, nonoperative therapies, and short- and long-term complications. Results were compared with historical data. Thirty-one patients with 52 flaps were identified. Fifty-one flaps were immediate reconstructions, with an average age of 47 years and body mass index of 22.8 kg/m. Thirteen patients were treated with chemotherapy and four were irradiated, two preoperatively. The single drain was removed on average at 21 days. Complications included three hematomas (5.8 percent), two capsular contractures (3.8 percent), and two infections (3.8 percent). Average time to secondary reconstruction was 143 days. There were five unplanned revisions (9.6 percent). There were no flap failures or tissue expander losses. The scarless latissimus dorsi flap is an effective method for providing durable homogenous device coverage in the thinner patient (body mass index cost. Coverage is thin, the matrix is not initially vascularized, and products are expensive. For these reasons, use of the scarless latissimus dorsi flap is an excellent alternative, particularly in the patient with a low body mass index. Therapeutic, IV.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  10. Island Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap and a Perforator Flap in Repairing Post-Gunshot Thoracic Spine CSF Fistula: Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nangole F. Wanjala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent posttraumatic CSF fluid leakage may present a challenge to manage. Failure to address the leakage may result in complications such as meningitis, septicemia, radiculopathy, muscle weakness, and back pains. While the majority of the leakages may be managed conservatively, large dura defects as a result of gunshot wounds or motor vehicle accidents are best managed by surgical interventions. This may range from primary closure of the defect to fascial grafts, adhesive glues, and flaps. We present our experience with the use of flaps in a patient who had sustained such wounds in the thoracic spine. An island latissimus dorsal flap and a perforator fasciocutaneous flap were used to close the defect. Postoperatively the patient recovered well and the wounds healed without any complications.

  11. Imaging patterns in elastofibroma dorsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Vanel, D.; Pollastri, P.; Balladelli, A.; Alberghini, M.; Staals, E.L.; Monti, C.; Galletti, S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare pseudotumor of the soft tissues. Its clinico-radiologic characteristics lead to a correct diagnosis. Material and methods: We followed 43 patients with elastofibroma dorsi with a confirmed histological diagnosis or on the basis of typical imaging pattern (ultrasound, CT, MR) confirmed by evolution. Results: Elastofibroma is prevalent in females, its onset occurs around 60 years of age and is most frequently localized in the deep subscapular region (93%), bilateral in 54% of cases. In 7% it was found in an atypical isolated suprascapular region, in 7% it was synchronous to that in the subscapular region. Four ultrasound patterns were detected: Type I (54%) inhomogeneous fasciculated, Type II (22%) inhomogeneous aspecific, Type III (15%) hyperechogeneous, Type IV (9%) hypoechogeneous. Three patterns were detected at CT and MR: Type A (84%) inhomogeneous fasciculated corresponding to Types I and III and partially to Type II ultrasound pattern, Type B (8%) inhomogeneous aspecific corresponding to Type II ultrasound pattern; Type C (8%) homogeneous isodense or isointense to the muscle corresponding to Type IV ultrasound pattern. Conclusion: A solid, slow-growing lesion, in the deep periscapular region in females aged between 50 and 60 years, with a typical fasciculated pattern is pathognomonic of elastofibroma dorsi and bilateral location convalidates diagnosis. Ultrasound is sufficient to orientate diagnosis. CT and/or MR are reserved only for non-fasciculated ultrasound patterns, when site is atypical or in candidates for surgery. Biopsy is reserved only in cases where integrated imaging shows a non-fasciculated pattern to differentiate it from other malignant lesions.

  12. Imaging patterns in elastofibroma dorsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M. [Diagnostic Ultrasound, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: milva.battaglia@ior.it; Vanel, D. [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Pollastri, P. [Diagnostic Ultrasound, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Balladelli, A. [Laboratory of Oncologic Research, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M. [Surgical Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Staals, E.L. [5th Orthopaedic Division, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Monti, C. [Radiology Department ' Casa Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo' , Bologna (Italy); Galletti, S. [Diagnostic Ultrasound, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare pseudotumor of the soft tissues. Its clinico-radiologic characteristics lead to a correct diagnosis. Material and methods: We followed 43 patients with elastofibroma dorsi with a confirmed histological diagnosis or on the basis of typical imaging pattern (ultrasound, CT, MR) confirmed by evolution. Results: Elastofibroma is prevalent in females, its onset occurs around 60 years of age and is most frequently localized in the deep subscapular region (93%), bilateral in 54% of cases. In 7% it was found in an atypical isolated suprascapular region, in 7% it was synchronous to that in the subscapular region. Four ultrasound patterns were detected: Type I (54%) inhomogeneous fasciculated, Type II (22%) inhomogeneous aspecific, Type III (15%) hyperechogeneous, Type IV (9%) hypoechogeneous. Three patterns were detected at CT and MR: Type A (84%) inhomogeneous fasciculated corresponding to Types I and III and partially to Type II ultrasound pattern, Type B (8%) inhomogeneous aspecific corresponding to Type II ultrasound pattern; Type C (8%) homogeneous isodense or isointense to the muscle corresponding to Type IV ultrasound pattern. Conclusion: A solid, slow-growing lesion, in the deep periscapular region in females aged between 50 and 60 years, with a typical fasciculated pattern is pathognomonic of elastofibroma dorsi and bilateral location convalidates diagnosis. Ultrasound is sufficient to orientate diagnosis. CT and/or MR are reserved only for non-fasciculated ultrasound patterns, when site is atypical or in candidates for surgery. Biopsy is reserved only in cases where integrated imaging shows a non-fasciculated pattern to differentiate it from other malignant lesions.

  13. Combined effect of electrical stimulation and blade tenderization on some bovine muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccach, M.; Henrickson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The electrical stimulation (ES) period was a very important factor determining the tenderness of three bovine muscles: Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Semimembranosus (SM). Tenderness (shear force values) increased in most cases with increasing the ES period. An ES period of 15 min was optimal for obtaining a tenderness equal to that obtained by conventional processing of beef. The shortest ES period used (1 min) was adequate in most cases to set the muscles in rigor mortis and in preventing cold shortening. The tenderness of blade tenderized muscles was in most cases independent from the ES period. Blade tenderization was very effective to tenderize the BF muscle followed in decreasing order of efficacy by the LD and SM muscles. The cooking times and cooking losses of the three muscles were not affected by either the ES period or by blade tenderization.

  14. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after ageing beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry ageing, or a dry ageing bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference. © 2013.

  15. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

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    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  16. Carcass characteristics, chemical and fatty acid composition of Longissimus muscle of Purunã bulls slaughtered at 18 or 24 months of age = Características de carcaça, composição química e em ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de bovinos Purunã abatidos aos 18 ou 24 meses

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    Roberto Haruyoshi Ito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate carcass characteristics, chemical and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus muscle of 78 Purunã bulls (39 bulls/treatment slaughtered at 18 or 24 months old. The experimental design was completely randomized. The bulls weredistributed into two systems: 1 Finished in feedlot 13 to 18 months old (T18, or 2 Finished in feedlot from 21 to 24 months old (T24. The diet, roughage:concentrate ratio of 52:48 (dry matter basis, contained 12% crude protein and 72% total digestible nutrients. The T18 system showed lower (p Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as características da carcaça e composição química do músculo Longissimus de 78 bovinos Purunã (39/tratamento abatidos no sistema super precoce (SUP e precoce (PRE. Os bovinos foram distribuídos em dois sistemas: 1. Terminação em confinamento dos 13 aos 18 meses de idade (SUP ou 2. Terminação em confinamento dos 21 aos 24 meses de idade (PRE. Os animais receberam uma dieta com 12% de proteína bruta e 72% de NDT comproporção volumoso:concentrado de 52:48. Animais do sistema SUP apresentaram menor (p < 0,05 conformação (12,46 vs. 13,41 pontos, maior (p < 0,05 espessura de gordura de cobertura (3,82 vs. 3,11 mm, menor (p < 0,05 área do Longissimus (66,17 vs. 70,87 cm2, menor(p < 0,05 percentagem de músculo (60,64 vs. 64,26% e maior (p < 0,05 percentagem de gordura (23,56 vs. 20,00%. A percentagem de umidade (73,27%, cinzas (1,05%, proteína bruta (22,56% e teor de colesterol total (36,47 mg 100 g-1 de músculo foi similar (p < 0,05 entre o peso de abate. A maior (p < 0,05 percentagem de lipídeos totais foi para o SUP (1,61 vs. 1,33%. A composição de ácidos graxos não foi influenciada (p < 0,05 pelo sistema de terminação, comexceção da percentagem dos ácidos graxos C18:1 n-9 e C18:3 n-3 que foram menores (p < 0.05 para o PRE. As percentagens de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados, poliinsaturados, n-6, n-3 e as razões de AGPI/AGS e n

  17. Sodium monensin or propolis extract in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: chemical composition and fatty acid profile of Longissimus muscleMonensina sódica ou extrato de própolis na dieta de bovinos Nelore terminados em confinamento: composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus

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    Carlos Alberto Fugita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of Longissimus muscle of 33 Nellore bulls with 27 months old and initial average weight of 402 ± 7.58 kg finished in feedlot. Three treatments (Control – CON, Monensin – MON and Propolis extract – PRO were evaluated. The animals were kept in feedlot during 84 days and slaughtered with final average weight with 488 ± 24.9 kg. The addition of additives (monensin or propolis extract did not influence (P > 0.10 the chemical composition of Longissimus muscle of bulls. Saturated fatty acid (SFA did not have difference (P > 0.10 among treatments. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA have difference (P Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a composição química e a composição de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de 33 machos não castrados da raça Nelore com 27 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 402 ± 7.58 kg terminados em confinamento. Foram usados três tratamentos: Controle – CON, Monensina – MON e Extrato de Própolis – PRO. Os bovinos foram mantidos confinados durante 84 dias e abatidos com peso vivo médio final de 488 ± 24.9 kg. A adição dos aditivos (monensina ou extrato de própolis não tiveram influência (P > 0,10 na composição química do músculo Longissimus dos bovinos. A composição de ácidos graxos saturados (AGS foi semelhante entre os tratamentos (P > 0,10. A composição de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados foi diferente entre os tratamentos (P < 0,01. Valor superior foi observado nos bovinos da dieta CON (47,0%. Da mesma forma, houve diferença (P < 0,01 entre tratamentos para os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (AGPI. Bovinos do tratamento (9,92% apresentaram maior (P < 0,01 valor para os AGPI. Os bovinos dos tratamentos CON (6,74% e PRO (6,93% apresentaram menores valores (P < 0,01 para os AGPI.

  18. Clusterin expression in elastofibroma dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Pichler, Martin; Pixner, Thomas; Janig, Elke; Schuller, Monika; Lackner, Carolin; Scheipl, Susanne; Beham, Alfred; Regauer, Sigrid

    2013-05-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft tissue lesion composed of abnormal elastic fibers. Degenerated elastic fibers in skin and liver are associated with clusterin, an apoprotein that shares functional properties with small heat shock proteins. We evaluated the staining pattern and possible role of clusterin in elastofibroma dorsi. Twenty-one subcutaneous elastofibromas from the scapular region were evaluated with Elastica van Gieson and Orcein stains, immunohistochemically with antibodies to clusterin, smooth muscle actin, S-100, vimentin and CD34 and correlated with clinical data with respect to physical trauma. Clusterin correlated with the staining pattern of Elastica van Gieson and labelled abnormal broad coarse fibrillar and globular elastic fibers in all elastofibromas. Orcein stains additionally identified fine oxytalan fibers which were not stained by clusterin. Clusterin staining was observed only on the outside of the elastin fibers, while the cores of fibers and globules were unstained. 4/21 elastofibromas showed cellular nodules with a myxoid/collagenous stroma. The round to oval cells showed cytoplasmic staining with vimentin and clusterin; CD34 labelled mostly cell membranes. The cells lacked SMA and S-100 expression. The central areas of the nodules were devoid of elastic fibers, but the periphery contained coarse fibers and globules. 9/ 11 patients, for whom clinical data were available, reported trauma to the scapular region. Many investigated ED were associated with trauma, which supports a reactive/degenerative etiology of ED. The abnormal large elastic fibers in all ED were enveloped by clusterin. Clusterin deposition may protect elastic fibers from degradation and thus contribute indirectly to the tumor-like presentation of ED.

  19. Composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de bovinos de diferentes grupos genéticos terminados em confinamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.465 Physical-chemical composition and fatty acids profile in Longissimus muscle of young bulls from different genetic groups finished in feedlot - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.465

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    Jesuí Virgílio Visantainer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de bovinos inteiros de diferentes grupos genéticos terminados em confinamento. Foram utilizados 40 animais, com idade média de 22 meses, oriundos de quatro grupos genéticos: NGR (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Guzerá vs. ½ Red Angus; NSM (¼ Nelore VS. ¼ Simental vs. ½ Marchigiana; NRL (¼ Nelore VS. ¼ Red Angus vs. ½ Limousin e NMM (¼ Nelore VS. ¾ Marchigiana. Após o abate e resfriamento da carcaça, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas. Não houve efeito (p > 0,05 do grupo genético sobre as percentagens de umidade (74,0%, cinzas (1,0%, proteína bruta (19,0% e lipídeos totais (2,0% do músculo Longissimus. O grupo NMM apresentou menor (p 0,05 entre os grupos genéticos. A razão AGI/AGS (0,2 não diferiu. Os grupos genéticos NMM e NGR apresentaram, respectivamente, maior (8,5% e menor (5,6% percentagem de ácidos graxos n-6 e maior (5,5 e menor (4,0 razão n-6 n-3-1.This work was undertaken to study physical-chemical composition and fatty acids profile in Longissimus muscle of young bulls from different genetic groups finished in feedlot. Fourty animals were used, with average age of 22 months, from four genetic groups: NGR (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Guzerá vs. ½ Red Angus; NSM (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Simental vs. ½ Marchigiana; NRL (¼ Nelore vs. ¼ Red Angus vs. ½ Limousin and NMM (¼ Nelore vs. ¾ Marchigiana. After slaughter and chilled of carcass, Longissimus muscle samples between 12th and 13th rib were collected. The fatty acid composition was evaluated using the gas chromatograph. There was no genetic group effect (P>0.05 on muscle moisture (74.0%, ash (1.0%, crude protein (19.0% and total lipids (2.0%. The group NMM presented the lowest (P0.05 between the genetic groups. The AGS/AGI reason (0.2 was similar. The NMM and NGR groups presented, respectively, the highest (8.5% and the lowest (5.6% proportion of n

  20. Elastofibroma Dorsi: An Uncommon Benign Pseudotumour

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    C. R. Chandrasekar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is an uncommon benign soft tissue pseudotumour usually located at the lower pole of the scapula, deep to serratus anterior, and often attached to the periosteum of the ribs, presenting with long history of swelling and occasionally pain and discomfort. This lesion is usually seen in patients over the age of 50 years and is not uncommonly mistaken as a malignant tumour because of its size and location deep to the periscapular muscles. Review of the orthopaedic oncology database of 17 500 patients revealed that there were 15 patients with elastofibroma dorsi. There were 12 males and 3 females, mean age at diagnosis of 68.4 years range 51–79 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by MRI in 3 patients, excision biopsy in 3 patients, trucut biopsy in 8 patients and open biopsy in 1 patient. Eight patients had excision of the lesion which was symptomatic. There have been no recurrences. We highlight the clinical and radiological presentation of elastofibroma dorsi to increase awareness of its existence and management.

  1. Postnatal changes in electromyographic signals during piglet growth, and in relation to muscle fibre types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ninette Kieme; Ravn, L.S.; Guy, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses non-invasive evoked surface electromyography (SEMG) to investigate postnatal muscle development in pigs, and to assess any correlation between recorded signal parameters and muscle fibre types in two different skeletal muscles. Four litters (n=43) of Large White x Landrace pigs were...... used. Evoked SEMG mesurements were taken on days 2, 5, 14, 26, 60 and 151 post partum from m. Longissimus dorsi (LD) and on days 14, 26, 60 and 151 post partum from m. Biceps femoris (BF). A third of each litter was slaughtered at days 27, 61 and 153 post partum. Biopsy samples for LD and BF were taken...... to categorize day 5 post partum, whilst for BF significant increases occurred from days 14 to 26 post partum. Fibre type development in both muscles showed a significant decrease in type IIA fibre number (Ptype IIB fibre number (P

  2. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and CLA levels in the Longissimus muscle of Caracu and Caracu vs. Charolais cattle / Composição química, perfil de ácidos graxos e níveis de CLA no músculo Longissimus de bovinos Caracu e Caracu vs. Charolês

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    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, as well as the levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA present in the Longissimus muscle of Caracu and Caracu vs. Charolais genetic groups of cattle. This study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná, in southern Brazil. Twenty animals (10 Caracu – CAR and 10 Caracu vs. Charolais – CAC were used, with an initial average age between 8 and 10 months. The young bulls were slaughtered at 450 kg and 18 months of age. The moisture and crude protein percentages were similar between the two genetic groups. However, the percentage of ash was higher in the CAC group. Conversely, total lipid levels was lower in the CAC group. The fatty acid profiles were similar for CAR and CAC bulls. Percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and n-6 were higher in the CAC group. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, saturated fatty acid, and n-3 percentages, as well n-6/n-3 and PUFA/MUFA ratios, were similar between CAR and CAC bulls. The 18:2 n-6, 18:2 c – 9 t – 11 and 20:3 n-6 contents (mg/g of total lipids were higher in the CAR group.Este trabalho foi realizado para estudar a composição química, perfil de ácidos graxos e a quantificação dos ácidos graxos n-3, n-6 e ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA no músculo Longissimus de bovinos inteiros dos grupos genéticos Caracu e Caracu vs. Charolês. Este estudo foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná. Foram utilizados vinte animais (10 – Caracu – CAR e 10 Caracu vs. Charolês – CAC com idade inicial de 8-10 meses. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 450 kg e 18 meses. A percentagem de umidade e proteína total foram similar entre os dois grupos genéticos. Entretanto, a percentagem de cinzas foi maior no grupo CAC. Ao contrário, a percentagem de lipídeos totais foi menor no grupo CAC. O perfil de

  3. Understanding Early Post-Mortem Biochemical Processes Underlying Meat Color and pH Decline in the Longissimus thoracis Muscle of Young Blond d'Aquitaine Bulls Using Protein Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, E M Claudia; Micol, Didier; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Hocquette, Jean-François; Picard, Brigitte

    2015-08-05

    Many studies on color biochemistry and protein biomarkers were undertaken in post-mortem beef muscles after ≥24 hours. The present study was conducted on Longissimus thoracis muscles of 21 Blond d'Aquitaine young bulls to evaluate the relationships between protein biomarkers present during the early post-mortem and known to be related to tenderness and pH decline and color development. pH values at 45 min, 3 h, and 30 h post-mortem were correlated with three, seven, and six biomarkers, respectively. L*a*b* color coordinates 24 h post-mortem were correlated with nine, five, and eight protein biomarkers, respectively. Regression models included Hsp proteins and explained between 47 and 59% of the variability between individuals in pH and between 47 and 65% of the variability in L*a*b* color coordinates. Proteins correlated with pH and/or color coordinates were involved in apoptosis or had antioxidative or chaperone activities. The main results include the negative correlations between pH45 min, pH3 h, and pHu and Prdx6, which may be explained by the antioxidative and phospholipase activities of this biomarker. Similarly, inducible Hsp70-1A/B and μ-calpain were correlated with L*a*b* coordinates, due to the protective action of Hsp70-1A/B on the proteolytic activities of μ-calpain on structural proteins. Correlations existed further between MDH1, ENO3, and LDH-B and pH decline and color stability probably due to the involvement of these enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and, thus, the energy status of the cell. The present results show that research using protein indicators may increase the understanding of early post-mortem biological mechanisms involved in pH and beef color development.

  4. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

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    Ruidong Xiang

    Full Text Available Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96% and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively. Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05 explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA of fast myotubes (68%, while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01. Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001 or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86% with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05, was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001 or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001 genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01 and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05 on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P

  5. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is associated with differential expression of imprinted genes and DNA methyltranfereases in muscle of beef cattle offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Lan, X; Radunz, A E; Khatib, H

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy is a major determinant of the fetal developmental competence and may induce long-lasting epigenetic changes to the offspring. Imprinted genes have important roles in fetal programming, growth, and development. There are, however, limited data available on the influence of maternal diet on the expression of imprinted genes in beef cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal diet during pregnancy on the expression of 5 imprinted genes and 3 DNA methyltransferase genes in longissimus dorsi muscle from Angus calves. A total of 36 Angus-cross cows were inseminated to a single sire and on Day 135 of gestation they were randomly assigned to either low-starch (haylage) or high-starch (corn silage) diets. Diets were initially formulated to provide isocaloric and isonitrogenous intake. The H19, MEG8, IGF2R, and DNMT3a genes showed differential expression in longissimus dorsi muscle in calves between the diet groups. Given that high-starch diet is a source of energy for muscle growth and feed conversion efficiency in postnatal development, the mechanisms by which this diet affected expression of imprinted genes should be further explored.

  6. Traumatic Tear of the Latissimus Dorsi Myotendinous Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael V.; Stensby, J. Derek; Hillen, Travis J.; Demertzis, Jennifer L.; Keener, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    A case of a latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction strain in an avid CrossFit athlete is presented. The patient developed acute onset right axillary burning and swelling and subsequent palpable pop with weakness while performing a “muscle up.” Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a high-grade tear of the right latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction approximately 9 cm proximal to its intact humeral insertion. There were no other injuries to the adjacent shoulder girdle structures. Isolated strain of the latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction is a very rare injury with a scarcity of information available regarding its imaging appearance and preferred treatment. This patient was treated conservatively and was able to resume active CrossFit training within 3 months. At 6 months postinjury, he had only a mild residual functional deficit compared with his preinjury level. PMID:26502450

  7. Elastofibroma dorsi: typical radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykir, R.; Karakose, S.; Karabacakoglu, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign and slow-growing fibro-proliferative lesion. It has a characteristic location (periscapular region) and a specific imaging appearance (sonography, CT, MRI) allowing accurate prospective diagnosis. The recognition of this benign lesion avoids unnecessary biopsy and/or surgery. We report two cases of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi illustrating characteristic imaging features on ultrasound, CT and MRI

  8. Effect of vitamin A depletion on fat deposition in finishing pigs, intramuscular fat content and gene expression in the longissimus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Lizardo, R; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    /kg; n=16). The treatment without supplemental vitamin A did not affect growth performance parameters, only a trend to increase final body weight was observed when compared with animals fed with vitamin A in the diet. However, reduced perirenal fat and a trend to increase muscle depth between the 3th...... and 4th ribs was observed in the animals fed the diet with no supplemental vitamin A. These results suggested a reduction of fatness when vitamin A was omitted in the diet, contrary to the initial hypothesis. Intramuscular fat content was not affected by the reduction of the dietary vitamin A levels...... below the requirements; in fact the trend was opposite to the original hypothesis. The content of retinol in the liver was increased when the animals were fed higher levels of dietary vitamin A but animals fed without vitamin A diet also produced retinol, although in a reduced amount, which could...

  9. Similar effects of lysine deficiency in muscle biochemical characteristics of fatty and lean piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Granados, P; Haro, A; Seiquer, I; Lara, L; Aguilera, J F; Nieto, R

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of feeding Lys-deficient diets on muscle biochemical characteristics, particularly intramuscular fat concentration and fatty acid profile, in a fatty (Iberian) and a conventional pig genotype (Landrace × Large White [LDW]) maintained in identical experimental conditions. Performance and plasma metabolite changes were also monitored. Twenty-eight barrows of 10 kg initial BW, 14 of Iberian and 14 of LDW breed, were randomly assigned to each of 2 experimental diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 breeds × 2 diets). Seven pigs were allocated to each treatment combination. Diets (isonitrogenous and isoenergetic; 200 g CP/kg DM and 14.7 MJ ME) based on barley, corn, corn gluten meal, and soybean meal, with identical composition, except for their Lys content (10.9 g/kg for the diet adequate in Lys and 5.2 g/kg for the diet deficient in Lys), were assayed. Pigs were housed in individual 2 m pens and fed at 85% of ad libitum intake of the Iberian genotype, of greater intake capacity. Daily feed allowance was based on BW individually measured each week. At 25 kg BW, pigs were slaughtered by exsanguination after electrical stunning. Blood samples were taken and longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles were rapidly dissected and stored frozen prior to analysis. Performance was reduced in both pig breeds when fed Lys-deficient diets, particularly in LDW pigs (breed × diet interaction, < 0.05). Intramuscular fat content increased in longissimus dorsi of Iberian ( < 0.05) and in biceps femoris of both pig genotypes ( < 0.01) when fed Lys-deficient diets. Oleic acid increased ( < 0.05) and PUFA acid decreased ( < 0.01) in longissiumus dorsi and biceps femoris of pigs of both genotypes fed Lys-deficient diets. The proportion of oxidative fibers ( < 0.001) and free carnitine content ( < 0.05) increased in longissimus dorsi of both pigs types fed Lys-deficient diets. Plasma creatinine was greater in LDW pigs

  10. A case of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Dadaş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare soft tissue tumor. Friction of scapula to chest wall excessively in manuel laborers or genetic factors may be responsible for consist of elastofibroma dorsi. Thorax computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are most frequent used imaging methods in diagnosis of elastofibroma dorsi. Surgical excision is a good treatment opsion for cases with symptomatic.

  11. Is meat quality from Longissimus lumborum samples correlated with other cuts in horse meat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, Pasquale; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale; Milella, Paola; Calzaretti, Giovanna; Tateo, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    The present work aims to investigate if the variation of each parameter in Longissimus lumborum muscle could correspond to the same or to a similar variation of the parameter in the other muscles. The work presents results of Pearson's correlations between Longissimus lumborum samples and other muscle samples, such as Biceps femoris, Rectus femoris, Semimembranosus, Supraspinatus and Semitendinosus in horse meat. A total of 27 male IHDH (Italian Heavy Draught Horse) breed foals were employed. They were slaughtered at 11 months of age and the above-mentioned muscles were sampled. The Longissimus lumborum muscle showed to be representative of other muscles and of the whole carcass for some chemical parameters (moisture, protein and ash) and for some fatty acids profile patterns such as C12:0, C14:0, total monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, but poor correlations were recorded for intramuscular fat concentration, rheological and colorimetric parameters. Although almost all the qualitative parameters in meat are affected by the anatomical site and by the muscle, the Longissimus lumborum is often not representative in horse meat with regard to modifications of this parameters. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  13. The Effect of Different Location of Muscle on Quality of Frozen Simmental Ongole Grade Male Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triasih, D.; Krisdiani, D.; Riyanto, J.; Pratitis, W.; Widyawati, S. D.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the influence of different types of muscle on the characteristics physical quality frozen meat of Simmental Ongole Crossbreed Male frozen meat. The research had been conducted at the Laboratory of Meat Technology and Processing and Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Faculty of Animal Science, University GadjahMada, Yogyakarta. The physical quality with 4 levels treatments, the name was Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), Triceps brachii (TB), and Pectoralis profundus (PP). The chemical quality with 3 levels treatments, the name was Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Triceps brachii (TB). The research used Completely Randomized Design with 5 replications for each treatment. The variables of the physical quality test were pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity. The chemical quality test were water content, protein content, fat content, and cholesterol content. The result of the physical quality test showed that the different types of muscle were significantly influence the pH value (P<0,01), also the influence the tenderness and cooking loss (P<0,05), but there was no significant different on water-holding capacity. The chemical quality test showed that the different types of muscle significant influenced on protein content and fat content (P<0,01). They were significant different (P<0,05) on water content, and there was significant effect (P<0,05) on cholesterol. In conclusion, the BF have high value of pH, cooking loss, water content, protein content, and cholesterol than other muscle, but have low value of tenderness and fat content.

  14. Role of Latissimus Dorsi Island Flap in Coverage of Mutilating Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: Latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) is one of the most versatile muscles that is commonly used in different reconstructive procedures. Severe mutilating injuries of the ... Finally, we recorded the ultimate functional and aesthetic outcome after a period of two years of follow up. Results: From the harvested ...

  15. Caracterização do processo de rigor mortis em músculos de eqüinos e maciez da carne Caracterization of rigor mortis process of muscle horse and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pacheco Rodrigues

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa utilizou 12 eqüinos de diferentes idades, abatidos em um matadouro-frigorífico (SIF 1803 em Araguari-MG, e estudou a temperatura, pH, comprimento de sarcômero em diferentes intervalos de tempo após abate (1h, 5h, 8h, 10h, 12h, 15h e 24h e força de cisalhamento (maciez dos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Semitendinosus, com intuito de caracterizar o desenvolvimento do processo de rigor mortis de eqüídeos durante o processamento industrial. A temperatura da câmara fria variou de 10,2°C a 4,0°C e a temperatura média inicial das carcaças foi de 35,32°C e a final de 4,15°C. O pH inicial médio do músculo Longissimus dorsi foi 6,49 e o final 5,63, e para o músculo Semitendinosus o pH inicial médio foi 6,44 e o final 5,70. A menor medida de sarcômero observada em ambos os músculos foi na 15ª hora após abate, ou seja, 1,44µm e 1,41µm, respectivamente. A carne dos eqüídeos adultos foi mais dura (pThis work studied 12 horses at different ages butchered in a slaughterhouse in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (SIF 1803 and evaluated temperature, pH, sarcomere length in different periods after slaughter (1h, 5h, 8h, 10h, 12h, 15h, and 24 hours as well as the shear force (meat tenderness of the Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles, aiming at characterizing the rigor mortis onset in the meat during industrial processing. The chilly room temperature varied from 10.2°C to 4.0°C, and the mean initial carcass temperature was 35.32°C and the final one was 4.15°C. The mean initial pH of Longissimus dorsi was 6.49 and the final one was 5.63; the mean initial pH of Semitendinosus was 6.44 and the final one was 5.70. The smallest sarcomere size obtained in both muscles occurred at 15 hours postmortem, and the sarcomere lengths were 1.44 µm and 1.41 µm, respectively. The meat from adult horses was tougher than that from young ones (p<0.05, and the Semitendinosus muscle was tougher than Longissimus dorsi muscle.

  16. Fibre composition and enzyme activities in six muscles of the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K-H. Kiessling

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Six skeletal muscles have been studied as regards fibre properties and enzyme activities. The muscles are cranial part of M. gluteobiceps, M. semitendinosus, M. semimembranosus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. brachiocephalicus and M. sternocephalicus. Two histochemical methods were used for fibre identification, one based on myosin ATPase activities after preincubation at pH 4.3 and 4.6 and the other on oxidative capacity measured as NADH dehydrogenase activity. The two methods gave slightly differing results but allowed the general conclusion that of the three fibre types (I, II A and II B the type II B fibres, which are fast-twitch, glycolytic, make up some 40 - 60 % (mean 50 % of the muscles. Type I fibres, which are slow-twitch, oxidative, account for 30% of the total muscle volume in the two neck muscles but for only 20% or less in the rest. The third type, II A, which is fast-twitch, oxidative, glycolytic, accounts for only 20% of the volume in the neck muscles but as much as 40% in M. longissimus dorsi. Oxidative capacity is high throughout. This is valid also to the capacity to oxidize fatty acids, though reaching only half the activity previously found in the Svalbard reindeer (Kiessling and Kiessling, 1983. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is comparatively low in all muscles. The high respiratory chain activity and fatty acid oxidation and the low lactate dehydrogenase activities do not fit at all well with the high content of type II B fibres in the muscles. This high II B content is also unexpected when considering the activity pattern of the reindeer. An altogether different role for the type II B fibres, besides the traditional one, is therefore discussed.Fibersammansåttning och enzymaktiviteter i sex muskler från svensk tamren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Sex skelettmuskler har undersokts med avseende på fiberegenskaper och enzymaktiviteter. De sex musklerna år kranial del av M. gluteobiceps. M

  17. A note on the comparative microanatomy of M. longissimus dorsi of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (1971) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Molini, L.; Ciortan, E.; Bianchi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare pseudotumoral lesion located in the periscapular region. Ultrasound can be used to evaluate its dimensions, margins, and internal structure. In the presence of bilateralism, diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical and sonographic findings. The authors present a case of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi in which the clinical and ultrasound diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Comparative Analyses between Skeletal Muscle miRNAomes from Large White and Min Pigs Revealed MicroRNAs Associated with Postnatal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xihui; Wang, Ligang; Ni, Hemin; Wang, Lixian; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that underlies postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle is complex and remains unclear. Here, the miRNAomes of longissimus dorsi muscle collected at five postnatal stages (60, 120, 150, 180, and 210 days after birth) from Large White (commercial breed) and Min pigs (indigenous breed of China) were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. We identified 734 miRNAs comprising 308 annotated miRNAs and 426 novel miRNAs, of which 307 could be considered pig-specific. Comparative analysis between two breeds suggested that 60 and 120 days after birth were important stages for skeletal muscle hypertrophy and intramuscular fat accumulation. A total of 263 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between two breeds at one or more developmental stages. In addition, the differentially expressed miRNAs between every two adjacent developmental stages in each breed were determined. Notably, ssc-miR-204 was significantly more highly expressed in Min pig skeletal muscle at all postnatal stages compared with its expression in Large White pig skeletal muscle. Based on gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of its predicted target genes, we concluded that ssc-miR-204 may exert an impact on postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle by regulating myoblast proliferation. The results of this study will help in elucidating the mechanism underlying postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle modulated by miRNAs, which could provide valuable information for improvement of pork quality and human myopathy.

  20. [Comparison of the Latissimus dorsi insertions on the iliac crest in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, C; Ben Hadj Yahia, S; Braun, M; Journeau, P

    2014-03-01

    Comparing to other primates, one of the most important specificities of the human anatomy are consequences of bipedalism. Although bone consequences are well known (lumbar lordosis, horizontal position of the foramen magnum, lengthening of the lower limbs, reduction of the pelvis, specialization of the foot), consequences of our locomotion on the Latissimus dorsi are still unclear. One dissection of a chimpanzee Latissimus dorsi (Pan troglodytes) has been performed and compared to 30 human Latissimus dorsi dissections (10 fresh cadavers and 20 formoled cadavers). In each dissection, the existence of direct muscular insertions on the iliac crest has been investigated and the constitution of the thoracolumbar fascia has been described. In chimpanzee dissection, a muscular direct insertion of the Latissimus dorsi was present on the iliac crest of 9 cm long. The TLF was made of the superficial and the deep fascias of the Latissimus dorsi and the superficial fascia of the erector spinae muscles which was deeper. In man, there was no direct muscular insertion of the Latissimus dorsi in 90 % of cases, the TLF was constituted the same way. This study suggests that the Latissimus dorsi has been separated from the iliac crest in man during the evolution because of the permanent bipedalism and that it stayed inserted on the iliac crest in chimpanzee because of the brachiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Thomsen, Dana A; Roberts, Claire T; Burns, Brian M; Anderson, Gail I; Greenwood, Paul L; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (Pmaternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, Pmaternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, Pmaternal weight effect (5-6%, Ppaternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, Pinteraction between maternal and paternal genomes (Pmaternal weight (Pmaternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle.

  2. Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanc Samil Sarici

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Elastofibroma dorsi is benign soft tissue tumor mostly observed in the subscapular regions of elderly female patients. The surgery is indicated in symptomatic cases and must be confined to simple excision of the lesion.

  3. Influence of supplementing vitamin C to yearling steers fed a high sulfur diet during the finishing period on meat color, tenderness and protein degradation, and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of vitamin C (VC) supplemented for approximately 102 d during the finishing period on color, tenderness, and fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis (LT; n=136) from steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet. Treatments included 4 supplemental VC concentrations: 1) 0 (CON), 2) 5 (5VC), 3) 10 (10VC), or 4) 20 (20VC) gVC·h(-1)∙d(-1) in a common diet. Increasing supplemental VC decreased (Pvitamin E and tended to increase (P≤0.07) calcium and iron content of steaks. No VC (P≥0.25) effect was noted for WBSF, calpain-1 autolysis, troponin T degradation, or most fatty acid profiles. A quadratic effect (P≤0.03) was observed for cholesterol and CLA content of LT. Under the conditions of our study, supplementing VC to steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet late in the finishing period did not influence color or tenderness, but increased the vitamin E content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal nutrition induces gene expression changes in fetal muscle and adipose tissues in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Wang, Xin; Rosa, Guilherme Jm; Radunz, Amy E; Khatib, Hasan

    2014-11-28

    Maternal nutrition during different stages of pregnancy can induce significant changes in the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring. These changes could have important implications on food animal production especially if these perturbations impact muscle and adipose tissue development. Here, we evaluated the impact of different maternal isoenergetic diets, alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), and dried corn distillers grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat), on the transcriptome of fetal muscle and adipose tissues in sheep. Prepartum diets were associated with notable gene expression changes in fetal tissues. In longissimus dorsi muscle, a total of 224 and 823 genes showed differential expression (FDR ≤0.05) in fetuses derived from DG vs. CN and HY vs. CN maternal diets, respectively. Several of these significant genes affected myogenesis and muscle differentiation. In subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, 745 and 208 genes were differentially expressed (FDR ≤0.05), respectively, between CN and DG diets. Many of these genes are involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and adipose tissue development. Pathway analysis revealed that several GO terms and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR ≤0.05) with differentially expressed genes associated with tissue and organ development, chromatin biology, and different metabolic processes. These findings provide evidence that maternal nutrition during pregnancy can alter the programming of fetal muscle and fat tissues in sheep. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes, in terms of postnatal growth, body composition, and meat quality of the offspring, warrant future investigation.

  5. Role for tryptophan in regulation of protein synthesis in porcine muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, F.D.; Smith, T.K.; Bayley, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of varying concentrations of dietary tryptophan on growth rate and protein synthesis in edible muscle tissues of growing swine. A total of 45 immature swine (initial weight approximately 24 kg) were fed corn-gelatin diets containing 0.5 (n = 8), 0.8 (n = 10), 1.3 (n = 10), 1.5 (n = 7) or 2.0 (n = 10) g tryptophan/kg diet for 35 d. Animals fed 0.5 and 0.8 g tryptophan/kg grew more slowly, consumed less feed and had a lower efficiency of feed utilization than animals fed higher concentrations of tryptophan. Thirty similar animals were used in a second experiment. Diets containing 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 g tryptophan/kg diet (n = 6) were fed for 14 d, after which all animals were killed and samples were taken of longissimus dorsi, triceps brachii and biceps femoris. Protein synthetic activity was determined by monitoring the incorporation of [ 14 C]phenylalanine into protein in vitro. There was no significant difference in synthetic activity between different muscle types. There was no effect of diet on the activity of the muscle soluble protein fraction. The activity of the muscle ribosomal fraction, however, was positively correlated with increasing concentrations of dietary tryptophan. It was concluded that tryptophan has the potential to regulate muscle protein synthesis in a manner beyond serving simply as a component of protein

  6. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle fiber type, fiber diameter and myoglobin concentration in the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby eMoore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris (NES are known to be deep, long-duration divers and to sustain long-repeated patterns of breath-hold, or apnea. Some phocid dives remain within the bounds of aerobic metabolism, accompanied by physiological responses inducing lung compression, bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction. Current data suggest an absence of type IIb fibers in pinniped locomotory musculature. To date, no fiber type data exist for NES, a consummate deep diver. In this study, NES were biopsied in the wild. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle were revealed through succinate dehydrogenase (SDH based fiber typing. Results indicated a predominance of uniformly shaped, large type I fibers and elevated myoglobin (Mb concentrations in the longissimus dorsi (LD muscle of adults. No type II muscle fibers were detected in any adult sampled. This was in contrast to the juvenile animals that demonstrated type II myosin in Western Blot analysis, indicative of an ontogenetic change in skeletal muscle with maturation. These data support previous hypotheses that the absence of type II fibers indicates reliance on aerobic metabolism during dives, as well as a depressed metabolic rate and low energy locomotion. We also suggest that the lack of type IIb fibers (adults may provide a protection against ischemia reperfusion (IR injury in vasoconstricted peripheral skeletal muscle.

  7. Data for in-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This Data article provides Supplementary data related to the research article titled “In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum” by Yu et al. [1]. This research article reports the proteome catalogue of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum. A list of 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised after separating the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. The detailed list of identified proteins, the annotated MS/MS spectra corresponding to the proteins identified by a single peptide-spectrum match, the raw Gene Ontology annotation data and other miscellaneous files, as will be described below, were contained in this Data article. We hope the data presented here will contribute to the current knowledge of the global protein composition of lamb skeletal muscle/meat.

  8. Assessment of frozen storage duration effect on quality characteristics of various horse muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed at assessing the effects of frozen storage duration on quality characteristics, lipid oxidation and sensory quality of various horse muscles. Methods Five representative muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD, gluteus medius (GM, semimembranosus (SM, biceps femoris (BF, and triceps brachii (TB at 24 h post-mortem obtained from 28-mo-old Jeju female breed horses (n = 8 were used in the present investigation. The muscles were vacuum-packaged and frozen at −20°C for 120, 240, and 360 days. All the samples were analyzed for thawing and cooking losses, pH, Warner–Bratzler shear forces (WBSF, color traits, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and sensory traits. The muscle samples analyzed on day 0 of frozen storage (fresh, non-frozen were used for comparison. Results Results revealed that thawing and cooking losses significantly (p<0.05 increased in all the muscles after 120 days and then remained unchanged up to 360 days of frozen storage. The TBARS and TVBN contents significantly increased as increasing frozen storage time up to 360 days (p<0.05. While, significant decreases in WBSF values were observed for all the muscles with increased frozen storage time (p<0.05. Frozen storage variously affected the color traits of the muscles for instance; the redness of LD, GM, and BF muscles showed a decreasing tendency during frozen storage while it was not changed in TB and SM muscles. Furthermore, the frozen storage did not produce detrimental effects on sensory quality as it did not cause flavor and juiciness defects whereas it partially improved the tenderness of all the muscles studied. Conclusion Based on the results obtained from our work, it is concluded that frozen storage could be applied to increase the long-term shelf life of horsemeat while still retaining its sensory quality.

  9. Possible Relationship Between Bilateral Elastofibroma Dorsi and Hypermastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Keskin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi (EFD is a rare, benign, soft tissue tumor with an unclear pathogenesis, typically localized to the subscapular region. It occurs within the periscapular area between the ribs and dorsal chest wall muscles. Repetitive microtrauma by friction between the lower part of the scapula and the thoracic wall may cause reactive hyperproliferation of the fibroblastic tissue. This view has been supported by the higher prevalence of EFD, particularly among individuals who perform hard manual labor. EFD can, however, also be observed in those who have never performed hard manual labor and particularly in women over the age of 50. In this report, we present a case of bilateral EFD in a 52-year old woman with bilateral hypermastia, and examine the possible correlation between hypermastia and EFD.

  10. Traumatic Tear of the Latissimus Dorsi Myotendinous Junction: Case Report of a CrossFit-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael V; Stensby, J Derek; Hillen, Travis J; Demertzis, Jennifer L; Keener, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    A case of a latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction strain in an avid CrossFit athlete is presented. The patient developed acute onset right axillary burning and swelling and subsequent palpable pop with weakness while performing a "muscle up." Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a high-grade tear of the right latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction approximately 9 cm proximal to its intact humeral insertion. There were no other injuries to the adjacent shoulder girdle structures. Isolated strain of the latissimus dorsi myotendinous junction is a very rare injury with a scarcity of information available regarding its imaging appearance and preferred treatment. This patient was treated conservatively and was able to resume active CrossFit training within 3 months. At 6 months postinjury, he had only a mild residual functional deficit compared with his preinjury level. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellison Jarles da Silva Diniz

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV, were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05 found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology.

  12. Influence of early pH decline on calpain activity in porcine muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomponio, Luigi; Ertbjerg, Per; Karlsson, Anders H

    2010-01-01

    myofibril fragmentation at 24 h post-mortem was observed, which was no longer evident in the later phase of the tenderization process. In conclusion, the rate of early pH decline influenced l-calpain activity and the rate but not the extent of myofibrillar degradation, suggesting an early effect......This study investigated the influence of post-mortem pH decline on calpain activity and myofibrillar degradation.From 80 pigs, 30 Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were selected on the basis of pH values at 3 h post-mortem and classified into groups of 10 as fast, intermediate and slow pH decline...... measured. A faster decrease in pH resulted in reduced level of l-calpain activity and increased autolysis of the enzyme, and hence an earlier loss of activity due to activation of l-calpain in muscles with a fast pH decline. Paralleling the l-calpain activation in muscles with a fast pH decline a higher...

  13. Bilateral Elastofibroma Dorsi: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Çelik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare, slow-growing soſt tissue tumor of the chest wall. The tumor typically located under the lower pole of the scapula. A 57-year-old woman who had retiredas a teacher, presented with a 1-year history of pain on the back and with a 3-month history of swelling located under the leſt scapula. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral, solid soſt tissue tumors under the scapula. She underwent total resection of the tumor on the leſt side. Tumor was diagnosed histopathologically as elastofibroma. Elastofibroma dorsi can be undetermined because of its localization. Radiological examination is important especially on diagnosis of bilateral localization.

  14. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedret, Carles; Balius, Ramon; Idoate, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  15. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedret, Carles [Unitat Medicina Esportiva Consorci Sanitari del Garraf, Barcelona (Spain); Centre Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Balius, Ramon [Generalitat of Catalonia, Sports Catalan Council, Catalonia (Spain); Idoate, Fernando [Clinica San Miguel, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  16. Elastofibroma dorsi – differential diagnosis in chest wall tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinau Hans-Ulrich

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elastofibromas are benign soft tissue tumours mostly of the infrascapular region between the thoracic wall, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscle with a prevalence of up to 24% in the elderly. The pathogenesis of the lesion is still unclear, but repetitive microtrauma by friction between the scapula and the thoracic wall may cause the reactive hyperproliferation of fibroelastic tissue. Methods We present a series of seven cases with elastofibroma dorsi with reference to clinical findings, further clinical course and functional results after resection, as well as recurrence. Data were obtained retrospectively by clinical examination, phone calls to the patients' general practitioners and charts review. Follow-up time ranged from four months to nine years and averaged 53 months. Results The patients presented with swelling of the infrascapular region or snapping scapula. In three cases, the lesion was painful. The ratio men/women was 2/5 with a mean age of 64 years. The tumor sizes ranged from 3 to 13 cm. The typical macroscopic aspect was characterized as poorly defined fibroelastic soft tissue lesion with a white and yellow cut surface caused by intermingled remnants of fatty tissue. Microscopically, the lesions consisted of broad collagenous strands and densely packed enlarged and fragmented elastic fibres with mostly round shapes. In all patients but one, postoperative seroma (which had to be punctuated occurred after resection; however, at follow-up time, no patient reported any decrease of function or sensation at the shoulder or the arm of the operated side. None of the patients experienced a relapse. Conclusion In differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors located at this specific site, elastofibroma should be considered as likely diagnosis. Due to its benign behaviour, the tumor should be resected only in symptomatic patients.

  17. The influence of low temperature, type of muscle and electrical stimulation on the course of rigor mortis, ageing and tenderness of beef muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, U; Hertzman, C; Tornberg, E

    1994-01-01

    The course of rigor mortis, ageing and tenderness have been evaluated for two beef muscles, M. semimembranosus (SM) and M. longissimus dorsi (LD), when entering rigor at constant temperatures in the cold-shortening region (1, 4, 7 and 10°C). The influence of electrical stimulation (ES) was also examined. Post-mortem changes were registered by shortening and isometric tension and by following the decline of pH, ATP and creatine phosphate. The effect of ageing on tenderness was recorded by measuring shear-force (2, 8 and 15 days post mortem) and the sensory properties were assessed 15 days post mortem. It was found that shortening increased with decreasing temperature, resulting in decreased tenderness. Tenderness for LD, but not for SM, was improved by ES at 1 and 4°C, whereas ES did not give rise to any decrease in the degree of shortening during rigor mortis development. This suggests that ES influences tenderization more than it prevents cold-shortening. The samples with a pre-rigor mortis temperature of 1°C could not be tenderized, when stored up to 15 days, whereas this was the case for the muscles entering rigor mortis at the other higher temperatures. The results show that under the conditions used in this study, the course of rigor mortis is more important for the ultimate tenderness than the course of ageing. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ultrastructural evidence for a direct excitatory pathway from the nucleus retroambiguus to lateral longissimus and quadratus lumborum motoneurons in the female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, PO; Mouton, LJ; De Weerd, H; Georgiadis, [No Value; Krukerink, M; Holstege, G; Gerrits, Peter O.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2004-01-01

    During mating, the female golden hamster displays a stereotyped specific receptive posture, characterized by lordosis of the back, elevation of the tail, and extension of the legs. Muscles involved in this posture are thought to be iliopsoas, cutaneus trunci, lateral longissimus (LL), and quadratus

  19. Cholesterol and fatty acids oxidation in meat from three muscles of Massese suckling lambs slaughtered at different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Serra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Massese male lambs fed mainly with maternal milk were slaughtered at 11, 14 and 17 kg. Samples of Longissimus dorsi (LD, Triceps brachii (TB and Semimembranosus (Sm muscles were collected. Total intramuscular lipids were extracted by means of a mixture of chloroform methanol 2/1. Cholesterol content and its oxidation product (COP were determined by a gas chromatography apparatus equipped with an apolar 30 m column. Fatty acid oxidation was evaluated by means of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS extracting the sample with aqueous acidic solution. The effect of slaughter weight on oxidation of intramuscular lipids was found only in TB muscles. In this muscle the cholesterol content showed a decreasing trend, while the content of COPs significantly increased with the age of animals. Among the COPs, the 7-ketocholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol were the most abundant, followed by α- and β- epoxy-cholesterol and cholestan-triol. The content of TBARS did not vary owing to a similar fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat across weight of slaughter. In any case, the values of TBARS did not reach the threshold of the detection of off-flavour in meat.

  20. 基于 iTRAQ定量蛋白质组学技术分析日粮中添加非淀粉多糖酶对生长猪背最长肌中蛋白表达影响%iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of longissimus muscle from growing pigs with dietary supplementation of non-starch polysaccharide enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ze ZHANG; Yang GAO; Qing-ping LU; Ren-na SA; Hong-fu ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Non-starch polysaccharide enzymes (NSPEs) have long been used in the feed production of monogastric animals to degrade non-starch polysaccharide to oligosaccharides and promote growth performance. However, few studies have been conducted on the effect of such enzymes on skeletal muscle in monogastric animals. To elucidate the mechanism of the effect of NSPEs on skeletal muscle, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) for differential proteomic quantitation was applied to investigate alterations in the proteome in the longissimus muscle (LM) of growing pigs after a 50-d period of supplementation with 0.6% NSPEs in the diet. A total of 51 proteins were found to be differentialy expressed in the LM between a control group and the NSPE group. Functional analysis of the differentialy expressed protein species showed an increased abundance of proteins related to energy produc-tion, protein synthesis, muscular differentiation, immunity, oxidation resistance and detoxification, and a decreased abundance of proteins related to inflammation in the LM of the pigs fed NSPEs. These findings have important im-plications for understanding the mechanisms whereby dietary supplementation with NSPEs enzymes can promote growth performance and improve muscular metabolism in growing pigs.%目 的:通过日粮中添加非淀粉多糖酶,运用同位素标记相对和绝对定量技术(iTRAQ技术)分析非淀粉多糖酶对生长猪背最长肌蛋白质表达有何影响,为饲料中添加非淀粉多糖酶提供理论基础.创新点:采用 iTRAQ 定量蛋白质组学技术,通过对生长猪背最长肌蛋白质表达进行高通量分析,发现日粮中添加非淀粉多糖酶可影响许多功能蛋白表达,从分子水平阐述了其发挥作用的机理.方法:将体重约39 kg生长猪(48头)随机分为两个处理,每个处理4个重复,每个重复6头猪.对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验组在基础日粮中添加0.6%非淀粉多糖酶.50天

  1. Fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase in the sera of Simmental young bulls Connection with the fattening capacity, muscle quantity and protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križanović, D; Karadjole, I

    1993-01-12

    The activity of enzyme aldolase (ALD) was determined in the sera of Simmental young bulls, with the purpose to see whether there exists a relationship between the enzyme activity and fattening capacity and whether the ALD could be an indicator of the muscle quantity and protein content. Early ALD activity was correlated with slaughter weight and ADG in the last fattening month. The regression analysis suggests that young bulls with higher serum ALD acitivity at the start of the experiment had more total muscles and less bone in the analysed rib part. On the basis of ALD activity in the first fattening month it was possible to estimate protein and fat content in the MLD. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Fructose-1,6-biphosphat Aldolase beim Serum Simmentaler Jungbullen. Beziehung zwischen Mastfähigkeit, Muskelmenge und Proteingehalt Aldolase (ALD) Enzymtätigkeit im Serum von Simmentaler Jungbullen wurden in Hinblick auf eine Beziehung mit Mastfähigkeit, Muskelmenge und Proteingehalt untersucht. Es zeigt sich eine Korrelation zwischen früher ALD Aktivität und Schlachtgewicht und Tageszuwachs im Endmastmonat. Regressionsanalyse ergab, daß Jungbullen mit höherer ALD Aktivität bei Mastbeginn mehr Muskelanteil im m. longissimus dorsi und weniger Knochen besitzen. ALD Aktivität im ersten Mastmonat erlaubt Schätzung des Protein- und Fettgehalts im m. long, dorsi. RESUMEN: Fructosa 1,6-bifosfato aldolasa en el suero de los terneros simentales. Relatión con sus capacidades de ser cebados, su cantidad de músculos y el contenido de proteínas Con el fin de establecer la relación entre la actividad de enzimas y las capacidades durante el proceso de la ceba, asf como para precisar si el ALD puede servir como indicador de la cantidad de músculos y el contenido de proteinas, intentaba determinarse la actividad de los enzimas de aldolasa (ALD) en el suero de los terneros simentales. A base de la actividad indicial del ALD, es posible estimar el peso final de matadero y la crecencia

  2. Amino acids augment muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during acute endotoxemia by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Renán A; Jeyapalan, Asumthia; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Nguyen, Hanh V; Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-11-01

    In skeletal muscle of adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis by depressing translation initiation and induces resistance to branched-chain amino acid stimulation. Normal neonates maintain a high basal muscle protein synthesis rate that is sensitive to amino acid stimulation. In the present study, we determined the effect of amino acids on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues in septic neonates. Overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with endotoxin (LPS, 0 and 10 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas glucose and insulin were maintained at fasting levels; amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. In the presence of fasting insulin and amino acids, LPS reduced protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD) and gastrocnemius muscles and increased protein synthesis in the diaphragm, but had no effect in masseter and heart muscles. Increasing amino acids to fed levels accelerated muscle protein synthesis in LD, gastrocnemius, masseter, and diaphragm. LPS stimulated protein synthesis in liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, and kidney in fasted animals. Raising amino acids to fed levels increased protein synthesis in liver of controls, but not LPS-treated animals. The increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to amino acids was associated with increased mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation and eIF4G-eIF4E association in control and LPS-infused animals. These findings suggest that amino acids stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis during acute endotoxemia via mTOR-dependent ribosomal assembly despite reduced basal protein synthesis rates in neonatal pigs. However, provision of amino acids does not further enhance the LPS-induced increase in liver protein synthesis.

  3. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs in developmental skeletal muscle of fetal goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Siyuan; Dong, Yao; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jiazhong; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping

    2016-08-22

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been studied extensively over the past few years. Large numbers of lncRNAs have been identified in mouse, rat, and human, and some of them have been shown to play important roles in muscle development and myogenesis. However, there are few reports on the characterization of lncRNAs covering all the development stages of skeletal muscle in livestock. RNA libraries constructed from developing longissimus dorsi muscle of fetal (45, 60, and 105 days of gestation) and postnatal (3 days after birth) goat (Capra hircus) were sequenced. A total of 1,034,049,894 clean reads were generated. Among them, 3981 lncRNA transcripts corresponding to 2739 lncRNA genes were identified, including 3515 intergenic lncRNAs and 466 anti-sense lncRNAs. Notably, in pairwise comparisons between the libraries of skeletal muscle at the different development stages, a total of 577 transcripts were differentially expressed (P development-related processes, indicating they may be in cis-regulatory relationships. Additionally, Pearson's correlation coefficients of co-expression levels suggested 1737 lncRNAs and 19,422 mRNAs were possibly in trans-regulatory relationships (r > 0.95 or r development-related biological processes such as muscle system processes, regulation of cell growth, muscle cell development, regulation of transcription, and embryonic morphogenesis. This study provides a catalog of goat muscle-related lncRNAs, and will contribute to a fuller understanding of the molecular mechanism underpinning muscle development in mammals.

  4. Elastofibroma dorsi: computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings in two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, A.; Bravo, F.; Garrido, J.; Ortega, R.

    2001-01-01

    The elastofibroma dorse is a benign, nonencapsulated pseudotumor consisting of a proliferation of fibrous tissue and elastic fibers accompanied by fatty tissue. It is usually locate in the scapular region and can be unilateral or bilateral. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings are characteristic and, in the proper clinical context, practically pathognomonic: a fat-containing subcapsular mass with an attenuation coefficient and signal intensity similar to those of the adjacent muscles. We report two new cases of elastofibroma dorsi that fulfilled all the clinical and radiologic criteria, enabling the preoperative diagnosis. (Author) 15 refs

  5. Sonographic findings of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Ok Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Yong, Hwan Seok; Choi, Jae Woong; Kang, Eun Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare soft-tissue tumor of the chest wall and most commonly presents as a nontender mass adjacent to the inferior angle of the scapula. Its findings on CT and MRI generally lead to the diagnosis. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with elastofibroma dorsi presenting with painless back mass. On sonography, it appeared as an ill-defined heterogeneous echogenic mass with internal streaky echostructures in bilateral subscapular regions. Excisional biopsy of the tumor was done and the tumor was confirmed as a bilateral elastofibroma dorsi by histopathologic examination.

  6. Sonographic findings of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Ok Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Yong, Hwan Seok; Choi, Jae Woong; Kang, Eun Young

    2003-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare soft-tissue tumor of the chest wall and most commonly presents as a nontender mass adjacent to the inferior angle of the scapula. Its findings on CT and MRI generally lead to the diagnosis. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with elastofibroma dorsi presenting with painless back mass. On sonography, it appeared as an ill-defined heterogeneous echogenic mass with internal streaky echostructures in bilateral subscapular regions. Excisional biopsy of the tumor was done and the tumor was confirmed as a bilateral elastofibroma dorsi by histopathologic examination.

  7. Enteral β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Michelle; Columbus, Daniel A.; Suryawan, Agus; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Fiorotto, Marta L.

    2016-01-01

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were studied immediately (F) or fed one of five diets for 24 h: low-protein (LP), high-protein (HP), or LP diet supplemented with 4 (HMB4), 40 (HMB40), or 80 (HMB80) μmol HMB·kg body wt−1·day−1. Cell replication was assessed from nuclear incorporation of BrdU in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and jejunum crypt cells. Protein synthesis rates in LD, gastrocnemius, rhomboideus, and diaphragm muscles, lung, and brain were greater in HMB80 and HP and in brain were greater in HMB40 compared with LP and F groups. Formation of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex and S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in LD, gastrocnemius, and rhomboideus muscles were greater in HMB80 and HP than in LP and F groups. Phosphorylation of eIF2α and eEF2 and expression of SNAT2, LAT1, MuRF1, atrogin-1, and LC3-II were unchanged. Numbers of BrdU-positive myonuclei in the LD were greater in HMB80 and HP than in the LP and F groups; there were no differences in jejunum. The results suggest that enteral supplementation with HMB increases skeletal muscle protein anabolism in neonates by stimulation of protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation. PMID:27143558

  8. Acompanhamento das alterações post-mortem (Glicólise no músculo do jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare Post-mortem alterations (Glycolysis of pantanal alligator's (Caiman crocodilus yacare muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Roberto Taboga

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se avaliações químicas, histológicas e medidas de pH ao longo do tempo da degradação do glicogênio no músculo longissumus dorsi do jacaré. A metabolização do glicogênio muscular durou em torno de 50 horas, situando-se o pH muscular inicial entre 6,6 e 6,7 e estabilizando-se, depois de 36 a 48 horas, em torno de 5,5-5,6. Oitenta a 85% do glicogênio inicial foi metabolizado nas primeiras 20-25 horas pós-abate. Histologicamente o teste do PAS revelou, ao longo do tempo de armazenamento refrigerado, um decréscimo dos grânulos de glicogênio.This paper presents a study of glycogen degradation in longissimus dorsi muscle of pantanal alligator. Glycogen concentration and muscle pH measurements were assessed. Glycolysis took about 50 hours to complete. Initial muscle pH value were in the limits of 6.6 and 6.7 and after 36 hours they dropped to 5.5-5.6. On the first 20-25 hours postmortem 80-85% of inicial glycogen was metabolized. Through histologycal PAS test it was observed during cold storage a decrease on the number of glycogen granules. On the first 20-25 hours postmortem 80-85% of inicial glycogen was metabolized.

  9. Pre- and early-postnatal nutrition modify gene and protein expressions of muscle energy metabolism markers and phospholipid Fatty Acid composition in a muscle type specific manner in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key muscle determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD and biceps femoris (BF and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM or 50% (LOW of their energy and protein requirements during the last trimester of gestation. From day-3 postpartum to 6-months of age (around puberty, twin offspring received a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF or a moderate-conventional (CONV diet, whereafter all males were slaughtered. Females were subsequently raised on a moderate diet and slaughtered at 2-years of age (young adults. The only long-term consequences of fetal undernutrition observed in adult offspring were lower expressions of the insulin responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α (PGC1α mRNA in BF, but increased PGC1α expression in VSC. Interestingly, the HCHF diet in early postnatal life was associated with somewhat paradoxically increased expressions in LD of a range of genes (but not proteins related to glucose uptake, insulin signalling and fatty acid oxidation. Except for fatty acid oxidation genes, these changes persisted into adulthood. No persistent expression changes were observed in BF and VSC. The HCHF diet increased phospholipid ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all muscles, even in adults fed identical diets for 1½ years. In conclusion, early postnatal, but not late gestation, nutrition had long-term consequences for a number of determinants of insulin action and metabolism in LD. Tissues other than muscle may account for reduced

  10. The Ash Content of the Main Muscle Groups and Edible Offal Collected From Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The availability of hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, unlike that of domestic rabbits, is restricted by hunting seasons. Rabbit meat, according to research from Spain, is a rich source of K, P, Fe and Mg, but poor in Na, being recommended for people with hypertension. The largest quantity of macro minerals studied in rabbit meat was determined for K and P, and the most abundant micro minerals were Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. In hare meat, ash content is not sufficiently studied. The current low level of knowledge motivated the present study. The aim of this study was to establish the ash content for major muscle groups and edible offal of hares. The biological material used was collected from 49 hares with an average weight of 5.6 kg, at the age of reproductive maturity (adults: 11-12 months. Different muscle groups (the muscles Cervicalis, Intercostalis, Longissimus Dorsi, Psoas major, Triceps Brachi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and the main edible offal (heart, liver, kidney were sampled. The ash was determined by calcination (in Supertherm C311 oven calcination at 5500C. The results obtained were interpreted statistically (arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (s, variance (s2 and coefficient of variation (V% and the statistical significance of differences was tested using the ANOVA Single Factor algorithm (p>0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001. Ash content for the main muscle groups analysed varied from the lowest average values of 1.095% for the Intercostalis muscles, to the highest average values of 1.256%, for Triceps brachii muscles.

  11. Maternal obesity-impaired insulin signaling in sheep and induced lipid accumulation and fibrosis in skeletal muscle of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Ford, Stephen P; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

    2011-07-01

    The prevalence of maternal obesity is increasing rapidly in recent decades. We previously showed that maternal obesity affected skeletal muscle development during the fetal stage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity on the skeletal muscle properties of offspring. Ewes were fed a control diet (100% energy requirement, Con) or an obesogenic diet (150% energy requirement, OB) from 2 mo before pregnancy to weaning. After weaning, the offspring lambs were fed a maintenance diet until 19 mo of age and then ad libitum for 12 wk to measure feed intake. At 22 mo old, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was biopsied. The downstream insulin signaling was lower in OB than Con lambs as shown by reduction in the phosphorylation of protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, and 4-E binding protein 1. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of protein kinase C and insulin receptor substrate 1 was higher in OB compared to Con lambs. More intramuscular adipocytes were observed in OB compared to Con offspring muscle, and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, an adipocyte marker, was also higher, which was consistent with the higher intramuscular triglyceride content. Both fatty acid transport protein 1 and cluster of differentiation 36 (also known as fatty acid translocase) were increased in the OB group. In addition, higher collagen content was also detected in OB compared to Con offspring. In conclusion, our data show that offspring from obese mothers had impaired insulin signaling in muscle compared with control lambs, which correlates with increased intramuscular triglycerides and higher expression of fatty acid transporters. These data clearly show that maternal obesity impairs the function of the skeletal muscle of offspring, supporting the fetal programming of adult metabolic diseases.

  12. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Scott M.; El-Kadi, Samer W.; Suryawan, Agus; Boutry, Claire; Orellana, Renán A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with HMB at 0, 20, 100, or 400 μmol·kg body wt−1·h−1 for 1 h (HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, or HMB 400). Plasma HMB concentrations increased with infusion and were 10, 98, 316, and 1,400 nmol/ml in the HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, and HMB 400 pigs. Protein synthesis rates in the longissimus dorsi (LD), gastrocnemius, soleus, and diaphragm muscles, lung, and spleen were greater in HMB 20 than in HMB 0, and in the LD were greater in HMB 100 than in HMB 0. HMB 400 had no effect on protein synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E·eIF4G complex formation and ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 and 4E-binding protein-1 phosphorylation increased in LD, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles with HMB 20 and HMB 100 and in diaphragm with HMB 20. Phosphorylation of eIF2α and elongation factor 2 and expression of system A transporter (SNAT2), system L transporter (LAT1), muscle RING finger 1 protein (MuRF1), muscle atrophy F-box (atrogin-1), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) were unchanged. Results suggest that supplemental HMB enhances protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates by stimulating translation initiation. PMID:24192287

  13. Elastofibroma dorsi: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases

    OpenAIRE

    KARAGÜLLE, A. Tuba; ERDEN, M.İlhan; ERDEN, Ayşe; KARADAĞ, Demet

    2002-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a pseudotumoral mass of unknown pathogenesis that is usually seen in elderly patients. We report two cases of histologically proven elastofibroma dorsi, each presenting with painful periscapular masses. Magnetic resonance imagingshowed periscapular tumoral mass with low to intermediate signal intensity with interspersed areas of high signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images. After I.V. administration of gadopentate dimeglumine, these lesions demonstrated mild ...

  14. Radiologic findings of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Wan Tae; Cho, Yun Ku; Kim, Yoon Jung [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare, slow-growing, ill defined soft tissue tumor that's typically found between the inferior scapula and chest wall. The characteristic findings on ultrasonography, MRI and CT usually allow the correct diagnosis and so prevent unnecessary surgical procedure. We experienced a case of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi in an 87-year-old man, and we report on this case along with a review of the literature.

  15. Radiologic findings of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Wan Tae; Cho, Yun Ku; Kim, Yoon Jung

    2007-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare, slow-growing, ill defined soft tissue tumor that's typically found between the inferior scapula and chest wall. The characteristic findings on ultrasonography, MRI and CT usually allow the correct diagnosis and so prevent unnecessary surgical procedure. We experienced a case of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi in an 87-year-old man, and we report on this case along with a review of the literature

  16. Seasonal changes in isoform composition of giant proteins of thick and thin filaments and titin (connectin) phosphorylation level in striated muscles of bears (Ursidae, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmov, N N; Vikhlyantsev, I M; Ulanova, A D; Gritsyna, Yu V; Bobylev, A G; Saveljev, A P; Makariushchenko, V V; Maksudov, G Yu; Podlubnaya, Z A

    2015-03-01

    Seasonal changes in the isoform composition of thick and thin filament proteins (titin, myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), nebulin), as well as in the phosphorylation level of titin in striated muscles of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and hibernating Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) were studied. We found that the changes that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in bears during hibernation are not accompanied by a decrease in the content of nebulin and intact titin-1 (T1) isoforms. However, a decrease (2.1-3.4-fold) in the content of T2 fragments of titin was observed in bear skeletal muscles (m. gastrocnemius, m. longissimus dorsi, m. biceps) during hibernation. The content of the stiffer N2B titin isoform was observed to increase relative to the content of its more compliant N2BA isoform in the left ventricles of hibernating bears. At the same time, in spite of the absence of decrease in the total content of T1 in the myocardium of hibernating brown bear, the content of T2 fragments decreased ~1.6-fold. The level of titin phosphorylation only slightly increased in the cardiac muscle of hibernating brown bear. In the skeletal muscles of brown bear, the level of titin phosphorylation did not vary between seasons. However, changes in the composition of MyHCs aimed at increasing the content of slow (I) and decreasing the content of fast (IIa) isoforms of this protein during hibernation of brown bear were detected. Content of MyHCs I and IIa in the skeletal muscles of hibernating Himalayan black bear corresponded to that in the skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bear.

  17. [Analysis of sequelae of the latissimus dorsi flap removal. Report of 44 cases reviewed and tested].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legré, R; Boghossian, V; Servant, J M; Magalon, G; Bureau, H

    1990-01-01

    Since Tanzini, the latissimus dorsi muscle flap has been widely used in plastic surgery. Based on the experience of two plastic surgery units, we decided to try to define the sequelae of this operation. In order to simplify our analysis we only considered free flaps. Out study is based on 42 patients (26 pure muscular flaps and 16 musculo-cutaneous flaps). The sequelae were analysed in terms of aesthetic and functional criteria. The aesthetic sequelae appeared to be minima in the case of pure muscular flaps, but more severe in the case of musculo-cutaneous flaps. Functional sequelae in the shoulder were observed on muscle testing in 30% of cases, although there were no repercussions on sport or work activities. Analysis of spinal posture demonstrated a modification in the frontal plane in 40% of cases although this could not be clearly attributed to the donor site. On the basis of this study, we can conclude that the latissimus dorsi flap retains an important place in the therapeutic arsenal of plastic surgery due to its reliability and its minor cicatricial and functional sequelae at the donor site.

  18. Pedicled Descending Branch Latissimus Dorsi Mini-flap for Repairing Partial Mastectomy Defect: A New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhao Cai, M.D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Volume loss is 1 of the major factors influencing cosmetic outcomes of breast after partial mastectomy (PM, especially for smaller breasts, and therefore, volume replacement is critical for optimizing the final aesthetic outcome. We present a novel technique of raising a pedicled descending branch latissimus dorsi (LD mini-flap for reconstruction of PM defects via an axillary incision. After PM, the LD mini-flap is harvested through the existing axillary incision of the axillary dissection or the sentinel lymph node biopsy. The descending branches of thoracodorsal vessels and nerve are carefully identified and isolated. The transverse branches are protected to maintain muscle innervation and function. The LD muscle is then undermined posteriorly and inferiorly to create a submuscular pocket and a subcutaneous pocket between LD muscle and superficial fascia. Once the submuscular plane is created, the muscle is divided along the muscle fibers from the deep surface including a layer of fat above the muscle. Finally, the LD mini-flap is transferred to the breast defect. Given the limited length and mobility of the LD mini-flap, this approach is best utilized for lateral breast defects. However, for medial defects, the lateral breast tissue is rearranged to reconstruct the medial breast defect, and an LD mini-flap is then used to reconstruct the lateral breast donor site. This technique can therefore be employed to reconstruct all quadrants of the breast and can provide aesthetic outcomes without scars on the back, with minimal dysfunction of LD muscle.

  19. Comparative muscle transcriptome associated with carcass traits of Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Vignato, Bárbara; Coutinho, Luiz L; Cesar, Aline S M; Poleti, Mirele D; Regitano, Luciana C A; Balieiro, Júlio C C

    2017-07-03

    Commercial cuts yield is an important trait for beef production, which affects the final value of the products, but its direct determination is a challenging procedure to be implemented in practice. The measurement of ribeye area (REA) and backfat thickness (BFT) can be used as indirect measures of meat yield. REA and BFT are important traits studied in beef cattle due to their strong implication in technological (carcass yield) and nutritional characteristics of meat products, like the degree of muscularity and total body fat. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the Longissimus dorsi muscle transcriptome of Nellore cattle, associated with REA and BFT, to find differentially expressed (DE) genes, metabolic pathways, and biological processes that may regulate these traits. By comparing the gene expression level between groups with extreme genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV), 101 DE genes for REA and 18 for BFT (false discovery rate, FDR 10%) were identified. Functional enrichment analysis for REA identified two KEGG pathways, MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling pathway and endocytosis pathway, and three biological processes, response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, cellular protein modification process, and macromolecule modification. The MAPK pathway is responsible for fundamental cellular processes, such as growth, differentiation, and hypertrophy. For BFT, 18 biological processes were found to be altered and grouped into 8 clusters of semantically similar terms. The DE genes identified in the biological processes for BFT were ACHE, SRD5A1, RSAD2 and RSPO3. RSAD2 has been previously shown to be associated with lipid droplet content and lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we identified genes, metabolic pathways, and biological processes, involved in differentiation, proliferation, protein turnover, hypertrophy, as well as adipogenesis and lipid biosynthesis related to REA and BFT. These results enlighten some of the molecular processes

  20. Prediction of troponin-T degradation using color image texture features in 10d aged beef longissimus steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Chen, K J; Berg, E P; Newman, D J; Schwartz, C A; Keller, W L; Maddock Carlin, K R

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to use digital color image texture features to predict troponin-T degradation in beef. Image texture features, including 88 gray level co-occurrence texture features, 81 two-dimension fast Fourier transformation texture features, and 48 Gabor wavelet filter texture features, were extracted from color images of beef strip steaks (longissimus dorsi, n = 102) aged for 10d obtained using a digital camera and additional lighting. Steaks were designated degraded or not-degraded based on troponin-T degradation determined on d 3 and d 10 postmortem by immunoblotting. Statistical analysis (STEPWISE regression model) and artificial neural network (support vector machine model, SVM) methods were designed to classify protein degradation. The d 3 and d 10 STEPWISE models were 94% and 86% accurate, respectively, while the d 3 and d 10 SVM models were 63% and 71%, respectively, in predicting protein degradation in aged meat. STEPWISE and SVM models based on image texture features show potential to predict troponin-T degradation in meat. © 2013.

  1. Qualitative-feed-restricted heavy swine: meat quality and morpho-histochemical characteristics of muscle fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Thomaz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of qualitative feed restriction (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% on pork quality and muscle morpho-histochemical characteristics, 60 castrated male swines were used. Ten animals were slaughtered at 89 kg BW. Other 50 pigs were fed experimental diets and slaughtered at 128 kg BW. Qualitative restriction increased pH45, and water holding capacity, and reduced the redness, yellowness and cholesterol concentrations of Longissimus lumborum. Quadratic tendency for oleic acid contents of loin and fiber cross-section area of Multifidus dorsi (P=0.08 were observed, with maximum point at 11-12% of restriction. No effect (P>0.1 on percentage of M. dorsi fibers SO, FG and FOG was found. The meat from 128-kg-BW pig showed numerically higher values for colorness, water losses, and lipid content and lower shear force than 89-kg-BW pigs. Qualitative feed restriction for finishing swines neither affected negatively pork quality nor modified the muscle fiber profile.Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de restrição alimentar qualitative (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% sobre a qualidade da carne e características morfohistoquímicas musculares, sessenta suínos machos castrados foram utilizados. Dez suínos formaram o grupo abatido inicialmente (89 kg PV e outros 50 suínos foram alimentados com as dietas experimentais e foram abatidos aos 128 kg PV. A restrição qualitativa aumentou o pH45, e a capacidade de retenção de água, bem como reduziu a coloração vermelha e amarela, e o teor de colesterol do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Tendência quadrática para conteúdo de ácido oléico do lombo e da área de seção transversal do músculo Multifidus dorsi (P=0.08 foram observada, com ponto de máxima em11-12% de restrição. Não foi encontrado efeito (P>0.1 na porcentagem de fibras SO, FG e FOG no músculo Multifidus. A carne dos animais abatidos aos 128 kg PV apresentou valores numericamente maiores para coloração, perda de

  2. Differences in mitochondrial gene expression profiles, enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain types in yak versus bovine skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y Q; Xu, Y O; Yue, Y; Jin, S Y; Qu, Y; Dong, F; Li, Y P; Zheng, Y C

    2012-08-29

    Hypoxia can affect energy metabolism. We examined gene expression and enzyme activity related to mitochondrial energy metabolism, as well as myosin heavy chain (MyHC) types in yaks (Bos grunniens) living at high altitudes. Real-time quantitative PCR assays indicated that the yak has significantly lower levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) mRNA in the biceps femoris and lower levels of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) mRNA in both biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi than in Yellow cattle. No significant differences between yak and Yellow cattle were observed in the activities of mitochondrial β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in the same muscles. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the MyHC 1 mRNA levels in yak biceps femoris was lower than in Yellow cattle. We conclude that the yak has significantly lower mRNA levels of CPT, UCP3, and MyHC 1 in biceps femoris than in Yellow cattle, suggesting that the yak biceps femoris has lower fatty acid oxidation capacity and greater glycolytic metabolic potential.

  3. Elastofibroma Dorsi'de MRG Bulguları

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞARAN, Ceyla; DÖNMEZ, Fuldem YILDIRIM; ÖZTÜRK, Ahmet; TARHAN, Nefise Çağla

    2014-01-01

    Amaç: Elastofibroma dorsi nadir, benign ve yavaş büyüyen bir yumuşak doku tümörüdür. Bizim çalışmamızın amacı elastofibroma dorsinin MRG bulgularının gösterilmesidir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Elastofibroma dorsi bulunan 7 hastanın MRG bulguları retrospektif olarak değerlendirildi. Hastaların ortalama yaşı 58 (yaş aralığı, 49-75) olup 5 hastada tek taraflı 2 hastada bilateral elastofibroma dorsi bulunuyordu. Tüm hastalar yumuşak doku kitlesi nedeniyle başvurdu. 2 hastada ise ilave olarak ağrı bulunuy...

  4. Elastofibroma dorsi: a forgotten cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Vieira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Elastofibroma dorsi is an uncommon benign tumor, typically located in the subscapularis region. Our goal is to describe the main features of elastofibroma dorsi to increase awareness of its existence and proper management. Material and Methods: We report a case of a 59-year-old woman with bilateral Elastofibroma dorsi and made a brief review of the epidemiological, clinical and radiodiagnostic features of this entity. Results: Imaging features can confidently diagnose this lesion, especially MRI, in addition to physical examination, with no need for biopsy. Conclusions: This entity should be part of the differential diagnosis in patients with chest pain in order to avoid unnecessary medical, radiological or surgical procedures and provide proper management of such lesions.

  5. Elastofibroma Dorsi'de MRG Bulguları

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞARAN, Ceyla; DÖNMEZ, Fuldem YILDIRIM; ÖZTÜRK, Ahmet; TARHAN, Nefise Çağla

    2009-01-01

    Amaç: Elastofibroma dorsi nadir, benign ve yavaş büyüyen bir yumuşak doku tümörüdür. Bizim çalışmamızın amacı elastofibroma dorsinin MRG bulgularının gösterilmesidir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Elastofibroma dorsi bulunan 7 hastanın MRG bulguları retrospektif olarak değerlendirildi. Hastaların ortalama yaşı 58 (yaş aralığı, 49-75) olup 5 hastada tek taraflı 2 hastada bilateral elastofibroma dorsi bulunuyordu. Tüm hastalar yumuşak doku kitlesi nedeniyle başvurdu. 2 hastada ise ilave olarak ağrı bulunuy...

  6. Elastofibroma dorsi: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Vito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi (ED is considered a member of a heterogeneous group of benign fibrous (fibroblastic or myofibroblastic soft-tissue tumors, frequently localized in the periscapular region in middle aged or older individuals. However, the pathogenesis of ED is still unclear and many authors believe that ED results from a reactive hyperproliferation of fibroblastic tissue, while others suggest that it may be a consequence of a mechanical friction. In our study, we examined 11 cases of ED using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, in order to extend the knowledge about extracellular matrix composition and histopathogenesis of ED. From the results it appeared that stroma and interspersed spindle cells of ED were positive for both periostin and tenascin-C. Mast cells tryptase-positive were also abundant throughout the lesion. The perivascular distribution of periostin and tenascin-C, associated with the CD34 positivity, suggest that endothelial-mesenchymal transition events can account for neovascularization and production of fibroelastic tissue characteristic of elastofibroma. Our data obtained in endothelial cells cultures demonstrated that elastin production is higher when the status of confluence of the cells is low. So, we can assume that such a phenomenon is a characteristic of mesenchymal/endothelial cells CD34 positive, in which elastin production results to be inversely proportional to the vascular differentiation of cellular elements. In the light of these considerations, we think that a cancerous nature of ED is unlikely. Overall, our study report, for the first time, a detailed description of extracellular matrix composition in ED, suggesting that a mechanical strain-dependent reactivation of periostin and tenascin-C expression, as well as of elastin deposition, could be responsible for development of ED.

  7. Giant Chest Wall Hematoma Mimicking Elastofibroma Dorsi: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Park, Kuhn; Kim, Jong Ok; Choi, Eun Seok; Kang, Si Won

    2011-01-01

    Hematoma on the thoracic wall is very rare. We describe here a 63-year-old man with a huge chest wall hematoma and the man had no history of trauma. The patient was found to have a large mass located subjacent to the inferior angle of the right scapula area and the CT and MRI findings were similar to those of an elastofibroma dorsi. We describe the CT and MRI findings of this hematoma and how to make the differential diagnosis from elastofibroma dorsi

  8. Giant Chest Wall Hematoma Mimicking Elastofibroma Dorsi: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Park, Kuhn; Kim, Jong Ok; Choi, Eun Seok; Kang, Si Won [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Hematoma on the thoracic wall is very rare. We describe here a 63-year-old man with a huge chest wall hematoma and the man had no history of trauma. The patient was found to have a large mass located subjacent to the inferior angle of the right scapula area and the CT and MRI findings were similar to those of an elastofibroma dorsi. We describe the CT and MRI findings of this hematoma and how to make the differential diagnosis from elastofibroma dorsi

  9. Effects of training distance on feed intake, growth, body condition and muscle glycogen content in young Standardbred horses fed a forage-only diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringmark, S; Revold, T; Jansson, A

    2017-10-01

    This study examined feed intake, growth, body condition, muscle glycogen content and nutrition-related health in 16 Standardbred horses fed a high-energy, forage-only diet ad libitum and allocated to either a control training programme (C-group) or a training programme with the high-intensity training distance reduced by 30% (R-group), from January as 2-year olds until December as 3-year olds. Feed intake was recorded on 10 occasions during 3 consecutive days. Body weight was recorded once in a week and height, body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness and thickness of the m. longissimus dorsi were measured at 7±3-week intervals throughout the study. Muscle biopsies of the m. gluteus medius were taken in December as 2-year olds and in November as 3-year olds and analysed for glycogen content. Nutrition-related health disorders were noted when they occurred. Horses consumed 1.7% to 2.6% dry matter of BW, corresponding to 19 to 28 MJ metabolisable energy/100 kg BW. There were no differences between training groups in feed intake or any of the body measurements. The pooled weekly BCS was maintained between 4.8 and 5.1 (root mean square error (RMSE)=0.4). Muscle glycogen content was 587 and 623 mmol/kg dry weight (RMSE=68) as 2- and 3-year olds, respectively, and there was no difference between training groups. When managed under normal conditions, no nutrition-related health disorders or stereotypic behaviours were observed. It was concluded that the training programme did not affect feed intake, growth, BCS or muscle glycogen content. In addition, the forage-only diet did not appear to prohibit muscle glycogen storage, growth or maintenance of body condition, and seemed to promote good nutrition-related health.

  10. Giant desmoid tumour of the thorax following latissimus dorsi and implant breast reconstruction: case report and review of the literature

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, AM

    2017-03-01

    The case of a giant thoracic desmoid tumour in a 44-year-old woman, who presented two years following a breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and implant, is reported. Clinical findings included a rapidly growing, painless mass. Computed tomography (CT) suggested skin and intercostal soft tissue invasion. The tumour was resected en bloc with the LD muscle, implant capsule and underlying rib segments. The resultant thoracic and abdominal wall defects were reconstructed with Dualmesh® and polypropylene meshes respectively. There was no evidence of recurrence at thirty-six months follow-up.

  11. Elastofibroma dorsi: MRI diagnosis in a young girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, D. [Dept. of Histopathology, Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom); Livesley, P. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom); Shaw, D. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    With indications for computerised imaging expanding, elastofibroma dorsi will probably be seen more frequently. This report describes an elastofibroma presenting in an 11-year-old girl and its appearance by magnetic resonance imaging. Presumptive diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging may prevent unnecessary radical surgery. (orig.)

  12. Elastofibroma dorsi: MRI diagnosis in a young girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, D.; Livesley, P.; Shaw, D.

    1995-01-01

    With indications for computerised imaging expanding, elastofibroma dorsi will probably be seen more frequently. This report describes an elastofibroma presenting in an 11-year-old girl and its appearance by magnetic resonance imaging. Presumptive diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging may prevent unnecessary radical surgery. (orig.)

  13. Elastofibroma Dorsi: CT and MRI appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, Claudio J.; Costamagna, Cecilia L.; Staffieri, Roberto; Villavicencio, Roberto L.; Milatich, Viviana

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the findings of fibroelastomas by CT and MR imaging. Material and Methods: We studied 7 female patients, aged 60 to 75 years. All patients presented a unilateral soft tissue mass in the periscapular region (4 left sided and 3 right sided); one patient developed a contralateral lesion one year later. Four patients had pain and underwent surgical excision of the lesions; 2 patients underwent percutaneous biopsy and the last patient is under clinical and imaging follow-up. Results: The lesions had a tomographic density to muscle, but with the presence of hypodense bands corresponding to adipose tissue. After the administration of IV contrast (5 cases) density remained similar to that of muscle. By MR, in the T1 sequence, the lesions were isointense to muscle and had hyperintense linear areas corresponding to adipose tissue bands. In the FSE T2 sequences, the lesions appeared mildly hyperintense. After the administration of IV gadolinium, the T1 sequence with fat suppression showed marked enhancement of the tumors. There was no involvement of neighboring bony or muscle structures. Conclusion: CT and MRI are useful methods for the detection of periscapular fibroelastomas. (author)

  14. Electromyographic analysis of the vertebral extensor muscles during the Biering-Sorensen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira de Santana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the electromyographic signal of the multifidus, longissimus thoracis and the lumbar iliocostalis muscles during the Biering-Sorensen test in subjects without lower back pain. Twenty volunteers performed the test on three separate occasions. An analysis of variance detected a difference between the three test times (p = 0.0026. For the frequency domain, it was observed that there were differences between the multifidus and the lumbar erectors muscles; longissimus and iliocostalis muscles. However, in the time domain analysis, no difference was observed. As the values of the slope coefficients of median frequencies were higher for the multifidus muscle, compared to the longissimus and lumbar iliocostalis muscles, this may indicate a higher tendency toward muscle fatigue. Therefore, considering the applied methodology, the study of electromyographic signals in the frequency domain should be considered as an instrument to assess fatigue of the spinal extensor muscles in clinical situations.

  15. Maternal nutrient restriction in mid-to-late gestation influences fetal mRNA expression in muscle tissues in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Francois; Wood, Katie M; Swanson, Kendall C; Miller, Stephen P; McBride, Brian W; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn

    2017-08-18

    Manipulating maternal nutrition during specific periods of gestation can result in re-programming of fetal and post-natal development. In this experiment we investigated how a feed restriction of 85% compared with 140% of total metabolizable energy requirements, fed to cows during mid-to-late gestation, influences phenotypic development of fetuses and mRNA expression of growth (Insulin-Like Growth Factor family and Insulin Receptor (INSR)), myogenic (Myogenic Differentiation 1 (MYOD1), Myogenin (MYOG), Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A (MEF2A), Serum Response Factor (SRF)) and adipogenic (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG)) genes in fetal longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST) muscle. DNA methylation of imprinted genes, Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) and Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 Receptor (IGF2R), and micro RNA (miRNA) expression, were also examined as potential consequences of poor maternal nutrition, but also potential regulators of altered gene expression patterns. While the nutrient restriction impacted dam body weight, no differences were observed in phenotypic fetal measurements (weight, crown-rump length, or thorax circumference). Interestingly, LD and ST muscles responded differently to the differential pre-natal nutrient levels. While LD muscle of restricted fetal calves had greater mRNA abundances for Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 and its receptor (IGF1 and IGF1R), IGF2R, INSR, MYOD1, MYOG, and PPARG, no significant differences were observed for gene expression in ST muscle. Similarly, feed restriction had a greater impact on the methylation level of IGF2 Differentially Methylated Region 2 (DMR2) in LD muscle as compared to ST muscle between treatment groups. A negative correlation existed between IGF2 mRNA expression and IGF2 DMR2 methylation level in both LD and ST muscles. Differential expression of miRNAs 1 and 133a were also detected in LD muscle. Our data suggests that a nutrient restriction of 85% as compared to 140

  16. Breast reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi flap after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højvig, Jens B; Bonde, Christian Torsten

    2015-01-01

    of 13 patients (10%) had local complications and were re-operated within the first 30 days. We observed one flap loss and only one systemic complication; a urinary tract infection. In all, 38 patients (28%) received antibiotic treatment after the operations and 27 (20%) developed a seroma at the donor...... of the clinical pathway and post-operative regimen could be future focus-points for this procedure. FUNDING: The review was performed as part of the pre-graduate research year project, "Donor-site morbidity after m. latissimus dorsi reconstruction", funded by Concordiafonden. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.......INTRODUCTION: The latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap has long been regarded as the second choice flap for autologous breast reconstruction following a mastectomy in our department. Despite uncertainty about donor-site morbidity, it is regarded as a relatively safe procedure; moreover...

  17. FDG-PET/CT imaging of elastofibroma dorsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yumiko; Maeda, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Kayo; Senda, Michio; Sakamoto, Setsu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess retrospectively the characteristics of FDG uptake in elastofibroma dorsi using integrated PET/CT. From 10,261 oncology FDG-PET/CT scans performed over a 2-year period, findings suggestive of elastofiboma dorsi were observed in 46 FDG-PET/CT scans of 34 patients. As 20 patients had bilateral lesions and 14 had unilateral lesions, a total of 75 elastofibroma dorsi lesions on images were identified in this study. For visual analysis of intensity of FDG uptake, a four-point grading system was used: grade 0 for no uptake, grade 1 for less uptake than the liver, grade 2 for uptake comparable to the liver, and grade 3 for intense uptake greater than the liver. For quantitative analysis, the standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated. The relationships between SUV and age, blood glucose level, lesion size, and related symptoms were also assessed. Among the 75 lesions, 4 had an uptake grade of 0, 41 had grade 1, 25 had grade 2, and 5 had grade 3. The mean SUV (±SD) of the 75 lesions was 2.0 ± 0.63 (range 0-5.1). The Pearson correlation coefficient test indicated a weak positive correlation between SUV and lesion size and no correlation between SUV and either age or blood glucose level. The SUVs of patients with symptoms due to the disease and patients without symptoms were almost the same. Mild and moderate uptake of FDG is frequently observed in elastofibroma dorsi, which should not be misinterpreted as abnormal accumulation observed in malignant lesions. (orig.)

  18. FDG-PET/CT imaging of elastofibroma dorsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yumiko; Maeda, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Kayo [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Department of PET Diagnosis, Kobe (Japan); Senda, Michio [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Department of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Dokkyo Medical University Hospital, Department of PET Center, Mibu (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess retrospectively the characteristics of FDG uptake in elastofibroma dorsi using integrated PET/CT. From 10,261 oncology FDG-PET/CT scans performed over a 2-year period, findings suggestive of elastofiboma dorsi were observed in 46 FDG-PET/CT scans of 34 patients. As 20 patients had bilateral lesions and 14 had unilateral lesions, a total of 75 elastofibroma dorsi lesions on images were identified in this study. For visual analysis of intensity of FDG uptake, a four-point grading system was used: grade 0 for no uptake, grade 1 for less uptake than the liver, grade 2 for uptake comparable to the liver, and grade 3 for intense uptake greater than the liver. For quantitative analysis, the standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated. The relationships between SUV and age, blood glucose level, lesion size, and related symptoms were also assessed. Among the 75 lesions, 4 had an uptake grade of 0, 41 had grade 1, 25 had grade 2, and 5 had grade 3. The mean SUV ({+-}SD) of the 75 lesions was 2.0 {+-} 0.63 (range 0-5.1). The Pearson correlation coefficient test indicated a weak positive correlation between SUV and lesion size and no correlation between SUV and either age or blood glucose level. The SUVs of patients with symptoms due to the disease and patients without symptoms were almost the same. Mild and moderate uptake of FDG is frequently observed in elastofibroma dorsi, which should not be misinterpreted as abnormal accumulation observed in malignant lesions. (orig.)

  19. Effect of animal mixing as a stressor on biomarkers of autophagy and oxidative stress during pig muscle maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-González, A; Potes, Y; Illán-Rodríguez, D; Vega-Naredo, I; Sierra, V; Caballero, B; Fàbrega, E; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Oliván, M; Coto-Montes, A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the postmortem evolution of potential biomarkers of autophagy (Beclin 1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) and oxidative stress (total antioxidant activity, TAA; superoxide dismutase activity, SOD and catalase activity, CAT) in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of entire male ((Large White×Landrace)×Duroc) pigs subjected to different management treatments that may promote stress, such as mixing unfamiliar animals at the farm and/or during transport and lairage before slaughter. During the rearing period at the farm, five animals were never mixed after the initial formation of the experimental groups (unmixed group at the farm, UF), whereas 10 animals were subjected to a common routine of being mixed with unfamiliar animals (mixed group at the farm, MF). Furthermore, two different treatments were used during the transport and lairage before slaughter: 10 pigs were not mixed (unmixed group during transport and lairage, UTL), whereas five pigs were mixed with unfamiliar animals on the lorry and during lairage (mixed group during transport and lairage, MTL). These mixing treatments were then combined into three pre-slaughter treatments - namely, UF-UTL, MF-UTL and MF-MTL. The results show that MF-UTL and MF-MTL increased significantly the muscle antioxidant defense (TAA, SOD and CAT) at short postmortem times (4 and 8 h; Panimals, both at the farm and during transport and lairage, triggers postmortem muscle autophagy, which showed an earlier activation (higher expression of Beclin 1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio at 4 h postmortem followed by a decreasing pattern of this ratio along first 24 h postmortem) in the muscle tissues of animals from the MF-UTL and MF-MTL groups, as an adaptive strategy of the muscle cells for counteracting induced stress. From these results, we propose that monitoring the evolution of the main biomarkers of autophagy (Beclin 1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) and muscle antioxidant defense (TAA, SOD, CAT) in the muscle tissue within the

  20. Phylogenetic patterns and correlation of key structures for jumping: bone crests and cross-sectional areas of muscles in Leptodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponssa, María Laura; Fratani, Jéssica; Abdala, Virginia

    2018-05-01

    Anurans are characterized by their saltatory mode of locomotion, which is associated with a specific morphology. The coordinated action of the muscles and bones of the pelvic girdle is key to the transmission of the force of the hindlimbs to the axial skeleton during jumping. Two features are critical for optimal locomotory performance: the cross-sectional area of muscle and the bone crest attachment sites. The first character is a proxy of the force exerted by the muscle, whereas the crests are muscle attachments sites related to muscle force. The provisory relationship between these features has previously been identified and bone crest size can be used to infer the magnitude and, therefore, muscle force in fossils records. In this work, we explore the correlation between the cross-sectional area of essential muscles to the jumping mechanism (longissimus dorsi, extensor iliotibialis B, tenuissimus, puboischiofemoralis internus B, coccygeo-sacralis and coccygeo-iliacus) and the bone crests where these muscles are inserted (dorsal tubercle, dorsal crest and urostylar crest) in species of the genus Leptodactylus. This genus, along with other leptodactylids, exhibits a diversity of locomotor modes, including jumping, hopping, swimming and burrowing. We therefore analyzed the morphometric variation in the two features, cross-sectional area and bone crest area, expecting a correlation with different locomotor types. Our results showed: (i) a correlation between the urostylar crest and the cross-sectional area of the related muscles; (ii) that the bone crest surface area of urostyle and ilium and the cross-sectional area of the corresponding muscles can be utilized to infer locomotor faculties in leptodactylid frogs; and (iii) that the evolution of both characters demonstrates a general tendency from lower values in leptodactylid ancestors to higher values in the Leptodactylus genus. The results attest to the importance of the comparison of current ecological and

  1. Glutamate alleviates muscle protein loss by modulating TLR4, NODs, Akt/FOXO and mTOR signaling pathways in LPS-challenged piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Kang

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of the glutamate (Glu on muscle protein loss through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs, Akt/Forkhead Box O (Akt/FOXO and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathways in LPS-challenged piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned into four treatments: (1 Control; (2 LPS+0% Glu; (3 LPS + 1.0% Glu; (4 LPS + 2.0% Glu. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. On d 28, the piglets in the LPS challenged groups were injected with LPS on 100 μg/kg body weight (BW, and the piglets in the control group were injected with the same volume of 0.9% NaCl solution. After 4 h LPS or saline injection, the piglets were slaughtered and the muscle samples were collected. Glu supplementation increased the protein/DNA ratio in gastrocnemius muscle, and the protein content in longissimus dorsi (LD muscle after LPS challenge (P<0.05. In addition, Glu supplementation decreased TLR4, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK 1, receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase (RIPK 2, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB mRNA expression in gastrocnemius muscle (P<0.05, MyD88 mRNA expression in LD muscle, and FOXO1 mRNA expression in LD muscle (P<0.05. Moreover, Glu supplementation increased p-Akt/t-Akt ratio (P<0.05 in gastrocnemius muscle, and p-4EBP1/t-4EBP1 ratio in both gastrocnemius and LD muscles (P<0.05. Glu supplementation in the piglets' diets might be an effective strategy to alleviate LPS-induced muscle protein loss, which might be due to suppressing the mRNA expression of TLR4 and NODs signaling-related genes, and modulating Akt/FOXO and mTOR signaling pathways.

  2. Variation in bull beef quality due to ultimate muscle pH is correlated to endopeptidase and small heat shock protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Dobbie, P; Fraga Vazquez, S; Fraser-Smith, E; Frost, D A; Morris, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study set out to determine if ultimate pH (pH(u)) affected the performance of intracellular small heat shock protein and endopeptidase dynamics in muscle during beef ageing. Longissimus dorsi muscles from 39 Angus or Limousin×Angus bulls were examined to see if pH(u) achieved at 22h post mortem (rigor) affected tenderness and water holding capacity of beef. Samples were segregated into three pH(u) groups termed high (pH>6.3), intermediate (5.7pHpHpH(u) beef. More than 30% of bull beef did not achieve acceptable tenderness at 8 days post mortem with this ageing regime. No significant differences in calpain or cathepsin enzyme levels due to meat pH were observed until after 22h post mortem, but low pH(u) beef had elevated caspase 3/7 activity soon after slaughter. At 22h post mortem, greater levels of μ-calpain enzyme were found in the high and intermediate pH(u) beef and cathepsin B levels were superior in the low pH(u) beef after 2 days post mortem. Different rates of desmin and troponin T protein degradation were also observed in aged bull beef. Both proteins were degraded within 6h post mortem for high pH(u) beef, but took >3 days post mortem for intermediate pH(u) beef. High levels of alpha β-crystallin (aβC) at 22h post mortem coincided with delayed muscle protein degradation for low pH(u) beef. Our results support the hypothesis that aβC shields myofibrils and buffers against endopeptidase degradation of beef structure during ageing.

  3. Function of the epaxial muscles during trotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Nadja; Carrier, David R

    2009-04-01

    In mammals, the epaxial muscles are believed to stabilize the trunk during walking and trotting because the timing of their activity is not appropriate to produce bending of the trunk. To test whether this is indeed the case, we recorded the activity of the m. multifidus lumborum and the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum at three different sites along the trunk (T13, L3, L6) as we manipulated the moments acting on the trunk and the pelvis in dogs trotting on a treadmill. Confirming results of previous studies, both muscles exhibited a biphasic and bilateral activity. The higher burst was associated with the second half of ipsilateral hindlimb stance phase, the smaller burst occurred during the second half of ipsilateral hindlimb swing phase. The asymmetry was noticeably larger in the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum than in the m. multifidus lumborum. Although our manipulations of the inertia of the trunk produced results that are consistent with previous studies indicating that the epaxial muscles stabilize the trunk against accelerations in the sagittal plane, the responses of the epaxial muscles to manipulations of trunk inertia were small compared with their responses when moments produced by the extrinsic muscles of the hindlimb were manipulated. Our results indicate that the multifidus and longissimus muscles primarily stabilize the pelvis against (1) vertical components of hindlimb retractor muscles and (2) horizontal components of the hindlimb protractor and retractor muscles. Consistent with this, stronger effects of the manipulations were observed in the posterior sampling sites.

  4. Influence of supplemental vitamin C on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus thoracis of steers fed varying concentrations of dietary sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplemental vitamin C (VC) on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of cattle receiving varying concentrations of dietary sulfur (S). A longissimus muscle was collected from 120 Angus-cross steers assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial, evaluating three concentrations of dietary S (0.22, 0.34, and 0.55%) and two concentrations of supplemental VC (0 or 10 g h(-1)d(-1)). Increasing dietary S and VC supplementation (Pdegradation (P = 0.07) and protein carbonylation (Pdegradation. © 2013.

  5. Latissimus dorsi volteado para reconstrucción de carcinoma basocelular gigante en un paciente anciano Latissimus dorsi turn over flap for giant basal cell carcinoma reconstruction in elderly patient

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    J. Balaguer-Cambra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Los carcinomas basocelulares son tumores cutáneos de crecimiento lento aunque pueden llegar a tener un gran tamaño a lo largo de los años si el entorno socioeconómico y asistencial del paciente es pobre, como sucede en el caso que presentamos, en el que la lesión ulcerada en la línea media de la espalda llegó a medir 21 x 13 cm de diámetro. El colgajo de Latissimus Dorsi permite gracias a sus dos pedículos y a ser pivotado, una posibilidad reconstructiva en el caso de pacientes ancianos, evitando el uso de colgajos libres.Basal cell carcinoma are well known as slow local growth cutaneous tumors that can enlarge through years in low socioeconomic and poor health assistance environments, as in the case that we present, with a 21 x 13 cm ulcerated lesion located over back midline. The Latissimus Dorsi muscle flap offers a reliable reconstruction in elderly patients avoiding the use of free flaps. This flap, because of its two different pedicles, can be used to reach defects in opposite directions.

  6. A gene network switch enhances the oxidative capacity of ovine skeletal muscle during late fetal development

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    Bidwell Christopher A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developmental transition between the late fetus and a newborn animal is associated with profound changes in skeletal muscle function as it adapts to the new physiological demands of locomotion and postural support against gravity. The mechanisms underpinning this adaption process are unclear but are likely to be initiated by changes in hormone levels. We tested the hypothesis that this developmental transition is associated with large coordinated changes in the transcription of skeletal muscle genes. Results Using an ovine model, transcriptional profiling was performed on Longissimus dorsi skeletal muscle taken at three fetal developmental time points (80, 100 and 120 d of fetal development and two postnatal time points, one approximately 3 days postpartum and a second at 3 months of age. The developmental time course was dominated by large changes in expression of 2,471 genes during the interval between late fetal development (120 d fetal development and 1-3 days postpartum. Analysis of the functions of genes that were uniquely up-regulated in this interval showed strong enrichment for oxidative metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle indicating enhanced mitochondrial activity. Histological examination of tissues from these developmental time points directly confirmed a marked increase in mitochondrial activity between the late fetal and early postnatal samples. The promoters of genes that were up-regulated during this fetal to neonatal transition were enriched for estrogen receptor 1 and estrogen related receptor alpha cis-regulatory motifs. The genes down-regulated during this interval highlighted de-emphasis of an array of functions including Wnt signaling, cell adhesion and differentiation. There were also changes in gene expression prior to this late fetal - postnatal transition and between the two postnatal time points. The former genes were enriched for functions involving the extracellular matrix and immune

  7. The Impact of Muscle Disuse on Muscle Atrophy in Severely Burned Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    fascia around the opened wound were retracted to make a reservoir to hold warm mineral oil to maintain the temperature between 36.5°C to 37.5°C monitored...EDL) as the representative fast-twitch muscle. The EDL is a dorsi flexor, while the PL is a planter flexor. It is possible, as with HLU, plantar

  8. Evaluation of the combined effect of the irradiation process and packaging in different atmospheres on microbiological and sensory quality of beef (Longissimus dorsi) fresh chilled and frozen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Maria Luz Garcia

    2001-01-01

    Meat, a nutritious food, allows the development of a wide variety of microorganisms which not only spoils it but offers risk to public health. Irradiation with medium doses can be efficiently use to control the presence of microorganisms in meat. Depending upon the dose, irradiation of meat can lead to formation of off-flavours, off odours and discoloration of meat packed with oxygen. These problems can probably be overcome using vacuum package or freezing temperatures. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of irradiation, vacuum packaging and temperature on the meat quality. Forty beef pieces (approx. 100g each) were packed under normal atmosphere, 40 were vacuum packed and 40 under N 2 atmosphere. Half of each group was kept overnight under refrigeration and half was frozen. Refrigerated samples were irradiated with 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kGy. Frozen samples were irradiated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy. Number of microorganisms was significantly reduced (p 3 CFU/g in control samples and remained the same during all study and was detected only in refrigerated irradiated samples. Lactic acid bacteria were less affected by irradiation. Bacterial spores were found in both control and irradiated samples in low numbers (1-67 spores/g). Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were not detected. The best combination of treatments to extend the shelf-life of refrigerated meat was vacuum packaging and an irradiation dose of 2 kGy. Nitrogen did not improve the color of irradiated meat. Refrigerated irradiated aerobically packaged meat was darker and less red than control samples. Frozen irradiated aerobically packaged meat was less red and lightener. The effectiveness of food irradiation is based on good quality of raw product. (author)

  9. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (Prelated AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05) than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05). There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05) the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but repressed (P<0.05) the level for p70S6K in Landrace pigs. The higher protein-NRC diet increased ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR in

  10. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper......-105A degrees) at a speed of approximately 120A degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder...... trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows...

  11. Influence of genotype on contractile protein differentiation in different bovine muscles during foetal life

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnière , Hélène; Ménissier , François; Geay , Yves; Picard , Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this work was to compare muscle fibre differentiation in two genetic types: "normal charolais" and double-muscled (DM) "INRA 95" cattles displaying muscle hypertrophy. Six muscles with different contractile and metabolic characteristics in adult animal: Masseter, Diaphragma (Di), Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus thoracis, Semitendinosus and Cutaneus trunci (CT) were excised from 60 to 260-day-old fœtuses of both genotypes. These muscles present different...

  12. Two-Stage Latissimus Dorsi Flap with Implant for Unilateral Breast Reconstruction: Getting the Size Right

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    Jiajun Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of unilateral breast reconstruction after mastectomy is to craft a natural-looking breast with symmetry. The latissimus dorsi (LD flap with implant is an established technique for this purpose. However, it is challenging to obtain adequate volume and satisfactory aesthetic results using a one-stage operation when considering factors such as muscle atrophy, wound dehiscence and excessive scarring. The two-stage reconstruction addresses these difficulties by using a tissue expander to gradually enlarge the skin pocket which eventually holds an appropriately sized implant.MethodsWe analyzed nine patients who underwent unilateral two-stage LD reconstruction. In the first stage, an expander was placed along with the LD flap to reconstruct the mastectomy defect, followed by gradual tissue expansion to achieve overexpansion of the skin pocket. The final implant volume was determined by measuring the residual expander volume after aspirating the excess saline. Finally, the expander was replaced with the chosen implant.ResultsThe average volume of tissue expansion was 460 mL. The resultant expansion allowed an implant ranging in volume from 255 to 420 mL to be placed alongside the LD muscle. Seven patients scored less than six on the relative breast retraction assessment formula for breast symmetry, indicating excellent breast symmetry. The remaining two patients scored between six and eight, indicating good symmetry.ConclusionsThis approach allows the size of the eventual implant to be estimated after the skin pocket has healed completely and the LD muscle has undergone natural atrophy. Optimal reconstruction results were achieved using this approach.

  13. Elastofibroma dorsi: computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings in two cases; Elastofibroma dorsal: hallazgos en TC y RM. A proposito de dos casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, A.; Bravo, F.; Garrido, J.; Ortega, R. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The elastofibroma dorse is a benign, nonencapsulated pseudotumor consisting of a proliferation of fibrous tissue and elastic fibers accompanied by fatty tissue. It is usually locate in the scapular region and can be unilateral or bilateral. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings are characteristic and, in the proper clinical context, practically pathognomonic: a fat-containing subcapsular mass with an attenuation coefficient and signal intensity similar to those of the adjacent muscles. We report two new cases of elastofibroma dorsi that fulfilled all the clinical and radiologic criteria, enabling the preoperative diagnosis. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. Surface EMG electrodes do not accurately record from lumbar multifidus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Ian A F; Henry, Sharon M; Single, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether electromyographic signals recorded from the skin surface overlying the multifidus muscles could be used to quantify their activity. Comparison of electromyography signals recorded from electrodes on the back surface and from wire electrodes within four different slips of multifidus muscles of three human subjects performing isometric tasks that loaded the trunk from three different directions. It has been suggested that suitably placed surface electrodes can be used to record activity in the deep multifidus muscles. We tested whether there was a stronger correlation and more consistent regression relationship between signals from electrodes overlying multifidus and longissimus muscles respectively than between signals from within multifidus and from the skin surface electrodes over multifidus. The findings provided consistent evidence that the surface electrodes placed over multifidus muscles were more sensitive to the adjacent longissimus muscles than to the underlying multifidus muscles. The R(2) for surface versus intra-muscular comparisons was 0.64, while the average R(2) for surface-multifidus versus surface-longissimus comparisons was 0.80. Also, the magnitude of the regression coefficients was less variable between different tasks for the longissimus versus surface multifidus comparisons. Accurate measurement of multifidus muscle activity requires intra-muscular electrodes. Electromyography is the accepted technique to document the level of muscular activation, but its specificity to particular muscles depends on correct electrode placement. For multifidus, intra-muscular electrodes are required.

  15. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; McCabe, Matthew S; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1), following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2) or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1) in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  16. Differential Expression of , , and Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN, and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM, which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR. The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05 in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

  17. Characterization and functional inferences of a genome-wide DNA methylation profile in the loin ( muscle of swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woonsu Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective DNA methylation plays a major role in regulating the expression of genes related to traits of economic interest (e.g., weight gain in livestock animals. This study characterized and investigated the functional inferences of genome-wide DNA methylome in the loin (longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM of swine. Methods A total of 8.99 Gb methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequence data were obtained from LDM samples of eight Duroc pigs (four pairs of littermates. The reference pig genome was annotated with 78.5% of the raw reads. A total of 33,506 putative methylated regions (PMR were identified from methylated regions that overlapped at least two samples. Results Of these, only 3.1% were commonly observed in all eight samples. DNA methylation patterns between two littermates were as diverse as between unrelated individuals (p = 0.47, indicating that maternal genetic effects have little influence on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM. The highest density of PMR was observed on chromosome 10. A major proportion (47.7% of PMR was present in the repeat regions, followed by introns (21.5%. The highest conservation of PMR was found in CpG islands (12.1%. These results show an important role for DNA methylation in species- and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. PMR were also significantly related to muscular cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism. Conclusion This study indicated the biased distribution and functional role of DNA methylation in gene expression of porcine LDM. DNA methylation was related to cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism (e.g., insulin signaling pathways. Nutritional and environmental management may have a significant impact on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM.

  18. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG, an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1, following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2 or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1 in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  19. Clinical characteristics of elastofibroma dorsi incidentally detected on FDG-PET/CT for a thoracic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Hidenori; Higa, Noboru; Yohena, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    When elastofibroma dorsi with FDG accumulation is found by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in patients with a malignant tumor, its differentiation from a metastasis seems to be a difficult and critical problem. As there are few reports on FDG-PET for elastofibroma dorsi, we reviewed those cases of elastofibroma dorsi which were incidentally discovered on FDG-PET/CT. We retrospectively reviewed 306 patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of a lung or mediastinal tumor, and in whom elastofibroma dorsi was detected, and analyzed their clinical characteristics. Elastofibroma dorsi was detected in 16 of the 306 cases (5.2%); 10 of whom were women and 6 were men. Age ranged from 55 to 82 years, with an average of 71.6 years. Woman were predominant among the patients with elastofibroma dorsi, compared with patients without a tumor (p=0.0177). Elderly patients were also predominant among the patients with elastofibroma dorsi, compared with patients without a tumor, but the difference was not significant (p=0.0587). The accumulation of FDG was observed in 8 of the 16 cases (15 of 31 tumors). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) ranged from 2.0 to 2.9, with an average of 2.3, among those cases in which the SUVmax was evaluated. Although elastofibroma is rare, it is important for physicians to know that some elastofibromas exhibit FDG accumulation on PET. This knowledge may help to prevent unnecessary biopsies or surgical interventions, and also prevent excessive anxiety in patients with elastofibroma dorsi. (author)

  20. The axillary approach to raising the latissimus dorsi free flap for facial re-animation: a descriptive surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckenby, Jonathan; Butler, Daniel; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap is popular due to the versatile nature of its applications. When used as a pedicled flap it provides a robust solution when soft tissue coverage is required following breast, thoracic and head and neck surgery. Its utilization as a free flap is extensive due to the muscle's size, constant anatomy, large caliber of the pedicle and the fact it can be used for functional muscle transfers. In facial palsy it provides the surgeon with a long neurovascular pedicle that is invaluable in situations where commonly used facial vessels are not available, in congenital cases or where previous free functional muscle transfers have been attempted, or patients where a one-stage procedure is indicated and a long nerve is required to reach the contra-lateral side. Although some facial palsy surgeons use the trans-axillary approach, an operative guide of raising the flap by this method has not been provided. A clear guide of raising the flap with the patient in the supine position is described in detail and offers the benefits of reducing the risk of potential brachial plexus injury and allows two surgical teams to work synchronously to reduce operative time.

  1. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using latissimus dorsi muscle was previously used to compensate for congestive heart failure. Now, however, this method is not acceptable because the long-term result was not as expected owing to fatigue of the skeletal muscle. BioMetal fiber developed by Toki Corporation is one of the artificial muscles activated by electric current. The behavior of this fiber is similar to that of organic muscle. We made an artificial muscle like the latissimus dorsi using BioMetal fiber and tested whether we could use this new muscle as a cardiac supporting device. Testing one Biometal fiber showed the following performance: practical use maximal generative force was 30 g, exercise variation was 50%, and the standard driving current was 220 mA. We created a 4 x 12-cm tabular artificial muscle using 8 BioMetal fibers as a cardiac support device. We also made a simulation circuit composed of a 6 x 8-cm soft bag with unidirectional valves, reservoir, and connecting tube. The simulation circuit was filled with water and the soft bag was wrapped with the artificial muscle device. After powering the device electrically at 9 V with a current of 220 mA for each fiber, we measured the inside pressure and observed the movement of the artificial device. The artificial muscle contracted in 0.5 s for peak time and squeezed the soft bag. The peak pressure inside the soft bag was measured as 10 mmHg. Although further work will be needed to enhance the speed of deformability and movement simulating contraction, we conclude that artificial muscle may be potentially useful as a cardiac assistance device that can be developed for dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

  2. Excess glycogen does not resolve high ultimate pH of oxidative muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Oliver, Emily M; Apaoblaza, Ariel; Scheffler, Tracy L; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen content can impact the extent of postmortem pH decline. Compared to glycolytic muscles, oxidative muscles contain lower glycogen levels antemortem which may contribute to the higher ultimate pH. In an effort to explore further the participation of glycogen in postmortem metabolism, we postulated that increasing the availability of glycogen would drive additional pH decline in oxidative muscles to equivalent pH values similar to the ultimate pH of glycolytic muscles. Glycolysis and pH declines were compared in porcine longissimus lumborum (glycolytic) and masseter (oxidative) muscles using an in vitro system in the presence of excess glycogen. The ultimate pH of the system containing longissimus lumborum reached a value similar to that observed in intact muscle. The pH decline of the system containing masseter samples stopped prematurely resulting in a higher ultimate pH which was similar to that of intact masseter muscle. To investigate further, we titrated powdered longissimus lumborum and masseter samples in the reaction buffer. As the percentage of glycolytic sample increased, the ultimate pH decreased. These data show that oxidative muscle produces meat with a high ultimate pH regardless of glycogen content and suggest that inherent muscle factors associated with glycolytic muscle control the extent of pH decline in pig muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Dietary Restriction on the Expression of Lipid Metabolism and Growth Hormone Signaling Genes in the Muscle of Korean Cattle Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of dietary restriction on growth and the expression of lipid metabolism and growth hormone signaling genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM of Korean cattle. Thirty-one Korean cattle steers (average age 10.5 months were allocated to normal (N; n = 16 or dietary restriction (DR; n = 15 groups. The feeding trial consisted of two stages: for the 8-month growing period, the DR group was fed 80% of the food intake of the normal diet, and for the 6-month growth-finishing period, the DR group was fed a DR total mixed ration with 78.4% of the crude protein and 64% of the net energy for gain of the normal diet. The LM was biopsied 5 months (period 1 [P1] at 15.5 months of age and 14 months (period 2 [P2] at 24.5 months of age after the start of feeding. The mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Body weight, daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency were lower in the DR group compared with the normal group at both P1 and P2. At P1, the lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FASN mRNA levels were lower (p<0.05 in the DR group compared with the normal group. The DR group tended (p = 0.06 to have higher of levels of growth hormone receptor (GHR mRNA than the normal group. At P2, the DR group tended to have lower (p = 0.06 androgen receptor (AR mRNA levels than the normal group. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that dietary restriction partially decreases the transcription of lipogenic FASN and growth hormone signaling AR genes, but increases transcription of the GHR gene. These changes in gene transcription might affect body fat accumulation and the growth of the animals.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Liangshan Pig Muscle Development at the Growth Curve Inflection Point and Asymptotic Stages Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingjing; Liu, Chendong; Wu, Xiaoqian; Pu, Qiang; Fu, Yuhua; Tang, Qianzi; Liu, Yuanrui; Li, Qiang; Yang, Runlin; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Mingzhou; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Animal growth curves can provide essential information for animal breeders to optimize feeding and management strategies. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the phenotypic differentiation between the inflection point and asymptotic stages of the growth curve is not well characterized. Here, we employed Liangshan pigs in stages of growth at the inflection point (under inflection point: UIP) and the two asymptotic stages (before the inflection point: BIP, after the inflection point: AIP) as models to survey global gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle using digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling. We found Liangshan pigs reached maximum growth rate (UIP) at 163.6 days of age and a weight of 134.6 kg. The DGE libraries generated 117 million reads of 5.89 gigabases in length. 21,331, 20,996 and 20,139 expressed transcripts were identified BIP, UIP and AIP, respectively. Among them, we identified 757 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BIP and UIP, and 271 DEGs between AIP and UIP. An enrichment analysis of DEGs proved the immune system was strengthened in the AIP stage. Energy metabolism rate, global transcriptional activity and bone development intensity were highest UIP. Meat from Liangshan pigs had the highest intramuscular fat content and most favorable fatty acid composition in the AIP. Three hundred eighty (27.70%) specific expression genes were highly enriched in QTL regions for growth and meat quality traits. This study completed a comprehensive analysis of diverse genetic mechanisms underlying the inflection point and asymptotic stages of growth. Our findings will serve as an important resource in the understanding of animal growth and development in indigenous pig breeds. PMID:26292092

  5. Evaluation of the combined effect of the irradiation process and packaging in different atmospheres on microbiological and sensory quality of beef (Longissimus dorsi) fresh chilled and frozen; Avaliacao do efeito combinado do processo de irradiacao e da embalagem em diferentes atmosferas na qualidade microbiologica e sensorial de carne bovina (Longissimus dorsi) fresca refrigerada e congelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Maria Luz Garcia

    2001-07-01

    Meat, a nutritious food, allows the development of a wide variety of microorganisms which not only spoils it but offers risk to public health. Irradiation with medium doses can be efficiently use to control the presence of microorganisms in meat. Depending upon the dose, irradiation of meat can lead to formation of off-flavours, off odours and discoloration of meat packed with oxygen. These problems can probably be overcome using vacuum package or freezing temperatures. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of irradiation, vacuum packaging and temperature on the meat quality. Forty beef pieces (approx. 100g each) were packed under normal atmosphere, 40 were vacuum packed and 40 under N{sub 2} atmosphere. Half of each group was kept overnight under refrigeration and half was frozen. Refrigerated samples were irradiated with 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kGy. Frozen samples were irradiated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy. Number of microorganisms was significantly reduced (p<0.05) by de process. The temperature effect on the radioresistance of all microorganisms was not observed. Brochothrix thermosphacta was present in numbers of 10{sup 3} CFU/g in control samples and remained the same during all study and was detected only in refrigerated irradiated samples. Lactic acid bacteria were less affected by irradiation. Bacterial spores were found in both control and irradiated samples in low numbers (1-67 spores/g). Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were not detected. The best combination of treatments to extend the shelf-life of refrigerated meat was vacuum packaging and an irradiation dose of 2 kGy. Nitrogen did not improve the color of irradiated meat. Refrigerated irradiated aerobically packaged meat was darker and less red than control samples. Frozen irradiated aerobically packaged meat was less red and lightener. The effectiveness of food irradiation is based on good quality of raw product. (author)

  6. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of M. longissimus of free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... Abstract. This study investigated the effects of different feeding systems (free-range versus conventional rearing) on carcass characteristics, chemical composition, fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of Mangalitsa pigs.

  7. Intravenous maternal -arginine administration to twin-bearing ewes, during late pregnancy, is associated with increased fetal muscle mTOR abundance and postnatal growth in twin female lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, F; Sciascia, Q; van der Linden, D S; Wards, N J; Oliver, M H; McCoard, S A

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether parenteral Arg administered to well-fed twin-bearing ewes from 100 to 140 d of pregnancy influences fetal skeletal muscle growth, the abundance and activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein, and postnatal muscle growth of the offspring. Ewes fed 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements for twin-bearing ewes were administered an intravenous bolus of either 345 μmol Arg HCl/kg BW or saline solution (Control) 3 times per day. At 140 d of pregnancy (P140), a group of 11 Control and 9 Arg-treated ewes were euthanized and hind leg muscles and longissimus dorsi (LD) were excised and weighed. A sample of LD was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of free AA (FAA) concentration, mTOR abundance and phosphorylation, and biochemical indices (DNA, RNA, and protein content). For the remaining 25 ewes (Arg, = 13, and Control, = 12), Arg administration was continued until the initiation of parturition and ewes were allowed to lamb. Lambs were weaned at postnatal Day 82 and grazed on pasture until postnatal day 153 (PN153), when a subset of 20 lambs ( = 10 per group) was euthanized. At P140, only the psoas major was heavier in the Arg-administered group compared with the Control group. Female lambs from ewes supplemented with Arg (Arg-F) had increased abundance of total mTOR, RNA concentration, and RNA:DNA ratio in LD compared with female lambs from Control ewes (Con-F), whereas males did not differ. At PN153, Arg-F were heavier than Con-F and had heavier LD and plantaris and a trend for heavier psoas major muscles compared with Con-F. In contrast, BW and individual muscle weights did not differ in male lambs. Lambs from Arg-treated ewes had heavier semimembranosus and tended to have heavier biceps femoris compared with Control lambs. The RNA concentration in LD was greater in Arg-F compared with Con-F, and DNA concentration was greater in the Arg group compared with the Control group. In

  8. Adventitious discovery of elastofibroma dorsi on skin biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsabil Attafi Sehli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare soft tissue pseudotumor, slow-growing, sitting in 99% of cases at the subscapular region and occurring in the elderly active people. Its pathogenesis is unclear. It is often asymptomatic. However, the diagnosis can be made on the typical topography of the mass and its characteristic appearance on CT and MRI. Thus, in the literature, most of the reported cases were radiologically discovered. An incidental histological discovery, like in our case is rare. We report the case of a 63 year-old man who had multiple nodular lesions, well circumscribed, firm, sometimes inflammatory, measuring between 3 and 5 cm, and located on the thighs and the paravertebral and scapular regions. The chest x-ray showed a right basal opacity suggesting a malignant processus. These nodules were biopsied in search of cutaneous metastasis of a probable pulmonary neoplasia. At histological examination, the diagnosis of elastofibroma was retained. Despite its rarity, the dorsal elastofibroma deserves to be known, thus avoiding excessive surgery. We propose to study its clinical, radiological and pathological features and its therapeutic modalities.

  9. Effect of pulsed electric field on the proteolysis of cold boned beef M. Longissimus lumborum and M. Semimembranosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-02-01

    The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ageing (3, 7, 14 and 21 days) on the shear force, protein profile, and post-mortem proteolysis of beef loins (M. Longissimus lumborum, LL) and topsides (M. Semimembranosus, SM) were investigated using a range of pulsed electric field treatments [voltages (5 and 10 kV) and frequencies (20, 50, and 90 Hz)]. PEF treatment decreased the shear force of beef LL and SM muscles by up to 19%. The reduction in the shear force in the LL was not affected by the treatment intensity whereas the reduction in the SM was dependent on PEF frequency. PEF treated beef loins showed increased proteolysis, both early post-mortem and during subsequent post-mortem storage reflected by increased degradation of troponin-T and desmin. The most prominent troponin-T degradation was found in samples treated with 5 kV-90 Hz, 10 kV-20 Hz at day 3 and day 7 post-treatment in addition to 10 kV-50 Hz in subsequent post-treatment times. The degradation of desmin in PEF treated beef loins increased with ageing time.

  10. Neo-phalloplasty with re-innervated latissimus dorsi free flap: a functional study of a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranno, R; Veselý, J; Hýza, P; Stupka, I; Justan, I; Dvorák, Z; Monni, N; Novák, P; Ranno, S

    2007-01-01

    Twenty two patients with gender dysphoria underwent neo-phalloplasties using a novel technique. Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneus re-innervated free flap was used to allow voluntary rigidity of the neo-penis. From the first 22 patients, 18 have obtained motoric function of reconstructed penis; the "paradox erection" was obtained. 14 patients came for examination after a follow-up period of mean 26.4 months. We evaluated the motility and shape changes of neo-phallus measuring its different size and dimension during relax and muscle contraction. The range of neo-phallus length in relaxed position was between 7 and 17 cm (mean 12.2 cm), its circumference in the same position had a range between 13 and 20 cm (mean 13.7 cm). All patients were able to contract the muscle with an average length reduction of 3.08 cm and an average circumference enlargement of 4 cm. In this study, the dimensions and motility were quantified demonstrating the neo-phallus function and size changes during sexual intercourse.

  11. Textural attributes and oxidative stability of pork longissimus muscle injected with marbling-like emulsified lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lizhen; Xiong, Youling L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to create marbling-like fat in lean pork with acceptable oxidative stability through the injection of canola/olive oil-substituted emulsions. Pork loins were injected with 5% water as control (CW) or 5% emulsion containing no tocopherols (E) or 0.07% tocopherols (ET) and stored at 2 °C in an oxygen-enriched package for up to 3 weeks. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in ET pork but increased 3-fold to 0.20mg malonaldehyde/kg in CW and E pork after 3 weeks. ET treatment also had a positive effect on meat red color. Emulsion-containing pork, showing less protein oxidation (carbonyl and disulfide formation), had reduced drip loss and shear force than CW samples (Pemulsions could create marbling-like texture in lean pork without compromising oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Assessment of the meat quality of lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum and M. triceps brachii following three different Halal slaughter procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, A S; Richardson, R I; Khalid, R

    2017-05-01

    A total of fifteen male and fifteen female lambs were allocated to three groups of ten animals and subjected to: traditional Halal slaughter without stunning (TNS); slaughter following electric head-only stunning (EHOS) or; post-cut electric head-only stun (PCEHOS) and their meat quality was determined. Instrumental and sensory analyses were carried out on two muscles; M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and M. triceps brachii (TB). Additionally, the effects of sex and muscle type were also assessed. No differences were found among slaughter methods for pH, drip loss and shear force. TB had a higher pHu and was more tender than LTL. Muscles from EHOS and PCEHOS lambs discoloured more quickly than TNS muscles. There were no differences in the measured sensory attributes, with the exception of EHOS meat being tougher than PCEHOS and TNS meat. This study showed that the three slaughter methods had no substantial effect on lamb meat quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of collagen fibre architecture between slow-twitch cranial and fast-twitch caudal parts of broiler M. latissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y N; Iwamoto, H; Tabata, S; Ono, Y

    2003-07-01

    1. Collagen fibre architectures of perimysium and endomysium in the slow-twitch cranial and fast-twitch caudal parts of broiler M. latissimus dorsi were compared. 2. Type I and III collagens were distributed in both perimysium and endomysium as indicated by their positive immunohistochemical reactions to polyclonal antibodies. 3. Cells invested by endomysium with no myofibres were larger in the cranial part because of the presence of larger slow-twitch myofibres. The honeycomb structure of endomysium was divided into several parts by thick perimysium. 4. The thick perimysial collagen fibres with parallel fibrils, which were interconnected by the loose reticular fibrils and thin fibres, were more numerous and thicker in the cranial part than the caudal. 5. Thick endomysial sidewall of cells in the cranial part was composed of a rougher reticulum of slightly thicker collagen fibrils compared with the thin sidewall in the caudal part. 6. These results indicated that both perimysial constitutions of collagen fibres and endomysial collagen fibrils had attained much larger growth in the slow-twitch cranial part than the fast-twitch caudal in broiler latissimus dorsi muscle.

  14. Autologous Latissimus Dorsi Breast Reconstruction Flap Salvage: Microvascular Anastomosis with Serratus Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Kuta, BScH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Autologous breast reconstruction has become a standard option during the recovery of breast cancer survivors. Although pedicle damage is a rare complication of this procedure, extensive torsion or tension can lead to partial or total flap failure. We report a case of partial flap salvage after accidental transection of the pedicled blood supply within the intramuscular course of a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. This salvage technique involved microvascular anastomosis between the remaining vasculature of the latissimus dorsi pedicle and the serratus branch of the thoracodorsal artery and vein.

  15. Brystrekonstruktion med m. latissimus dorsi er et godt valg hos kvinder med brystkræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højvig, Jens B; Bonde, Christian T

    2015-01-01

    Breast reconstruction using autologous tissue is commonly used in breast cancer patients who have received radiation therapy. The use of a latissimus dorsi flap is a safe and viable alternative to the use of an abdominal flap. The cosmetic results are excellent but there is need for a better unde...

  16. Rare muscular variations identified in a single cadaveric upper limb: a four-headed biceps brachii and muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Colin W; Rice, Charles L

    2018-03-01

    Supernumerary or accessory heads of the biceps brachii are persistent muscular structures which can vary in number and location in the arm. Variations in other arm muscles, such as the coracobrachialis, can accompany supernumerary biceps brachii musculature in the upper limb. In this case report, we describe two rare muscular variants in a single adult male: a four-headed biceps brachii and the muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi tendon. Additionally, accessory muscles of the brachialis and flexor digiti minimi brevis were identified in the upper limb. To our knowledge, the muscular variants identified here are considered rare, and their co-occurrence in a single upper limb has not been described previously. Also, a four-headed biceps brachii consisting of both the infero-medial and infero-lateral humeral heads has not been described previously to our knowledge. We postulate that the simultaneous appearance of several muscular variations may indicate a signaling disruption in embryogenesis during muscle patterning of the ventral limb bud. Knowledge of variant musculature in the arm is important for surgeons and clinicians as these muscles and their aberrant innervation patterns can complicate surgical procedures and may compress arteries and nerves producing upper limb pain and paresthesia. The clinical, functional and embryological implications of the upper limb variants are discussed.

  17. Genetic parameters for image analysis traits on M. longissimus thoracis and M. trapezius of carcass cross section in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, T; Kuchida, K; Hidaka, S; Kato, T

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, the degree of marbling in ribeye (M. longissimus thoracis) is evaluated in the beef meat grading process. However, other muscles (e.g., M. trapezius) are also important in determining the meat quality and carcass market prices. The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for M. longissimus thoracis (M-LONG) and M. trapezius (M-TRAP) of carcass cross section of Japanese Black steers by computer image analysis. The number of records of Japanese Black steers and the number of pedigree records were 2,925 and 10,889, respectively. Digital images of the carcass cross section were taken between the sixth and seventh ribs by photographing equipment. Muscle area (MA), fat area ratio (FAR), overall coarseness of marbling particles (OCM), and coarseness of maximum marbling particle (MMC) in M-LONG and M-TRAP were calculated by image analysis. Genetic parameters for these traits were estimated using the AIREMLF90 program with an animal model. Fixed effects that were included in the model were dates of arrival at the carcass market and slaughter age (mo), and random effects of fattening farms, additive genetic effects and residuals were included in the model. For M-LONG, heritability estimates (+/-SE) were 0.46 +/- 0.06, 0.59 +/- 0.06, 0.47 +/- 0.06, and 0.20 +/- 0.05 for MA, FAR, OCM, and MMC, respectively. Heritability estimates (+/-SE) in M-TRAP were 0.47 +/- 0.06, 0.57 +/- 0.07, 0.49 +/- 0.07, and 0.13 +/- 0.04 for the same traits. Genetic correlations between subcutaneous fat thickness and FAR for M-LONG and M-TRAP were negative (-0.21 and -0.19, respectively). Those correlations between M-LONG and M-TRAP were moderate to high for MA, FAR, OCM, and MMC (0.38, 0.52, 0.39, and 0.60, respectively). These results indicate that other muscles including M-LONG should be evaluated for more efficient genetic improvement.

  18. Multilevel magnetic resonance imaging analysis of multifidus-longissimus cleavage planes in the lumbar spine and potential clinical applications to Wiltse's paraspinal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel Kyle; Allen, Jonathan L; Williams, Paul A; Voss, Ashley Elizabeth; Jadhav, Vikram; Wu, David S; Cheng, Wayne K

    2011-07-15

    Retrospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based study. Our goal was to develop Wiltse's paraspinal surgical approach by determining the precise anatomic locations of the intermuscular cleavage planes formed by the multifidus and longissimus muscles. The primary objective was to measure the distances between the midline and the intermuscular planes, bilaterally, on MRI scans at each of the five disc levels between L1 and S1. Secondary objectives included identifying the existence of any correlations between patient demographics and the measured outcomes. In 1968, Wiltse described an approach to the spine using the natural cleavage plane of the multifidus and longissimus muscles as an entry to the posterior spinal elements. The small direct incisions lessened bleeding, tissue violation, and muscle retraction, which popularized Wiltse's approach among surgeons. A detailed description of the locations of the intermuscular cleavage planes at each lumbar disc level, however, is not available. MRI scans of 200 patients taken during routine care (2007-2009) were retrospectively reviewed to gather measurements of the distances from the intermuscular cleavage planes to the midline, bilaterally, at each disc level from L1 to S1. Age, sex, and BMI (body mass index) were obtained to determine correlations. Mean measurements significantly differed between all disc levels. At L5-S1, the mean distance was 37.8 mm; at L4-L5, 28.4 mm; at L3-L4, 16.2 mm; at L2-L3, 10.4 mm; and at L1-L2, 7.9 mm. The mean female distances were significantly greater than males (2 mm) on both sides of L5-S1 only. No correlation was discovered between BMI, age, height (N = 50), or weight (N = 50) with respect to measured distances. In the absence of any significant clinical correlation between patient demographics and the entry site in Wiltse's approach, the spine surgeon may use distances described in this paper to apply to a broad base of spine patients regardless of BMI, sex, or age.

  19. Effectiveness of muscle coverage to manage osteomyelitis of very late onset in the irradiated chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Emi; Minakawa, Hidehiko; Otani, Hidekazu; Saito, Noriko; Oyama, Akihiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Saito, Akira; Yamamoto, Yuhei

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has improved survival rates; however, a consequence of this is treatment-induced complications in longer-living patients. Decades after chest wall irradiation, very late onset radiation-induced osteomyelitis can develop, caused by osteoradionecrosis. This may lead to the development of small, but very refractory, skin ulcers. Many reports recommend well-vascularized tissue coverage after appropriate debridement for irradiation ulcers; however, when the ulcers are of very late onset, this sometimes causes recurrence of ulceration in non-muscle-covered areas after flap transfer. Thus, for very late onset cases, we propose treatment with an absolute muscle flap to cover both the obviously infected focus and the surrounding irradiated area. A muscle flap consisting of the entire latissimus dorsi, the shape of which is very large in the horizontal direction, satisfies this requirement. Latissimus dorsi muscle coverage for the treatment of very late onset osteomyelitis should be reappraised. (author)

  20. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  1. Volumetric Muscle Loss: Persistent Functional Deficits Beyond Frank Loss of Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    and fascia covering the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were bluntly separated from the musculature. The tissue covering all aspects of the middle...testing system.5 Peak TA muscle isometric torque was determined with the ankle at a right angle 0˚ and 20˚ of dorsi- or plantar flexion, assuming a moment...of plantar and dorsiflexion). At all joint angles, VML resulted in a significant functional deficit, although a greater torque deficit was observed

  2. Genetic variability of muscle biological characteristics of young limousin bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Renand, Gilles; Jurie, Catherine; Robelin, Jacques; Picard, Brigitte; Geay, Y.; Menissier, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Genetic parameters of 4 muscle biological characteristics (protein to DNA ratio (Pro/DNA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity and the proportion of type I myosin heavy chains (MHC I)), in the Semitendinosus and the Longissimus thoracis, were estimated simultaneously with average daily gain (ADG), 480-d final weight (FW), carcass lean and fat contents (CL% and CF% respectively) in a sample of young Limousin bulls tested in station. The data came f...

  3. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 32 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of rigor mortis of longissimus dorsi and triceps brachii muscles of male cattle carcasses · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rafael S Costa, Fábio C Henry, Karla S Ferreira, Felipe RAF do Valle, Célia R Quirino, 8127-8132.

  4. Effect of sex on meat quality characteristics of Qinchuan cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 18 Qinchuan cattle, six intact males (IM), six castrated males (CM) and six females (FM), were used to investigate the effect of sex on the physicochemical characteristics (PCC) and fatty acid (FA) composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). Obvious sex differences were found in the PCC of LDM: the IM ...

  5. Short communication Identification of gene variation within porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    characteristics and possible biological function of porcine PRDM16 gene have been less reported. ... included the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, longissimus dorsi muscle, interior fat, stomach, small ... al., 2008), and the copy number of PRDM16 molecules of patients with osteosarcoma was .... BMC Cancer 4, 45.

  6. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet- or higher/NRC (National Research Council-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05 gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05 muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05 than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K, and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05. There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05 the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but

  7. Influence of intramuscular fat content on the quality of pig meat - 2. Consumer acceptability of m. longissimus lumborum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, X; Monin, G; Talmant, A; Mourot, J; Lebret, B

    1999-09-01

    The present study is part of a project which aimed to examine the influence of intramuscular fat (IMF) content on sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of pork. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate consumer acceptability of pork chops with varying IMF level in muscle Longissimus lumborum (LL). Each experiment used 32 castrated male pigs selected after slaughter either from 125 Duroc × Landrace (Experiment 1) or 102 Tia Meslan × Landrace (Experiment 2) crossbred animals, and showing large variability in LL IMF content: from 3.5% in Experiment 1 and from 1.25 to 3.25% in Experiment 2. A group of 56 consumers evaluated various items on rib-eye (LL muscle trimmed of backfat) (Experiment 1) and on entire chops trimmed of backfat (Experiment 2). Data from Experiment 1 indicate that an increase in IMF level is associated with an increase in visual perception of fat and a corresponding decrease in the willingness to eat and purchase the meat, when expressed before tasting. The latter effect disappeared after the consumers had tasted the meat, probably due to a positive effect of increase IMF, up to 3.5%, on the perception of texture and taste. In Experiment 2, where entire chops were evaluated, the perception of visible fat was not affected by IMF level, probably due to the lack of variation in the level of intermuscular fat between the four IMF groups. The willingness to eat and purchase the meat were unaffected by IMF level, whereas the perception of texture and taste was enhanced with increased IMF levels up to 3.25%. The present data suggest that the acceptability of pork may be improved by increasing IMF level but: (1) this effect disappeared for IMF levels higher than 3.5%, which are associated with a high risk of meat rejection due to visible fat and (2) the positive effect of increased IMF probably holds true as long as it is not associated with an increase in the level of intermuscular fat.

  8. Technical note: use of belt grill cookery and slice shear force for assessment of pork longissimus tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2004-01-01

    The present experiments were conducted to determine whether improved beef longissimus shear force methodology could be used to assess pork longissimus tenderness. Specifically, three experiments were conducted to: 1) determine the effect of belt grill (BG) cookery on repeatability of pork longissimus Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) compare the correlation of WBSF and slice shear force (SSF) with trained sensory panel tenderness ratings, and 3) estimate the repeatability of pork longissimus SSF for chops cooked with a BG. In Exp. 1 and 2, the longissimus was removed from the left side of each carcass (Exp. 1, n = 25; Exp. 2, n = 23) at 1 d postmortem and immediately frozen to maximize variation in tenderness. In Exp. 1, chops were cooked with either open-hearth electric broilers (OH) or BG, and WBSF was measured. Percentage of cooking loss was lower (P cooked with a BG (23.2%; SD = 1.7%) vs. OH (27.6%; SD = 3.0%). Estimates of the repeatability of WBSF were similar for chops cooked with OH (0.61) and BG (0.59). Although significant (P cooking methods accounted for less than 5% of the total variation in WBSF. In Exp. 2, the correlation of SSF (r = -0.72; P cooked with BG, and SSF was determined. The repeatability of SSF was 0.90, which is comparable to repeatability estimates for beef and lamb. Use of BG cookery and SSF could facilitate the collection of accurate pork longissimus tenderness data. Time and labor savings associated with BG cookery and the SSF technique should help to decrease research costs.

  9. Skeletal Myocyte Types and Vascularity in the Black Sicilian Pig

    OpenAIRE

    S. Velotto; E. Varricchio; M. R. Di Prisco; T. Stasi; A. Crasto

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the presence of giant fibres in the Black Sicilian pig skeletal muscle and to evaluate the effect of sex on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the myocytes (myofibres) as well as vascularity of the muscle. Twenty Black Sicilian pigs (10 males, 10 females) from a farm in Sicily (Italy) were slaughtered at two years of age. Muscle tissues were obtained from three muscles: psoas major, longissimus dorsi, and trapezius. Myofibres were stain...

  10. Preslaughter handling effects on pork quality and glycolytic potential in two muscles differing in fiber type composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Newman, D.J.; Smits, C.H.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of transportation, lairage, and preslaughter stressor treatment on glycolytic potential and pork quality of the glycolytic longissimus and the oxidative supraspinatus (SSP) or serratus ventralis (SV) muscles. In a 2 x 2 x 2

  11. Painful Elastofibroma Dorsi: A Report of a Case and a Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi (ED is an uncommon, slow-growing, benign, soft tissue tumor of unclear pathogenesis, typically located at the subscapular region of elderly people. It may be unilateral or bilateral. Though many patients are asymptomatic, ED can cause local deformity and symptoms such as periscapular pain or discomfort. Herein we report a case of a 65-year-old woman with painful ED. Clinical features, radiodiagnostic, intraoperative, and pathologic findings, and a brief review of the literature are performed.

  12. Elasto fibroma dorsi. A case description and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Carzo, E.; Medina Benitez, A.; Garcia Espana, M.A.; Asencio Moreno, C.; Esquivias Lopez-Cuervo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Elasto fibroma (elasto fibroma dorsi or sub scapular elasto fibroma) is a rare bening tumor that can be confused with a malignant lesion. In most cases, these neoplasms present characteristic CT and MR findings. A correct diagnosis of these lesions requires knowledge of their existence and of their radiological signs. We present a case studied by means of CT our service and review the literature. 10 refs

  13. MÉTODO SIMPLES PARA ESTIMAR ENCURTAMENTO PELO FRIO EM CARNE BOVINA A SIMPLE METHOD TO ESTIMATE COLD SHORTENING IN BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordão Barrozo Heinemann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available É bem conhecido o fato de que o encurtamento pelo frio pode influenciar negativamente a textura da carne. Por isso, a determinação do grau de contração do tecido muscular é um recurso analítico de grande importância quando se estuda a otimização dos procedimentos industriais. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas comparativamente duas metodologias de microscopia. Para isso, os músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus obtidos de nove carcaças bovinas com três diferentes graus de acabamento foram analisados de forma pareada por ambos os métodos. O músculo Longissimus dorsi apresentou menor comprimento de sarcômero e o m. Semimembranosus o maior (p0,05, revelando a possibilidade de emprego do método mais simples.The negative influence of cold shortening on meat texture is well known. Because of that, the determination of the muscle contraction extent represents an important analytical tool for the optimization of the industrial procedures. In this work, two methodologies to evaluate cold shortening were compared. Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles from 9 cattle carcasses with three different fat thickness grades were paired analyzed by both methodologies. Longissimus dorsi muscle showed the shortest sarcomere length while Semimembranosus m. showed the longest one (p0.05, which suggests the possibility of using the simpler method for cold shortening evaluation.

  14. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (P<0.05). No significant variation was detected in cholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (P<0.05), however, interspecific similarities were found in fatty acid ratios. For health-related indices, only atherogenic index (AI) showed lower values in favor of Buffalo meat (P<0.05) at both harvesting ages. Although, meat derived from both bovid groups was leaner and showed lower cholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a primary melanoma in situ within a full-thickness skin graft overlying a free muscle flap: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabek, Robert J; Baletic, Nemanja; McUmber, Harrison; Nahed, Brian; Haynes, Alex; Eberlin, Kyle R; Bojovic, Branko

    2018-01-01

    The development of a primary melanoma within the confines of free tissue transfer is a rare occurrence. In this report, we describe the development of a primary melanoma in situ within a full-thickness skin graft overlying a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap used to cover a scalp defect.

  16. Raman spectroscopy compared against traditional predictors of shear force in lamb m. longissimus lumborum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2014-12-01

    A Raman spectroscopic hand held device was used to predict shear force (SF) of 80 fresh lamb m. longissimus lumborum (LL) at 1 and 5days post mortem (PM). Traditional predictors of SF including sarcomere length (SL), particle size (PS), cooking loss (CL), percentage myofibrillar breaks and pH were also measured. SF values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against the traditional predictors using linear regression. The best prediction of shear force values used spectra at 1day PM to predict shear force at 1day which gave a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 13.6 (Null=14.0) and the R(2) between observed and cross validated predicted values was 0.06 (R(2)cv). Overall, for fresh LL, the predictability SF, by either the Raman hand held probe or traditional predictors was low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles and their replationship with mRNA and the microRNA transcriptome in bovine muscle tissue (Bos Taurine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals, having essential and important roles in muscle development. We sample longissimus thoracis tissues from a well-known elite native breed of Chinese Qinchuan cattle living within comparable environments at fetal and adult stages, using methy...

  18. Influence of psychomotor skills and innervation patterns on results of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Clément M L; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Müller, Roland; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was performed to analyze the influence of innervation and psychomotor skills on the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer. Patients with the 10 best and 10 worst results after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears were selected. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria (n = 12) were subject to a psychomotor test battery (Motorische Leistungsserie) and electromyographic innervation assessment. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups preoperatively in terms of the commonly tested factors known to influence the results of this procedure adversely. There was a significant difference in both the pattern and selectivity of innervation in the group that had better clinical results. The psychomotor findings were negatively correlated with the range of motion and the strength of the operative shoulder. Function of the operative shoulder could also be predicted by psychomotor function of the uninjured contralateral side. Psychomotor skills testing appears to be a new, potential method by which to predict the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer.

  19. Does Fibrin Sealant Reduce Seroma after Immediate Breast Reconstruction Utilizing a Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyu Cha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common complication of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in breastreconstruction is seroma formation in the back. Many clinical studies have shown that fibrinsealant reduces seroma formation. We investigated any statistically significant differences inpostoperative drainage and seroma formation when utilizing the fibrin sealant on the site ofthe latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap harvested for immediate breast reconstruction afterskin-sparing partial mastectomy.Methods A total of 46 patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction utilizing alatissimus dorsi myocutaneous island flap. Of those, 23 patients underwent the procedurewithout fibrin sealant and the other 23 were administered the fibrin sealant. All flaps wereelevated with manual dissection by the same surgeon and were analyzed to evaluate thepotential benefits of the fibrin sealant. The correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney U testwere used for analyzing the drainage volume according to age, weight of the breast specimen,and body mass index.Results Although not statistically significant, the cumulative drainage fluid volume was higherin the control group until postoperative day 2 (530.1 mL compared to 502.3 mL, but thefibrin sealant group showed more drainage beginning on postoperative day 3. The donor sitecomparisons showed the fibrin sealant group had more drainage beginning on postoperativeday 3 and the drain was removed 1 day earlier in the control group.Conclusions The use of fibrin sealant resulted in no reduction of seroma formation. Becausethe benefits of the fibrin sealant are not clear, the use of fibrin sealant must be fully discussedwith patients before its use as a part of informed consent.

  20. Specific fibre composition and metabolism of the rectus abdominis muscle of bovine Charolais cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background An important variability of contractile and metabolic properties between muscles has been highlighted. In the literature, the majority of studies on beef sensorial quality concerns M. longissimus thoracis. M. rectus abdominis (RA) is easy to sample without huge carcass depreciation and may appear as an alternative to M. longissimus thoracis for fast and routine physicochemical analysis. It was considered interesting to assess the muscle fibres of M. rectus abdominis in comparison with M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M. triceps brachii (TB) on the basis of metabolic and contractile properties, area and myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) proportions. Immuno-histochemical, histochemical, histological and enzymological techniques were used. This research concerned two populations of Charolais cattle: RA was compared to TB in a population of 19 steers while RA was compared to LT in a population of 153 heifers. Results RA muscle had higher mean fibre areas (3350 μm2 vs 2142 to 2639 μm2) than the two other muscles. In RA muscle, the slow-oxidative fibres were the largest (3957 μm2) and the fast-glycolytic the smallest (2868 μm2). The reverse was observed in TB muscle (1725 and 2436 μm2 respectively). In RA muscle, the distinction between fast-oxidative-glycolytic and fast-glycolytic fibres appeared difficult or impossible to establish, unlike in the other muscles. Consequently the classification based on ATPase and SDH activities seemed inappropriate, since the FOG fibres presented rather low SDH activity in this muscle in comparison to the other muscles of the carcass. RA muscle had a higher proportion of I fibres than TB and LT muscles, balanced by a lower proportion either of IIX fibres (in comparison to TB muscle) or of IIA fibres (in comparison to LT muscle). However, both oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were lower in RA than in TB muscle, although the LDH/ICDH ratio was higher in RA muscle (522 vs 340). Oxidative enzyme activities were

  1. Proliferative myositis of the latissimus dorsi presenting in a 20-year-old male athlete

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Hugh, N

    2017-08-01

    We describe the case of a 20-year-old rower presenting with an uncommon condition of Proliferative Myositis (PM) affecting the Latissimus Dorsi (LD). PM is a rare, benign tumour infrequently developing in the upper back. Its rapid growth and firm consistency may mistake it for sarcoma at presentation. Therefore, careful multidisciplinary work-up is crucial, and should involve appropriate radiological and histopathological investigations. Here, we propose the aetiology of LD PM to be persistent myotrauma induced by repetitive rowing motions. Symptoms and rate of progression ultimately determine the management which includes surveillance and\\/or conservative resection. There have been no documented cases of recurrence or malignant transformation.

  2. Treatment of chronic radiation injury over the shoulder with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, B.C.; Masson, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    We report our experiences in treating chronic radiation injury about the shoulder, a complication of radiation after mastectomy. Left untreated, these can result in chronic infection and/or amputation. The coverage of a large shoulder area presents certain unique problems, which severely limit the usefulness of traditional procedures. We have found that the remarkable size and versatility of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap enables one to use it with relative simplicity and safety. A further great advantage is that it brings new permanent blood supply into this ischemic area, thus favoring rapid healing and durable coverage

  3. Brystrekonstruktion med m. latissimus dorsi er et godt valg hos kvinder med brystkræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højvig, Jens B; Bonde, Christian T

    2015-01-01

    Breast reconstruction using autologous tissue is commonly used in breast cancer patients who have received radiation therapy. The use of a latissimus dorsi flap is a safe and viable alternative to the use of an abdominal flap. The cosmetic results are excellent but there is need for a better unde...... understanding of the donor-site morbidity in regard to potential loss of shoulder function. We believe that it is possible to improve the procedure through optimized surgical technique in combination with the implementation and the benefits of fast-track surgery....

  4. Differences between novice and experienced caregivers in muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Rie; Saito, Yayoi

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of caregiver knowledge and experience on muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients. Subjects were 40- to 65-year-old female caregivers divided into novice and experienced groups. Subjects from both groups performed home-care repositioning techniques on bedridden patients while muscle activity was recorded via electromyogram. Recordings were made from four muscles on the subjects' dominant side: the latissimus dorsi, the biceps brachii, the erector spinae, and the rectus femoris. The subjective burden involved in repositioning was also assessed using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and visual analog scales (VAS). Rectus femoris percentage of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) values were significantly lower than latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, and biceps brachii values in the novice group. %MVC values from the latissimus dorsi and biceps brachii were significantly higher among the novice group compared to the experienced group. RPE ratings from the novice group were significantly higher than those of the experienced group, and there was a non-significant trend for higher VAS values for the low back, arms, and legs in the novice group compared to the experienced group. Novice caregivers tended to change the patient's position by pulling with the upper limbs without using the lower limbs. In contrast, experienced caregivers exerted less energy by communicating with the patient and utilizing the patient's own movements. They used large, distributed muscle groups that effectively harnessed body mechanics and prevented excess exertion.

  5. Massive cuff tears treated with arthroscopically assisted latissimus dorsi transfer. Surgical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cupis, Vincenzo; De Cupis, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Summary Latissimus dorsi transfer is our preferred treatment for active disabled patients with a posterosuperior massive cuff tear. We present an arthroscopically assisted technique which avoids an incision through the deltoid obtaining a better and faster clinical outcome. The patient is placed in lateral decubitus. After the arthroscopic evaluation of the lesion through a posterior and a posterolateral portal, with the limb in traction we perform the preparation of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. We place the arm in abduction and internal rotation and we proceed to the harvest of the latissimus dorsi and the tendon preparation by stitching the two sides using very resistant sutures. After restoring limb traction, under arthroscopic visualization, we pass a curved grasper through the posterolateral portal by going to the armpit in the space between the teres minor and the posterior deltoid. Once the grasper has exited the access at the level of the axilla we fix two drainage transparent tubes, each with a wire inside, and, withdrawing it back, we shuttle the two tubes in the subacromial space. After tensioning the suture wires from the anterior portals these are assembled in a knotless anchor of 5.5 mm that we place in the prepared site on the greater tuberosity of the humerus. A shoulder brace at 15° of abduction and neutral rotation protect the patient for the first month post-surgery but physical therapy can immediately start. PMID:23738290

  6. CARACTERÍSTICAS DE QUALIDADE DO CONTRAFILÉ (m. L. dorsi DE TOUROS JOVENS DA RAÇA NELORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes S. ABULARACH

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar as características de qualidade da carne de touros jovens da raça Nelore e os possíveis efeitos da idade, entre os 690 e os 780 dias, nessas características, efetuou-se o abate de 113 bovinos, que haviam sido confinados por um período de 109 dias com ração à base de 20% de concentrado e 80% de volumoso. Todas as carcaças foram tipificadas pela Inspeção Federal na sala de matança do frigorífico e resfriadas por 24 h em câmara fria (Tinicial=5°C; Tfinal=2°C. Meias carcaças (lado direito, N=51, do tipo B - do Sistema B R A S I L - de animais de 23 a 26 meses foram desossadas. Dois bifes (2,5cm de espessura de contrafilé (m. L. dorsi de cada uma foram embalados à vácuo e maturados por 7 dias a 0-2°C. O pH variou entre 5,44 e 5,83 e apenas duas amostras tinham pH ³ 5,70. O valor L* (luminosidade médio foi de 34,85. As médias de umidade e gordura foram de 75,65% e 1,71%, respectivamente. A média de força de cisalhamento foi de 6,70kg e não foi influenciada pela idade do animal entre 690 e 734 dias, mas apresentou uma tendência (Teste t, p=0,22 de aumento entre 735 e 780 dias. Não se detectou influência da idade do animal nas demais características de qualidade analisadas (Teste t, p>0,20. Concluiu-se que o contrafilé de animais como esses pode ter problemas de aceitação na faixa mais exigente de mercado, e que carcaças tipificadas como B, presumivelmente o melhor tipo, não apresentam necessariamente as melhores características de qualidade da carne.Quality traits of boneless rib cut (L. dorsi muscle from Nelore young bulls. To study the meat quality traits of Nelore breed young bulls, and the effect of age (690-780 days on them, 113 animals were slaughtered after 109 days of intensive feeding with 20% concentrate and 80% roughage. All the carcasses were graded at the slaughter floor by the Federal Inspection and chilled for 24 hours (Tinitial=5°C, Tfinal=2°C. Fifty one half carcasses

  7. Functional deltoid muscle reconstruction following an extensive squamous cell carcinoma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Weng Jun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs in an individual with albinism. In this case, the growth of the squamous cell carcinoma was aggressive that it invaded the deltoid muscle. After an oncologic resection, there was a huge defect which required near total resection of the deltoid muscle. Loss of deltoid muscle will lead to the loss of abduction and anterior flexion at the shoulder. This could be debilitating in a person’s normal daily life and activities. Restoration of the shoulder abduction and flexion function with a pedicle bipolar latissimus dorsi flap transfer was chosen in this case due to the versatility and reliability of the flap.

  8. Timing and Activation Intensity of Shoulder Muscles during Handball Penalty Throwing in Subjects with and without Shoulder Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zonnor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shoulder injuries are common among athletes in sports that involve overhead throwing of the ball such as handball. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the timing and activation intensity of shoulder muscles during handball penalty throwing in individuals with shoulder pain and in control subjects. Materials and Methods: Using BTS FREE EMG 300 system with bipolar surface electrodes, the timing (onset and intensity of the activation of the shoulder muscles were measured including upper trapezius, anterior, middle and posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, supraspinatus and triceps during penalty throwing. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for between group comparisons with the significance level P< 0.05. Results: The activation intensity of upper trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles in the healthy individuals were about 50.74% and 43.42% higher than in patients. Middle deltoid in healthy individuals was about 38.05% smaller than that in patients. In control group, supraspinatus muscle started earlier (23.5 ms than the shoulder motion initiation. Triceps muscle was activated about 18.5 ms later than shoulder motion initiation. In patients, supraspinatus muscle started sooner (11 ms and triceps brachialis muscle started later than the other muscles (22.16 ms. Conclusion: The coordination of shoulder muscles i.e. the onset and intensity of muscle activity is disturbed in the patient group during throwing. Hence, strength and stretching programs are recommended for athletes to reduce the risk of shoulder pain syndrome. The rehabilitation program can be focused on modifying the pattern of activity in upper trapezius, supraspinatus, latissimus dorsi and deltoid muscles in addition to pain control in the rehabilitation centers.

  9. Mortality Rate and Activity Patterns of an Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis longissimus) Population Divided by a Busy Road

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovář, R.; Brabec, Marek; Víta, R.; Bocek, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2014), s. 24-33 ISSN 0022-1511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Zamenis longissimus * road-related snake mortality * poisson regression * generalized additive model * telemetric surveillance Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.832, year: 2014 http://journalofherpetology.org/doi/abs/10.1670/12-090

  10. Heterotopic bone formation in the musculus latissimus dorsi of sheep using β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: evaluation of an extended prefabrication time on bone formation and matrix degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalthoff, S; Jehn, P; Zimmerer, R; Möllmann, U; Gellrich, N-C; Kokemueller, H

    2015-06-01

    We previously generated viable heterotopic bone in living animals and found that 3 months of intrinsic vascularization improved bone formation and matrix degeneration. In this study, we varied the pre-vascularization time to determine its effects on the kinetics of bone formation and ceramic degradation. Two 25-mm-long cylindrical β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were filled intraoperatively with autogenous iliac crest bone marrow and implanted in the latissimus dorsi muscle in six sheep. To examine the effect of axial perfusion, one scaffold was surgically implanted with (group C) or without (group D) a central vascular bundle. All animals were sacrificed 6 months postoperatively and histomorphometric measurements were compared to previous results. All implanted scaffolds exhibited ectopic bone growth. However, bone growth was not significantly different between the 3-month (group A, 0.191±0.097 vs. group C, 0.237±0.075; P=0.345) and 6-month (group B, 0.303±0.105 vs. group D, 0.365±0.258; P=0.549) pre-vascularization durations, regardless of vessel supply; early differences between surgically and extrinsically vascularized constructs disappeared after 6 months. Here, we describe a reliable procedure for generating ectopic bone in vivo. A 3-month pre-vascularization duration appears sufficient and ceramic degradation proceeds in accordance with bone generation, supporting the hypothesis of cell-mediated resorption. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of latissimus dorsi flap pedicle as a T-junction to facilitate simultaneous free fibular flap inset in lower extremity salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu Tae; Youn, Seungki; Kim, Jeong Tae; Lee, Seung Hoon; Ng, Siew-Weng; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2012-04-01

    Marjolin's ulcer is a very aggressive form of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic wounds or unstable scars. A resection margin of at least 2 cm with clear deep margin is required on removal. A 79-year-old male presented with chronic osteomyelitis of the left anterior tibial region with chronic ulceration. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. The tumour, measuring 8 cm, was resected with surrounding unstable scar tissue including en bloc resection of the involved tibial bone, leaving the posterior cortex. Reconstruction was done with a fibular free flap from the contralateral side, but the pedicle length was too short to reach the anterior tibial vessels. To bridge the vascular gap, and to cover the soft-tissue defect, a latissimus dorsi free flap was harvested using the muscle-sparing method. The thoracodorsal vessels were used as an interpositional graft to anastomose the peroneal vessels of the fibular flap. The patient was ambulatory by 4 months, and complete bone union was seen after 6 months. During the 18-month follow-up period, there was no evidence of recurrence. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Composition and cross-sectional area of muscle fibre types in relation to daily gain and lean and fat content of carcass in Landrace and Yorkshire pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The muscle fibre-type properties of longissimus were compared between Landrace and Yorkshire breeds and between the sexes in an attempt to shed light on the relationship of these histochemical parameters to animal growth and carcass composition. Muscle fibres were classified into three groups, type I, type IIA and type IIB, using the myosin ATPase method. At a given live weight, the cross-sectional area of type I fibres (CSA I was smaller (p

  13. Skeletal Myocyte Types and Vascularity in the Black Sicilian Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Velotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the presence of giant fibres in the Black Sicilian pig skeletal muscle and to evaluate the effect of sex on histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the myocytes (myofibres as well as vascularity of the muscle. Twenty Black Sicilian pigs (10 males, 10 females from a farm in Sicily (Italy were slaughtered at two years of age. Muscle tissues were obtained from three muscles: psoas major, longissimus dorsi, and trapezius. Myofibres were stained for myosin ATPase, succinic dehydrogenase, and α-amylase-PAS. For all fibre types, area and perimeter were measured. Slow-twitch oxidative fibres, fast-twitch glycolytic fibres and fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibres were histochemically differentiated; an image-analyzing system was used. The results showed no differences between males and females in percentage of the fibre types, but there were significant differences between sexes in size of all the three fibre types. Psoas major muscle had a high percentage of slow-twitch oxidative fibres and contained more capillaries per fibre and per mm2 than trapezius and longissimus dorsi, in which fast-twitch glycolytic fibres dominated. The cross-sectional area of all fibres types was larger in longissimus dorsi than in trapezius and psoas major muscles; the giant fibres were absent in all the muscles studied. Fibre type composition may contribute to the variation of meat quality.

  14. In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lamb is one of the major red meats consumed globally, both as a key component in the diet of some countries, and as a niche meat product in others. Despite this relatively wide consumption, an in-depth description of the global protein composition of lamb has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the proteome of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum through separation of the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. As a result, 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised. The 207 proteins found in the sarcoplasmic fraction were dominated by glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. This fraction also contained several sarcomeric proteins, e.g., myosin light chains and titin. Some of them might be the degradation products from the post-mortem proteolysis. Actin, myosin and tropomyosin were abundant in the myofibrillar fraction while nebulin and titin were also present. Collagen type I, III and IV were found in the insoluble fraction but there were also sequences from myosin and titin. The present study also confirms the existence of at least 300 predicted protein sequences obtained from the latest issue of the sheep genome (version 3 with high confidence.

  15. Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Expander Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Flap after Skin Sparing Mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H.M.; Shallan, M.A.; Fouad, F.A.; Elsayed, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The latissimus dorsi my-ocutaneous flap (LDMF) used to. be the standard practice far breast reconstruction; haw ever, with the increased use of tissue expanders and the development of the transverse rectus-abdomen's myocutaneaus flap for autologous tissue breast reconstruction, its use has decreased. To. reassess the role of the LDMF in breast reconstruction, a prospective study was performed to. evaluate women who. had a skin sparing mastectomy followed by immediate reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi flap and tissue expander implant. Patients and Methods: Twenty-five women with early breast cancer underwent immediate latissimus dorsi my-ocutaneaus flaps with tissue expander after skin sparing mastectamy. The ancalagic safety at skin sparing mastectamy, the pastaperative aesthetic results and camplicatians were evaluated. Results: Between May 2003 and April 2005, 25 can-secutive wamen diagnased with breast cancer underwent skin sparing mas tecta my and expander assisted immediate latissimus darsi breast recanstructian. Their median age was 42 years, ranging fram 34 to 48 years. The pracedure duratian ranged fram 2.5 to. 6 haurs, with a median at 3.9 haurs, hawever, expansian was campleted by 4 manths (range I to. 8 manths). Patients were discharged 7 days after surgery with a range af 5 to. 15 days. The camplicatian rate was law, manifesting with skin flap necrosis in 12%, waund infectian in 4%, and part site extrusian in 4%. There was no. flap lass. With the exceptian af serama farmatian, the danar site marbidity was law (seroma 40%, hematama 4%, back pain 8%, and limited arm mavement 4%). No. lacal recurrence was recorded. The aesthetic result af surgery was rated as excellent in 20%, gaad in 60%, fair in 24%, and paar in 4% af cases. The duratian af past-aperative fallaw up was 14.7 manths, ranging fram 6 to 24 manths. Conclusions: Skin sparing mastectamy and immediate breast recanstructian is an ancalagically safe technique. The use

  16. Elastofibroma dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ghisi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de sexo femenino de 68 años que se palpa una tumoración subescapular derecha asociado a dolor regional y resalto de la escápula durante los movimientos.  Se presentan imagenes para su discusion

  17. Elastofibroma dorsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javorka, V.; Vlasakova, H.; Mizickova, M.; Palenik, S.; Malik, M.; Bilicky, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elastofibroma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor of unclear etiology, with a highly characteristic location and specific imaging appearance, with prevalence in elderly women. This rare entity was first described by O. Jarvi and E. Saxen in 1961. Objective: The main objective of this study is to point out the possibilities potency of a random occurrence of the specific lesion. (author)

  18. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of an elastofibroma dorsi coexisting with a high grade spindle cell sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alberghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is a pseudotumoral fibroproliferative lesion characterized by polymorphic fiber-like deposits of elastinophilic material. Several theories have been reported explaining the pathogenesis of elastofibroma. Recent cytogenetic studies have demonstrated chromosomal instability in elastofibromas, not normally observed in non-neoplastic tissues. These chromosomal defects are commonly observed in aggressive fibromatosis too. Such clinical observations suggest a multistage pathogenetic mechanism for the onset of elastofibroma. This study, using histochemical, immunohistochemical staining techniques, and ultrastructural examination, describes the detection of an otherwise typical elastofibroma contextual to a high grade sarcoma. Hence, the coexistence of elastofibroma and high-grade sarcoma may suggest a causal link between the two pathological entities. The results obtained suggest that the coexistence of the two pathological entities is conceivably coincidental.

  19. Reconstruction of the pelvis and perineum with a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, I

    2012-11-01

    Reconstruction of the perineum and pelvic cavity in continuity is an uncommon and difficult challenge. This case describes a 66-year-old man who presented following recurrence of a Dukes\\' B rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma that had been treated nine years previously by anterior resection, 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy. His recurrent disease was treated with radical pelvic exenteration with formation of an end colostomy and urinary ileal conduit. A post-operative pelvic collection necessitated incisional drainage via the perineum. This resulted in a perineal defect in continuity with the pelvic cavity, neither of which healed in spite of alternate day packing with antiseptic dressings. The perineum and cavity were reconstructed successfully with a microvascular transfer of the latissimus dorsi using the primary gracilis pedicle as recipient donor vessels.

  20. Autologous breast reconstruction using the immediately lipofilled extended latissimus dorsi flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, N; Fairbairn, N; Trail, M; Ewing, A; Yong, L; Raine, C; Dixon, J M

    2018-02-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap is a popular choice for autologous breast reconstruction. To dramatically improve volume, we report our experience of using the immediately lipofilled extended latissimus dorsi (ELD) flap and show it as a valid option for autologous breast reconstruction. Patients undergoing the procedure between December 2013 and June 2016 were included. Demographic, clinical and operative factors were analysed, together with in-hospital morbidity and duration of postoperative hospital stay. A total of 71 ELD flaps with immediate lipofilling were performed. Forty-five reconstructions were immediate and the remaining 26 delayed. Median (range) volume of autologous fat injected immediately was 171 ml (40-630 ml). Contralateral reductions were performed in 25 patients with the median reduction volume 185 g (89-683 g). Median duration of admission was 6.5 (3-18) days and patients were followed up for 12 months (1-37). Three total flap failures occurred and had to be excised (4%). One haematoma occurred requiring drainage (1%). Signs of infection requiring intravenous antibiotics occurred in five patients (7%). In 5 patients wound dehiscence occurred, and only two of these required resuturing (3%). In total, 7 patients developed a seroma requiring repeated drainage (10%). Three reconstructions experienced mild mastectomy flap necrosis with no needing reoperation (4%). Our experience represents the largest series to date and shows that in carefully selected patients the technique is safe, can avoid the requirement for implants, and has the potential to streamline the reconstructive journey. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oscillatory corticospinal activity during static contraction of ankle muscles is reduced in healthy old versus young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan Elizabeth; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2018-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by impaired motor function, but age-related changes in neural networks responsible for generating movement are not well understood. We aimed to investigate the functional oscillatory coupling between activity in the sensorimotor cortex and ankle muscles during static contract......Aging is accompanied by impaired motor function, but age-related changes in neural networks responsible for generating movement are not well understood. We aimed to investigate the functional oscillatory coupling between activity in the sensorimotor cortex and ankle muscles during static...... contraction. Fifteen young (20–26 yr) and fifteen older (65–73 yr) subjects were instructed to match a target force by performing static ankle dorsi- or plantar flexion, while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from the cortex and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from dorsi...

  2. Estudo do alcance do retalho do músculo grande dorsal para o revestimento cutâneo da coluna An anatomic study of latissimus dorsi and its suitability for spinal soft tissue coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Moutinho da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A crescente indicação cirúrgica na terapêutica das patologias da coluna vertebral, ocasionada pela melhoria tecnológica aplicada ao tratamento cirúrgico, que proporciona cada vez mais uma cirurgia mais segura, mais rápida, menos invasiva e com melhores resultados funcionais, tem nos levado a um aumento nas complicações pós-operatórias da coluna vertebral. As complicações podem ser mecânicas, biológicas, estruturais ou relacionadas ao material de síntese. As infecções em cirurgia de coluna vertebral, embora raras, ocorrem em 3-6%, constituem um dilema para o cirurgião de coluna, além de graves desdobramentos clínicos para o paciente. A importância do uso do retalho do grande dorsal esta implicada na tentativa de cobertura de partes moles e melhora no padrão vascular regional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade do retalho do músculo grande dorsal para cobertura de defeitos cutâneos na coluna. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram dissecados 17 músculos grande dorsal de cadáver e medido o quanto eles passavam da linha média na altura de C7, T7 e transição toracolombar. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: O estudo anatômico realizado comprovou a eficácia desse método.INTRODUCTION: There has been a dramatic increase in spine surgery. New surgical instrumentation and less invasive techniques make surgical procedure faster, safer, achieving better functional results. With this increasing number of operations, the number of back surgery failures has also increased. Complications may be mechanical, biological, or related to problems on instrumentation frames. The rate of spinal infections lies between 3-6 % and it´s still a challenge. After debridement and removal of all infected nonviable soft tissue, it is sometimes difficult to obtain wound closure. Pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap coverage provides wound healing by promoting vascularized tissue to reduce dead spaces, enhancing local oxygen delivery, and facilitating

  3. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and at 14 d after slaughter (n = 180) and trained sensory evaluation at 14 d after slaughter (n = 91) using both cooking methods. Belt grill-cooked samples had lower (P<.01) percentage of cooking losses (21.5 vs 25.8%) and higher (P<.01) shear force values (4.6 vs 4.3 kg) than electric broiler-cooked samples. Repeatability of duplicate measurements was higher for cooking losses (.58 vs .23) and shear force values (.85 vs .64) for belt grill than for electric broiler cooked samples. Belt grilled steaks had lower (P<.01) cooking losses (20.2 vs 29.8%); higher (P<.01) tenderness (7.0 vs 6.7) and juiciness (6.0 vs 5.1); and lower (P<.02) connective tissue amount (7.7 vs 7.8), beef flavor intensity (5.0 vs 5.1), and off-flavor (3.2 vs 3.3) ratings than steaks cooked with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the repeatability of duplicate sensory measurements for tenderness (.87 vs .71), connective tissue amount (.66 vs .30), and juiciness (.51 vs .08) ratings, and cooking losses (.63 vs .18) compared with cooking with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the precision for measurements of cooking, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of beef longissimus thoracis.

  4. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author)

  5. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya (Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author).

  6. Influence of feeding regime and finishing system on lamb muscle fiber and meat quality Influência do regime alimentar e do sistema de terminação sobre as fibras musculares e a qualidade da carne de cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bonagurio Gallo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study verified the influence of different nutritional levels of the dams, before parturition, the weaning age of the lambs and the finishing system on lamb muscle fiber morphology and meat quality. Ile-de-France × Bergamacia crossbred dams grazing on natural grassland were divided into two groups: 1 nutritional supplement 30 days before the parturition (SUPL, and 2 no nutritional supplement (NS. These groups were further subdivided by weaning age of the lambs, which corresponded to either 45 or 60 days. The weaned lambs from each of the previous groups were also divided into different finishing systems: confined and fed a complete diet (CD, confined and fed hay (H and kept on grassland (P. The lambs were slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (CD and P, or at 150 days of age (H. The carcasses were cooled at 4ºC/24h. The analyzed variables were: longissimus dorsi muscle fiber morphophysiology, post mortem myofibrillar fragmentation (at 0, 3 and 7 days post mortem, meat pH and temperature. There was no effect of supplementation of dams or weaning age of the lambs for the evaluated variables. The frequency of slow-oxidative (SO, fast-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG and fast-glycolytic (FG muscle fiber types was not altered by the treatments, but the fiber cross-sectional area was smaller for the lambs finished only on hay, and the meat pH values and temperature were lower and the myofibrill fragment dimensions were smaller. As time maturation increased from 0 to 3 and 7 days post mortem, there was a decrease in the length of the myofibrill fragments. The diet of the lambs which were maintained confined and fed only with hay was nutritionally inferior when compared with all the others, and this changed the quality of the meat compared to the finishing systems on grassland or confined and fed complete diet.Avaliou-se a influência dos níveis nutricionais da ovelha antes do parto, da idade à desmama e do sistema de terminação sobre as fibras musculares

  7. Retalho pediculado do músculo grande dorsal para reparo de defeito diafragmático experimental em cães Latissimus dorsi muscular flap for repair of experimental diaphragmatic defect in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira de Oliveira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, foi utilizado um retalho do músculo grande dorsal, com pedículo dorso-caudal, para o reparo de defeitos diafragmáticos iatrogênicos em 18 cães adultos. O acesso ao diafragma foi através de toracotomia no décimo espaço intercostal, sendo criado um defeito diafragmático, onde o retalho foi suturado. O retalho muscular pediculado cobriu um terço do hemidiafragma direito. Os animais tiveram boa recuperação pós-cirúrgica, sem sinais de comprometimento respiratório. Foram feitas necropsias aos 15, 30 e 60 dias do pós -operatório. O local submetido ao implante apresentou algumas aderências com vísceras adjacentes e consolidação da sutura macro e microscopicamente. Conclui-se que o retalho pediculado do grande dorsal pode ser útil para o reparo de grandes defeitos diafragmáticos em cães.In this study, the Latissimus dorsi muscular flap was experimentally used for the repair of iatrogenic diaphragmatic defects in 18 adult dogs. The flap was elevated maintaining its dorso-caudal attachment. The diaphragm was accessed through a right thoracotomy in the tenth intercostal space, a defect in the diaphragm was created and the flap was sutured in the margins of the defect. The flap was capable of covering one third of the right hemidiaphragm. All the animals had good post-surgery recoveries. Respiratory function was not compromised. Necropsies were taken at 15, 30 and 60 days post-surgery. Macro and microscopically, the muscle showed few adhesions with adjacent viscera and excellent healing. The Latissimus dorsi muscular flap can be useful for reconstruction of large diaphragmatic defects in dogs.

  8. Effect of upper costal and costo-diaphragmatic breathing types on electromyographic activity of respiratory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celhay, Isabel; Cordova, Rosa; Miralles, Rodolfo; Meza, Francisco; Erices, Pia; Barrientos, Camilo; Valenzuela, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in young-adult subjects with different breathing types. This study included 50 healthy male subjects with complete natural dentition, and no history of orofacial pain or craniomandibular-cervical-spinal disorders. Subjects were classified into two groups: upper costal breathing type, and costo-diaphragmatic breathing. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Electromyographic activity was recorded during the following tasks: (1) normal quiet breathing; (2) speaking the word 'Mississippi'; (3) swallowing saliva; and (4) forced deep breathing. Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity was not significantly different between breathing types, whereas diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal than costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P<0·05; Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test). Diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type.

  9. Proliferation Rates of Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Relate to Liveweight and Carcase Weight in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Chantal A.; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P.; Siddell, Jason P.; Greenwood, Paul L.; White, Jason D.; McDonagh, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5–20 hours in culture) in vitro (P cattle (P cattle (P cattle. PMID:25875203

  10. Plane of vertebral movement eliciting muscle lengthening history in the low back influences the decrease in muscle spindle responsiveness of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Weiqing; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Long, Cynthia R; Pickar, Joel G

    2011-12-01

    Proprioceptive feedback is thought to play a significant role in controlling both lumbopelvic and intervertebral orientations. In the lumbar spine, a vertebra's positional history along the dorsal-ventral axis has been shown to alter the position, movement, and velocity sensitivity of muscle spindles in the multifidus and longissimus muscles. These effects appear due to muscle history. Because spinal motion segments have up to 6 degrees of freedom for movement, we were interested in whether the axis along which the history is applied differentially affects paraspinal muscle spindles. We tested the null hypothesis that the loading axis, which creates a vertebra's positional history, has no effect on a lumbar muscle spindle's subsequent response to vertebral position or movement. Identical displacements were applied along three orthogonal axes directly at the L(6) spinous process using a feedback motor system under displacement control. Single-unit nerve activity was recorded from 60 muscle spindle afferents in teased filaments from L(6) dorsal rootlets innervating intact longissimus or multifidus muscles of deeply anesthetized cats. Muscle lengthening histories along the caudal-cranial and dorsal-ventral axis, compared with the left-right axis, produced significantly greater reductions in spindle responses to vertebral position and movement. The spinal anatomy suggested that the effect of a lengthening history is greatest when that history had occurred along an axis lying within the anatomical plane of the facet joint. Speculation is made that the interaction between normal spinal mechanics and the inherent thixotropic property of muscle spindles poses a challenge for feedback and feedforward motor control of the lumbar spine.

  11. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  12. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  13. Quality of aged ewe meat in vacuum-packaging system for different storage periods
    Qualidade da carne maturada de ovelhas em sistema de embalagem a vácuo durante diferentes períodos de acondicionamento

    OpenAIRE

    Elzânia Sales Pereira; Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel; Ivone Yurika Mizubuti; Louise Manha Peres; Natália Albieri Koritiaki; Marina Avena Tarsitano; Ana Maria Bridi; Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro; Camila Constantino

    2012-01-01

    Consumers believe tenderness to be most important organoleptic characteristic of meat. However, there is great variability in the tenderness of meat available to consumers; one method to reduce the variability and improve tenderness would be to promote meat aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of aged ewe meat. The experiment was conducted at the State University of Londrina. It was used eighteen Santa Ines ewes. After slaughter, the Longissimus dorsi muscle were collected...

  14. Meat Quality and Physicochemical Trait Assessments of Berkshire and Commercial 3-way Crossbred Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniyan, Sivakumar Allur; Kang, Da Rae; Belal, Shah Ahmed; Cho, Eun-So-Ri; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul; Choi, Yang-Il; Shim, Kwan-Seob

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) ? Yorkshire (white color) ? Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip los...

  15. Effect of conventional cooking methods on lipid oxidation indices in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    A Pourkhalili; M Mirlohi; E Rahimi; M Hojatoleslami

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the most deteriorative reactions occurred in foodstuff which has harmful impacts on the both food quality and consumer's health. This study was designed to speculate the influence of three conventional cooking methods including boiling, frying and grilling on lipid oxidation parameters in cooked lamb meat. Sections of lamb meat from longissimus dorsi muscle, taken from native Lori-Bakhtiary sheep species were cut into uniform pieces and cooked using boiling, frying a...

  16. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  17. Qualidade da carne de javali e de suíno comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Marchiori, Andréa Fernanda; Felício, Pedro Eduardo de

    2003-01-01

    Presently there is a growing interest in the production and marketing of wild boar meat, and to attend a differentiated consumer demand the quality attributes of this product should be well established. To characterize the quality of wild boar meat in comparison to commercial pork, post mortem changes in the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were determined by pH and temperature decline, and color (CIE L*a*b*) measurements. Water holding capacity (WHC) was determined by the compre...

  18. Myostatin inhibits porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W X; Dodson, M V; Jiang, Z H; Yu, S G; Chu, W W; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of myostatin on adipogenesis by porcine intramuscular preadipocytes. Intramuscular preadipocytes were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of newborn pigs. Myostatin inhibited intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Myostatin treatment during preadipocyte differentiation significantly (P Myostatin also significantly (P myostatin acts as an extrinsic regulatory factor in regulating intramuscular adipogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of finishing diet and postmortem ageing on the eating quality of the M. longissimus thoracis of electrically stimulated Brahman steer carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, H L; Stark, J L; Beilken, S L

    2004-06-01

    Beef from cattle finished on grass will be of similar quality to that from cattle finished on grain when their carcasses are processed using best practice protocols. To test this hypothesis, carcasses of twenty Brahman steers, finished to 400 kg live weight on either Buffel grass pasture (n=10) or grain (n=10), were electrically stimulated with 400 V for 50 s 45 min postmortem, and their beef quality assessed 1 and 14 days postmortem. Hot weight, rump subcutaneous fat thickness and animal rate of growth in the 205 days preceding slaughter were recorded for each carcass as potential influences on beef quality. Quality of the M. longissimus thoracis (LT) at 1 and 14 days postmortem was evaluated using peak Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, pH, cooking loss and taste panel acceptability, as well as by moisture and crude fat contents measured at 1 day postmortem. Results showed that steers finished on pasture grew the slowest and had the least subcutaneous fat at the same carcass weight. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture also had the shortest mean sarcomere lengths, suggesting these muscles may have been cold-affected, but there was no effect of diet on peak shear force. LT from carcasses of steers finished on pasture had the highest mean compression value, possibly because of increased collagen cross-linking associated with slow growth or increased exercise. Ageing significantly decreased LT peak shear force and compression values and increased cooking loss, L (∗), a (∗) and b (∗) values. Taste panellists rated the aged, grass-finished beef the most tender and the best quality; however, the taste panel in this study may have favoured LT from grass-finished steers because it was significantly juicier than LT from the grain-finished steer carcasses. These results indicated that carcass composition and processing conditions interact to exert a greater effect on LT toughness and sensory acceptability than finishing diet. Ageing LT from steers

  20. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  1. Centuries-old DNA from an extinct population of Aesculapian snake (Zamenis longissimus) offers new phylogeographic insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Kristensen, Hans Viborg

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The Aesculapian snake (Zamenis longissimus) is distributed in Central and Southern Europe, the Balkans, Anatolia, and Iran, but had a wider mid-Holocene distribution into Northern Europe. To investigate the genetic affinity of a Danish population that went extinct in historical times, we...... analysed three ethanol-preserved individuals dating back to 1810 using a silica-in-solution ancient DNA extraction method, combined with next-generation sequencing. Bioinformatic mapping of the reads against the published genome of a related colubrid snake revealed that two of the three specimens contained...... endogenous snake DNA (up to 8.6% of the reads), and this was evident for tooth, bone, and soft tissue samples. The DNA was highly degraded, observed by very short average sequence lengths (

  2. Spectral analysis of blood perfusion in the free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and in normal skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xudong; Zeng Bingfang; Fan Cunyi; Jiang Peizhu; Hu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    To find the properties in the oscillatory components of the cutaneous blood flow on the successful free flap, a wavelet transform was applied to the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals which were measured simultaneously on the surfaces of the free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and on the adjacent intact skin of the healthy limb, of 18 patients. The frequency interval from 0.0095 to 1.6 Hz was examined and was divided into five subintervals (I: 0.0095-0.021 Hz; II: 0.021-0.052 Hz; III: 0.052-0.145 Hz; IV: 0.145-0.6 Hz and V: 0.6-1.6 Hz) corresponding to endothelial metabolic, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory and cardiac origins. The average amplitude and total power in the frequency range 0.0095-1.6 Hz as well as within subintervals I, II, IV and V were significantly lower for signals measured on the free flap than those obtained in the healthy limb. However in interval III, they were significantly higher. The normalized spectral amplitude and power in the free flap were significantly lower in only two intervals, I and II, yet in interval III they were significantly higher; no statistical significance was observed in intervals IV and V. The distinctive finding made in this study, aside from the decrease of endothelial metabolic processes and sympathetic control, was the significant increase of myogenic activity in the free flap. It is hoped that this work will contribute towards knowledge on blood circulation in free flaps and make the monitoring by LDF more reliable

  3. Ankle torque steadiness is related to muscle activation variability and co-activation in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rose, Martin; Sløk, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the significance of muscle activation variability and coactivation for the ability to perform steady submaximal ankle torque (torque steadiness) in healthy children and those with cerebral palsy (CP), and (2) assess ankle function during isometric...... contractions in those children. Fourteen children with CP who walked with equinus foot deformity and 14 healthy (control) children performed maximal and steady submaximal ankle dorsi- and plantarflexions. Dorsiflexion torque steadiness was related to agonist and antagonist muscle activation variability as well...

  4. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis.

  5. The split hypoglossal nerve versus the cross-face nerve graft to supply the free functional muscle transfer for facial reanimation: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tarek A; El Kholy, Mohamed S

    2018-05-01

    Long-standing cases of facial paralysis are currently treated with free functional muscle transfer. Several nerves are mentioned in the literature to supply the free muscle transfer. The aim of this study is to compare the split hypoglossal nerve and the cross-face nerve graft to supply the free functional muscle transfer in facial reanimation. Of 94 patients with long-standing, unilateral facial palsy, 49 were treated using the latissimus dorsi muscle supplied by the split hypoglossal nerve, and 45 patients were treated using the latissmus dorsi muscle supplied by healthy contralateral buccal branch of the facial nerve. The excursion gained by the free muscle transfer supplied by the split hypoglossal nerve (mean 19.20 ± 6.321) was significantly higher (P value 0.001) than that obtained by the contralateral buccal branch of the facial nerve (mean 14.59 ± 6.245). The split hypoglossal nerve appears to be a good possible option to supply the free vascularised muscle transfer in facial reanimation. It yields a stronger excursion in less time than the contralateral cross-face nerve graft. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A case of divided latissimus dorsi flap repair for chest wall defect after wide resection of post-irradiation angiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Yukiko; Sawaizumi, Masayuki; Imai, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takuma; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Iwase, Takuji; Motoi, Noriko; Kanda, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who had undergone breast-conserving surgery for left breast cancer, followed by irradiation at a total dose of 66 Gy in 2005. When 5 years 1 month had elapsed after the operation, redness of the left chest wall was observed. A biopsy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was angiosarcoma. Extended resection of the full thickness of the skin was performed. Adequate resection left a massive defect 15 x 18 cm in size. The divided latissimus dorsi flap was designed, and the oval-shaped skin defect was closed with the skin island of this flap. Post-irradiation sarcoma involving the vessels is a rare entity and occurs in 0.07-0.48% of all cases after radiation therapy. It metastasizes to the distant organs in an early stage and has a poor prognosis. No standard therapy for the disease has been established. Early detection and extended resection are considered to contribute to improvement of the prognosis. The divided latissimus dorsi flap is very useful for reconstructing a wide chest wall defect without the need to wide skin graft the donor site. (author)

  7. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, L.Z.; Zhang, H.; Nersting, L.

    2010-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1.......47-2.84 which is favourable for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Blends of IE90 and IE70 were found to have suitable solid fat content, melting and crystallization profile suitable for sausages production. Sausages were produced from blends of IE90 and IE70 with different muscle types (musculus...... longissimus dorsi and musculus sternomandibularis) and processing conditions such as cooling rates and final processing temperature. Cooling rate was found to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on hardness of the sausages throughout storage. Both musculus longissimus dorsi and high final processing...

  8. Phase reversal of biomechanical functions and muscle activity in backward pedaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, L H; Kautz, S A; Brown, D A; Zajac, F E

    1999-02-01

    Computer simulations of pedaling have shown that a wide range of pedaling tasks can be performed if each limb has the capability of executing six biomechanical functions, which are arranged into three pairs of alternating antagonistic functions. An Ext/Flex pair accelerates the limb into extension or flexion, a Plant/Dorsi pair accelerates the foot into plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, and an Ant/Post pair accelerates the foot anteriorly or posteriorly relative to the pelvis. Because each biomechanical function (i.e., Ext, Flex, Plant, Dorsi, Ant, or Post) contributes to crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle, phasing of a muscle is hypothesized to be a consequence of its ability to contribute to one or more of the biomechanical functions. Analysis of electromyogram (EMG) patterns has shown that this biomechanical framework assists in the interpretation of muscle activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects during forward pedaling. Simulations show that backward pedaling can be produced with a phase shift of 180 degrees in the Ant/Post pair. No phase shifts in the Ext/Flex and Plant/Dorsi pairs are then necessary. To further test whether this simple yet biomechanically viable strategy may be used by the nervous system, EMGs from 7 muscles in 16 subjects were measured during backward as well as forward pedaling. As predicted, phasing in vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SL) were unaffected by pedaling direction, with VM and SL contributing to Ext, MG to Plant, and TA to Dorsi. In contrast, phasing in biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) were affected by pedaling direction, as predicted, compatible with their contribution to the directionally sensitive Post function. Phasing of rectus femoris (RF) was also affected by pedaling direction; however, its ability to contribute to the directionally sensitive Ant function may only be expressed in forward pedaling. RF also contributed significantly to

  9. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus x Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-03-31

    Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus x Simmental (A x S; n = 6) steer calves (155 +/- 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 +/- 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A x S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A x S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 microg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A x S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A x S steers. The lipogenic

  10. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graugnard Daniel E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL from Angus (n = 6 and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6 steer calves (155 ± 10 days age fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6 or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6 diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4 being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM. Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A

  11. Adipogenic and energy metabolism gene networks in longissimus lumborum during rapid post-weaning growth in Angus and Angus × Simmental cattle fed high-starch or low-starch diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugnard, Daniel E; Piantoni, Paola; Bionaz, Massimo; Berger, Larry L; Faulkner, Dan B; Loor, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptional networks coordinate adipocyte differentiation and energy metabolism in rodents. The level of fiber and starch in diets with adequate energy content fed to young cattle has the potential to alter intramuscular adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle. Post-weaning alterations in gene expression networks driving adipogenesis, lipid filling, and intracellular energy metabolism provide a means to evaluate long-term effects of nutrition on longissimus muscle development across cattle types. Results Longissimus lumborum (LL) from Angus (n = 6) and Angus × Simmental (A × S; n = 6) steer calves (155 ± 10 days age) fed isonitrogenous high-starch (HiS; 1.43 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) or low-starch (LoS; 1.19 Mcal/kg diet dry matter; n = 6) diets was biopsied at 0, 56, and 112 days of feeding for transcript profiling of 31 genes associated with aspects of adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Intake of dietary energy (9.44 ± 0.57 Mcal/d) across groups during the study did not differ but feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) during the first 56 days was greater for steers fed HiS. Expression of PPARG increased ca. 2-fold by day 56 primarily due to HiS in A × S steers. Several potential PPARG-target genes (e.g., ACACA, FASN, FABP4, SCD) increased 2.5-to-25-fold by day 56 across all groups, with responses (e.g., FASN, FABP4) being less pronounced in A × S steers fed LoS. This latter group of steers had markedly greater blood plasma glucose (0.99 vs. 0.79 g/L) and insulin (2.95 vs. 1.17 μg/L) by day 112, all of which were suggestive of insulin resistance. Interactions were observed for FABP4, FASN, GPAM, SCD, and DGAT2, such that feeding A × S steers high-starch and Angus steers low-starch resulted in greater fold-changes by day 56 or 112 (GPAM). Marked up-regulation of INSIG1 (4-to-8-fold) occurred throughout the study across all groups. SREBF1 expression, however, was only greater on day 112 namely due to LoS in A × S steers. The

  12. Relationships between myonuclear domain size and fibre properties in the muscles of Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Kuwano, A; Hiraga, A; Miyata, H

    2010-11-01

    The myonuclear domain (MND) is the region of cytoplasm governed by a single myonucleus. Myonuclear domain size is an important factor for muscle fibre plasticity because each myonucleus has limitations in the capacity of protein synthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that differences in MND size exist in different fibre types in several species, including horses. To understand the basic mechanism of muscle plasticity, the relationships between MND size, muscle fibre type population and metabolic properties of skeletal muscles throughout the whole body in Thoroughbred horses were examined. Post mortem samples were taken from 20 muscles in 3 Thoroughbred horses aged 3-5 years of age. Fibre type population was determined on serial cross sections of each muscle sample, stained for monoclonal antibodies to each myosin heavy chain isoform. Oxidative (succinic dehydrogenase; SDH) and glycolytic (phosphofructokinase; PFK) enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically in each muscle sample. Furthermore, 30 single fibres were isolated from each muscle under stereomicroscopy and then fibre volume and myonuclear number for a given length analysed under confocal microscopy. The MND size of each single fibre was measured after normalisation of sarcomere length to 2.8 µm by staining with membrane-specific dye. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that soleus, vastus lateralis and gluteus medius muscles had the highest percentage of type I, IIa and IIx muscle fibre, respectively. Biochemical analysis indicated highest activities of SDH and PFK in diaphragm and longissimus lumborum muscles, respectively. MNDs were largest in the splenius muscle and smallest in the soleus and masseter muscles. Myonuclear domain size is significantly related to type I muscle fibre population, but not to SDH activities of the muscles. The MND size of muscle fibre depends on fibre type population rather than mitochondrial enzyme activities. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of clinical methods for peroneal muscle testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig-Bahat, Hilla; Krasovsky, Andrei; Sprecher, Elliot

    2013-03-01

    Manual muscle testing of the peroneal muscles is well accepted as a testing method in musculoskeletal physiotherapy for the assessment of the foot and ankle. The peroneus longus and brevis are primary evertors and secondary plantar flexors of the ankle joint. However, some international textbooks describe them as dorsi flexors, when instructing peroneal muscle testing. The identified variability raised a question whether these educational texts are reflected in the clinical field. The purposes of this study were to investigate what are the methods commonly used in the clinical field for peroneal muscle testing and to evaluate their compatibility with functional anatomy. A cross-sectional study was conducted, using an electronic questionnaire sent to 143 Israeli physiotherapists in the musculoskeletal field. The survey questioned on the anatomical location of manual resistance and the combination of motions resisted. Ninety-seven responses were received. The majority (69%) of respondents related correctly to the peronei as evertors, but asserted that resistance should be located over the dorsal aspect of the fifth metatarsus, thereby disregarding the peroneus longus. Moreover, 38% of the respondents described the peronei as dorsi flexors, rather than plantar flexors. Only 2% selected the correct method of resisting plantarflexion and eversion at the base of the first metatarsus. We consider this technique to be the most compatible with the anatomy of the peroneus longus and brevis. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test indicated that there was a significant relationship between responses on the questions (P = 0.0253, 95% CI 0.0249-0.0257), thus justifying further correspondence analysis. The correspondence analysis found no clustering of the answers that were compatible with anatomical evidence and were applied in the correct technique, but did demonstrate a common error, resisting dorsiflexion rather than plantarflexion, which was in agreement with the described

  14. Diving into old age: muscular senescence in a large-bodied, long-lived mammal, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E; Lawler, John M

    2009-03-01

    Classic aging theory postulates the absence of pronounced organismal senescence in wild animals since mortality probably occurs first. Large-bodied, long-lived mammals are a recognized exception to this tenet, yet organismal senescence has not been investigated to date in such mammals in the wild. Furthermore, oxidative stress theory of aging supports the suggestion that exercise hypoxia, as regularly incurred during apneustic foraging in diving mammals might lead to cellular dysfunction and accelerated aging. To determine if an aspect of organismal senescence occurs in wild marine mammals, we examined the pattern of skeletal muscle aging (contractile and connective tissue components of longissimus dorsi and pectoralis muscles) in free-ranging adult Weddell seals (9-26 years). The average myocyte cross-sectional area was 22% greater with age in the longissiums dorsi, but no significant increase occurred in the pectoralis. Cross-sectional area was not related to body mass. Changes in myocyte number per area were consistent with the 35-40% age-increase in extracellular space in both muscle groups. Also consistent with extracellular space remodeling, total and relative collagen contents were significantly elevated in older seals (115% in longissimus dorsi; 65% in pectoralis). The ratio of muscle myocyte to collagen declined with age (50-63%) at both sites. Additionally, a shift towards a higher ratio of type I to type III collagen occurred with advancing age in both muscle groups (79% increase in pectoralis; 49% in longissimus dorsi). We reject the classic tenet and null-hypothesis that Weddell seals do not survive to an age where muscular senescence becomes detectable.

  15. Changes in collagen synthesis and degradation during skeletal muscle growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, G.J.; McAnulty, R.J.; Gibson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The changes in collagen metabolism during skeletal muscle growth were investigated by measuring rates of synthesis and degradation during stretch-induced hypertrophy of the anterior latissimus dorsi muscle of the adult chicken (Gallus domesticus). Synthesis rates were obtained from the uptake of tritiated proline injected intravenously with a flooding dose of unlabeled proline. Degradation of newly synthesized and ''mature'' collagen was estimated from the amount of hydroxyproline in the free pool as small molecular weight moieties. In normal muscle, the synthesis rate was 1.1 +/- 0.3%/day, with 49 +/- 7% of the newly produced collagen degraded rapidly after synthesis. During hypertrophy there was an increase of about fivefold in the rate of synthesis (P less than 0.01), a 60% decrease in the rate of degradation of newly synthesized collagen (P less than 0.02), and an increase of about fourfold in the amount of degradation of mature collagen (P less than 0.01). These results suggest an important role for degradative as well as synthetic processes in the regulation of collagen mass. They indicate that enhanced degradation of mature collagen is required for muscle growth and suggest a physiological role for the pathway whereby in normal muscle, a large proportion of newly produced collagen is rapidly degraded

  16. Muscle- and pneumatic-powered counterpulsating LVADs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, J C; van Loon, J; Bishop, N D; Shelton, A D; Marten, C; Kolff, W J; Stephenson, L; Baciewicz, F; Nakajima, H; Thomas, G

    1994-03-01

    There is a worldwide interest in supporting the failing heart with a skeletal muscle by either wrapping it around the natural heart (dynamic cardiomyoplasty) or by constructing a skeletal muscle ventricle (SMV) used for counterpulsation. Conventional cardiomyoplasty in many clinics carries an operative mortality rate of 15-20% partly because it requires 6 weeks to train the muscle to contract continually. A flexible, pear-shaped blood pump with an inflatable air chamber was designed and made around which a muscle can be wrapped. The advantage of our design is that it can also be driven by pneumatic power, immediately supporting the circulation of a seriously ill patient while that patient is still on the operating table. After a period of time to allow for revascularization and the subsequent training of the muscle, the external pneumatic power can be gradually discontinued. Then the assisted patient becomes tether-free. If, at any time, the muscle power fails, the pneumatic-powered mechanism can be reactivated. In the preferred approach, the blood pump is connected to the aorta for diastolic counterpulsation. A muscle can either be wrapped around the blood pump directly, or around one of two separate muscle pouches connected to the blood pump. To facilitate surgery, a large pouch is inserted under the musculus latissimus dorsi, which is connected to a blood pump. When stimulated, the muscle will contract over the pouch compressing it and providing power to the blood pump. If it is found that the pressure generated in the pouch cannot meet the aortic blood pressure, it can be augmented by using a pressure amplifier.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Effects of chilled-then-frozen storage (up to 52weeks) on lamb M. longissimus lumborum quality and safety parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassius E O; Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of chilled followed by frozen storage on lamb quality and safety parameters. Experimental (n=360) M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were randomly sampled from the boning room of a commercial Australian abattoir, at 24 h post-mortem, and assigned to five chilled storage periods (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks) and six subsequent frozen storage periods (0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 52 weeks). Upon completion of each storage treatment combination, corresponding LL were sub-sectioned and analysed for colour stability (0, 1, 2 and 3 days), shear force, fluid losses (purge, thaw and cooking losses), intramuscular fat content, sarcomere length, water activity and microbial load (lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli). LL stored chilled for 2-4 weeks prior to freezing presented superior results for shear force, display colour and low levels of spoilage microbes, correlating with good eating quality and safety following more than one year of frozen storage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and major fatty acid groups of lamb M. longissimus lumborum using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Schmidt, Heinar; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-12-01

    A hand held Raman spectroscopic device was used to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) levels and the major fatty acid (FA) groups of fresh intact ovine M. longissimus lumborum (LL). IMF levels were determined using the Soxhlet method, while FA analysis was conducted using a rapid (KOH in water, methanol and sulphuric acid in water) extraction procedure. IMF levels and FA values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against each other using linear regression. The results indicate that there is potential to predict PUFA (R(2)=0.93) and MUFA (R(2)=0.54) as well as SFA values that had been adjusted for IMF content (R(2)=0.54). However, this potential was significantly reduced when correlations between predicted and observed values were determined by cross validation (R(2)cv=0.21-0.00). Overall, the prediction of major FA groups using Raman spectra was more precise (relative reductions in error of 0.3-40.8%) compared to the null models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscle recruitment patterns of the subscapularis, serratus anterior and other shoulder girdle muscles during isokinetic internal and external rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Sylvain; Tremblay, Jonathan; Begon, Mickael

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in peak muscle activity and recruitment patterns during high- and low-velocity, concentric and eccentric, internal and external isokinetic shoulder rotations. Electromyographic activity of the rotator cuff and eight superficial muscles of the shoulder girdle was recorded on 25 healthy adults during isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotation at 60°/s and 240°/s. Peak muscle activity, electromyographic envelopes and peak isokinetic moments were analyzed using three-factor ANOVA and statistical parametric mapping. The subscapularis and serratus anterior showed moderate to high peak activity levels during each conditions, while the middle and posterior deltoids, upper, middle and lower trapezius, infraspinatus and supraspinatus showed higher peak activity levels during external rotations (+36.5% of maximum voluntary activation (MVA)). The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi were more active during internal rotations (+40% of MVA). Only middle trapezius and pectoralis major electromyographic activity decreased with increasing velocity. Peak muscle activity was similar or lower during eccentric contractions, although the peak isokinetic moment increased by 35% on average. The subscapularis and serratus anterior appear to be important stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint and scapula. Isokinetic eccentric training at high velocities may allow for faster recruitment of the shoulder girdle muscles, which could improve joint stability during shoulder internal and external rotations.

  1. Nitrite-embedded packaging film effects on fresh and frozen beef color development and stability as influenced by meat age and muscle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, James R; Du, Chen

    2013-11-01

    Muscles (Longissimus lumborum, LL; Psoas major, PM, semitendinosus, ST) were aged (2, 9d postmortem), cut into steaks, anaerobically packaged (nitrite-embedded film, NEF), and displayed (fresh, 19d; frozen, 39d). Fresh NEF increased (PMeat age influenced NEF color. Intact NEF maintained acceptable red color throughout display. Residual nitrite and nitrate associated with fresh NEF and nitrate in NEF cooked LL were found (Pmeat age and muscle differences. NEF packaging has potential to extend fresh beef color display life. NEF appears to offer the opportunity to display bright red beef in frozen display by limiting typical effects of photooxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of species- and tissue-specific proteins using proteomic strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernukha, I. M.; Vostrikova, N. L.; Kovalev, L. I.; Shishkin, S. S.; Kovaleva, M. A.; Manukhin, Y. S.

    2017-09-01

    Proteomic technologies have proven to be very effective for detecting biochemical changes in meat products, such as changes in tissue- and species-specific proteins. In the tissues of cattle, pig, horse and camel M. longissimus dorsi both tissue- and species specific proteins were detected using two dimensional electrophoresis. Species-specific isoforms of several muscle proteins were also identified. The identified and described proteins of cattle, pig, horse and camel skeletal muscles (including mass spectra of the tryptic peptides) were added to the national free access database “Muscle organ proteomics”. This research has enabled the development of new highly sensitive technologies for meat product quality control against food fraud.

  3. Vertical Inset of the Latissimus Dorsi Flap Improves Reconstruction Aesthetics by Reducing Scar Burden in the "Social Breast".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Caleb M; Day, Kristopher M; Gilson, Aaron J; Zoog, Evon; Brzezienski, Mark A

    2018-06-01

    The skin paddle of the latissimus dorsi flap is typically inset horizontally (HILD) in breast reconstruction. We describe our experience with the vertical inset of the latissimus dorsi (VILD) and its aesthetic benefit. We performed a case-control study comparing the most recent cases of both VILD and HILD. Scar, as seen on anterior-posterior photographs, was digitally measured and compared from 3 clinically relevant areas: (1) all visible scarring ("mirror view"), (2) scarring above the nipple ("self-view"), and (3) scarring above or medial to the nipple ("social view"). Demographics and outcomes were statistically compared. Fifty of the most recent patients receiving HILD or VILD were selected for each group. Average patient age was 55.6 and 51.6 years (P = 0.32), and average follow-up was 531.6 and 606.7 days (P = 0.20), respectively. The VILD scar-length ratios were decreased by 17% in the mirror view (P ≤ 0.01), 37% in the self-view (P ≤ 0.01), and 37% in the social view (P ≤ 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding smoking (P = 0.75), diabetes (P = 0.70), body mass index (P = 0.74), seroma (P = 0.46), infection (P = 1.0), or flap necrosis (P = 0.70). The VILD is safe and reliable. Measurements from anterior-posterior photographs illustrate statistically significant decreases in overall scar burden (mirror view) and statistically significant reductions in the highly visible self-view and social view. Our study is the first to quantify a reduction in scar burden by using VILD technique.

  4. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at pswim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the contribution of one muscle compared to another. This also enables a greater understanding of the differences in swimming techniques seen between different cohorts of swimmers and potentially within individual swimmers.

  5. An Analysis of Muscle Activities of Healthy Women during Pilates Exercises in a Prone Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.

  6. Latissimus Dorsi and Immediate Fat Transfer (LIFT for Complete Autologous Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Economides, MD

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion:. Autologous augmentation of the LD flap with lipotransfer has been used to avoid placement of an implant. We improve the technique by performing lipotransfer during index reconstruction. Furthermore, we perform lipotransfer prior to disorigination of the LD muscle to minimize trauma to the flap and increase the efficiency of fat grafting. Our experience demonstrates that this technique is a viable autologous alternative to microsurgical breast reconstruction.

  7. Idade e sexo na maciez da carne de ovinos da raça Corriedale Meat lamb tenderness influenced by age and sex in Corriedale lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arocha Gularte

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A maciez da carne geralmente é o atributo mais importante para o consumidor. Vários são os fatores que influem sobre esSe aspecto no animal, como por exemplo: genótipo, idade, sexo, entre outros. Neste estudo, verificou-se a influência da idade e do sexo na maciez do músculo Longissimus dorsi de ovinos da raça Corriedale, através de métodos sensoriais e instrumentais. Após o abate, realizou-se a avaliação visual da textura do músculo pela granulação da superfície do mesmo. As amostras foram congeladas por 5 meses. Após a cocção, foi analisada a maciez da carne pelo equipamento Warner-Bratzler shear medindo a força de cisalhamento, e por avaliação sensorial realizada por uma equipe treinada de julgadores. Resultados obtidos pela avaliação sensorial e instrumental indicaram que o músculo Longissimus dorsi de fêmeas e de animais de menor idade foram mais macios.The meat tenderness is the most important atribute to the consumer. Several factors have influence in this aspect, for exemple: genotype, age, sex and others. The objective of this work was to study the influence of age and sex on Longissimus dorsi muscle tenderness of Corriedale lineage lamb, through sensory and instrumental methods. After slaughter Longissimus dorsi, texture was evaluated by granite’s surface method. The samples were frozen for five months. After thawing and cooking, meat tenderness was evaluated by Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation by a group of trained judges. The results indicated that female and younger animals produced more tender meat.

  8. Effects of prerigor pressurization on the emulsifying capacity of muscle protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgasim, E.A.; Kennick, W.H.; Anglemier, A.F.; Elkhalifa, E.A.; Koohmaraie, M.

    1982-05-01

    The emulsifying capacities of pressure treated and control muscle homogenates, sarcoplasmic protein and myofibrillar proteins of ovine and bovine longissimus muscles were determined at 2, 6, 24 and 168 hr postmortem. The pH of the intact muscle, muscle homogenate and myofibrillar protein extract were taken at these times. Before onset of rigor mortis, the emulsifying capacity of muscle homogenate from the control samples was higher than the pressure treated samples. At 24 and 168 hr postmortem, the pressure treated and control samples were not significantly different (P>0.05) for emulsifying capacity. At 2 hr postmortem, the emulsifying capacity of myofibrillar protein extract from control samples was higher (P<0.05) than that from pressure treated samples; thereafter, the emulsification curve for the pressure treated samples was higher than that of the control. The emulsification capacity of sarcoplasmic proteins from control muscles was slightly, but consistently, higher than that from pressure treated muscles throughout the test period. Overall, the emulsification capacity of muscle proteins was not detrimentally affected by pressure treatment.

  9. Functional Segregation within the Muscles of Aquatic Propulsion in the Asiatic Water Monitor (Varanus salvator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Arthur Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water monitor lizards (Varanus salvator swim using sinusoidal oscillations generated at the base of their long (50% of total body length tail. In an effort to determine which level of the structural/organizational hierarchy of muscle is associated with functional segregation between the muscles of the tail base, an array of muscle features — myosin heavy chain profiles, enzymatic fiber types, twitch and tetanic force production, rates of fatigue, muscle compliance, and electrical activity patterns — were quantitated. The two examined axial muscles, longissimus and iliocaudalis, were generally similar at the molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels, but differed at the biomechanics level and in their activation pattern. The appendicular muscle examined, caudofemoralis, differed from the axial muscles particularly at the molecular and physiological levels, and it exhibited a unique compliance profile and pattern of electrical activation. There were some apparent contradictions between the different structural/organizational levels examined. These contradictions, coupled with a unique myosin heavy chain profile, lead to the hypothesis that there are previously un-described molecular/biochemical specializations within varanid skeletal muscles.

  10. Muscle sparing lateral thoracotomy: the standard incision for thoracic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Dumitrescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lateral thoracotomy is a versatile approach with many variations and is currently the most widely used incision in thoracic surgery. In the current article we are presenting the muscle-sparing lateral thoracotomy in the lateral decubitus position which we consider to be the “standard” for lateral thoracotomies. Indications, surgical technique and pitfalls are described alongside our experience with thoracic drainage. Although there is no consensus regarding the name of this incision, some authors call it “axillary thoracotomy” while others call it a “modified lateral thoracotomy”, they all agree on one aspect – the importance of muscle sparing – which makes it the go-to thoracotomy for both small and large procedures involving the lung. Lateral muscle sparing thoracotomy allows for good exposure of the pulmonary hilum, fissures, apex and diaphragm. The approach is easy and quick to perform while at the same time ensuring faster postoperative recovery by sparing the latissimus dorsi muscle, better cosmetics and lower postoperative pain score when compared to the posterolateral or classical lateral thoracotomies.

  11. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  12. Criação intensiva de suínos em confinamento ou ao ar livre: estudo meta-analítico do desempenho zootécnico nas fases de crescimento e terminação e avaliação de carcaça e carne no Longissimus dorsi Intensive pig production in confinement or outdoor systems: a meta-analytical study of the production performance in the growing and finishing phases and carcass and meat evaluation from the Longissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bogoni Demori

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Uma meta-análise foi realizada para avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade de carcaça e carne de suínos em função do sistema de alojamento nas fases de crescimento/terminação. Foram selecionadas publicações indexadas com resultados de experimentos comparando variáveis de desempenho e de pós-abate de suínos alojados em sistemas intensivos convencionais ou ao ar livre. A base de dados contemplou 27 artigos publicados entre 1997 e 2009. Ao total, foram considerados 2.985 animais e 701 médias na análise de dados. A meta-análise foi realizada através de duas análises sequenciais: gráfica e de variância-covariância. O sistema de criação de suínos ao ar livre aumentou em 9% (P0,05 pelo sistema de alojamento dos suínos. Concluiu-se que o sistema de criação influencia no desempenho dos suínos, mas não interfere nas características de carcaça e carne estudadas.A meta-analysis was carried out to study performance and characteristics of carcass and meat in pigs in function of housing system during the growing/finishing period. Indexed publications with results of experiments comparing performance and post-slaughter variables of pigs housed in outdoor or conventional intensive systems were selected. In total, 2.985 animals and 701 averages were considered in the data analysis. Meta-analysis followed two sequential analyses: graphic and variance. The outdoor productive system increased in 9% (P0.05 by the housing system. It is concluded that the housing system influences the pig performance, but does not interfere in characteristics of carcass and meat.

  13. Scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of a maxillectomy defect: A minimally invasive transaxillary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Joon; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Ahn, Soon-Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a novel, minimally invasive transaxillary approach for harvesting the scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of a maxillectomy defect. A retrospective case series study of 4 patients who underwent reconstruction using a scapular tip composite free flap through the transaxillary approach was conducted. The data (age, sex, pathology, previous treatment and adjuvant treatment) were collected and analysed. Total operation time, number of hospital days and the cosmetic and functional outcome of reconstruction were analysed. Two male and two female patients were enrolled in this study. The patients' ages ranged from 52 to 59 years. All the patients had maxillectomy defects, with at least a classification of Okay type II, which were successfully reconstructed using a scapular tip and latissimus dorsi free flap through a minimally invasive transaxillary approach. The entire operation time for the primary tumour surgery and reconstruction ranged from 6.2 to 12.1 h (mean, 11.1 h). The average length of the hospital stay was 13 days (range, 10-16 days). No major donor site morbidity was observed, and there was no graft failure that required revision or exploration surgery. The minimally invasive transaxillary approach for harvesting the scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of maxillectomy defect is a promising approach for more favourable functional and aesthetic outcomes when compared to the use of other bone containing free flaps and the classic approach for harvesting scapular tip and latissimus dorsi free flap. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Muscle-Specific Oxidative Stress on Cytochrome c Release and Oxidation-Reduction Potential Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yiling; Mitacek, Rachel M; Abraham, Anupam; Mafi, Gretchen G; VanOverbeke, Deborah L; DeSilva, Udaya; Ramanathan, Ranjith

    2017-09-06

    Mitochondria play a significant role in beef color. However, the role of oxidative stress in cytochrome c release and mitochondrial degradation is not clear. The objective was to determine the effects of display time on cytochrome c content and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of beef longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles. PM discolored by day 3 compared with LL. On day 0, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were greater in PM than LL. However, mitochondrial content and oxygen consumption were lower (P stress can affect cytochrome c release and ORP changes.

  15. Changes in shoulder muscle activity pattern on surface electromyography after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kwon, YoungOk

    2018-02-01

    Alterations in muscle activation and restricted shoulder mobility, which are common in breast cancer patients, have been found to affect upper limb function. The purpose of this study was to determine muscle activity patterns, and to compare the prevalence of abnormal patterns among the type of breast surgery. In total, 274 breast cancer patients were recruited after surgery. Type of breast surgery was divided into mastectomy without reconstruction (Mastectomy), reconstruction with tissue expander/implant (TEI), latissimus dorsi (LD) flap, or transverse rectus abdominis flap (TRAM). Activities of shoulder muscles were measured using surface electromyography. Experimental analysis was conducted using a Gaussian filter smoothing method with regression. Patients demonstrated different patterns of muscle activation, such as normal, lower muscle electrical activity, and tightness. After adjusting for BMI and breast surgery, the odds of lower muscle electrical activity and tightness in the TRAM are 40.2% and 38.4% less than in the Mastectomy only group. The prevalence of abnormal patterns was significantly greater in the ALND than SLNB in all except TRAM. Alterations in muscle activity patterns differed by breast surgery and reconstruction type. For breast cancer patients with ALND, TRAM may be the best choice for maintaining upper limb function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Desempenho, fibras musculares e carne de bovinos jovens de três grupos genéticos Performance, muscle fibers and meat traits of young bulls of three genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário De Beni Arrigoni

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características de desempenho, carcaça, qualidade de carne e das fibras musculares esqueléticas de bovinos jovens de três grupos genéticos, Angus x Nelore, Canchim x Nelore e Simental x Nelore. Noventa bovinos inteiros mestiços jovens, com idade média de oito meses, sendo 30 de cada grupo genético, foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (grupos genéticos e seis repetições. Nas análises das fibras musculares, foram utilizados seis animais por tratamento e na avaliação de desempenho e características de carcaça, foram utilizados todos os animais. Em relação a ganho de peso diário, rendimentos de carcaça e cortes cárneos, área do músculo longissimus dorsi e proteínas e lipídeos totais na carne, não houve diferença entre os grupos genéticos, porém os mestiços Angus apresentaram maior espessura de gordura subcutânea. A maciez da carne não variou entre os grupos genéticos e entre os períodos de 7 e 14 dias de maturação. A semelhança da maciez da carne de 7 e 14 dias permite que o tempo de maturação das carnes seja reduzido, quando se utiliza animais jovens.The performance, carcass traits and quality of meat and muscle fibers of young bulls of three genetic groups, Angus x Nelore, Canchim x Nelore and Simmental x Nelore, were analysed. Ninety crossbred young bulls, averaging eight months old, being 30 of each genetic group, were allotted in a completely randomized design, with three treatments (genetic groups and six replicates. Six animals per treatment were used for the analysis of muscular fibers, while for the evaluation of performance and carcass traits, all animals were used. Average daily gain, dressing percentage, primal cuts yield, rib eye area and total meat protein and fat did not differ among treatments. Angus crossbreed showed greater fat thickness than the other groups. Meat shear force values did not

  17. Características e potencial tecnológico da carne da capivara Characteristcs and technological potential of the capybara meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Franke Pinto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A carne de capivara tem conquistado espaço no mercado de carnes exóticas, justificando estudos que auxiliem no conhecimento de suas características e no aperfeiçoamento do seu processo de obtenção. Com esse objetivo, neste trabalho, os músculos Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus provenientes de animal macho, com idade entre 12 e 18 meses, foram submetidos a procedimentos analíticos visando a avaliar suas características e seu comportamento quanto aos aspectos tecnológicos. A carne apresentou um baixo teor de gordura, de 0,4% e 0,3% para os músculos L. dorsi e Semimembranosus, respectivamente. Foi observada uma correlação inversa (PThe good rank capybara meat has reached within the exotic meat market justifies studies on its physical-chemical composition and also on the improvement of the production process. With that aim, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles of male animals ageing 12 to 18 months were evaluated about composition and technological properties. It was found a low fat content in capybara meat - 0.4% and 0.3% for L. dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles, respectively. A inverse correlation (P<0.001 was found between sarcomere length and shear force. L. dorsi showed a shorter sarcomere lenght and a higher shear force (P<0.001 than Semimembranosus muscle (1.88 mum and 2.43 mum; 11.2 kg and 9.1kg, respectively, what denotes that capybara ham meat is tenderer than loin meat. Moreover, trimmings and viscera were used in the elaboration of meat products as hamburger, pátê and mortadella. Sensory analysis of those products showed good acceptance.

  18. Muscle activation behavior in a swimming exergame: Differences by experience and gaming velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Pooya; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2017-11-01

    The effects of playing intensity and prior exergame and sport experience on the activation patterns of upper limb muscles during a swimming exergame were investigated. Surface electromyography of Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Upper Trapezius, and Erector Spinae of twenty participants was recorded, and the game play was divided into normal and fast. Mean muscle activation, normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), ranged from 4.9 to 95.2%MVIC and differed between normal and fast swimming for all techniques (pswimming. These behaviors are likely to happen when players understand the game mechanics, even after a short exposure. Such evaluation might help in adjusting the physical demands of sport exergames, for safe and meaningful experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  20. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  1. Retail yields and palatability evaluations of individual muscles from wet-aged and dry-aged beef ribeyes and top sirloin butts that were merchandised innovatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Miller, R K; Kerth, C R; Savell, J W

    2014-05-01

    Paired ribeyes (n=24) and top sirloin butts (n=24) were dry-aged or wet-aged for 35 days before being merchandised as individual muscles: M. spinalis thoracis, M. longissimus thoracis, M. gluteobiceps, and M. gluteus medius. Wet-aged subprimals had greater saleable yields than dry-aged. Dry-aged M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps received lower consumer overall like and flavor ratings than did wet-aged; interior muscles - M. longissimus thoracis and M. gluteus medius - did not differ. Trained panelists found higher musty and putrid flavors for dry-aged muscles closer to exterior surface. These flavors may have contributed to lower consumer overall like and flavor ratings for dry-aged M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps. Using innovative styles to cut beef allows for greater merchandising options. However, development of undesirable flavor characteristics may be more pronounced when exterior muscles - M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps - are exposed during dry-aging to extreme conditions and are consumed individually. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the callipyge phenotype and cooking method on tenderness of several major lamb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1997-08-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the effects of the callipyge phenotype on the tenderness of several major lamb muscles and to determine the effect of method of cookery on the tenderness of callipyge lamb at 7 d postmortem. In Exp. 1, chops from normal (n = 23) and callipyge (n = 16) carcasses were open-hearth-broiled. Warner-Bratzler shear force values of longissimus, gluteus medius, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, adductor, and quadriceps femoris were 123, 44, 28, 26, 19, 16, and 13% greater, respectively, for callipyge (P lamb carcasses (n = 60). Callipyge chops were less tender than normal chops (P cooking method, callipyge samples were less juicy than normal samples (P < .05). These data demonstrate that the callipyge phenotype will likely reduce consumer satisfaction due to reduced tenderness and juiciness; however, reduced tenderness in callipyge leg muscles could be prevented by ovenroasting.

  3. Functional sequelae following bilateral mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap: medium-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Guido; Amoroso, Matteo; Pugliese, Pierfrancesco; Longo, Benedetto; Santanelli, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Arm morbidity following unilateral Latissimus Dorsi (LD) flap harvest is controversial and bilateral harvest is considered potentially disabling. Arm and shoulder disability was investigated in patients undergoing bilateral mastectomy and immediate LD flap reconstruction. Thirty consecutive bilateral immediate reconstructions with denervated LD flaps, performed between 2005-2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were assessed for arm function by conducting the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) test, between 12-51 months after surgery (mean 23 months). Disability scores ranged from 1-100%, with 1-25% being regarded as mild dysfunction, 26-50% as moderate dysfunction, 51-75% as severe dysfunction, and 76-100% as total dysfunction. A statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the multivariate linear regression model for variables. The Global Mean Dash score was 14.8%. Twenty-four patients presented a mild functional deficit (50%). Five of them presented a score LD flaps (p test is a useful tool in terms of informing patients and helping the surgeon to choose the best surgical option.

  4. Medições instrumentais e sensoriais de dureza e suculência na carne caprina Instrumental and sensorial assessment of tenderness and juiciness in goat meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela da Silva Borges

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito do tipo de músculo e da maturação sobre algumas propriedades funcionais e sensoriais da carne caprina. Utilizaram-se os músculos longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus e biceps femoris de cabras com aproximadamente 20 meses de idade. A carne, sem maturar e maturada por sete dias, foi avaliada para perdas por cocção (PPC e força de cisalhamento (FC, por métodos instrumentais, e para dureza sensorial (DS e suculência sensorial (SS, por provadores treinados. As PPC não sofreram efeito significativo (p > 0,05 do tipo de músculo e da maturação da carne. A carne sem maturar do músculo semimembranosus apresentou maior FC que aquelas dos músculos longissimus dorsi e biceps femoris. Em relação ao tipo de músculo, após a maturação, as carnes dos músculos semimembranosus e biceps femoris se apresentaram mais macias que a do longissimus dorsi. Quanto ao efeito da maturação, a FC da carne do músculo semimembranosus diminuiu significativamente. A FC apresentou correlação positiva com DS e correlação negativa com SS. Dureza e suculência avaliadas de forma sensorial apresentaram correlação negativa. A maturação por 7 dias diminuiu a dureza, mas não afetou as PPC da carne dos músculos semimembranosus e bíceps femoris.The effect of muscle type and aging for seven days on certain functional and sensory properties of goat meat was evaluated. The experiment used meat from longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus and biceps femoris muscles from female goats that were approximately 20 months. After 24 h of being slaughtered and seven days, the aging meat was instrumentally analyzed for cooking losses (CL and shear force (SF, as well as for sensory firmness (F and juiciness (J by a trained panel. CL was not affected (p > 0.05 by the type of muscle and aging of the meat. Before aging, meat from semimembranosus muscles showed higher SF than those from longissimus dorsi or bicep femoris muscles. After aging, meat from

  5. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional status induces divergent variations of GLUT4 protein content, but not lipoprotein lipase activity, between adipose tissues and muscles in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Muriel; Faulconnier, Yannick; Hocquette, Jean-François; Bocquier, François; Leroux, Christine; Martin, Patrice; Chilliard, Yves

    2004-10-01

    Metabolic adaptations to variations in food supply are incompletely understood in ruminant animal adipose tissue (AT) and muscle. To explore this, we studied lipid metabolism and glucose transport potential in one internal and one external AT, as well as in one oxidative and one glycolytic muscle from control, 7 d underfed and 21 d refed adult cows. Refeeding increased (+79 to +307 %) the activities of enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in perirenal and subcutaneous AT; underfeeding did not modify these variables. Underfeeding decreased the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in perirenal AT (-70 %) and cardiac muscle (-67 %), but did not modify the activities in subcutaneous AT and longissimus thoracis. Refeeding increased LPL activities in all tissues (+40 to +553 %) to levels comparable with (cardiac muscle) or greater than (AT, longissimus thoracis) those observed in control cows. Such variations in perirenal and cardiac muscle LPL activities did not result from variations in LPL mRNA levels, but suggest a post-transcriptional regulation of LPL in these nutritional conditions. Underfeeding did not modify GLUT4 contents in perirenal AT and muscles, while refeeding increased it only in perirenal AT (+250 %). Our present results contrast with previous results in rats, where LPL is regulated in opposite directions in AT and muscles, and GLUT4 is generally increased by fasting and decreased by refeeding in skeletal muscles. The present results highlight the bovine specificity of the response, which probably arises in part from peculiarities of ruminant animals for nutrient digestion and absorption.

  7. Onco plastic volume replacement with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in patients with large ptotic breasts. Is it feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Marakby, H.H.; Kotb, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Onco plastic breast conservative surgery has evolved as a safe alternative to the standard mastectomy in the treatment of early breast cancer. The procedure involves tumour resection with an adequate safety margin and either breast reshaping with volume displacement procedures (large or pt otic breasts) or volume replacement with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (LDF) (small to medium sized non-ptotic breasts). A contra lateral mastopexy procedure is usually necessary with the volume displacement Onco plastic surgery, a procedure that is often rejected by a significant number of patients. This limits the choice of the reconstruction of breast defects in such patients to autologous tissues i.e. LDF. Aim: Aim is to evaluate the feasibility of volume replacement onco plastic breast conservative surgery with lemmatise dorsi myocutaneous flaps for patients with large ptotic breasts. This involves testing the oncologic safety in terms of adequate safety margin, the complications rate and the final cosmetic outcome. The loco regional recurrence rate will be recorded and compared with oncoplastic volume displacement for similar sized breast defects. Patients and methods: A group of 50 female patients with early breast cancers (T2) who presented to the department of surgery at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt in the period between carried out in all patient groups and was used to annually follow up the patients. All patients were detected with T2 NO breast cancer by both clinical and radiological examinations. All patients underwent partial mastectomy was and reconstruction with LDFs. Results: The average age at presentation was 46.5 ± 9 years and the range was 26-65 years. Most of the patients were subjected to partial mastectomy in 30 patients (60%), excision of a single quadrant from the four major quadrants was carried out in 15 patients (30%) where skin sparing wide local excision was carried out in only five patients (10%). The safety margin ranged from

  8. Potential mechanisms of carbon monoxide and high oxygen packaging in maintaining color stability of different bovine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yimin; Yang, Xiaoyin; Liang, Rongrong; Mao, Yanwei; Hou, Xu; Lu, Xiao; Luo, Xin

    2014-06-01

    The objectives were to compare the effects of packaging methods on color stability, metmyoglobin-reducing-activity (MRA), total-reducing-activity and NADH concentration of different bovine muscles and to explore potential mechanisms in the enhanced color stability by carbon monoxide modified atmosphere packaging (CO-MAP, 0.4% CO/30% CO2/69.6% N2). Steaks from longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM) and longissimus thoracis (LT) packaged in CO-MAP, high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (HiOx-MAP, 80% O2/20% CO2) or vacuum packaging were stored for 0day, 4days, 9days, and 14days or stored for 9days then displayed in air for 0day, 1day, or 3days. The CO-MAP significantly increased red color stability of all muscles, and especially for PM. The PM and LT were more red than LL in CO-MAP, whereas PM had lowest redness in HiOx-MAP. The content of MetMb in CO-MAP was lower than in HiOx-MAP. Steaks in CO-MAP maintained a higher MRA compared with those in HiOx-MAP during storage. After opening packages, the red color of steaks in CO-MAP deteriorated more slowly compared with that of steaks in HiOx-MAP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of cluster analysis and preference mapping to evaluate consumer acceptability of choice and select bovine M. longissimus lumborum steaks cooked to various end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (Pconsumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.

  10. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory 'Hardness' and 'Chewiness' Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Chikuni, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    Texture and 'tenderness' in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers' satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of 'chewiness' (9-points) and 'hardness' (7-points) were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for 'chewiness' and 'hardness' are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

  11. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory ‘Hardness’ and ‘Chewiness’ Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sasaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Texture and ‘tenderness’ in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers’ satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of ‘chewiness’ (9-points and ‘hardness’ (7-points were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

  12. Evaluation of carcass and muscle traits in Santa Ines female lambs finished with different agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different agricultural products on quantitative aspects of carcass, body constituents, cooking loss, shear force and colorimetry of the Longissimus lumborum and Triceps brachii muscles in Santa Ines lambs. 24 Santa Ines female lambs received one of four diets which were isoproteic and isoenergetic with fixed levels of forage (60% and concentrate (40% of corn and soybean meal during 45 days. The forages per diet differed: coast-cross hay (HAY, cassava hay (CASS, dehydrated by-product of pea crop (PEA and sugarcane (SC. The average weight of the lambs at the beginning of the experiment was 26.35kg. Animals were slaughtered in a federally certified abattoir. Initial and final pH, cooking losses, color using the CIELAB system, shear force and the quantity of sarcomeres per 100μm were measured. Hot carcass, cold and half carcass weights were affected by treatments (P<0.05. The sarcomere length of Triceps brachii muscle 24 hours after slaughter differed between diets and coast-cross hay had the lowest value. The sarcomere length differed significantly between diets and the dehydrated by-product of pea crop had the lowest number of sarcomeres immediately after slaughter compared to other diets. There was no influence of diet on colorimetry, cooking loss and shear force. The decrease in pH followed the development of the process of rigor mortis in the Longissimus lumborum and Triceps brachii muscles in the first hour and up to 24 hours after slaughter. Diets did not alter the pH, water holding capacity, colorimetry or shear force. The pea by-product and sugarcane can replace traditional sources of fodder without depreciation of meat characteristics.

  13. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakanishi, Takao; Kobayashi, Fumie.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in 5 cases with autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT). Manual muscle test showed muscle involvement with a predilection for flexors in the lower leg and adductors in the thigh. Flexion and extension of the thigh and the lower leg was impaired to similar degree. In progressed cases, neck flexors and trunk muscles were also affected mildly. CT disclosed more clearly the preferential involvement of flexors in the lower leg, and involvement of both hamstrings · adductors group and extensors group of the thigh to similar degree. However, m. popliteus was curiously well preserved. In addition, there was a stage showing high density and hypertrophy of m. sartorius, m. gracilis, m. adductor, m. biceps femoris, m. semimenbranosus, m. semitendinosus or m. rectus femoris, which in thought to be compensatory hypertrophy. M. gluteus minimus in the pelvic girdle and m. dorsi proprii in the trunk were also liable to be affected. The CT findings are regarded as characteristic features noted clearly before muscle weakness and atrophy become apparent clinically. CT is very useful for distinguishing distal muscular dystrophy from rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy in which m. quadriceps femoris and flexors of the lower leg are usually well preserved without compensatory hypertrophy on CT. (author)

  14. Passive stiffness of monoarticular lower leg muscles is influenced by knee joint angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Andrade, Ricardo J; Freitas, Sandro R; Hug, François; Lacourpaille, Lilian; Gross, Raphael; Yucesoy, Can A; Nordez, Antoine

    2018-03-01

    While several studies demonstrated the occurrence of intermuscular mechanical interactions, the physiological significance of these interactions remains a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to quantify the localized changes in the shear modulus of the gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), monoarticular dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles induced by a change in knee angle. Participants underwent slow passive ankle rotations at the following two knee positions: knee flexed at 90° and knee fully extended. Ultrasound shear wave elastography was used to assess the muscle shear modulus of the GL, soleus [both proximally (SOL-proximal) and distally (SOL distal)], peroneus longus (PERL), and tibialis anterior (TA). This was performed during two experimental sessions (experiment I: n = 11; experiment II: n = 10). The shear modulus of each muscle was compared between the two knee positions. The shear modulus was significantly higher when the knee was fully extended than when the knee was flexed (P passive muscle force, these results provide evidence of a non-negligible intermuscular mechanical interaction between the human lower leg muscles during passive ankle rotations. The role of these interactions in the production of coordinated movements requires further investigation.

  15. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of caprine muscle with high and low meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Manshun; Wei, Yanchao; Li, Xin; Quek, Siew Young; Zhao, Jing; Zhong, Huazhen; Zhang, Dequan; Liu, Yongfeng

    2018-07-01

    During the conversion of muscle to meat, protein phosphorylation can regulate various biological processes that have important effects on meat quality. To investigate the phosphorylation pattern of protein on rigor mortis, goat longissimus thoracis and external intercostals were classified into two groups (high quality and low quality), and meat quality was evaluated according to meat quality attributes (Warner-Bratzler shear force, Color, pH and drip loss). A quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was conducted to analyze the caprine muscle at 12h postmortem applying the TiO 2 -SIMAC-HILIC (TiSH) phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. A total of 2125 phosphopeptides were identified from 750 phosphoproteins. Among them, 96 proteins had differed in phosphorylation levels. The majority of these proteins are involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction. The differential phosphorylation level of proteins (PFK, MYL2 and HSP27) in two groups may be the crucial factors of regulating muscle rigor mortis. This study provides a comprehensive view for the phosphorylation status of caprine muscle at rigor mortis, it also gives a better understanding of the regulation of protein phosphorylation on various biological processes that affect the final meat quality attributes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different potential tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment and ageing on the quality of beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, water loss and post-mortem proteolysis. Muscles were obtained from 12 steers (6 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4 hour postmortem and were treated with pulsed electric field within 2h. Six different pulsed electric field intensities (voltages of 5 and 10 kV × frequencies of 20, 50 and 90 Hz) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Beef LL was found to get tougher with increasing treatment frequency whereas beef SM muscle was found to have up to 21.6% reduction in the shear force with pulsed electric field treatment. Post-mortem proteolysis showed an increase in both troponin and desmin degradation in beef LL treated with low intensity PEF treatment (20 Hz) compared to non-treated control samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8≤ pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH≥ 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och m

  18. Effect of electrical stimulation and cooking temperature on the within-sample variation of cooking loss and shear force of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P K; Babiker, S A

    1983-01-01

    Electrical stimulation decreased the shear force and increased the cooking loss in seven paired lamb Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles. This treatment did not have any effect on the within-sample variation. Cooking in 55°, 65° and 75°C water baths for 90 min caused a linear increase in the cooking loss and shear force. There was no stimulation-cooking temperature interaction observed. Cooking temperature also had no effect on the within-sample variation. A possible explanation as to why electrical stimulation did not affect the within-sample variation is given. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Meat quality assessment from young goats fed for long periods with castor de-oiled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D

    2015-08-01

    Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (pgoats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The microRNA, miR-29c, participates in muscle development through targeting the YY1 gene and is associated with postmortem muscle pH in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya ZHANG,Wei WEI,Yuanyuan ZHAO,Shuhong ZHAO,Xinyun LI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that miR-29c is important for muscle development in mice and human, but its role in pigs is unknown. In this study, we detected the expression of miR-29c in Meishan longissimus lumborum (LL muscle. The results showed that miR-29c was gradually upregulated during development of skeletal muscle in pig. Moreover, the expression of YY1 and Akt3 genes, which were confirmed to be targeted by miR-29c in mice, was decreased along with muscle development. Furthermore, the expression level of miR-29c was significantly higher in adult Meishan pigs than Large White pigs, while the expression of YY1 and Akt3 genes was significantly lower in Meishan pigs. These results indicated that the expression pattern of miR-29c was opposite to that of YY1 and Akt3 genes in pigs. Also, the luciferase assay indicated that miR-29s can target the YY1 gene in pigs. In addition, we identified a T to C mutation in the primary transcript of miR-29c, which was associated with the postmortem muscle pH in pigs. Based on these results, we concluded that miR-29c is also important in skeletal muscle development of pigs.

  1. The Effect of Fatigue in Proxmal and Distal Muscles of Lower Extremity on Postural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghadam

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies have shown the effects of muscular fatigue on proprioception and neuromuscular control. However all available researches have studied just the effect of local fatigue in ankle joint muscles on postural control, and no study have found about the effect of fatigue in proximal muscles of the lower extremity on postural control. To compare changes in postural control parameters after isokinetic fatigue of proximal and distal muscles of lower extremity. Materials & Methods: Subjects were twenty healthy men (age: 22.6±2.4 years, height: 173.7± 3.6 cm, weight: 63.3±7.9kg. There were 4 test sessions, with a randomized order according to site and plane of fatigue. During each session one of these muscle groups was fatigued using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer: ankle plantar / dorsi flexors, ankle evertor / inventors, hip flexor / extensors and hip abductor/adductors. The biodex stability system was used to perform dynamic balance test before and after muscle fatigue in each session. Overall, anterior / posterior, and medial/lateral stability indices were recorded. The higher the stability indices, the lower the balancing skill. Results: Analysis of pre-and post fatigue balance results of all sessions, demonstrated significant increase (P<0.05 in all stability indices. Repeated measures ANOVA performed on the rate of changes in stability indices during each session revealed that hip muscle fatigue caused much more increase in stability indices than ankle muscle fatigue (P<0.05. Conclusion: Isokinetic fatigue of both ankle and hip muscles significantly decreases postural control ability in healthy young men. In addition, our findings suggest that the hip joint musculature plays a more prominent role in postural control.

  2. Comparative functional anatomy of the epaxial musculature of dogs (Canis familiaris) bred for sprinting vs. fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Emma L; Hudson, Penny E; Channon, Sarah B

    2014-09-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system of quadrupedal mammals is not currently well understood despite its functional importance in terms of facilitating postural stability and locomotion. Here we examined the detailed architecture of the muscles of the vertebral column of two breeds of dog, the Staffordshire bull terrier (SBT) and the racing greyhound, which have been selectively bred for physical combat and high speed sprint performance, respectively. Dissections of the epaxial musculature of nine racing greyhounds and six SBTs were carried out; muscle mass, length, and fascicle lengths were measured and used to calculate muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and to estimate maximum muscle potential for force, work and power production. The longissimus dorsi muscle was found to have a high propensity for force production in both breeds of dog; however, when considered in combination with the iliocostalis lumborum muscle it showed enhanced potential for production of power and facilitating spinal extension during galloping gaits. This was particularly the case in the greyhound, where the m. longissimus dorsi and the m. iliocostalis lumborum were estimated to have the potential to augment hindlimb muscle power by ca. 12%. Breed differences were found within various other muscles of the axial musculoskeletal system, particularly in the cranial cervical muscles and also the deep muscles of the thorax which insert on the ribs. These may also highlight key functional adaptations between the two breeds of dog, which have been selectively bred for particular purposes. Additionally, in both breeds of dog, we illustrate specialisation of muscle function by spinal region, with differences in both mass and PCSA found between muscles at varying levels of the axial musculoskeletal system, and between muscle functional groups. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  3. Quantifying muscle patterns and spine load during various forms of the push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephanie; Karpowicz, Amy; Gray, John; McGill, Stuart

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the normalized amplitudes of the abdominal wall and back extensor musculature during a variety of push-up styles. We also sought to quantify their impact on spinal loading by calculating spinal compression and torque generation in the L4-5 area. Ten university-age participants, nine males and one female, in good to excellent condition, volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were requested to perform a maximum of 12 different push-up exercises, three trials per exercise. Surface electromyographic data (EMG) were collected bilaterally on rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae muscles, and unilaterally (right side) on pectoralis major, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and anterior deltoid muscles. Spine kinetics were obtained using an anatomically detailed model of the torso/spine. This study revealed that more dynamic push-ups (i.e., ballistic, with hand movement) required more muscle activation and higher spine load, whereas placing labile balls under the hands only resulted in modest increases in spine load. Right rectus abdominis (RA) activation was significantly higher than left RA activation during the left hand forward push-up and vice versa for the right hand forward push-up (P push-ups (P push-up resulted in the highest spine compression. Skilled participants showed greater synchronicity with peak muscle activation (plyometric type of contractions) during ballistic push-ups. These data will help guide exercise selection for individuals with differing training objectives and injury history.

  4. Trunk muscle cocontraction: the effects of moment direction and moment magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, S A; Tsuang, Y H; Andersson, G B; Hafezi, A; Shin, C C

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the cocontraction of eight trunk muscles during the application of asymmetric loads to the torso. External moments of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Nm were applied to the torso via a harness system. The direction of the applied moment was varied by 30 degrees increments to the subjects' right side between the sagittally symmetric orientations front and rear. Electromyographic (EMG) data from the left and right latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominus were collected from 10 subjects. The normalized EMG data were tested using multivariate and univariate analyses of variance procedures. These analyses showed significant interactions between the moment magnitude and the moment direction for seven of the eight muscles. Most of the interactions could be characterized as due to changes in muscle recruitment with changes in the direction of the external moment. Analysis of the relative activation levels, which were computed for each combination of moment magnitude and direction, indicated large changes in muscle recruitment due to asymmetry, but only small adjustments in the relative activation levels due to increased moment magnitude.

  5. Bench Press Upper-Body Muscle Activation Between Stable and Unstable Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Lynn, Scott K; Barillas, Saldiam R

    2015-12-01

    The bench press is one of the most commonly used upper-body exercises in training and is performed with many different variations, including unstable loads (ULs). Although there is much research on use of an unstable surface, there is little to none on the use of an UL. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation during the bench press while using a stable load (SL) vs. UL. Twenty resistance-trained men (age = 24.1 ± 2 years; ht = 177.5 ± 5.8 cm; mass = 88.7 ± 13.7 kg) completed 2 experimental conditions (SL and UL) at 2 different intensities (60 and 80% one repetition maximum). Unstable load was achieved by hanging 16 kg kettlebells by elastic bands from the end of the bar. All trial lifts were set to a 2-second cadence with a slight pause at the bottom. Subjects had electrodes attached to 5 muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, triceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi) and performed 3 isometric bench press trials to normalize electromyographic data. All 5 muscles demonstrated significantly greater activation at 80% compared with 60% load and during concentric compared with eccentric actions. These results suggest that upper body muscle activation is not different in the bench press between UL and SL. Therefore, coaches should use their preference when designing training programs.

  6. Quadrantectomy and Nipple Saving Mastectomy in Treatment of Early Breast Cancer: Feasibility and Aesthetic Results of Adjunctive Latissmus Dorsi Breast Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, M.; El-Marakby, H.H.; Saber, N.; Zayed, S.B.; Shokry, A.

    2005-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery has been a recognised method of treatment of early breast cancer. The treatment methods include quadrantectomy or skin sparing mastectomy combined with ipsilateral axillary nodal dissection followed by radiotherapy. In the current study we evaluate the feasibility and oncologic safety of the quadrantectomy and SSM operations with preservation of the nipple and areola, and the cosmetic results of immediate reconstruction by using the latissmus dorsi flap. Materials and Methods: A breast conservative surgery (quadrantectomy or nipple sparing mastectomy) was carried out in a group of 55 patients with invasive breast cancer treated at the Department of Surgical Oncology, NCl, between January 2001 and April 2004. The selection criteria included those patients who presented with TI or T2 breast cancer and were located at least 2 cm from the nipple as the centre for the nipple areola complex. The age of the patients ranged from 32 years to 65 years. The follow up period ranged from 2 to 33 months with an average of 21 months. Pathological assessment of the specimens showed a negative safety margin in all cases. Most of our cases were invasive duct carcinoma grade 1-2 (42) (75%). The complications of the flap reconstruction included one major sloughing of the Iatissmus dorsi flap, 4 partial flap sloughing, 4 sloughing of the nipple and fat necrosis in 6 patients. The donor site healed normally in all of our cases except for one patient who suffered from a hypertrophic scar which settled down during the follow up period. The aesthetic assessment of the patients, showed an excellent to good results in the majority of cases (42) (75%) while in 6 (12%) results were fair and in 7 (13%) results were poor. Breast conservative surgery with quadrantectomy or skin sparing technique with preservation of the nipple and areola combined with immediate LD flap reconstruction is a valid procedure for treatment of early breast cancer. Immediate reconstruction by

  7. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  8. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Domenech

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT and semitendinosus (ST muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes had greater saturated (P<0.001 and lower monounsaturated (P<0.001 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P=0.002 concentration than meat from Anglo Nubian, showing higher saturated fatty acids (SFA. On the other hand, intramuscular fat content from both genotypes was higher (P=0.042 in ST muscle, while the lowest cholesterol levels were observed in ST of Criollo Cordobes (P=0.038. That higher fat content resulted in lower relative contents of total polyunsaturated (P<0.001 and n-3 (P=0.002 fatty acids due to the lower contribution of the membrane phospholipids.

  9. Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T.G.; Toepfer, Christopher N.; Woledge, Roger C.; Curtin, N.A.; Rowlerson, Anthea; Kalakoutis, Michaeljohn; Hudson, Penny; Wilson, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Muscle samples were taken from the gluteus, semitendinosus and longissimus muscles of a captive cheetah immediately after euthanasia. Fibres were “skinned” to remove all membranes leaving the contractile filament array intact and functional. Segments of skinned fibres from these cheetah muscles and from rabbit psoas muscle were activated at 20°C by a temperature jump protocol. Step and ramp length changes were imposed after active stress had developed. The stiffness of the non-contractile ends of the fibres (series elastic component) was measured at two different stress values in each fibre; stiffness was strongly dependent on stress. Using these stiffness values, the speed of shortening of the contractile component was evaluated, and hence the power it was producing. Fibres were analysed for myosin heavy chain content using gel electrophoresis, and identified as either slow (Type I) or fast (Type II). The power output of cheetah Type II fibre segments was 92.5 ± 4.3 W kg−1 (mean ±s.e., 14 fibres) during shortening at relative stress 0.15 (=stress during shortening/isometric stress). For rabbit psoas fibre segments (presumably Type IIX) the corresponding value was significantly higher (Pcheetah was less than that of rabbit when maximally activated at 20°C, and does not account for the superior locomotor performance of the cheetah. PMID:23580727

  10. Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy G; Toepfer, Christopher N; Woledge, Roger C; Curtin, Nancy A; Rowlerson, Anthea; Kalakoutis, Michaeljohn; Hudson, Penny; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-08-01

    Muscle samples were taken from the gluteus, semitendinosus and longissimus muscles of a captive cheetah immediately after euthanasia. Fibres were 'skinned' to remove all membranes, leaving the contractile filament array intact and functional. Segments of skinned fibres from these cheetah muscles and from rabbit psoas muscle were activated at 20°C by a temperature-jump protocol. Step and ramp length changes were imposed after active stress had developed. The stiffness of the non-contractile ends of the fibres (series elastic component) was measured at two different stress values in each fibre; stiffness was strongly dependent on stress. Using these stiffness values, the speed of shortening of the contractile component was evaluated, and hence the power it was producing. Fibres were analysed for myosin heavy chain content using gel electrophoresis, and identified as either slow (type I) or fast (type II). The power output of cheetah type II fibre segments was 92.5±4.3 W kg(-1) (mean ± s.e., 14 fibres) during shortening at relative stress 0.15 (the stress during shortening/isometric stress). For rabbit psoas fibre segments (presumably type IIX) the corresponding value was significantly higher (Pcheetah was less than that of rabbit when maximally activated at 20°C, and does not account for the superior locomotor performance of the cheetah.

  11. Relationships between Paraspinal Muscle Activity and Lumbar Inter-Vertebral Range of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister du Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of the lumbar spine requires contributions from both the active and passive sub-systems. Identifying interactions between these systems may provide insight into the mechanisms of low back pain. However, as a first step it is important to investigate what is normal. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the lumbar inter-vertebral range of motion and paraspinal muscle activity during weight-bearing flexion in healthy controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF and surface electromyography (sEMG. Contemporaneous lumbar sEMG and QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active flexion of 60° using electrodes placed over Longissimus thoracis pars thoracis (TES, Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum (LES, and Multifidus (LMU. Normalised root mean square (RMS sEMG amplitude data were averaged over five epochs, and the change in amplitude between epochs was calculated. The sEMG ratios of LMU/LES LMU/TES and LES/TES were also determined. QF was used to measure the maximum inter-vertebral range of motion from L2-S1, and correlation coefficients were calculated between sEMG amplitude variables and these measurements. Intra- and inter-session sEMG amplitude repeatability was also assessed for all three paraspinal muscles. The sEMG amplitude measurements were highly repeatable, and sEMG amplitude changes correlated significantly with L4-5 and L5-S1 IV-RoMmax (r = −0.47 to 0.59. The sEMG amplitude ratio of LES/TES also correlated with L4-L5 IV-RoMmax (r = −0.53. The relationships found may be important when considering rehabilitation for low back pain.

  12. Relationships between Paraspinal Muscle Activity and Lumbar Inter-Vertebral Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan

    2016-01-05

    Control of the lumbar spine requires contributions from both the active and passive sub-systems. Identifying interactions between these systems may provide insight into the mechanisms of low back pain. However, as a first step it is important to investigate what is normal. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the lumbar inter-vertebral range of motion and paraspinal muscle activity during weight-bearing flexion in healthy controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) and surface electromyography (sEMG). Contemporaneous lumbar sEMG and QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active flexion of 60° using electrodes placed over Longissimus thoracis pars thoracis (TES), Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum (LES), and Multifidus (LMU). Normalised root mean square (RMS) sEMG amplitude data were averaged over five epochs, and the change in amplitude between epochs was calculated. The sEMG ratios of LMU/LES LMU/TES and LES/TES were also determined. QF was used to measure the maximum inter-vertebral range of motion from L2-S1, and correlation coefficients were calculated between sEMG amplitude variables and these measurements. Intra- and inter-session sEMG amplitude repeatability was also assessed for all three paraspinal muscles. The sEMG amplitude measurements were highly repeatable, and sEMG amplitude changes correlated significantly with L4-5 and L5-S1 IV-RoMmax (r = -0.47 to 0.59). The sEMG amplitude ratio of LES/TES also correlated with L4-L5 IV-RoMmax (r = -0.53). The relationships found may be important when considering rehabilitation for low back pain.

  13. Influence of slaughter weight and stress gene genotype on the water-holding capacity and protein gel characteristics of three porcine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, D S; Ellis, M; Lan, Y; McKeith, F K; Wilson, E R

    1997-06-01

    The longissimus lumborum, gluteus medius, and the triceps brachii muscles from 40 animals were used to evaluate the effect of stress gene genotype (non-mutant, NN and mono-mutant, Nn) and live weight at slaughter (110 kg and 140 kg) on the processing quality of fresh pork. The 45 minute and ultimate pH measurements did not differ between genotypes. Total percent protein was not different between samples taken from NN or Nn pigs, nor were there any differences in salt-soluble protein. The M. longissimus lumborum from Nn pigs possessed lower water-holding capacity values and lost greater amounts of water upon cooking. In addition, Nn pigs had lower subjective color and firmness scores which suggest a higher incidence of pale, soft and exudative pork. Slaughter weight did not affect total protein, salt-soluble protein, Minolta L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values or subjective color, firmness and marbling scores. Back fat thickness and loineye area increased as slaughter weight increased. Overall, this study suggested that Nn pigs have reduced water retention properties which may result in lower yields in processed meat items. Slaughter weight had limited effects on the processing quality of meat from NN or Nn pigs. There were no interactions of significance between stress gene genotype and slaughter weight, suggesting that the differences in muscle quality and functional properties between NN and Nn pigs are maintained over the slaughter weights used in this study.

  14. Effect of an Unstable Load on Primary and Stabilizing Muscles During the Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Stephanie J; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Ostrowski, SJ, Carlson, LA, and Lawrence, MA. Effect of an unstable load on primary and stabilizing muscles during the bench press. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 430-434, 2017-Unstable resistance exercises are performed to increase activity of stabilizing muscles. The premise is that this increase in activity will yield greater strength gains than traditional resistance exercises. The purpose of this study was to determine if an unstable load increases muscle activity of stabilizing muscles during a bench press as compared with a standard bench press with a typical load. Fifteen resistance-trained males (age 24.2 ± 2.7 years, mass 84.8 ± 12.0 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, weight lifting experience 9.9 ± 3.4 years, and bench press 1 repetition maximum [1RM] 107.5 ± 25.9 kg) volunteered for this study. Subjects pressed 2 sets of 5 repetitions in both stable (75% 1RM) and unstable (60% 1RM) conditions using a standard barbell and a flexible Earthquake bar, respectively. Surface electromyography was used to detect muscle activity of primary movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps) and stabilizing musculature (latissimus dorsi, middle and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and upper trapezius). Muscle activity was compared using a multivariate analysis of variance to determine significant (p ≤ 0.05) phase and condition differences. The right and left biceps and the left middle deltoid were significantly more active in the unstable condition. Some of the stabilizing muscles were found to be significantly more active in the unstable condition with 15% less weight. Therefore, bench pressing with an unstable load appears promising in activating stabilizing musculature compared with pressing a typical barbell.

  15. Proteomic investigation of protein profile changes and amino acid residue-level modification in cooked lamb longissimus thoracis et lumborum: The effect of roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2016-09-01

    Protein modifications of meat cooked by typical dry-heat methods (e.g., roasting) are currently not well understood. The present study utilised a shotgun proteomic approach to examine the molecular-level effect of roasting on thin lamb longissimus thoracis et lumborum patties, in terms of changes to both the protein profile and amino acid residue side-chain modifications. Cooking caused aggregation of actin, myosin heavy chains and sarcoplasmic proteins. Longer roasting time resulted in significantly reduced protein extractability as well as protein truncation involving particularly a number of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, e.g., 6-phosphofructokinase, beta-enolase, l-lactate dehydrogenase A chain, alpha-actinin-3, actin and possibly myosin heavy chains. Modifications that have potential influence on nutritional properties, including carboxyethyllysine and a potentially glucose-derived N-terminal Amadori compound, were observed in actin and myoglobin after roasting. This study provided new insights into molecular changes resulting from the dry-heat treatment of meat, such as commonly used in food preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping on Muscle Recruitment Order During a Vertical Jump: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Guzman-Muñoz, Eduardo; Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Dabanch-Santis, Alexis; Diaz-Valenzuela, Francisco

    2018-06-22

    Kinesio taping is commonly used in sports and rehabilitation settings with the aim of prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effects of 24 and 72 hours of kinesio taping on trunk and lower limb neuromuscular and kinetic performance during a vertical jump. The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term effects of kinesio taping on height and ground reaction force during a vertical jump, in addition to trunk and lower limb muscle latency and recruitment order. Single-group pretest-posttest. University laboratory. Twelve male athletes from different sports (track and field, basketball, and soccer). They completed a single squat and countermovement jump at basal time (no kinesio taping), 24, and 72 hours of kinesio taping application on the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and longissimus. Muscle onset latencies were assessed by electromyography during a squat and countermovement jump, in addition to measurements of the jump height and normalized ground reaction force. The kinesio taping had no effect after 24 hours on either the countermovement or squat jump. However, at 72 hours, the kinesio taping increased the jump height (P = .02; d = 0.36) and normalized ground reaction force (P = .001; d = 0.45) during the countermovement jump. In addition, 72-hour kinesio taping reduced longissimus onset latency (P = .03; d = 1.34) and improved muscle recruitment order during a countermovement jump. These findings suggest that kinesio taping may improve neuromuscular and kinetic performance during a countermovement jump only after 72 hours of application on healthy and uninjured male athletes. However, no changes were observed on a squat jump. Future studies should incorporate a control group to verify kinesio taping's effects and its influence on injured athletes.

  17. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy. A clinical and computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakanishi, Takao; Kobayashi, Fumie

    1987-02-01

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in 5 cases with autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophy was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT). Manual muscle test showed muscle involvement with a predilection for flexors in the lower leg and adductors in the thigh. Flexion and extension of the thigh and the lower leg was impaired to similar degree. In progressed cases, neck flexors and trunk muscles were also affected mildly. CT disclosed more clearly the preferential involvement of flexors in the lower leg, and involvement of both hamstrings center dot adductors group and extensors group of the thigh to similar degree. However, m. popliteus was curiously well preserved. In addition, there was a stage showing high density and hypertrophy of m. sartorius, m. gracilis, m. adductor, m. biceps femoris, m. semimenbranosus, m. semitendinosus or m. rectus femoris, which in thought to be compensatory hypertrophy. M. gluteus minimus in the pelvic girdle and m. dorsi proprii in the trunk were also liable to be affected. The CT findings are regarded as characteristic features noted clearly before muscle weakness and atrophy become apparent clinically. CT is very useful for distinguishing distal muscular dystrophy from rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy in which m. quadriceps femoris and flexors of the lower leg are usually well preserved without compensatory hypertrophy on CT.

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Walking with and without Nordic Pole on Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Muscle Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Je-Myung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Ha-Roo; Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity.

  19. Associations of MYF5 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in different domestic pig (Sus scrofa populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The MYF5 gene is first inducibly expressed in muscle cell during embryonic muscle development and plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors. In this study we used PCR-RFLP to investigate two pig (Sus scrofa populations (n = 302 for two MYF5 gene polymorphisms, a previously unreported novel Met-Leu shift single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP MYF5/Hsp92II located on exon 1 and the previously identified intron 1 MYF5/HinfI SNP. Haplotype and association analysis showed that haplotypes of the two SNPs were significantly associated with drip loss rate (DLR, p < 0.05, water holding capacity (WHC, p < 0.05, biceps femoris meat color value (MCV2, p < 0.05, biceps femoris marbling score (MM2, p < 0.01, longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat percentage (IMF, p < 0.01 and longissimus dorsi Water moisture content (WM, p < 0.01 in the population 2. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  20. Differential partitioning of rumen-protected n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into muscles with different metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C; Ulbrich, S E; Kreuzer, M; Berard, J; Giller, K

    2018-03-01

    Bioavailability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminants is enhanced by their protection from ruminal biohydrogenation. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFA fulfil important physiological functions. We investigated potentially different incorporation patterns of these functional PUFA into three beef muscles with different activity characteristics. We supplemented 33 Angus heifers with rumen-protected oils characterized either by mainly C18:2 n-6 (linoleic acid (LA) in sunflower oil) or by C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), both prevalent n-3 PUFA in fish oil. Contents and proportions of n-3 and n-6 PUFA of total fatty acids were elevated in the muscles of the respective diet group but they were partitioned differently into the muscles. For EPA and DHA, but not for LA, the diet effect was more distinct in the extensor carpi radialis compared to longissimus thoracis and biceps femoris. Partitioning of PUFA in metabolism could be related to muscle function. This has to be confirmed in other muscles, adipose tissues and organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Características de carcaça e da carne de caprinos Boer x Saanen confinados recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho Characteristics of carcass and meat of feedlot Boer x Saanen kids fed diets with ground corn replaced by soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Hideo Hashimoto

    2007-02-01

    by star grass hay (Cynodon spp, soybean meal, GCG and/or SH, and minerals. Ground corn grain was replaced by SH in the diet as follows: 0% SH (GCG, 50% (SH50 and 100% (SH100. Carcass characteristics were not affected by the increasing levels of SH in the diet. However, yield of retail cuts from the loin and neck differed across treatments. Percentage of meat from the Longissimus dorsi muscle was not affected by increasing SH in the diet but kids fed GCG diet showed greater proportion of fat and lower of bone compared to SH50 and SH100 treatments. The chemical composition and the fatty acid profile of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were similar among treatments although its cholesterol content was greater when SH was included in the diet. Soybean hulls can replace GCG in the diet because no significant changes were observed in the characteristics of carcass and meat.

  2. Quality of wild boar meat and commercial pork Qualidade da carne de javali e de suíno comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Fernanda Marchiori

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently there is a growing interest in the production and marketing of wild boar meat, and to attend a differentiated consumer demand the quality attributes of this product should be well established. To characterize the quality of wild boar meat in comparison to commercial pork, post mortem changes in the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were determined by pH and temperature decline, and color (CIE L*a*b* measurements. Water holding capacity (WHC was determined by the compression method and the exudate loss (EL by the drip loss test. Decline in longissimus dorsi muscle pH of wild boar was gradual and in the pork it was faster and more extensive. Temperature differences were observed in some post mortem times, and the lowest values were found in wild boar carcasses. Wild boar meat presented lower values of L* (brightness and b* (yellow color intensity, and higher values of a* (red color intensity than pork. The WHC of the wild boar meat was similar to pork, but the EL in female wild boar meat was lower than in pork.Atualmente existe no Brasil um interesse crescente na criação e exploração comercial da carne de javali e para atender a uma demanda diferenciada é importante que os atributos qualitativos do produto sejam bem estabelecidos. Com o objetivo de caracterizar a carne de javali nos parâmetros de qualidade e compará-la com a carne suína comercial, as mudanças nos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus, no post mortem, foram acompanhadas com medidas de pH, temperatura e cor (CIE L*a*b*. A capacidade de retenção de água (CRA foi determinada pelo método de compressão e a perda de exsudato (PE pelo teste de "drip loss". A queda de pH na carne de javali ocorreu de forma gradual, enquanto que no Longissimus dorsi de suíno a diminuição foi mais rápida e mais extensa. Diferenças de temperatura foram verificadas em alguns tempos post mortem, sendo que os menores valores foram encontrados nos javalis. A carne

  3. Nonlinear Analysis of an Unstable Bench Press Bar Path and Muscle Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Michael A; Leib, Daniel J; Ostrowski, Stephanie J; Carlson, Lara A

    2017-05-01

    Lawrence, MA, Leib, DJ, Ostrowski, SJ, and Carlson, LA. Nonlinear analysis of an unstable bench press bar path and muscle activation. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1206-1211, 2017-Unstable resistance exercises are typically performed to improve the ability of stabilizing muscles to maintain joint integrity under a load. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an unstable load (as provided by a flexible barbell and a load suspended by elastic bands) on the bar path, the primary musculature, and stabilizing musculature while bench pressing using nonlinear analyses. Fifteen resistance-trained men (age 24.2 ± 2.7 years, mass 84.1 ± 12.0 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, 9.9 ± 3.4 years of lifting experience, and bench press 1 repetition maximum (RM) 107.5 ± 25.9 kg) volunteered for this study. Subjects pressed 2 sets of 5 repetitions in both stable (total load 75% 1RM) and unstable (total load 60% 1RM) conditions using a standard barbell and a flexible Earthquake bar, respectively. Surface electromyography was used to detect muscle activity of primary movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps) and bar stabilizing musculature (latissimus dorsi, middle and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and upper trapezius). During the unstable condition, the bar moved in more ways and was less predictable in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions. However, the muscle activation patterns of all muscles were more constrained with the unstable barbell. These findings suggest that the unstable condition was more challenging to control, but subjects controlled the instability by contracting their muscles in a more stable pattern or "staying tight" throughout the exercise.

  4. Qualidade e composição química da carne de bovinos de corte inteiros ou castrados de diferentes grupos genéticos Charolês x Nelore Quality and composition of meat from entire or castrated beef cattle from different Charolais x Nellore genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2001-04-01

    were feedlot finished from 20 to 24 months. The longissimus dorsi muscle was used for the meat evaluation. No significant interaction was observed between genetic composition and sexual condition, for the variables studied. The I males displayed meat with darker color (3.05 vs. 3.78 points with less amount of marbling (4.26 vs. 5.75 points and less amount of ether extract (1.73 vs. 2.88%. However they presented larger (66.03 vs. 60.50 cm² longissimus dorsi area and meat with better palatability, juiciness and tenderness. Ch animals had larger longissimus dorsi than the Ne. In the G1 group, the 1/2 Ch meat showed larger amount of marbling and ether extract and less cooking losses than the 1/2 Ne meat. Between G2 animals, the 3/4 Ne showed meat with larger thawing losses and larger amount of ether extract. In G1 animals meat, the heterosis level reached 18.54% for longissimus dorsi area, 28.10% for ether extract and 64.01% for amount of marbling. In G2, the heterosis was -17.30% for lean texture and 10.40% for longissimus dorsi area.

  5. Effects of dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjiao; Yu, Changning; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of different dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrow (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, DLY) pigs (65.0±2.0 kg) were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets: A (44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat, and 12.6% neutral detergent fibre [NDF]), B (37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat, and 15.4% NDF) or C (30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat, and 17.8% NDF). After the duration of 28-day feeding experiment, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered and the M. longissimus lumborum (LL) samples at 45 min postmortem were collected. Compared with diet A, diet C resulted in greater adenosine triphosphate and decreased phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, greater activity of creatine kinase and reduced percentage bound activities of hexokinase (HK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in LL muscles (p<0.05). Moreover, diet C decreased the phosphor-AKT level and increased the hydroxy-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) level, as well as decreased the bound protein expressions of HK II, PKM2, and lactate dehydrogenase A (p<0.05). Diet C with the lowest level of starch and the highest levels of fat and NDF could enhance the PCr utilization and attenuate glycolysis early postmortem in LL muscle of finishing pigs.

  6. Colour stability and water-holding capacity of M. longissimus and carcass characteristics in fallow deer (Dama dama grazed on natural pasture or fed barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding regimen on carcass characteristics, meat colour and water-holding capacity of M. longissimus were studied in 24 female fallow deer (Dama dama. All animals were farm raised; twelve were grazed on pasture and twelve were fed barley and a small amount of hay prior to slaughter. The animals were slaughtered at two occasions (during the Southern Hemisphere spring; after 19 weeks of feeding (n=12; 6 grazing and 6 barley fed animals; group 1 and after 24 weeks of feeding (n=12; 6 grazing and 6 barley fed animals; group 2. The barley/hay-fed deer had significantly higher body condition scores and carcass weights than the pasture raised group. No difference in meat ultimate pH values between the treatment groups was recorded. The meat from the pasture raised deer had significantly longer colour display life after 2 and 3 weeks of refrigerated storage (+ 2.0 ºC in vacuum bags. There was no difference in drip loss between the two treatment groups. However, significantly lower drip losses were found in meat from the animals in group 2 compared with the ones in group 1 (P ≤ 0.001. It was concluded that the feeding regimen of the animals is an important factor that contributes to the variation in quality of fresh chilled deer meat (venison, mainly the colour stability and display life of vacuum packaged meat.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: I denna undersökning ingick 24 dovhjortshindar (Dama dama för att studera effekterna av olika typer av foder (bete och korn på slaktkroppskvalitet samt färg och vattenhållande förmåga i köttet (M. longissimus. Alla djur var uppfödda på en hjortfarm, 12 betade gräs och 12 utfodrades med korn och en liten mängd hö före slakt. Djuren slaktades vid två olika tillfällen (under våren på det södra halvklotet; efter 19 veckors utfodring (n=12; 6 betesdjur och 6 kornfodrade djur; grupp 1 och efter 24 veckors utfodring (n=12; 6 betesdjur och 6 kornfodrade djur; grupp 2. De dovhjortar

  7. Computed tomographical findings of skeletal muscles in rimmed vacuole type distal myopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimoto, Masanari; Kawai, Mitsuru; Goto, Jun; Nakano, Imaharu

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal muscle CT scans of three patients with biopsy-proven rimmed vacuole type distal myopathy(RVDM) from two unrelated families showed unique involvement pattern of the lower extremities. Parents of the patients in both families are first cousins. T.Y. is a 36-year-old woman who noticed mild difficulty in walking at 34 years of age. Now she shows waddling but still indpendent gait. Manual muscle test (MMT) revealed the following results: fair (3+/5) for hip flexion, 3 for hip extension, 3 for knee flexion, normal (5/5) for knee extension, poor (2/5) for ankle dorsi-flexion, good (4/5) for ankle plantar flexion. T.M., a 34-year-old younger sister of T.Y., started dragging her feet on gait at age 27. She could walk neither on toes nor heels. At present, she can walk only with support. MMT showed the following: 3- and trace (1/5) for hip flexion and extension, 3- and 4 for knee flexion and extension, 1 for ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion. K.W., a 33-year-old woman, began to drag her foot tips in walk and became unable to walk on toes at age 21. The leg weakness progressed into the wheelchair-ridden state at age 30. MMT gave the following results: 1 for hip flexion and extension, 2 and 4 for knee flexion and extension, zero for plantar- and dorsi-flexion. The most impressive CT findings common to these three patients are prominent contrast between the quadriceps muscles and the adductor- and hamstring-group: the former is markedly well preserved even in the most advanced patient (K.W.) while the latter are diffusely and severely affected even in the least affected patient (T.Y.). This finding well coincides with the results of MMT: the knee extensor (quadriceps muscles) fairly well keeps its strength even in the most advanced patient but the knee flexors (adductors and hamstrings) are definitely affected in the early stage of the condition. (J.P.N.)

  8. Computed tomographical findings of skeletal muscles in rimmed vacuole type distal myopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunimoto, Masanari; Kawai, Mitsuru; Goto, Jun; Nakano, Imaharu

    1987-03-01

    Skeletal muscle CT scans of three patients with biopsy-proven rimmed vacuole type distal myopathy(RVDM) from two unrelated families showed unique involvement pattern of the lower extremities. Parents of the patients in both families are first cousins. T.Y. is a 36-year-old woman who noticed mild difficulty in walking at 34 years of age. Now she shows waddling but still indpendent gait. Manual muscle test (MMT) revealed the following results: fair (3+/5) for hip flexion, 3 for hip extension, 3 for knee flexion, normal (5/5) for knee extension, poor (2/5) for ankle dorsi-flexion, good (4/5) for ankle plantar flexion. T.M., a 34-year-old younger sister of T.Y., started dragging her feet on gait at age 27. She could walk neither on toes nor heels. At present, she can walk only with support. MMT showed the following: 3- and trace (1/5) for hip flexion and extension, 3- and 4 for knee flexion and extension, 1 for ankle plantar- and dorsiflexion. K.W., a 33-year-old woman, began to drag her foot tips in walk and became unable to walk on toes at age 21. The leg weakness progressed into the wheelchair-ridden state at age 30. MMT gave the following results: 1 for hip flexion and extension, 2 and 4 for knee flexion and extension, zero for plantar- and dorsi-flexion. The most impressive CT findings common to these three patients are prominent contrast between the quadriceps muscles and the adductor- and hamstring-group: the former is markedly well preserved even in the most advanced patient (K.W.) while the latter are diffusely and severely affected even in the least affected patient (T.Y.). This finding well coincides with the results of MMT: the knee extensor (quadriceps muscles) fairly well keeps its strength even in the most advanced patient but the knee flexors (adductors and hamstrings) are definitely affected in the early stage of the condition. (J.P.N.).

  9. The Teratogenicity and the Action Mechanism of Gallic Acid Relating with Brain and Cervical Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chiu Lan; Lin, Chien-Hong; Chen, Kuan Chou; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y.

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) (GA) and other flavanoids are extensively used in nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. While examining whether GA is effective in alleviating valproic-acid-induced teratogenesis in a chicken embryo model (CEM), we observed embryo hemorrhage and liposis in the musculi longissimus cervicis. We conducted this study to determine whether GA is inherently teratogenic and the extent to which the risk can be transferred to fetuses. A CEM was used to administer GA at 2, 6, 10, and 14 μM. GA at 2 μM did not exhibit cytotoxicity. At 6, 10, and 14 μM, GA caused severe decreases in body and liver weights, causing -5.6%, -21.3%, and -27.5% body weights and 4.0, 3.8, and 3.2-g, liver weights, respectively, in day-1 chicks. The optimal alive birth rate (or damaging rate) reached 33.3%, 39.4%, and 29.2% at 6, 10, and 14 μM GA, respectively. The damaged tissue was primarily cervical muscle (musculi longissimus cervicis), as evidenced by liposis, Zenker’s necrosis, and hemolysis. The erythrocyte, hemoglobin, eosinophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were severely reduced and PPAR-α was downregulated, whereas the Ras/Raf/JAK/STAT pathway was upregulated. The GA dose required to induce teratogenesis was ≥ 6 μM (1.02 mg/kg), which can be easily consumed by pregnant women in typical teas such as Chinese Pu-’Er and Chinese black teas, indicating a potential risk to human fetuses. GA at doses ≥ 1.02 mg/kg of body weight potentially causes characteristic cerebral hemolysis and liposis in the musculi longissimus cervicis. The mechanism of action of GA is multidisciplinary: The liposis can be ascribed to downregulation of PPAR-α; the erythrocyte hemolysis can be attributed to its unique autooxidative and prooxidant behavior and the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase; and the proliferation and differentiation deficits can be attributed to the upregulation of the Ras/Raf/JAK/STAT pathway. PMID

  10. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Taiane S; Sanglard, Letícia M P; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L; Rennó, Luciana N; Serão, Nick V L; Silva, Fabyano F; Guimarães, Simone E F; Ladeira, Márcio M; Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP-1, CPT-2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis.

  11. Effects of Short-term Feeding Magnesium before Slaughter on Blood Metabolites and Postmortem Muscle Traits of Halothane-carrier Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire×Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 108.2±0.8 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p0.05 on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01, while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05 as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05 muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05 muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes.

  12. Unusual metabolic characteristics in skeletal muscles of transgenic rabbits for human lipoprotein lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viglietta Céline

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lipoprotein lipase (LPL hydrolyses circulating triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Thereby, LPL acts as a metabolic gate-keeper for fatty acids partitioning between adipose tissue for storage and skeletal muscle primarily for energy use. Transgenic mice that markedly over-express LPL exclusively in muscle, show increases not only in LPL activity, but also in oxidative enzyme activities and in number of mitochondria, together with an impaired glucose tolerance. However, the role of LPL in intracellular nutrient pathways remains uncertain. To examine differences in muscle nutrient uptake and fatty acid oxidative pattern, transgenic rabbits harboring a DNA fragment of the human LPL gene (hLPL and their wild-type littermates were compared for two muscles of different metabolic type, and for perirenal fat. Results Analyses of skeletal muscles and adipose tissue showed the expression of the hLPL DNA fragment in tissues of the hLPL group only. Unexpectedly, the activity level of LPL in both tissues was similar in the two groups. Nevertheless, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate, measured ex vivo using [1-14C]oleate as substrate, was lower in hLPL rabbits than in wild-type rabbits for the two muscles under study. Both insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4 and muscle fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP contents were higher in hLPL rabbits than in wild-type littermates for the pure oxidative semimembranosus proprius muscle, but differences between groups did not reach significance when considering the fast-twitch glycolytic longissimus muscle. Variations in both glucose uptake potential, intra-cytoplasmic binding of fatty acids, and lipid oxidation rate observed in hLPL rabbits compared with their wild-type littermates, were not followed by any modifications in tissue lipid content, body fat, and plasma levels in energy-yielding metabolites. Conclusions Expression of intracellular binding proteins for both fatty acids and

  13. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and muscle amino-acid profile of different rabbits breeds and their crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Abd-Elhamid, Tamer; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Meat production efficiency can be enhanced by crossbreeding to capture heterosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of rabbit genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acids profile. A total of 504 weaned rabbits from nine genotypes of full factorial crossing of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CA) and Rex (RX) were used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were assessed for meat quality and amino acids profile. There were no differences between groups at weaning and 6weeks, but by 10weeks differences were significant (Pmeat quality. CA×RX and RX×NZW had the heaviest body weight at 10weeks of age and highest body weight gain during the whole finishing period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Discovery of MicroRNAs associated with myogenesis by deep sequencing of serial developmental skeletal muscles in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Hou

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short, single-stranded non-coding RNAs that repress their target genes by binding their 3' UTRs. These RNAs play critical roles in myogenesis. To gain knowledge about miRNAs involved in the regulation of myogenesis, porcine longissimus muscles were collected from 18 developmental stages (33-, 40-, 45-, 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, 70-, 75-, 80-, 85-, 90-, 95-, 100- and 105-day post-gestation fetuses, 0 and 10-day postnatal piglets and adult pigs to identify miRNAs using Solexa sequencing technology. We detected 197 known miRNAs and 78 novel miRNAs according to comparison with known miRNAs in the miRBase (release 17.0 database. Moreover, variations in sequence length and single nucleotide polymorphisms were also observed in 110 known miRNAs. Expression analysis of the 11 most abundant miRNAs were conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR in eleven tissues (longissimus muscles, leg muscles, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine and colon, and the results revealed that ssc-miR-378, ssc-miR-1 and ssc-miR-206 were abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles. During skeletal muscle development, the expression level of ssc-miR-378 was low at 33 days post-coitus (dpc, increased at 65 and 90 dpc, peaked at postnatal day 0, and finally declined and maintained a comparatively stable level. This expression profile suggested that ssc-miR-378 was a new candidate miRNA for myogenesis and participated in skeletal muscle development in pigs. Target prediction and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1, both of which were relevant to proliferation and differentiation, might be the potential targets of miR-378. Luciferase activities of report vectors containing the 3'UTR of porcine BMP2 or MAPK1 were downregulated by miR-378, which suggested that miR-378 probably regulated myogenesis though the regulation of these two genes.

  15. Evaluation of Myoelectric Activity of Paraspinal Muscles in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis during Habitual Standing and Sitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Kwok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a number of research work in the literature that have applied sEMG biofeedback as an instrument for muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, sEMG is a good tool for this research work and is used to record the myoelectric activity in the paraspinal muscles of those with AIS during habitual standing and sitting. After the sEMG evaluation, the root-mean-square (RMS sEMG values of the paraspinal muscles in the habitual postures reflect the spinal curvature situation of the PUMC Type Ia and IIc subjects. Both groups have a stronger average RMS sEMG value on the convex side of the affected muscle regions. Correction to posture as instructed by the physiotherapist has helped the subjects to achieve a more balanced RMS sEMG ratio in the trapezius and latissimus dorsi regions; the erector spinae in the thoracic region and/or erector spinae in the lumbar region. It is, therefore, considered that with regular practice of the suggested positions, those with AIS can use motor learning to achieve a more balanced posture. Consequently, the findings can be used in less intrusive early orthotic intervention and provision of care to those with AIS.

  16. Evaluation of Myoelectric Activity of Paraspinal Muscles in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis during Habitual Standing and Sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Garcia; Yip, Joanne; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yick, Kit-Lun

    2015-01-01

    There is a number of research work in the literature that have applied sEMG biofeedback as an instrument for muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, sEMG is a good tool for this research work and is used to record the myoelectric activity in the paraspinal muscles of those with AIS during habitual standing and sitting. After the sEMG evaluation, the root-mean-square (RMS) sEMG values of the paraspinal muscles in the habitual postures reflect the spinal curvature situation of the PUMC Type Ia and IIc subjects. Both groups have a stronger average RMS sEMG value on the convex side of the affected muscle regions. Correction to posture as instructed by the physiotherapist has helped the subjects to achieve a more balanced RMS sEMG ratio in the trapezius and latissimus dorsi regions; the erector spinae in the thoracic region and/or erector spinae in the lumbar region. It is, therefore, considered that with regular practice of the suggested positions, those with AIS can use motor learning to achieve a more balanced posture. Consequently, the findings can be used in less intrusive early orthotic intervention and provision of care to those with AIS.

  17. Muscle-splitting approach to superior and inferior gluteal vessels: versatile source of recipient vessels for free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S

    2000-07-01

    The superior gluteal vessel has been reported as a recipient in free-tissue transfer for the coverage of complex soft-tissue defects in the lumbosacral region, where a suitable recipient vessel is difficult to find. The characteristics of proximity, vessel caliber, and constancy make the superior gluteal vessel preferable to previously reported recipient vessels. However, there are technical difficulties in microsurgery (e.g., short pedicle length and deep location) and muscle injury (transection of the muscle) associated with use of the superior gluteal vessel. The purpose of this article is to present a modification of an approach to the gluteal vessel to alleviate technical difficulties and minimize muscle injury. From August of 1997 to January of 1999, six patients received microvascular transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle or myocutaneous flap to the sacral (4) and ischial (2) regions. The causes of defects were tumor (1), trauma (1), and pressure sores (4). A muscle-splitting approach was used on the superior gluteal vessel and was later applied to the inferior gluteal vessel. The gluteus maximus muscle was split as needed in the direction of its fibers, and the perforators were dissected down to the superior or inferior gluteal artery and vein deep into the muscle. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 22 months, and all of the flaps survived with complete recovery of the lesion. The major drawbacks of using the superior and inferior gluteal vessels can be overcome with the muscle-splitting approach, which provides increased accessibility and additional length to the vascular pedicle while causing minimal injury to the muscle itself. It also proves to be an easy, safe, and reliable method of dissection. When free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions is indicated, the muscle-splitting approach to the superior and inferior gluteal vessels is a recommended option in the selection of a recipient vessel.

  18. [Construction of forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries between muscle tissue of Meishan and Landrace pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Quan; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Gui, Jian-Fang; Jiang, Si-Wen; Su, Yu-Hong

    2003-07-01

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique, forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed between Longissimus muscles from Meishan and Landrace pigs. A housekeeping gene, G3PDH, was used to estimate the efficiency of subtractive cDNA. In two cDNA libraries, G3PDH was subtracted very efficiently at appropriate 2(10) and 2(5) folds, respectively, indicating that some differentially expressed genes were also enriched at the same folds and the two subtractive cDNA libraries were very successful. A total of 709 and 673 positive clones were isolated from forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries, respectively. Analysis of PCR showed that most of all plasmids in the clones contained 150-750 bp inserts. The construction of subtractive cDNA libraries between muscle tissue from different pig breeds laid solid foundations for isolating and identifying the genes determining muscle growth and meat quality, which will be important to understand the mechanism of muscle growth, determination of meat quality and practice of molecular breeding.

  19. Alteração nas frações das proteínas miofibrilares e maciez do músculo Longissimus de bovinos no período post mortem

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Gilmara Bruschi; Ramos,Paulo Roberto Rodrigues; Spim,Jeison Solano

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se com o estudo identificar por eletroforese as mudanças nas frações das proteínas musculares durante período postmortem de bovinos de diferentes grupos genéticos e analisar a maciez da carne em amostras resfriadas por 24 horas (não maturadas) e maturadas por 7 dias. Foram utilizadas amostras do musculo Longissimus de quarenta e oito bovinos pertencentes a 4 grupos genéticos: 12 Nelore; 12 cruzados ½ Nelore ½ Aberdeen-Angus x Brahman; 12 Brangus; 12 cruzados ½ nelore ½ Aberdeen-Angu...

  20. 2013 Early Career Achievement Award--Proteomics of muscle- and species-specificity in meat color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, S P; Rentfrow, G; Nair, M N; Joseph, P

    2014-03-01

    Meat color is the most important quality trait influencing consumer purchase decisions. The interinfluential interactions between myoglobin and biomolecules govern color stability in meat. The advances in proteomics, such as high throughput analytical tools in mass spectrometry, 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and bioinformatics, offer themselves as robust techniques to characterize the proteome basis of muscle- and species-specific meat color phenomena. Differential abundance of chaperones and antioxidant proteins contributes to muscle-specific color stability in beef; the greater abundance of chaperones and antioxidant proteins in color-stable Longissimus lumborum than in color-labile Psoas major protects myoglobin and contributes to superior color stability of beef Longissimus steaks. Lipid oxidation-induced myoglobin oxidation is more critical to beef color than pork color due to the inherent differences in myoglobin chemistry; the number of nucleophilic histidine residues adducted by reactive aldehydes is greater in beef myoglobin than in pork myoglobin. Preferential adduction of secondary products of lipid oxidation to beef myoglobin accelerates metmyoglobin formation at a greater degree than in its pork counterpart. Mass spectrometric investigations revealed that although cherry-red carboxymyoglobin is more stable than oxymyoglobin, both redox forms undergo lipid oxidation-induced oxidation in model systems. The accuracy of mass spectrometry to detect the molecular mass of proteins has been applied to differentiate myoglobins from closely related meat animals, such as goats and sheep or emu and ostrich. In addition, this approach indicated that turkey myoglobin is 350 Da greater in molecular mass than beef myoglobin, and the unique biochemistry of turkey myoglobin could be responsible for its greater thermostability in model systems as well as the pink color defect observed in fully cooked uncured turkey products.

  1. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  2. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  3. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  4. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Ian G; Herrington, Lee C; Rolf, Christer

    2010-02-25

    The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases.

  5. Reconstruction of Extensive Soft-Tissue Defects with Concomitant Bone Defects in the Lower Extremity with the Latissimus Dorsi-Serratus Anterior-Rib Free Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Wei Tee; Xu, Germaine Guiqin; Puhaindran, Mark Edward; Tan, Bien Keem; Cheng, Mathew Hern Wang; Chew, Winston Yoon Chong

    2015-07-01

    The combined latissimus dorsi-serratus anterior-rib (LD-SA-rib) free flap provides a large soft-tissue flap with a vascularized bone flap through a solitary vascular pedicle in a one-stage reconstruction. Seven LD-SA-rib free flaps were performed in seven patients to reconstruct concomitant bone and extensive soft-tissue defects in the lower extremity (tibia, five; femur, one; foot, one). The patients were all male, with an average age of 34 years (range, 20-48 years). These defects were secondary to trauma in five patients and posttraumatic osteomyelitis in two patients. All flaps survived and achieved bony union. The average time to bony union was 9.4 months. Bone hypertrophy of at least 20% occurred in all flaps. All patients achieved full weight-bearing ambulation without aid at an average duration of 23.7 months. Two patients developed stress fractures of the rib flap. There was no significant donor site morbidity, except for two patients who had pleural tears during harvesting of the flap. The LD-SA-rib flap provides a large soft-tissue component and a vascularized bone flap for reconstruction of composite large soft-tissue defects with concomitant bone defects of the lower extremity in a one-stage procedure. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Reconstruction of a Marjolin Ulcer Defect of the Scalp Invading Brain and Causing Brain Abscess Formation Using Free Latissimus Dorsi Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Hamzaoglu, Vural; Ozalp, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    Marjolin ulcers are known as aggressive malignant tumors that mostly arise over chronic wounds and cutaneous scars. Brain abscess is a serious medical condition that requires surgical drainage along with antibiotic treatment. Here, we report a case with a Marjolin ulcer located over the right parietal bone with intracranial abscess formation along with tumor invasion into brain parenchyma. This patient was a 64-year-old man and had a 4 × 4 cm open wound on his scalp from which a purulent discharge was coming. This wound required surgical excision with security margins, resection of bone, evacuation of the cystic cavity, and excision of the walls of the cystic cavity, which were invaded by the tumor. Duraplasty and reconstruction of the defect with a free lattisimus dorsi flap are performed. To the best of our knowledge, the case reported here is unique because of the formation of brain abscess in the background of a long-lasting Marjolin ulcer invading brain parenchyma. It must be remembered that on the background of cutaneous scars located over the scalp, a Marjolin ulcer may develop, and if left untreated, tumor cells may invade even the brain parenchyma. Long-term asymptomatic brain infections may also accompany the given scenario, and complicate differential diagnosis.

  7. Recovery of sensation in immediate breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps after breast-conservative surgery and skin-sparing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2011-04-01

    In breast reconstruction, sensation in the reconstructed breasts affects the patients' quality of life along with its aesthetic outcome. Fortunately, less invasive procedures such as breast-conservative surgery (BCS) and skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) have greatly contributed to the improved aesthetic outcome in immediate breast reconstruction. However, there are few reports on the recovery of breast sensation after BCS and SSM. We retrospectively reviewed 104 consecutive patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap between 2001 and 2006 at our institution. The sensations of pain, temperature, touch, and vibration were examined at the nipple and skin envelope during the follow-up period (range: 12-61 months, mean: 31 months), and a stratified analysis was performed to determine the critical factors affecting the sensation recovery after BCS and SSM. We found that large breast size significantly impaired the recovery of sensation in the nipple and skin envelope after BCS as well as SSM. Older age and high body mass index value were the factors which negatively affected the sensation in the skin envelope after SSM. While all our BCS patients underwent postoperative radiation therapy, it did not negatively affect the recovery of sensation in SSM patients. On the basis of these findings, we could further improve the sensation of the reconstructed breasts after BCS and SSM. Especially after SSM, the use of innervated flaps is recommended in the patients with large breast, increased age, or obesity when the nipple-areola complex is resected.

  8. Fibroelastic pseudotumor elastofibroma dorsi detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT scan and by postherapy radioiodine SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, M; Cepa, F; Orta, N; Rubí, S; Navalón, H; Peña, C

    Radioiodine uptake in the thyroid tissue, metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), and in other tissues, depends on the expression of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Vascular permeability, effusions, inflammation, and other mechanisms may also play a role in the accumulation of radioactive iodine. A 63-year-old woman underwent radioiodine therapy, as well as a post-therapy whole-body scan, as she was suspected of having lung metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. The scan not only showed uptake at the lung metastasis but also a faint diffuse bilateral uptake in the posterior thorax. On SPECT/CT this uptake was located in a known Elastofibroma Dorsi (ED) previously diagnosed by contrast CT and viewed in a FDG PET/CT. The radioiodine uptake in ED, especially if typical, is not a diagnostic problem in SPECT/CT study, but can be misleading in a study limited to a few planar images, particularly if the uptake occurs asymmetrically, or ED is located in a unsuspected area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  10. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P M. longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle (2.3 vs. 1.1%; P <0.001) were higher for females than for males. The LT of cows was darker (lower L* and higher a*-value; P <0.001), had a better waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  11. Evolution of the bulk optical properties of bovine muscles during wet aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beers, Robbe; Kokawa, Mito; Aernouts, Ben; Watté, Rodrigo; De Smet, Stefaan; Saeys, Wouter

    2018-02-01

    The bulk optical properties (BOP) of two bovine muscles were studied in the 500nm to 1850nm wavelength range. Over a two-week period of wet aging, the BOP of the biceps femoris (BF) and longissimus lumborum (LL) were determined and related to moisture content, tenderness and cooking loss. The absorption by myoglobin and reduced scattering coefficient were higher in the BF compared to the LL. The scattering anisotropy factor was relatively high (>0.95 for LL), representing dominant forward scattering. Two-toning effects in the BF could be attributed to significant scattering differences, as no differences in absorption properties were observed. During wet aging, the anisotropy factor decreased, while tenderness increased. It was hypothesized that this might be related to proteolysis of cytoskeletal proteins. The results show the potential use of BOP to monitor tenderization and the cause of color differences in beef muscles. Moreover, this information could be used to develop and optimize optical sensors for non-destructive meat quality monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Free intra-osseous muscle transfer for treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê Thua, Trung-Hau; Boeckx, Willy D; Zirak, Christophe; De Mey, Albert

    2015-06-10

    Chronic osteomyelitis is still a big reconstructive challenge. Even with standard care, therapeutic failures and recurrences are common. Multiple techniques of tissue transfer have increased the success rate. This study recommends free muscle transfers into the intramedullary bone cavities for treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. The review included 29 patients that were treated for chronic osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis was located at the femur in four patients, the tibia in 22 patients, and the foot in three patients. Dead bone and scar tissue were replaced with durable free muscle flap with special attention to fill the dead space. The average age of these patients was 48.5 years old (range = 23-70 years old). The average duration of osteomyelitis was 8.2 years (range = 1-45 years). Gracilis was applied in 20 cases (69%), latissimus dorsi was used in five cases (17.2%), and rectus abdominis was performed in four cases (13.8%). There was one flap failure, one partial superficial flap necrosis, two arterial thrombosis, and one venous thrombosis. All the remaining 28 muscle flaps survived. From 1-10 years follow-up, there was one recurrence of the osteomyelitis in the distal end of the intra-medullary cavity of a femur after reconstructing using the gracilis flap. The present study demonstrated that free intramedullary muscle transfers are effective in providing a high rate of success in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. The secondary filling of the intramedullary cavity after extensive removal of all infected bony sequesters has proven to give a long-term arrest of chronic osteomyelitis.

  13. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  14. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  15. CE-TOF MS-based metabolomic profiling revealed characteristic metabolic pathways in postmortem porcine fast and slow type muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Ojima, Koichi; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    To determine key compounds and metabolic pathways associated with meat quality, we profiled metabolites in postmortem porcine longissimus lumborum (LL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles with different aging times by global metabolomics using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. Loading analyses of the principal component analysis showed that hydrophilic amino acids and β-alanine-related compounds contributed to the muscle type positively and negatively, respectively, whereas glycolytic and ATP degradation products contributed to aging time. At 168h postmortem, LL samples were characterized by abundance of combinations of amino acids, dipeptides, and glycolytic products, whereas the VI samples were characterized by abundance of both sulfur-containing compounds and amino acids. The AMP and inosine contents in the VI were approx. 10 times higher than those in the LL at 4h postmortem, suggesting different rates of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) accumulation by adenylate kinase 7 and 5'-nucleotidase, and subsequent different production levels of IMP and hypoxanthine between these two porcine muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Divergent selection on 63-day body weight in the rabbit: response on growth, carcass and muscle traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combes Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of selection for growth rate on weights and qualitative carcass and muscle traits were assessed by comparing two lines selected for live body weight at 63 days of age and a cryopreserved control population raised contemporaneously with generation 5 selected rabbits. The animals were divergently selected for five generations for either a high (H line or a low (L line body weight, based on their BLUP breeding value. Heritability (h2 was 0.22 for 63-d body weight (N = 4754. Growth performance and quantitative carcass traits in the C group were intermediate between the H and L lines (N = 390. Perirenal fat proportion (h2 = 0.64 and dressing out percentage (h2 = 0.55 ranked in the order L Semitendinosus muscle, and the mean diameter of the constitutive myofibres were reduced in the L line only (N = 140. In the Longissimus muscle (N = 180, the ultimate pH (h2 = 0.16 and the maximum shear force reached in the Warner-Braztler test (h2 = 0.57 were slightly modified by selection.

  17. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  18. Feasibility of Use of a Barbed Suture (V-Loc 180 for Quilting the Donor Site in Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Thekkinkattil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Latissimus dorsi (LD myocutaneous flap is a popular method of breastreconstruction which can be associated with high incidence of seroma formation. Quiltingsutures at the harvest site are used to reduce this. Barbed sutures are self anchoring sutureswhich avoid multiple knotting and can be useful in quilting.Methods A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained database of patients whounderwent LD flap breast reconstruction between January 2009 and January 2011 was carriedout. Seroma formation at the harvest site, wound related complications, inpatient stay andduration of surgery were analysed and a comparison was made between two groups wherequilting was done with barbed (V-Loc suture and conventional polydioxanone (PDS II sutures.Results Fifty-seven patients were included of which 33 had quilting by V-Loc sutures and in24 patients PDS II suture was used. Median age in the PDS group was 55 years (interquartilerange [IQR], 45 to 61 years which was comparable to the V-Loc group (53 years [IQR, 48to 59 years]; P-value 0.948. Sixteen patients (28% had significant seroma formation and5 (9% patients developed superficial wound dehiscence. Incidences of seroma or woundcomplications were comparable (P-value 0.378 and 1.00, respectively. Secondary outcomessuch as total duration of surgery, total inpatient stay, total amount of drain at the donor sitewere also similar in two groups.Conclusions Use of barbed sutures for quilting the donor site in LD flap reconstruction is afeasible option and the associated seroma formation and wound complications are comparablewith conventional sutures.

  19. Características bioquímicas da carne de bubalinos Mediterrâneo terminados em confinamento e abatidos em diferentes pesos Biochemicals meat traits from Mediterranean buffaloes finished in feedlot and slaughtered at different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2006-10-01

    months of age, were used. The animals were full fed with total mixed ration in feedlot until reaching slaughter weights of 450, 480, 510 and 540kg live weight (treatments. The pH values and temperature of the Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris muscles were collected at 2 hours intervals during 24 hours after the slaughter. Meat color was determined through the subjective and objective methods. No interaction effect was observed between treatment and time of ph and temperature collection. No treatment effects was observed in relation to the pH and temperature in the two studied muscles (Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris during the cooling carcass process. The average values of initial pH and ultimatel pH of Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris muscles were 6.6 and 5.4; 6.3 and 5.5, respectively. The average values of initial and ultimate temperature of Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris muscles, were 39.7°C and 4.1°C; 40.4°C and 7.0°C, respectively. Meat color by the subjective method, did not differ among treatments studied, with general average of 3.41 points. Meat color obtained by the objective method, did not differ among the treatments studied, with average values: L * = 35.16; a*=12.43 and b*=5.29. In spite of presenting darker than bovine meat, buffalo meat doesn't bring damages as for the visual aspect for the consumer.

  20. Fatty acid profile in meat of culling ewes in different feedlot periods fed diets containing levels of inclusion of linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Radis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linseed plays an important role in animal nutrition as it contains long-chain fatty acids in its composition, which, once absorbed, are incorporated into meat and milk. For evaluate the concentration of fatty acids in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of culling ewes fed diets containing levels of inclusion of linseed, 88 culling ewes were used with an average initial body weight of 37.65 ± 6.98 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with 12 treatments. Treatments consisted of the interaction between levels of linseed (0, 5, 10, and 15% and days in feedlot (30, 45, and 60. The most present fatty acids in the composition of the muscle L. dorsi were palmitic (27.32 g 100 g-1 and stearic (17.77 g 100 g-1. Saturated acids remained at low levels as the animals were fed greater levels of linseed, demonstrating the importance of introducing quality foods in animal feeding. Oleic acid was the most present monounsaturated fatty acid, with 40 g 100 g-1. Palmitoleic and elaidic fatty acids increased linearly as the linseed inclusion in the diet was increased. Polyunsaturated acids increased with the presence of linseed in the diet. For the linolenic acid (C18: 3n3, the best result was with inclusion of 10% of linseed in the total diet. All groups of animals that received linseed obtained better n6:n3 ratios, which varied from 1.81 to 4.14. The higher CLA values obtained in this study are related to the higher amounts of inclusion of linseed in the sheep diet, varying from 1.15 to 5.72 g 100 g-1. It is recommended culling ewes supplemented with inclusion of 10% linseed, for 60 days in feedlot, because they comprise a larger number of favorable traits regarding to the profile fatty acids of Longissimus dorsi.

  1. Recovering value from beef carcasses classified as dark cutters by United States Department of Agriculture graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, P D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2008-07-01

    Effects of the dark-cutting condition were examined on commercially slaughtered beef carcass sides that were classified into groups exhibiting 1/3, 1/2, and full degrees of the dark-cutting (DEGDC) condition, as evaluated by a USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service grader (n = 20 per group). Twenty-nine muscles of each carcass side were evaluated to determine the ultimate pH and color (L*, a*, and b*). Fourteen beef muscles (biceps femoris, deep pectoral, chuck complexus, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, latissimus dorsi, psoas major, longissimus thoracis, longissimus lumborum, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, triceps brachii long head, tensor fasciae latae, and vastus lateralis) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler Shear force (WBSF) and a trained sensory panel. The muscle x DEGDC interaction was significant for ultimate pH, L*, a*, and b* values (P sensory panel scores (P > 0.05), but differences were detected among muscles (P sensory scores or WBSF between DEGDC classes suggested equal sensory expectations for muscles from dark-cutting carcasses.

  2. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  3. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... CASE REPORT. CASE. 72. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2009. CASE R. Introduction ... tion is being given to imaging the medial breast, and the sternalis muscle will be revealed with increasing ... The origin of this muscle is uncertain, with pectoralis major, rectus abdominus and sternomastoid ...

  4. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  5. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent e...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.......Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  6. Slow-tonic muscle fibers and their potential innervation in the turtle, Pseudemys (Trachemys) scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Robert J; Pierce, Patricia A; McDonagh, Jennifer C; Stuart, Douglas G

    2005-04-01

    A description is provided of the ratio of slow-tonic vs. slow- and fast-twitch fibers for five muscles in the adult turtle, Pseudemys (Trachemys) scripta elegans. The cross-sectional area of each fiber type and an estimation of the relative (weighted) cross-sectional area occupied by the different fiber types are also provided. Two hindlimb muscles (flexor digitorum longus, FDL; external gastrocnemius, EG) were selected on the basis of their suitability for future motor-unit studies. Three neck muscles (the fourth head of testo-cervicis, TeC4; the fourth head of retrahens capitus collique, RCCQ4; transversalis cervicis, TrC) were chosen for their progressively decreasing oxidative capacity. Serial sections were stained for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), NADH-diaphorase, and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH). Conventional fiber-type classification was then performed using indirect markers for contraction speed and oxidative (aerobic) vs. glycolytic (anaerobic) metabolism: i.e., slow oxidative (SO, including slow-twitch and possibly slow-tonic fibers), fast-twitch, oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), and fast-twitch glycolytic (Fg) fibers. Slow-tonic fibers in the SO class were then revealed by directing the monoclonal antibody, ALD-58 (raised against the slow-tonic fiber myosin heavy chain of chicken anterior latissimus dorsi), to additional muscle cross sections. All five of the tested muscles contained the four fiber types, with the ATPase-stained fibers including both slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibers. The extreme distributions of SO fibers were in the predominately glycolytic TrC vs. the predominately oxidative TeC4 muscle (TrC-SO, 9%; FOG, 20%; Fg, 71% vs. TeC4-SO, 58%: FOG, 16%; Fg, 25%). Across the five muscles, the relative prevalence of slow-tonic fibers (4-47%) paralleled that of the SO fibers (9-58%). TeC4 had the highest prevalence of slow-tonic fibers (47%). The test muscles exhibited varying degrees of regional concentration of each

  7. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  8. Muscles and their myokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-15

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases.

  9. Does preoperative abduction value affect functional outcome of combined muscle transfer and release procedures in obstetrical palsy patients with shoulder involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onel Defne

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric palsy is the injury of the brachial plexus during delivery. Although many infants with plexopathy recover with minor or no residual functional deficits, some children don't regain sufficient limb function because of functional limitations, bony deformities and joint contractures. Shoulder is the most frequently affected joint with internal rotation contracture causing limitation of abduction, external rotation. The treatment comprises muscle release procedures such as posterior subscapularis sliding or anterior subscapularis tendon lengtening and muscle transfers to restore the missing external rotation and abduction function. Methods We evaluated whether the preoperative abduction degree affects functional outcome. Between 1998 and 2002, 46 children were operated on to restore shoulder abduction and external rotation. The average age at surgery was 7.6 years and average follow up was 40.8 months. We compared the postoperative results of the patients who had preoperative abduction less than 90° (Group I: n = 37 with the patients who had preoperative abduction greater than 90° (Group II: n = 9, in terms of abduction and external rotation function with angle measurements and Mallet classification. We inquired whether patients in Group I needed another muscle transfer along with latissimus dorsi and teres major transfers. Results In Group I the average abduction improved from 62.5° to 131.4° (a 68.9° ± 22.9°gain and the average external rotation improved from 21.4° to 82.6° (a 61.1° ± 23°gain. In Group II the average abduction improved from 99.4°to 140°(a40.5° ± 16°gain and the average external rotation improved from 33.2°to 82.7° (a 49.5° ± 23.9° gain. Although there was a significant difference between Group I and II for preoperative abduction (p = 0.000 and abduction gain in degrees (p = 0.001, the difference between postoperative values of both groups was not significant (p = 0.268. There was

  10. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  11. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  12. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  13. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  14. Effect of muscle restraint on sheep meat tenderness with rigor mortis at 18°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Wells, Robyn W

    2002-02-01

    The effect on shear force of skeletal restraint and removing muscles from lamb m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) immediately after slaughter and electrical stimulation was undertaken at a rigor temperature of 18°C (n=15). The temperature of 18°C was achieved through chilling of electrically stimulated sheep carcasses in air at 12°C, air flow 1-1.5 ms(-2). In other groups, the muscle was removed at 2.5 h post-mortem and either wrapped or left non-wrapped before being placed back on the carcass to follow carcass cooling regimes. Following rigor mortis, the meat was aged for 0, 16, 40 and 65 h at 15°C and frozen. For the non-stimulated samples, the meat was aged for 0, 12, 36 and 60 h before being frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1 × 1 cm cross-section. Commencement of ageing was considered to take place at rigor mortis and this was taken as zero aged meat. There were no significant differences in the rate of tenderisation and initial shear force for all treatments. The 23% cook loss was similar for all wrapped and non-wrapped situations and the values decreased slightly with longer ageing durations. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Such techniques allows muscles to be removed and placed in a controlled temperature environment to enable precise studies of ageing processes.

  15. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone......-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases....

  16. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilly, John

    2000-01-01

    This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

  17. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  18. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  19. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  20. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head are damaged, you may have difficulty chewing and swallowing or closing your eyes. In these ... Medical Professional Muscle paralysis always requires immediate medical attention. If you notice gradual weakening or problems with ...

  1. Effect and mode of action of the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on carcass traits in purebred Texel lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, J M; Lambe, N R; Matika, O; Johnson, P L; Wolf, B T; Haresign, W; Bishop, S C; Bünger, L

    2014-07-01

    TM-QTL is a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on ovine chromosome 18 (OAR18) known to affect loin muscling in Texel sheep. Previous work suggested that its mode of inheritance is consistent with paternal polar overdominance, but this has yet to be formally demonstrated. This study used purebred Texel sheep segregating for TM-QTL to confirm its presence in the chromosomal region in which it was first reported and to determine its pattern of inheritance. To do so, this study used the first available data from a Texel flock, which included homozygote TM-QTL carriers (TM/TM; n=34) in addition to homozygote non-carriers (+/+; n=40 and, heterozygote TM-QTL-carriers inheriting TM-QTL from their sire (TM/+; n=53) or their dam (+/TM; n=17). Phenotypes included a wide range of loin muscling, carcass composition and tissue distribution traits. The presence of a QTL affecting ultrasound muscle depth on OAR18 was confirmed with a paternal QTL effect ranging from +0.54 to +2.82 mm UMD (s.e. 0.37 to 0.57 mm) across the sires segregating for TM-QTL. Loin muscle width, depth and area, loin muscle volume and dissected M. longissimus lumborum weight were significantly greater for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (+2.9% to +7.9%; Pcarcass weight; TM/TM animals were significantly (Panimals (+11.9% and +11.7%, respectively), with TM/+ intermediate. Weights of the leg, saddle and shoulder region (corrected for carcass weight) were similar in the genotypic groups. There was a tendency for lambs inheriting TM-QTL from their sire to be less fat with slightly more muscle than non-carriers. For example, carcass muscle weight measured by live animal CT-scanning was 2.8% higher in TM/TM than +/+ lambs (Pcarcass muscle weight measured by carcass CT-scanning was 1.36% higher in TM/+ than +/+ lambs (Pcarcass cuts was significantly lower for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (-11.2%; Pcarcass traits were found. Optimal commercial use of TM-QTL within the sheep industry would require some consideration, due to the apparently

  2. WATER SPRAY-CHILLING OF BEEF CARCASSES AND MEAT AGEING ON WEIGHT LOSS, COLOR AND LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM ACCEPTANCE ASPERSÃO DE ÁGUA FRIA NO INÍCIO DO RESFRIAMENTO DE CARCAÇAS BOVINAS E MATURAÇÃO DA CARNE SOBRE O PESO, COR E ACEITAÇÃO DO MÚSCULO LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO EDUARDO DE FELÍCIO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of spray-chilling in carcasses weight loss, purge loss, color and appearance of aged striploin (m. Longissi-mus lumborum steaks. Two lots of intact male, nearly 12 month old, grain finished cattle, were slaughtered, being 16 of the Montana composite breed, in the first slaughter, and 24 crossbreds (½ Nelore X ½ Simental in the second one. After bleeding, electrical stimulation, skinning and evisceration, the carcasses submitted to one of the two cooling systems: (1 Without spray-chilling (SA; (2 With spray-chilling (CA. Carcasses were weighted before and after cooling. In the boning room steaks of 2.5 cm thick from the striploin were taken, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Samples were then removed from the package, placed in an expanded polystyrene trays covered with a PVC film, and exposed in refrigerated displays for 48 hours. CIE Lab color was measured after 24 hours using a hand colorimeter. A visual analysis of the samples was also done for the attributes of color, overall acceptability, and buying option. The spray-chilling was efficient in reducing the weight loss (P<0.05. Effects (P<0.001 of the spray-chilling and aging time on purge loss were observed. The samples from the CA carcasses had higher (P<0.001 purge loss, which had an increase at 30 or more days of aging in this treatment but not in the SA. No effect (P>0.05 of the spray-chilling treatment and aging time was observed on the color visual analysis.

    Key-words:  Beef quality purge loss,  spray-chilling, striploin, vacuum package.

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da aspersão de água gelada, nas primeiras seis horas de resfriamento, nas perdas de peso por evaporação das carcaças e, também, do tempo de maturação em embalagem a vácuo, nas perdas por exsudação da carne, e na cor e aceita

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the erector spinae muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: implication for scoliotic deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoabli, Gnahoua; Mathieu, Pierre A; Aubin, Carl-Eric

    2008-12-29

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the muscular degeneration often leads to the development of scoliosis. Our objective was to investigate how anatomical changes in back muscles can lead to scoliosis. Muscular volume and the level of fat infiltration in those muscles were thus evaluated, in non-scoliotic, pre-scoliotic and scoliotic patients. The overlying skin thickness over the apex level of scoliotic deformations was also measured to facilitate the interpretation of electromyographic signals when recorded on the skin surface. In 8 DMD patients and two healthy controls with no known muscular deficiencies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure continuously at 3 mm intervals the distribution of the erector spinae (ES) muscle in the T8-L4 region as well as fat infiltration in the muscle and overlying skin thickness: four patients were non-scoliotic (NS), two were pre-scoliotic (PS, Cobb angle /= 15 degrees ). For each subject, 63 images 3 mm thick of the ES muscle were obtained in the T8-L4 region on both sides of the spine. The pixel dimension was 0.39 x 0.39 mm. With a commercial software, on each 12 bits image, the ES contour on the left and on the right sides of the spine were manually determined as well as those of its constituents i.e., the iliocostalis (IL), the longissimus (LO) and the spinalis (SP) muscles. Following this segmentation, the surfaces within the contours were determined, the muscles volume were obtained, the amount of fat infiltration inside each muscle was evaluated and the overlying skin thickness measured. The volume of the ES muscle of our S and PS patients was found smaller on the convex side relative to the concave one by 5.3 +/- 0.7% and 2.8 +/- 0.2% respectively. For the 4 NS patients, the volume difference of this muscle between right and left sides was 2.1 +/- 1.5% and for the 2 controls, it was 1.4 +/- 1.2%. Fat infiltration for the S and the PS patients was larger on the convex side than on the concave one (4

  4. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls.

  5. Proteome Changes in biceps femoris Muscle of Iranian One-Humped Camel and Their Effect on Meat Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Javad Varidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study physicochemical and quality traits of biceps femoris and longissimus thoracis muscles of male and female Iranian one-humped camel were determined during 14 days of refrigeration storage. Analysis of variance of the results showed that only shear force and temperature were affected by the gender (p<0.05. Anatomical location of the muscle influenced the meat properties except for drip loss (p<0.05. Also, except for cooking loss, ageing influenced the physicochemical and quality properties of meat; during 14 days of storage, proteolysis resulted in an increase of L* and b* values, drip loss and myofibrillar fragmentation index, and the decrease of a* value, expressed juice, shear force and sarcomere length. Proteome changes (myofi brillar proteins during storage were investigated. Gel analysis revealed that 19 protein spots were signifi cantly changed during 24, 72 and 168 h post-mortem. Fifteen spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of actin, troponin T, capping protein, heat shock proteins (HSP and desmin with physicochemical and quality properties of meat (p<0.05. Actin might be a potential protein marker for colour, tenderness and water-holding capacity, and HSP27 and desmin are good candidate markers for colour and tenderness, respectively.

  6. Proximate and fatty acid composition of zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) muscle and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Louwrens C; Geldenhuys, Greta; Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè

    2016-08-01

    The meat from African game species is healthy, naturally produced and increasingly popular with consumers. Among these species, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) are growing in number in South Africa, with the meat from surplus animals holding potential to contribute to food security and economic stability. Despite being consumed locally and globally, little information exists on the composition of zebra meat. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition of zebra meat as well as the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular (IMF) and subcutaneous (SCF) fat. Zebra longissimus lumborum muscle was shown to have a high mean protein content (22.29 g per 100 g) and low mean fat content (1.47 g per 100 g). High proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in the IMF (41.15%) and SCF (37.71%), mainly comprising α-linolenic (C18:3n-3) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acids. Furthermore, the IMF and SCF had favourable PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios (>0.4) and omega-6/omega-3 ratios (<4), indicating that both components are healthy lipid food sources. This study has shed new light on the nutritional value of zebra meat, which will not only be important for food product labelling, nutritional education and incorporation into food composition databases, but will also be indispensable for marketing and export purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Assessment of trunk muscle density using CT and its association with degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebro, Ronnie; O'Brien, Liam; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the association of trunk muscle density assessed by computed tomography (CT) with age, gender, and BMI and (2) to evaluate the association between trunk muscle CT density and degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine. The study was IRB approved and HIPAA compliant. The study group comprised 100 subjects (mean age 44.4 ± 22.2 years, 51 % male) who underwent CT of the abdomen and pelvis without intravenous contrast. Exclusion criteria included prior abdominal or spine surgery, active malignancy and scoliosis. CTs were reviewed and the attenuation of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, internal and external obliques, psoas, multifidus, longissimus and gluteus maximus were measured bilaterally at consistent levels. Degenerative disc and bilateral facet joint disease were scored using established methods. Univariate analyses were performed using linear regression. Multivariate linear regression was performed to adjust for age, gender and BMI. CT density of each trunk muscle correlated inversely with age (p degenerative disc and facet joint disease in the univariate analyses (p degenerative disc and facet joint disease respectively in the multivariate analysis. Fatty infiltration of trunk musculature increases with age and BMI. Fatty infiltration of the gluteus maximus and transverse abdominis are associated with degenerative disc and facet joint disease, independent of age, gender and BMI.

  8. [Post-traumatic reconnection of the cervical spinal cord with skeletal striated muscles. Study in adult rats and marmosets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, J C; Affane-Boulaid, F; Baillet-Derbin, C; Davarpanah, Y; Destombes, J; Duchossoy, Y; Emery, E; Kassar-Duchossoy, L; Mira, J C; Moissonnier, P; Pécot-Dechavassine, M; Reviron, T; Rhrich-Haddout, F; Tadié, M; Ye, J H

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt at repairing the injured spinal cord of adult mammals (rat, dog and marmoset) and its damaged muscular connections, we are currently using: 1) peripheral nerve autografts (PNG), containing Schwann cells, to trigger and direct axonal regrowth from host and/or transplanted motoneurons towards denervated muscular targets; 2) foetal spinal cord transplants to replace lost neurons. In adult rats and marmosets, a PNG bridge was used to joint the injured cervical spinal cord to a denervated skeletal muscle (longissimus atlantis [rat] or biceps brachii [rat and marmoset]). The spinal lesion was obtained by the implantation procedure of the PNG. After a post-operative delay ranging from 2 to 22 months, the animals were checked electrophysiologically for functional muscular reconnection and processed for a morphological study including retrograde axonal tracing (HRP, Fast Blue, True Blue), histochemistry (AChE, ATPase), immunocytochemistry (ChAT) and EM. It was thus demonstrated that host motoneurons of the cervical enlargement could extend axons all the way through the PNG bridge as: a) in anaesthetized animals, contraction of the reconnected muscle could be obtained by electrical stimulation of the grafted nerve; b) the retrograde axonal tracing studies indicated that a great number of host cervical neurons extended axons into the PNG bridge up to the muscle; c) many of them were assumed to be motoneurons (double labelling with True Blue and an antibody against ChAT); and even alpha-motoneurons (type C axosomatic synapses in HRP labelled neurons seen in EM in the rat); d) numerous ectopic endplates were seen around the intramuscular tip of the PNG. In larger (cavitation) spinal lesions (rat), foetal motoneurons contained in E14 spinal cord transplants could similarly grow axons through PNG bridges up to the reconnected muscle. Taking all these data into account, it can be concluded that neural transplants are interesting tools for evaluating both the

  9. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  10. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  11. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  12. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  13. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  14. Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-06-03

    Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Hirotaka; Kono, Reika; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the position of rectus muscle pulleys in Japanese eyes and to evaluate the effect of oblique muscle surgery on rectus muscle pulleys. Quasi-coronal plane MRI was used to determine area centroids of the 4 rectus muscles. The area centroids of the rectus muscles were transformed to 2-dimensional coordinates to represent pulley positions. The effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley positions in the coronal plane were evaluated in 10 subjects with cyclovertical strabismus and, as a control, pulley locations in 7 normal Japanese subjects were calculated. The mean positions of the rectus muscle pulleys in the coronal plane did not significantly differ from previous reports on normal populations, including Caucasians. There were significant positional shifts of the individual horizontal and vertical rectus muscle pulleys in 3 (100%) patients with inferior oblique advancement, but not in eyes with inferior oblique recession and superior oblique tendon advancement surgery. The surgical cyclorotatory effect was significantly correlated with the change in the angle of inclination formed by the line connecting the vertical rectus muscles (p=0.0234), but weakly correlated with that of the horizontal rectus muscles. The most important factor that affects the pulley position is the amount of ocular torsion, not the difference in surgical procedure induced by oblique muscle surgery. (author)

  16. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesús, C. De; Domínguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15) improved (p<0.01) the carcass (118 vs. about 104 kg) and live weights (149 vs. 133-139 kg). Killing out percentage was also better for chestnuts groups than for control group. With regards the morphometric parameters, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force) of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10%) did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05) the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15). Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality. (Author)

  18. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  19. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  20. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  1. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  2. Effect of copper on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition of meat goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y L; Wang, Y; Spears, J W; Lin, X; Guo, C H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Cu on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition in meat goats. Thirty five Jianyang Big-ear goat (JYB) kids (average BW 20.3 ± 0.6 kg and age 3 to 4 mo) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 7 experimental treatments (n = 5 goats per treatment). Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu; 14.3 mg Cu/kg DM), 2) 20 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 3) 40 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 4) 80 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 5) 160 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 6) 320 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, and 7) 640 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM. Copper was supplemented from CuSO4•5H2O (25.2% Cu). Goats were individually fed a concentrate-hay based diet for 96 d. Performance was not affected by Cu concentration. Liver Cu concentration was increased (P Goats supplemented with 0 or 20 mg Cu/kg DM had lower (P goats had lower (P = 0.04) longissimus muscle area (LMA) compared with control. Dietary Cu supplementation increased the percentage of C14:0 (P 0.10). These results indicate that JYB goats can tolerate up to 640 mg Cu/kg DM for 96 d without adverse effects on performance, but fat deposition and fatty acid composition in the body could be altered by Cu supplementation as low as 20 mg/kg of diet with high concentrate-hay. Copper supplementation increased backfat depth, IMF, and percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in LM and decreased LMA in the carcass of JYB goats.

  3. Quality Characteristics and Composition of the Muscle from Entire and Castrate Elk in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Woo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the chemical composition as well as the physicochemical properties of the longissimus muscle from Korean entire and castrate elk. Twelve elk stags were raised and fed on concentrate with ad libitum hay. All animals were equally divided into castrated and non-castrated (entire males, and slaughtered at 5 year of age. It was found that entire elk, in comparison with castrate elk, had higher content of moisture and lower content of fat (p<0.05. Compared with entire males, the castrates had lower pH and shear force values (p<0.05. However, castrates had higher L*, a*, and b* values compared with entires (p<0.05. An analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the muscles of entire and castrate elk had the most abundant concentrations of the following fatty acids: palmitic acid (C16:0 of the saturated fatty acid, and oleic acid (C18:1n-9 of the unsaturated fatty acid. The entire elk contains higher proportions of linoleic acid (C18:3n6, eicosenoic acid (C20:1n9, and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6 (p<0.05. Cholesterol content in elk was not affected by castration. The predominant free amino acid was glutamic acid related to umami taste. It is apparent that the castrate animals carried higher content of histidine, isoleucine, and leucine than those of the entire group (p<0.05. In this study, it was concluded that venison quality of elk is affected by castration and these results can provide fundamental information for venison production.

  4. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  5. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here and still get the great care and treatment I received in Michigan.” MDA Is Here to Help You T he Muscular Dystrophy Association offers a vast array of services to help you and your family deal with metabolic diseases of muscle. The staff at your local MDA office is ...

  6. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  7. Studies on meat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and genes associated with oxidative potential of pigs slaughtered at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin Ping; Feng, Ding Yuan; Xiao, Juan; Wu, Fan; He, Xiao Jun; Xia, Min Hao; Dong, Tao; Liu, Yi Hua; Tan, Hui Ze; Zou, Shi Geng; Zheng, Tao; Ou, Xian Hua; Zuo, Jian Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated meat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and expression of genes associated with oxidative potential of pigs slaughtered at different growth stages. Methods Sixty 4-week-old Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs were assigned to 6 replicate groups, each containing 10 pigs. One pig from each group was sacrificed at day 35, 63, 98, and 161 to isolate longissimus dorsi and triceps muscles. Results Meat color scores were higher in pigs at 35 d than those at 63 d and 98 d (pMeat color scores were correlated to the proportion of oxymyoglobin (r = 0.59, pmeat color, myoglobin content, enzyme activities, and genes associated with oxidative potential varied at different stages. PMID:28728400

  8. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Volatiles in raw and cooked meat from lambs fed olive cake and linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravador, R S; Serra, A; Luciano, G; Pennisi, P; Vasta, V; Mele, M; Pauselli, M; Priolo, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding olive cake and linseed to lambs on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in raw and cooked meat. Four groups of eight male Appenninica lambs each were fed: conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C), concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L), concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC), or concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The longissimus dorsi muscle of each lamb was sampled at slaughter and was subjected to VOC profiling through the use of SPME-GC-MS. In the raw meat, the concentration of 3-methylpentanoic acid was higher in treatment C as compared with treatments L, OC and OCL (Pcooked meat the amount of 1-pentanol was higher in treatment C than in treatment OC (Plamb meat.

  10. The effect of the change from a herbage- to a concentrate-based diet on the oxidative stability of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, G; Biondi, L; Scerra, M; Serra, A; Mele, M; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2013-10-01

    Over 89 days, 10 lambs (S) were fed concentrates and hay in stall, while 9 lambs (P) grazed at pasture. Two groups of 9 animals grazed at pasture until switching to a concentrate-based diet for 14 or 37 days before slaughter (P-S14 and P-S37). The fat content of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) increased with increasing duration of concentrate feeding (P=0.05). As a consequence, the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and of the highly peroxidisable (HP) PUFA in the polar lipids was similar between treatments. Lipid oxidation in fresh LM over 8 days of storage was affected by the diet (Pcooked minced LM over 2 days of storage and no difference was found between the P-S14, P-S37 and S treatments. Colour stability of fresh LM was not noticeably affected by the dietary treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gamma irradiation effects on thiamin and riboflavin in beef, lamb, pork, and turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Hampson, J.; Richardson, R.; Ward, K.; Thayer, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made of the loss of thiamin and riboflavin due to gamma irradiation of beef, lamb and pork longissimus dorsi, turkey breast and leg muscles. Thiamin losses averaged 11%/kiloGray (kGy) and riboflavin losses 2.5%/kGy above three kGy. The rate of loss of thiamin in beef was higher than that in lamb, pork and turkey leg, but not turkey breast, with losses of 16%/kGy in beef and 8%/kGy in lamb. The rate of thiamin loss was not related to sulfhydryl, protein, moisture, fat or water content, pH or reducing capacity by redox titration. Loss of riboflavin was not different among species. Any detriment from such slight losses would seem to be more than compensated by the advantage of controlling bacteriological contamination by irradiation processing

  12. Effects of dietary hop (Humulus lupulus L.) β-acids on quality attributes, composition and oxidative stability of pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Maicon; Racanicci, Aline Mc; Gois, Franz D; de Lima, Cristiane B; Migotto, Dannielle L; Costa, Leandro B; Miyada, Valdomiro S

    2018-04-01

    The effects of dietary levels of hop β-acids on physical attributes, lipid oxidation and chemical composition of pork meat were evaluated. Thirty-two castrated male pigs obtained from a complete block design feeding experiment (6.23 ± 0.42 kg initial body weight (BW) to 20.45 ± 0.95 kg final BW) and fed diets supplemented with 0, 120, 240 or 360 mg kg -1 hop β-acids during 35 days were slaughtered to sample longissimus dorsi muscle for meat analysis. No effects (P > 0.05) of dietary hop β-acids were observed on meat physical attributes. Quadratic effects (P pork meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of breed on mineral composition of meat from light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Barać

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and mineral content of light lambs muscle (derived from Istrian and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds were studied. The M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD samples of 30 carcasses were analysed and the effects of breed and sex were studied. Although lambs of investigated breeds were similar for slaughter age (2.5 months, Dalmatian Pramenka had significantly higher carcass weights (CW; P<0.05. Breed had a significant influence on moisture and fat contents, whilst mineral composition (with the exception of selenium was scarcely affected by breed and sex. Fat and moisture contents were significantly correlated with cold CW. The magnesium, calcium, manganese and selenium contents were significantly correlated (r=0.50, -0.46, 0.44, 0.54; P<0.05 respectively with CW. This study contributes to characterization of lamb carcasses from Istrian Sheep and Dalmatian Pramenka breeds and provides new data on the composition of the MLD of light lambs.

  14. Introgression of the callipyge mutation into the Assaf fat tail breed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootwine, E.; Rosov, A.; Bor, A.; Yossafi, S.; Zenue, A.

    2003-01-01

    Introgression of the callipyge (CLPG) mutation into the fat-tail Assaf breed was initiated by inseminating Assaf ewes with Dorset-Hampshire semen from a ram that was heterozygous for the callipyge mutation. Presence of the mutation in the F1 generation and the first backcross generation (BC1) was validated using molecular markers linked to the CLPG locus. Carcasses of callipyge BC1-CN lambs had significantly (P less than 0.01) better conformation than carcasses of normal BC1-NN lambs and straightbred Assaf lambs. Computerized tomography analysis of live BC1 and Assaf lambs showed that carrying the callipyge mutation increased Longissimus dorsi and Quadriceps femoris muscles by about 30

  15. Muscle cooling delays activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T

    1997-11-01

    Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.

  16. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scient...

  17. MUSCLE TENSION DYSPHONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hočevar Boltežar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD is the cause of hoarseness in almost one half of the patients with voice disorders. The otorhinolaryngologic examination discovers no evident organic lesions in the larynx at least in the beginning of the voice problems. The reason for the hoarse voice is a disordered and maladjusted activity of the muscles taking part in phonation and/or articulation. In some patients, the irregular function of the larynx results in mucosal lesions on vocal folds. The factors participating in the development of MTD, directly or indirectly influence the quality of laryngeal mucosa, the activity of the phonatory muscles and/or increase of the vocal load. In the diagnostics and treatment of the MTD a phoniatrician, a speech and language therapist and a psychologist closely cooperate with the patient who must take an active role. The treatment is a long-lasting one but resulted in a high percentage of clinical success.Conclusions. Most likely, MTD is not a special disease but only a reflection of any disorder in the complicated system of regulation and realization of phonation. The prognosis of treatment is good when all unfavourable factors participating in development of MTD are eliminated and a proper professional voice- and psychotherapy started.

  18. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  19. Electromyographic Activity of Shoulder Girdle Muscles in Patients With Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Peter; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Sole, Gisela

    2016-09-01

    To compare electromyographic activity in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears with healthy controls or to those with asymptomatic cuff tears. TYPE: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus, Ovid Medline, and Web of Science were searched from inception to August 1, 2014, and a search update was performed on June 8, 2015. Case-control studies or intervention studies that had baseline comparisons for symptomatic versus healthy shoulders or those with asymptomatic rotator cuff tear were searched. Methodological quality was assessed with a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme score and meta-analyses were performed when 2 or more studies explored the same outcome measures. Nine studies were included, with the quality ranging from 1 to 3 (maximum 6). Electromyographic outcomes included amplitudes and ratios thereof, activity duration, and median frequency of shoulder girdle muscles during isometric contractions (4 studies) and functional tasks (5 studies). Longer activity duration was found for upper trapezius during glenohumeral movements, and greater fatigability of anterior and middle deltoids during isometric hand gripping for patients with rotator cuff tears compared to controls. The meta-analysis (3 studies) showed that patients with rotator cuff tears had lower activation ratios for latissimus dorsi during isometric abduction contraction compared to controls (P muscle activity differences between the rotator cuff tear group and controls is thus limited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Fatty Acid Profiles of , and Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Aghwan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se, iodine (I and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS, longissimus lumborum (LL, and semitendinosus (ST muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of 22.00±1.17 kg were individually and randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each for 100 d of feeding prior to slaughter. The animals were offered the same concentrate (basal diet as 1% of body weight with ad libitum amount of fresh guinea grass. The four groups were as follows: T1 (control - basal diet without supplementation; T2 - basal diet with 0.6 mg Se/kg DM; T3 - basal diet with 0.6 mg I/kg DM; T4 - basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se/kg DM and 0.6 mg I/kg DM. The major fatty acids (FAs detected in the serum were palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, oleic (C18:1n9 and linoleic (C18:2n-6, while the major FAs in the selected muscles were C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9 acids. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA detected in muscles and serum were (CI8:2n-6, linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6. No significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA among the four groups. PUFA concentrations in the goats supplemented with Se (T2 were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the goats of the control group (T1. The PUFA: SFA ratio was significantly higher in the animals supplemented with dietary Se (T2 than those of control ones (T1. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of inorganic Se increased the unsaturated fatty acids in muscle. The supplementation of iodine with or without Se had negligible effects on muscle fatty acid content of Kacang crossbred male goats.

  1. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  2. Vitamin D and muscle trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, discrepancies still exist about an enhancement or a decrease of muscle proliferation and differentiation by the vitamin D. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. Finally, apart from its genomic and nongenomic effects, recent investigations have demonstrated a genetic contribution of vitamin D to muscle functioning. Recent studies support the importance of vitamin D in muscle health, and the impact of its deficiency in regard to muscle mass and function. These 'trophic' properties are of particular importance for some specific populations such as elderly persons and athletes, and in situations of loss of muscle mass or function, particularly in the context of chronic diseases.

  3. NIRS of body and tissues in growing rabbits fed diets with different fat sources and supplemented with Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A portable Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS instrument was applied to 40 growing rabbits to determine body and tissue differences induced by experimental factors. The rabbits were examined at 2 live sites, in 7 warm carcass tissues and in longissimus dorsi muscle samples prepared in ethanol. For this purpose, the method was applied in a bi-factorial experiment concerning the dietary oil source (O (maize vs. palm oil and Curcuma longa (C supplementation (0 and 3 g/kg, respectively. Significant chemical differences emerged for palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle due to the O factor and for linolenic acid due to the C factor. The NIRS spectra and chemical analyses were elaborated by the Partial Least Squares (PLS method, and the rsquares in cross-validation (R2cv were retained as measure of the unoriented differentiation between the levels of the planned factor for each landmark and fatty acid (FA profile. Multivariate PLS analysis of the FA muscular fat showed that the O factor induced strong differentiation (R2cv: 0.96, while less influence (0.33 was observed for the C factor. The model based on the NIRS radiation of the landmarks clearly shows the O factor effects, not only in the perirenal (0.90 and scapular (0.85 fats, but also in the belly (0.76, liver (0.73 and hind legs (0.72. Whereas the C effects were only expressed in the live animals (ears: 0.66 and abdominal wall: 0.58 and in post-mortem (liver: 0.60. It was concluded that a preliminary NIRS scan of the carcass and of live rabbits can point out the presence of intrinsic experimental effects concerning the lipid metabolism of polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 series (O factor and n-3 series (C factor.

  4. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the subcutaneous fat from iberian pigs fattened on the traditional feed: “Montanera”. effect of anatomical location and length of feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of 200 samples of subcutaneous fat from two different anatomical locations (rump and adipose tissue covering the Biceps femoris muscle of Iberian purebred pigs reared on “Montanera” were determined. Significant differences were found for the majority fatty acids and for some triacylglycerol species (PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL among the two anatomical locations, being the rump location less saturated. The activity level of the key enzyme involved in lipogenesis differed (p Biceps femoris, increases faster than that of the subcutaneous fat covering a muscle with low oxidative metabolism, as Longissimus dorsi.Se ha determinado la composición de ácidos grasos y de triglicéridos en 200 muestras de grasa subcutánea procedentes de dos localizaciones anatómicas (rabadilla y tejido adiposo que recubre el músculo Biceps femoris de cerdos ibéricos puros alimentados en “Montanera”. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para la mayoría de ácidos grasos y para algunos triglicéridos PPS, PLPo + MLO, PLO, PLL + PoLO, SOS, SOL, OLL entre las dos localizaciones anatómicas, siendo la rabadilla la menos saturada. El nivel de actividad de la enzima involucrada en la lipogénesis defirió significativamente (p B. femoris, aumenta más rápidamente que la de la grasa subcutánea que recubre un músculo con bajo metabolismo oxidativo, como el Longissimus dorsi.

  5. Nuclear Positioni