Sample records for long-wave ultraviolet puva

  1. Treatment of parapsoriasis and mycosis fungoides: the role of psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light A (PUVA). (United States)

    Powell, F C; Spiegel, G T; Muller, S A


    Psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light A (PUVA) was used to treat 12 patients with parapsoriasis and 19 patients with mycosis fungoides. Excellent results were obtained in all 12 patients with parapsoriasis: 8 patients had complete clearing, 3 had more than 80% improvement, and 1 had considerable improvement. The response to PUVA in patients with mycosis fungoides varied according to the stage of the disease. Of 10 patients with early disease (stage I or II), 7 had complete clearing and the 3 others had more than 80% improvement. The nine patients with more advanced disease generally did not respond well to PUVA, with the exception of one patient with stage IV disease and one with stage V disease. PUVA may be the treatment of choice for parapsoriasis and is highly effective in the early stages of mycosis fungoides.

  2. Guidelines for bath PUVA, bathing suit PUVA and soak PUVA

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    Sathish B Pai


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of these guidelines is to encourage dermatologists to use bath psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA, bathing suit PUVA and soak PUVA in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris and other conditions. Methods: Evidence was collected using searches of the PubMed, MEDLINE and COCHRANE databases using the keywords “bath PUVA,” “soak PUVA,” “bathing suit PUVA” and “turban PUVA.” Only publications in English were reviewed. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight studies were evaluated, 57 of which fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Conclusions: Both bath PUVA and bathing suit PUVA are very effective and safe treatments for generalized stable plaque psoriasis (strength of recommendation, A. Soak PUVA is very effective in the treatment of both palmoplantar psoriasis and chronic palmoplantar eczema (strength of recommendation, A.

  3. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

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    Ciafone, R.A.; Rhodes, A.R.; Audley, M.; Freedberg, I.M.; Abelmann, W.H.


    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed.

  4. Psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA soaks and UVB TL01 treatment for chronic hand dermatoses

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    Lisbeth Jensen


    Full Text Available Chronic eczematous hand dermatoses with and without contact allergies are complex diseases, which makes it a challenge to select the best treatment and obtain an optimal patient experience and a satisfactory treatment result. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical effect and patient experience of local treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA soaks and TL01 phototherapy for severe chronic hand dermatoses, and also to evaluate the quality of life for the subgroup of patients with allergic contact dermatitis including Compositae allergy. A retrospective evaluation of results for 94 consecutive patients having received a total of 121 treatment courses with local PUVA soaks or TL01 phototherapy for one of the following diagnoses (n=number of treatment courses: psoriasis (n=19, hyperkeratotic hand eczema (n=27, Pustulosis Palmoplantaris (PPP (n=22, vesicular eczema (n=16, Compositae dermatitis (n=24, and allergic contact dermatitis (n=13. Moreover, semi-structured interviews with 6 selected patients having multiple contact allergies including Compositae allergy were used to evaluate quality of life. As a result, we found that PUVA soaks has good effect in patients with psoriasis and hyperkeratotic hand eczema and local phototherapy for chronic hand dermatoses is a useful treatment option in selected cases.

  5. Effects of PUVA on the eye

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    Backman, H.A.


    Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA). Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A (UVA) had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment. No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye syndrome.

  6. Lethal effect of longwave ultraviolet light and PUVA. An analysis based upon human mesenchymal cells in vitro

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    Jongh, G. de; Bergers, M.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Verhagen, A.R.; Mier, P.D. (Katholieke Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands))


    The lethal effect of UVA and PUVA radiation was studied in cultures of fresh and mature monocytes. UVA radiation alone was shown to possess a lethal effect at doses which are attained in the dermis in vivo. The synergistic action of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA radiation predominated in PUVA radiation, but again a residual effect of UVA alone was demonstrated mathematically. Mature cells were less sensitive than fresh monocytes. The results indicate that a monolayer culture of non-dividing, mesenchymal cells offers considerable advantages over in vivo systems as a model for the study of phototoxicity.

  7. Photochemotherapy (PUVA: An Overview

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    Fakir Mohan Debta


    Full Text Available Photochemotherapy (PUVA has become a useful alternative in dermatologic therapy. Start from historical date up to modern era the safe and useful modes of PUVA has been documented in many immunological disorder. Despite side effect and potential long-term hazards photochemotherapy shown in clinical routine as an effective alternative to conventional immunosuppressive therapy. A wide range of diverse field for its possible utility provides an alternative armamentarium in many immunological disorder for dermatologist and also for oral diagnostician.

  8. Scheduled DNA-synthesis after SUP and oral PUVA-treatment of psoriasis

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    Pullmann, H.; Galosi, A.; Zotos, M.; Steigleder, G.K.


    The results reveal that single doses of selective ultraviolet phototherapy (SUP) and of oral photochemotherapy (PUVA) give rise to a similar increase of epidermal cell proliferation in unaffected psoriatic skin 24 h after exposure. Affected psoriatic skin reacts to the same dose of SUP, but not to PUVA.

  9. Are stress proteins induced during PUVA therapy?

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    Al-Masaud, A.S. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom); Cunliffe, W.J.; Holland, D.B. [Leeds General Infirmary (United Kingdom)


    Heat shock or stress proteins are produced in practically all cell types when they are exposed to temperatures a few degrees above normal. Measurement of the skin temperature of patients undergoing psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) cabinet treatment for psoriasis revealed that the outer layers of the skin experience a mean temperature rise of 5.3{sup o}C. However, this did not produce a detectable stress response in epidermal samples taken after PUVA treatment. In vitro exposure of epidermis from biopsies or of cultured keratinocytes to a 5-7{sup o}C temperature rise produced a heat shock response, as measured by an increase in the production of proteins of the HSP90 and HSP70 families. These results were confirmed by the use of specific monoclonal antibodies. The corresponding mRNAs were also analysed using labelled probes. In an in vitro system, following simulated PUVA treatment of cultured keratinocytes, increases in the synthesis of HSP90 and HSP70 were detected but these increases did not correlate with changes in mRNA levels. (author).

  10. Mechanisms involved in repairing the lesions induced in pBR 322 by PUVA treatment (8-Methoxypsoralen + ultraviolet A light). Mecanismos implicados en la reparacion de las lesiones inducidas en pBR322 por tratamiento Puva (8-metoxipsoraleno + luz ultravioleta A)

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    Bauluz, C.


    This work deals with the genotoxic effects derived from damaging pBR322 DNA through PUVA treatment (8-Methoxypsoralen plus UVA light), both with respect to the lethality and mutagenicity of the lesions produced by the treatment. The mechanisms involved in the repair of the plasmid lesions have been investigated by transforming several strains of E. coli differing in their DNA-repair capacities. The frequency, distribution and type of mutations occurring in a restriction fragment of the damaged plasmid were determined in order to establish the mutagenic features of the PUVA treatment. Damages produced by PUVA have a strong lethal effect on plasmid survival; however, partial recovery is possible through some of the bacterial DNA repair pathways, namely excision repair, SOS-repair and a third mechanism which appears to be independent from the analyzed genes and is detected at high density of lesions per plasmid molecule. PUVA treatment produces a high increase in plasmid mutagenesis; however, the contribution of such an increase to the whole plasmid survival is negligible. Only punctual mutations were detected and consisted mainly in base-pair substitutions. Some mutation-prone regions were found inside the investigated DNA fragment, although their existence is more likely to be related with the structure acquired by the damaged DNA than with the type of damaging agent.

  11. Randomized controlled observer-blinded treatment of chronic foot eczema with iontophoresis and bath-PUVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, Ron A; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Zanen, Pieter; Schuttelaar, Marielouise


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iontophoresis combined with local psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy in chronic foot eczema. A randomized, observer-blinded, multi-centre study was conducted in 48 patients with chronic moderate-to-severe foot eczema randomized to one of

  12. Randomized controlled observer-blinded treatment of chronic foot eczema with iontophoresis and bath-PUVA. (United States)

    Tupker, Ron A; Coenraads, Pieter J; Zanen, Pieter; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iontophoresis combined with local psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy in chronic foot eczema. A randomized, observer-blinded, multi-centre study was conducted in 48 patients with chronic moderate-to-severe foot eczema randomized to one of 3 groups: In the iontophoresis group local bath-PUVA was preceded by iontophoresis. In the PUVA group only local PUVA was given. The corticosteroid group was treated with fluticasone. All treatments were given for 8 weeks, with an 8-week follow-up period. The primary efficacy parameter was eczema score described by Rosén et al. Secondary efficacy parameters were a global impression by the patient, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The eczema score and the DLQI decreased significantly over time. There were no significant differences in the decrease in eczema score (p=0.053) and DLQI values (p=0.563) between the 3 treatments. The DLQI values in our chronic foot eczema patients were high. There was no obvious advantage of local bath-PUVA with or with-out iontophoresis over local steroid therapy.

  13. Bath-PUVA therapy improves impaired resting regulatory T cells and increases activated regulatory T cells in psoriasis. (United States)

    Kubo, Ryoji; Muramatsu, Shinnosuke; Sagawa, Yoko; Saito, Chiyo; Kasuya, Saori; Nishioka, Akiko; Nishida, Emi; Yamazaki, Sayuri; Morita, Akimichi


    Bath-psoralen plus ultraviolet light A (PUVA) therapy is an effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment for psoriasis. Psoriasis might be due to an unbalanced ratio of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). The Treg functional ratio is significantly lower in patients with psoriasis compared with controls and is inversely correlated with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score. We previously reported that bath-PUVA therapy significantly increases the number of Treg and restores Treg function to almost normal in most patients with psoriasis. We examined the effects of bath-PUVA therapy on three distinct Foxp3(+) subsets: activated Treg (aTreg), resting Treg (rTreg), and cytokine-secreting non-suppressive T cells. We enrolled 15 patients with psoriasis and 11 healthy controls. We examined aTreg, rTreg, and cytokine-secreting non-suppressive T cells in peripheral blood obtained from the psoriasis patients before and after every fifth bath-PUVA therapy session. Levels of aTreg, which are considered to have the strongest suppressive activity in patients with psoriasis, were significantly increased in the early bath-PUVA therapy sessions, and then diminished. Levels of rTreg were lower in psoriasis patients than in healthy controls, and increased during bath-PUVA therapy. Bath-PUVA therapy induced aTreg and rTreg concomitantly with an improvement in the psoriatic lesions, suggesting a mechanism for the effectiveness of bath-PUVA therapy for psoriasis patients. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bullous pemphigoid. Occurrence in a patient with mycosis fungoides receiving PUVA and topical nitrogen mustard therapy

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    Patterson, J.W.; Ali, M.; Murray, J.C.; Hazra, T.A.


    A 57-year-old woman with mycosis fungoides developed blisters within cutaneous plaques while receiving PUVA therapy and topical nitrogen mustard. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies showed the findings of bullous pemphigoid. Her bullous disease was controlled after cessation of these therapies and institution of prednisone and methotrexate. During the 5 months following completion of a course of electron-beam therapy, she has been free of the cutaneous manifestations of both diseases. Previous instances of PUVA-related pemphigoid have occurred in psoriatics. The role of ultraviolet light in the induction of pemphigoid is discussed, particularly with regard to its possible interaction with the altered skin of psoriasis or mycosis fungoides. Some of the rare cases of bullous mycosis fungoides might actually have represented ultraviolet-unmasked bullous pemphigoid.

  15. Quantitative analysis on PUVA-induced skin photodamages using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Zhai, Juan; Guo, Zhouyi; Liu, Zhiming; Xiong, Honglian; Zeng, Changchun; Jin, Ying


    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamages especially photoaging. Since skin biopsy alters the original skin morphology and always requires an iatrogenic trauma, optical coherence tomography (OCT) appears to be a promising technique to study skin damage in vivo. In this study, the Balb/c mice had 8-methoxypsralen (8-MOP) treatment prior to UVA radiation was used as PUVA-induced photo-damaged modal. The OCT imaging of photo-damaged group (modal) and normal group (control) in vivo was obtained of mice dorsal skin at 0, 24, 48, 72 hours after irradiation respectively. And then the results were quantitatively analyzed combined with histological information. The experimental results showed that, PUVA-induced photo-damaged skin had an increase in epidermal thickness (ET), a reduction of attenuation coefficient in OCT images signal, and an increase in brightness of the epidermis layer compared with the control group. In conclusion, noninvasive high-resolution imaging techniques such as OCT may be a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing photo-damage and repair processes in vivo. It can be used to quantitative analysis of changes in photo-damaged skin, such as the ET and collagen in dermis, provides a theoretical basis for treatment and prevention of skin photodamages.

  16. Psoralen loaded liposomal nanocarriers for improved skin penetration and efficacy of topical PUVA in psoriasis. (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Sindhu; Jain, Anjali; Chopra, Dhiraj Kumar; Khan, Wahid


    Psoralen in combination with ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) is an FDA recommended therapy for clinical application in the management of severe recalcitrant psoriasis. Psoralen acts by intercalation of DNA and upon exposure to UV-A, it forms monoadducts which in turn induce apoptosis. Poor skin deposition, weak percutaneous permeability of psoralen and adverse effects of severe burning, blisters, pigmentation associated with conventional topical psoralen vehicles hinders the therapeutic efficacy and safety of topical PUVA. The aim of the present study is to formulate psoralen loaded liposomal nanocarriers for enhanced skin penetration, safety and efficacy of topical PUVA in psoriasis. Two different liposomal compositions i.e., cationic liposomes composed of DC-Chol, cholesterol and anionic liposomes composed of egg lecithin, cholesterol, tetramyristoyl cardiolipin were prepared for the topical delivery of psoralen. Liposomal carriers were characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, stability, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. Both liposomes were prepared with particle size of nearly 100nm. Zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of cationic liposomes were +25.8mV, 75.12% and anionic liposomes were -28.5mV, 60.08% respectively. Liposomal dermal distribution demonstrated higher penetration of both liposomal carriers over solution. Similarly, skin permeation study indicated 5 fold increase in permeation of psoralen with liposomal carriers. Topical application of psoralen liposomal gels on imiquimod induced psoriatic plaque model reduced the symptoms of psoriasis and levels of key psoriatic cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-17 and IL-22. In conclusion, the developed liposomal carriers of psoralen were found to be promising and can find application for optimal safety and efficacy of topical PUVA in psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 长波紫外线照射对花背蟾蜍肾脏结构损伤%Impacts of long-wave ultraviolet radiation on kidney structure of Bufo Raddei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈婷婷; 李丕鹏; 聂颖; 陆宇燕


    为研究长波紫外线对花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei)肾脏的损伤,用波长为365 nm的长波紫外线(UVA)以352 μW·cm-2的辐射量对花背蟾蜍亚成体进行150、300和450 min的连续照射,分别在照射后立即、3、6、9、12和15 d取材,常规石蜡切片.结果表明:UVA照射后,3组不同照射时间的花背蟾蜍肾脏整体结构基本完整,但均出现肾小管管壁破裂,管径显著缩小,肾小囊消失,而300 min照射组的损伤则极为明显,其后依次为450 min照射组与150 min照射组,300与450 min照射组的肾小体塌陷程度较150 min照射组更为严重;经15 d的恢复,虽出现明显好转,但大多指标仍与对照组间存在极显著性差异;UVA对花背蟾蜍肾脏有着不可忽视的损伤,虽然具有一定的自我修复的能力,但在野外,紫外辐射的增强和植被的减少可导致两栖类遭受过度的紫外辐射,进而引起两栖类种群的衰减.%In order to study the damage of long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) on Bufo raddei kidney, three groups of Bufo raddeis juveniles were irradiated continuously by 365 nm UVA with a dosage of 352 μW · cm-2 for 150, 300, and 450 min, respectively, and the kidney after the irradiation was dissected immediately and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days later, with its histological changes observed by general histological method. After the UVA radiation, the kidney structure was basically in integrity, except the fracture and visible constriction of renal tubule and the disappearance of renal capsule, which were most obvious in the 300 min group, followed by in 450 min group and in 150 min group. The damage to Malpigkian bodies was more serious in 300 and 450 min groups than in 150 min group. After 15 days recovery, though the damage was somewhat mitigated , most of the histological indices of the three experimental groups were significantly different from the control group. This study showed that the damage of UVA to B. raddei kidney could not be ignored in spite of

  18. The effect of psoralen photochemotherapy (PUVA) on symptomatic dermographism. (United States)

    Logan, R A; O'Brien, T J; Greaves, M W


    A controlled trial of 4-weeks oral photochemotherapy (PUVA) on 14 patients with severe symptomatic dermatographism produced a clinically useful reduction in itching in five patients. In four of these patients itching had relapsed to pre-treatment levels within 3 months of finishing the PUVA course. A comparison of the weal and flare responses on exposed and covered (control) skin using a calibrated dermographometer showed no significant change in skin reactivity, even in the patients who experienced symptomatic relief. While PUVA may temporarily reduce itching in some patients with symptomatic dermographism, its use cannot generally be justified for treating this type of physical urticaria.

  19. Microvascular leakage of plasma proteins after PUVA and UVA

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    Staberg, B.; Worm, A.M.; Rossing, N.; Brodthagen, H.


    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), is a parameter of the leakage of macromolecules from the total microvasculature. In patients with psoriasis short-term PUVA treatment induces an increase in TERalb. In this study TERalb was measured in 3 groups of normal humans treated with PUVA, UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen. Treatment with PUVA and UVA caused a statistically significant increase in TERalb, whereas treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen did not induce any measurable changes. It is concluded that the UVA irradiation causes the abnormal leakage of macromolecules, whereas psoralen is not the responsible component. Furthermore the phenomenon can be elicited in normals and is not based on a preexisting psoriasis.

  20. UVA/UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in connective tissue diseases and related disorders: a research based review

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    Breuckmann Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad-band UVA, long-wave UVA1 and PUVA treatment have been described as an alternative/adjunct therapeutic option in a number of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Nevertheless, controlled studies investigating the efficacy of UVA irradiation in connective tissue diseases and related disorders are rare. Methods Searching the PubMed database the current article systematically reviews established and innovative therapeutic approaches of broad-band UVA irradiation, UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in a variety of different connective tissue disorders. Results Potential pathways include immunomodulation of inflammation, induction of collagenases and initiation of apoptosis. Even though holding the risk of carcinogenesis, photoaging or UV-induced exacerbation, UVA phototherapy seems to exhibit a tolerable risk/benefit ratio at least in systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, sclerodermoid graft-versus-host disease, lupus erythematosus and a number of sclerotic rarities. Conclusions Based on the data retrieved from the literature, therapeutic UVA exposure seems to be effective in connective tissue diseases and related disorders. However, more controlled investigations are needed in order to establish a clear-cut catalogue of indications.

  1. Diffractive waveplates for long wave infrared (United States)

    Ouskova, Elena; Roberts, David; Tabiryan, Nelson; Steeves, D. M.; Kimball, B. R.


    We report about developing long-wave infrared diffractive optical components based on liquid crystals. The components show high efficiency and high transparency for the 10.6 μm wavelength of CO2 laser beam.

  2. Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity* (United States)

    Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe


    Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

  3. Successful treatment of generalized elastolytic giant cell granuloma with psoralen-ultraviolet A. (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Lidia; García-Gavín, Juan; Allegue, Francisco; Ortiz-Rey, José Antonio; Zulaica, Ander


    Elastolytic giant cell granuloma (EGCG) is an infrequent granulomatous skin disorder with variable response to different therapeutic regimens. Information on the benefit of phototherapy is very scarce as this therapy has seldom been tried in the affected patients. We present the results achieved in two female patients after undergoing psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA). Two 54-year-old otherwise healthy female patients received a course of PUVA after trying other alternatives. Complete clearance was achieved in the two patients with excellent tolerance and no adverse effects. We consider PUVA is a well-tolerated, safe, and effective treatment for patients with EGCG.

  4. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma without paraproteinaemia: marked improvement with psoralen ultraviolet A treatment. (United States)

    Al-Niaimi, F A; Dawn, G; Cox, N H


    Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) is a rare granulomatous condition that is often associated with a paraproteinaemia and in some cases multiple myeloma. Treatment is therefore aimed at the underlying associated haematological abnormality. However, isolated NXG cases have been reported. We report a case of isolated NXG that responded very well to systemic psoralen ultraviolet A (PUVA) treatment. The rationale for this treatment was the successful use of PUVA treatment in other necrobiotic conditions such as granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica.

  5. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli acrA Mutants to Psoralen plus Near-Ultraviolet Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. Trier


    The sensitivity to psoralen plus near-ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) was compared in a pair of E. coli strains differing at the acrA locus. Survival was determined for both bacteria and phage λ. AcrA mutant cells were 40 times more sensitive than wild type to the lethal effect of PUVA. Free λ phage...... specifically in the environment of the cellular DNA so as to allow increased intercalation and photobinding of psoralens....

  6. Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Trallero-Giner, C; Garca̕-Moliner, F 0


    Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quan

  7. Effectiveness and safety of topical emollients in the treatment of PUVA-induced pruritus. (United States)

    Turan, Enver; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Erdemir, Asli Turgut; Usta, Murat; Kutlu, Nurdan Seda; Yurt, Nurdan


    In this study we tried to assess the efficacy of topical emollients in the treatment of patients with PUVA-induced pruritus. 41 patients over 18 years of age, who received PUVA treatment in the phototherapy unit, were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group I was administered with a 4% urea lotion and Group II was administered with liquid petrolatum. The follow-up period was minimum 4 weeks. During the first 2 weeks, patients were administered topical emollients and received PUVA treatment together. The next 2 weeks, they continued PUVA treatment without any medication. When time-dependent changes in the visual analogue scale scores for pruritus of both groups were considered, both treatment methods were found to be remarkably successful (p emollients were found to be effective in the treatment of PUVA-induced pruritus. Both forms of medication can be successfully administered and increase the patient's compliance with medication.

  8. Comparison of clinical and cost-effectiveness of psoralen + ultraviolet A versus psoralen + sunlight in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis in a developing economy. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khandpur, Sujay; Khanna, Neena; Sharma, Vinod K; Pandav, Chandrakant S


    Psoralen + ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy is an established modality for psoriasis. As India is a tropical country that has good availability of natural sunlight psoralen + sunlight (PUVAsol) may be a more convenient option. To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of PUVA versus PUVAsol in chronic plaque psoriasis. Cases of chronic plaque psoriasis with body surface area ≥10% or Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) ≥10, excluding erythrodermic or pustular psoriasis, were randomized to receive either PUVA or PUVAsol, with endpoint being the achievement of PASI 90 or completion of 12 weeks treatment, whichever is earlier. Cost analysis was also undertaken. Thirty-six cases (16 in PUVA and 20 in PUVAsol group) completed treatment. In the PUVA group, 15 cases (93.75%) responded to therapy while in the PUVAsol group, 15 (75%) responded (P = 0.29). Mean baseline PASI in the PUVA and PUVAsol groups was 16 and 14.4, respectively, and at endpoint was 1.62 and 3.77. There was a significantly greater reduction in PASI in the PUVA group at 2 and 4 weeks but at 8 and 12 weeks and endpoint, it was comparable. Treatment failure occurred in 6.25% and 25% of cases respectively (P = 0.29). Side effects were higher with PUVA. Total cost of therapy was significantly higher in the PUVA group (P = 0.002). Cost-effectiveness ratio was US$0.72 with PUVA and US$0.37 with PUVAsol. Both PUVA and PUVAsol were equally efficacious, with PUVAsol being twice as cost effective. Hence, PUVAsol may be recommended as treatment for psoriasis in a developing economy such as India.

  9. Role of anti-depressant fluoxetine in the puva treatment of psoriasis vulgaris

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    Mitra A


    Full Text Available Severity of Psoriasis Vulgaris is known to be modified by psychological stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of Fluoxetine in the PUVA treatment of Psoriasis. Twenty patients with progressive disease having more than thirty per cent body area involvement were included in a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled, age and sex matched study. All patients were on PUVAtreatment; half of the patients were given Fluoxetine 20 mgms daily whereas the other ten were given placebo. Assessment was done by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scoring after every 5 exposures of PUVA treatment till 20 treatments. All ten patients who took Fluoxetine along with PUVA treatment showed better response and quicker remission. Fluoxetine may be used as an adjuvant in PUVA treatment of Psoriasis.

  10. Role of anti-depressant fluoxetine in the puva treatment of psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra A


    Full Text Available Severity of psoriasis vulgaris is known to be modified by psychological stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fluoxetine in the PU VA treatment of psoriasis. Twenty patients with progressive disease having more than thirty per cent body area involvement were included in a randomized, double blinded, placebo- controlled, age and sex matched study. All patients were on PUVA treatment, half of patients were given fluoxetine 20 mgs daily whereas the ten were given placebo. Assessment was done by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scoring after every 5 exposures of PUVA treatment till 20 treatments. All ten patients who took fluoxetine along with PUVA treatment showed better response and quicker remission. Fluoxetine may be used as an adjuvant in PUVA treatment of psoriasis.

  11. Long-Wave Infrared Dyson Spectrometer (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis Z.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.


    Preliminary results are presented for an ultra compact long-wave infrared slit spectrometer based on the dyson concentric design. The dyson spectrometer has been integrated in a dewar environment with a quantum well infrared photodetecor (QWIP), concave electron beam fabricated diffraction grating and ultra precision slit. The entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to maximize signal to noise ratio performance, hence eliminating thermal signal from transmissive elements and internal stray light. All of this is done while maintaining QWIP thermal control. A general description is given of the spectrometer, alignment technique and predicated performance. The spectrometer has been designed for optimal performance with respect to smile and keystone distortion. A spectral calibration is performed with NIST traceable targets. A 2-point non-uniformity correction is performed with a precision blackbody source to provide radiometric accuracy. Preliminary laboratory results show excellent agreement with modeled noise equivalent delta temperature and detector linearity over a broad temperature range.

  12. Long Wave Infrared Cavity Enhanced Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Schultz, John F.


    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) long wave infrared (LWIR) cavity enhanced sensor (CES) task is to explore ultra-sensitive spectroscopic chemical sensing techniques and apply them to detecting proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Our primary application is detecting signatures of WMD production, but LWIR CES techniques are also capable of detecting chemical weapons. The LWIR CES task is concerned exclusively with developing novel point sensors; stand-off detection is addressed by other PNNL tasks and projects. PNNL's LWIR CES research is distinguished from that done by others by the use quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as the light source. QCLs are novel devices, and a significant fraction of our research has been devoted to developing the procedures and hardware required to implement them most effectively for chemical sensing. This report details the progress we have made on LWIR CES sensor development.

  13. Dermoscopic changes of melanocytic nevi after psoralen-ultraviolet a and narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayedeh Ghani-Nejad


    Full Text Available Background: Phototherapy may alter the morphologic features of melanocytic nevi. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive method for evaluation of skin lesions, specifically melanocytic nevi. Aims and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB and psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA therapy on the dermoscopic features of nevi. Methods: A total of 74 melanocytic nevi were randomly selected from 20 patients. Out of those, 54 nevi received NB-UVB, while 20 received PUVA. 50% of the nevi in each group were exposed to radiation, while the remaining nevi were covered with an opaque tape. All nevi were demoscopically evaluated before and after 30 or 60 sessions of phototherapy. Results: Overall demoscopic changes were observed in 34/37 (91.8% of the uncovered nevi compared to 16/37 (43.2% of the covered nevi (P value 0.0001. The most common changes were new dot/globule formation (62.1%, darkening (32.4%, nevus enlargement (27%, and patchy pigmentation (18.8%. Compared to NB-UVB, dermoscopic changes were more frequent in both covered and uncovered nevi of the PUVA group. (P values 0.041 and 0.0172, respectively. New dot/globule formation was observed more frequently in the covered and uncovered nevi of PUVA group. Conclusion: PUVA and NB-UVB induce dermoscopic changes in the majority of the irradiated nevi. However, PUVA is associated with higher frequency of dermoscopic changes in both covered and uncovered nevi.

  14. Risk of Cutaneous Malignancy in Mycosis Fungoides Patients Treated with PUVA: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Umarova Aslan


    Full Text Available Objective: PUVA therapy is mostly used longer than other diseases in mycosis fungoides (MF patients. We aimed to investigate the chronic side effects of PUVA therapy, including skin cancer to disclose the actual risk in Turkish population. Methods: We screened all MF patients treated with PUVA at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of İstanbul Medical Faculty and included patients in whom PUVA has first initiated between 1994 and 2006 and administered in one or several courses and who were followed up more than five years with last visit in 2012. Results: Fifty patients with MF had a mean follow-up duration of 10.2±2.8 years. Six patients (12% had PUVA lentigines. Two of them (4% developed skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease during their follow-up. The mean sessions (295.5±7.8 sessions and total UVA doses (1452 J/cm2 in these patients with skin cancer were higher than those who did not develop skin cancer (128.7±73 sessions and 515±31 J/cm2, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the PUVA lentigines and development of cutaneous malignancy (p=0.01. Conclusion: Cutaneous malignancies were detected in 4% of MF patients followed up approximately 10 years. Due to this low risk, we conclude that PUVA therapy is relatively safe in patients with MF in our country. However, UVA should not be applied in high total doses and patients should be followed-up lifelong.

  15. Long Wave Infrared Cavity Enhanced Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Aker, Pam M.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Munley, John T.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Schultz, John F.


    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) long wave infrared (LWIR) cavity enhanced sensor (CES) project is to explore ultra-sensitive spectroscopic techniques and apply them to the development of LWIR chemical sensors needed for detecting weapons proliferation. This includes detecting not only the weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) themselves, but also signatures of their production and/or detonation. The LWIR CES project is concerned exclusively with developing point sensors; other portions of PNNL's IR Sensors program address stand off detection. PNNL's LWIR CES research is distinguished from that done by others by the use quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as the light source. QCLs are novel devices, and a significant fraction of our research has been devoted to developing the procedures and hardware required to implement them most effectively for chemical sensing. This report details the progress we have made on our LWIR CES sensor development. During FY02, PNNL investigated three LWIR CES implementations beginning with the easiest to implement, direct cavity-enhanced detection (simple CES), including a technique of intermediate difficulty, cavity-dithered phase-sensitive detection (FM recovery CES) through to the most complex technique, that of resonant sideband cavity-enhanced detection also known as noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy, or NICE-OHMS.

  16. Long Wave Dynamics along a Convex Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Didenkulova, Ira; Soomere, Tarmo


    Long linear wave transformation in the basin of varying depth is studied for a case of a convex bottom profile in the framework of one-dimensional shallow water equation. The existence of travelling wave solutions in this geometry and the uniqueness of this wave class is established through construction of a 1:1 transformation of the general 1D wave equation to the analogous wave equation with constant coefficients. The general solution of the Cauchy problem consists of two travelling waves propagating in opposite directions. It is found that generally a zone of a weak current is formed between these two waves. Waves are reflected from the coastline so that their profile is inverted with respect to the calm water surface. Long wave runup on a beach with this profile is studied for sine pulse, KdV soliton and N-wave. Shown is that in certain cases the runup height along the convex profile is considerably larger than for beaches with a linear slope. The analysis of wave reflection from the bottom containing a s...

  17. Psoralen and Ultraviolet A Light Treatment Directly Affects Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signal Transduction by Altering Plasma Membrane Packing. (United States)

    Van Aelst, Britt; Devloo, Rosalie; Zachée, Pierre; t'Kindt, Ruben; Sandra, Koen; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Compernolle, Veerle; Feys, Hendrik B


    Psoralen and ultraviolet A light (PUVA) are used to kill pathogens in blood products and as a treatment of aberrant cell proliferation in dermatitis, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and graft-versus-host disease. DNA damage is well described, but the direct effects of PUVA on cell signal transduction are poorly understood. Because platelets are anucleate and contain archetypal signal transduction machinery, they are ideally suited to address this. Lipidomics on platelet membrane extracts showed that psoralen forms adducts with unsaturated carbon bonds of fatty acyls in all major phospholipid classes after PUVA. Such adducts increased lipid packing as measured by a blue shift of an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe in model liposomes. Furthermore, the interaction of these liposomes with lipid order-sensitive proteins like amphipathic lipid-packing sensor and α-synuclein was inhibited by PUVA. In platelets, PUVA caused poor membrane binding of Akt and Bruton's tyrosine kinase effectors following activation of the collagen glycoprotein VI and thrombin protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1. This resulted in defective Akt phosphorylation despite unaltered phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate levels. Downstream integrin activation was furthermore affected similarly by PUVA following PAR1 (effective half-maximal concentration (EC50), 8.4 ± 1.1 versus 4.3 ± 1.1 μm) and glycoprotein VI (EC50, 1.61 ± 0.85 versus 0.26 ± 0.21 μg/ml) but not PAR4 (EC50, 50 ± 1 versus 58 ± 1 μm) signal transduction. Our findings were confirmed in T-cells from graft-versus-host disease patients treated with extracorporeal photopheresis, a form of systemic PUVA. In conclusion, PUVA increases the order of lipid phases by covalent modification of phospholipids, thereby inhibiting membrane recruitment of effector kinases.

  18. Long wave asymptote for the Landau Pomeranchuk Migdal effect (United States)

    Koshelkin, A. V.


    It is shown that non-small angle multiple elastic scattering in matter leads to much stronger suppression of bremsstrahlung (BS) by high-energy particles in the long wave range of emission spectrum compared with the quenching predicted by Landau L D and Pomeranchuk I Ya (1953 Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 92 535, 735) and Migdal A B (1954 Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 96 49, 1956 Phys. Rev. 103 1811). This manifests itself as the rearrangement of the BS spectrum of soft photons in the far long wave region.

  19. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, A.


    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects.

  20. Lymphoma with large-plaque parapsoriasis treated with PUVA. (United States)

    Tamagawa, Risa; Katoh, Norito; Shimazaki, Chihiro; Okano, Akira; Yamada, Shinya; Ichihashi, Kaori; Masuda, Koji; Kishimoto, Saburo


    We report on a 78-year-old Japanese woman with a 50-year history of large-plaque parapsoriasis that had evolved into cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Her large-plaque parapsoriasis had been treated with psoralen plus ultraviolet A for 10 years. Subsequently an isolated nodule appeared on her right lower leg. Prior or concurrent patches or plaques were absent. Histology revealed a diffuse nonepidermotropic infiltrate of large lymphocytes in the dermis, which had enlarged nuclei and prominent nucleoli. A diagnosis of CD30- cutaneous large T-cell lymphoma was made. Following systemic chemotherapy, there was clinical improvement. No evidence of recurrence or systemic lymphoma has subsequently been found.

  1. Extended Long Wave Hindcast inside Port Solutions to Minimize Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Diaz-Hernandez


    Full Text Available The present study shows a methodology to carry out a comprehensive study of port agitation and resonance analysis in Geraldton Harbor (Western Australia. The methodology described and applied here extends the short and long wave hindcast outside the harbor and towards the main basin. To perform such an analysis, and as the first stage of the methodology, it is necessary to determine, in detail, both the long and short wave characteristics, through a comprehensive methodology to obtain and to hindcast the full spectral data (short waves + long waves, for frequencies between 0.005 and 1 Hz. Twelve-year spectral hindcast wave data, at a location before the reef, have been modified analytically to include the energy input associated with infragravity waves. A decomposition technique based on the energy balance of the radiation stress of short waves is followed. Predictions for long wave heights and periods at different harbor locations are predicted and validated with data recorded during 2004 to 2009. This new database will ensure an accurate and reliable assessment of long wave hourly data (height, period and currents in any area within the main basin of the Port of Geraldton, for its present geometry. With this information, two main task will be completed: (1 undertake a forensic diagnosis of the present response of the harbor, identifying those forcing characteristics related to inoperability events; and (2 propose any layout solutions to minimize, change, dissipate/fade/vanish or positively modify the effects of long waves in the harbor, proposing different harbor geometry modifications. The goal is to identify all possible combinations of solutions that would minimize the current inoperability in the harbor. Different pre-designs are assessed in this preliminary study in order to exemplify the potential of the methodology.

  2. Mercury Cadmium Telluride Photoconductive Long Wave Infrared Linear Array Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risal Singh


    Full Text Available Mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1-x, CdxTe (MCT photoconductive long wave infrared linear arrays are still in demand due to several advantages. The linear array technology is well established, easier, economical and is quite relevant to thermal imaging even today. The scan thermal imaging systems based on this technology offer wider field of view coverage and capacity for higher resolution in the scan direction relative to staring systems that use expensive and yet to mature focal plane array detector technology. A critical review on photoconductive n-Hg1-x CdxTe linear array detector technology for the long wave infrared range has been presented. The emphasis lies on detector design and processing technology. The critical issues of diffusion and drift effects, Hi-Lo and heterostructure blocking contacts, surface passivation, and other related aspects have been considered from the detector design angle. The device processing technology aspects are of vital importance

  3. Symmetries and casimir of an extended classical long wave system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K M Tamizhmani; R Ilangovane; B Dubrovin


    In this paper, we derive Lie point, generalized, master and time-dependent symmetries of a dispersionless equation, which is an extension of a classical long wave system. This equation also admits an infinite-dimensional Lie algebraic structure of Virasoro-type, as in the dispersive integrable systems. We discuss the construction of a sequence of negative ranking symmetries through the property of uniformity in rank. More interestingly, we obtain the conserved quantities directly from the casimir of Poisson pencil.

  4. New Conservative Schemes for Regularized Long Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingchun Wang; Luming Zhang


    In this paper, two finite difference schemes are presented for initial-boundary value problems of Regularized Long-Wave(RLW) equation. They all have the advantages that there are discrete energies which are conserved. Convergence and stability of difference solutions with order O(h2 +τ2) are proved in the energy norm. Numerical experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  5. Tri-prong scheme for regularized long wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hosseini


    Full Text Available This paper witnesses the application of a tri-prong scheme comprising the well-known Variational Iteration (VIM, Adomian’s polynomials and an auxiliary parameter to obtain solutions of regularized long wave (RLW equation in large domain. Computational work elucidates the solution procedure appropriately and comparison with results by the standard variational iteration method shows that the auxiliary parameter proves very effective to control the convergence region of approximate solutions.

  6. PUVA treatment of alopecia areata partialis, totalis and universalis: audit of 10 years` experience at St John`s Institute of Dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.R.; Hawk, J.L.M. [St Thomas` Hospital, London (United Kingdom). St John`s Institute of Dermatology


    Our 10-year experience with PUVA treatment for alopecia areata, partialis, totalis and universalis was retrospectively reviewed using charts and follow-up questionnaires for 70 patients at St John`s Institute of Dermatology. In all cases, several previous therapies were judged to be unsatisfactory prior to starting PUVA, and many cases were already deemed clinically refractory prior to referral for PUVA. If cases of vellus hair growth are excluded, and those who lost their PUVA-induced regrowth rapidly on follow-up, the effective success rate was at best 6.3% for alopecia areata partialis, 12.5% for alopecia areata totalis and 13.3% for alopecia areata universalis. We affirm that PUVA is generally not an effective treatment for alopecia areata. (Author).

  7. Micose fungóide: estudo epidemiológico de 17 casos e avaliação da resposta terapêutica à PUVA Mycosis fungoides: epidemiologic study of 17 cases and evaluation of PUVA photochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Duarte


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A fotoquimioterapia com PUVA é indicada para tratamento da micose fungóide, empregada como monoterapia em estágios precoces ou combinada a outras drogas nos estágios mais avançados da doença. OBJETIVOS: Avaliação da resposta terapêutica à fotoquimioterapia PUVA em pacientes com micose fungóide. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1996 e novembro de 2003 avaliaram-se 17 pacientes com micose fungóide no setor de Fototerapia da Clínica Dermatológica da Santa Casa de São Paulo. A terapia com PUVA foi realizada como monoterapia nos estádios iniciais ou como coadjuvante nos estádios avançados da doença. Avaliou-se o resultado do tratamento quanto ao aspecto clínico das lesões e parâmetros histológicos após tratamento. RESULTADOS: Quatorze de 16 pacientes responderam à fotoquimioterapia. Relacionando o estadiamento da doença à resposta terapêutica obteve-se o seguinte: cinco pacientes (um em estágio IA e quatro em IB com controle total (cura das lesões; quatro (todos IB com melhora intensa (controle de 70-99%; dois (IIB e IVA com melhora moderada (de 50 a 69%; três (IA, IB, IIA com melhora discreta (menos 50%; dois (IB, IIB inalterados (sem resposta. Um paciente teve de descontinuar o tratamento por apresentar intenso ardor. CONCLUSÃO: Houve resposta à terapia PUVA em 87% dos pacientes, com controle total ou melhora intensa da doença em 56% dos casos. Sua efetividade permitiu regressão das lesões cutâneas, principalmente nos casos precoces. A fotoquimioterapia com PUVA mostrou ser tratamento seguro e efetivo, devendo ser considerado em pacientes com micose fungóide.BACKGROUND: PUVA photochemotherapy is indicated to treat mycosis fungoides, either as monotherapy in the earlier stages of the disease or in combination with other drugs in more advanced stages of evolution. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate PUVA photochemotherapy response in patients with mycosis fungoides. METHODS: From January 1996 to November 2003, 17

  8. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Liu, Z. M.; Zhong, H. Q.; Zhai, J.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.


    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo.

  9. Kondratiev cycles and so-called long waves. The early research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)


    textabstractThis paper recalls some early work of the Dutch pioneers of long-wave research which anticipated many of the contemporary debates. Various explanations which have been advanced for the existence of long waves are reviewed, and the applicability of long-wave theories in a number of

  10. Boundary control of long waves in nonlinear dispersive systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Agus; Foss, Bjarne; Aamo, Ole Morten


    Unidirectional propagation of long waves in nonlinear dispersive systems may be modeled by the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers equation, a third order partial differential equation incorporating linear dissipative and dispersive terms, as well as a term covering nonlinear wave phenomena. For higher...... orders of the nonlinearity, the equation may have unstable solitary wave solutions. Although it is a one dimensional problem, achieving a global result for this equation is not trivial due to the nonlinearity and the mixed partial derivative. In this paper, two sets of nonlinear boundary control laws...... that achieve global exponential stability and semi-global exponential stability are derived for both linear and nonlinear cases....

  11. [Environmental UV radiation levels for dosing PUVA-sol in Mexico]. (United States)

    Castanedo-Cázares, Juan Pablo; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Ehnis-Pérez, Adriana; Alba-Barba, Isaura


    Introducción: la terapia PUVA-sol tiene como ventaja su disponibilidad y bajo costo. Sin embargo, su utilización es empírica. La finalidad del estudio es cuantificar la radiación solar UVA ambiental y sugerir una forma de administración en México. Métodos: se midió la radiación UV en el centro del país (22 °N, 101 °O, 1877 m) mediante radiometría terrestre de 2007 a 2011. Se registró la variación por hora, mes, nubosidad y transmisión a través de placas de silicato doméstico. Resultados: más del 75 % de la radiación UVA se registra entre las 9:00 y las 17:00 horas. La intensidad anual promedio mínima fue de 20 mW/cm(2) y la máxima de 25.4 mW/cm(2) (ANOVA, p empleo racional de PUVA-sol según los datos obtenidos. Es necesario aislar la radiación UVB y ajustar la dosis según la nubosidad, así como apegarse al protocolo de seguridad a fin de obtener beneficios y minimizar los efectos adversos.

  12. Normal Incident Long Wave Infrared Quantum Dash Quantum Cascade Photodetector (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Jiao; Ren, Fei; Liu, Shu-Man; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo


    We demonstrate a quantum dash quantum cascade photodetector (QDash-QCD) by incorporating self-assembled InAs quantum dashes into the active region of a long wave infrared QCD. Sensitive photoresponse to normal incident light at 10 μm was observed, which is attributed to the intersubband (ISB) transitions in the quantum well/quantum dash (QW/QDash) hybrid absorption region and the following transfer of excited electrons on the extraction stair-like quantum levels separated by LO-phonon energy. The high density InAs quantum dashes were formed in the Stranski-Krastanow mode and stair-like levels were formed by a lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs superlattice. A stable responsivity from 5 mA/W at 77 K to 3 mA/W at as high as 190 K was observed, which makes the QDash-QCD promising in high temperature operation.

  13. Cultural Artifact Detection in Long Wave Infrared Imagery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dylan Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Craven, Julia M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ramon, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Detection of cultural artifacts from airborne remotely sensed data is an important task in the context of on-site inspections. Airborne artifact detection can reduce the size of the search area the ground based inspection team must visit, thereby improving the efficiency of the inspection process. This report details two algorithms for detection of cultural artifacts in aerial long wave infrared imagery. The first algorithm creates an explicit model for cultural artifacts, and finds data that fits the model. The second algorithm creates a model of the background and finds data that does not fit the model. Both algorithms are applied to orthomosaic imagery generated as part of the MSFE13 data collection campaign under the spectral technology evaluation project.

  14. Polarization characteristics of objects in long-wave infrared range. (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Shao, Xiaopeng; Gao, Ying; Xiangli, Bin; Han, Pingli; Li, Guo


    Research on polarization characteristics of objects has become indispensable in the field of target detection. Though widespread studies on applying polarization to target detection and material identification exist, theoretical descriptions have varied widely in accuracy and completeness. Incomplete descriptions of polarization characteristics invariably result in poor demonstration of changes caused by macroscopic influence factors. For objects that are of finite surface, a comprehensive model is built to analyze the polarization characteristics of their thermal emission. With the Stokes theory and the superposition principle of light waves, the relation between the degree of linear polarization and the spatial geometrical parameters, such as the detection distance and the shape of objects, is discussed in the long-wave infrared range in detail. This model can be applied to analyze the linear polarization characteristics among different materials.

  15. Design and fabrication of long wave infrared spectral filters (United States)

    Carey, Victoria A.; McElhiney, Morgan E.; Gupta, Neelam; Jensen, Janet; Prather, Dennis W.; Mirotznik, Mark S.


    Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging in the long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region has numerous applications in agriculture, astronomy20-22, medicine, and the sensing of dangerous chemical/biological agents23-25. One of the challenges of developing a spectral imaging system in the LWIR is the availability of spectral filters. We will report on three different design methods for realizing spectral filters in the LWIR. The first is an all-dielectric reflection filter based on the guidedmode resonance response. The second is a spatially-varying plasmonic structure that can be used to synthesize complicated spectral reflectance. The third is a Fabry-Perot design for tunable transmission. Numerical and experimental results will be presented.

  16. Run-up amplification of transient long waves

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanakis, Themistoklis; Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric


    The extreme characteristics of long wave run-up are studied in this paper. First we give a brief overview of the existing theory which is mainly based on the hodograph transformation (Carrier & Greenspan, 1958). Then, using numerical simulations, we build on the work of Stefanakis et al. (2011) for an infinite sloping beach and we find that resonant run-up amplification of monochromatic waves is robust to spectral perturbations of the incoming wave and resonant regimes do exist for certain values of the frequency. In the setting of a finite beach attached to a constant depth region, resonance can only be observed when the incoming wavelength is larger than the distance from the undisturbed shoreline to the seaward boundary. Wavefront steepness is also found to play a role in wave run-up, with steeper waves reaching higher run-up values.

  17. Long Wave Reflection and Transmission over A Sloping Step

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsien-Kuo CHANG; Jin-Cheng LIOU


    This investigation examines long wave reflection and transmission induced by a sloping step. Bellman and Kalaba's(1959) invariant imbedding is introduced to find wave reflection. An alternative method matching both the surface elevation and its surface slope of each region at the junction is applied to the determination of wave reflection and transmission.The proposed methods are compared with the accurate numerical results of Porter and Porter (2000) and those of Mei(1983) for a vertical step. The wave reflection obtained for a mildly sloping step differs significantly from the result of Mei. The wave reflection is found to fluctuate owing to wave trapping for the mild sloping step. The height and the face slope of the step are important for determining wave reflection and transmission coefficients.

  18. Risk of melanoma with psoralen/ultraviolet A therapy for psoriasis. Do the known risks now outweigh the benefits? (United States)

    Lindelöf, B


    Since the introduction in the 1970s of treatment with oral psoralens with longwave ultraviolet radiation in the A range (PUVA), there has been an increasing concern about the long term carcinogenic effect of the therapy. The main indication for PUVA is psoriasis, a common, chronic and intractable skin disease that affects 1 to 3% of the world's population. The effectiveness of PUVA in inducing and maintaining the remission of severe psoriasis has been amply documented. Although psoriasis is not a life-threatening disorder, it may be associated with restriction of activities and days lost to hospitalisation. Therefore, a number of systemic treatments such as methotrexate and cyclosporin have been used. None of these treatments has been as carefully studied for long term adverse effects as PUVA. The short-term adverse effects of PUVA are generally well known and tolerated. The major mid-term adverse effect, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, has been well documented in a number of large-scale epidemiological studies that have led to recommendations such as to restrict the lifetime number of treatments. Although squamous cell carcinoma is potentially life-threatening, it is usually slow growing and can be adequately managed by proper surveillance, treatment and follow-up. The situation is quite different for malignant melanoma, which is often fast growing and fatal. Except for anecdotal reports, malignant melanoma has not been observed in PUVA patients until recently. However, a report of a cohort of 1380 patients with psoriasis has concluded that about 15 years after the first treatment the risk of melanoma is increased approximately 5-fold in patients treated with high doses. Although this report needs to be confirmed by other multicentre trials, it is alarming since the association between exposure to ultraviolet light and development of melanoma is well established both in humans and in experimental animals. Until this study is validated, it is recommended that

  19. Singlet oxygen generation in PUVA therapy studied using electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano-Perez, Juan Jose; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Merchan, Manuela [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universitat de Valencia, Apartado 22085, ES-46071 Valencia (Spain); Serrano-Andres, Luis, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universitat de Valencia, Apartado 22085, ES-46071 Valencia (Spain)


    The ability of furocoumarins to participate in the PUVA (Psoralen + UV-A) therapy against skin disorders and some types of cancer, is analyzed on quantum chemical grounds. The efficiency of the process relies on its capability to populate its lowest triplet excited state, and then either form adducts with thymine which interfere DNA replication or transfer its energy, generating singlet molecular oxygen damaging the cell membrane in photoactivated tissues. By determining the spin-orbit couplings, shown to be the key property, in the intersystem crossing yielding the triplet state of the furocoumarin, the electronic couplings in the triplet-triplet energy transfer process producing the singlet oxygen, and the reaction rates and lifetimes, the efficiency in the phototherapeutic action of the furocoumarin family is predicted as: khellin < 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) < 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) < psoralen < 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) < 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPS), the latter being the most efficient photosensitizer and singlet oxygen generator.

  20. An economic policy for the fifth long wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Reati


    Full Text Available The paper starts by reviewing some recent contributions on long waves, arguing that the present technological revolution in ICT is part of the broad phenomenon of a newlong wave. It follows that the main focus of economic policy should be to support the diffusion of the new technology and to favour the institutional changes required by such an objective. Four broad guidelines are suggested: i a Keynesian policy for demand going beyond the straitjacket of the Maastricht criteria and improving the income distribution in favour of employees; i a policy to re-establish the primacy of productive capital through systematic concerted open market operations to regulate financial liquidity; iii a reconstruction of the employment relationship that preserves the essential features of the "European social model" and a targeted flexibility of labour, that contrasts with the neoclassical all-out market flexibility; and iv a regime for intellectual property rights that avoids the drawbacks--both ethical and economic--of current US practices.

  1. Normal Incident Long Wave Infrared Quantum Dash Quantum Cascade Photodetector. (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Jiao; Ren, Fei; Liu, Shu-Man; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo


    We demonstrate a quantum dash quantum cascade photodetector (QDash-QCD) by incorporating self-assembled InAs quantum dashes into the active region of a long wave infrared QCD. Sensitive photoresponse to normal incident light at 10 μm was observed, which is attributed to the intersubband (ISB) transitions in the quantum well/quantum dash (QW/QDash) hybrid absorption region and the following transfer of excited electrons on the extraction stair-like quantum levels separated by LO-phonon energy. The high density InAs quantum dashes were formed in the Stranski-Krastanow mode and stair-like levels were formed by a lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs superlattice. A stable responsivity from 5 mA/W at 77 K to 3 mA/W at as high as 190 K was observed, which makes the QDash-QCD promising in high temperature operation.

  2. Long-wave infrared profile feature extractor (PFx) sensor (United States)

    Sartain, Ronald B.; Aliberti, Keith; Alexander, Troy; Chiu, David


    The Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Profile Feature Extractor (PFx) sensor has evolved from the initial profiling sensor that was developed by the University of Memphis (Near IR) and the Army Research Laboratory (visible). This paper presents the initial signatures of the LWIR PFx for human with and without backpacks, human with animal (dog), and a number of other animals. The current version of the LWIR PFx sensor is a diverging optical tripwire sensor. The LWIR PFx signatures are compared to the signatures of the Profile Sensor in the visible and Near IR spectral regions. The LWIR PFx signatures were collected with two different un-cooled micro bolometer focal plane array cameras, where the individual pixels were used as stand alone detectors (a non imaging sensor). This approach results in a completely passive, much lower bandwidth, much longer battery life, low weight, small volume sensor that provides sufficient information to classify objects into human Vs non human categories with a 98.5% accuracy.

  3. Novel silicon lenses for long-wave infrared imaging (United States)

    Kintz, Gregory; Stephanou, Philip; Petersen, Kurt


    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel silicon lens for Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) imaging are presented. The silicon lenses are planar in nature, and are created using standard wafer scale silicon micro-fabrication processes. The silicon batch processes are used to generate subwavelength structures that introduce spatially varying phase shifts in the incident light. We will show that the silicon lens designs can be extended to produce lenses of varying focal lengths and diameters, thus enabling IR imaging at significantly lower cost and reduced weight and form factor. An optical design program and a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation software tool are used to model the lens performance. The effects of polarization anisotropy are computed for the resultant subwavelength structures. Test samples with lenses with focal lengths in the range of 10 to 50 mm were fabricated. The test sample also included a prism structure, which is characterized by measuring the deflection of a CO2 laser beam and compared to theoretical beam deflection. The silicon lenses are used to produce an image on a VGA micro-bolometer array.

  4. A (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Hierarchy and its Integrable Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanhe Dong


    Under the frame of the (2+1)-dimensional zero curvature equation and Tu model,the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, the loop algebra is expanded into a larger one. Moreover, a class of integrable coupling system for dispersive long wave hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional multi-component integrable system will be investigated.

  5. Electronic crosstalk correction for terra long wave infrared photovoltaic bands (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua


    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, among which 27-30 are Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) PhotoVoltaic (PV) bands covering a wavelength range from 6.72 μm to 9.73 μm. It has been found that there is severe contamination in Terra band 27 from other three bands due to crosstalk of signals among them. The crosstalk effect induces strong striping in the Earth View (EV) images and causes large long-term drift in the EV Brightness Temperature (BT) in the band. An algorithm using a linear approximation derived from on-orbit lunar observations has been developed to correct the crosstalk effect for band 27. It was demonstrated that the crosstalk correction can substantially reduce the striping in the EV images and significantly remove the long-term drift in the EV BT. In this paper, it is shown that other three LWIR PV bands are also contaminated by the crosstalk of signals among themselves. The effect induces strong striping artifacts and large long-term drifts in these bands as similarly observed in band 27. The crosstalk correction algorithm previously developed is applied to correct the crosstalk effect. It is demonstrated that the crosstalk correction successfully reduces the striping in the EV images and removes long-term drifts in the EV BT in bands 28-30 as was done similarly for band 27. The crosstalk correction algorithm can thus substantially improve both the image quality and radiometric accuracy of the LWIR PV bands Level 1B (L1B) products. The algorithm can be applied to other MODIS bands and/or other remote sensors that exhibit an electronic crosstalk effect.

  6. Hydroelastic analysis of ice shelves under long wave excitation (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Theodosios; Karperaki, Angeliki; Theotokoglou, Efstathios; Belibassakis, Kostas


    The transient hydroelastic response of an ice shelf, under long wave forcing, is analysed by means of the Finite Element method. Our main goal is to provide a simple model for tsunami wave - ice shelf interaction, capable of reproducing, in an at least qualitative manner, the stress field induced in the ice shelf, when excited by a tsunami wave. The analysis is aimed to model ice calving caused by wave impact, as was the case after the Honsu 2011 incident [1]. Adopting several simplifying but realistic assumptions, the ice shelf is modeled as a variable thickness, Euler-Bernoulli, cantilever beam, while the 1+1 linear shallow water equations are employed for the hydrodynamic field representation, as described in [2]. The fixed cantilever beam resembles a constrained, continuous ice shelf extending into the ocean. The solution of such a system, for a freely floating plate, has been presented by Sturova [3], where a modal expansion of the hydroelastic response with respect to the dry modes of the beam has been used. Our solution approach is based on the development of a special hydroelastic finite element for the governing equations. Cases of constant and variable bathymetry are considered. Bending moment time profiles yield the maximum tensile stress at the upper and lower surfaces of the ice shelf, which is the critical parameter for crack initiation or propagation. As expected, maximum absolute bending moment values appear at the base of the ice shelf, where no deflection or rotation occurs. The fact that the wave is fully reflected on the vertical impermeable boundary, corresponding to the continental shelf under the base of the floe, leads to extreme focusing and thus extreme bending moment values. Finally, the case of cracked shelves has been considered with use of the elementary defective beam theory of Kienzler and Herrmann [4]. Future enhancement of the present model is proposed on the grounds of a higher order beam/plate theory and a 2-D formulation

  7. Evaluation of PUVA-induced skin side effects in patients referred to the Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad in 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Maleki


    Full Text Available Background: Systemic oral psoralens plus UVA therapy (PUVA is a therapeutic method used with considerable success in many different skin disorders. PUVA therapy causes some cutaneous and noncutaneous side effects and in the present research we deal with cutaneous side effects. Aims: Evaluation of patients to know the different skin side effects of PUVA and their importance. Materials and Methods: All patients referred to the phototherapy unit of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad entered the research and skin examination was taken place initially and every 3 months thereafter. Whenever any side effect appeared, it was recorded in the information sheet. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients were included in the research, 61 were male between 15 and 75 years and 67 were female between 10 and 61 years of age. Age of female patients at the time of cutaneous side effect appearance was less than male patients. The most common early side effect was pruritus (34.3% and the rarest was telangiectasia (0.7%. One case of late side effect in the form of squamous cell carcinoma was observed in a patient who had received other carcinogenic drugs as well. Complications such as skin dryness, pruritus, erythema and burning sensation occurred at low doses of UVA, while dermatitis, severe limb pain and acne at moderate doses and PUVA lentigines, hypertrichosis and lichenoid lesions appeared at high doses of UVA. Conclusion: Considering the significant therapeutic effects and few serious side effects, PUVA therapy is a suitable and safe method for treatment of certain skin diseases.

  8. Design of visible/long-wave infrared dual-band imaging optical system (United States)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Lai, Jianjun; Huang, Ying


    An efficient small size and low weight optical lens system covering the visible and long-wave infrared dual-band is designed. The chromatic aberration caused by the wide bands from visible to long-wave infrared is one of the tough problems though large efforts have been done in the related communities. In this paper, for materials used as the base of the achromatic design, we choose two suitable materials (Zns and Kbr) that allow transmission both of visible and long-wave infrared (LWIR) light. Though the two materials have proved the ability to correct three wavelengths for each spectral range, the correction from the materials compensation is not enough and aspheric even diffractive surface was selected to join this optical system for reducing the aberration. The design results show a good image quality for infrared band imaging while the corresponding visible imaging is acceptable to be used to extract the outline of objects.

  9. Hamiltonian long wave expansions for internal waves over a periodically varying bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-yan; PIAO Da-xiong


    We derive a Hamiltonian formulation for two-dimensional nonlinear long waves between two bodies of immiscible fluid with a periodic bottom.From the formulation and using the Hamiltonian perturbation theory,we obtain effective Boussinesq equations that describe the motion of bidirectional long waves and unidirectional equations that are similar to the KdV equation for the case in which the bottom possesses short length scale.The computations for these results are performed in the framework of an asymptotic analIysis of multiple scale operators.

  10. New multi-soliton solutions and travelling wave solutions of the dispersive long-wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张解放; 郭冠平; 吴锋民


    Using the extended homogeneous balance method, the (1+1)-dimensional dispersive Iong-wave equations have been solved. Starting from the homogeneous balance method, we have obtained a nonlinear transformation for simplifying a dispersive long-wave equation into a linear partial differential equation. Usually, we can obtain only a type of soliton-like solution. In this paper, we have further found some new multi-soliton solutions and exact travelling solutions of the dispersive long-wave equations from the linear partial equation.

  11. Cubic Trigonometric B-spline Galerkin Methods for the Regularized Long Wave Equation (United States)

    Irk, Dursun; Keskin, Pinar


    A numerical solution of the Regularized Long Wave (RLW) equation is obtained using Galerkin finite element method, based on Crank Nicolson method for the time integration and cubic trigonometric B-spline functions for the space integration. After two different linearization techniques are applied, the proposed algorithms are tested on the problems of propagation of a solitary wave and interaction of two solitary waves.

  12. Variability In Long-Wave Runup as a Function of Nearshore Bathymetric Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkin, Lauren McNeill [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Beaches and barrier islands are vulnerable to extreme storm events, such as hurricanes, that can cause severe erosion and overwash to the system. Having dunes and a wide beach in front of coastal infrastructure can provide protection during a storm, but the influence that nearshore bathymetric features have in protecting the beach and barrier island system is not completely understood. The spatial variation in nearshore features, such as sand bars and beach cusps, can alter nearshore hydrodynamics, including wave setup and runup. The influence of bathymetric features on long-wave runup can be used in evaluating the vulnerability of coastal regions to erosion and dune overtopping, evaluating the changing morphology, and implementing plans to protect infrastructure. In this thesis, long-wave runup variation due to changing bathymetric features as determined with the numerical model XBeach is quantified (eXtreme Beach behavior model). Wave heights are analyzed to determine the energy through the surfzone. XBeach assumes that coastal erosion at the land-sea interface is dominated by bound long-wave processes. Several hydrodynamic conditions are used to force the numerical model. The XBeach simulation results suggest that bathymetric irregularity induces significant changes in the extreme long-wave runup at the beach and the energy indicator through the surfzone.

  13. Stability of Solitary Waves for Three Coupled Long Wave - Short Wave Interaction Equations


    Borluk, H.; Erbay, S.


    In this paper we consider a three-component system of one dimensional long wave-short wave interaction equations. The system has two-parameter family of solitary wave solutions. We prove orbital stability of the solitary wave solutions using variational methods.

  14. Holes and chaotic pulses of traveling waves coupled to a long-wave mode

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero, H; Herrero, Henar; Riecke, Hermann


    Localized traveling-wave pulses and holes, i.e. localized regions of vanishing wave amplitude, are investigated in a real Ginzburg-Landau equation coupled to a long-wave mode. In certain parameter regimes the pulses exhibit a Hopf bifurcation which leads to a breathing motion. Subsequently the oscillations undergo period-doubling bifurcations and become chaotic.

  15. Holes and chaotic pulses of traveling waves coupled to a long-wave mode (United States)

    Herrero, Henar; Riecke, Hermann


    It is shown that localized traveling-wave pulses and holes can be stabilized by a coupling to a long-wave mode. Simulations of suitable real Ginzburg-Landau equations reveal a small parameter regime in which the pulses exhibit a breathing motion (presumably related to a front bifurcation), which subsequently becomes chaotic via period-doubling bifurcations.

  16. 维生素C对光化学法诱导皮肤光损伤 的光保护作用:OCT定量研究%Quantitative Analysis on PUVA-induced Skin Lesions and the Photoprotective Effect Induced by Vitamin C Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传兴; 翟娟; 刘智明; 郭周义


    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamages. To study the photoprotective effect of vitamin C( Vc) to PUVA induced photodamaged skin, 7.5% 、15% 、30% Vc solutions were applied to PUVA induced photodamaged skin of the Balb/c mice daily for 3 days. OCT was introduced to measure the antioxidant protection factor by analysis of the changes in optical parameters. The results showed that Vc treatment group had a decrease in shin thickness and an increase in attenuation coefficient. In conclusion, the vitamin C treatment, especially 15% Vc solution treatment, may promote the repair process of photodamage.%8-甲氧补骨脂素(S-MOP)联合UVA辐射(即光化学疗法PUVA)因诱导皮肤光损伤的副作用,常被用于实验动物皮肤光损伤模型的构建.为研究维生素C(Vc)对皮肤光损伤的保护效应,本研究在Balb/c小鼠背部皮肤涂抹0.1% 8-MOP溶液1h后进行UVA辐照(10 J/cm2).然后分别涂抹7.5%、15%和30%浓度的Vc溶液的进行光保护治疗,利用光学相干层析成像分析皮肤厚度和光信号衰减的变化,从而评估Vc对皮肤的光保护作用.结果显示,相对于溶媒组,Vc治疗组皮肤厚度减小,光衰减系数增加,其中15%效果尤为明显.结果表明,局部涂抹Vc溶液具有一定的光损伤保护效应.

  17. Ultraviolet filters. (United States)

    Shaath, Nadim A


    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  18. Review of Long Wave Dynamics over Reefs and into Ports with Implication for Port Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ap van Dongeren


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the dynamics of infragravity (long-period waves over reef systems and the consequences of these waves for operations in ports located behind reefs with particular attention to Western Australia. Swells which originate in the Southern Ocean generate long (infragravity waves, which propagate to the coast. On the reef edge, the swell waves are largely dissipated, transferring energy to turbulence and heat but also in that process generating long wave energy. The remaining swell waves are dominated by the infragravity waves and propagate towards the mainland and into port basins where they cause moored ship motions with consequences for the operational downtime of the port’s operations. When contemplating solutions to mitigate the impact of the long wave problems, these may be addressed from two sides: from the load side (waves and the strength side (mooring. The former will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Optical properties of PbIn6Te10 in the long-wave IR (United States)

    Andreev, Yu M.; Badikov, V. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu M.; Kotkov, A. A.; Lanskii, G. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.


    Optical properties of nonlinear PbIn6Te10 (PIT) crystal were studied for the first time within 30-1200 µm (0.2-15 THz) by FTIR and THz-TDS. It was found that PIT possesses the most attractive transparency features for efficient generation of long-wave mid-IR emission including 20-60 µm (5-15 THz) region by optical rectification. This crystal is also found useful for phase matched DFG generation into the long-wave THz region. In particular, by model study phase matched down-conversion of CO and CO2 laser lines into 130-1200 µm (0.3-2.3 THz) range is shown possible by ooe and eoe type of three wave interaction. Noncritical 90° phase matching for eoe type of interactions can be realized by selecting samples with specified composition.

  20. Ultraviolet Extensions (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra. Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form. The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue. What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms. The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials. The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of time. In fact, it is one of the

  1. Long wave-short wave resonance in nonlinear negative refractive index media. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Aref; Tataronis, John A


    We show that long wave-short wave resonance can be achieved in a second-order nonlinear negative refractive index medium when the short wave lies on the negative index branch. With the medium exhibiting a second-order nonlinear susceptibility, a number of nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves, paired solitons, and periodic wave trains are possible or enhanced through the cascaded second-order effect. Potential applications include the generation of terahertz waves from optical pulses.

  2. New Complexiton Solutions of (1+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By means of two different Riccati equations with different parameters as subequation in the components of finite rational expansion method, new complexiton solutions for the (1+1 )-dimensional dispersive long wave equation are successfully constructed, which include various combination of trigonometric periodic and hyperbolic function solutions, various combination of trigonometric periodic and rational function solutions, and various combination of hyperbolic and rational function solutions.

  3. Long-wave approximation for hybridization modeling of local surface plasmonic resonance in nanoshells. (United States)

    Li, Ben Q; Liu, Changhong


    A hybridization model for the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanoshell is developed within the framework of long-wave approximation. Compared with the existing hybridization model derived from the hydrodynamic simulation of free electron gas, this approach is much simpler and gives identical results for a concentric nanoshell. Also, with this approach, the limitations associated with the original hybridization model are succinctly stated. Extension of this approach to hybridization modeling of more complicated structures such as multiplayered nanoshells is straightforward.

  4. A linearized implicit pseudo-spectral method for some model equations: the regularized long wave equations



    An efficient numerical method is developed for the numerical solution of non-linear wave equations typified by the regularized long wave equation (RLW) and its generalization (GRLW). The method developed uses a pseudo-spectral (Fourier transform) treatment of the space dependence together with a linearized implicit scheme in time. An important advantage to be gained from the use of this method, is the ability to vary the mesh length, thereby reducing the computational time. Using a linearized...

  5. A simple formula for the net long-wave radiation flux in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka


    Full Text Available This paper discusses problems of estimating the net long-wave radiation flux at the sea surface on the basis of easily measurable meteorological quantities (air and sea surface temperatures, near-surface water vapour pressure, cloudiness. Empirical data and existing formulae are compared. Additionally, an improved formula for the southern Baltic region is introduced, with a systematic error of less than 1 W -2 and a statistical error of less than 20 W -2.

  6. Electronic Crosstalk in Aqua MODIS Long-Wave Infrared Photovoltaic Bands


    Junqiang Sun; Menghua Wang


    Recent investigations have discovered that Terra MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) long-wave infrared (LWIR) photovoltaic (PV) bands, bands 27–30, have strong crosstalk among themselves. The linear model developed to test the electronic crosstalk effect was instrumental in the first discovery of the effect in Terra MODIS band 27, and through subsequent investigations the model and the correction algorithm were tested further and established to be correct. It was shown that...

  7. A New General Algebraic Method and Its Application to Shallow Long Wave Approximate Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new general algebraic method is presented to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). For illustration, we apply the new method to shallow long wave approximate equations and successfully obtain abundant new exact solutions, which include rational solitary wave solutions and rational triangular periodic wave solutions. The method is straightforward and concise, and it can also be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  8. First Integral Method for Systems of (1+1-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar BIAZAR


    Full Text Available The First Integral method (FIM is applied to solve a dispersive long wave system. In this method the division theorem, as a statement in commutative Algebra has an important role. To show the ability and the efficiency of this approach an example is provided. Application of FIM to the illustrative example leads to six exact solutions, which it is shown that these six solutions are independent to each other. So there are six different exact solutions.

  9. Non-completely elastic interactions in a (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei-Lu; Zhang Wen-Ting; Zhang Li-Pu; Dai Chao-Qing


    With the help of a modified mapping method,we obtain two kinds of variable separation solutions with two arbitrary functions for the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation.When selecting appropriate multi-valued functions in the variable separation solution,we investigate the interactions among special multi-dromions,dromion-like multi-peakons,and dromion-like multi-semifoldons,which all demonstrate non-completely elastic properties.

  10. Numerical method of studying nonlinear interactions between long waves and multiple short waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Tao; Kuang Hai-Lan; William Perrie; Zou Guang-Hui; Nan Cheng-Feng; He Chao; Shen Tao; Chen Wei


    Although the nonlinear interactions between a single short gravity wave and a long wave can be solved analytically,the solution is less tractable in more general cases involving multiple short waves.In this work we present a numerical method of studying nonlinear interactions between a long wave and multiple short harmonic waves in infinitely deep water.Specifically,this method is applied to the calculation of the temporal and spatial evolutions of the surface elevations in which a given long wave interacts with several short harmonic waves.Another important application of our method is to quantitatively analyse the nonlinear interactions between an arbitrary short wave train and another short wave train.From simulation results,we obtain that the mechanism for the nonlinear interactions between one short wave train and another short wave train(expressed as wave train 2)leads to the energy focusing of the other short wave train(expressed as wave train 31.This mechanism Occurs on wave components with a narrow frequency bandwidth,whose frequencies are near that of wave train 3.

  11. Technical considerations for designing low-cost, long-wave infrared objectives (United States)

    Desroches, Gerard; Dalzell, Kristy; Robitaille, Blaise


    With the growth of uncooled infrared imaging in the consumer market, the balance between cost implications and performance criteria in the objective lens must be examined carefully. The increased availability of consumer-grade, long-wave infrared cameras is related to a decrease in military usage but it is also due to the decreasing costs of the cameras themselves. This has also driven up demand for low-cost, long-wave objectives that can resolve smaller pixels while maintaining high performance. Smaller pixels are traditionally associated with high cost objectives because of higher resolution requirements but, with careful consideration of all the requirements and proper selection of materials, costs can be moderated. This paper examines the cost/performance trade-off implications associated with optical and mechanical requirements of long-wave infrared objectives. Optical performance, f-number, field of view, distortion, focus range and thermal range all affect the cost of the objective. Because raw lens material cost is often the most expensive item in the construction, selection of the material as well as the shape of the lens while maintaining acceptable performance and cost targets were explored. As a result of these considerations, a low-cost, lightweight, well-performing objective was successfully designed, manufactured and tested.

  12. Effects of PUVA and Narrowband UVB on Tissue and Serum Adenosine Deaminase Levels of Patients with Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Öztürk


    Full Text Available Objective: Adenosine deaminase (ADA, which is accepted as a non-specific marker of T cell activation in psoriasis, has been shown to have an important role in determining activity of disease and efficacy of treatments. This is the first study investigating the levels of ADA in lesional skins of patients with psoriasis. Methods: Thirty-four patients; 26 with chronic plaque type and eight with guttate psoriasis were enrolled in this study. Patients were treated with PUVA or narrowband UVB. Contol group consisted of 25 patients who had an amputation of any extremity because of trauma. In this study, ADA activities were measured in plasma and tissue samples of patients and control group. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores of patients were determined. Results: Plasma and tissue ADA levels of patients with psoriasis were higher than control group (p0.05. Conclusion: These results support the immunological mechanisms showing activation of T cell acts in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and also this study suggests that the levels of plasma and tissue ADA are reliable laboratory parameters in follow-up of the disease.

  13. Some New Exact Solutions to the Dispersive Long-Wave Equation in(2+1)-Dimensional Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Sheng; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    In this paper, by using a further extended tanh method and symbolic computation system, some newsoliton-like and period form solutions of the dispersive long-wave equation in (2+1)-dimensional spaces are obtained.

  14. Physical modeling of long-wave run-up mitigation using submerged breakwaters (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Ting; Wu, Yun-Ta; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng


    Natural hazard due to tsunami inundation inland has been viewed as a crucial issue for coastal engineering community. The 2004 India Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami were caused by mega scale earthquakes that brought tremendous catastrophe in the disaster regions. It is thus of great importance to develop innovative approach to achieve the reduction and mitigation of tsunami hazards. In this study, new experiments have been carried out in a laboratory-scale to investigate the physical process of long-wave through submerged breakwaters built upon a mild slope. Solitary-wave is employed to represent the characteristic of long-wave with infinite wavelength and wave period. Our goal is twofold. First of all, through changing the positions of single breakwater and multiple breakwaters upon a mild slope, the optimal locations of breakwaters can be pointed out by means of maximum run-up reduction. Secondly, through using a state-of-the-art measuring technique Bubble Image Velocimetry, which features non-intrusive and image-based measurement, the wave kinematics in the highly aerated region due to solitary-wave shoaling, breaking and uprush can be quantitated. Therefore, the mitigation of long-wave due to the construction of submerged breakwaters built upon a mild slope can be evaluated not only for imaging run-up and run-down characteristics but also for measuring turbulent velocity fields due to breaking wave. Although we understand the most devastating tsunami hazards cannot be fully mitigated with impossibility, this study is to provide quantitated information on what kind of artificial coastal structure that can withstand which level of wave loads.

  15. Exotic Localized Coherent Structures of the (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long-Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JieFang


    This article is concerned with the extended homogeneous balance method for studying thc abundantlocalized solution structures in the (2-k1)-dimensional dispersive long-wave equations uty + xx + (u2)xy/2 = 0, ηt +(u + u + uxy)x = 0. Starting from the homogeneous balance method, we find that the richness of the localized coherentstructures of the model is caused by the entrance of two variable-separated arbitrary functions. For some special selectionsof the arbitrary functions, it is shown that the localized structures of the model may be dromions, lumps, breathers,instantons and ring solitons.

  16. Complexiton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Fan En-Gui


    In this pager a pure algebraic method implemented in a computer algebraic system, named multiple Riccati equations rational expansion method, is presented to construct a novel class of complexiton solutions to integrable equations and nonintegrable equations. By solving the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation, it obtains many new types of complexiton solutions such as various combination of trigonometric periodic and hyperbolic function solutions,various combination of trigonometric periodic and rational function solutions, various combination of hyperbolic and rational function solutions, etc.

  17. Analytical Solutions for the Elastic Circular Rod Nonlinear Wave, Boussinesq, and Dispersive Long Wave Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Jing


    Full Text Available The solving processes of the homogeneous balance method, Jacobi elliptic function expansion method, fixed point method, and modified mapping method are introduced in this paper. By using four different methods, the exact solutions of nonlinear wave equation of a finite deformation elastic circular rod, Boussinesq equations and dispersive long wave equations are studied. In the discussion, the more physical specifications of these nonlinear equations, have been identified and the results indicated that these methods (especially the fixed point method can be used to solve other similar nonlinear wave equations.

  18. Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, J. A.


    The development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems is described. LWIR fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of trace chemical detection systems based in the 8 to 12 micron region. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow waveguide technology geared specifically for LWIR spectroscopy, including a reduction in both the length dependent loss and the bending loss while maintaining relatively high beam quality. Results will be presented from tests conducted with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

  19. Institutional regimes, long wave systemic risk and great international crisis of 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Hara Anthony Phillip


    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between long-term growth of GDP per capita, institutional regimes of accumulation (ROA, systemic risk and the Great International Crisis of 2008-2010. The principle hypothesis behind the work is that the ROA provides a foundation for long-term growth as a type of fundamental variable, and that this growth provides a buffer against systemic risk in the sense that sustainable growth provides resources for debt provision and employment stimulation. The emergence of a viable ROA is crucial for long waves of growth which stimulate both private sector profit and public sector tax receipts which (using conventional terminology reduce the structural deficit for both sectors. Low rates of long-term growth, therefore, provide a good indicator of the emergence of “long wave systemic risk” (LWSR, which left such nations vulnerable to uncertainty, financial crisis and recession. The paper investigates the inability of growth for various decades to “cover” instabilities associated with the Great Crisis, leading to high rates of LWSR, especially for European and North American nations that bore the brunt of the crisis.

  20. An Experimental and Numerical Study of Long Wave Run-Up on a Plane Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Drähne


    Full Text Available This research is to facilitate the current understanding of long wave dynamics at coasts and during on-land propagation; experimental and numerical approaches are compared against existing analytical expressions for the long wave run-up. Leading depression sinusoidal waves are chosen to model these dynamics. The experimental study was conducted using a new pump-driven wave generator and the numerical experiments were carried out with a one-dimensional discontinuous Galerkin non-linear shallow water model. The numerical model is able to accurately reproduce the run-up elevation and velocities predicted by the theoretical expressions. Depending on the surf similarity of the generated waves and due to imperfections of the experimental wave generation, riding waves are observed in the experimental results. These artifacts can also be confirmed in the numerical study when the data from the physical experiments is assimilated. Qualitatively, scale effects associated with the experimental setting are discussed. Finally, shoreline velocities, run-up and run-down are determined and shown to largely agree with analytical predictions.

  1. Post-Colonial Africa and the World Economy: The Long Waves of Uneven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Makki


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the interactive dynamics of "Africa" and the "world economy" over the past half century. By relating the overarching developmental trajectory of the continent to the long-wave rhythms of the world economy, the article identifies three relatively articulated periods in the political economy of postcolonial Africa. The first, from circa 1960 to the late 1970s, was a period of state-led developmentalism enabled by the long postwar boom in the world economy and the embedded liberalism of the Bretton Woods system. A second period from circa 1980 to the turn of the new century was conditioned by the long downturn in the world-economy and a neo-li beral regime of accumulation that sought to re-structure and re-integrate Africa into a deregulated world market. The turn of the new millennium constitutes a new period in which neither the deep structural springs of the long downturn nor the neo-liberal project as such have been overcome; but their impact on Africa has been relativized by the emergence of East Asia as the new center of accumulation in the world economy. The resulting de-synchronization of the long-wave rhythms of the world economy has permitted a modest economic expansion in Africa within a largely extractive regime of accumulation and a wave of new enclosures that are profoundly reconstituting the social universe of Africa's primary producers.

  2. Long-Wave Runup on a Plane Beach: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation (United States)

    Vater, Stefan; Drähne, Ulrike; Goseberg, Nils; Beisiegel, Nicole; Behrens, Jörn


    In this study the runup generated by leading depression single sinusoidal waves as a very basic representation of a tsunami is investigated through physical and numerical experiments. The results are compared against existing analytical expressions for the long-wave runup of periodic sinusoidal waves. It can be shown that shallow water theory is applicable for the investigated type of waves. Furthermore, we demonstrate how such a comparative, inter-methodological work contributes to the understanding of shoreline motion of long waves. The produced data set may serve as a novel benchmark for leading depression sinusoidal waves. The experimental study was conducted using an innovative pump-driven wave generator that is capable of generating arbitrarily long waves which might even exceed the length of the wave flume. Due to the complex control problem for the chosen type of wave generator, spurious over-riding small-scale waves were unavoidable in some of the experiments. The numerical simulations were carried out with a one-dimensional Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) non-linear shallow water model. It incorporates a high fidelity wetting and drying scheme. The sinusoidal waves are generated in a constant depth section attached to a linearly sloping beach, have periods between 20 and 100 seconds and surf similarity parameters between 4.4 and 15.6. In a first qualitative analysis the evolution of the runup elevation and velocity is compared. In order to quantify analytical, numerical and experimental data, the wave similarity measured by the Brier score, maximum run-up and run-down height, as well as run-up/run-down velocities are utilized as metrics. As a starting point, periodic and non-periodic clean sinusoidal waves are compared numerically to rule out differences due to the single sinusoidal wave generation in the wave flume. On further analysis, significant differences in experimental and analytically expected values are observed. However, with the

  3. Qual é o tipo de fototerapia mais comumente indicada no tratamento da psoríase?: UVB banda estreita e PUVA: comportamento da prescrição What is the most common phototherapy prescription for psoriasis: NB-UVB or PUVA? Prescription behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Duarte


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Formas moderada e grave de psoríase requerem fototerapia e/ou medicações sistêmicas. Tanto UVB banda estreita quanto fototerapia UVA com psoralênicos (PUVA podem ser utilizadas no tratamento dessas formas de psoríase, sendo comprovada a efetividade de ambas as terapias. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as indicações de dois tipos de fototerapia no tratamento da psoríase refratária à terapia tópica: UVB banda estreita e PUVA. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 2006 e dezembro de 2007, os pacientes encaminhados a dois serviços de fototerapia foram incluídos neste estudo. Dados sobre os casos e tipos de prescrição foram coletados de maneira retrospectiva. RESULTADOS: Dentre os 67 pacientes estudados, 51 (76% foram tratados com UVB banda estreita. As razões para sua indicação foram presença de psoríase em gotas (22%, presença de finas placas (15%, uso de drogas fotossensibilizantes (15%, idade abaixo de 20 anos (9%, fototipo I (9% e doença hepática (6%. Os 16 (24% restantes foram tratados com PUVA. A principal indicação dessa terapia foi gravidade da doença (15%, seguida de fototipo IV (9%. CONCLUSÕES: As prescrições de UVB banda estreita excederam as de PUVA devido ao menor número de contraindicações, menor possibilidade de efeitos colaterais, e ainda por ser uma opção mais prática.BACKGROUND: Moderate and severe forms of psoriasis require phototherapy and / or systemic medications. Both UVA and UVB can be used to treat cases of moderate and severe psoriasis, and the effectiveness of both has been proven. OBJECTIVE: to access the prescription behavior relating to two types of phototherapy for treating psoriasis refractory to topical treatment: narrowband UVB (NB-UVB or psoralen plus UVA phototherapy (PUVA. METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2007, patients referred to two phototherapy services were included in this study. Data on the cases and on the type of prescription were collected retrospectively. RESULTS

  4. Two-photon vibrational excitation of air by long-wave infrared laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Palastro, J P; Johnson, L A; Hafizi, B; Wahlstrand, J K; Milchberg, H M


    Ultrashort long-wave infrared (LWIR) laser pulses can resonantly excite vibrations in N2 and O2 through a two-photon transition. The absorptive, vibrational component of the ultrafast optical nonlinearity grows in time, starting smaller than, but quickly surpassing, the electronic, rotational, and vibrational refractive components. The growth of the vibrational component results in a novel mechanism of 3rd harmonic generation, providing an additional two-photon excitation channel, fundamental + 3rd harmonic. The original and emergent two-photon excitations drive the resonance exactly out of phase, causing spatial decay of the absorptive, vibrational nonlinearity. This nearly eliminates two-photon vibrational absorption. Here we present simulations and analytical calculations demonstrating how these processes modify the ultrafast optical nonlinearity in air. The results reveal nonlinear optical phenomena unique to the LWIR regime of ultrashort pulse propagation in atmosphere.

  5. The Development of Advanced Optical Fibers for Long-Wave Infrared Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lucas


    Full Text Available Long-wave infrared fibers are used in an increasing number of applications ranging from thermal imaging to bio-sensing. However, the design of optical fiber with low-loss in the far-infrared requires a combination of properties including good rheological characteristics for fiber drawing and low phonon energy for wide optical transparency, which are often mutually exclusive and can only be achieved through fine materials engineering. This paper presents strategies for obtaining low loss fibers in the far-infrared based on telluride glasses. The composition of the glasses is systematically investigated to obtained fibers with minimal losses. The fiber attenuation is shown to depend strongly on extrinsic impurity but also on intrinsic charge carrier populations in these low band-gap amorphous semiconductor materials.

  6. Exact solutions of unsteady Korteweg-de Vries and time regularized long wave equations. (United States)

    Islam, S M Rayhanul; Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali


    In this paper, we implement the exp(-Φ(ξ))-expansion method to construct the exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Here we consider two model equations, namely the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and the time regularized long wave (TRLW) equation. These equations play significant role in nonlinear sciences. We obtained four types of explicit function solutions, namely hyperbolic, trigonometric, exponential and rational function solutions of the variables in the considered equations. It has shown that the applied method is quite efficient and is practically well suited for the aforementioned problems and so for the other NLEEs those arise in mathematical physics and engineering fields. PACS numbers: 02.30.Jr, 02.70.Wz, 05.45.Yv, 94.05.Fq.

  7. Numerical simulation of nonlinear long waves interacting with arrays of emergent cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Zainali, Amir; Weiss, Robert; Irish, Jennifer L; Yang, Yongqian


    We presented numerical simulation of long waves, interacting with arrays of emergent cylinders inside regularly spaced patches, representing discontinues patchy coastal vegetation. We employed the fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive Serre-Green-Naghdi equations (SGN) until the breaking process starts, while we changed the governing equations to nonlinear shallow water equations (NSW) at the vicinity of the breaking-wave peak and during the runup stage. We modeled the cylinders as physical boundaries rather than approximating them as macro-roughness friction. We showed that the cylinders provide protection for the areas behind them. However they might also cause amplification in local water depth in those areas. The presented results are extensively validated against the existing numerical and experimental data. Our results demonstrate the capability and reliability of our model in simulating wave interaction with emergent cylinders.

  8. Flag-based detection of weak gas signatures in long-wave infrared hyperspectral image sequences (United States)

    Marrinan, Timothy; Beveridge, J. Ross; Draper, Bruce; Kirby, Michael; Peterson, Chris


    We present a flag manifold based method for detecting chemical plumes in long-wave infrared hyperspectral movies. The method encodes temporal and spatial information related to a hyperspectral pixel into a flag, or nested sequence of linear subspaces. The technique used to create the flags pushes information about the background clutter, ambient conditions, and potential chemical agents into the leading elements of the flags. Exploiting this temporal information allows for a detection algorithm that is sensitive to the presence of weak signals. This method is compared to existing techniques qualitatively on real data and quantitatively on synthetic data to show that the flag-based algorithm consistently performs better on data when the SINRdB is low, and beats the ACE and MF algorithms in probability of detection for low probabilities of false alarm even when the SINRdB is high.

  9. Long-wave infrared functional brain imaging in human: a pilot study. (United States)

    Joyal, Christian C; Henry, Mylene


    Although some authors suggest to use Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) sensors to evaluate brain functioning, the link between emissions of LWIR and mental effort is not established. The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether frontal LWIR emissions vary during execution of neuropsychological tasks known to differentially activate the pre-frontal cortex (simple color presentations, induction of the Stroop effect, and a gambling task with real money). Surprisingly, LWIR emissions as measured with bilateral frontal sensors in 47 participants significantly differed between tasks, in the supposed direction (Colorpilot study suggests that investigations of convergent validity with other types of brain imaging techniques can be initiated with LWIR imaging. If confirmed, this technique would offer a simple and accessible method to evaluate frontal cortex activation.

  10. Time resolved long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of inorganic energetic materials by a rapid mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system. (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Brown, Eiei; Hommerich, Uwe; Khurgin, Jacob B; Samuels, Alan C


    A mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5 s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared region (LWIR, ∼5.6-10 μm) was recently developed. Similar to the conventional ultraviolet-visible LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering a 5.6-10 μm spectral region could be acquired from just a single laser-induced micro-plasma. Intense and distinct atomic and molecular LWIR emission signatures of various solid inorganic energetic materials were readily observed and identified. Time resolved emissions of inorganic energetic materials were studied to assess the lifetimes of LWIR atomic and molecular emissions. The LWIR atomic emissions generally decayed fast on the scale of tens of microseconds, while the molecular signature emissions from target molecules excited by the laser-induced plasma appeared to be very long lived (∼millisecond). The time dependence of emission intensities and peak wavelengths of these signature emissions gave an insight into the origin and the environment of the emitting target species. Moreover, observed lifetimes of these LWIR emissions can be utilized for further optimization of the signal quality and detection limits of this technique.

  11. Long-wave UVA offers partial protection against UVB-induced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L.; Villadsen, L.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    Ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280–320 nm) interferes with the generation of cell-mediated immunity to contact allergens applied epicutaneously on the irradiated site. To investigate whether pretreatment with UVA-1 (340–400 nm) protects against the UVB-induced immune suppression we sensitized human volunteers...

  12. New multisoliton solutions of the (2+1) —dimensional dispersive long wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiefangZHANG; PingHAN


    Using the extension homogeneous balance method,we have obtained a nonlinear transformation to simplify the (2+1) dimensional dispersive long wave equations into a linear partial differential equation,and found some new special types of the multisoliton solutions and exact solutions of the linear partial differential equation.

  13. New Families of Rational Form Variable Separation Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-Yong


    With the aid of symbolic computation system Maple, some families of new rational variable separation solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equations are constructed by means of a function transformation, improved mapping approach, and variable separation approach, among which there are rational solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions.

  14. Explicit exact solitary wave solutions for generalized symmetric regularized long-wave equations with high-order nonlinear terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper, we have obtained the bell-type and kink-type solitary wave solutions of the generalized symmetric regularized long-wave equations with high-order nonlinear terms by means of proper transformation and undetermined assumption method.

  15. Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Lawrence, Rick; Nugent, Paul W.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Spangler, Lee H.


    The commercial development of uncooled-microbolometer, long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagers, combined with advanced radiometric calibration methods developed at Montana State University, has led to new uses of thermal imagery in remote sensing applications. One specific novel use of these calibrated imagers is imaging of vegetation for CO2 gas leak detection. During a four-week period in the summer of 2011, a CO2 leak was simulated in a test field run by the Zero Emissions Research and Technology Center in Bozeman, Montana. An LWIR imager was deployed on a scaffold before and during the CO2 release, viewing a vegetation test area that included regions of high and low CO2 flux. Increased root-level CO2 concentration caused plant stress that led to reduced thermal regulation of the vegetation, which was consistent with increased diurnal variation of IR emission observed in this study. In a linear regression, the IR data were found to have a strong relationship to the CO2 emission and to be consistent with the location of leaking CO2 gas. Reducing the continuous data set to one image per day weakened the regression fit, but maintained sufficient significance to indicate that this method could be implemented with once-daily airborne images.

  16. Hollow core fiber optics for mid-wave and long-wave infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Kriesel, Jason M.; Gat, Nahum; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, James A.


    We describe the development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems. Spectroscopy measurements in these wavelength regions (i.e., from 3 to 14 μm) are useful for detecting trace chemical compounds for a variety of security and defense related applications, and fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of detection and calibration systems. Hollow glass fibers have the advantage over solid-core fibers (e.g., chalcogenide) in that they are less fragile, do not produce cladding modes, do not require angle cleaving or antireflection coatings to minimize laser feedback effects, and effectively transmit deeper into the infrared. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow fiber technology geared specifically for infrared spectroscopy, including single mode beam delivery with relatively low bending loss. Results are presented from tests conducted using both Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) and CO2 lasers operating in the LWIR wavelength regime. Single-mode waveguides are shown to effectively deliver beams with relatively low loss (~ 1 dB/m) and relatively high beam quality. The fibers are also shown to effectively mode-filter the "raw" multi-mode output from a QCL, in effect damping out the higher order modes to produce a circularly symmetric Gaussian-like beam profile.

  17. Parameterization of atmospheric long-wave emissivity in a mountainous site for all sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herrero


    Full Text Available Long-wave radiation is an important component of the energy balance of the Earth's surface. The downward component, emitted by the clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere, is rarely measured, and is still not well understood. In mountainous areas, the models existing for its estimation through the emissivity of the atmosphere do not give good results, and worse still in the presence of clouds. In order to estimate this emissivity for any atmospheric state and in a mountainous site, we related it to the screen-level values of temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. This permitted the obtaining of: (1 a new set of parametric equations and (2 the modification of the Brutsaert's equation for cloudy skies through the calibration of C factor to 0.34 and the parameterization of the cloud index N. Both fitted to the surface data measured at a weather station at a height of 2500 m a.s.l. in Sierra Nevada, Spain. This study analyzes separately three significant atmospheric states related to cloud cover, which were also deduced from the screen-level meteorological data. Clear and totally overcast skies are accurately represented by the new parametric expressions, while the intermediate situations corresponding to partly clouded skies, concentrate most of the dispersion in the measurements and, hence, the error in the simulation. Thus, the modeling of atmospheric emissivity is greatly improved thanks to the use of different equations for each atmospheric state.

  18. Buried explosive hazard detection using forward-looking long-wave infrared imagery (United States)

    Stone, K.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.; Spain, C. J.


    Trainable size-contrast filters, similar to local dual-window RX anomaly detectors, utilizing the Bhattacharyya distance are used to detect buried explosive hazards in forward-looking long-wave infrared imagery. The imagery, captured from a moving vehicle, is geo-referenced, allowing projection of pixel coordinates into (UTM) Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. Size-contrast filter detections for a particular frame are projected into UTM coordinates, and peaks are detected in the resulting density using the mean-shift algorithm. All peaks without a minimum number of detections in their local neighborhood are discarded. Peaks from individual frames are then combined into a single set of tentative hit locations, and the same mean-shift procedure is run on the resulting density. Peaks without a minimum number of hit locations in their local neighborhood are removed. The remaining peaks are declared as target locations. The mean-shift steps utilize both the spatial and temporal information in the imagery. Scoring is performed using ground truth locations in UTM coordinates. The size-contrast filter and mean-shift parameters are learned using a genetic algorithm which minimizes a multiobjective fitness function involving detection rate and false alarm rate. Performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on multiple lanes from a recent collection at a US Army test site.

  19. Algorithm fusion in forward-looking long-wave infrared imagery for buried explosive hazard detection (United States)

    Anderson, D. T.; Keller, James M.; Sjahputera, Ozy


    In this article, we propose a method to fuse multiple algorithms in a long wave infrared (LWIR) system in the context of forward looking buried explosive hazard detection. A pre-screener is applied first, which is an ensemble of local RX filters and mean shift clustering in UTM space. Hit correspondence is then performed with an algorithm based on corner detection, local binary patterns (LBP), multiple instance learning (MIL) and mean shift clustering in UTM space. Next, features from image chips are extracted from UTM confidence maps based on maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). These sources are then fused using an ordered weighted average (OWA). While this fusion approach has yet to improve the overall positive detection rate in LWIR, we do demonstrate false alarm reduction. Targets that are not detected by our system are also not detected by a human under visual inspection. Experimental results are shown based on field data measurements from a US Army test site.

  20. Global smooth solutions in R3 to short wave-long wave interactions in magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Frid, Hermano; Jia, Junxiong; Pan, Ronghua


    We consider a Benney-type system modeling short wave-long wave interactions in compressible viscous fluids under the influence of a magnetic field. Accordingly, this large system now consists of the compressible MHD equations coupled with a nonlinear Schrödinger equation along particle paths. We study the global existence of smooth solutions to the Cauchy problem in R3 when the initial data are small smooth perturbations of an equilibrium state. An important point here is that, instead of the simpler case having zero as the equilibrium state for the magnetic field, we consider an arbitrary non-zero equilibrium state B bar for the magnetic field. This is motivated by applications, e.g., Earth's magnetic field, and the lack of invariance of the MHD system with respect to either translations or rotations of the magnetic field. The usual time decay investigation through spectral analysis in this non-zero equilibrium case meets serious difficulties, for the eigenvalues in the frequency space are no longer spherically symmetric. Instead, we employ a recently developed technique of energy estimates involving evolution in negative Besov spaces, and combine it with the particular interplay here between Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates.

  1. Brightness temperatures of the lunar surface: Calibration and analysis of Clementine long-wave infrared camera images (United States)

    Lawson, Stefanie Lyn


    This dissertation presents the calibration and analysis of the Clementine long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera images. The scientific payload on the Clementine spacecraft included a LWIR camera with a single passband centered at a wavelength of 8.75 μm. The Clementine orbit deviated by +/-30° from Sun synchronous, and for two lunar months, dayside nadir-looking images were obtained near local noon. During the systematic mapping phase of the Clementine mission, approximately 220,000 thermal-infrared images of the lunar surface were obtained. I have completed the calibration of the LWIR camera. Here I present the various steps involved in the calibration routine and the associated uncertainty analysis. The LWIR calibration routine can be outlined as follows: convert measured data number values to radiance via a calibration equation; subtract a zero-flux background image from each lunar image; divide by a flatfield frame; identify bad pixels; smooth over only bad pixels; adjust radiances to reflect the absolute calibration; and convert radiances to brightness temperatures via the Planck function. Observed LWIR radiances can be converted to brightness temperatures, which provide information on various physical properties of the lunar surface. I also present here the LWIR global data set. The LWIR data from noontime orbits demonstrate that the Lambertian temperature model of cos1/4 (i) is a fair approximation for nadir-looking temperatures, rather than the cos1/6(i) behavior observed for ground-based measurements of the full Moon. Deviations from the Lambertian model are likely due to surface roughness effects. In an effort to understand the influence of large-scale topography on remote lunar surface measurements, I constructed a model which calculates the correlation between reflectance and temperature for a macroscopically rough surface with varying albedo. In this dissertation, LWIR temperatures are directly compared to Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) camera 750

  2. Redução dos linfócitos T-CD8+ citotóxicos observada com a terapia Puva em paciente com vitiligo Reduction of cytotoxic T-CD8+ lymphocytes observed during PUVA therapy in a patient with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pereira Antelo


    Full Text Available Na patogênese do vitiligo tem-se enfatizado o papel das células T citotóxicas. Identificadas pelo antígeno linfocitário cutâneo (CLA, essas células já foram descritas no sangue de pacientes com outras dermatoses e podem ser depletadas pela fototerapia concomitantemente à melhora clínica. Descreve-se caso de vitiligo generalizado com melhora clínica expressiva após Puva, no qual houve redução de 25% dos linfócitos T CD8+-CLA+ circulantes.The role of cytotoxic T cells (CD8+ has been emphasized in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. This cell population, identified by a skin homing molecule (cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen Â- CLA, has been described in patients with other dermatoses and can be reduced with phototherapy. The authors present the case of a patient with generalized vitiligo and clinical recovery after PUVA parallel to a 25% reduction in CD8+-CLA+ T cells in the peripheral blood.

  3. Electronic Crosstalk in Aqua MODIS Long-Wave Infrared Photovoltaic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Sun


    Full Text Available Recent investigations have discovered that Terra MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS long-wave infrared (LWIR photovoltaic (PV bands, bands 27–30, have strong crosstalk among themselves. The linear model developed to test the electronic crosstalk effect was instrumental in the first discovery of the effect in Terra MODIS band 27, and through subsequent investigations the model and the correction algorithm were tested further and established to be correct. It was shown that the correction algorithm successfully mitigated the anomalous features in the calibration coefficients as well as the severe striping and the long-term drift in the Earth view (EV retrievals for the affected Terra bands. Here, the examination into Aqua MODIS using the established methodology confirms the existence of significant crosstalk contamination in its four LWIR PV, although the finding shows the overall effect to be of lesser degree. The crosstalk effect is characterized and the crosstalk correction coefficients are derived for all four Aqua LWIR PV bands via analysis of signal contamination in the lunar imagery. Sudden changes in the crosstalk contamination are clearly seen, as also in the Terra counterparts in previous investigations. These sudden changes are consistent with the sudden jumps observed in the linear calibration coefficients for many years, thus this latest finding provides an explanation to the long-standing but unexplained anomalies in the calibration coefficients of the four Aqua LWIR bands. It is also shown that the crosstalk contamination for these bands are of similar level for the two MODIS instruments in the early mission that can lead to as much as 2 K increase in brightness temperature for the affected bands, thus demonstrating significant impact on the science results already started at the early going. As Aqua MODIS is a legacy sensor, the crosstalk correction to its LWIR PV bands will be important to remove the impact of

  4. Long Wave Flow Interaction with a Single Square Structure on a Sloping Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian C. Bremm


    Full Text Available In the context of dam breaks, tsunami, and flash floods, it is paramount to quantify the time-history of forces by the rapidly transient flow to vertical structures and the characteristics of the induced flow patterns. To resemble on-land tsunami-induced flow, a free-surface-piercing structure is exposed to long leading depression waves in a tsunami flume where long waves run up and down a 1:40 smooth and impermeable sloping beach after its generation by a volume-driven wave maker. The structure and its surrounding were monitored with force transducers, pressure gauges and cameras. Preparatory steady-state experiments were accomplished to determine the drag force coefficient of the square cylinder at various water depths. The flow during wave run-up and draw-down acting on the structure resulted in distinct flow pattern which were characteristic for the type of flow-structure interaction. Besides bow wave propagating upstream, a standing or partially-standing wave was observed in front of the structure together with a wake formation downstream, while a von Kármán vortex street developed during the deceleration phase of the flow motion and during draw-down. Force measurements indicated a sudden increase in the stream-wise total force starting with the arrival of the flow front during initial run-up. Lateral velocities showed significant oscillations in correlation with the von Kármán vortex street development. A comparison of the total measured base force with the analytically-calculated share of the drag force revealed that forces were prevailingly drag-dominated.

  5. Absorption of Visible and Long-wave Radiation by Primary and Secondary Biogenic Aerosols. (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.


    Field results for the 14C content of carbonaceous aerosols are presented that indicate significant biogenic sources of both primary and secondary aerosols in urban and regional environments. Samples collected in Mexico City and downwind of the urban area during the MILAGRO field study are compared with results reported previously in the literature indicating a significant amount of biogenic aerosols from both biomass burning and secondary photochemical production (e.g. terpene oxidations) are contributing to the overall carbonaceous aerosols in the optically active region of 0.1 to 1.0 micron. Samples in this size range collected on quartz fiber filters were also examined using an integrating sphere and FTIR diffuse reflectance techniques to obtain absorption spectra from 280 to the mid-IR. These data clearly indicate that the biogenic derived primary aerosols from agricultural and trash-burning, as well as secondary organic aerosols from isoprene and terpene oxidations will produce both UV-Visible (short-wave) absorbing substances as well as IR (long-wave) absorbing compounds including humic-like-substances (HULIS). With the anticipated increases in growing seasons (i.e. earlier springs and longer summers) the likely hood of increased fires (forest and grassland) as well as the continuing growth in agricultural burning activities, these primary sources are expected to increase and may play a role in heating of the atmosphere. The compound effects of these primary and secondary biogenic sources of absorbing aerosols to the total aerosol loading and regional climate will be discussed. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64328 as part of the Atmospheric Science Program.

  6. Benefits of controlled ultraviolet radiation in the treatment of dermatological diseases. (United States)

    Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Majcen, Kristina; Dzapo, Antea; Jezovita, Josip


    Phototherapy is a second-line treatment modality for the most common dermatoses that is safe and effective. Most phototherapy regimens denote the use of ultraviolet (UV) radiation of different wavelengths in the management of several dermatoses. Currently, irradiations with broadband UVB (290-320 nm), narrowband UVB (311-313 nm), 308 nm excimer laser, UVA 1 (340-400 nm), UVA with psoralen (PUVA), and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (photopheresis) are being used. Beneficial effects of UV radiation are far from being completely understood. Dermatoses that may benefit from such approach are numerous, with psoriasis, parapsoriasis, atopic dermatitis, cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, morphea, and vitiligo vulgaris as main indications. UVB radiation primarily acts on cells at the epidermis and the epidermodermal junction, while UVA radiation affects epidermal and dermal components, especially blood vessels. UVradiation has im- mediate and delayed effects. Immediate effects are the formation of DNA photoproducts and DNA damage leading to apoptosis of heratinocytes, Langerhans cells, activated T-lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, NK cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and mast-cells, cell membrane damage by lipid peroxidation, and isomerization of chromophores such as urocanic acid. Delayed effects include synthesis of prostaglandins and cytokines that play important roles in immune suppression. Systemic and local immune suppression, alteration in cytokine expression (induction of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist, decrease in IL-2, increase in IL-IO, IL-15), and cell cycle arrest may all contribute to the suppression of disease activity. PUVA is a form of controlled and repeated induction of phototoxic reactions which uses UVA light to activate chemicals known as psoralens. The conjunction of psoralens with epidermal DNA inhibits DNA synthesis and causes cell apoptosis. PUVA also causes an alteration in the expression of cytokines and cytokine receptors

  7. Extended Jacobi elliptic function method and its applications to (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long-wave equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Li Biao; Zhang Hong-Qing


    @@ An extended Jacobi elliptic function method is proposed for constructing the exact double periodic solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in a unified way. It is shown that these solutions exactly degenerate to the many types of soliton solutions in a limited condition. The Wu-Zhang equation (which describes the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave) is investigated by this means and more formal double periodic solutions are obtained.

  8. Extended Jacobi Elliptic Function Rational Expansion Method and Its Application to (2+1)-Dimensional Stochastic Dispersive Long Wave System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-Na; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    In this work, by means of a generalized method and symbolic computation, we extend the Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of stochastic wave solutions for stochastic evolution equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we take the (2+1)-dimensional stochastic dispersive long wave system as an example. We not only have obtained some known solutions, but also have constructed some new rational formal stochastic Jacobi elliptic function solutions.

  9. Rational Form Solitary Wave Solutions and Doubly Periodic Wave Solutions to(1+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; CHEN Yong; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    In this work we devise an algebraic method to uniformly construct rational form solitary wave solutions and Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions of physical interest for nonlinear evolution equations. With the aid of symbolic computation, we apply the proposed method to solving the (1+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation and explicitly construct a series of exact solutions which include the rational form solitary wave solutions and elliptic doubly periodic wave solutions as special cases.

  10. Coherent soliton structures of the (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文华; 张解放; 盛正卯


    The variable separation approach is used to find exact solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-waveresonance interaction equation. The abundance of the coherent soliton structures of this model is introduced by theentrance of an arbitrary function of the seed solutions. For some special selections of the arbitrary function, it is shownthat the coherent soliton structures may be dromions, solitoffs, etc.

  11. When is a Wave a Wave? Long Waves as Empirical and Theoretical Constructs from a Complex Systems Perspective


    Silverberg, G.P.


    While long waves have been seriously discussed by economists for almost one hundred years, to date there is no scientific consensus that particular frequency components are in any way privileged in the undoubtedly fluctuating history of modern economic and political development. This is disappointing for two reasons. First, the demonstration that robust, well-defined periodic components existed would present us with a plausible tool for forecasting. And second, they could (and their purported...

  12. Data reconstructed of ultraviolet spatially modulated imaging spectrometer (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaochun; Yu, Chunchao; Yang, Zhixiong; Yan, Min; Zeng, Yi


    With the advantages of fluorescence excitation and environmental adaptability simultaneously, Ultraviolet Image Spectroscopy has shown irreplaceable features in the field of latent target detection and become a current research focus. A design of Large Aperture Ultraviolet Spatially Modulated Imaging Spectrometer (LAUV-SMIS) based on image plane interferometer and offner system was first proposed in this paper. The data processing technology of time-spatial modulation FTIS in UV band has been studied. The latent fingerprint could be recognized clearly from the image since which is capable to meet the need of latent target detection. The spectral curve of the target could distinguish the emission peak at 253.7nm and 365nm when the low pressure and high pressure mercury lamp were used as the illuminator. Accurate spectral data of the target can be collected on the short and long wave ends of the working band.

  13. Energetics of lower tropospheric ultra-long waves: A key to intra-seasonal variability of Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Bawiskar; M D Chipade; P V Puranik


    Analysis of fifty four (1951-2004)years of daily energetics of zonal waves derived from NCEP/ NCAR wind ( and data and daily rainfall received over the Indian landmass (real time data) during southwest monsoon season (1 June-30 September)indicate that energetics (momentum transport and kinetic energy)of lower tropospheric ultra-long waves (waves 1 and 2)of low latitudes hold a key to intra-seasonal variability of monsoon rainfall over India. Correlation coefficient between climatology of daily (122 days)energetics of ultra-long waves and climatology of daily rainfall over Indian landmass is 0.9.The relation is not only significant but also has a predictive potential.The normalised plot of both the series clearly indicates that the response period of rainfall to the energetics is of 5-10 days during the onset phase and 4-7 days during the withdrawal phase of monsoon over India.During the established phase of monsoon, both the series move hand-in-hand.Normalised plot of energetics of ultra-long waves and rainfall for individual year do not show marked deviation with respect to climatology.These results are first of its kind and are useful for the short range forecast of rainfall over India.

  14. Ultra-Trace Chemical Sensing with Long-Wave Infrared Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.


    The infrared sensors task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Task B of Project PL211) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ spectroscopic chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and coun-tering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development in-clude detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology is also relevant to chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemi-cal weapons destruction or industrial activities, law enforcement, medical diagnostics, and other applications. Sensors for most of these missions will require extreme chemical sensitivity and selectiv-ity because the signature chemicals of importance are expected to be present in low con-centrations or have low vapor pressures, and the ambient air is likely to contain pollutants or other chemicals with interfering spectra. Cavity-enhanced chemical sensors (CES) that draw air samples into optical cavities for laser-based interrogation of their chemical content promise real-time, in-situ chemical detection with extreme sensitivity to specified target molecules and superb immunity to spectral interference and other sources of noise. PNNL is developing CES based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers that operate in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR - 3 to 5 microns) and long-wave infrared (LWIR - 8 to 14 mi-crons), and CES based on telecommunications lasers operating in the short-wave infrared (SWIR - 1 to 2 microns). All three spectral regions are promising because smaller mo-lecular absorption cross sections in the SWIR

  15. New Exact Travelling Wave Solutions to Hirota Equation and (1+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; CHEN Yong; LI Biao; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    Based on the computerized symbolic Maple, we study two important nonlinear evolution equations, i.e.,the Hirota equation and the (1+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation by use of a direct and unified algebraic method named the general projective Riccati equation method to find more exact solutions to nonlinear differential equations. The method is more powerful than most of the existing tanh method. New and more general form solutions are obtained. The properties of the new formal solitary wave solutions are shown by some figures.

  16. Validation and Comparison of 2D and 3D Codes for Nearshore Motion of Long Waves Using Benchmark Problems (United States)

    Velioǧlu, Deniz; Cevdet Yalçıner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey


    Tsunamis are huge waves with long wave periods and wave lengths that can cause great devastation and loss of life when they strike a coast. The interest in experimental and numerical modeling of tsunami propagation and inundation increased considerably after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In this study, two numerical codes, FLOW 3D and NAMI DANCE, that analyze tsunami propagation and inundation patterns are considered. Flow 3D simulates linear and nonlinear propagating surface waves as well as long waves by solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (3D-NS) equations. NAMI DANCE uses finite difference computational method to solve 2D depth-averaged linear and nonlinear forms of shallow water equations (NSWE) in long wave problems, specifically tsunamis. In order to validate these two codes and analyze the differences between 3D-NS and 2D depth-averaged NSWE equations, two benchmark problems are applied. One benchmark problem investigates the runup of long waves over a complex 3D beach. The experimental setup is a 1:400 scale model of Monai Valley located on the west coast of Okushiri Island, Japan. Other benchmark problem is discussed in 2015 National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Annual meeting in Portland, USA. It is a field dataset, recording the Japan 2011 tsunami in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii. The computed water surface elevation and velocity data are compared with the measured data. The comparisons showed that both codes are in fairly good agreement with each other and benchmark data. The differences between 3D-NS and 2D depth-averaged NSWE equations are highlighted. All results are presented with discussions and comparisons. Acknowledgements: Partial support by Japan-Turkey Joint Research Project by JICA on earthquakes and tsunamis in Marmara Region (JICA SATREPS - MarDiM Project), 603839 ASTARTE Project of EU, UDAP-C-12-14 project of AFAD Turkey, 108Y227, 113M556 and 213M534 projects of TUBITAK Turkey, RAPSODI (CONCERT_Dis-021) of CONCERT

  17. Multicomponent long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction system: Bright solitons, energy-sharing collisions, and resonant solitons. (United States)

    Sakkaravarthi, K; Kanna, T; Vijayajayanthi, M; Lakshmanan, M


    We consider a general multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system with arbitrary nonlinearity coefficients, which describes the nonlinear resonance interaction of multiple short waves with a long wave in two spatial dimensions. The general multicomponent LSRI system is shown to be integrable by performing the Painlevé analysis. Then we construct the exact bright multisoliton solutions by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method and study the propagation and collision dynamics of bright solitons in detail. Particularly, we investigate the head-on and overtaking collisions of bright solitons and explore two types of energy-sharing collisions as well as standard elastic collision. We have also corroborated the obtained analytical one-soliton solution by direct numerical simulation. Also, we discuss the formation and dynamics of resonant solitons. Interestingly, we demonstrate the formation of resonant solitons admitting breather-like (localized periodic pulse train) structure and also large amplitude localized structures akin to rogue waves coexisting with solitons. For completeness, we have also obtained dark one- and two-soliton solutions and studied their dynamics briefly.

  18. The axisymmetric long-wave interfacial stability of core-annular flow of power-law fluid with surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Wei Sun; Jie Peng; Ke-Qin Zhu


    The long wave stability of core-annular flow of power-law fluids with an axial pressure gradient is investigated at low Reynolds number.The interface between the two fluids is populated with an insoluble surfactant.The analytic solution for the growth rate of perturbation is obtained with long wave approximation.We are mainly concerned with the effects of shear-thinning/thickening property and interfacial surfactant on the flow stability.The results show that the influence of shear-thinning/thickening property accounts to the change of the capillary number.For a clean interface,the shear-thinning property enhances the capillary instability when the interface is close to the pipe wall.The converse is true when the interface is close to the pipe centerline.For shear-thickening fluids,the situation is reversed.When the interface is close to the pipe centerline,the capillary instability can be restrained due to the influence of surfactant.A parameter set can be found under which the flow is linearly stable.

  19. A Modified Equation Approach to Selecting a Nonstandard Finite Difference Scheme Applied to the Regularized Long Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Momoniat


    Full Text Available Two nonstandard finite difference schemes are derived to solve the regularized long wave equation. The criteria for choosing the “best” nonstandard approximation to the nonlinear term in the regularized long wave equation come from considering the modified equation. The two “best” nonstandard numerical schemes are shown to preserve conserved quantities when compared to an implicit scheme in which the nonlinear term is approximated in the usual way. Comparisons to the single solitary wave solution show significantly better results, measured in the L2 and L∞ norms, when compared to results obtained using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element method and a splitted quadratic B-spline collocation method. The growth in the error when simulating the single solitary wave solution using the two “best” nonstandard numerical schemes is shown to be linear implying the nonstandard finite difference schemes are conservative. The formation of an undular bore for both steep and shallow initial profiles is captured without the formation of numerical instabilities.

  20. An open labeled, comparative clinical study on efficacy and tolerability of oral minipulse of steroid (OMP alone, OMP with PUVA and broad / narrow band UVB phototherapy in progressive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath Namita


    Full Text Available Background: Several modalities of treatment have been tried in vitiligo with varied results; however, Indian data on comparative studies of two or more therapies are limited. Aims: We compared different phototherapy methods with an oral steroid as an adjunct to determine the method with the best tolerability and efficacy. Methods: Eighty-six patients with progressive vitiligo were randomly assigned to different study groups according to a continuous selection method over a period of one year. Group 1 was given OMP + PUVA, group 2 OMP + UVB (NB, group 3 OMP + UVB (BB and group 4 was given OMP alone. Each patient was followed up for six months and then released from treatment. Clinical evaluation was made at the end of three and six months. Results: In group 1 (OMP + PUVA, marked improvement was seen in 18.51% while moderate improvement was seen in 66.66% of the patients. Marked improvement was seen in 37.03% in group 2 (OMP + NB-UVB while 44.44% had moderate improvement. In group 3 (OMP + BB UVB, 8.33% showed marked improvement while moderate improvement was seen in 25% of the patients. Marked and moderate improvement was seen in 5 and 10% of group 4 (OMP patients, respectively. Conclusions: Our study compared four treatment modalities in vitiligo patients, out of which oral minipulse of steroids (OMP only had an adjunct value and was not very effective by itself. Narrow band UVB has a definite edge over broad band UVB and should be preferred when both options are available. NB-UVB and PUVA showed comparable efficacy.

  1. Possibility to sound the atmospheric ozone by a radiosonde equipped with two temperature sensors, sensitive and non-sensitive to the long wave radiation (United States)

    Kitaoka, T.; Sumi, T.


    The sensitiveness of white coated thermistor sensors and non-sensitiveness of the gold coated over white thermistor sensors (which have been manufactured by a vacuum evaporation process) to long wave radiation were ascertained by some simple experiments in-room and also by analyses of some results of experimental soundings. From results of analyses on the temperature discrepancies caused by long wave radiation, the possibility to sound the atmospheric ozone partial pressure by a radiosonde equipped with two kinds of sensors, sensitive and non-sensitive to the long wave radiation was suggested, and the test results of the newly developed software for the deduction of ozone partial pressure in upper layers was also shown. However, it was found that the following is the necessary condition to realize the purpose. The sounding should be made by a radiosonde equipped with three sensors, instead of two, one being non-sensitive to the long wave radiation perfectly, and the other two also non-sensitive partially to the downward one, with two different angles of exposure upward. It is essential for the realization of the purpose to get two different values of temperature discrepancies simultaneously observed by the three sensors mentioned above and to avoid the troublesome effects of the upward long wave radiation.

  2. Combined therapy of psoralen plus ultraviolet A followed by narrow band ultraviolet B photochemotherapy for early stage mycosis fungoides%甲氧沙林加紫外线A联合窄谱中波紫外线B治疗早期蕈样肉芽肿的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 刘跃华; 郑和义; 左亚刚; 方凯


    Objective Only a few clinical reports in the treatment of early mycosis fungoides (MF) (Ⅰ A,Ⅰ B,Ⅱ A stage) are available in the literature.The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of narrow-band UVB and psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) photochemoterapy in 24 patients with early-stage MF,and explore a new approach for the treatment of early mycosis fungoides.Methods A total of 24 identified early mycosis fungoides patients received PUVA,NB-UVB and a combined therapy of PUVA followed by NB-UVB (n =9/6/9) irradiation.A retrospective study was carried out to analyze the sex,age of onset,TNM stage,treatment,and duration of treatment,and times of treatment,duration of maintenance treatment,effective and recurrence in these patients.The data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and a two-sided test at the α =0.05 level of significance was conducted.Results Of the 24 patients studied,the average treatment was 104.5 (95% CI,75.71-133.29) times.The average duration of treatment was 12.88 (95% CI,9.90-15.85) months.The average maintenance treatment time was 11.08 (95% CI,2.13-20.04) months.The effective rate (CR + PR) of PUVA treatment was 88.9%,recurrence rate was 11.1% (n =9).In the NB-UVB treatment group,the effective rate was 100.0%,and the recurrence rate was 33.3% (n =6).In the PUVA followed by NB-UVB (combination therapy) treatment group,the effective rate was 77.8% and the recurrence rate was 55.6% (n =9).There were no significant differences among the three groups in terms of number of treatments,treatment duration,maintenance treatment duration,effective rate and recurrence rate (P > 0.05).Conclusious PUVA and NB-UVB are effective and safe in the targeted therapy of early stage mycosis fungoides.The combined therapy of PUVA followed by NB-UVB can reduce the total PUVA dose and risk of developing skin cancer.%目的 分析甲氧沙林加紫外线A(PUVA)联合窄谱中波紫外线B(NB-UVB)治疗早期蕈

  3. Generalized extended tanh-function method and its application to (1+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Xuedong; Chen Yong; Zhang Hongqing


    Making use of a new generalized ansatzes, we present the generalized extended tanh-function method for constructing the exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) in a unified way. Applying the generalized method, with the aid of MAPLE, we consider the Wu-Zhang equation (which describes (1+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave). As a result, we can successfully obtain the solitary wave solutions that can be found by the extended tanh-function method and the modified extended tanh-function method. More importantly, for the equation, we also obtain other new and more general solutions at the same time. The results include kink-profile solitary wave solutions, bell-profile solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions, rational solutions, singular solutions and other new formal solutions. As an illustrative sample, the properties of some soliton solutions for Wu-Zhang equation are shown by some figures.

  4. Single-image-based solution for optics temperature-dependent nonuniformity correction in an uncooled long-wave infrared camera. (United States)

    Cao, Yanpeng; Tisse, Christel-Loic


    In this Letter, we propose an efficient and accurate solution to remove temperature-dependent nonuniformity effects introduced by the imaging optics. This single-image-based approach computes optics-related fixed pattern noise (FPN) by fitting the derivatives of correction model to the gradient components, locally computed on an infrared image. A modified bilateral filtering algorithm is applied to local pixel output variations, so that the refined gradients are most likely caused by the nonuniformity associated with optics. The estimated bias field is subtracted from the raw infrared imagery to compensate the intensity variations caused by optics. The proposed method is fundamentally different from the existing nonuniformity correction (NUC) techniques developed for focal plane arrays (FPAs) and provides an essential image processing functionality to achieve completely shutterless NUC for uncooled long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging systems.

  5. Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide hybrids used as long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposites (United States)

    Li, Wenyao; Xu, Ruoyu; Ling, Min; He, Guanjie


    We report a facile thermal decomposition approach to synthesize Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide (Ag-Ag2S/rGO), the Ag-Ag2S nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide with diameters of 10-20 nm. The photoluminescence spectra of Ag-Ag2S/rGO showed two obvious emission peaks at 327 and 339 nm with the excitation wavelength at 287 nm. Compared with Ag-Ag2S heterostructured clusters with two peaks at 407 and 430 nm, it showed a big blue shift and higher intensity, which makes it a novel candidate for long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposite.

  6. Mutations induced by ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Gerd P. [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)]. E-mail:; You, Young-Hyun [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Besaratinia, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States)


    The different ultraviolet (UV) wavelength components, UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (200-280 nm), have distinct mutagenic properties. A hallmark of UVC and UVB mutagenesis is the high frequency of transition mutations at dipyrimidine sequences containing cytosine. In human skin cancers, about 35% of all mutations in the p53 gene are transitions at dipyrimidines within the sequence 5'-TCG and 5'-CCG, and these are localized at several mutational hotspots. Since 5'-CG sequences are methylated along the p53 coding sequence in human cells, these mutations may be derived from sunlight-induced pyrimidine dimers forming at sequences that contain 5-methylcytosine. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) form preferentially at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine when cells are irradiated with UVB or sunlight. In order to define the contribution of 5-methylcytosine to sunlight-induced mutations, the lacI and cII transgenes in mouse fibroblasts were used as mutational targets. After 254 nm UVC irradiation, only 6-9% of the base substitutions were at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine. However, 24-32% of the solar light-induced mutations were at dipyrimidines that contain 5-methylcytosine and most of these mutations were transitions. Thus, CPDs forming preferentially at dipyrimidines with 5-methylcytosine are responsible for a considerable fraction of the mutations induced by sunlight in mammalian cells. Using mouse cell lines harboring photoproduct-specific photolyases and mutational reporter genes, we showed that CPDs (rather than 6-4 photoproducts or other lesions) are responsible for the great majority of UVB-induced mutations. An important component of UVB mutagenesis is the deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine within CPDs. The mutational specificity of long-wave UVA (340-400 nm) is distinct from that of the shorter wavelength UV and is characterized mainly by G to T transversions presumably arising through mechanisms

  7. Investigating origin of the inadequate medium range predictability of the lower tropospheric ultra-long waves in tropics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S De


    The predictability of planetary or ultra-long scale waves is limited by the large growth of errors in these scales in almost all the medium range forecast models. Understanding the cause for the enormous build up of error is, therefore, a necessary task for improving the prediction of planetary waves. A diagnostic analysis of the systematic error energetics has been performed in the Global Forecast System model to investigate the reasons for poor predictability of the lower tropospheric ultra-long waves (wavenumber bands 1 –4)in tropics using the analysis –forecast system of horizon- tal wind field at 850 hPa level during the boreal summer period. For this purpose, systematic error energy is computed in spatial as well as in wavenumber domain. Non-linear inter-scale transfer of error has been formulated and evaluated through energy exchanges among participating triads. The study reveals that the error is generated in the prognostic model initially with a small magnitude at the different locations around tropical convergence zone (TCZ) attributed to the inaccuracy in representing different physical processes like cumulus convection applied in the model. At subsequent evolution of forecasts, error increases and spreads along the TCZ due to its non-linear advection to the higher scales and eventually to the ultra-long scales attributed to the inherent dynamics of the model evaluated through the process of wave –wave exchange of error energy in terms of the triad interactions. The continuous generation and then, non-linear propagation of error up to the planetary scales in the course of prediction increase the uncertainty in ultra-long scales which actually inhibit to predict accurately the planetary scale waves in tropics during medium range forecasts. This work suggests caveats to the modeler’s community in the predictability study of tropical ultra-long waves.

  8. The increasing chronicity of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: re-thinking "HIV as a long-wave event" in the era of widespread access to ART



    Abstract HIV was first described as a "long-wave event" in 1990, well before the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The pandemic was then seen as involving three curves: an HIV curve, an AIDS curve and a curve representing societal impact. Since the mid-2000's, free public delivery of life-saving ART has begun shifting HIV from a terminal disease to a chronic illness for those who can access and tolerate the medications. This increasing chronicity prompts revisiting HIV as a long-wave ev...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁明; 常谦顺


    In this paper, a finite difference method for a initial-boundary valueproblem of regularized long-wave equation was considered. A energyconservative finite difference scheme of three levels was proposed.Convergence and stability of difference solution were proved. The schemeneedn't iterate, thus, requires less CPU time. Numerical experimentresults demonstrate that the method is efficient and reliable.

  10. A depth-averaged 2-D shallow water model for breaking and non-breaking long waves affected by rigid vegetation (United States)

    This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...

  11. Impact of global warming on the energetics of lower tropospheric ultra-long waves and the Indian summer monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M D Chipade; J R Kulkarni; S M Bawiskar


    Analyses of 60 years (1949–2008) of monthly energetics of the zonal waves derived from NCEP/NCAR data indicate that ultra-long waves (waves 1 and 2) dominate the spectrum of lower tropospheric zonal waves during monsoon season (June–September). Westerlies over the Indian subcontinent are a source of energy to wave 1. Two oceanic anticyclones, one over Pacific and the other over Atlantic are sources of energy to wave 2. These two waves are inversely correlated. Climatology of the energetics of ultralong waves for the two epochs 1949–1978 (CLP1) and 1979–2008 (CLP2) of 30 years indicates that the intensity of wave 1 has decreased by about 33% whereas the intensity of wave 2 has increased by about 27%. Northward transport of sensible heat during CLP1 changes to southward during CLP2. Larger generation of zonal mean Available Potential Energy (APE) during CLP2 indicates more heating. A larger conversion of kinetic energy (KE) of wave 1 into APE of wave 1 leads to weakening of wave 1 during CLP2. In case of wave 2, lower rate of conversion of KE to APE leads to stronger wave 2 during CLP2. slagging and heating values of the coal has been found in this study.

  12. Comparative analysis of different approaches to the computation of long-wave radiation balance of water air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovsii, K.; Nourani, Y.; Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia


    In the present paper, the net long-wave radiation balance of the water-air environmental systems is analysed on the base of several semi-empirical approaches. Various theoretical models of infrared atmospheric radiation are reviewed. Factors, affecting their behavior are considered. Special attention is paid to physical conditions under which those models are applicable. Atmospheric and net infrared radiation fluxes are computed and compared under clear and cloudy sky. Results are presented in graphical form. Conclusions are made on the applicability of models considered for evaluating infrared radiation fluxes in environmental conditions of Central Italy. On the base of present analysis Anderson's model is chosen for future calculations of heat budget of lakes in Central Italy. [Italian] Nel presente rapporto viene analizzato il bilancio della radiazione infrarossa per i sistemi acquatici sulla base di alcune formule semi-empiriche. Vengono esaminati vari modelli della radiazione infrarossa atmosferica e i fattori che la influenzano. I flussi di radiazione infrarossa dall'atmosfera in condizioni di cielo sereno e nuvoloso vengono calcolati e confrontati. L'analisi dell'applicabilita' dei modelli considerati per il calcolo dei flussi di radiazione infrarossa in corrispondenza delle condizioni ambientali dell'Italia centrale suggerisce di scegliere il modello di Anderson per la valutazione del bilancio calorico die laghi vulcanici.

  13. Feasibility study of electron transfer quantum well infrared photodetectors for spectral tuning in the long-wave infrared band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Greg; Dehdashti Akhavan, Nima; Umana-Membreno, Gilberto; Antoszewski, Jarek; Faraone, Lorenzo [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)


    An electron transfer quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) consisting of repeating units of two coupled quantum wells (QWs) is capable of exhibiting a two color voltage dependent spectral response. However, significant electron transfer between the coupled QWs is required for spectral tuning, which may require the application of relatively high electric fields. Also, the band structure of coupled quantum wells is more complicated in comparison to a regular quantum well and, therefore, it is not always obvious if an electron transfer QWIP can be designed such that it meets specific performance characteristics. This paper presents a feasibility study of the electron transfer QWIP and its suitability for spectral tuning. Self consistent calculations have been performed of the bandstructure and the electric field that results from electron population within the quantum wells, from which the optical characteristics have been obtained. The band structure, spectral response, and the resonant final state energy locations have been compared with standard QWIPs. It is shown that spectral tuning in the long-wave infrared band can be achieved over a wide wavelength range of several microns while maintaining a relatively narrow spectral response FWHM. However, the total absorption strength is more limited in comparison to a standard QWIP, since the higher QW doping densities require much higher electric fields for electron transfer.

  14. Exploring long-wave infrared transmitting materials with AxBy form: First-principles gene-like studies (United States)

    Du, Jia-Ren; Chen, Nian-Ke; Li, Xian-Bin; Xie, Sheng-Yi; Tian, Wei Quan; Wang, Xian-Yin; Tu, Hai-Ling; Sun, Hong-Bo


    Long-wave infrared (8-12 μm) transmitting materials play critical roles in space science and electronic science. However, the paradox between their mechanical strength and infrared transmitting performance seriously prohibits their applications in harsh external environment. From the experimental view, searching a good window material compatible with both properties is a vast trail-and-error engineering project, which is not readily achieved efficiently. In this work, we propose a very simple and efficient method to explore potential infrared window materials with suitable mechanical property by first-principles gene-like searching. Two hundred and fifty-three potential materials are evaluated to find their bulk modulus (for mechanical performance) and phonon vibrational frequency (for optical performance). Seven new potential candidates are selected, namely TiSe, TiS, MgS, CdF2, HgF2, CdO, and SrO. Especially, the performances of TiS and CdF2 can be comparable to that of the most popular commercial ZnS at high temperature. Finally, we propose possible ranges of infrared transmission for halogen, chalcogen and nitrogen compounds respectively to guide further exploration. The present strategy to explore IR window materials can significantly speed up the new development progress. The same idea can be used for other material rapid searching towards special functions and applications.

  15. Global localization of in-pipe robot based on ultra-long wave antenna array and global position system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Haiming; Zhang Xiaohua; Chen Hongjun; Sun Dongchang; Sun Yongtai


    A global localization system of in-pipe robot is introduced in this paper. Global position system (GPS) is applied to monitor the motion of robot along the whole pipeline which is equally divided into many segments by tracking stations. The definite segment in which robot existing can be detected and this is long-range localization. Ultra-long wave (ULW) is adopted to solve the problem of metallic shielding and realize effective communication between inside and outside of pipeline. ULW emitter is carried by robot. When the plant is broken or defects on pipe-wall are inspected, the robot will stop moving. Antenna array is presented and disposed upon the definite segment to search the accurate location of robot, and this is short-range localization. In this paper, five-antenna array is adopted and an effective linear signal fusion algorithm is presented. The localization precision reaches R<25cm. By tests in Shengli oil field, the whole system is verified with robust solutions.

  16. The Long-Wave Infrared Earth Image as a Pointing Reference for Deep-Space Optical Communications (United States)

    Biswas, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Peterson, G.; Ortiz, G. G.; Hemmati, H.


    Optical communications from space require an absolute pointing reference. Whereas at near-Earth and even planetary distances out to Mars and Jupiter a laser beacon transmitted from Earth can serve as such a pointing reference, for farther distances extending to the outer reaches of the solar system, the means for meeting this requirement remains an open issue. We discuss in this article the prospects and consequences of utilizing the Earth image sensed in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral band as a beacon to satisfy the absolute pointing requirements. We have used data from satellite-based thermal measurements of Earth to synthesize images at various ranges and have shown the centroiding accuracies that can be achieved with prospective LWIR image sensing arrays. The nonuniform emissivity of Earth causes a mispointing bias error term that exceeds a provisional pointing budget allocation when using simple centroiding algorithms. Other issues related to implementing thermal imaging of Earth from deep space for the purposes of providing a pointing reference are also reported.

  17. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G M


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a complete carcinogen. The effects of UV radiation are mediated via direct damage to cellular DNA in the skin and suppression of image surveillance mechanisms. In the context of organ transplantation, addiction of drugs which suppress the immune system add greatly to the carcinogenicity of UV radiation. This review considers the mechanisms of such effects.

  18. Variable separation solutions and new solitary wave structures to the (1+1)-dimensional equations of long-wave-short-wave resonant interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chang-Zhi; He Bao-Gang; Zhang Jie-Fang


    A variable separation approach is proposed and extended to the (1+1)-dimensional physical system. The variable separation solutions of (1+1)-dimensional equations of long-wave-short-wave resonant interaction are obtained. Some special type of solutions such as soliton solution, non-propagating solitary wave solution, propagating solitary wave solution, oscillating solitary wave solution are found by selecting the arbitrary function appropriately.

  19. Lichen planus of the lower limbs: successful treatment with psoralen cream plus ultraviolet A photochemotherapy. (United States)

    Alsenaid, Adel; Alamri, Ali; Prinz, Jörg C; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolf, Ronald


    Lichen planus (LP) classifies into different subtypes depending on morphology and localization. Localized LP of the lower limb (LPLL) manifests a great challenge due to persistent itching, therapeutic resistance and the risk to develop into SCC. We report two cases with LPLL refractory to standard topical therapy, which were successfully treated with psoralen cream plus UVA photochemotherapy (cream-PUVA). We propose cream-PUVA as an alternative therapeutic option effective for localized LP of the lower limbs.

  20. A Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectral imager (7.7 to 12.3 μ) based on cooled detector array and high resolution Circular Variable Filter (CVF) (United States)

    Cabib, Dario; Lavi, Moshe; Gil, Amir; Ohel, Eran; Dolev, Jacob; Milman, Uri


    Spectral imagers in the Long Wave IR spectral range (8 to 12 microns) suffer from the problem of high production costs because the existing commercial cooled array detectors are expensive, and in fact they are prohibitively expensive for many applications. As a result, the drive to lower the cost of Long Wave IR spectral imagers is strong: this is the main motivation for CI to investigate a new design that allows these spectral imagers to be more affordable. One area of possible cost reduction without relinquishing the advantages of a cryogenically cooled detector is the method used to provide the spectral information. CI Systems has developed a long wave IR (7.7 to 12.3 micron) spectral imager concept using a Circular Variable Filter (CVF), (a proprietary component based on multiple layer interference filter technology) which has advantages over the interferometric Fourier Transform method commonly used in this spectral range. The CVF method has its own development challenges; however, once proven, this concept may be more suitable and affordable for applications in which a spectral resolution of 0.5% of the wavelength (or 50 nm at 10 μ) is required. The design of the optical system must minimize background signals without being cooled to cryogenic temperatures, so we called it VIrtually COld (or VICO). CI is in the final stages of prototype building and characterization. Present initial calibration results and measurement examples are given in this paper.

  1. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (United States)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.


    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  2. A Generalized Algebraic Method for Constructing a Series of Explicit Exact Solutions of a (1+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYong; WANGQi; LIBiao


    Making use of a new and more general ansatz, we present the generalized algebraic method to uniformly construct a series of new and general travelling wave solution for nonlinear partial differential equations. As an application of the method, we choose a (1+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation to illustrate the method. As a result, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by the method proposed by Fan [E. Fan, Comput. Phys. Commun. 153 (2003) 17] and find other new and more general solutions at the same time, which include polynomial solutions, exponential solutions, rational solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions, hyperbolic and soliton solutions, Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions.

  3. New exact solutions to MKDV-Burgers equation and (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation via extended Riccati equation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Cuicui [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail:; Wang Dan; Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)


    In this paper, with the aid of symbolic computation and a general ansaetz, we presented a new extended rational expansion method to construct new rational formal exact solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of this method, we apply it to the MKDV-Burgers equation and the (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation, then several new kinds of exact solutions are successfully obtained by using the new ansaetz. The method can also be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations.

  4. Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment (United States)

    Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.


    The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

  5. Ionization Chamber Measures Extreme Ultraviolet (United States)

    Carlson, Robert W.


    Ionization chamber operates in nearly total photon absorption as stable, self-calibrating detector of ionizing extreme ultraviolet radiation. Working gas of instrument is neon; photoionization properties well known and readily applicable to absolute measurements. Designed for measurements of solar ultraviolet flux aboard sounding rocket, instrument used on Earth to measure ultraviolet radiation in vacuum systems. Ionization chamber collects positive neon ions and electrons produced by irradiation of neon gas by ultraviolet photons. Approximately one ion produced by each photon; consequently, photoionization current nearly proportional to photon flux.

  6. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells. (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen


    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy I

    CERN Document Server

    Samson, James A; Lucatorto, Thomas


    This volume is for practitioners, experimentalists, and graduate students in applied physics, particularly in the fields of atomic and molecular physics, who work with vacuum ultraviolet applications and are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation. It provides first-hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art equipment sources and gives technical information on how to use it, along with a broad reference bibliography.Key Features* Aimed at experimentalists who are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation in this applied field* Contains a detailed chapter on la

  8. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint) (United States)


    importance is that the sky may be truly outstandingly black in the far ultraviolet, offering a "dark site " that is unprecedented in astronomy...Estimated spectral energy distribution of the night-sky background near the zenith at an excellent ground-based site on a moonless night and in a...1977. Ap. J. Suppl. 33:451 31. Henry, R. C. 1981. Ap. J. Lett. 244: L69 32. Henry, R. C. 1981. 16th Rencontre de Moriond, ed. J. Tran Thanh Van, p

  9. Uptake of donor lymphocytes treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light by recipient dendritic cells induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells and down-regulates cardiac allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, De-Hua [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China); Dou, Li-Ping [Department of Hematology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, No. 28 Fu-Xing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Wei, Yu-Xiang; Du, Guo-Sheng; Zou, Yi-Ping; Song, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Dong; Cai, Ming; Qian, Ye-Yong [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China); Shi, Bing-Yi, E-mail: [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China)


    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an effective immunomodulatory therapy and has been demonstrated to be beneficial for graft-vs-host disease and solid-organ allograft rejection. ECP involves reinfusion of a patient's autologous peripheral blood leukocytes treated ex vivo with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light radiation (PUVA). Previous studies focused only on ECP treatment of recipient immune cells. Our study is the first to extend the target of ECP treatment to donor immune cells. The results of in vitro co-culture experiments demonstrate uptake of donor PUVA-treated splenic lymphocytes (PUVA-SPs) by recipient immature dendritic cells (DCs). Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SPs does not stimulate phenotype maturation of recipient DCs. In the same co-culture system, donor PUVA-SPs enhanced production of interleukin-10 and interferon-{gamma} by recipient DCs and impaired the subsequent capability of recipient DCs to stimulate recipient naive T cells. Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SP (PUVA-SP DCs) by recipient DCs shifted T-cell responses in favor of T helper 2 cells. Infusion of PUVA-SP DCs inhibited cardiac allograft rejection in an antigen-specific manner and induced CD4{sup +}CD25{sup high}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells. In conclusion, PUVA-SP DCs simultaneously deliver the donor antigen and the regulatory signal to the transplant recipient, and thus can be used to develop a novel DC vaccine for negative immune regulation and immune tolerance induction.

  10. A unified theory of instabilities in viscoelastic thin films: from wetting to confined films, from viscous to elastic films, and from short to long waves. (United States)

    Sarkar, Jayati; Sharma, Ashutosh


    A general unified theory of field (van der Waals, electric, etc.)-induced surface instabilities in thin viscoelastic films that accounts for a destabilizing field and stabilizing effects of elastic strain and surface energy is presented. The present theory seamlessly covers the instability and its different regimes in films ranging from elastic to viscous, from adhesive (confined) to wetting (free surface), and from short- to long-wave instabilities. The critical conditions for the onset of instability are found to be strongly dependent on elastic properties such as the shear modulus of the film, but the dominant wavelength is strikingly independent of the film rheology. Different regimes based on a nondimensional parameter (gamma/mu h) are uncovered, where gamma is the surface energy, mu is the elastic shear modulus, and h is the film thickness. A short-wave, elasticlike response with wavelength lambda approximately = 2.96 h is obtained for gamma/mu h 1. Owing to their small critical thickness, wetting films destabilized by intermolecular forces always display long-wave instability regardless of their viscoelasticity. Furthermore, our numerical simulations based on energy minimization for unstable wetting elastic films show the formation of islands for ultrathin films and a morphological phase transition to holes embedded in the film for relatively thicker films. Unlike viscous films, however, unstable elastic films do not display a unique dominant wavelength but a bimodal distribution of wavelengths.

  11. The infrared-ultraviolet connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.


    Physics below 300 GeV is termed infrared, and physics above 1 TeV is called ultraviolet. Some aspects of the relation between these two regions are discussed. It is argued that the symmetries of the infrared must be symmetries in the ultraviolet. Furthermore, naturalness within the context of the st

  12. Identifying counterfeit cigarette packs using ultraviolet irradiation and light microscopy. (United States)

    Kurti, Marin; He, Yi; von Lampe, Klaus; Li, Yanlei


    Develop a method that yields high rates of sensitivity and specificity for determination of counterfeit cigarette packs for three popular brands: Newport, Marlboro ('Red') and Marlboro Gold. Using systematic keyword searches, we identified industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco's Legacy Tobacco Documents Library that describe the use of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and close examination of printing quality to distinguish between counterfeit and genuine cigarette packs. Guided by these documents, we identified six markers for counterfeit cigarettes across three popular brands using counterfeit cigarette packs (N=68) seized by law enforcement agencies in the USA. We assessed the diagnostic test accuracy of these markers and tested it against genuine packs (N=22) using receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. We find that counterfeit cigarette packs fluoresce to long-wave UV irradiation and display poor printing quality. The optimal cut-off value varies among the three brands. For example, counterfeit Newport and Marlboro packaging can be reliably classified with two of six characteristics, while Marlboro Gold requires four. Researchers who conduct littered pack and pack swap studies are urged to include this method to assess the share of counterfeit cigarettes, and compare the result against tobacco industry figures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. The increasing chronicity of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: Re-thinking "HIV as a long-wave event" in the era of widespread access to ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whiteside Alan


    Full Text Available Abstract HIV was first described as a "long-wave event" in 1990, well before the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART. The pandemic was then seen as involving three curves: an HIV curve, an AIDS curve and a curve representing societal impact. Since the mid-2000's, free public delivery of life-saving ART has begun shifting HIV from a terminal disease to a chronic illness for those who can access and tolerate the medications. This increasing chronicity prompts revisiting HIV as a long-wave event. First, with widespread availability of ART, the HIV curve will be higher and last longer. Moreover, if patterns in sub-Saharan Africa mirror experiences in the North, people on ART will live far longer lives but with new experiences of disability. Disability, broadly defined, can result from HIV, its related conditions, and from side effects of medications. Individual experiences of disability will vary. At a population level, however, we anticipate that experiences of disability will become a common part of living with HIV and, furthermore, may be understood as a variation of the second curve. In the original conceptualization, the second curve represented the transition to AIDS; in the era of treatment, we can expect a transition from HIV infection to HIV-related disability for people on ART. Many such individuals may eventually develop AIDS as well, but after a potentially long life that includes fluctuating episodes of illness, wellness and disability. This shift toward chronicity has implications for health and social service delivery, and requires a parallel shift in thinking regarding HIV-related disability. A model providing guidance on such a broader understanding of disability is the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. In contrast to a biomedical approach concerned primarily with diagnoses, the ICF includes attention to the impact of these diagnoses on people's lives and

  14. The increasing chronicity of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: Re-thinking "HIV as a long-wave event" in the era of widespread access to ART. (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Whiteside, Alan; Barnett, Tony


    HIV was first described as a "long-wave event" in 1990, well before the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The pandemic was then seen as involving three curves: an HIV curve, an AIDS curve and a curve representing societal impact. Since the mid-2000's, free public delivery of life-saving ART has begun shifting HIV from a terminal disease to a chronic illness for those who can access and tolerate the medications. This increasing chronicity prompts revisiting HIV as a long-wave event. First, with widespread availability of ART, the HIV curve will be higher and last longer. Moreover, if patterns in sub-Saharan Africa mirror experiences in the North, people on ART will live far longer lives but with new experiences of disability. Disability, broadly defined, can result from HIV, its related conditions, and from side effects of medications. Individual experiences of disability will vary. At a population level, however, we anticipate that experiences of disability will become a common part of living with HIV and, furthermore, may be understood as a variation of the second curve. In the original conceptualization, the second curve represented the transition to AIDS; in the era of treatment, we can expect a transition from HIV infection to HIV-related disability for people on ART. Many such individuals may eventually develop AIDS as well, but after a potentially long life that includes fluctuating episodes of illness, wellness and disability. This shift toward chronicity has implications for health and social service delivery, and requires a parallel shift in thinking regarding HIV-related disability. A model providing guidance on such a broader understanding of disability is the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In contrast to a biomedical approach concerned primarily with diagnoses, the ICF includes attention to the impact of these diagnoses on people's lives and livelihoods. The ICF also focuses on

  15. Dual-band infrared remote sensing system with combined long-wave infrared imaging and mid-wave infrared spectral analysis. (United States)

    Fang, Zheng; Yi, Xinjian; Liu, Xiangyan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tianxu


    We present a new optical system for infrared (IR) image-spectrum integration remote sensing. The purpose to develop this instrument is to find the key spectral characteristics of typical hot target and to explore a new intelligence fusion method for the recognition. When mounted on a two-dimensional rotation stage, it can track the suspected target by image processing, and then get its spectrum to do recognition. It is a dual-band system with long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectrum. An IR dichroic beamsplitter is used to divide wideband incident infrared into LWIR and MWIR. Compared to traditional infrared combined imaging and spectral-analysis instruments, it yields higher sensitivity for measuring the IR spectrum. The sensors for imaging and spectrum detection are separate, so high spatial resolution, frame rate, and spectrum resolution can all be obtained simultaneously.

  16. Combination of temporal phase unwrapping and long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry for metrology of mosaic detector under space simulated conditions (United States)

    Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Thizy, Cédric; Beaumont, Florent; Garcia, José; Martin, Laurent; Fabron, Christophe; Prieto, Eric; Maciaszek, Thierry; Georges, Marc P.


    We present digital holographic interferometry (DHI) in the long-wave infrared for monitoring the deformation under cryogenic conditions of a segmented focal plane array to be used in a space mission. The long wavelength was chosen for its ability to allow measurement of displacements 20 times larger than DHI in the visible and which were foreseen with the test object under such temperature changes. The specimen consists of 4x4 mosaic of detectors assembled on a frame. It was required to assess the global deformation of the ensemble, the deformation of each detector, and piston movements of each of them with respect to their neighbors. For that reason we incorporated the temporal phase unwrapping by capturing a sufficiently high number of holograms between which the phase does not suffer strong variations. At last since the specimen exhibit specular reflectivity at that wavelength, it is illuminated through a reflective diffuser.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqi Li


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the long-term movement of the profit rate and related variables in the UK, the US, Japan, and the Euro-zone. Since the mid-19th century there have been four long waves in the movement of the average profit rate and rate of accumulation. The average profit rate tended to fall between the late 19th century and the late 20th / early 21st century. The average profit share fell substantially in the transition from the UK hegemony to the US hegemony. The fall of the profit rateand profit share reflected rising wage and taxation costs. Our findings raise important questions regarding the future development of the capitalist world economy.

  18. Socio-political aspects of the theory of «long waves»: the interaction of political and economic cycles of societyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kvitka


    An important part of the sustainable development of a country at present there is compliance governance development needs of economy (business and modern information society (civil society. Such trends can be noted in the modern history of Ukraine. Inconsistency actions of state institutions to the needs and expectations of the majority of the active population led to a mass protest movement . With the global information society, given the central role of Ukraine in the global balance of power between the main actors of the country, today , this has direct international intervention in the sequence out of the crisis in Ukraine . Meanwhile, since, according to periodization modern «long waves « in the world of instability phase ( prior to the structural crisis has only just begin, and subject to compliance with the requirements of Ukrainian state policy information society in Ukraine may avoid a catastrophic scenario.

  19. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory


    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  20. Ultraviolet radiation and cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek Kyun; Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Häder, Donat-Peter; Han, Taejun


    Cyanobacteria are the dominant photosynthetic prokaryotes from an ecological, economical, or evolutionary perspective, and depend on solar energy to conduct their normal life processes. However, the marked increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) caused by the continuous depletion of the stratospheric ozone shield has fueled serious concerns about the ecological consequences for all living organisms, including cyanobacteria. UV-B radiation can damage cellular DNA and several physiological and biochemical processes in cyanobacterial cells, either directly, through its interaction with certain biomolecules that absorb in the UV range, or indirectly, with the oxidative stress exerted by reactive oxygen species. However, cyanobacteria have a long history of survival on Earth, and they predate the existence of the present ozone shield. To withstand the detrimental effects of solar UVR, these prokaryotes have evolved several lines of defense and various tolerance mechanisms, including avoidance, antioxidant production, DNA repair, protein resynthesis, programmed cell death, and the synthesis of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. This study critically reviews the current information on the effects of UVR on several physiological and biochemical processes of cyanobacteria and the various tolerance mechanisms they have developed. Genomic insights into the biosynthesis of MAAs and scytonemin and recent advances in our understanding of the roles of exopolysaccharides and heat shock proteins in photoprotection are also discussed.

  1. Higgs ultraviolet softening

    CERN Document Server

    Brivio, I; Gavela, M B; Gonzalez-Garcia, M C; Merlo, L; Rigolin, S


    We analyze the leading effective operators which induce a quartic momentum dependence in the Higgs propagator, for a linear and for a non-linear realization of electroweak symmetry breaking. Their specific study is relevant for the understanding of the ultraviolet sensitivity to new physics. Two methods of analysis are applied, trading the Lagrangian coupling by: i) a "ghost" scalar, after the Lee-Wick procedure; ii) other effective operators via the equations of motion. The two paths are shown to lead to the same effective Lagrangian at first order in the operator coefficients. It follows a modification of the Higgs potential and of the fermionic couplings in the linear realization, while in the non-linear one anomalous quartic gauge couplings, Higgs-gauge couplings and gauge-fermion interactions are induced in addition. Finally, all LHC Higgs and other data presently available are used to constrain the operator coefficients; the future impact of $pp\\rightarrow\\text{4 leptons}$ data via off-shell Higgs excha...

  2. Higgs ultraviolet softening (United States)

    Brivio, I.; Éboli, O. J. P.; Gavela, M. B.; Gonzalez-García, M. C.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.


    We analyze the leading effective operators which induce a quartic momentum dependence in the Higgs propagator, for a linear and for a non-linear realization of electroweak symmetry breaking. Their specific study is relevant for the understanding of the ultraviolet sensitivity to new physics. Two methods of analysis are applied, trading the Lagrangian coupling by: i) a "ghost" scalar, after the Lee-Wick procedure; ii) other effective operators via the equations of motion. The two paths are shown to lead to the same effective Lagrangian at first order in the operator coefficients. It follows a modification of the Higgs potential and of the fermionic couplings in the linear realization, while in the non-linear one anomalous quartic gauge couplings, Higgs-gauge couplings and gauge-fermion interactions are induced in addition. Finally, all LHC Higgs and other data presently available are used to constrain the operator coefficients; the future impact of pp → 4 leptons data via off-shell Higgs exchange and of vector boson fusion data is considered as well. For completeness, a summary of pure-gauge and gauge-Higgs signals exclusive to non-linear dynamics at leading-order is included.



    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M


    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  4. Modelling ultraviolet threats (United States)

    James, I.


    Electro-optically (EO) guided surface to air missiles (SAM) have developed to use Ultraviolet (UV) wavebands supplementary to the more common Infrared (IR) wavebands. Missiles such as the US Stinger have been around for some time but are not considered a proliferation risk. The Chinese FN-16 and Russian SA-29 (Verba) are considered a much higher proliferation risk. As a result, models of the missile seekers must be developed to understand the characteristics of the seeker and the potential performance enhancement that are included. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to introduce the steps that have been taken to characterise and model these missiles. It begins by outlining some of the characteristics of the threats, the key elements of a UV scene, the potential choice of waveband for a detector, the initial modelling work to represent the UV detector of the missile and presents initial results. The modelling shows that the UV detection range of a typical aircraft is dependent on both the size of the aircraft and its reflectivity. However, the strength of this correlation is less than expected. As a result, further work is required to model more seeker types and to investigate what is causing the weak correlations found in these initial investigations. In addition, there needs to be further study of the sensitivities of the model to other variables, such as the modelled detectivity of the detector and the signal to noise ratio assumed. Overall, the outcome of this work will be to provide specifications for aircraft size and reflectivity that limit the effectiveness of the UV channels.

  5. Far Ultraviolet Astronomy (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)


    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is studying a wide range of astronomical problems in the 905-1187 Angstrom wavelength region through the use of high resolution spectroscopy. The FUSE bandpass forms a nearly optimal complement to the spectral coverage provided by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which extends down to approximately 1170 Angstroms. The photoionization threshold of atomic hydrogen (911 Angstroms) sets a natural short-wavelength limit for the FUV. FUSE was launched in June 1999 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta II rocket into a 768 km circular orbit. Scientific observations started later that year. This spectral region is extremely rich in spectral diagnostics of astrophysical gases over a wide range of temperatures (100 K to over 10 million K). Important strong spectral lines in this wavelength range include those of neutral hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon (H I, D I, N I, O I, and Ar I), molecular hydrogen (H2), five-times ionized oxygen (O VI), and several ionization states of sulfur (S III - S VI). These elements are essential for understanding the origin and evolution of the chemical elements, the formation of stars and our Solar System, and the structure of galaxies, including our Milky Way. FUSE is one of NASA's Explorer missions and a cooperative project of NASA and the space agencies of Canada and France. These missions are smaller, more scientifically focused missions than the larger observatories, like Hubble and Chandra. FUSE was designed, built and operated for NASA by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University. Hundreds of astronomers world-wide are using FUSE for a wide range of scientific research. Some of the important scientific discoveries from the first two years of the mission are described.

  6. Exact Solutions to the Generalized Dispersive Long Wave Equation with Variable Coefficients%一般变系数耗散长水波方程的精确解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张令元; 张金良; 王明亮


    By using the homogeneous balance principle(HBP), we derive a B(a)cklund transformation(BT) to the generalized dispersive long wave equation with variable coefficients.Based on the BT, we give many kinds of the exact solutions of the equation, such as, single solitary solutions, multi-soliton solutions and generalized exact solutions.

  7. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E


    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  8. Statistical properties of coastal long waves analysed through sea-level time-gradient functions: exemplary analysis of the Siracusa, Italy, tide-gauge data (United States)

    Bressan, L.; Tinti, S.


    This study presents a new method to analyse the properties of the sea-level signal recorded by coastal tide gauges in the long wave range that is in a window between wind/storm waves and tides and is typical of several phenomena like local seiches, coastal shelf resonances and tsunamis. The method consists of computing four specific functions based on the time gradient (slope) of the recorded sea level oscillations, namely the instantaneous slope (IS) as well as three more functions based on IS, namely the reconstructed sea level (RSL), the background slope (BS) and the control function (CF). These functions are examined through a traditional spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis and also through a statistical analysis, showing that they can be characterised by probability distribution functions PDFs such as the Student's t distribution (IS and RSL) and the beta distribution (CF). As an example, the method has been applied to data from the tide-gauge station of Siracusa, Italy.

  9. The Effects of Flexible Vegetation on Forces with a Keulegan-Carpenter Number in Relation to Structures Due to Long Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noarayanan Lakshmanan; Murali Kantharaj; Vallam Sundar


    Extreme coastal events require careful prediction of wave forces.Recent tsunamis have resulted in extensive damage of coastal structures.Such scenarios are the result of the action of long waves on structures.In this paper,the efficiency of vegetation as a buffer system in attenuating the incident ocean waves was studied through a well controlled experimental program.The study focused on the measurement of forces resulting from cnoidal waves on a model building mounted over a slope in the presence and absence of vegetation.The vegetative parameters,along with the width of the green belt,its position from the reference line,the diameter of the individual stems as well as the spacing between them,and their rigidity are varied so as to obtain a holistic view of the wave-vegetation interaction problem.The effect of vegetation on variations of dimensional forces with a Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC) was discussed in this paper.It has been shown that when vegetal patches are present in front of structure,the forces could be limited to within F*≤1,by a percentile of 92%,90%,55%,and 96%,respectively for gap ratios of 0.0,0.5,1.0,and 1.5.The force is at its maximum for the gap ratio of 1.0 and beyond which the forces start to diminish.

  10. Six-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories, quantum cohomology of instanton moduli spaces and gl(N) Quantum Intermediate Long Wave Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bonelli, Giulio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr


    We show that the exact partition function of U(N) six-dimensional gauge theory with eight supercharges on C^2 x S^2 provides the quantization of the integrable system of hydrodynamic type known as gl(N) periodic Intermediate Long Wave (ILW). We characterize this system as the hydrodynamic limit of elliptic Calogero-Moser integrable system. We compute the Bethe equations from the effective gauged linear sigma model on S^2 with target space the ADHM instanton moduli space, whose mirror computes the Yang-Yang function of gl(N) ILW. The quantum Hamiltonians are given by the local chiral ring observables of the six-dimensional gauge theory. As particular cases, these provide the gl(N) Benjamin-Ono and Korteweg-de Vries quantum Hamiltonians. In the four dimensional limit, we identify the local chiral ring observables with the conserved charges of Heisenberg plus W_N algebrae, thus providing a gauge theoretical proof of AGT correspondence.

  11. Rapid long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements using a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system. (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Eiei; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Jia, Yingqing; Trivedi, Sudhir; D'souza, Arvind I; Decuir, Eric A; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S; Samuels, Alan C


    In this work, we develop a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5  s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region (∼5.6-10  μm). Similar to the conventional UV-Vis LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering the whole 5.6-10 μm region can be acquired from just a single laser-induced microplasma or averaging a few single laser-induced microplasmas. Atomic and molecular signature emission spectra of solid inorganic and organic tablets and thin liquid films deposited on a rough asphalt surface are observed. This setup is capable of rapidly probing samples "as is" without the need of elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous UV-Vis and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  12. Ultraviolet light and cutaneous lupus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, Marc; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.


    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors known to trigger cutaneous disease activity in (systemic) lupus erythematosus patients. UV light, UVB in particular, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Currently, disturbed clearance of apoptotic cells is one of the concepts explaining th

  13. Ultraviolet light and cutaneous lupus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, Marc; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.


    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors known to trigger cutaneous disease activity in (systemic) lupus erythematosus patients. UV light, UVB in particular, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Currently, disturbed clearance of apoptotic cells is one of the concepts explaining th

  14. Dispersive internal long wave models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camassa, R.; Choi, W.; Holm, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levermore, C.D.; Lvov, Y. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work is a joint analytical and numerical study of internal dispersive water wave propagation in a stratified two-layer fluid, a problem that has important geophysical fluid dynamics applications. Two-layer models can capture the main density-dependent effects because they can support, unlike homogeneous fluid models, the observed large amplitude internal wave motion at the interface between layers. The authors have derived new model equations using multiscale asymptotics in combination with the method they have developed for vertically averaging velocity and vorticity fields across fluid layers within the original Euler equations. The authors have found new exact conservation laws for layer-mean vorticity that have exact counterparts in the models. With this approach, they have derived a class of equations that retain the full nonlinearity of the original Euler equations while preserving the simplicity of known weakly nonlinear models, thus providing the theoretical foundation for experimental results so far unexplained.

  15. Regulation of keratin expression by ultraviolet radiation: differential and specific effects of ultraviolet B and ultraviolet a exposure. (United States)

    Bernerd, F; Del Bino, S; Asselineau, D


    Skin, the most superficial tissue of our body, is the first target of environmental stimuli, among which is solar ultraviolet radiation. Very little is known about the regulation of keratin gene expression by ultraviolet radiation, however, although (i) it is well established that ultraviolet exposure is involved in skin cancers and photoaging and (ii) keratins represent the major epidermal proteins. The aim of this study was to analyze the regulation of human keratin gene expression under ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) or ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) irradiation using a panel of constructs comprising different human keratin promoters cloned upstream of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene and transfected into normal epidermal keratinocytes. By this approach, we demonstrated that ultraviolet B upregulated the transcription of keratin 19 gene and to a lesser extent the keratin 6, keratin 5, and keratin 14 genes. The DNA sequence responsible for keratin 19 induction was localized between -130 and +1. In contrast to ultraviolet B, ultraviolet A irradiation induced only an increase in keratin 17, showing a differential gene regulation between these two ultraviolet ranges. The induction of keratin 19 was confirmed by studying the endogenous protein in keratinocytes in classical cultures as well as in skin reconstructed in vitro and normal human skin. These data show for the first time that keratin gene expression is regulated by ultraviolet radiation at the transcriptional level with a specificity regarding the ultraviolet domain of solar light.

  16. Performance of a long-wave infrared Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer using a corner-cube Michelson interferometer and an uncooled microbolometer array (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Wu, Jianghui; Meng, Hemin; Gao, Jiaobo; Fan, Zhe; Zhang, Mingxuan; Li, Yu; Li, Jianjun


    Interference imaging spectroscopy is the advanced subject among the infrared remote sensing, and it has become an important technique to detect spatial information and spectral information of targets. It has the advantages of high flux, high spectral resolution and high spatial resolution that can be used for detecting more details of the spectral and spatial information. Based on a Michelson interferometer with its mirrors replaced by corner-cubes, principles of a hand-held, static, long-wave infrared Fourier Transform(FT) imaging spectrometer using an uncooled microbolometer array are introduced. Because in such FT-based spectral imager, the interferogram is acquired over the whole field of the camera while the scene of interest scans the path difference range, vignetting should be strongly limited while keep the size of the interferometer as small as possible. Interferometer size is given and interferential light path is verified through TracePro software. First results of field and laboratory measurements using the spectral imager are presented. Remotely obtained spectrums collected with this instrument and with those of high precise Michelson spectrometer are compared, and the measured values turned out to be closely corresponded. The results, in turn, verified the feasibility of the systematic working mode. The resulting system tested here provides datacubes of up to 640×480 pixels over the 7.7~13μm spectral range, this wavelength range reveals important information about scenes such as gas or landmine detection, and the instrument has a spectral resolution of about 8cm-1 that fulfils the requirement for most targeted applications. Examples of sky and buildings detection are shown.

  17. Long-term variations in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR), convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature in the tropopause region over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sapra; S K Dhaka; V Panwar; R Bhatnagar; K Praveen Kumar; Y Shibagaki; M Venkat Ratnam; M Takahashi


    Relationship of outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) with convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature at the 100-hPa pressure level is examined using daily radiosonde data for a period 1980–2006 over Delhi (28.3° N, 77.1°E) and Kolkata (22.3°N, 88.2°E), and during 1989–2005 over Cochin (10°N, 77°E) and Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77.0°E), India. Correlation coefficient (xy) between monthly OLR and CAPE shows a significant (∼ −0.45) anti-correlation at Delhi and Kolkata suggesting low OLR associated with high convective activity during summer (seasonal variation). Though, no significant correlation was found between OLR and CAPE at Cochin and Trivandrum (low latitude region); analysis of OLR and temperature (at 100-hPa) association suggests that low OLR peaks appear corresponding to low temperature at Delhi (xy ∼ 0.30) and Kolkata (xy ∼ 0.25) during summer. However, xy between OLR and temperature becomes opposite as we move towards low latitudes (∼8° – 10°N) due to strong solar cycle influence. Large scale components mainly ENSO and quasi-biennial oscillaton (QBO) that contributed to the 100-hPa temperature variability were also analyzed, which showed that ENSO variance is larger by a factor of two in comparison to QBO over Indian region. ENSO warm conditions cause warming at 100-hPa over Delhi and Darwin. However, due to strong QBO and solar signals in the equatorial region, ENSO signal seems less effective. QBO, ENSO, and solar cycle contribution in temperature are found location-dependent (latitudinal variability) responding in consonance with shifting in convective activity regime during El Niño, seasonal variability in the tropical easterly jet, and the solar irradiance.

  18. Long-wave infrared radiation reflected by compression stockings in the treatment of cellulite: a clinical double-blind, randomized and controlled study. (United States)

    Bagatin, E; Miot, H A; Soares, J L M; Sanudo, A; Afonso, J P J M; de Barros Junior, N; Talarico, S


    Cellulite refers to changes in skin relief on the thighs and buttocks of women, with a prevalence of 80-90%, causing dissatisfaction and search for treatment. Etiopathogenesis is multifactorial, as follows: herniation of the hypodermis towards the dermis, facilitated by perpendicular fibrous septa, changes in the dermal extracellular matrix, decreased adiponectin, genetic polymorphism, microcirculation alterations and inflammatory process. There are numerous therapeutic approaches, with little evidence of effectiveness. The long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation interacts with water, improves microcirculation and stimulates metabolic processes. To date, the use of tissues with potential reflection of LWIR radiation has not been systematically investigated as adjuvant treatment for cellulite. To investigate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of cellulite through the use of compression stockings made with thread reflecting LWIR radiation. Clinical study of therapeutic intervention, controlled and double-blind, including 30 women, aging from 25 to 40 years, with cellulite of grades II and III on the thighs and buttocks who used compression stockings, "pantyhose" model, made with reflector thread of LWIR radiation, on only one randomized side. Women under other treatments for cellulite and with venous and/or blood insufficiencies were excluded. Evaluation of efficacy by clinical parameters, photographs, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), cutometry and high frequency ultrasonography and security by observation of adverse events and venous EcoDoppler recordings. DLQI scores showed significant reduction; the two-dimensional high-frequency ultrasonography showed an insignificant increase in dermal echogenicity as well as other efficacy parameters demonstrated no or slight improvement, with no differences between the sides exposed or not to LWIR; and there were no severe adverse events. Compression stockings, with or without thread reflector of LWIR, showed slight

  19. Ultraviolet extensions of particle physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthier, Laure Gaëlle

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model field content. Many questions though remain unanswered by the Standard Model triggering a search for new physics. New physics could manifest itself at the Large Hadron Collider by the discovery of new...... particles. However, the lack of new resonances might suggest that these new particles are still out of reach which leaves us with few options. Two possibilities are explored in this thesis. The first is to study precision measurements which might indicate new physics as small deviations from the Standard...... are expressed as power series with missing higher order terms. We also show how to connect ultraviolet models of new physics to the Standard Model effective field theory and calculate bounds on them using the Standard Model effective field theory fit results. Finally, we study a nonrelativistic ultraviolet...

  20. Hummingbirds see near ultraviolet light. (United States)

    Goldsmith, T H


    Three species of hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, Lampornis clemenciae, and Eugenes fulgens) were trained to make visual discriminations between lights of different spectral content. On the basis of initial choices of feeders following a period of conditioning, birds of all three species were able to distinguish near ultraviolet (370 nanometers, 20-nanometer half bandwidth) from darkness (unilluminated viewing screen) or from the small amount of far red light that leaked through the ultraviolet-transmitting glass filter. A human observer was unable to make either discrimination. The birds were also able to distinguish white lights lacking wavelengths shorter than 400 nanometers from the full spectrum of the quartz-halogen bulbs. One can infer that the cone oil droplets, which have been lost from the retinas of most mammals, provide a potentially more flexible system for restricting the short wavelength end of the visible spectrum than does the filtering action of lens and macula that serves this function in the human eye.

  1. Ultraviolet Photodissociation of Molecular Beams. (United States)


    Continue on reerse side if neceesry and identify by block number) Photodissociation , excimer laser, nitrocompounds, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide ...4 ULTRAVIOLET PHOTODISSOCIATION OF MOLECULAR BEAMS. * TYPE OF REPORT (TECHNICAL, FINAL, ETC.) FINAL REPOT OR PERIOD 0/01/77 - 9/30/80 AUTHOR (S... Photodissociation of Final report for period 10/01/77 - 9/30/80 Molecular Beams 6. PERFORMIN, CRG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) R

  2. Ultraviolet-visible nanophotonic devices



    Ankara : The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Ph. D.) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 130-141. Recently in semiconductor market, III-Nitride materials and devices are of much interest due to their mechanical strength, radiation resistance, working in the spectrum from visible down to the deep ultraviolet region and solar-blind device ...

  3. Ultraviolet Protection by Fabric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available Background. The increasing emission of greenhouse gases has evoked the human being to save the ozone layer and minimize the risk of ultraviolet radiation (UVR. Various fabric structures have been explored to achieve desired ultraviolet protection factor (UPF in various situations. Objective. In this study, the effect of various filament configurations like twisted, flat, intermingled, and textured in multifilament yarns on fabric in different combinations is assessed in order to engineer a fabric of better ultraviolet protection factor (UPF. Methods. In order to engineer a fabric having optimum UV protection with sufficient comfort level in multifilament woven fabrics, four different yarn configurations, intermingled, textured, twisted, and flat, were used to develop twelve different fabric samples. The most UV absorbing and most demanding fibre polyethylene terephthalate (PET was considered in different filament configuration. Results. The combinations of intermingled warp with flat, intermingled, and textured weft provided excellent UVR protection comparatively at about 22.5 mg/cm2 fabric areal density. The presence of twisted yarn reduced the UV protection due to enhanced openness in fabric structure. Conclusion. The appropriate combination of warp and weft threads of different configuration should be selected judiciously in order to extract maximum UV protection and wear comfort attributes in multifilament woven PET fabrics.

  4. Molecular Dynamics in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (United States)


    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE COMPLETED PROJECT SUMMARY TITLE: Molecular dynamics in the Vacuum Ultraviolet PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul L. Houston...DTIC TAB 0 Unannounced 0 By Distr ibution I Availability Codes Avail and I or Dist Special I Molecular Dynamics In the Vacuum Ultraviolet Final Technical...Further development of tunable vacuum ultraviolet sources has opened wide areas of molecular dynamics for study. Completed Research Photodissociation of

  5. Hyperspectral imaging using ultraviolet light


    Porter, Michael A.


    The LINEATE IMAGING NEAR ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER (LINUS) instrument has been used to remotely detect and measure sulfur dioxide (SO2). The sensor was calibrated in the lab, with curves of growth created for the 0.29 0.31 æ - spectral range of the LINUS sensor. Field observations were made of a coal burning plant in St. Johnâ s, Arizona at a range of 537 m. The Salt River Coronado plant stacks were emitting on average about 100 ppm and 200 ppm from the left and right stacks respectively. An...

  6. Ultraviolet laser technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, David L


    Ultraviolet Laser Technology and Applications is a hands-on reference text that identifies the main areas of UV laser technology; describes how each is applied; offers clearly illustrated examples of UV opticalsystems applications; and includes technical data on optics, lasers, materials, and systems. This book is unique for its comprehensive, in-depth coverage. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the subject, beginning with UV light itself; moving through the optics, sources, and systems; and concluding with detailed descriptions of applications in various fields.The text enables pr

  7. JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer (United States)

    Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.


    The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

  8. Ultraviolet and Infrared Divergences in Superstring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke


    Superstring theory is known to be free from ultraviolet divergences but suffers from the usual infrared divergences that occur in quantum field theories. After briefly reviewing the origin of ultraviolet finiteness of superstring theory we describe recent progress towards the understanding of infrared divergences in superstring theory.

  9. Investigation of Ultraviolet Transmission Characteristics of Detecting Window in Ultraviolet Fire Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zheng; HUANG Da-gui; ZHANG De-yin


    Ultraviolet (UV) fire detector is used to detect fire according to the ultraviolet radiation of the flame. High detecting sensitivity of the sensor requires high ultraviolet transmission property of the detecting window. In this paper, high performance JGS-1 (type name of glass) ultraviolet quartz glass is used as the sensor detecting window material and the ultraviolet transmission characteristics of the glass is studied. A new method with the smart fire detecting module to test the ultraviolet transmission parameter of quartz glass is demonstrated. The comparison results of UV spectrometer and this new method manifest that JGS-1 quartz glass has good ultraviolet transmission character and the new test method with fire detecting module is direct and feasible.

  10. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazova, M.; O' Hagan, J.B. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Did cot (United Kingdom)


    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of {approx} 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application

  11. Near Ultraviolet Spectrograph for Cubesats (United States)

    Aickara Gopinathan, Sreejith; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Suresh, Ambily; Kaippacheri, Nirmal; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant


    We have designed a near ultraviolet (200 - 400 nm) spectrograph to fit into a 2U CubeSat and planned for flight in mid-2017 with a scientific goal of obtaining NUV spectra of bright sources (procurement delays and cost. Our baseline optical design consists of a collecting mirror with a 70 mm diameter which reflects light onto a concave reflection grating with a spacing of 1200 lines per mm. The grating focuses the light onto a linear array back-thinned FFT CCD with a pixel size of 14-μm × 14-μm.We will present the design of the payload and the choices forced on us by the restrictive CubeSat environment and the short lead times. This payload is a part of our program to build payloads that will address limited scientific goals but making full use of the opportunities that are arising for CubeSat class missions.

  12. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  13. Extreme ultraviolet Talbot interference lithography. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Marconi, Mario C


    Periodic nanopatterns can be generated using lithography based on the Talbot effect or optical interference. However, these techniques have restrictions that limit their performance. High resolution Talbot lithography is limited by the very small depth of focus and the demanding requirements in the fabrication of the master mask. Interference lithography, with large DOF and high resolution, is limited to simple periodic patterns. This paper describes a hybrid extreme ultraviolet lithography approach that combines Talbot lithography and interference lithography to render an interference pattern with a lattice determined by a Talbot image. As a result, the method enables filling the arbitrary shaped cells produced by the Talbot image with interference patterns. Detailed modeling, system design and experimental results using a tabletop EUV laser are presented.

  14. Ultraviolet colour opponency in the turtle retina. (United States)

    Ventura, D F; Zana, Y; de Souza, J M; DeVoe, R D


    We have examined the functional architecture of the turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans retina with respect to colour processing, extending spectral stimulation into the ultraviolet, which has not been studied previously in the inner retina. We addressed two questions. (i) Is it possible to deduce the ultraviolet cone spectral sensitivity function through horizontal cell responses? (ii) Is there evidence for tetrachromatic neural mechanisms, i.e. UV/S response opponency? Using a constant response methodology we have isolated the ultraviolet cone input into the S/LM horizontal cell type and described it in fine detail. Monophasic (luminosity), biphasic L/M (red-green) and triphasic S/LM (yellow-blue) horizontal cells responded strongly to ultraviolet light. The blue-adapted spectral sensitivity function of a S/LM cell peaked in the ultraviolet and could be fitted to a porphyropsin cone template with a peak at 372 nm. In the inner retina eight different combinations of spectral opponency were found in the centre of the receptive field of ganglion cells. Among amacrine cells the only types found were UVSM-L+ and its reverse. One amacrine and four ganglion cells were also opponent in the receptive field surround. UV/S opponency, seen in three different types of ganglion cell, provides a neural basis for discrimination of ultraviolet colours. In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that there is an ultraviolet channel and a neural basis for tetrachromacy in the turtle retina.

  15. Global scale variability of the mineral dust long-wave refractive index: a new dataset of in situ measurements for climate modeling and remote sensing (United States)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Balkanski, Yves; Caponi, Lorenzo; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Journet, Emilie; Nowak, Sophie; Caquineau, Sandrine; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Saeed, Thuraya; Piketh, Stuart; Seibert, David; Williams, Earle; Doussin, Jean-François


    Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge because of the scarcity of information on the complex refractive index of dust from different source regions. In particular, little is known about the variability of the refractive index as a function of the dust mineralogical composition, which depends on the specific emission source, and its size distribution, which is modified during transport. As a consequence, to date, climate models and remote sensing retrievals generally use a spatially invariant and time-constant value for the dust LW refractive index. In this paper, the variability of the mineral dust LW refractive index as a function of its mineralogical composition and size distribution is explored by in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Mineral dust aerosols were generated from 19 natural soils from 8 regions: northern Africa, the Sahel, eastern Africa and the Middle East, eastern Asia, North and South America, southern Africa, and Australia. Soil samples were selected from a total of 137 available samples in order to represent the diversity of sources from arid and semi-arid areas worldwide and to account for the heterogeneity of the soil composition at the global scale. Aerosol samples generated from soils were re-suspended in the chamber, where their LW extinction spectra (3-15 µm), size distribution, and mineralogical composition were measured. The generated aerosol exhibits a realistic size distribution and mineralogy, including both the sub- and super-micron fractions, and represents in typical atmospheric proportions the main LW-active minerals, such as clays, quartz, and calcite. The complex refractive index of the aerosol is obtained by an optical inversion based upon the measured extinction spectrum and size distribution. Results from the present study show that the imaginary LW refractive index (k) of dust varies greatly both in magnitude and spectral shape from sample to sample, reflecting the

  16. Some aspects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Damany, Nicole; Vodar, Boris


    Some Aspects of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics presents some data on the state of research in vacuum ultraviolet radiation in association with areas of physics. Organized into four parts, this book begins by elucidating the optical properties of solids in the vacuum ultraviolet region (v.u.v.), particularly the specific methods of determination of optical constants in v.u.v., the properties of metals, and those of ionic insulators. Part II deals with molecular spectroscopy, with emphasis on the spectra of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules, paraffins, and condensed phases. Part III

  17. The ultraviolet properties of supernovae (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.


    Ultraviolet (UV) observations of supernovae (SNe) probe an important wavelength region where hot temperatures, extinction, and metallicity have strong effects. In addition, they provide a comparison set against which to compare and better understand rest frame UV observations of high redshift SNe observed in the optical. UV observations, however, are rare due to the need for telescopes above the atmosphere and the difficulty in observing transient objects with space based observatories. Limited observations with space based observatories, primarily the International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope, are reviewed, after which the Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on the Swift spacecraft is introduced. With Swift we have observed more SNe than all previous UV missions combined. Case studies of two individual SNe are first presented: SNe 2005am and 2005cs. SN 2005am is the first young SN observed with Swift, and the near-UV (uvw1: central wavelength ~ 2600 λ) light curve is consistent with the previous "template" derived from IUE and HST observations of SNe 1990N and 1992A. SN 2005cs is the first plateau-type II (IIP) with a well observed UV light curve. UVOT observations show a dramatic drop in the UV brightness and shift in the spectral energy distribution from blue to red caused by the dropping temperature and resulting line blanketing in the UV. These case studies demonstrate the information available from the UV data for individual SNe. A photometry method for proper accounting of coincidence loss, aperture corrections, and subtraction of the underlying galaxy is detailed. This method is then applied to a large sample of SNe observed with UVOT. We present 25 light curves and compare SNe by type and across types. The SNe Ia, with a few exceptions, are shown to have very similar light curves in the near UV, whereas, the three SNe Ib/c we have observed are very different. The SNe IIP all have rapidly fading UV light curves, though with

  18. Fiber-Based Ultraviolet Laser System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser system for use in space-based uv-Raman instruments. The basis for this system...

  19. Synthetic Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Indices in Stars (United States)

    Chávez, M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.; Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Bressan, A.


    We present a progress report on the calculation of ultraviolet spectroscopic indices by using the UVBLUE library of synthetic spectra. The ensemble of indices are aimed at complementing empirical databases for the study of stellar populations. The definitions for the set of indices are mainly those empirically built upon data collected with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Because the far-ultraviolet (far-UV) and mid-ultraviolet (mid-UV) are sensitive to quite dissimilar stellar populations, they are presented separately. We provide a few examples on the effects of the leading atmospheric parameters on index values. This analysis is, to our knowledge, the first based upon high resolution synthetic spectra and we envisage important applications on the study of stellar aggregates at UV wavelengths.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer. (United States)

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L


    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Ultraviolet Behavior of N = 8 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC


    In these lectures the author describes the remarkable ultraviolet behavior of N = 8 supergravity, which through four loops is no worse than that of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory (a finite theory). I also explain the computational tools that allow multi-loop amplitudes to be evaluated in this theory - the KLT relations and the unitarity method - and sketch how ultraviolet divergences are extracted from the amplitudes.

  2. Ultraviolet photoluminescence of porous anodic alumina films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of porous anodic alumina (PAA) films prepared by using electrochemical anodization technique in a mixed solution of oxalic and sulfuric acid have been investigated. The PAA films have an intensive ultraviolet PL emission around 350 nm, of which a possible PL mechanism has been proposed. It was found that the incorporated oxalic ions, which could transform into PL centers and exist in the PAA films, are responsible for this ultraviolet PL emission.

  3. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick


    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  4. Dynamic properties of ultraviolet-exposed polyurea (United States)

    Youssef, George; Whitten, Ian


    Polyurea is used in military and civilian applications, where exposure to the sun in long durations is imminent. Extended exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can deteriorate its mechanical performance to suboptimal levels. This study reports on the dynamic mechanical properties of polyurea as a function of ultraviolet radiation exposure duration. Six sets of samples were continuously exposed to ultraviolet radiation for different durations up to 18 weeks. Control samples were also tested that did not receive ultraviolet exposure. The dynamic properties were measured using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Exposed samples exhibited significant color changes from transparent yellow to opaque tan after 18 weeks of exposure. Changes of color were observed as early as 3 weeks of exposure. The dynamic properties showed an initial increase in the dynamic modulus after 3 weeks of exposure, with no further significant change in the stiffness thereafter. The ultraviolet exposure had a significant impact at relatively short loading times or low temperature, for example, up to 6 decades of time. As loading time increases or polyurea operates at high temperature, the effect of ultraviolet exposure and temperature on the performance become highly coupled.

  5. A new development for determining the ultraviolet protection factor


    Campos Payá, Juan; DÍAZ-GARCÍA Pablo; Montava Seguí, Ignacio José; Miró Martínez, Pau; Bonet Aracil, María Angeles


    Ultraviolet radiation has become an increasing problem in recent years. It causes many injuries in humans giving rise to the need for protection against ultraviolet radiation, which can be provided by textiles with a high ultraviolet protection factor. This factor can be determined by a variety of established methods. This work focuses on establishing a new methodology for determining the ultraviolet protection factor value using an ultraviolet lamp and a detector. The fabric is to be tested ...

  6. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Asteroid(4) Vesta (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Landsman, Wayne; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Mutchler, Max J.; Russell, Christopher T.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Raymond, Carol A.


    We report a comprehensive review of the UV-visible spectrum and rotational lightcurve of Vesta combining new observations by Hubble Space Telescope and Swift with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer observations. The geometric albedos of Vesta from 220 nm to 953 nm arc derived by carefully comparing these observations from various instruments at different times and observing geometries. Vesta has a rotationally averaged geometric albedo of 0.09 at 250 nm, 0.14 at 300 nm, 0.26 at 373 nm, 0.38 at 673 nm, and 0.30 at 950 nm. The linear spectral slope in the ultraviolet displays a sharp minimum ncar sub-Earth longitude of 20deg, and maximum in the eastern hemisphere. This is completely consistent with the distribution of the spectral slope in the visible wavelength. The uncertainty of the measurement in the ultraviolet is approx.20%, and in the visible wavelengths better than 10%. The amplitude of Vesta's rotational lightcurves is approx.10% throughout the range of wavelengths we observed, but is smaller at 950 nm (approx.6%) ncar the 1-micron mafic band center. Contrary to earlier reports, we found no evidence for any difference between the phasing of the ultraviolet and visible/ncar-infrared lightcurves with respect to sub-Earth longitude. Vesta's average spectrum between 220 and 950 nm can well be described by measured reflectance spectra of fine particle howardite-like materials of basaltic achondrite meteorites. Combining this with the in-phase behavior of the ultraviolet, visible. and ncar-infrared lightcurves, and the spectral slopes with respect to the rotational phase, we conclude that there is no global ultraviolet/visible reversal on Vesta. Consequently, this implies lack of global space weathering on Vesta. Keyword,: Asteroid Vesta; Spectrophotometry; Spectroscopy; Ultraviolet observations; Hubble Space Telescope observations

  7. Electrical Performance Influence of Loading on Inverted Long-wave Antenna%加载对垂挂式长波天线电气性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫烨; 翟琦; 蒋宇中


    在借鉴机载长波天线、气球天线和COCO天线的基础上,建立三种形式的垂挂式长波发信天线模型,然后就顶容性加载和电感加载两个方面研究顶容线数量以及电感加载位置、加感量等对天线电气性能的影响.仿真结果表明:顶容性加载和电感加载均能使天线的阻抗特性和辐射性能得到改善,且电感加载能够间接缩短天线物理长度.这一研究结果对改善长波天线电气性能、缩短天线物理长度等具有重要的指导意义.%Based on the airborne long-wave antenna, kptoon and COCO antenna. The three types of inverted long-wave antenna model are established. The influence of capacitive loading and inductance loading, particularly of the top-line number, inductance loading position and quantity on antenna electrical performance, is fairly studied. Simulation shows that the capacitive loading and inductance loading could improve impedance characteristic and radiation property of the antenna, while the inductance loading shortening the physical length of antenna. This research result has a guiding significance in electrical performance improvement and physical length shortening of the antenna.

  8. Ultraviolet radiation therapy and UVR dose models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, David Robert, E-mail: [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland and Cancer Research UK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Gray Laboratory, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom)


    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been an effective treatment for a number of chronic skin disorders, and its ability to alleviate these conditions has been well documented. Although nonionizing, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is still damaging to deoxyribonucleic acid integrity, and has a number of unpleasant side effects ranging from erythema (sunburn) to carcinogenesis. As the conditions treated with this therapy tend to be chronic, exposures are repeated and can be high, increasing the lifetime probability of an adverse event or mutagenic effect. Despite the potential detrimental effects, quantitative ultraviolet dosimetry for phototherapy is an underdeveloped area and better dosimetry would allow clinicians to maximize biological effect whilst minimizing the repercussions of overexposure. This review gives a history and insight into the current state of UVR phototherapy, including an overview of biological effects of UVR, a discussion of UVR production, illness treated by this modality, cabin design and the clinical implementation of phototherapy, as well as clinical dose estimation techniques. Several dose models for ultraviolet phototherapy are also examined, and the need for an accurate computational dose estimation method in ultraviolet phototherapy is discussed.

  9. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma (United States)

    Yao, Risheng; Li, Manman; Deng, Shengsong; Hu, Huajia; Wang, Huai; Li, Fenghe


    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  10. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚日生; 李曼曼; 邓胜松; 胡华佳; 王淮; 李凤和


    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  11. Non-perturbative match of ultraviolet renormalon

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V I


    The paper is motivated by observation of a kind of branes in the vacuum state of the lattice SU(2) gluodynamics. The branes represent two-dimensional vortices whose total area scales in physical units while the non-Abelian action diverges in the ultraviolet. We consider the question whether effects of the branes can be accommodated into the continuum theory. We demonstrate that at least in case of the gluon condensate (plaquette action) and of the heavy quark potential the contribution of the branes corresponds to the ultraviolet renormalon. Thus, the vortices might represent a non-perturbative match of the ultraviolet renormalon. Such an identification constrains, in turn, properties of the branes.

  12. Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background (United States)

    Jakobsen, P.; Bowyer, S.; Kimble, R.; Jelinsky, P.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Wulf-Mathies, C.


    The objective of the experiment reported here was to obtain additional information on the absolute intensity level and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The experiment used three ultraviolet sensitive photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95-cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on board an Aries sounding rocket. The measured intensities clearly refute the hypothesis of an isotropic background, the intensities of the high galactic latitude being definitely lower than the intensities seen at intermediate latitudes. Moreover, the count rates in all three channels along the slow scan exhibit local enhancements as well as an overall trend. In general, the spatial variations exhibited by the data correlate with the line of sight of neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21-cm radio observations. This fact demonstrates that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet radiation field.

  13. Photo(chemotherapy for Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Adışen


    Full Text Available Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL is one of the major dermatologic conditions for which phototherapy continues to be a successful and valuable treatment modality. The beneficial role of ultraviolet (UV light on CTCL is suggested by the observation that lesions generally occur on non-sun-exposed areas. Currently, a number of light sources are available, namely broadband UVB, psoralen and UVA (PUVA, narrowband UVB, and long-wave UV (UVA1 and selection of the specific modality is generally based on the stage of the disease. The efficacy of narrowband UVB is limited to the patch stage, while PUVA is used for stage IB and IIA where widespread patches or plaques take place. Case reports or small series show the efficacy of UVA1 in the treatment of early-stage CTCL. Long term remission with vairous phototherapy modalities has been reported in CTCL while relapses are also common. The present review will focus on the efficacy of the different phototherapeutic modalities in the treatment of CTCL.

  14. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) overview (United States)

    McBrayer, R. O.; Frazier, J.; Nein, M.


    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture telescope for imaging the stellar ultraviolet spectrum from the lunar surface. The aspects of Lute's educational value and the information it can provide on designing for the long-term exposure to the lunar environment are important considerations. This paper briefly summarizes the status of the phase A study by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) LUTE Task Team. The primary focus will be a discussion of the merits of LUTE as a small and relatively inexpensive project that benefits a wide spectrum of interests and could be operating on the lunar surface by the turn of the century.

  15. Stratospheric ozone, ultraviolet radiation and climate change; Ozone stratospherique, rayonnement ultraviolet et changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, O. [Met Office Hadley Centre (United Kingdom)


    It is well known that an overexposure to ultraviolet radiation is associated with a number of health risks such as an increased risk of cataracts and skin cancers. At a time when climate change is often blamed for all our environmental problems, what is the latest news about the stratospheric ozone layer and other factors controlling ultraviolet radiation at the surface of the Earth? Will the expected changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere and changes in our climate increase or decrease the risk for skin cancer? This article investigates the role of the various factors influencing ultraviolet radiation and presents the latest knowledge on the subject. (author)

  16. Differential sensitivity of T lymphocytes and hematopoietic precursor cells to photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light. (United States)

    Mabed, Mohamed; Coffe, Christian; Racadot, Evelyne; Angonin, Regis; Pavey, Jean-Jaques; Tiberghien, Pierre; Herve, Patrick


    The combination of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) has immunomodulatory effects and might abolish both graft-vs-host and host-vs-graft reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we have confirmed the sensitivity of T lymphocytes to 8-MOP treatment plus UV-A exposure as evidenced by the abrogation of the alloreactivity in mixed lymphocyte cultures as well as the inhibition of the response to phytohemagglutinin A. However, the clonogenic capacity of the bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors was inhibited with UV-A doses lower than the doses needed to inhibit T-lymphocytes alloreactivity. Moreover, long-term bone marrow cultures showed that 8-MOP plus UV-A treatment had detrimental effects on the more immature bone marrow stem cells. These data were confirmed when murine bone marrow graft was treated with 8-MOP, exposed to UV-A, then transplanted into semiallogeneic recipient mice. The treated cells could not maintain their clonogenic capacity in vivo resulting in death of all animals. Taken together, these data show that ex vivo 8-MOP plus UV-A treatment of the marrow graft cannot be used to prevent post-bone marrow transplantation alloreactivity.

  17. Adaptive multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem


    In this thesis we describe the development of a new class of optical components to enhance the imaging performance by enabling adaptations of the optics. When used at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths, such ‘adaptive optics’ offers the potential to achieve the highest spatial resolution in imagi

  18. The Copernicus ultraviolet spectral atlas of Sirius (United States)

    Rogerson, John B., Jr.


    A near-ultraviolet spectral atlas for the A1 V star Alpha CMa (Sirius) has been prepared from data taken by the Princeton spectrometer aboard the Copernicus satellite. The spectral region from 1649 to 3170 A has been scanned with a resolution of 0.1 A. The atlas is presented in graphs, and line identifications for the absorption features have been tabulated.

  19. Ultraviolet diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Brown, P.;


    Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) probe the outermost layers of the explosion, and UV spectra of SNe Ia are expected to be extremely sensitive to differences in progenitor composition and the details of the explosion. Here, we present the first study of a sample of high...

  20. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks. (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.


    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  1. Solar ultraviolet radiation in a changing climate (United States)

    The projected large increases in damaging ultraviolet radiation as a result of global emissions of ozone-depleting substances have been forestalled by the success of the Montreal Protocol. New challenges are now arising in relation to climate change. We highlight the complex inte...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4630 - Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders. 878.4630 Section 878.4630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic disorders. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet lamp for dermatologic...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  4. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome (United States)

    Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S.


    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 368–385 nm) elicits a distinct orange–yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange–yellow wing fluorescence (n = 80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n = 88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n = 22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n = 40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS.

  5. Confirmation of Auger-1 Minority-Carrier Lifetimes in Hg0.77Cd0.23Te and Prediction of Dark Current for Long-Wave Infrared Focal-Plane Arrays (United States)

    Destefanis, V.; Kerlain, A.


    Minority-carrier lifetime measurements have been carried out on Hg0.77Cd0.23Te (111)B materials with gap suitable for detection in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) band. The materials were grown on top of CdZnTe substrates using a liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) process. From measurements done at 80 K, a clear difference in terms of minority-carrier lifetimes was obtained, as expected, between p-intrinsic (≤5 ns) and n-extrinsic doped samples (420 ns). Minority-carrier lifetimes were also measured as a function of temperature for the n-type samples. Auger-1-limited lifetimes were demonstrated over a wide temperature range (from 80 K to 300 K) with negligible Radiative or Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime contributions. Predictions of dark current densities are made from those lifetime measurements, assuming an Auger-1-limited lifetime. The agreement is very good between the predictions and dark current densities measured from p-on- n 640 × 512 pixels LWIR HgCdTe focal-plane arrays with 15- μm pitch from SOFRADIR, Agreement between predicted and measured dark currents and Rule'07 for LWIR is also demonstrated herein. Finally, minority-carrier lifetime measurements are demonstrated as a predictive method for focal-plane array performance. State-of-the-art dark currents from SOFRADIR p-on- n LWIR focal-plane arrays based upon high-quality HgCdTe materials are also illustrated.

  6. Using Visible Spectral Information to Predict Long-Wave Infrared Spectral Emissivity: A Case Study over the Sokolov Area of the Czech Republic with an Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco


    Full Text Available Remote-sensing platforms are often comprised of a cluster of different spectral range detectors or sensors to benefit from the spectral identification capabilities of each range. Missing data from these platforms, caused by problematic weather conditions, such as clouds, sensor failure, low temporal coverage or a narrow field of view (FOV, is one of the problems preventing proper monitoring of the Earth. One of the possible solutions is predicting a detector or sensor’s missing data using another detector/sensor. In this paper, we propose a new method of predicting spectral emissivity in the long-wave infrared (LWIR spectral region using the visible (VIS spectral region. The proposed method is suitable for two main scenarios of missing data: sensor malfunctions and narrow FOV. We demonstrate the usefulness and limitations of this prediction scheme using the airborne hyperspectral scanner (AHS sensor, which consists of both VIS and LWIR spectral regions, in a case study over the Sokolov area, Czech Republic.

  7. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE), phase A (United States)

    McBrayer, Robert O.


    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum between 1,000 and 3,500 angstroms. There have been several endorsements of the scientific value of a LUTE. In addition to the scientific value of LUTE, its educational value and the information it can provide on the design of operating hardware for long-term exposure in the lunar environment are important considerations. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  8. Contact lens disinfection by ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, P.J.; Dobrogowski, M.J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))


    A 253.7-nm ultraviolet light with an intensity of 1,100 microW/cm2 was tested for its germicidal activity against contact lenses and storage solutions contaminated with various corneal pathogens. The exposure time necessary to reduce a concentration of organisms from 10(6)/ml to less than 10/ml was 30 seconds for Staphylococcus aureus, 60 seconds for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 84 seconds for Candida albicans. The time necessary to sterilize a suspension of 10(4)/ml Acanthamoeba polyphaga was less than three minutes with this technique. Four brands of soft contact lenses were exposed to ultraviolet light for over eight hours without changing their appearance, comfort, or refraction.

  9. The Stellar Extreme-Ultraviolet Radiation Field (United States)

    Vallerga, John


    The local extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation field from stellar sources has been determined by combining the EUV spectra of 54 stars, taken with the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The resultant spectrum over the range 70-730 Å is estimated to be 95% complete above 400 Å and 90% complete above 200 Å. The flux contributed by two B stars and three hot white dwarfs dominate the spectrum except at the shortest wavelengths, where an assortment of EUV source types contribute. The high electron densities measured toward nearby stars can be accounted for by photoionization from this radiation field, but the spectrum is too soft to explain the overionization of helium with respect to hydrogen recently measure in the Local Cloud.

  10. Feasibility of Extreme Ultraviolet Active Optical Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Wei; CHEN Jing-Biao


    @@ We propose an experimental scheme of vacuum ultraviolet(VUV)and extreme ultraviolet(XUV)optical fre-quency standards with noble gas atoms.Considering metastable state 3P2 noble atoms pumped by a conventional discharging method,the atomic beam is collimated with transverse laser cooling at the metastable state and en-ters into the laser cavity in the proposed setup.Due to stimulated emission from the metasable state to the ground state inside the laser cavity consisting of VUV reflection coating mirrors,our calculations show that with enough population inversion to compensate for the cavity loss,an active optical frequency standard at VUV and XUV is feasible.

  11. Gradient-based inverse extreme ultraviolet lithography. (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Xuanbo; Li, Yanqiu; Arce, Gonzalo R


    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising successor of current deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography. The very short wavelength, reflective optics, and nontelecentric structure of EUV lithography systems bring in different imaging phenomena into the lithographic image synthesis problem. This paper develops a gradient-based inverse algorithm for EUV lithography systems to effectively improve the image fidelity by comprehensively compensating the optical proximity effect, flare, photoresist, and mask shadowing effects. A block-based method is applied to iteratively optimize the main features and subresolution assist features (SRAFs) of mask patterns, while simultaneously preserving the mask manufacturability. The mask shadowing effect may be compensated by a retargeting method based on a calibrated shadowing model. Illustrative simulations at 22 and 16 nm technology nodes are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  12. Ultraviolet photodissociation of hydrogen iodide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Dulligan, M.; Wittig, C. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Binary hydrogen halide complexes are useful for studying photoinitiated reactions and inelastic processes at ultraviolet wavelengths where hydrogen halides undergo direct photodissociation. In this work, photo-initiated processes in (HI){sub 2} are investigated at 266 nm. This study has been carried out by measuring the atomic hydrogen velocity distributions via high-n Rydberg time-of-flight (HRTOF) spectroscopy, and the translational energy distributions of the hydrogen atom products have been obtained.

  13. Monitoring of phenol photodegradation by ultraviolet spectroscopy (United States)

    Roig, B.; Gonzalez, C.; Thomas, O.


    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed as an emerging technology for hazardous organic treatment in industrial wastewater. In this paper, the contribution of ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy to follow phenol photodegradation was studied in a laboratory photochemical reactor equipped with a low pressure mercury lamp. It has been observed that a multicomponent approach is efficient for the evolution estimation of the initial product or intermediate compounds formed during the photodegradation.

  14. Ultraviolet-Ozone Cleaning of Semiconductor Surfaces (United States)


    34 data - c gab Wt ardMlrtsoiilg the data is Ad. and cfO ftniii anid teaiQwifg the ClOatn of irifomt n Serge commont re&tggtis b%~ de a g, of aft, o*ther a...Chemicals, Plenum Press Data Div., New York (1966) 19. Lang , L., Absorption Spectra in the Ultraviolet and Visible Region, Academic Press, New York

  15. The Copernicus ultraviolet spectral atlas of Vega (United States)

    Rogerson, John B., Jr.


    A near-ultraviolet spectral atlas for the A0 V star Alpha Lyr (Vega) has been prepared from data taken by the Princeton spectrometer aboard the Copernicus satellite. The spectral region from 2000 to 3187 A has been scanned with a resolution of 0.1 A. The atlas is presented in graphs with a normalized continuum, and an identification table for the absorption features has been prepared.

  16. Microchannel Plate Imaging Detectors for the Ultraviolet (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Stock, J.; Marsh, D.


    There has been significant progress over the last few years in the development of technologies for microchannel plate imaging detectors in the Ultraviolet (UV). Areas where significant developments have occurred include enhancements of quantum detection efficiency through improved photocathodes, advances in microchannel plate performance characteristics, and development of high performance image readout techniques. The current developments in these areas are summarized, with their applications in astrophysical instrumentation.

  17. Cloud effects on middle ultraviolet global radiation (United States)

    Borkowski, J.; Chai, A.-T.; Mo, T.; Green, A. E. O.


    An Eppley radiometer and a Robertson-Berger sunburn meter are employed along with an all-sky camera setup to study cloud effects on middle ultraviolet global radiation at the ground level. Semiempirical equations to allow for cloud effects presented in previous work are compared with the experimental data. The study suggests a means of defining eigenvectors of cloud patterns and correlating them with the radiation at the ground level.

  18. Large-Area Vacuum Ultraviolet Sensors (United States)

    Aslam, Shahid; Franz, David


    Pt/(n-doped GaN) Schottky-barrier diodes having active areas as large as 1 cm square have been designed and fabricated as prototypes of photodetectors for the vacuum ultraviolet portion (wavelengths approximately equal 200 nm) of the solar spectrum. In addition to having adequate sensitivity to photons in this wavelength range, these photodetectors are required to be insensitive to visible and infrared components of sunlight and to have relatively low levels of dark current.

  19. Protection of Nomex from Ultraviolet Degradation (United States)


    discussions and suggestions during the course of the work and to Celanese Corporation, Monsanto Textiles Company, and Hoechst Company for use of laboratory...Webbing Company. The fabric sample was treated in a Gaston County 100 Jot Dycinq Machine at the Monsanto Textile Company laboratories in Decatur, Alabama...480,090; Dec. 1969. 124 54) Farbenfabriken, Bayer A.-G., "Ultraviolet absorbers and their uzse in polymers" Fr. Demande 2,007,939; Jan. 1970. 55

  20. Far-ultraviolet astronomical narrowband imaging. (United States)

    Cook, Timothy A; Hicks, Brian A; Jung, Paul G; Chakrabarti, Supriya


    We describe an all-reflective system for narrowband imaging suitable for imaging emission lines in the far ultraviolet. The system, which we call a monochromatic imager, combines a pupil plane grating monochromator with a telescope and camera to image a scene in one or more very narrow bands. The monochromator uses physical stops at its input and output apertures, and, as a result, the system has excellent rejection of out-of-band and off-axis light.

  1. The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope: The Final Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, William V; Kruk, Jeffrey W; Romelfanger, Mary L


    The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) was a 0.9 m telescope and moderate-resolution (~3 A) far-ultraviolet (820-1850 A) spectrograph that flew twice on the space shuttle, in 1990 December (Astro-1, STS-35) and 1995 March (Astro-2, STS-67). The resulting spectra were originally archived in a non-standard format that lacked important descriptive metadata. To increase their utility, we have modified the original data-reduction software to produce a new and more user-friendly data product, a time-tagged photon list similar in format to the Intermediate Data Files (IDFs) produced by the {\\it Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer} calibration pipeline. We have transferred all relevant pointing and instrument-status information from locally-archived science and engineering databases into new FITS header keywords for each data set. Using this new pipeline, we have reprocessed the entire HUT archive from both missions, producing a new set of calibrated spectral products in a modern FITS format that is fully complia...

  2. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Asteroid (4) Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian-Yang; Feaga, Lori M; Landsman, Wayne; A'Hearn, Michael F; Mutchler, Max J; Russell, Christopher T; McFadden, Lucy A; Raymond, Carol A


    We report a comprehensive review of the UV-visible spectrum and rotational lightcurve of Vesta combining new observations by Hubble Space Telescope and Swift Gamma-ray Burst Observatory with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer observations. The geometric albedos of Vesta from 220 nm to 953 nm are derived by carefully comparing these observations from various instruments at different times and observing geometries. Vesta has a rotationally averaged geometric albedo of 0.09 at 250 nm, 0.14 at 300 nm, 0.26 at 373 nm, 0.38 at 673 nm, and 0.30 at 950 nm. The linear spectral slope as measured between 240 and 320 nm in the ultraviolet displays a sharp minimum near a sub-Earth longitude of 20^{\\circ}, and maximum in the eastern hemisphere. This is consistent with the longitudinal distribution of the spectral slope in the visible wavelength. The photometric uncertainty in the ultraviolet is ~20%, and in the visible wavelengths it is better than 10%. The amplitude of Vesta's rotational lightcurves is ~10% throu...

  3. Is N = 8 Supergravity Ultraviolet Finite?

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z; Roiban, R; Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Roiban, Radu


    Conventional wisdom holds that no four-dimensional gravity field theory can be ultraviolet finite. This understanding is based mainly on power counting. Recent studies confirm that one-loop N = 8 supergravity amplitudes satisfy the so-called `no-triangle hypothesis', which states that triangle and bubble integrals cancel from these amplitudes. A consequence of this hypothesis is that for any number of external legs, at one loop N = 8 supergravity and N = 4 super-Yang-Mills have identical superficial degrees of ultraviolet behavior in D dimensions. We describe how the unitarity method allows us to promote these one-loop cancellations to higher loops, suggesting that previous power counts were too conservative. We discuss higher-loop evidence suggesting that N = 8 supergravity has the same degree of divergence as N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory and is ultraviolet finite in four dimensions. We comment on calculations needed to reinforce this proposal, which are feasible using the unitarity method.

  4. Photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean


    Photoprotection of human skin by means of sunscreens or daily skin-care products is traditionally centered around the prevention of acute (e.g. sunburn) and chronic (e.g. skin cancer and photoaging) skin damage that may result from exposure to ultraviolet rays (UVB and UVA). Within the last decade, however, it has been appreciated that wavelengths beyond the ultraviolet spectrum, in particular visible light and infrared radiation, contribute to skin damage in general and photoaging of human skin in particular. As a consequence, attempts have been made to develop skin care/sunscreen products that not only protect against UVB or UVA radiation but provide photoprotection against visible light and infrared radiation as well. In this article, we will briefly review the current knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for visible light/infrared radiation-induced skin damage and then, based on this information, discuss strategies that have been successfully used or may be employed in the future to achieve photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. In this regard we will particularly focus on the use of topical antioxidants and the challenges that result from the task of showing their efficacy.

  5. Very Long Wave Length IR Detectors (United States)


    vertical mobilities for use in detector modeling and materials optimization. REFERENCES: 1. A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone , J. Appl...A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009) 3. G. J. Brown, Proceedings of SPIE 5783, 457 (2005). 4. D. L. Smith

  6. Long Waves Associated with Bichromatic Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Guohai(董国海); YE Wenya(叶文亚); Nicholas Dodd


    A numerical model of low frequency waves is presented. The model is based on that of Roelvink (1993), but the numerical techniques used in the solution are based on the so-called Weighted-Average Flux (WAF) method withTime-Operator-Splitting (TOS) used for the treatment of the source terms. This method allows a small number ofcomputational points to be used, and is particularly efficient in modeling wave setup. The short wave (or primary wave)energy equation is solved with a traditional Lax-Wendroff technique. A nonlinear wave theory is introduced. The modeldescribed in this paper is found to be satisfactory in modeling low frequency waves associated with incident bichromaticwaves.

  7. Inhibition of seagrass photosynthesis by ultraviolet-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocine, R.P.; Rice, J.D.; Wells, G.N.


    Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the photosynthesis of seagrasses (Halophila engelmanni Aschers, Halodule wrightii Aschers, and Syringodium filiforme (Kuetz) were examined. The intrinsic tolerance of each seagrass to ultraviolet-B, the presence and effectiveness of photorepair mechanisms to ultraviolet-B-induced photosynthetic inhibition, and the role of epiphytic growth as a shield from ultraviolet-B were investigated. Halodule was found to possess the greatest photosynthetic tolerance for ultraviolet-B. Photosynthesis in Syringodium was slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet-B while Halophila showed relatively little photosynthetic tolerance. Evidence for a photorepair mechanism was found only in Halodule. Syringodium appeared to rely primarily on a thick epidermal cell layer to reduce photosynthetic damage. Halophila seemed to have no morphological or photorepair capabilities to deal with ultraviolet-B. This species appeared to rely on epiphytic and detrital shielding and the shade provided by other seagrasses to reduce ultraviolet-B irradiation to tolerable levels. The presence of epiphytes on leaf surfaces was found to reduce the extent of photosynthetic inhibition from ultraviolet-B exposure in all species. Halophila appears to obtain an increased photosynthetic tolerance to ultraviolet-B as an indirect benefit of chloroplast clumping to avoid photo-oxidation by intense levels of photosynthetically active radiation.

  8. The Influence of the Environment and Clothing on Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Light


    Jin Liu; Wei Zhang


    Objection The aim of this study is to determine the effect of clothing and the environment on human exposure to ultraviolet light. Methods The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensity was measured, and air quality parameters were recorded in 2014 in Beijing, China. Three types of clothing (white polyester cloth, pure cotton white T-shirt, and pure cotton black T-shirt) were individually placed on a mannequin. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensi...

  9. [Decoloring and spectral properties analysis of innoxious ultraviolet absorbents]. (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Wen; Ni, Wen-Xiu; Huang, Chong; Xue, Liang; Yu, Lin


    The ultraviolet absorbent extracted from mango leaves, was discolored by some decoloring agent. Then the spectral properties of the discolored ultraviolet absorbents were analyzed. The discolored method of ultraviolet absorbent was studied by comparing one with the others. The results showed that the discoloring effect was satisfactory by using active carbon, H2O2, citric acid, and oxalic acid as decoloring agent. Specially, when oxalic acid was used as decoloring agent, the color of the production was slight, the rate of production was high, and the absorption effect of ultraviolet ray was well. When the concentration of the ultraviolet absorbent solution is 0.5% (w/w), the ultraviolet ray transmission was smaller than 0.3% in 200-370 nm, and it increased slightly from 370 nm. There was a maximum value at 400 nm, approaching 12%.

  10. Disinfection Effect of Film Cassettes by Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    A bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department. Studies have demonstrated a bactericidal effect of ultraviolet irradiation, and to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic and pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection practices suitable for bacteria. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In conclusion, ultraviolet irradiate on film cassette over the surface more than 2 minutes. Ultraviolet dose of 1565 {mu}W {center_dot} s/cm{sup 2}Win in 30 second relative to ultraviolet dose in time.

  11. The long-wave radiation datum reorganization and earthquake example summary analysis for Inner Mongolia area%长波辐射资料整理与内蒙古地区震例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁风和; 哈媛媛


    Using OLR primary data downloaded from NASA website, throng the processing for two-dimensional space datum and simple point time-sequence datum, and consulting the earthquake catalog, the OLR temporal-spacial characteristics before 337 earthqaukes (Ms≥5) located in Inner Mongolia and its neighbor (N35°-55°, E95°-130°) region scince 1974 have been analyzed with OLR monthly mean field method and OLR monthly mean field anomaly method. It is discoved that, before 3-5 months of earthquakes, long-wave radiation (OLR) all appeared the obvious exceptionally change before many earthquakes; earthquake. In many positions the anomalies are also obvious before earthquake.%将NASA官方网站下载的OLR原始数据资料,处理为二维空间数据和单点时序数据,通过地震目录核实对比,利用OLR月平均场演变法和月平均场距平法分析1974年以来内蒙古及周边地区发生的337次地震事件(Ms≥5)前,长波辐射的时空变化特征.结果发现:在震前约3-5个月,在许多地震前长波辐射(0LR)出现明显的异常反映,许多点位在震前异常比较明显.

  12. Pollen and spores as biological recorders of past ultraviolet irradiance


    Jardine, Phillip E.; Fraser, Wesley T.; Barry H. Lomax; Sephton, Mark A.; Timothy M Shanahan; Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.


    Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance is a key driver of climatic and biotic change. Ultraviolet irradiance modulates stratospheric warming and ozone production, and influences the biosphere from ecosystem-level processes through to the largest scale patterns of diversification and extinction. Yet our understanding of ultraviolet irradiance is limited because no method has been validated to reconstruct its flux over timescales relevant to climatic or biotic processes. Here, we show that a recentl...

  13. Inhibition of Seagrass Photosynthesis by Ultraviolet-B Radiation 1 (United States)

    Trocine, Robert P.; Rice, John D.; Wells, Gary N.


    Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the photosynthesis of seagrasses (Halophila engelmanni Aschers, Halodule wrightii Aschers, and Syringodium filiforme Kütz) were examined. The intrinsic tolerance of each seagrass to ultraviolet-B, the presence and effectiveness of photorepair mechanisms to ultraviolet-B-induced photosynthetic inhibition, and the role of epiphytic growth as a shield from ultraviolet-B were investigated. Halodule was found to possess the greatest photosynthetic tolerance for ultraviolet-B. Photosynthesis in Syringodium was slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet-B while Halophila showed relatively little photosynthetic tolerance. Evidence for a photorepair mechanism was found only in Halodule. This mechanism effectively attenuated photosynthetic inhibition induced by ultraviolet-B dose rates and dosages in excess of natural conditions. Syringodium appeared to rely primarily on a thick epidermal cell layer to reduce photosynthetic damage. Halophila seemed to have no morphological or photorepair capabilities to deal with ultraviolet-B. This species appeared to rely on epiphytic and detrital shielding and the shade provided by other seagrasses to reduce ultraviolet-B irradiation to tolerable levels. The presence of epiphytes on leaf surfaces was found to reduce the extent of photosynthetic inhibition from ultraviolet-B exposure in all species. Observations obtained in this study seem to suggest the possibility of anthocyanin and/or other flavonoid synthesis as an adaptation to long term ultraviolet-B irradiation by these species. In addition, Halophila appears to obtain an increased photosynthetic tolerance to ultraviolet-B as an indirect benefit of chloroplast clumping to avoid photo-oxidation by intense levels of photosynthetically active radiation. Images PMID:16661893

  14. Inhibition of seagrass photosynthesis by ultraviolet-B radiation. (United States)

    Trocine, R P; Rice, J D; Wells, G N


    Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the photosynthesis of seagrasses (Halophila engelmanni Aschers, Halodule wrightii Aschers, and Syringodium filiforme Kütz) were examined. The intrinsic tolerance of each seagrass to ultraviolet-B, the presence and effectiveness of photorepair mechanisms to ultraviolet-B-induced photosynthetic inhibition, and the role of epiphytic growth as a shield from ultraviolet-B were investigated.Halodule was found to possess the greatest photosynthetic tolerance for ultraviolet-B. Photosynthesis in Syringodium was slightly more sensitive to ultraviolet-B while Halophila showed relatively little photosynthetic tolerance. Evidence for a photorepair mechanism was found only in Halodule. This mechanism effectively attenuated photosynthetic inhibition induced by ultraviolet-B dose rates and dosages in excess of natural conditions. Syringodium appeared to rely primarily on a thick epidermal cell layer to reduce photosynthetic damage. Halophila seemed to have no morphological or photorepair capabilities to deal with ultraviolet-B. This species appeared to rely on epiphytic and detrital shielding and the shade provided by other seagrasses to reduce ultraviolet-B irradiation to tolerable levels. The presence of epiphytes on leaf surfaces was found to reduce the extent of photosynthetic inhibition from ultraviolet-B exposure in all species.Observations obtained in this study seem to suggest the possibility of anthocyanin and/or other flavonoid synthesis as an adaptation to long term ultraviolet-B irradiation by these species. In addition, Halophila appears to obtain an increased photosynthetic tolerance to ultraviolet-B as an indirect benefit of chloroplast clumping to avoid photo-oxidation by intense levels of photosynthetically active radiation.

  15. Mexoryl: a review of an ultraviolet a filter. (United States)

    D'Souza, Gehaan; Evans, Gregory R D


    It is widely known that ultraviolet light causes skin damage and melanoma. Different wavelengths of ultraviolet light penetrate the skin at different depths, causing varying levels of damage. Higher wavelengths tend to penetrate deeper and, consequently, are thought to induce a myriad of skin conditions, thereby playing a significant role in the photoaging process. Sunscreens containing the ultraviolet A blocker Mexoryl are important in impeding ultraviolet A light, potentially reducing many of the characteristics of skin aging and preventing biochemical changes that can lead to nonmelanoma carcinoma. Until now, sunscreen products sold in the United States focused on blocking ultraviolet B light. Those that did provide ultraviolet A filtering contained physical blocks (zinc oxide or titanium dioxide) or the chemical block Parsol 1789 (avobenzone). These broad-spectrum sunscreens have limitations, such as degradation under ultraviolet exposure, that resulted in decreased effectiveness. Mexoryl, a novel ultraviolet A filter, provides efficient ultraviolet A coverage, better photostability, and enhanced water resistance. Sunscreens containing Mexoryl are widely used in Europe and Canada. It was not until July 24, 2006, that the U.S. Food and Drug Association approved the compound.

  16. Diagnosis of TIG welding based on ultraviolet radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhiyong; Gu Xiaoyan; Wang Bao


    Through collecting the radiation of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding arc, the radiation distribution in ultraviolet zone is analyzed in order to study the variation rule of ultraviolet radiation versus welding condition. The explanation for the variation is also provided bused on spectral radiation theory of arc light. Furthermore, through analysis of disturbanee factors, the integral intensity signal of radiation in ultraviolet zone is applied for diagnosis of welding process. The spectral signal of ultraviolet radiation can reflect the disturbance factors and welding conditions, which can be used for online diagnosis of welding process.

  17. In-orbit Calibrations of the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (United States)

    Tandon, S. N.; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Girish, V.; Postma, J.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Sriram, S.; Stalin, C. S.; Mondal, C.; Sahu, S.; Joseph, P.; Hutchings, J.; Ghosh, S. K.; Barve, I. V.; George, K.; Kamath, P. U.; Kathiravan, S.; Kumar, A.; Lancelot, J. P.; Leahy, D.; Mahesh, P. K.; Mohan, R.; Nagabhushana, S.; Pati, A. K.; Kameswara Rao, N.; Sreedhar, Y. H.; Sreekumar, P.


    The Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) is one of the payloads in ASTROSAT, the first Indian Space Observatory. The UVIT instrument has two 375 mm telescopes: one for the far-ultraviolet (FUV) channel (1300–1800 Å), and the other for the near-ultraviolet (NUV) channel (2000–3000 Å) and the visible (VIS) channel (3200–5500 Å). UVIT is primarily designed for simultaneous imaging in the two ultraviolet channels with spatial resolution better than 1.″8, along with provisions for slit-less spectroscopy in the NUV and FUV channels. The results of in-orbit calibrations of UVIT are presented in this paper.

  18. Femtosecond transparency in the extreme ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Tarana, Michal


    Electromagnetically induced transparency-like behavior in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) is studied theoretically, including the effect of intense 800 nm laser dressing of He 2s2p (1Po) and 2p^2 (1Se) autoionizing states. We present an ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) in an LS-coupling configuration interaction basis set. The method enables a rigorous treatment of optical field ionization of these coupled autoionizing states into the N = 2 continuum in addition to N = 1. Our calculated transient absorption spectra show encouraging agreement with experiment.

  19. Ultraviolet radiation levels during the Antarctic spring (United States)

    Frederick, John E.; Snell, Hilary E.


    The decrease in atmospheric ozone over Antarctica during spring implies enhanced levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth's surface. Model calculations show that UV irradiances encountered during the occurrence of an Antarctic 'ozone hole' remain less than those typical of a summer solstice at low to middle latitudes. However, the low ozone amounts observed in October 1987 imply biologically effective irradiances for McMurdo Station, Antarctica, that are comparable to or greater than those for the same location at December solstice. Life indigenous to Antarctica thereby experiences a greatly extended period of summerlike UV radiation levels.

  20. Attenuated total reflection far-ultraviolet spectroscopy (United States)

    Ozaki, Yukihiro; Morisawa, Yusuke; Goto, Takeyoshi; Tanabe, Ichiro


    Recently, far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy of solid and liquid states has been a matter of keen interest because it provides new possibilities for studying electronic structures and transitions of almost all kinds of molecules. It has also great potential for a variety of applications from quantitative and qualitative analysis of aqueous solutions to environmental and geographical analyses. This review describes the state-of- the-art of FUV spectroscopy; an introduction to FUV spectroscopy, the development of FUV spectrometers, investigations on electronic transitions and structure, its various applications, and future prospects.

  1. Ultraviolet Regularisation in de Sitter Space

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, B


    The ultraviolet regularisation of Yukawa theory in de Sitter space is considered. We rederive the one-loop effective Candelas-Raine potentials, such that they agree with the corresponding Coleman-Weinberg potentials in flat space. Within supersymmetry, this provides a mechanism for the lifting of flat directions during inflation. For the purpose of calculating loop integrals, we propose a de Sitter-invariant modification of the regularisation procedure by Onemli and Woodard and show explicitly that the resulting self-energies are also invariant. Therefore, transplanckian effects do not necessarily leave an imprint on the spectrum of cosmic perturbations generated during inflation.

  2. Far ultraviolet spectrophotometry of BD +28 4211 (United States)

    Cook, Timothy A.; Cash, Webster; Green, James C.


    The results are reported of a November 1989 rocket flight which recorded a flux-calibrated spectrum of BD +28 4211 from 912 to 1150 A with 1A resolution. BD +28 4211, an SdO-type star, is commonly used as an ultraviolet calibration source in the IUE wavelength band. The present work extends the useful range of this standard shortward of Lyman-alpha. Since previous experiments show marked disparity, this study can be useful in determining a standard in the 912 to 1216 A band.

  3. Science with the World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Ana I Gomez; Sachkov, Mikhail; Lecavelier, Alain; Piotto, Giampaolo; Gonzalez, Rosa; Shustov, Boris


    The World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) will provide access to the UV range during the next decade. The instrumentation on board will allow to carry out high resolution imaging, high sensitivity imaging, high resolution (R~55000) spectroscopy and low resolution (R~2500) long slit spectroscopy. In this contribution, we briefly outline some of the key science issues that WSO-UV will address during its lifetime. Among them, of special interest are: the study of galaxy formation and the intergalactic medium; the astronomical engines; the Milky Way formation and evol ution, and the formation of the Solar System and the atmospheres of extrasolar p lanets.


    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The most basic effect of UV radiation on biological systems is damage to DNA. In response to UV radiation organisms have ad...

  5. Two ultraviolet radiation datasets that cover China (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Guangren; Tang, Liqin; Ji, Dongsheng; Bai, Yongfei; Bao, Weikai; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yunming; Ding, Weixin; Han, Xiaozeng; He, Fei; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhenying; Li, Xinrong; Li, Yan; Liu, Wenzhao; Lin, Luxiang; Ouyang, Zhu; Qin, Boqiang; Shen, Weijun; Shen, Yanjun; Su, Hongxin; Song, Changchun; Sun, Bo; Sun, Song; Wang, Anzhi; Wang, Genxu; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Silong; Wang, Youshao; Wei, Wenxue; Xie, Ping; Xie, Zongqiang; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Zeng, Fanjiang; Zhang, Fawei; Zhang, Yangjian; Zhang, Yiping; Zhao, Chengyi; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhu, Bo


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has significant effects on ecosystems, environments, and human health, as well as atmospheric processes and climate change. Two ultraviolet radiation datasets are described in this paper. One contains hourly observations of UV radiation measured at 40 Chinese Ecosystem Research Network stations from 2005 to 2015. CUV3 broadband radiometers were used to observe the UV radiation, with an accuracy of 5%, which meets the World Meteorology Organization's measurement standards. The extremum method was used to control the quality of the measured datasets. The other dataset contains daily cumulative UV radiation estimates that were calculated using an all-sky estimation model combined with a hybrid model. The reconstructed daily UV radiation data span from 1961 to 2014. The mean absolute bias error and root-mean-square error are smaller than 30% at most stations, and most of the mean bias error values are negative, which indicates underestimation of the UV radiation intensity. These datasets can improve our basic knowledge of the spatial and temporal variations in UV radiation. Additionally, these datasets can be used in studies of potential ozone formation and atmospheric oxidation, as well as simulations of ecological processes.

  6. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light. (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang


    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other.

  7. The role of cytokines in ultraviolet-B induced immunosuppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.


    Summary : Cytokines play an important role in the mechanisms resulting in ultraviolet B-induced immunosuppression. They play a crucial role in the induction of local as well as systemic immunomodulatory events. Ultraviolet B irradiation directly induces the release of cytokines in the epidermis, res

  8. Does ultraviolet radiation affect the xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Buma, A.G.J.


    This Perspective summarizes the state of knowledge of the impact of ultraviolet radiation on the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton. Excess photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) affect various cellular processes and c

  9. Does ultraviolet radiation affect the xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Buma, A.G.J.


    This Perspective summarizes the state of knowledge of the impact of ultraviolet radiation on the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton. Excess photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) affect various cellular processes and

  10. Ultraviolet radiation, human health, and the urban forest (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler; Richard H. Grant


    Excess exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly the ultraviolet B (UVB) portion, has been linked with adverse effects on human health ranging from skin cancers to eye diseases such as cataracts. Trees may prevent even greater disease rates in humans by reducing UV exposure. Tree shade greatly reduces UV irradiance when both the sun and sky are...

  11. Ultraviolet Spectrum And Chemical Reactivity Of CIO Dimer (United States)

    Demore, William B.; Tschuikow-Roux, E.


    Report describes experimental study of ultraviolet spectrum and chemical reactivity of dimer of chlorine monoxide (CIO). Objectives are to measure absorption cross sections of dimer at near-ultraviolet wavelengths; determine whether asymmetrical isomer (CIOCIO) exists at temperatures relevant to Antarctic stratosphere; and test for certain chemical reactions of dimer. Important in photochemistry of Antarctic stratosphere.

  12. 长波红外景象模拟器投影光学系统无热化设计%Athermalization for Projection Optical System of Long-Wave Infrared Scene Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全勇; 李向天; 康玉思; 牟达


    The infrared scene simulator based on DMD provides the advanced means for the performance testing and evaluation of the infrared system. According to the working principle of DMD, the general scheme of infrared scene simulator is determined, that the illumination system is connected to projection system with the dichroic prism. The aberration properties and optical design and athermal design method of the projection optical system are discussed. A projection optical system is designed, which working waveband is 8~12μm long wave infrared band, F # is 2.8, the field of view is 3°. The projection system was athermalized by optical passive athermal design method at -40-60 ℃. The design result indicates that the optical transfer functions are close to the diffraction limit in the required temperature range, the image quality meet the design requirements, and the system has the characteristics with small loss radiation energy, high resolution and compact structure.%基于数字微镜器件(digital micromirror device,DMD)的红外景象模拟器能够为红外系统性能测试与评估提供先进的手段。根据 DMD 的工作原理,确定了以分光棱镜来连接照明系统和投影系统的红外景象模拟器总体方案。探讨了红外景象模拟器投影光学系统的像差特性、光学设计和无热化的设计方法,设计了一套工作在长波红外8~12μm,F#为2.8,视场角为3°的投影光学系统,并对该系统在−40~60℃之间进行光学被动式无热化设计。结果表明:该系统在所要求的温度范围内,光学传递函数均接近衍射极限,成像质量满足系统的设计要求,并具有辐射能量损失小、分辨率高、结构紧凑等特点。

  13. In vitro assessment of the broad-spectrum ultraviolet protection of sunscreen products. (United States)

    Diffey, B L; Tanner, P R; Matts, P J; Nash, J F


    There are considerable data to suggest that protection from solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation will reduce the risk of acute and chronic skin damage in humans. Whereas the sun protection factor (SPF) provides an index of protection against erythemally effective solar UV, largely confined to the UVB (290-320 nm) and short-wavelength UVA (320-340 nm) region, there is currently no agreed-upon method to measure broad-spectrum protection against long-wavelength UVA (340-400 nm). The objective of these studies was to assess the potential of in vitro UV substrate spectrophotometry and subsequent calculation of the "critical wavelength" value as a measure of broad-spectrum UV protection and as a routine, practical procedure for classification of sunscreen products. The spectral absorption of 59 commercially available sunscreen products and multiple experimental formulas with one or more UV filters was measured. Sunscreen product, 1 mg/cm(2), was applied to a hydrated synthetic collagen substrate, preirradiated with a solar simulator, and then subjected to UV substrate spectrophotometry. Multiple determinations from 5 independent samples per product were used to calculate the critical wavelength value, defined as the wavelength at which the integral of the spectral absorbance curve reached 90% of the integral from 290 to 400 nm. We found that a recognized long-wave UVA active ingredient such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone is a necessary but insufficient product requirement for achieving the highest proposed broad-spectrum classification, that is, critical wavelength of 370 nm or more. Although SPF and critical wavelength are largely independent of each other, UVA absorbance must increase commensurate with SPF to maintain the same critical wavelength value. Substrate spectrophotometry and the calculation of critical wavelength can readily account for sunscreen photostability by UV preirradiation. Finally, there is also a strong positive relationship between

  14. Color signaling in conspicuous red sticklebacks: do ultraviolet signals surpass others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Theo CM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of ultraviolet (UV signals for communication tasks is widespread in vertebrates. For instance, there is a UV component to mate choice in several species. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how the signal value of the UV wave band compares to that of other regions of the animal's visible spectrum. We investigated the relative importance of UV signals compared with signals of longer wavelengths in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, a species using UV wavelengths in female and male mate choice as well as in shoaling behavior. In a choice experiment, female sticklebacks were simultaneously presented with four male visual appearances manipulated by optical filters. Each male lacked one wavelength range of the stickleback's visible spectrum corresponding to the spectral sensitivities of the four cone types. The resulting male appearances thus had no UV (UV-, no short-wave (SW-, no medium-wave (MW- or no long-wave (LW- body reflectance. Results Males without UV wavelengths and long wavelengths ("red" were least preferred. In contrast, the removal of medium and most notably short wavelengths left male attractiveness to females rather unaffected. Using color metrics, the effects of the four optical filters on stickleback perception of three male body regions were illustrated as quantal catches calculated for the four single cones. Conclusion The removal of UV light (UV- considerably reduced visual attractiveness of courting males to female three-spined sticklebacks particularly in comparison to the removal of short-wave light (SW-. We thus report first experimental evidence that the UV wave band clearly outranks at least one other part of an animal's visible spectrum (SW- in the context of communication. In addition, females were also less attracted to males presented without long wavelengths (LW- which supports the traditionally considered strong influence of the red color component on stickleback mate choice

  15. Initial Results of Ultraviolet Imager on AKATSUKI (United States)

    Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Shigeto; Imamura, Takeshi


    The UV images of the Venusian cloud top were obtained by several Venus spacecrafts such as Mariner 10 [Bruce et al., 1974], Pioneer Venus [Travis et al., 1979; Rossow et al., 1980], Galileo [Belton et al., 1991], Venus Express [Markiewicz et al., 2007; Titov et al., 2008]. Those previous instruments have taken images at the wavelength around 365-nm, but what material distribution reflects the contrasting density has been unknown yet. There is the SO2 absorption band around the 283-nm wavelength, and the 283-nm images clarify the distribution of SO2. The ultraviolet imager (UVI) on the AKATUSKI satellite takes ultraviolet images of the solar radiation scattered at the Venusian cloud top level at the both 283- and 365-nm wavelengths. There are absorption bands of SO2 and unknown absorber in these wavelength regions. The UVI carries out the measurements of the SO2 and the unknown absorber distributions, and the sequential images lead to understand the velocity vector of the wind at the cloud top altitude. The UVI is equipped with fast off-axial catadioptric optics, two bandpass filters and a diffuser installed in a filter wheel moving with a stepping motor, and a high-sensitive CCD devise with a UV coating. The UVI takes images of the ultraviolet solar radiation scattered from the Venusian cloud top in two wavelength ranges at the center of 283nm and 365nm with bandpass of 15 nm. A back illuminated type of a frame-transfer CCD with a UV sensitive coating is adopted. Its effective area is 1024 x 1024 pixels. UVI has 12-deg field-of-view, so the angular resolution is 0.012 deg/pix. The nominal exposure time is 125 msec and 46 msec at the observations of the 283- and 365-nm wavelengths, respectively. CCD has no mechanical shutter, so a smear noise in transferring from the image area to the storage area degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal image especially in the short exposure operation. The images have a signal-to-noise ratio of over 100 after desmearing of

  16. The Effect of Ultraviolet-A Radiation Exposure on the Reproductive Ability, Longevity, and Development of the Dialeurodes citri (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) F1 Generation. (United States)

    Tariq, Kaleem; Noor, Mah; Saeed, Shafqat; Zhang, Hongyu


    Ultraviolet (UV) light has been used worldwide to monitor and trap insect pests. Whitefly adults show conspicuous positive phototactic behavior toward UV light stimuli; however, knowledge of the effect of UV light exposure on various life-history parameters of Dialeurodes citri remains limited. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-A; long-wave) exposure on the reproduction and longevity of D. citri adults as well as the development of immature (eggs, larvae, and pupae) flies in the F1 generation. Paired D. citri adults were exposed to UV-A radiation for different periods (0, 1, 4, and 7 h/d) until the end of their life. The results of the experiment revealed that fecundity and oviposition rates increased when adults were irradiated for 1 and 4 h/d, but interestingly, both were significantly decreased compared with those of the controls after the longest exposure time (7 h/d). The longevity of adults of both sexes and the cumulative survival of F1 immatures were decreased with increased exposure time. Exposure to UV-A radiation prolonged the developmental time of immature stages, and a positive correlation was observed with exposure time. Exposure to UV light significantly inhibited egg hatching, larval development, pupation, and adult emergence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the effect of UV radiation on a homopteran insect pest. This research may provide a foundation for the scientific community to use UV light in the field as an integrated pest management strategy to control this devastating agricultural pest.

  17. Contrasting effects of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet B exposure on induction of contact sensitivity in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Hansen, Henrik; Barker, J. N.


    Ultraviolet-B (UVB), in addition to direct effects on DNA, induces immunological changes in the skin that predispose to the development of skin cancer. Whether ultraviolet-A (UVA) induces similar changes is unknown. This effect can be investigated in humans in vivo using epicutaneous antigens...

  18. Ultraviolet imaging detectors for the GOLD mission (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J.; Curtis, T.; Jelinsky, S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Hull, J.; Tedesco, J.


    The GOLD mission is a NASA Explorer class ultraviolet Earth observing spectroscopy instrument that will be flown on a telecommunications satellite in geostationary orbit in 2018. Microchannel plate detectors operating in the 132 nm to 162 nm FUV bandpass with 2D imaging cross delay line readouts and electronics have been built for each of the two spectrometer channels for GOLD. The detectors are "open face" with CsI photocathodes, providing 30% efficiency at 130.4 nm and 15% efficiency at 160.8 nm. These detectors with their position encoding electronics provide 600 x 500 FWHM resolution elements and are photon counting, with event handling rates of > 200 KHz. The operational details of the detectors and their performance are discussed.

  19. Unique Astrophysics in the Lyman Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, Jason; Kriss, Gerard; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Sembach, Ken; Fox, Andrew; Tripp, Todd; Jenkins, Edward; Beasley, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Shull, Michael; Stocke, John; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, Christopher; Froning, Cynthia; Green, James; Oliveira, Cristina; Fullerton, Alex; Blair, Bill; Kruk, Jeff; Sonneborn, George; Penton, Steven; Wakker, Bart; Prochaska, Xavier; Vallerga, John; Scowen, Paul


    There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.

  20. Near ultraviolet spectrograph for balloon platform (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant


    Small and compact scientific payloads may be easily designed constructed and own on high altitude balloons. Despite the fact that large orbital observatories provide accurate observations and statistical studies of remote and/or faint space sources, small telescopes on board balloons or rockets are still attractive because of their low cost and rapid response time. We describe here a near ultraviolet (NUV) spectrograph designed to be own on a high{altitude balloon platform. Our basic optical design is a modified Czerny-Turner system using off the shelf optics. We compare different methods of aberration corrections in such a system. We intend the system to be portable and scalable to different telescopes. The use of reflecting optics reduces the transmission loss in UV. We plan on using an image intensified CMOS sensor operating in photon counting mode as the detector of choice.

  1. New galaxies with ultraviolet excess. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, M.A.


    A list is given of 136 galaxies with ultraviolet excess found with the 40-in. Schmidt telescope of the Byurakan Observatory with a 1.5-deg objective prism. Of these, 58 were observed at the primary focus of the 2.6-m telescope of the Byurakan Observatory, and 12 at the primary focus of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astronomical Observatory of the USSR Academy of Sciences. These observations and Palomar Sky Survey prints were used for a morphological description of the galaxies. Descriptions are given of the spectra of 17 galaxies obtained with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astronomical Observatory, the 2.6-m telescope of the Byurakan Observatory, and 90-, 107-, and 200-in. telescopes in the United States.

  2. Ultraviolet background fluctuations with clustered sources

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, Vincent; Biagetti, Matteo


    We develop a count-in-cells approach to the distribution of ultraviolet background fluctuations that includes source clustering. We demonstrate that an exact expression can be obtained if the clustering of ionizing sources follows the hierarchical ansatz. In this case, the intensity distribution depends solely on their 2-point correlation function. We show that the void scaling function of high redshift mock quasars is consistent with the Negative Binomial form, before applying our formalism to the description of HeII-ionizing fluctuations at the end of helium reionization. The model inputs are the observed quasar luminosity function and 2-point correlation at redshift $z\\sim 3$. We find that, for an (comoving) attenuation length $\\lesssim $ 55 Mpc, quasar clustering contributes less than 30% of the variance of intensity fluctuations so long as the quasar correlation length does not exceed 15 Mpc. We investigate also the dependence of the intensity distribution on the large-scale environment. Differences in t...

  3. Ultraviolet Halos Around Spiral Galaxies. I. Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Bregman, Joel


    We examine ultraviolet halos around a sample of highly inclined galaxies within 25 Mpc to measure their morphology and luminosity. Despite contamination from galactic light scattered into the wings of the point-spread function, we find that UV halos occur around each galaxy in our sample. Around most galaxies the halos form a thick, diffuse disk-like structure, but starburst galaxies with galactic superwinds have qualitatively different halos that are more extensive and have filamentary structure. The spatial coincidence of the UV halos above star-forming regions, the lack of consistent association with outflows or extraplanar ionized gas, and the strong correlation between the halo and galaxy UV luminosity suggest that the UV light is an extragalactic reflection nebula. UV halos may thus represent 1-10 million solar masses of dust within 2-10 kpc of the disk, whose properties may change with height in starburst galaxies.

  4. Preoperative ultraviolet B inflammation in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Dawes, J M; Denk, F


    BACKGROUND: Neuroimmune interactions play a vital role in many of the most common pain conditions, such as arthritis. There have been many attempts to derive clinically predictive information from an individual's inflammatory response in order to gauge subsequent pain perception. OBJECTIVES: Here......, we wanted to test whether this effort could be enhanced and complemented by the use of a model system which takes into account the function of not just circulating, but also tissue-resident immune cells: ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of the skin. METHODS: We conducted psychophysical...... in the skin might predict the degree of a patient's neuro-immune response and the extent of their postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty....

  5. Quantum Frequency Conversion between Infrared and Ultraviolet (United States)

    Rütz, Helge; Luo, Kai-Hong; Suche, Hubertus; Silberhorn, Christine


    We report on the implementation of quantum frequency conversion between infrared and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths by using single-stage up-conversion in a periodically poled potassium-titanyl-phosphate waveguide. Because of the monolithic waveguide design, we manage to transfer a telecommunication-band input photon to the wavelength of the ionic dipole transition of Yb+ at 369.5 nm. The external (internal) conversion efficiency is around 5% (10%). The high-energy pump used in this converter introduces a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, which is a cause for noise in the UV mode. Using this process, we show that the converter preserves nonclassical correlations in the up-conversion process, rendering this miniaturized interface a source for quantum states of light in the UV.

  6. Absolute sensitivity calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Juanita; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Aquila, Andrew; George, Simi; Niakoula, Dimitra


    One of the major challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography remains simultaneously achieving resist sensitivity, line-edge roughness, and resolution requirement. Sensitivity is of particular concern owing to its direct impact on source power requirements. Most current EUV exposure tools have been calibrated against a resist standard with the actual calibration of the standard resist dating back to EUV exposures at Sandia National Laboratories in the mid 1990s. Here they report on an independent sensitivity calibration of two baseline resists from the SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool performed at the Advanced Light Source Calibrations and Standards beamline. The results show the baseline resists to be approximately 1.9 times faster than previously thought based on calibration against the long standing resist standard.

  7. Photoresists in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) (United States)

    De Simone, Danilo; Vesters, Yannick; Vandenberghe, Geert


    The evolutionary advances in photosensitive material technology, together with the shortening of the exposure wavelength in the photolithography process, have enabled and driven the transistor scaling dictated by Moore's law for the last 50 years. Today, the shortening wavelength trend continues to improve the chips' performance over time by feature size miniaturization. The next-generation lithography technology for high-volume manufacturing (HVM) is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), using a light source with a wavelength of 13.5 nm. Here, we provide a brief introduction to EUVL and patterning requirements for sub-0-nm feature sizes from a photomaterial standpoint, discussing traditional and novel photoresists. Emphasis will be put on the novel class of metal-containing resists (MCRs) as well as their challenges from a manufacturing prospective.

  8. Phototherapy cabinet for ultraviolet radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, S.N.; Frost, P.


    A newly designed cabinet can be used for the treatment of psoriasis with fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) lamps. the new design provides more uniform distribution of UV radiation in both the horizontal and vertical axes, and several safety features have been added. The distribution and uniformity of UV output in this and in a previously described cabinet are compared. The UV output at the vertical center of the older UV light cabinet was six times greater than that at either the top or bottom, while the design of the present cabinet provides uniform UV radiation except for a slight increase at head height and at the level of the lower legs compared with the middle third of the cabinet. The variation in output of the older cabinet may, in part, explain the commonly encountered difficulty in the phototherapy of psoriasis of the scalp and lower extremities.

  9. SUMER: Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (United States)

    Wilhelm, K.; Axford, W. I.; Curdt, W.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grewing, M.; Huber, M. C. E.; Jordan, M. C. E.; Lemaire, P.; Marsch, E.; Poland, A. I.


    The SUMER (solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation) experiment is described. It will study flows, turbulent motions, waves, temperatures and densities of the plasma in the upper atmosphere of the Sun. Structures and events associated with solar magnetic activity will be observed on various spatial and temporal scales. This will contribute to the understanding of coronal heating processes and the solar wind expansion. The instrument will take images of the Sun in EUV (extreme ultra violet) light with high resolution in space, wavelength and time. The spatial resolution and spectral resolving power of the instrument are described. Spectral shifts can be determined with subpixel accuracy. The wavelength range extends from 500 to 1600 angstroms. The integration time can be as short as one second. Line profiles, shifts and broadenings are studied. Ratios of temperature and density sensitive EUV emission lines are established.

  10. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems (United States)

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid


    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed.

  11. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation (United States)

    Day, J. H., Jr.


    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  12. Ultraviolet A1 phototherapy: One center's experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Kiran Attili


    Full Text Available Background: Ultraviolet A1(UVA1 phototherapy is increasingly being used in the treatment of morphea, atopic dermatitis, lupus and some other recalcitrant dermatoses. We present a retrospective review of our experience with this modality. Aim: To evaluate the treatment response rates for various dermatoses and adverse effects of UVA1 phototherapy. Methods: We reviewed phototherapy notes along with electronic and/or paper case records for all patients treated with UVA1 phototherapy from October 1996 to December 2008. Results: A total of 269 patients (outcomes available for 247 had 361 treatment courses (treatment data available for 317 courses over this period. We found phototherapy to be beneficial in 28 (53% of 53 patients with atopic dermatitis and 19 (51% of 37 patients with morphea. A beneficial outcome was recorded in all six (100% cases of urticaria and six (85.7% of seven patients treated for a polymorphic light eruption. Benefit was also recorded in systemic lupus erythematosus (8 (44.4% of 18, lichen sclerosus (6 (42.9% of 14, mastocytosis (2 (33.3% of 6, necrobiosis lipoidica (4 (30.8% of 13, granuloma annulare (2 (25% of 8, scleroderma (2 (22.2% of 9 and keloids (1 (7.7% of 13. Overall, treatment was well tolerated with no patients having to stop treatment due to adverse effects. Limitations: This is a retrospective study with no control group. Subjective/recall bias is quite possible as a number of patients were followed up over the phone. Conclusions: Our data suggest that ultraviolet A1 can be considered for the treatment of selected dermatoses. However, long-term malignancy risk is as yet unknown.

  13. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.


    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  14. Erythemal ultraviolet irradiance in Cordoba, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palancar, G.G.; Toselli, B.M. [INFIQC-CONICET, Cordoba (Argentina). Dpto. de Fisico Quimica


    Biologically active solar Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV{sub ery}, 280-315nm) is monitored in Cordoba, Argentina (31{sup o}24'S, 64{sup o}11'W, 400m a.s.l) using the Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) pyranometer, model UVB-1. Measurements of the solar broadband UV-B irradiances are presented for the period of November 1998-December 1999. The site selected for the measurements represents semi-urban conditions and is along the most frequent wind direction (NE-SW) with reference to downtown, following the direction of prevailing winds. For clear sky days, the measurements are in good agreement with results of a radiative transfer model. However, examination of the record of solar ultraviolet measurements showed substantial reduction of the UV-B radiation on days with high levels of air pollution, which are associated with high concentration of particulate matter. Particulate matter is the only pollutant that surpasses the air quality standard several times during the year in Cordoba City. In this work, we investigate the daily variation of the UV-B radiation to assess its response to air pollution, physical variables, and meteorological factors. The main findings are that tropospheric aerosol is the most important UV-B attenuating factor (up to 40%), whereas tropospheric ozone and other UV absorber air pollutants like SO{sub 2} are not important. The results are consistent with the fact that pollution in Cordoba has mostly primary character with CO, NO{sub x}, and PM{sub 10} being the most important air pollutants. The UV-B radiation correlates well with simultaneous records of total radiation, but the reduction factors reflect stronger effects on the UV radiation than on total radiation. (Author)

  15. 8-Methoxypsoralen Plus Ultraviolet A Therapy Acts via Inhibition of the IL-23/Th17 Axis and Induction of Foxp3(+) Regulatory T Cells Involving CTLA4 Signaling in a Psoriasis-Like Skin Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Tej Pratap; Schoen, Michael P.; Wallbrecht, Katrin; Michaelis, Kai; Rinner, Beate; Mayer, Gerlinde; Schmidbauer, Ulrike; Strohmaier, Heimo; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wolf, Peter


    To elucidate the molecular action of 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA), a standard dermatological therapy, we used K5. hTGF-beta 1 transgenic mice exhibiting a skin phenotype and cytokine abnormalities with strong similarities to human psoriasis. We observed that impaired function of CD4(+)CD25(+) r

  16. Disinfection of dental impressions and occlusal records by ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E; Peutzfeldt, A; Owall, B


    As chemical disinfection of dental impressions may cause adverse effects on materials and the dental personnel this study examined disinfection by ultraviolet radiation. Alginate, addition silicone rubber and red wax contaminated by Streptococcus salivarius, Fusobacterium nucleatum and five other bacteria in different suspension media were radiated for up to 18 min, and the number of colony forming units was compared to non-radiated controls. The effect of ultraviolet radiation differed among bacterial species and depended on the organic content in the suspension. Generally, the bacterial reduction after ultraviolet radiation was below 4 log steps and thus insufficient for disinfection of dental impressions.

  17. Biological applications of ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J.C.


    This review examines the possibilities for biological research using the three ultraviolet free-electron lasers that are nearing operational status in the US. The projected operating characteristics of major interest in biological research of the free-electron lasers at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and Duke University are presented. Experimental applications in the areas of far- and vacuum ultraviolet photophysics and photochemistry, structural biology, environmental photobiology, and medical research are discussed and the prospects for advances in these areas, based upon the characteristics of the new ultraviolet free-electron lasers, are evaluated.

  18. Investigation of the diffuse ultraviolet background with DE data (United States)

    Fix, John D.


    The imaging instrumentation on the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite is used to measure the intensity of the diffused ultraviolet radiation on two great circles about the sky. It was found that the extragalactic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation has an intensity of 530 + or - 15 units (a unit is one photon/(sq cm s A sr) at a wavelength of 150 nm. The galactic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation has a dependence on galactic latitude which requires strongly forward scattering particles if it is produced by dust above the galactic plane.

  19. Extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance measurements since 1946 (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.


    In the physics of the upper atmosphere the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation plays a dominant role controlling most of the thermospheric/ionospheric (T/I) processes. Since this part of the solar spectrum is absorbed in the thermosphere, platforms to measure the EUV fluxes became only available with the development of rockets reaching altitude levels exceeding 80 km. With the availability of V2 rockets used in space research, recording of EUV spectra started in 1946 using photographic films. The development of pointing devices to accurately orient the spectrographs toward the sun initiated intense activities in solar-terrestrial research. The application of photoelectric recording technology enabled the scientists placing EUV spectrometers aboard satellites observing qualitatively strong variability of the solar EUV irradiance on short-, medium-, and long-term scales. However, as more measurements were performed more radiometric EUV data diverged due to the inherent degradation of the EUV instruments with time. Also, continuous recording of the EUV energy input to the T/I system was not achieved. It is only at the end of the last century that there was progress made in solving the serious problem of degradation enabling to monitore solar EUV fluxes with sufficient radiometric accuracy. The data sets available allow composing the data available to the first set of EUV data covering a period of 11 years for the first time. Based on the sophisticated instrumentation verified in space, future EUV measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) are promising accuracy levels of about 5% and less. With added low-cost equipment, real-time measurements will allow providing data needed in ionospheric modeling, e.g., for correcting propagation delays of navigation signals from space to earth. Adding EUV airglow and auroral emission monitoring by airglow cameras, the impact of space weather on the terrestrial T/I system can be studied with a spectral terrestrial

  20. Taurine prevents ultraviolet B induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells. (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang


    Compatible osmolytes accumulation is an active resistance response in retina under ultraviolet radiation and hypertonicity conditions. The purpose of this research is to investigate the protective role of taurine on retina under ultraviolet B radiation. Osmolytes transporters was measured by quantitative realtime PCR. Osmolytes uptake was estimated by radioimmunoassay. Cell viability was caculated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analysis. Hypertonicity accelerated osmolytes uptake into retinal ganglion cells including taurine, betaine and myoinositol. Ultraviolet B radiation increased osmolytes transporter expression and osmolytes uptake. In addition, osmolyte taurine remarkably prevented ultraviolet B radiation induced cell apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  1. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) on ultraviolet B ... protection, sun screen lotion may be inadequate for preventing all UV ..... p59Fyn is a crucial factor influencing dedifferentiation and.

  2. Compact and efficient ultraviolet laser for astrobiology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this program is to develop a compact and efficient ultraviolet laser for use in space-based uv-Raman instruments. The basis for this system will be a...

  3. Development of a Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here, we propose to develop a breadboard laser system that is capable of producing radiation in two UV wavelengths.  This Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser...

  4. Ultraviolet Radiation Induction of Mutation in Penicillium Claviforme. (United States)

    New, June; Jolley, Ray


    Cites reasons why Penicillium claviforme is an exceptionally good species for ultraviolet induced mutation experiments. Provides a set of laboratory instructions for teachers and students. Includes a discussion section. (ML)

  5. Polymer filters for ultraviolet-excited integrated fluorescence sensing (United States)

    Dandin, Marc; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth


    Optical filters for blocking ultraviolet (UV) light were fabricated by doping various polymer hosts with a UV absorbing chromophore. The polymers were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a silicone elastomer frequently used in microfluidics, SU-8, a photopatternable epoxy, and Humiseal 1B66, an acrylic coating used for moisture protection of integrated circuits. The chromophore was 2-(2‧-hydroxy-5‧-methylphenyl) benzotriazole (BTA), which has a high extinction coefficient between 300 nm and 400 nm. We demonstrate filters 5 µm thick that exhibit high ultraviolet rejection (nearly -40 dB at 342 nm) yet pass visible light (near 0 dB above 400 nm), making them ideal for ultraviolet-excited fluorescence sensing within microsystems. The absorbance of the BTA depended on the host polymer. These filters are promising for integrated fluorescence spectroscopy in bioanalytical platforms because they can be patterned by dry etching, molding or exposure to ultraviolet light.

  6. Photosynthetic carbon reduction by seagrasses exposed to ultraviolet A radiation (United States)


    The seagrasses Halophila engelmannii, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme were examined for their intrinsic sensitivity to ultraviolet-A-UV-A and ultraviolet-B-UV-B radiation. The effect of UV-A on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was also determined. Ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B were studied with emphasis on the greater respective environmental consequence in terms of seagrass distribution and abundance. Results indicate that an intrinsic sensitivity to UV-A alone is apparent only in Halophila, while net photosynthesis in Halodule and Syringodium seems unaffected by the level of UV-A provided. The sensitivity of Halophila to UV-A in the absense of (PAR) indicates that the photosynthetic reaction does not need to be in operation for damage to occur. Other significant results are reported.

  7. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten


    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe.

  8. CUTIE: Cubesat Ultraviolet Transient Imaging Experiment (United States)

    Cenko, Stephen B.; Bellm, Eric Christopher; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gezari, Suvi; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jewell, April; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Mushotzky, Richard; Nikzad, Shouleh; Piro, Anthony; Waxman, Eli; Ofek, Eran Oded


    We describe a mission concept for the Cubesat Ultraviolet Transient Imaging Experiment (CUTIE). CUTIE will image an area on the sky of ~ 1700 square degrees every ~ 95 min at near-UV wavelengths (260-320 nm) to a depth of 19.0 mag (AB). These capabilities represent orders of magnitude improvement over past UV imagers, allowing CUTIE to conduct the first true synoptic survey of the transient and variable sky in the UV bandpass. CUTIE will uniquely address key Decadal Survey science questions such as how massive stars end their lives, how super-massive black holes accrete material and influence their surroundings, and how suitable habitable-zone planets around low-mass stars are for hosting life. By partnering with upcoming ground-based time-domain surveys, CUTIE will further leverage its low-Earth orbit to provide a multi-wavelength view of the dynamic universe that can only be achieved from space. The remarkable sensitivity for such a small payload is achieved via the use of large format delta-doped CCDs; space qualifying this technology will serve as a key milestone towards the development of future large missions (Explorers and Surveyors). Finally, our innovative design in a 6U cubesat form factor will enable significant cost savings, accelerating the timeline from conception to on-sky operation (5 years; well matched for graduate student participation).

  9. The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability of Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian; Zhang, Shaohua; Muzahid, Sowgat; O'Dea, Christopher P


    We study the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) variability (rest frame wavelengths 500 - 920 $\\AA$) of high luminosity quasars using HST (low to intermediate redshift sample) and SDSS (high redshift sample) archives. The combined HST and SDSS data indicates a much more pronounced variability when the sampling time between observations in the quasar rest frame is $> 2\\times 10^{7}$ sec compared to $2\\times 10^{7}$ sec in the quasar rest frame, $55\\%$ of the quasars (21/38) show evidence of EUV variability. The propensity for variability does not show any statistically significant change between $2.5\\times 10^{7}$ sec and $3.16\\times 10^{7}$ sec (1 yr). The temporal behavior is one of a threshold time interval for significant variability as opposed to a gradual increase on these time scales. A threshold time scale can indicate a characteristic spatial dimension of the EUV region. We explore this concept in the context of the slim disk models of accretion. We find that for rapidly spinning black holes, the radial infall...

  10. Laboratory studies in ultraviolet solar physics (United States)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.; Gardner, L. D.; Raymond, J. C.; Smith, P. L.


    The research activity comprised the measurement of basic atomic processes and parameters which relate directly to the interpretation of solar ultraviolet observations and to the development of comprehensive models of the component structures of the solar atmosphere. The research was specifically directed towards providing the relevant atomic data needed to perform and to improve solar diagnostic techniques which probe active and quiet portions of the solar chromosphere, the transition zone, the inner corona, and the solar wind acceleration regions of the extended corona. The accuracy with which the physical conditions in these structures can be determined depends directly on the accuracy and completeness of the atomic and molecular data. These laboratory data are used to support the analysis programs of past and current solar observations (e.g., the Orbiting solar Observatories, the Solar Maximum Mission, the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount, and the Naval Research Laboratory's rocket-borne High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph). In addition, we attempted to anticipate the needs of future space-borne solar studies such as from the joint ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Our laboratory activities stressed two categories of study: (1) the measurement of absolute rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination and electron impact excitation; and (2) the measurement of atomic transition probabilities for solar density diagnostics. A brief summary of the research activity is provided.

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet detector for gas chromatography. (United States)

    Schug, Kevin A; Sawicki, Ian; Carlton, Doug D; Fan, Hui; McNair, Harold M; Nimmo, John P; Kroll, Peter; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Harrison, Dale


    Analytical performance characteristics of a new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography (GC) are reported. GC-VUV was applied to hydrocarbons, fixed gases, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, pesticides, drugs, and estrogens. Applications were chosen to feature the sensitivity and universal detection capabilities of the VUV detector, especially for cases where mass spectrometry performance has been limited. Virtually all chemical species absorb and have unique gas phase absorption cross sections in the approximately 120-240 nm wavelength range monitored. Spectra are presented, along with the ability to use software for deconvolution of overlapping signals. Some comparisons with experimental synchrotron data and computed theoretical spectra show good agreement, although more work is needed on appropriate computational methods to match the simultaneous broadband electronic and vibronic excitation initiated by the deuterium lamp. Quantitative analysis is governed by Beer-Lambert Law relationships. Mass on-column detection limits reported for representatives of different classes of analytes ranged from 15 (benzene) to 246 pg (water). Linear range measured at peak absorption for benzene was 3-4 orders of magnitude. Importantly, where absorption cross sections are known for analytes, the VUV detector is capable of absolute determination (without calibration) of the number of molecules present in the flow cell in the absence of chemical interferences. This study sets the stage for application of GC-VUV technology across a wide breadth of research areas.

  12. Habitat Impact on Ultraviolet Reflectance in Moths. (United States)

    Zapletalová, L; Zapletal, M; Konvička, M


    A comparison of 95 species of Central European moths, representing 11 families and inhabiting various habitats, was carried out in order to detect the potential impact of biotope on the ultraviolet (UV) light reflectance of their wings. Based on digitized photographs taken under UV light conditions, a phylogeny-controlled redundancy analysis relating UV reflectance to preferred habitat type (xerophilous, mesophilous, and hygrophilous) and habitat openness (open, semiopen, and closed) was carried out. Species preferring hygrophilous habitats displayed significantly higher UV wing reflectance than species inhabiting xerothermic and mesic habitats, and this pattern remained significant even after controlling for phyletic relationships. In contrast, UV wing reflectance displayed no pattern related to habitat openness. Given the higher UV reflectance of water and humid surfaces, we interpret these results, which are based on the first comprehensive sampling of UV reflectance in Central European moths, in terms of predator avoidance under habitat-specific light conditions. We conclude that the moisture content of the environment may markedly contribute to the variation of appearance of moth wings for better imitation habitat characteristics and therefore to increase protection. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank


    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  14. Terbium-based extreme ultraviolet multilayers. (United States)

    Windt, David L; Seely, John F; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Uspenskii, Yu A


    We have fabricated periodic multilayers that comprise either Si/Tb or SiC/Tb bilayers, designed to operate as narrowband reflective coatings near 60 nm wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). We find peak reflectance values in excess of 20% near normal incidence. The spectral bandpass of the best Si/Tb multilayer was measured to be 6.5 nm full width at half-maximum (FWHM), while SiC/Tb multilayers have a more broad response, of order 9.4 nm FWHM. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of Si/Tb multilayers reveals polycrystalline Tb layers, amorphous Si layers, and relatively large asymmetric amorphous interlayers. Thermal annealing experiments indicate excellent stability to 100 degrees C (1 h) for Si/Tb. These new multilayer coatings have the potential for use in normal incidence instrumentation in a region of the EUV where efficient narrowband multilayers have not been available until now. In particular, reflective Si/Tb multilayers can be used for solar physics applications where the coatings can be tuned to important emission lines such as O V near 63.0 nm and Mg X near 61.0 nm.

  15. Ultraviolet observations of P Cygni with Copernicus (United States)

    Ambartsumian, V. A.; Snow, T. P., Jr.; Mirzoian, L.


    Copernicus ultraviolet scans of the peculiar mass-losing star P Cyg are described. From the L-alpha profile and diffuse band strengths reported in the literature, a value of interstellar reddening E(B V) of approximately 0.35 mag is derived, leading to the conclusion that the star is intrinsically reddened. This value for the color excess leads to an estimated distance for P Cyg of 0.6-1.8 kpc, on the basis of which a revised visual absolute magnitude of -7.6 to -5.2 is obtained. The wind from P Cyg is quite unlike that for other early B supergiants, displaying a low terminal velocity and low ionization. This difference is connected with the great extension of its photosphere and with the fact that the acceleration of the flow begins below the photosphere. It is suggested that the wind in P Cyg results from dynamical instabilities quite distinct from the mechanism which initiates the winds in other OB stars.

  16. Analysis of ultraviolet spectrophotometric data from Copernicus (United States)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.


    Ultraviolet spectral data from the OAO 3 satellite are being used to study interstellar absorption lines and stellar and circumstellar lines in hot stars. The interstellar data are beneficial in analyzing the depletions of heavy elements from the gas phase and in elucidating how these depletions depend on physical conditions. Abundances in separate velocity components were determined from line profiles. Observations were carried out for interstellar abundances, both atomic and molecular, towards a number of stars. The better quality data are being analyzed for profile information and the lesser data are being used in curve-of-growth analyses. Molecular observations were carried out as well, N2 was sought; interstellar C2 was detected and its rotational excitation utilized to establish limits in interstellar cloud temperatures. An extensive search for H2O resulted in a tentative identification which will produce new information on chemical reaction rates. Interstellar depletions and grain properties in the rho Ophiuchi cloud, stellar wind variability, and circumstellar lines are also under study.

  17. Biological Sensors for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P. Schuch


    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cell death. In fact, the various UV-wavelengths evoke characteristic biological impacts that greatly depend on light absorption of biomolecules, especially DNA, in living organisms, thereby justifying the increasing importance of developing biological sensors for monitoring the harmful impact of solar UV radiation under various environmental conditions. In this review, several types of biosensors proposed for laboratory and field application, that measure the biological effects of the UV component of sunlight, are described. Basically, the applicability of sensors based on DNA, bacteria or even mammalian cells are presented and compared. Data are also presented showing that on using DNA-based sensors, the various types of damage produced differ when this molecule is exposed in either an aqueous buffer or a dry solution. Apart from the data thus generated, the development of novel biosensors could help in evaluating the biological effects of sunlight on the environment. They also emerge as alternative tools for using live animals in the search for protective sunscreen products.

  18. Biological sensors for solar ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Yagura, Teiti; Makita, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Menck, Carlos F M; Schuch, André P


    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cell death. In fact, the various UV-wavelengths evoke characteristic biological impacts that greatly depend on light absorption of biomolecules, especially DNA, in living organisms, thereby justifying the increasing importance of developing biological sensors for monitoring the harmful impact of solar UV radiation under various environmental conditions. In this review, several types of biosensors proposed for laboratory and field application, that measure the biological effects of the UV component of sunlight, are described. Basically, the applicability of sensors based on DNA, bacteria or even mammalian cells are presented and compared. Data are also presented showing that on using DNA-based sensors, the various types of damage produced differ when this molecule is exposed in either an aqueous buffer or a dry solution. Apart from the data thus generated, the development of novel biosensors could help in evaluating the biological effects of sunlight on the environment. They also emerge as alternative tools for using live animals in the search for protective sunscreen products.

  19. Ultraviolet Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J; Brown, P; Filippenko, A V; Fox, O D; Hillebrandt, W; Kirshner, R P; Marion, G H; Milne, P A; Parrent, J T; Pignata, G; Stritzinger, M D


    Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) probe the outermost layers of the explosion, and UV spectra of SNe Ia are expected to be extremely sensitive to differences in progenitor composition and the details of the explosion. Here we present the first study of a sample of high signal-to-noise ratio SN Ia spectra that extend blueward of 2900 A. We focus on spectra taken within 5 days of maximum brightness. Our sample of ten SNe Ia spans the majority of the parameter space of SN Ia optical diversity. We find that SNe Ia have significantly more diversity in the UV than in the optical, with the spectral variance continuing to increase with decreasing wavelengths until at least 1800 A (the limit of our data). The majority of the UV variance correlates with optical light-curve shape, while there are no obvious and unique correlations between spectral shape and either ejecta velocity or host-galaxy morphology. Using light-curve shape as the primary variable, we create a UV spectral model for SNe I...

  20. High brightness near-ultraviolet resonant LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, B.; Roycroft, B.; Maaskant, P.; Akhter, M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Zhu, D.; McAleese, C.; Kappers, M.J.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)


    Planar near-ultraviolet 385 nm emitting resonant LEDs containing three quantum wells have been investigated as a function of the separation between the wells and a reflective and injecting metal mirror. The output power and far-field extracted through the substrate of the LEDs depend on the precise positions of the wells with each well having a significant individual influence on these properties. A doubling of the output power is obtained when the wells are located around the antinode position of the standing wave while narrower far-fields are obtained with other placement of the wells. A power of 0.4 mW into a numerical aperture of 0.5 is obtained for a current of 30 mA into a 50 {mu}m diameter contact. Calibration of the growth rate along with accurate knowledge of the material properties of the semiconductor and metal mirrors is required for controlled and enhanced emission from planar UV LEDs. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Simulation of parabolic reflectors for ultraviolet phototherapy (United States)

    Grimes, David Robert


    Ultraviolet (UVR) phototherapy is widely used to treat an array of skin conditions, including psoriasis, eczema and vitiligo. For such interventions, a quantified dose is vital if the treatment is to be both biologically effective and to avoid the detrimental effects of over-dosing. As dose is absorbed at surface level, the orientation of patient site with respect to the UVR lamps modulates effective dose. Previous investigations have modelled this behaviour, and examined the impact of shaped anodized aluminium reflectors typically placed around lamps in phototherapy cabins. These mirrors are effective but tend to yield complex patterns of reflection around the cabin which can result in substantial dose inhomogeneity. There has been some speculation over whether using the reflective property of parabolic mirrors might improve dose delivery or homogeneity through the treatment cabin. In this work, the effects of parabolic mirrors are simulated and compared with standard shaped mirrors. Simulation results strongly suggest that parabolic reflectors reduce total irradiance relative to standard shaped reflectors, and have a negligible impact on dose homogeneity.

  2. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge


    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)


    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  4. Tomographic extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs: TESS. (United States)

    Cotton, D M; Stephan, A; Cook, T; Vickers, J; Taylor, V; Chakrabarti, S


    We describe the system of Tomographic Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) SpectrographS (TESS) that are the primary instruments for the Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources (TERRIERS) satellite. The spectrographs were designed to make high-sensitivity {80 counts/s)/Rayleigh [one Rayleigh is equivalent to 10(6) photons/(4pi str cm(2)s)}, line-of-sight measurements of the oi 135.6- and 91.1-nm emissions suitable for tomographic inversion. The system consists of five spectrographs, four identical nightglow instruments (for redundancy and added sensitivity), and one instrument with a smaller aperture to reduce sensitivity and increase spectral resolution for daytime operation. Each instrument has a bandpass of 80-140 nm with approximately 2- and 1-nm resolution for the night and day instruments, respectively. They utilize microchannel-plate-based two-dimensional imaging detectors with wedge-and-strip anode readouts. The instruments were designed, fabricated, and calibrated at Boston University, and the TERRIERS satellite was launched on 18 May 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  5. Simulation of parabolic reflectors for ultraviolet phototherapy. (United States)

    Robert Grimes, David


    Ultraviolet (UVR) phototherapy is widely used to treat an array of skin conditions, including psoriasis, eczema and vitiligo. For such interventions, a quantified dose is vital if the treatment is to be both biologically effective and to avoid the detrimental effects of over-dosing. As dose is absorbed at surface level, the orientation of patient site with respect to the UVR lamps modulates effective dose. Previous investigations have modelled this behaviour, and examined the impact of shaped anodized aluminium reflectors typically placed around lamps in phototherapy cabins. These mirrors are effective but tend to yield complex patterns of reflection around the cabin which can result in substantial dose inhomogeneity. There has been some speculation over whether using the reflective property of parabolic mirrors might improve dose delivery or homogeneity through the treatment cabin. In this work, the effects of parabolic mirrors are simulated and compared with standard shaped mirrors. Simulation results strongly suggest that parabolic reflectors reduce total irradiance relative to standard shaped reflectors, and have a negligible impact on dose homogeneity.

  6. Ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure of welders. (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D


    I read with interest a recent paper in your journal by Slagor et al on the risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding (1). The authors highlight that even though welders are exposed to substantial levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), "no studies have reported data on how much UVR welders' eyes are exposed to during a working day. Thus, we do not know whether welders are more or less exposed to UVR than outdoor workers" (1, p451). Undertaking accurate exposure assessment of UVR from welding arcs is difficult, however, two studies have reported ocular/facial UVR levels underneath welding helmets (2, 3). In the first paper, UVR levels were measured using polysulphone film dosimeters applied to the cheeks of a patient who suffered from severe facial dermatitis (2). UVR levels of four times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (4) were measured on the workers left cheek and nine times the MPE on the right cheek. The authors concluded that the workers dermatitis was likely to have been due to the UVR exposure received during welding. In the other paper, a comprehensive exposure assessment of personal UVR exposure of workers in a welding environment was reported (3). The study was conducted at a metal fabrication workshop with participants being welders, boilermakers and non-welders (eg, supervisors, fitters, machinists). Polysulphone film dosimeters were again used to measure UVR exposure of the workers, with badges worn on the clothing of workers (in the chest area), on the exterior of welding helmets, attached to 11 locations on the inside of welding helmets, and on the bridge and side-shields of safety spectacles. Dosimeters were also attached to surfaces throughout the workshop to measure ambient UVR levels. For welding subjects, mean 8-hour UVR doses within the welding helmets ranged from around 9 mJ/cm (2)(3×MPE) on the inside of the helmets to around 15 mJ/cm (2)(5×MPE) on the headband

  7. Making Ultraviolet Spectro-Polarimetry Polarization Measurements with the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Sounding Rocket (United States)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen


    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program. This paper will concentrate on SUMI's VUV optics, and discuss their spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics. While SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria, there are several areas that will be improved for its second and third flights. This paper will emphasize the MgII linear polarization measurements and describe the changes that will be made to the sounding rocket and how those changes will improve the scientific data acquired by SUMI.

  8. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). Phase A final report. (United States)

    McBrayer, R. O.


    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum 1,000 and 3,500 Å. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  9. Luminescence enhancement of near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Li; Jensen, Flemming; Herstrøm, Berit


    Nanopillars were applied on the p-GaN layer of the InGaN-based near ultraviolet epiwafer to improve the light extraction efficiency. A photoluminescence enhancement of 74 % is reported with a nanopillar height of around 105 nm.......Nanopillars were applied on the p-GaN layer of the InGaN-based near ultraviolet epiwafer to improve the light extraction efficiency. A photoluminescence enhancement of 74 % is reported with a nanopillar height of around 105 nm....

  10. Protection Effect of Moringa Oil Against Ultraviolet ays Radiation Damage on Mice%辣木油对小鼠抗紫外线损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段琼芬; 杨莲; 李钦; 段小花; 林青; 安鑫南


    The protection effect of moringa oil against ultraviolet rays radiation damage on mice for the development of skin protection cream was studied.The med-wave (UVB 290-320 nm) and long-wave ( UVB 320-400 nm) of ultraviolet rays were used to radiate the skin on the back and the ear of the mice to produce skin-sunburning models.Skin index,ear index,skin thickness and skin pathology were adopted to assess the protection effect of moringa oil against skin sunburning caused by ultraviolet rays.The results showed that moringa oil can reduce skin index,ear index,and skin thickness of the mice caused by ultraviolet rays.Moringa oil could inhibit UV-induced sunburning of the epidermal skin of mice and reduce the generation ol inflammatory cells and inhibit their infiltration,which indicated that moringa oil have the effect of preventing skin radiation damage caused by ultraviolet,that is,the effect of anti-sunburning.%研究辣木油对小鼠抗紫外线损伤的保护作用,为开发防晒护肤品提供实验依据.采用中波(UVB 290 ~ 320nm)和长波(UVA 320 ~ 400nm)紫外线照射小鼠背部皮肤及双耳,造成小鼠皮肤及双耳灼伤水肿模型,以皮指数、耳指数、表皮厚度及皮肤组织病理学等指标评价辣木油对该模型的保护作用.结果显示辣木油组小鼠的耳指数、皮指数、表皮厚度均低于模型组且有显著性差异,能明显抑制紫外线射伤所致小鼠皮肤表皮角质化与浸润,抑制真皮层组织病理改变,提示了辣木油具有抗紫外线损伤的功能即防晒功能.

  11. Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm after ultraviolet light-emitting diode treatment: a comparative study between ultraviolet C and ultraviolet B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars


    GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms. The effectiveness of the UVB at 296 nm and UVC at 266 nm irradiations was quantified by counting colony-forming units. The survival of less mature biofilms (24 h grown) was studied as a function of UV-radiant exposure. All......The objective of this study was to test the inactivation efficiency of two different light-based treatments, namely ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages (24, 48, and 72 h grown). In our experiments, a type of Al...

  12. Ultraviolet observations of core-collapse supernovae (United States)

    Pritchard, Tyler Anthony

    Ultraviolet observations of Core Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) have traditionally lagged behind observations in the optical and near-infrared. With the launch of Swift in 2004 this began to change. The systematic study of UV emission from these objects provides information about supernovae temperature, radius, metallicity and luminosity that may be difficult to obtain from the ground - especially at early times where upwards of 80% of the SNe bolometric flux may come from the UV region. We begin with the examination of an extraordinary Type IIn supernova SN 2007pk, which was at the time the earliest observed Type IIn SNe in the UV, and characterize the explosion properties while examining how the early observed UV emission compares with other observed CCSNe at early times. Building upon this we assemble the largest sample of CCSNe in the UV and examine the UV and bolometric characteristics of CCSNe by subtype. Using these bolometric light curves we go on to calculate empirically based bolometric corrections and UV- ux corrections for use by observers when observing filters are limited or UV observations are unable to be obtained. We improve upon this by identifying a small subsample of Type II Plateau SNe which have simultaneous ground based optical - near infrared data, and improve our bolometric light curve calculation method to more accurately determine bolometric light curve, corrections and UV corrections. Finally, we use recent hydrodynamical models to examine the accuracy of current modeling techniques to reproduce Type IIP SNe, the implications of progenitor properties on the light curves of the SNe, and possibility of future diagnostics for progenitor metalicity, radius, and explosion energies from Type IIP light curves and models.

  13. Ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the phenyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Yu; Lucas, Michael; Alcaraz, Maria; Zhang Jingsong [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Brazier, Christopher [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, California 90840 (United States)


    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled phenyl radicals (C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and C{sub 6}D{sub 5}) are studied in the photolysis wavelength region of 215-268 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques. The phenyl radicals are produced from 193-nm photolysis of chlorobenzene and bromobenzene precursors. The H-atom photofragment yield spectra have a broad peak centered around 235 nm and are in good agreement with the UV absorption spectra of phenyl. The H + C{sub 6}H{sub 4} product translational energy distributions, P(E{sub T})'s, peak near {approx}7 kcal/mol, and the fraction of average translational energy in the total excess energy, , is in the range of 0.20-0.35 from 215 to 268 nm. The H-atom product angular distribution is isotropic. The dissociation rates are in the range of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1} with internal energy from 30 to 46 kcal/mol above the threshold of the lowest energy channel H +o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} (ortho-benzyne), comparable with the rates from the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory. The results from the fully deuterated phenyl radical are identical. The dissociation mechanism is consistent with production of H +o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, as the main channel from unimolecular decomposition of the ground electronic state phenyl radical following internal conversion of the electronically excited state.

  14. Ultra-Violet Induced Insulator Flashover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javedani, J B; Houck, T L; Kelly, B T; Lahowe, D A; Shirk, M D; Goerz, D A


    Insulators are critical components in high-energy, pulsed power systems. It is known that the vacuum surface of the insulator will flashover when illuminated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation depending on the insulator material, insulator cone angle, applied voltage and insulator shot-history. A testbed comprised of an excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm, {approx} 2 MW/cm{sup 2}, 30 ns FWHM,), a vacuum chamber (low 1.0E-6 torr), and dc high voltage power supply (<60 kV) was assembled for insulator testing to measure the UV dose during a flashover event. Five in-house developed and calibrated fast D-Dot probes (>12 GHz, bandwidth) were embedded in the anode electrode underneath the insulator to determine the time of flashover with respect to UV arrival. A commercial energy meter were used to measure the UV fluence for each pulse. Four insulator materials High Density Polyethylene, Rexolite{reg_sign} 1400, Macor{trademark} and Mycalex with side-angles of 0, {+-}30, and {+-}45 degrees, 1.0 cm thick samples, were tested with a maximum UV fluence of 75 mJ/cm{sup 2} and at varying electrode charge (10 kV to 60 kV). This information clarified/corrected earlier published studies. A new phenomenon was observed related to the UV power level on flashover that as the UV pulse intensity was increased, the UV fluence on the insulator prior to flashover was also increased. This effect would bias the data towards higher minimum flashover fluence.

  15. GaN membrane MSM ultraviolet photodetectors (United States)

    Muller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.; Kostopoulos, A.; Dragoman, M.; Neculoiu, D.; Androulidaki, M.; Kayambaki, M.; Vasilache, D.; Buiculescu, C.; Petrini, I.


    GaN exhibits unique physical properties, which make this material very attractive for wide range of applications and among them ultraviolet detection. For the first time a MSM type UV photodetector structure was manufactured on a 2.2 μm. thick GaN membrane obtained using micromachining techniques. The low unintentionally doped GaN layer structure was grown by MOCVD on high resistivity (ρ>10kΩcm) oriented silicon wafers, 500μm thick. The epitaxially grown layers include a thin AlN layer in order to reduce the stress in the GaN layer and avoid cracking. Conventional contact lithography, e-gun Ni/Au (10nm /200nm) evaporation and lift-off techniques were used to define the interdigitated Schottky metalization on the top of the wafer. Ten digits with a width of 1μm and a length of 100μm were defined for each electrode. The distance between the digits was also 1μm. After the backside lapping of the wafer to a thickness of approximately 150μm, a 400nm thick Al layer was patterned and deposited on the backside, to be used as mask for the selective reactive ion etching of silicon. The backside mask, for the membrane formation, was patterned using double side alignment techniques and silicon was etched down to the 2.2μm thin GaN layer using SF 6 plasma. A very low dark current (30ρA at 3V) was obtained. Optical responsivity measurements were performed at 1.5V. A maximum responsivity of 18mA/W was obtained at a wavelength of 370nm. This value is very good and can be further improved using transparent contacts for the interdigitated structure.

  16. The Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor for MAVEN (United States)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Thiemann, E. M. B.


    The Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) monitor is an instrument on the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission, designed to measure the variability of the solar soft x-rays and EUV irradiance at Mars. The solar output in this wavelength range is a primary energy input to the Mars atmosphere and a driver for the processes leading to atmospheric escape. The MAVEN EUV monitor consists of three broadband radiometers. The radiometers consist of silicon photodiodes with different bandpass-limiting filters for each channel. The filters for the radiometers are: Channel A: thin foil C/Al/Nb/C for 0.1-3 nm and 17-22 nm, Channel B: thin foil C/Al/Ti/C for 0.1-7 nm, and Channel C: interference filter for 121-122 nm. A fourth, covered photodiode is used to monitor variations in dark signal due to temperature and radiation background changes. The three science channels will monitor emissions from the highly variable corona and transition region of the solar atmosphere. The EUV monitor is mounted on the top deck of the MAVEN spacecraft and is pointed at the Sun for most of its orbit around Mars. The measurement cadence is 1-second. The broadband irradiances can be used to monitor the most rapid changes in solar irradiance due to flares. In combination with time-interpolated observations at Earth of slower varying solar spectral emissions, the broadband MAVEN EUV monitor measurements will also be used in a spectral irradiance model to generate the full EUV spectrum at Mars from 0 to 190 nm in 1-nm bins on a time cadence of 1-minute and daily averages.

  17. The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability of Quasars (United States)

    Punsly, Brian; Marziani, Paola; Zhang, Shaohua; Muzahid, Sowgat; O’Dea, Christopher P.


    We study the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) variability (rest frame wavelengths 500–920 Å) of high-luminosity quasars using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (low to intermediate redshift sample) and Sloan Digital sky Survey (SDSS) (high redshift sample) archives. The combined HST and SDSS data indicates a much more pronounced variability when the sampling time between observations in the quasar rest frame is \\gt 2× {10}7 {{s}} compared to \\lt 1.5× {10}7 s. Based on an excess variance analysis, for time intervals \\lt 2× {10}7 {{s}} in the quasar rest frame, 10% of the quasars (4/40) show evidence of EUV variability. Similarly, for time intervals \\gt 2× {10}7 {{s}} in the quasar rest frame, 55% of the quasars (21/38) show evidence of EUV variability. The propensity for variability does not show any statistically significant change between 2.5× {10}7 {{s}} and 3.16× {10}7 {{s}} (1 year). The temporal behavior is one of a threshold time interval for significant variability as opposed to a gradual increase on these timescales. A threshold timescale can indicate a characteristic spatial dimension of the EUV region. We explore this concept in the context of the slim disk models of accretion. We find that for rapidly spinning black holes, the radial infall time to the plunge region of the optically thin surface layer of the slim disk that is responsible for the preponderance of the EUV flux emission (primarily within 0–7 black hole radii from the inner edge of the disk) is consistent with the empirically determined variability timescale.

  18. Photochemoprevention of ultraviolet B signaling and photocarcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Medical Sciences Center, Room B25, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Adhami, Vaqar M. [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Medical Sciences Center, Room B25, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Mukhtar, Hasan [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Medical Sciences Center, Room B25, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]. E-mail:


    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) B component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formation, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. Amongst these various adverse effects of UV radiation, skin cancer is of the greatest concern. Over the years, changes in lifestyle has led to a significant increase in the amount of UV radiation that people receive, and this consequently has led to a surge in the incidence of skin cancer. The development of skin cancer is a complex multistage phenomenon involving three distinct stages exemplified by initiation, promotion and progression stages. Each of these stages is mediated via alterations in various cellular, biochemical, and molecular changes. Initiation, the first step in the carcinogenesis process is essentially an irreversible step in which genetic alterations occur in genes that ultimately leads to DNA modification and fixation of mutation. Tumor promotion is the essential process in cancer development involving clonal expansion of initiated cells giving rise to pre-malignant and then to malignant lesions, essentially by alterations in signal transduction pathways. Tumor progression involves the conversion of pre-malignant and malignant lesions into an invasive and potentially metastatic malignant tumor. All these processes for skin cancer development involve stimulation of DNA synthesis, DNA damage and proliferation, inflammation, immunosuppression, epidermal hyperplasia, cell cycle dysregulation, depletion of antioxidant defenses, impairment of signal transduction pathways, induction of cyclooxygenase, increase in prostaglandin synthesis, and induction of ornithine decarboxylase. Photochemoprevention has been appreciated as a viable approach to reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and in recent years, the use of agents, especially botanical antioxidants, present in the common

  19. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the hot interstellar medium (United States)

    Indebetouw, Remy

    I study the hot phase of the interstellar medium (ISM) in our Galaxy. The lithium-like ions of common metals are a powerful tracer of gas between the hot (106 K) and cooler (104 K) phases of the ISM, and are particularly sensitive to dynamical processes because gas at several 105 K cools very rapidly. These ions are usually produced in nonequilibrium processes such as shocks, evaporative interfaces, or rapidly cooling gas. There are two different approaches to studying the hot ISM via Li-like ions---analysis of the microphysics in a well-defined location in the Galaxy, and observation of a large part of the Galaxy searching for global trends. This thesis describes two experiments which follow these two approaches. Chapter 2 describes a sounding rocket experiment which could perform simultaneous ultra-high spectroscopy of C IV, N V, and O VI. In particular, it was to study the interface between the local bubble, a diffuse region of the Galaxy in which the Sun is located, and denser neighboring gas. I redesigned, integrated, and directed the flight of the payload, which in addition to its scientific goals was the first space demonstration of a low-order echelle spectrograph. Chapter 3 describes a survey of N V, O VI, and C IV in the Galactic halo using data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope. Searching for global trends, I found a general trend of higher ionization (lower N V/O VI column density ratio) at larger positive line-of-sight velocities. I modeled the various physical situations in which Li-like ions are produced, and found that the observed trend is qualitatively consistent with a cooling Galactic fountain flow which rises, cools, and recombines as it returns to the disk. The observed trend is also consistent with shocks moving towards the observer, and with observing through a conductive interface, looking from the hot gas into cooler gas. The latter geometry is consistent with the solar system being inside a hot

  20. Solar ultraviolet radiation from cancer induction to cancer prevention: solar ultraviolet radiation and cell biology. (United States)

    Tuorkey, Muobarak J


    Although decades have elapsed, researchers still debate the benefits and hazards of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. On the one hand, humans derive most of their serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3], which has potent anticancer activity, from solar UVB radiation. On the other hand, people are more aware of the risk of cancer incidence associated with harmful levels of solar UVR from daily sunlight exposure. Epidemiological data strongly implicate UV radiation exposure as a major cause of melanoma and other cancers, as UVR promotes mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. This review highlights the impact of the different mutagenic effects of solar UVR, along with the cellular and carcinogenic challenges with respect to sun exposure.

  1. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and FUV calibration facility for special sensor ultraviolet limb imager (SSULI) (United States)

    Boyer, Craig N.; Osterman, Steven N.; Thonnard, Stefan E.; McCoy, Robert P.; Williams, J. Z.; Parker, S. E.


    A facility for calibrating far ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet instruments has recently been completed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Our vacuum calibration vessel is 2-m in length, 1.67-m in diameter, and can accommodate optical test benches up to 1.2-m wide by 1.5-m in length. A kinematically positioned frame with four axis precision pointing capability of 10 microns for linear translation and .01 degrees for rotation is presently used during vacuum optical calibration of SSULI. The chamber was fabricated from 304 stainless steel and polished internally to reduce surface outgassing. A dust-free environment is maintained at the rear of the vacuum chamber by enclosing the 2-m hinged vacuum access door in an 8 ft. by 8 ft. class 100 clean room. Every effort was made to obtain an oil-free environment within the vacuum vessel. Outgassing products are continually monitored with a 1 - 200 amu residual gas analyzer. An oil-free claw and vane pump evacuates the chamber to 10-2 torr through 4 in. diameter stainless steel roughing lines. High vacuum is achieved and maintained with a magnetically levitated 480 l/s turbo pump and a 3000 l/s He4 cryopump. Either of two vacuum monochrometers, a 1-m f/10.4 or a 0.2-m f/4.5 are coaxially aligned with the optical axis of the chamber and are used to select single UV atomic resonance lines from a windowless capillary or penning discharge UV light source. A calibrated channeltron detector is coaxially mounted with the SSULI detector during calibration. All vacuum valves, the cooling system for the cryopump compressor, and the roughing pump are controlled through optical fibers which are interfaced to a computer through a VME board. Optical fibers were chosen to ensure that complete electrical isolation is maintained between the computer and the vacuum system valves-solenoids and relays.

  2. On general ultraviolet properties of a class of confining propagators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capri, M.A.L.; Guimaraes, M.S.; Justo, I.F.; Palhares, L.F.; Sorella, S.P. [UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    We study the ultraviolet properties of theories whose fundamental fields display a confining, Gribov-type, propagator. These are propagators that exhibit complex poles and violate positivity, thus precluding a physical propagating particle interpretation. We show that the properties of this type of confining propagators do not change the ultraviolet behavior of the theory, in the sense that no new ultraviolet primitive divergences are generated, thus securing the renormalizability of these confining theories. We illustrate these properties by studying a variety of models, including bosonic and fermionic confined degrees of freedom. The more intricate case of super-Yang-Mills with N = 1 supersymmetries in the Wess-Zumino gauge is taken as example in order to prove these statements to all orders by means of the algebraic renormalization set up. (orig.)

  3. Ultraviolet and radio flares from UX Arietis and HR 1099 (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.


    Simultaneous observations of the RS CVn systems UX Ari and HR 1099 with the IUE satellite and the VLA are presented. Flaring activity is observed at ultraviolet wavelengths with the IUE when none is detected at radio wavelengths with the VLA. Radio flares with no detectable ultraviolet activity have also been observed. Thus, flares in the two spectral regions are either uncorrelated or weakly correlated. The flaring emission probably originates in different regions at the two wavelengths. Radio flares from RS CVn stars may originate in sources that are larger than, or comparable to, a star in size. This is in sharp contrast to compact, coherent radio flares from dwarf M stars. The ultraviolet flares from RS CVn stars probably originate in sources that are smaller than a component star.

  4. On general ultraviolet properties of a class of confining propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Capri, M A L; Justo, I; Palhares, L F; Sorella, S P


    We study the ultraviolet properties of theories whose fundamental fields display a confining, Gribov-type, propagator. These are propagators that exhibit complex poles and violate positivity, thus precluding a physical propagating particle interpretation. We show that the properties of this type of confining propagators do not change the ultraviolet behavior of the theory, in the sense that no new ultraviolet primitive divergences are generated, thus securing the renormalizability of these confining theories. We illustrate these properties by studying a variety of models, including bosonic and fermionic confined degrees of freedom. The more intricate case of Super Yang-Mills with ${\\cal N} =1$ supersymmetries in the Wess-Zumino gauge is taken as example in order to prove these statements to all orders by means of the algebraic renormalization set up.

  5. Ultraviolet Radiation Constraints around the Circumstellar Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, A P; Mauas, P J D; Buccino, Andrea P.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.


    Ultraviolet radiation is known to inhibit photosynthesis, induce DNA destruction and cause damage to a wide variety of proteins and lipids. In particular, UV radiation between 200-300 nm becomes energetically very damaging to most of the terrestrial biological systems. On the other hand, UV radiation is usually considered one of the most important energy source on the primitive Earth for the synthesis of many biochemical compounds and, therefore, essential for several biogenesis processes. In this work, we use these properties of the UV radiation to define the bounderies of an ultraviolet habitable zone. We also analyze the evolution of the UV habitable zone during the main sequence stage of the star. We apply these criteria to study the UV habitable zone for those extrasolar planetary systems that were observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). We analyze the possibility that extrasolar planets and moons could be suitable for life, according to the UV constrains presented in this work and othe...

  6. Ultraviolet radiation: questions of hazard, homeostasis, or hormesis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliney, D. [USA Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Gunpowder, MD (United States)


    The general approach taken when dealing with health issues arising from chronic human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation appear to be quite different from that taken with the safety of human exposure to ionizing radiation. The public climate for accepting scientific risk assessments of human exposure appears to be markedly different for these two types of radiation exposures. Issues relating to setting exposure guidelines, such as dose response, with arguments over ''linear-no-threshold'' or ''hormesis,'' have engendered much debate and have severely challenged the development of a consensus on how to best control the health hazards from low-level ionizing radiation exposure. By contrast, these same questions are rarely raised in the public policy arena with regard to health policies for dealing with ultraviolet, non-ionizing radiation. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is a known carcinogen, but workers and the general public willingly expose themselves routinely to levels of ultraviolet radiation exceeding health exposure guidelines. Occupational health and safety advisors are constantly challenged on how to cope with exposure of the outdoor worker to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight that can exceed health guidelines. A de facto consensus that permits workers to be exposed far above guidelines appears to exist because of the overwhelming public acceptance of the concept that ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has some benefit, despite the risk. A similar public perception generally does not exist for ionizing radiation, but are there similar risks? From a biophysical standpoint, the generally accepted target molecule is DNA and the single-hit theory would apply to both. Unlike ionizing radiation the target organs are limited to skin and eye. Furthermore, cancer of the eye in humans is virtually unknown; whereas, cancer of the skin is most common. It would be well to examine whether the potential for different outcomes

  7. Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM) (United States)

    Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Kuehne, M.; Kock, M.


    AESSIM, the Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor, is designed to measure the absolute solar spectral irradiance at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. The data are required for studies of the processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere and for predictions of atmospheric drag on space vehicles. AESSIM is comprised of sun-pointed spectrometers and newly-developed, secondary standards of spectral irradiance for the EUV. Use of the in-orbit standard sources will eliminate the uncertainties caused by changes in spectrometer efficiency that have plagued all previous measurements of the solar spectral EUV flux.

  8. Low resolution ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of symbiotic stars (United States)

    Slovak, M. H.


    Low resolution International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra combined with optical spectrophotometry provide absolute flux distributions for seven symbiotic variables from 1200 to 6450 A. For five stars (EG And, BF Cyg, CI Cyg, AG Peg, and Z And) the data are representative of the quiescent/out-of-eclipse energy distributions; for CH Cyg and AX Per, the observations were obtained following their atest outburst in 1977 and 1978, respectively. The de-reddened distributions reveal a remarkable diversity of both line spectra and continua. While the optical and near infrared regions lambda = 5500 A) are well represented by single component stellar models, multicomponent flux distributions are required to reproduce the ultraviolet continua.

  9. Ultraviolet cutoffs for quantum fields in cosmological spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Elías, Mauro


    We analyze critically the renormalization of quantum fields in cosmological spacetimes, using non covariant ultraviolet cutoffs. We compute explicitly the counterterms necessary to renormalize the semiclassical Einstein equations, using comoving and physical ultraviolet cutoffs. In the first case, the divergences renormalize bare conserved fluids, while in the second case it is necessary to break the covariance of the bare theory. We point out that, in general, the renormalized equations differ from those obtained with covariant methods, even after absorbing the infinities and choosing the renormalized parameters to force the consistency of the renormalized theory. We repeat the analysis for the evolution equation for the mean value of an interacting scalar field

  10. Observed ozone response to variations in solar ultraviolet radiation (United States)

    Gille, J. C.; Smythe, C. M.; Heath, D. F.


    During the winter of 1979, the solar ultraviolet irradiance varied with a period of 13.5 days and an amplitude of 1 percent. The zonal mean ozone values in the tropics varied with the solar irradiance, with an amplitude of 0.25 to 0.60 percent. This observation agrees with earlier calculations, although the response may be overestimated. These results imply changes in ozone at an altitude of 48 kilometers of up to 12 percent over an 11-year solar cycle. Interpretation of ozone changes in the upper stratosphere will require measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths near 200 nanometers.

  11. The ultraviolet detection component based on Te-Cs image intensifier (United States)

    Qian, Yunsheng; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yujing; Wang, Yan; Xu, Hua


    Ultraviolet detection technology has been widely focused and adopted in the fields of ultraviolet warning and corona detection for its significant value and practical meaning. The component structure of ultraviolet ICMOS, imaging driving and the photon counting algorithm are studied in this paper. Firstly, the one-inch and wide dynamic range CMOS chip with the coupling optical fiber panel is coupled to the ultraviolet image intensifier. The photocathode material in ultraviolet image intensifier is Te-Cs, which contributes to the solar blind characteristic, and the dual micro-channel plates (MCP) structure ensures the sufficient gain to achieve the single photon counting. Then, in consideration of the ultraviolet detection demand, the drive circuit of the CMOS chip is designed and the corresponding program based on Verilog language is written. According to the characteristics of ultraviolet imaging, the histogram equalization method is applied to enhance the ultraviolet image and the connected components labeling way is utilized for the ultraviolet single photon counting. Moreover, one visible light video channel is reserved in the ultraviolet ICOMS camera, which can be used for the fusion of ultraviolet and visible images. Based upon the module, the ultraviolet optical lens and the deep cut-off solar blind filter are adopted to construct the ultraviolet detector. At last, the detection experiment of the single photon signal is carried out, and the test results are given and analyzed.

  12. Heavy hydrides: H2Te ultraviolet photochemistry (United States)

    Underwood, J.; Chastaing, D.; Lee, S.; Wittig, C.


    The room-temperature ultraviolet absorption spectrum of H2Te has been recorded. Unlike other group-6 hydrides, it displays a long-wavelength tail that extends to 400 nm. Dissociation dynamics have been examined at photolysis wavelengths of 266 nm (which lies in the main absorption feature) and 355 nm (which lies in the long-wavelength tail) by using high-n Rydberg time-of-flight spectroscopy to obtain center-of-mass translational energy distributions for the channels that yield H atoms. Photodissociation at 355 nm yields TeH(Π1/22) selectively relative to the TeH(Π3/22) ground state. This is attributed to the role of the 3A' state, which has a shallow well at large RH-TeH and correlates to H +TeH(Π1/22). Note that the Π1/22 state is analogous to the P1/22 spin-orbit excited state of atomic iodine, which is isoelectronic with TeH. The 3A' state is crossed at large R only by 2A″, with which it does not interact. The character of 3A' at large R is influenced by a strong spin-orbit interaction in the TeH product. Namely, Π1/22 has a higher degree of spherical symmetry than does Π3/22 (recall that I(P1/22) is spherically symmetric), and consequently Π1/22 is not inclined to form either strongly bonding or antibonding orbitals with the H atom. The 3A'←X transition dipole moment dominates in the long-wavelength region and increases with R. Structure observed in the absorption spectrum in the 380-400 nm region is attributed to vibrations on 3A'. The main absorption feature that is peaked at ˜240nm might arise from several excited surfaces. On the basis of the high degree of laboratory system spatial anisotropy of the fragments from 266 nm photolysis, as well as high-level theoretical studies, the main contribution is believed to be due to the 4A″ surface. The 4A″←X transition dipole moment dominates in the Franck-Condon region, and its polarization is in accord with the experimental observations. An extensive secondary photolysis (i.e., of nascent TeH) is

  13. Understanding Supernovae With A Swift Ultraviolet Archive (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are one of the primary tools to study the expansion history of the universe. Their usefulness as precision standard candles is limited by several systematic uncertainties and the possibility that the progenitor systems and explosion details have changed over the history of the universe. Optical observations of high- redshift SNe probe rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, requiring space based observations of nearby SNe against which to compare. The Swift satellite has already observed more supernovae than all other UV observatories combined. We propose to create and make publicly available a value-added archive of the images and photometry of the 200+ SNe observed in the UV by Swift's Ultra- Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). We will use this data to study the effects of environment and extinction on the SN Ia light curves. We will also compare this local sample of UV light curves with high redshift SNe observed in the optical. The Swift SN Archive will include final photometry as well as the final images appropriate for others to use to produce their own photometry of the SNe, other transient objects in the fields, or the host galaxies. For each epoch of photometry we will also compute the spectrum-dependent corrections for extinction and redshift. These data will be used to measure the UV contribution to the bolometric light curve and look for any time dependence to the extinction. With the larger sample available we will look for correlations with host galaxy properties. We will also create absolute magnitude light curves of SNe of all types for comparison with existing high redshift observations. These will also be used to make predictions for the detectability and classification of high redshift SNe in the rest-frame UV by future ground and space-based telescopes. The Swift UV observations fill a critical niche in our understanding of SNe Ia, and this program will enhance the scientific use of this important dataset. The work done

  14. Pollen and spores as biological recorders of past ultraviolet irradiance. (United States)

    Jardine, Phillip E; Fraser, Wesley T; Lomax, Barry H; Sephton, Mark A; Shanahan, Timothy M; Miller, Charlotte S; Gosling, William D


    Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance is a key driver of climatic and biotic change. Ultraviolet irradiance modulates stratospheric warming and ozone production, and influences the biosphere from ecosystem-level processes through to the largest scale patterns of diversification and extinction. Yet our understanding of ultraviolet irradiance is limited because no method has been validated to reconstruct its flux over timescales relevant to climatic or biotic processes. Here, we show that a recently developed proxy for ultraviolet irradiance based on spore and pollen chemistry can be used over long (10(5) years) timescales. Firstly we demonstrate that spatial variations in spore and pollen chemistry correlate with known latitudinal solar irradiance gradients. Using this relationship we provide a reconstruction of past changes in solar irradiance based on the pollen record from Lake Bosumtwi in Ghana. As anticipated, variations in the chemistry of grass pollen from the Lake Bosumtwi record show a link to multiple orbital precessional cycles (19-21 thousand years). By providing a unique, local proxy for broad spectrum solar irradiance, the chemical analysis of spores and pollen offers unprecedented opportunities to decouple solar variability, climate and vegetation change through geologic time and a new proxy with which to probe the Earth system.

  15. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, W.T.; Lomax, B.H.; Jardine, P.E.; Gosling, W.D.; Sephton, M.A.


    Sporopollenin is the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is responsive to levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of

  16. An Ultraviolet Exposure of Colossal Eruption by the Skylab Telescope (United States)


    This spectacular view is a color-enhanced ultraviolet exposure of a colossal eruption, photographed during the Skylab-4 mission by the Apollo Telescope Mount facility on December 19, 1973. This giant prominence, one of the mightiest in 25 years, sparned a third of a million miles into space, roughly the distance between Earth and the Moon.

  17. Extreme ultraviolet induced defects on few-layer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, A.; Rizo, P. J.; Zoethout, E.; Scaccabarozzi, L.; Lee, C. J.; Banine, V.; F. Bijkerk,


    We use Raman spectroscopy to show that exposing few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) radiation, i.e., relatively low photon energy, results in an increasing density of defects. Furthermore, exposure to EUV radiation in a H2 background increases the graphene dosage sensitivity, du

  18. Defect formation in single layer graphene under extreme ultraviolet irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, An; Zoethout, E.; Zoethout, E.; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik


    We study extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation induced defects in single-layer graphene. Two mechanisms for inducing defects in graphene were separately investigated: photon induced chemical reactions between graphene and background residual gases, and breaking sp2 bonds, due to photon and/or photoele

  19. Ultraviolet A phototherapy for sclerotic skin diseases: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, E.B.M.; Berkhof, N.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, R.M.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de


    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) A-1 phototherapy is now available for a variety of skin diseases. Increasingly since 1995, there have been investigations of the efficacy of UVA-1 (340-400 nm) therapy for sclerotic skin diseases. Most studies undertaken treated patients who had localized scleroderma, bu

  20. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.


    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  1. The ultraviolet spectrum of OCS from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; McBane, G.C.;


    Global three dimensional potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moment functions are calculated for the lowest singlet and triplet states of carbonyl sulfide at the multireference configuration interaction level of theory. The first ultraviolet absorption band is then studied by means...

  2. Graphene defect formation by extreme ultraviolet generated photoelectrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, An; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik


    We have studied the effect of photoelectrons on defect formation in graphene during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation. Assuming the major role of these low energy electrons, we have mimicked the process by using low energy primary electrons. Graphene is irradiated by an electron beam with energy

  3. Genetic recombination of ultraviolet-irradiated nonreplicating lambda DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.A.G.


    Genetic recombination of ultraviolet-irradiated, nonreplicating lambda DNA was studied. Escherichia coli homoimmune lysogens were infected with ultraviolet-irradiated lambda phage whose DNA possessed a tandem duplication of the A to V genes. Recombination between duplicated segments produced lambda, DNA molecules possessing only one copy of the A to V region. DNA was extracted from cells and used to transfect recombination-deficient spheroplasts. Transfection lysates were assayed for total lambda phage and recombinant (EDTA-resistant) phage. Ultraviolet-stimulated recombination was shown to be completely RecA-dependent, mostly RecF-dependent, and RecBC and RecE-independent. Experiments with excision repair-deficient (uvr-) bacteria suggested that ultraviolet-stimulated recombination occurred by both Uvr-dependent and Uvr-independent processes. A role for pyrimidine dimers in recombination was indicated by the reduction in recombination frequency subsequent to photoreactivation and by experiments using lambda phase irradiated under conditions that produce almost exclusively pyrimidine dimers. A role for photoproducts other than pyrimidine dimers was suggested by the photo-reactivation-insensitive component of 254nm-stimulated recombination and by the observation that recombination frequencies of 254-irradiated phage were much greater than those of 313 nm/acetophenone-irradiated phage when both types of phage possessed the same number of pyridimidine dimers per lambda duplex.

  4. Ultraviolet-light-induced processes in germanium-doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin


    A model is presented for the interaction of ultraviolet (UV) light with germanium-doped silica glass. It is assumed that germanium sites work as gates for transferring the excitation energy into the silica. In the material the excitation induces forbidden transitions to two different defect states...

  5. Graphene defect formation by extreme ultraviolet generated photoelectrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, A.; Lee, C. J.; F. Bijkerk,


    We have studied the effect of photoelectrons on defect formation in graphene during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation. Assuming the major role of these low energy electrons, we have mimicked the process by using low energy primary electrons. Graphene is irradiated by an electron beam with energy

  6. Pollen and spores as biological recorders of past ultraviolet irradiance (United States)

    Jardine, Phillip E.; Fraser, Wesley T.; Lomax, Barry H.; Sephton, Mark A.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.


    Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance is a key driver of climatic and biotic change. Ultraviolet irradiance modulates stratospheric warming and ozone production, and influences the biosphere from ecosystem-level processes through to the largest scale patterns of diversification and extinction. Yet our understanding of ultraviolet irradiance is limited because no method has been validated to reconstruct its flux over timescales relevant to climatic or biotic processes. Here, we show that a recently developed proxy for ultraviolet irradiance based on spore and pollen chemistry can be used over long (105 years) timescales. Firstly we demonstrate that spatial variations in spore and pollen chemistry correlate with known latitudinal solar irradiance gradients. Using this relationship we provide a reconstruction of past changes in solar irradiance based on the pollen record from Lake Bosumtwi in Ghana. As anticipated, variations in the chemistry of grass pollen from the Lake Bosumtwi record show a link to multiple orbital precessional cycles (19–21 thousand years). By providing a unique, local proxy for broad spectrum solar irradiance, the chemical analysis of spores and pollen offers unprecedented opportunities to decouple solar variability, climate and vegetation change through geologic time and a new proxy with which to probe the Earth system.

  7. Vectorial diffraction of extreme ultraviolet light and ultrashort light pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrowati, A.M.


    In this thesis, we present applications in optics involving the diffraction theory of light for two advanced technologies. We have used a rigorous vectorial diffraction method to model: (i) the imaging of mask structures in extreme ultraviolet lithography, and (ii) ultrashort pulse propagation thro

  8. The Physics and Diagnostic Potential of Ultraviolet Spectropolarimetry (United States)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio; Belluzzi, Luca


    The empirical investigation of the magnetic field in the outer solar atmosphere is a very important challenge in astrophysics. To this end, we need to identify, measure and interpret observable quantities sensitive to the magnetism of the upper chromosphere, transition region and corona. This paper provides an overview of the physics and diagnostic potential of spectropolarimetry in permitted spectral lines of the ultraviolet solar spectrum, such as the Mg ii h and k lines around 2800 Å, the hydrogen Lyman-α line at 1216 Å, and the Lyman-α line of He ii at 304 Å. The outer solar atmosphere is an optically pumped vapor and the linear polarization of such spectral lines is dominated by the atomic level polarization produced by the absorption and scattering of anisotropic radiation. Its modification by the action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects in the inhomogeneous and dynamic solar atmosphere needs to be carefully understood because it encodes the magnetic field information. The circular polarization induced by the Zeeman effect in some ultraviolet lines (e.g., Mg ii h & k) is also of diagnostic interest, especially for probing the outer solar atmosphere in plages and more active regions. The few (pioneering) observational attempts carried out so far to measure the ultraviolet spectral line polarization produced by optically pumped atoms in the upper chromosphere, transition region and corona are also discussed. We emphasize that ultraviolet spectropolarimetry is a key gateway to the outer atmosphere of the Sun and of other stars.

  9. Corongraphic Observations and Analyses of The Ultraviolet Solar Corona (United States)

    Kohl, John L.


    The activities supported under NASA Grant NAG5-613 included the following: 1) reduction and scientific analysis of data from three sounding rocket flights of the Rocket Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer, 2) development of ultraviolet spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to provide a detailed empirical description of the extended solar corona, 3) extensive upgrade of the rocket instrument to become the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) for Spartan 201,4) instrument scientific calibration and characterization, 5) observation planning and mission support for a series of five Spartan 201 missions (fully successful except for STS 87 where the Spartan spacecraft was not successfully deployed and the instruments were not activated), and 6) reduction and scientific analysis of the UVCS/Spartan 201 observational data. The Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer for Spartan 201 was one unit of a joint payload and the other unit was a White Light Coronagraph (WLC) provided by the High Altitude Observatory and the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two instruments were used in concert to determine plasma parameters describing structures in the extended solar corona. They provided data that could be used individually or jointly in scientific analyses. The WLC provided electron column densities in high spatial resolution and high time resolution. UVCS/Spartan provided hydrogen velocity distributions, and line of sight hydrogen velocities. The hydrogen intensities from UVCS together with the electron densities from WLC were used to determine hydrogen outflow velocities. The UVCS also provided O VI intensities which were used to develop diagnostics for velocity distributions and outflow velocities of minor ions.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation from evolved stellar populations II. the ultraviolet upturn phenomenon in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Ben Dorman; Robert W O'Connell; Robert T Rood


    We present an analysis of the far-ultraviolet upturn phenomenon (UVX) observed in elliptical galaxies and spiral galaxy bulges. Our premise is that the UV radiation from these systems emanates primarily from extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars and their progeny. We re-derive the broad-band UV colors 1500-V and 2500-V for globular clusters and elliptical galaxies from the available satellite data and investigate color-color and color-line strength correlations. We also provide the ingredients necessary for constructing models with arbitrary HB morphologies. Our models accurately predict the range of UV colors observed for the globular clusters, given known constraints on their age, abundances, and HB morphologies. Models with \\feh \\gta 0 which do not contain EHB stars cannot reproduce the colors of most of the galaxies. However, only small EHB fractions are required: \\lta 5\\% for the bulk of the E galaxies and \\sim 20\\% for those with the strongest UVX. Our models accurately predict the range of UV colors ob...

  11. Superhydrophobic Polyimide via Ultraviolet Photooxidation: The Evolution of Surface Morphology and Hydrophobicity under Different Ultraviolet Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Gu


    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photooxidation has recently been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic polyimide (PI films in combination with fluoroalkylsilane modification. However, it remains unclear whether the surface morphology and hydrophobicity are sensitive to technical parameters such as UV intensity and radiation environment. Herein, we focus on the effects of UV intensity on PI surface structure and wettability to gain comprehensive understanding and more effective control of this technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM results showed that UV intensity governed the evolutionary pattern of surface morphology: lower UV intensity (5 mW/cm2 facilitated in-plane expansion of dendritic protrusions while stronger UV (10 and 15 mW/cm2 encouraged localized growth of protrusions in a piling-up manner. Surface roughness and hydrophobicity maximized at the intensity of 10 mW/cm2, as a consequence of the slowed horizontal expansion and preferred vertical growth of the protrusions when UV intensity increased. Based on these results, the mechanism that surface micro/nanostructures developed in distinct ways when exposed to different UV intensities was proposed. Though superhydrophobicity (water contact angle larger than 150° can be achieved at UV intensity not less than 10 mW/cm2, higher intensity decreased the effectiveness. Therefore, the UV photooxidation under 10 mW/cm2 for 72 h is recommended to fabricate superhydrophobic PI films.

  12. Zinc Selenide-Based Schottky Barrier Detectors for Ultraviolet-A and Ultraviolet-B Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naval


    Full Text Available Wide-bandgap semiconductors such as zinc selenide (ZnSe have become popular for ultraviolet (UV photodetectors due to their broad UV spectral response. Schottky barrier detectors made of ZnSe in particular have been shown to have both low dark current and high responsivity. This paper presents the results of electrical and optical characterization of UV sensors based on ZnSe/Ni Schottky diodes fabricated using single-crystal ZnSe substrate with integrated UV-A (320–400 nm and UV-B (280–320 nm filters. For comparison, characteristics characterization of an unfiltered detector is also included. The measured photoresponse showed good discrimination between the two spectral bands. The measured responsivities of the UV-A and UV-B detectors were 50 mA/W and 10 mA/W, respectively. A detector without a UV filter showed a maximum responsivity of about 110 mA/W at 375 nm wavelength. The speed of the unfiltered detector was found to be about 300 kHz primarily limited by the RC time constant determined largely by the detector area.

  13. Establishing a Ultraviolet Radiation Observational Network and Enhancing the Study on Ultraviolet Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建辉; 王庚辰


    On the basis of analyzing observational data on solar radiation, meteorological parameters, and totalozone amount for the period of January 1990 to December 1991 in the Beijing area, an empirical calculationmethod for ultraviolet radiation (UV) in clear sky is obtained. The results show that the calculated valuesagree well with the observed, with maximum relative bias of 6.2% and mean relative bias for 24 months of1.9%. Good results are also obtained when this method is applied in Guangzhou and Mohe districts. Thelong-term variation of UV radiation in clear sky over the Beijing area from 1979 to 1998 is calculated, andthe UV variation trends and causes are discussed: direct and indirect UV energy absorption by increasingpollutants in the troposphere may have caused the UV decrease in clear sky in the last 20 years. With theenhancement of people's quality of life and awareness of health, it will be valuable and practical to providUV forecasts for typical cities and rural areas. So, we should develop and enhance UV study in systematicmonitoring, forecasting, and developing a good and feasible method for UV radiation reporting in China,especially for big cities.

  14. Effects of exposure to ultraviolet light on the development of Rana pipiens, the northern leopard frog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.J.; Wofford, H.W. [Union Univ., Jackson, TN (United States)


    The increase in ultraviolet light intensity levels due to ozone depletion recently has been linked to the decline in amphibian population. In this experiment, eggs and larvae of Rana pipiens were subjected to differing amounts of ultraviolet radiation to determine the effects of ultraviolet light on the development of amphibian tadpoles. The total length, length of body without tail, and maximum width of each specimen was recorded for a month of the tadpoles` development, including several measurements after the ultraviolet exposures were concluded. It was found that ultraviolet exposure significantly reduced the size of the organisms in comparison with the control group in all three measured areas. Ultraviolet radiation altered the health and appearance of the exposed organisms and was lethal at large amounts. This experiment showed that ultraviolet radiation could cause many problems in developing amphibians. By slowing their development and physically weakening predation, thus contributing to a decline in overall population levels.

  15. Research on dual spectrum solar-blind ultraviolet corona detection system (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Gu, Yan; Sun, Jianning; Pan, Jingsheng; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Qi; Lu, Xiaoqing


    A dual spectrum solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) corona detection system is designed in this paper. A common optical axis using a dichroic mirror is applied to this system in order to make visible light and ultraviolet light spectroscopy to ultraviolet detector and visible detectors. A high speed circuit of image processing based on TMS320DM642 DSP and a circuit that is used into system control and power management based on microcontroller are designed for the presented system. On the basis of the multi-threaded programming ideas, real-time image acquisition of ultraviolet and visible detectors, ultraviolet image noise reduction, image registration, dual spectral integration, Characteristic superimposing, serial communication and image display are achieved by using the DSP image processing circuit. Experimental results show that the dual spectrum solar-blind ultraviolet corona detection system has a good performance of corona detection based on ultraviolet and visible image fusion.

  16. An Ultraviolet-to-Radio Broadband Spectral Atlas of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Gordon, K D; Hanson, H M; Armus, L; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, L; Block, M; Boissier, S; Boselli, A; Buckalew, B A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Calzetti, D; Cannon, J M; Engelbracht, C W; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D J; Jarrett, T H; Kennicutt, R C; Leitherer, C; Li, A; Madore, B F; Meyer, M J; Murphy, E J; Regan, M W; Roussel, H; Smith, J D T; Sosey, M L; Thilker, D A; Walter, F


    The ultraviolet-to-radio continuum spectral energy distributions are presented for all 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). A principal component analysis of the sample shows that most of the sample's spectral variations stem from two underlying components, one representative of a galaxy with a low infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and one representative of a galaxy with a high infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio. The influence of several parameters on the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio is studied (e.g., optical morphology, disk inclination, far-infrared color, ultraviolet spectral slope, and star formation history). Consistent with our understanding of normal star-forming galaxies, the SINGS sample of galaxies in comparison to more actively star-forming galaxies exhibits a larger dispersion in the infrared-to-ultraviolet versus ultraviolet spectral slope correlation. Early type galaxies, exhibiting low star formation rates and high optical surface brightnesses, have the most discrepant in...

  17. Attenuation measurements of vacuum ultraviolet light in liquid argon revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumeier, A. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dandl, T.; Himpsl, A. [Physik-Department E12, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); KETEK GmbH, Hofer Straße 3, 81737 München (Germany); Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Schönert, S. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ulrich, A., E-mail: [Physik-Department E12, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    The attenuation of vacuum ultraviolet light in liquid argon in the context of its application in large liquid noble gas detectors has been studied. Compared to a previous publication several technical issues concerning transmission measurements in general are addressed and several systematic effects were quantitatively measured. Wavelength-resolved transmission measurements have been performed from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near-infrared region. On the current level of sensitivity with a length of the optical path of 11.6 cm, no xenon-related absorption effects could be observed, and pure liquid argon is fully transparent down to the short wavelength cut-off of the experimental setup at 118 nm. A lower limit for the attenuation length of pure liquid argon for its own scintillation light has been estimated to be 1.10 m based on a very conservative approach.

  18. Attenuation measurements of vacuum ultraviolet light in liquid argon revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Neumeier, A; Himpsl, A; Hofmann, M; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Schönert, S; Ulrich, A


    The attenuation of vacuum ultraviolet light in liquid argon in the context of its application in large liquid noble gas detectors has been studied. Compared to a previous publication several technical issues concerning transmission measurements in general are addressed and several systematic effects were quantitatively measured. Wavelength-resolved transmission measurements have been performed from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near-infrared region. On the current level of sensitivity with a length of the optical path of 11.6 cm, no xenon-related absorption effects could be observed, and pure liquid argon is fully transparent down to the short wavelength cut-off of the experimental setup at 118 nm. A lower limit for the attenuation length of pure liquid argon for its own scintillation light has been estimated to be 1.10 m based on a very conservative approach.

  19. Ultraviolet Phototransistors on AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; JIANG Wen-Hai; REN Chun-Jiang; LI Zhong-Hui; JIAO Gang; DONG Xun; CHEN Tang-Sheng


    We report on the fabrication and characterization of phototransistors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown over 6H-SiC substrates. The device has two functions: as a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and an ultraviolet photodetector at the same time. As an HEMT, its maximum transconductance is 170 mS/mm, while the minimum cutoff frequency fT and the maximum oscillation frequency fm axe 19 and 35 GHz, respectively.As a photodetector, the device is visible blind, with an ultraviolet/green contrast of three orders of magnitude,and a responsivity as high as 1700 A/W at the wavelength of 362nm.

  20. Two-photon excited ultraviolet photoluminescence of zinc oxide nanorods. (United States)

    Zhu, Guangping; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping; Sun, Xiaowei


    High density zinc oxide nanorods with uniform size were synthesized on (100) silicon substrate by vapor-phase transport method. The scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the nanorods have an average diameter of about 400 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern demonstrates the wurtzite crystalline structure of the ZnO nanorods growing along [0001] direction. The single-photon excited photoluminescence presents a strong ultraviolet emission band at 394 nm and a weak visible emission band at 600 nm. When the ZnO nanorods were respectively pumped by various wavelength lasers from 520 nm to 700 nm, two-photon excited ultraviolet photoluminescence was observed. The dependence of the two-photon excited photoluminescence intensity on the excitation wavelength and power was investigated in detail.

  1. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.


    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  2. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode (United States)

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.


    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  3. Reactor for simulation and acceleration of solar ultraviolet damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laue, E.; Gupta, A.


    An environmental test chamber providing acceleration of uv radiation and precise temperature control (+- 1/sup 0/C) has been designed, constructed and tested. This chamber allows acceleration of solar ultraviolet up to 30 suns while maintaining temperature of the absorbing surface at 30/sup 0/C to 60/sup 0/C). This test chamber utilizes a filtered medium pressure mercury arc as the source of radiation, and a combination of selenium radiometer and silicon radiometer to monitor solar ultraviolet (295 to 340 nm) and total radiant power output, respectively. Details of design and construction and operational procedures are presented along with typical test data. The test chamber was designed for accelerated testing of solar cell modules.

  4. Negative refraction at deep-ultraviolet frequency in monocrystalline graphite


    Sun, Jingbo; Zhou, Ji; Kang, Lei; Wang, Rui; Meng, Xianguo; Li, Bo; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Longtu


    Negative refraction is such a prominent electromagnetic phenomenon that most researchers believe it can only occur in artificially engineered metamaterials. In this article, we report negative refraction for all incident angles for the first time in a naturally existing material. Using ellipsometry measurement of the equifrequency contour in the deep-ultraviolet frequency region (typically 254 nm), obvious negative refraction was demonstrated in monocrystalline graphite for incident angles ra...

  5. Fragmentation of mercury compounds under ultraviolet light irradiation (United States)

    Kokkonen, E.; Löytynoja, T.; Hautala, L.; Jänkälä, K.; Huttula, M.


    Ultraviolet light induced photofragmentation of mercury compounds is studied experimentally with electron energy resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques and theoretically with computational quantum chemical methods. A high resolution photoelectron spectrum using synchrotron radiation is presented. Fragmentation of the molecule is studied subsequent to ionization to the atomic-mercury-like d orbitals. State dependent fragmentation behaviour is presented and specific reactions for dissociation pathways are given. The fragmentation is found to differ distinctly in similar orbitals of different mercury compounds.

  6. The Copernicus ultraviolet spectral atlas of Beta Orionis (United States)

    Rogerson, J. B., Jr.; Upson, W. L., II


    An ultraviolet spectral atlas is presented for the B8 Ia star Beta Orionis, which has been scanned from 999 to 1561 A by the Princeton spectrometer aboard the Copernicus satellite. From 999 to 1420 A the observations have a nominal resolution of 0.05 A. At the longer wavelengths the resolution is 0.1 A. The atlas is presented in graphs. Lines identified in the spectrum are also listed.

  7. The Copernicus ultraviolet spectral atlas of Gamma Pegasi (United States)

    Rogerson, J. B., Jr.


    An ultraviolet spectral atlas is presented for the B2 IV star Gamma Pegasi, which has been scanned from 970 to 1501 A by the Princeton spectrometer aboard the Copernicus satellite. From 970 to 1430 A the observations have a nominal resolution of 0.05 A. At the longer wavelengths the resolution is 0.1 A. The atlas is presented in graphs. Line identifications are also listed.

  8. The Copernicus ultraviolet spectral atlas of Iota Herculis (United States)

    Upson, W. L., II; Rogerson, J. B., Jr.


    An ultraviolet spectral atlas is presented for the B3 IV star Iota Herculis, which has been scanned from 999 to 1467 A by the Princeton spectrometer aboard the Copernicus satellite. From 999 to 1422 A the observations have a nominal resolution of 0.05 A. At the longer wavelengths the resolution is 0.1 A. The atlas is presented in graphs. Lines identified in the spectrum are also listed.

  9. Role of Ultraviolet Radiation in Papillomavirus-Induced Disease


    Aayushi Uberoi; Satoshi Yoshida; Frazer, Ian H; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.


    Human papillomaviruses are causally associated with 5% of human cancers. The recent discovery of a papillomavirus (MmuPV1) that infects laboratory mice provides unique opportunities to study the life cycle and pathogenesis of papillomaviruses in the context of a genetically manipulatable host organism. To date, MmuPV1-induced disease has been found largely to be restricted to severely immunodeficient strains of mice. In this study, we report that ultraviolet radiation (UVR), specifically UVB ...

  10. MgII Observations Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (United States)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi


    This paper will describe the scientific goals of our sounding rocket program, the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI). This paper will present a brief description of the optics that were developed to meet SUMI's scientific goals, discuss the spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics of SUMI s optics, describe SUMI's flight which was launched 7/30/2010, and discuss what we have learned from that flight.

  11. World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet: ISSIS, the imaging instrument

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Ana I Gomez; Sestito, Paola; Lopez-Martinez, Fatima; Seijas, Juan; Gomez, Maite; Rodriguez, Pablo


    The Imaging and Slitless Spectroscopy Instrument (ISSIS) will be flown as part of the Science Instrumentation in the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV). ISSIS will be the first UV imager to operate in a high Earth orbit from a 2-m class space telescope. In this contribution, the science driving to ISSIS design, as well as main characteristics of ISSIS are presented.

  12. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.


    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and FeIII te......, including iron transitions. Details of the data processing, generation, and use of the templates, are given by Vestergaard & Wilkes (2001)....

  13. Fragmentation of mercury compounds under ultraviolet light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkonen, E.; Hautala, L.; Jänkälä, K.; Huttula, M. [Centre for Molecular Materials Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Löytynoja, T. [Centre for Molecular Materials Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Division of Theoretical Chemistry & Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Ultraviolet light induced photofragmentation of mercury compounds is studied experimentally with electron energy resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques and theoretically with computational quantum chemical methods. A high resolution photoelectron spectrum using synchrotron radiation is presented. Fragmentation of the molecule is studied subsequent to ionization to the atomic-mercury-like d orbitals. State dependent fragmentation behaviour is presented and specific reactions for dissociation pathways are given. The fragmentation is found to differ distinctly in similar orbitals of different mercury compounds.

  14. Strong far field coherent scattering of ultraviolet radiation by holococcolithophores

    CERN Document Server

    Quintero-Torres, R; Torres, M; Estrada, M; Cros, L


    By considering the structure of holococcoliths (calcite plates that cover holococcolithophores, a haploid phase of the coccolithophore life cycle) as a photonic structure, we apply a discrete dipolar approximation to study the light backscattering properties of these algae. We show that some holococcolith structures have the ability to scatter the ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This property may represent an advantage for holococcolithophores possessing it, by allowing them to live higher in the water column than other coccolithophores.

  15. Assessment of Solar Ultraviolet A Radiation in Hamadan City


    N. Rostampour; T. Almasi; M. Rostampour; H. Bayat; Karimi, S.


    Introduction & Objective: Biological effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the body of live organisms, have been studied by researchers in recent years. UV affects human organs such as skin, eyes and immune system, as well as animals and plants. The main natural source of UV radiation is the Sun. So, the integral observation of UV levels and their effects at ground level is important to determine the present and future environmental and health implications of the solar UV radiation. Since...

  16. Thin film solar cell inflatable ultraviolet rigidizable deployment hinge (United States)

    Simburger, Edward J. (Inventor); Matsumoto, James H. (Inventor); Giants, Thomas W. (Inventor); Garcia, III, Alec (Inventor); Perry, Alan R. (Inventor); Rawal, Suraj (Inventor); Marshall, Craig H. (Inventor); Lin, John K. H. (Inventor); Day, Jonathan Robert (Inventor); Kerslake, Thomas W. (Inventor)


    A flexible inflatable hinge includes curable resin for rigidly positioning panels of solar cells about the hinge in which wrap around contacts and flex circuits are disposed for routing power from the solar cells to the power bus further used for grounding the hinge. An indium tin oxide and magnesium fluoride coating is used to prevent static discharge while being transparent to ultraviolet light that cures the embedded resin after deployment for rigidizing the inflatable hinge.

  17. Ultraviolet refractometry using field-based light scattering spectroscopy



    Accurate refractive index measurement in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range is important for the separate quantification of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA in biology. This task is demanding and has not been fully exploited so far. Here we report a new method of measuring refractive index using field-based light scattering spectroscopy, which is applicable to any wavelength range and suitable for both solutions and homogenous objects with well-defined shape such as microspheres. The angula...

  18. Telescience - Concepts and contributions to the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission (United States)

    Marchant, Will; Dobson, Carl; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Malina, Roger F.


    It is shown how the contradictory goals of low-cost and fast data turnaround characterizing the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) mission can be achieved via the early use of telescience style transparent tools and simulations. The use of transparent tools reduces the parallel development of capability while ensuring that valuable prelaunch experience is not lost in the operations phase. Efforts made to upgrade the 'EUVE electronics' simulator are described.

  19. Narrow-Bandwidth Diode-Laser-Based Ultraviolet Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yu; FANG Zhan-Jun; ZANG Er-Jun


    A compact, tunable and narrow-bandwidth laser source for ultraviolet radiation is presented. A grating stabilized diode laser at 1064 nm is frequency-stabilized to below 10 kHz by using a ultra low expansion (ULE) cavity. Injecting light of the diode laser into a tapered amplifier yields a power of 290mW. In a first frequency-doubling stage, about 47 mW of green light at 532nm is generated by using a periodical// poled KTP crystal. Subsequent second-harwonic generation employing a BBO crystal leads to about 30μW of ultraviolet light at 266nm.%A compact,tunable and narrow-bandwidth laser source for ultraviolet radiation is presented.A grating stabilized diode laser at 1064nm is frequency-stabilized to below 10kHz by using a ultra low expansion (ULE) cavity.Injecting light of the diode laser into a tapered amplifier yields a power of 290 mW.In a first frequency-doubling stage,about 47mW of green light at 532nm is generated by using a periodically poled KTP crystal.Subsequent second-harmonic generation employing a BBO crystal leads to about 30 μ W of ultraviolet light at 266nm.Hg is,so far,the heaviest nonradioactive atom that has been laser-cooled and trapped.Systematic evaluation of various sources of uncertainty for the Hg-based optical lattice clock is obtained and an accuracy of better than 10-1s is attainable,which is an order of magnitude of improvement over Sr or Yb based clocks because of the reduced susceptibility to the blackbody radiation field,which sets a major limitation on the accuracy of atomic clocks.[1] The 1S0-3p0 transition at 265.6 nm will be exploited as a clock transition.

  20. Amplitudes and Ultraviolet Behavior of N = 8 Supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Zvi; /UCLA; Carrasco, John Joseph; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC /CERN; Johansson, Henrik; /Saclay, SPhT; Roiban, Radu; /Penn State U.


    In this contribution we describe computational tools that permit the evaluation of multi-loop scattering amplitudes in N = 8 supergravity, in terms of amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. We also discuss the remarkable ultraviolet behavior of N = 8 supergravity, which follows from these amplitudes, and is as good as that of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory through at least four loops.

  1. The Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability (SWUSV) Microsatellite Mission. (United States)

    Damé, Luc


    We present the ambitions of the SWUSV (Space Weather and Ultraviolet Solar Variability) Microsatellite Mission that encompasses three major scientific objectives: (1) Space Weather including the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging); (2) solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance from 180 to 400 nm by bands of 20 nm, plus Lyman-Alpha and the CN bandhead); (3) simultaneous radiative budget of the Earth, UV to IR, with an accuracy better than 1% in differential. The paper briefly outlines the mission and describes the five proposed instruments of the model payload: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); UPR (Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with 64 UV filter radiometers; a vector magnetometer; thermal plasma measurements and Langmuir probes; and a total and spectral solar irradiance and Earth radiative budget ensemble (SERB, Solar irradiance & Earth Radiative Budget). SWUSV is proposed as a small mission to CNES and to ESA for a possible flight as early as 2017-2018.

  2. Recent advances and applications of gas chromatography vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy. (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Schug, Kevin A


    The vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometer was developed recently as an alternative to existing gas chromatography detectors. This detector measures the absorption of gas-phase chemical species in the range of 120-240 nm, where all chemical compounds present unique absorption spectra. Therefore, qualitative analysis can be performed and quantification follows standard Beer-Lambert law principles. Different fields of application, such as petrochemical, food, and environmental analysis have been explored. Commonly demonstrated is the capability for facile deconvolution of co-eluting analytes. The concept of additive absorption for co-eluting analytes has also been advanced for classification and speciation of complex mixtures using a data treatment procedure termed time interval deconvolution. Furthermore, pseudo-absolute quantitation can be performed for system diagnosis, as well as potentially calibrationless quantitation. In this manuscript an overview of these features, the vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometer instrumentation, and performance capabilities are given. A discussion of the applications of the vacuum ultraviolet detector is provided by describing and discussing the papers published thus far since 2014. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Null bactericidal effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by LEDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alcántara Muñoz


    Full Text Available This research has aimed to assess the bactericidal effect of ultraviolet light emitted by LEDS on the growth on Petri dishes of microorganisms whose legal limits in foods have been established. An electrically fed apparatus has been designed with precise timing and a camera to prevent light spillage, in which two ultraviolet radiation emission devices were connected by LED technology at different wavelengths: through an array of LEDS emitting at around 350nm, and a single specific emission LED at 280nm. 1000 cfu of E. Coli and S. aureus sown on PCA were used as prototypes of gram negative and positive bacteria, respectively, onto which ultraviolet light was radiated at different time intervals, by means of both devices, with the whole experiment being carried out in triplicate . In none of the three series of treatments at the two wavelengths were reductions in microbial growth observed. The series of sowings on PCA were done on unseeded plates in order to be able to discard the likelihood of subsequent recontamination.

  4. The XMM-Newton serendipitous ultraviolet source survey catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Page, M J; Talavera, A; Still, M; Rosen, S R; Yershov, V N; Ziaeepour, H; Mason, K O; Cropper, M S; Breeveld, A A; Loiseau, N; Mignani, R; Smith, A; Murdin, P


    The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Ultraviolet Source Survey (XMM-SUSS) is a catalogue of ultraviolet (UV) sources detected serendipitously by the Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) on-board the XMM-Newton observatory. The catalogue contains ultraviolet-detected sources collected from 2,417 XMM-OM observations in 1-6 broad band UV and optical filters, made between 24 February 2000 and 29 March 2007. The primary contents of the catalogue are source positions, magnitudes and fluxes in 1 to 6 passbands, and these are accompanied by profile diagnostics and variability statistics. The XMM-SUSS is populated by 753,578 UV source detections above a 3 sigma signal-to-noise threshold limit which relate to 624,049 unique objects. Taking account of substantial overlaps between observations, the net sky area covered is 29-54 square degrees, depending on UV filter. The magnitude distributions peak at 20.2, 20.9 and 21.2 in UVW2, UVM2 and UVW1 respectively. More than 10 per cent of sources have been visited more than once using the same fi...

  5. $\\gamma$-Ray Burster Counterparts HST Blue and Ultraviolet Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, B E; Hurley, K; Laros, J G; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Cline, Thomas; Hurley, Kevin; Laros, John


    The surest solution of the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) mystery is to find an unambiguous low-energy quiescent counterpart. However, to date no reasonable candidates have been identified in the x-ray, optical, infrared, or radio ranges. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has now allowed for the first deep ultraviolet searches for quiescent counterparts. This paper reports on multiepoch ultraviolet searches of five GRB positions with HST. We found no sources with significant ultraviolet excesses, variability, parallax, or proper motion in any of the burst error regions. In particular, we see no sources similar to that proposed as a counterpart to the GRB970228. While this negative result is disappointing, it still has good utility for its strict limits on the no-host-galaxy problem in cosmological models of GRBs. For most cosmological models (with peak luminosity 6X10^50 erg/s), the absolute B magnitude of any possible host galaxy must be fainter than -15.5 to -17.4. These smallest boxes for some of the brightest burst...

  6. Tiny Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Earth Stratosphere from Space Investigation (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, O.


    One of the reasons for climate change (i.e., stratospheric ozone concentrations) is connected with the variations in optical thickness of aerosols in the upper sphere of the atmosphere (at altitudes over 30 km). Therefore, aerosol and gas components of the atmosphere are crucial in the study of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing upon the Earth. Moreover, a scrupulous study of aerosol components of the Earth atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (i.e., stratospheric aerosol), such as the size of particles, the real part of refractive index, optical thickness and its horizontal structure, concentration of ozone or the upper border of the stratospheric ozone layer is an important task in the research of the Earth climate change. At present, the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI"and the Lviv Polytechnic National University are engaged in the development of methodologies for the study of stratospheric aerosol by means of ultraviolet polarimeter using a microsatellite. So fare, there has been created a sample of a tiny ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) which is considered to be a basic model for carrying out space experiments regarding the impact of the changes in stratospheric aerosols on both global and local climate.

  7. The High-ORbit Ultraviolet-visible Satellite, HORUS (United States)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Cooke, Brian; Beasley, Matthew; Siegmund, Oswald


    The High-ORbit Ultraviolet-visible Satellite (HORUS) is a 2.4-meter class space telescope that will conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. HORUS will provide 100× greater imaging efficiency and combines the resolution of STIS with the throughput of COS. The HORUS mission will contribute vital information on how solar systems form and whether habitable planets should be common or rare. It also will investigate the structure, evolution, and destiny of galaxies and the universe. This program relies on focused capabilities unique to space that no other planned NASA mission will provide: near-ultraviolet (UV)/visible (200-1100nm) wide-field (14' square), diffraction-limited imaging; and high-sensitivity, high-resolution FUV (100- 320nm) spectroscopy. From its baseline orbit at L2 HORUS will enjoy a stable environment for thermal and pointing control, and long-duration target visibility. The core HORUS design will provide wide field of view imagery and high efficiency point source far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy using a combination of spectral selection and field sharing.

  8. Ultraviolet surface plasmon-mediated low temperature hydrazine decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Siying; Sheldon, Matthew T.; Atwater, Harry A. [Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Liu, Wei-Guang; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Goddard, William Andrew [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)


    Conventional methods require elevated temperatures in order to dissociate high-energy nitrogen bonds in precursor molecules such as ammonia or hydrazine used for nitride film growth. We report enhanced photodissociation of surface-absorbed hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) molecules at low temperature by using ultraviolet surface plasmons to concentrate the exciting radiation. Plasmonic nanostructured aluminum substrates were designed to provide resonant near field concentration at λ = 248 nm (5 eV), corresponding to the maximum optical cross section for hydrogen abstraction from N{sub 2}H{sub 4}. We employed nanoimprint lithography to fabricate 1 mm × 1 mm arrays of the resonant plasmonic structures, and ultraviolet reflectance spectroscopy confirmed resonant extinction at 248 nm. Hydrazine was cryogenically adsorbed to the plasmonic substrate in a low-pressure ambient, and 5 eV surface plasmons were resonantly excited using a pulsed KrF laser. Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the photodissociation products and indicated a 6.2× overall enhancement in photodissociation yield for hydrazine adsorbed on plasmonic substrates compared with control substrates. The ultraviolet surface plasmon enhanced photodissociation demonstrated here may provide a valuable method to generate reactive precursors for deposition of nitride thin film materials at low temperatures.

  9. Extreme-Ultraviolet Vortices from a Free-Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Rebernik Ribič


    Full Text Available Extreme-ultraviolet vortices may be exploited to steer the magnetic properties of nanoparticles, increase the resolution in microscopy, and gain insight into local symmetry and chirality of a material; they might even be used to increase the bandwidth in long-distance space communications. However, in contrast to the generation of vortex beams in the infrared and visible spectral regions, production of intense, extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray optical vortices still remains a challenge. Here, we present an in-situ and an ex-situ technique for generating intense, femtosecond, coherent optical vortices at a free-electron laser in the extreme ultraviolet. The first method takes advantage of nonlinear harmonic generation in a helical undulator, producing vortex beams at the second harmonic without the need for additional optical elements, while the latter one relies on the use of a spiral zone plate to generate a focused, micron-size optical vortex with a peak intensity approaching 10^{14}  W/cm^{2}, paving the way to nonlinear optical experiments with vortex beams at short wavelengths.


    Wyckoff, R W


    The survival ratios of colon bacilli subjected to several monochromatic ultraviolet radiations follow semilogarithmic straight lines. For each wave length approximate observations have been made of the energy involved in cell destruction. This energy varies somewhat with frequency in the ultraviolet region; it is furthermore nearly one hundred times as great as the amount of X-ray energy required to bring about the same killing. Preliminary experiments show no measurable difference either in rate of killing or in lethal energy between B. coli and B. aertrycke. Parallel results have already been obtained with X-rays and electrons. The data from colon bacilli are interpreted in terms of the assumptions employed for X-rays. They indicate that though bacterial death should result from a single quantum absorption, millions more such absorptions seemingly are without injurious effect on cell growth and multiplication. The "sensitive volume" within which, according to this picture, the lethal quantum must be stopped proves to be about the same as that of a single protein molecule. If this is the correct description of the phenomena of ultraviolet killing, it seems strange that the millions of non-deadly quanta absorbed per bacillus should not show themselves by altered growth rates or in other ways. That they apparently do not suggests the inapplicability of the statistical picture. The death rate under this kind of radiation then would be primarily an expression of the relative sensitivities of the bacterial population. Additional experiments are required to determine this question.

  11. Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm after ultraviolet light-emitting diode treatment: a comparative study between ultraviolet C and ultraviolet B (United States)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Petersen, Paul Michael


    The objective of this study was to test the inactivation efficiency of two different light-based treatments, namely ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages (24, 48, and 72 h grown). In our experiments, a type of AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms. The effectiveness of the UVB at 296 nm and UVC at 266 nm irradiations was quantified by counting colony-forming units. The survival of less mature biofilms (24 h grown) was studied as a function of UV-radiant exposure. All treatments were performed on three different biological replicates to test reproducibility. It was shown that UVB irradiation was significantly more effective than UVC irradiation in inactivating P. aeruginosa biofilms. UVC irradiation induced insignificant inactivation on mature biofilms. The fact that the UVB at 296 nm exists in daylight and has such disinfection ability on biofilms provides perspectives for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet-ultraviolet and x-ray excited luminescence properties of Ba3Gd(BO3)3:Ce3+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Liang, H.; Lin, H.; Zhong, J.; Su, Q.; Dorenbos, P.; Birowosuto, M.D.; Zhang, G.; Fu, Y.


    The phosphors Ba3Gd(BO3)3:Ce3+ were prepared by a solid-state reaction technique at high temperature. The vacuum ultraviolet-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic properties of the phosphors together with decay time curves are investigated and discussed. The spectroscopic properties are explained by

  13. Estimativa da radiação de onda longa atmosférica em áreas de floresta e de pastagem no sudoeste da Amazônia Estimate of the atmospheric long wave radiation in forest and pasture area in south west amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo José Gonçalves Aguiar


    Full Text Available A radiação de onda longa proveniente da atmosfera (Lin é a componente do balanço de radiação mais difícil de ser medida. Na Amazônia praticamente não existem medidas regulares dessa componente, mesmo sendo uma importante variável no cálculo do balanço de radiação à superfície e muito usada para alimentar modelos climáticos. Tendo em vista a necessidade desses dados, o objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar o desempenho de sete equações na estimativa da Lin para dias de céu claro em áreas de floresta (Reserva Biológica do Jaru, 10º4'48''S; 61º55'48''W e de pastagem (Fazenda Nossa Senhora, 10º45'S; 62º21'W no sudoeste da Amazônia. Medidas de radiação de onda longa atmosférica realizadas no período de junho de 2005 a maio de 2006 foram comparadas com as estimativas. As equações testadas tiveram desempenho satisfatório apenas durante a estação seca. As condições de alta nebulosidade, dominantes na estação chuvosa, restringiram a quantidade de dados utilizados na avaliação das equações. As equações que utilizam informações de temperatura do ar e pressão de vapor d'água para a estimativa da Lin tiveram melhor desempenho em relação às que utilizam apenas a temperatura do ar. As equações de Brutsaert (1975, Idso (1981 e Prata (1996 foram as que apresentaram melhor desempenho, apresentando os maiores índices de concordância, e sendo, portanto, as equações mais indicadas para a estimativa da radiação de onda longa atmosférica no sudoeste da Amazônia.Atmospheric long wave radiation (Lin is the most difficult component of the radiation budget to be measured. In Amazonia there are very few regular measurements of this component, even though it is an important variable in the calculation of the surface radiation balance and frequently used in climate models. Given the need for such data, the objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of seven equations used for the estimation of Lin

  14. H-bond network around retinal regulates the evolution of ultraviolet and violet vision (United States)

    Altun, Ahmet; Morokuma, Keiji; Yokoyama, Shozo


    Ancestors of vertebrates used ultraviolet vision. Some descendants preserved ultraviolet vision while some others replaced it with violet vision, and then, some of avian lineages reinvented ultraviolet vision. Ultraviolet (absorption at ~360 nm) and violet (410–440 nm) sensitivities of visual pigments are known to be affected by around 20 amino acid substitutions. The present quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations show that these substitutions modify a H-bond network formed by two waters and sites 86, 90, 113, 114, 118 and 295, which determines the protonation state of Schiff base-linked 11-cis-retinal. A pigment is ultraviolet-sensitive when it is more stable with an unprotonated retinal (SBR) form than with its protonated analog (PSBR), and is violet-sensitive when the PSBR form is more stable. These results establish for the first time the chemical basis of ultraviolet and violet vision in vertebrates. PMID:21650174

  15. Handheld deep ultraviolet emission device based on aluminum nitride quantum wells and graphene nanoneedle field emitters. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Iwayama, Sho; Saito, Takao; Kawakami, Yasuyuki; Kubo, Fumio; Amano, Hiroshi


    We report the successful fabrication of a compact deep ultraviolet emission device via a marriage of AlGaN quantum wells and graphene nanoneedle field electron emitters. The device demonstrated a 20-mW deep ultraviolet output power and an approximately 4% power efficiency. The performance of this device may lead toward the realization of an environmentally friendly, convenient and practical deep ultraviolet light source.

  16. An Ultraviolet-to-Radio Broadband Spectral Atlas of Nearby Galaxies (United States)

    Dale, D. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gordon, K. D.; Hanson, H. M.; Armus, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, L.; Block, M.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Buckalew, B. A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Calzetti, D.; Cannon, J. M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Helou, G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Leitherer, C.; Li, A.; Madore, B. F.; Martin, D. C.; Meyer, M. J.; Murphy, E. J.; Regan, M. W.; Roussel, H.; Smith, J. D. T.; Sosey, M. L.; Thilker, D. A.; Walter, F.


    The ultraviolet-to-radio continuum spectral energy distributions are presented for all 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). A principal component analysis of the sample shows that most of the sample's spectral variations stem from two underlying components, one representative of a galaxy with a low infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and one representative of a galaxy with a high infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio. The influence of several parameters on the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio is studied (e.g., optical morphology, disk inclination, far-infrared color, ultraviolet spectral slope, and star formation history). Consistent with our understanding of normal star-forming galaxies, the SINGS sample of galaxies in comparison to more actively star-forming galaxies exhibits a larger dispersion in the infrared-to-ultraviolet versus ultraviolet spectral slope correlation. Early-type galaxies, exhibiting low star formation rates and high optical surface brightnesses, have the most discrepant infrared-to-ultraviolet correlation. These results suggest that the star formation history may be the dominant regulator of the broadband spectral variations between galaxies. Finally, a new discovery shows that the 24 μm morphology can be a useful tool for parameterizing the global dust temperature and ultraviolet extinction in nearby galaxies. The dust emission in dwarf/irregular galaxies is clumpy and warm accompanied by low ultraviolet extinction, while in spiral galaxies there is typically a much larger diffuse component of cooler dust and average ultraviolet extinction. For galaxies with nuclear 24 μm emission, the dust temperature and ultraviolet extinction are relatively high compared to disk galaxies.

  17. Ion chromatography with the indirect ultraviolet detection of alkali metal ions and ammonium using imidazolium ionic liquid as ultraviolet absorption reagent and eluent. (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Hong


    Indirect ultraviolet detection was conducted in ultraviolet-absorption-agent-added mobile phase to complete the detection of the absence of ultraviolet absorption functional group in analytes. Compared with precolumn derivatization or postcolumn derivatization, this method can be widely used, has the advantages of simple operation and good linear relationship. Chromatographic separation of Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and NH4 (+) was performed on a carboxylic acid base cation exchange column using imidazolium ionic liquid/acid/organic solvent as the mobile phase, in which imidazolium ionic liquids acted as ultraviolet absorption reagent and eluting agent. The retention behaviors of four kinds of cations are discussed, and the mechanism of separation and detection are described. The main factors influencing the separation and detection were the background ultraviolet absorption reagent and the concentration of hydrogen ion in the ion chromatography-indirect ultraviolet detection. The successful separation and detection of Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and NH4 (+) within 13 min was achieved using the selected chromatographic conditions, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.02, 0.11, 0.30, and 0.06 mg/L, respectively. A new separation and analysis method of alkali metal ions and ammonium by ion chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection method was developed, and the application range of ionic liquid was expanded. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Functional Significance Of Ultraviolet Feeding Cues In Wild Turkeys. (United States)

    Werner, Scott J; Buchholz, Richard; Tupper, Shelagh K; Pettit, Susan E; Ellis, Jeremy W


    WERNER, S. J., R. BUCHHOLZ, S. K. TUPPER, S. E. PETTIT AND J. W. ELLIS. Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00:000-000, 2013.- Most birds are able to sense ultraviolet (UV) visual signals. Ultraviolet wavelengths are used for plumage signaling and sexual selection among birds. The aim of our study was to determine if UV cues are also used for the process of food selection in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). We used avoidance conditioning to test the hypothesis that UV feeding cues can be used functionally for foraging behavior in wild turkeys. Female turkeys exhibited no avoidance of untreated food and 75-98% avoidance of food treated with an UV-absorbent, postingestive repellent (0.5-4% anthraquinone; wt/wt) during repellent exposure. Male turkeys exhibited 78-99% avoidance of food treated with 0.5-4% anthraquinone. Female and male turkeys that consumed more than 200mg and 100mg of anthraquinone, respectively, subsequently avoided food treated only with an UV-absorbent cue. In contrast, unconditioned females consumed 58% more food treated with the UV-absorbent cue than untreated food. Thus, wild turkeys do not prefer foods associated with UV wavelengths regardless of feeding experience. We also observed 1) a weak negative correlation between body condition and intestinal parasite infection and 2) moderate, positive correlations between consumption of food treated with the conditioned UV cue and intestinal parasite infection among male turkeys. The UV feeding cue was used to maintain food avoidance during the four days subsequent to postingestive conditioning. Moreover, the consequences of consuming food treated with the postingestive, UV-absorbent repellent were necessary for conditioned avoidance of the UV-absorbent cue. These findings suggest functional significance of UV feeding cues for avian foraging behavior, the implications of which will enable subsequent investigations regarding the sensory physiology and

  19. Ultraviolet modification of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for carbon capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal NS


    Full Text Available Nikhil S Gopal,1 K Sudhakar2 1The Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville, NJ, USA; 2Bioenergy Laboratory, Malauna Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India Purpose: Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels have been rising rapidly. Algae are single-cell organisms with highly efficient CO2 uptake mechanisms. Algae yield two to ten times more biomass versus terrestrial plants and can grow nearly anywhere. Large scale CO2 sequestration is not yet sustainable due to high amounts of nitrogen (N and phosphate (P needed to grow algae in media. Methods: Mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were created using ultraviolet light (2.2–3 K J/m2 and natural selection using media with 20%–80% lower N and P compared to standard Sueoka's high salt medium. Strains were selected based upon growth in media concentrations varying from 20% to 80% less N/P compared to control. Biomass was compared to wild-type control (CC-125 using direct counts, optical density dry weight, and mean doubling time. Results: Mean doubling time was 20 and 25 hours in the low N and N/P strains, respectively (vs 66 hours in control. Using direct counts, growth rates of mutant strains of low N and N/P cultures were not statistically different from control (P=0.37 and 0.70, respectively. Conclusion: Two new strains of algae, as well as wild-type control, were able to grow while using 20%–40% less N and P. Ultraviolet light-based modification of algae is an inexpensive and alternative option to genetic engineering techniques. This technique might make larger scale biosequestration possible. Keywords: biosequestration, ultraviolet, carbon sequestration, carbon capture, algae

  20. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry. (United States)

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco


    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International

  1. Satellite remote sensing of ultraviolet irradiance on the ocean surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Teng; PAN Delu; BAI Yan; LI Gang; HE Xianqiang; CHEN Chen-Tung Arthur; GAO Kunshan; LIU Dong; LEI Hui


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a significant influence on marine biological processes and primary productivity;however, the existing ocean color satellite sensors seldom contain UV bands. A look-up table of wavelength-integrated UV irradiance (280–400 nm) on the sea surface is established using the coupled ocean atmosphere radiative transfer (COART) model. On the basis of the look-up table, the distributions of the UV irradiance at middle and low latitudes are inversed by using the satellite-derived atmospheric products from the Aqua satellite, including aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm, ozone content, liquid water path, and the total precipitable water. The validation results show that the mean relative difference of the 10 d rolling averaged UV irradiance between the satellite retrieval and field observations is 8.20% at the time of satellite passing and 13.95% for the daily dose of UV. The monthly-averaged UV irradiance and daily dose of UV retrieved by satellite data show a good correlation with thein situ data, with mean relative differences of 6.87% and 8.43%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis of satellite inputs is conducted. The liquid water path representing the condition of cloud has the highest effect on the retrieval of the UV irradiance, while ozone and aerosol have relatively lesser effect. The influence of the total precipitable water is not significant. On the basis of the satellite-derived UV irradiance on the sea surface, a preliminary simple estimation of ultraviolet radiation’s effects on the global marine primary productivity is presented, and the results reveal that ultraviolet radiation has a non-negligible effect on the estimation of the marine primary productivity.

  2. Elastomeric Seal Performance after Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.; Dunlap, Patrick H.


    Ultraviolet radiation was evaluated to determine its negative effects on the performance of elastomeric gas pressure seals. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 O-ring test articles were used to quantify the degradation of the seals after exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet and/or middle-to-near-ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Three groups of seals were exposed in terrestrial facilities to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation, 230-500 nm wavelength radiation, or both spectrums, for an orbital spaceflight equivalent of 125 hours. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 seals were quantified and compared to samples that received no radiation. Each lot contained six samples and statistical t-tests were used to determine the separate and combined influences of exposure to the two wavelength ranges. A comparison of the mean leak rates of samples exposed to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation to the control specimens showed no difference, suggesting that spectrum was not damaging. The 230-500 nm wavelength appeared to be damaging, as the mean leak rates of the specimens exposed to that range of wavelengths, and those exposed to the combined 115-165 nm and 230-500 nm spectrums, were significantly different from the leak rates of the control specimens. Most importantly, the test articles exposed to both wavelength spectrums exhibited mean leak rates two orders of magnitude larger than any other exposed specimens, which suggested that both wavelength spectrums are important when simulating the orbital environment.

  3. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on coral reef organisms. (United States)

    Banaszak, Anastazia T; Lesser, Michael P


    Organisms living in shallow-water tropical coral reef environments are exposed to high UVR irradiances due to the low solar zenith angles (the angle of the sun from the vertical), the natural thinness of the ozone layer over tropical latitudes, and the high transparency of the water column. The hypothesis that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 290-400 nm) is an important factor that affects the biology and ecology of coral reef organisms dates only to about 1980. It has been previously suggested that increased levels of biologically effective ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, 290-320 nm), which is the waveband primarily affected by ozone depletion, would have relatively small effects on corals and coral reefs and that these effects might be observed as changes in the minimum depths of occurrence of important reef taxa such as corals. This conclusion was based on predictions of increases in UVR as well as its attenuation with depth using the available data on UVR irradiances, ozone levels, and optical properties of the water overlying coral reefs. Here, we review the experimental evidence demonstrating the direct and indirect effects of UVR, both UVB and ultraviolet A (UVA, 320-400 nm) on corals and other reef associated biota, with emphasis on those studies conducted since 1996. Additionally, we re-examine the predictions made in 1996 for the increase in UVB on reefs with currently available data, assess whether those predictions were reasonable, and look at what changes might occur on coral reefs in the future as the multiple effects (i.e. increased temperature, hypercapnia, and ocean acidification) of global climate change continue.

  4. Ultraviolet Synthetic Spectra for Three Lambda Bootis Stars (United States)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Johnson, Dustin; Tarbell, Erik


    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. We show that the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra (1280-3200 A) of Lambda Bootis, 29 Cygni (a "confirmed" Lambda Boo star), and Vega (a "mild" Lambda Boo star) can be fit remarkably well by single-temperature synthetic spectra. We computed the full resolution synthetic ultraviolet (UV) spectrum covering the IUE wavelength range using Gray's Stellar Spectral Synthesis Program SPECTRUM. To improve the synthetic spectra, we generated a grid of LTE atmosphere models with the appropriate stellar parameters using ATLAS9 and the existing Castelli and Kurucz 2004 models. One of the improvements of their opacity distribution functions (ODFs) is the addition to the line blanketing near 1400 A and 1600 A by the quasi-molecular absorptions of atomic hydrogen undergoing collisions with protons and other neutral hydrogen atoms. New-ODF fluxes reproduce the ultraviolet observations of Lambda Boo stars in a more realistic way than previous computations. We also constructed our own UV line list for the relevant set of absorption features. Modeling the UV line spectra of Lambda Boo stars allows us to confirm their published surface abundances, including CNO and the iron group elements. It also provides further insight into their photospheric conditions (e.g., Teff, log g, [M/H], micro turbulent velocity, etc.). About 40 percent of the published Lambda Boo candidates have existing IUE spectra. We plan to follow this pilot study and perform UV spectral synthesis for all of them.

  5. Ultraviolet Spectrum of Nanometer Zinc Oxide Prepared by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Liang; Xiaohui Wang; Shaobo Xin; Yajin Liu


    Zinc oxide nanometer powders were prepared by the sol-gel process. The sol and the powders characteristic of absorbing ultraviolet light is detected by the ultraviolet spectrometer. The results indicate the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate in isopropyl alcohol solution and the final pH value of the aqueous sol have effect on the UV absorption of the sol.The nanometer zinc oxide has strong absorption at 200 nm~360 nm, and over 90% ultraviolet in the range of 200 nm~360 nm wavelength are absorbed. The characteristic of absorbing ultraviolet light of zinc oxide increases as the particle size of zinc oxide decreases.

  6. Photochemical Cyclopolymerization of Polyimides in Ultraviolet Ridgidizing Composites for Use in Inflatable Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovation uses photochemical cyclopolymerization of polyimides to manufacture ultraviolet rigidizable composites for use in RIS (ridgidizing inflatable)...

  7. Polishing Sapphire Substrates by 355 nm Ultraviolet Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei


    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate a novel polishing technology with high efficiency and nice surface quality for sapphire crystal that has high hardness, wear resistance, and chemical stability. A Q-switched 355 nm ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses was set up and used to polish sapphire substrate in different conditions in this paper. Surface roughness Ra of polished sapphire was measured with surface profiler, and the surface topography was observed with scanning electronic microscope. The effects of processing parameters as laser energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed, incident angle, scanning patterns, and initial surface conditions on surface roughness were analyzed.

  8. Ultraviolet light induced refractive index structures in germanosilica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael


    The focus of the research presented in this ph.d. thesis is refractive index structures photoinduced in germanonsilica waveguides with ultra-violet (UV) radiation. The physical mechanisms involved in photosensitivity and applications of a wide range of UV induced refractive index structures in both...... bulk optics. Finally, I have developed a new method for direct UV writing of planar waveguide devices using a focussed continuous wave UV laser beam which is scanned across a photosensitive thin film deposited on a silicon wafer. Contrary to other waveguide fabrication techniques this method requires...

  9. The intriguing near-ultraviolet photochemistry of H 2Te (United States)

    Underwood, J.; Chastaing, D.; Lee, S.; Boothe, P.; Flood, T. C.; Wittig, C.


    The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of H 2Te has a long wavelength tail that extends to 400 nm. Photodissociation at 355 nm yields TeH( 2Π 1/2) selectively relative to the 2Π 3/2 ground state; the transition moments for these channels lie in, and perpendicular to, the molecular plane, respectively. Vibrational structure in the region 380-400 nm is consistent with a shallow well in the adiabat leading to 2Π 1/2, akin to the one in HI leading to I( 2P 1/2). These effects have no counterparts with the light Group 6A dihydrides.

  10. Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmaier, M.; Ebert, J.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meckbach, J. M.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- und Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has recently emerged as a promising material for integrated photonics due to a large bandgap and attractive optical properties. Exploiting the wideband transparency, we demonstrate waveguiding in AlN-on-Insulator circuits from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths using nanophotonic components with dimensions down to 40 nm. By measuring the propagation loss over a wide spectral range, we conclude that both scattering and absorption of AlN-intrinsic defects contribute to strong attenuation at short wavelengths, thus providing guidelines for future improvements in thin-film deposition and circuit fabrication.

  11. Lunar-Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) integrated program plan (United States)

    Smith, Janice F.; Forrest, Larry


    A detailed Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) program plan representing major decisions and tasks leading to those decisions for program execution are presented. The purpose of this task was to develop an integrated plan of project activities for the LUTE project, and to display the plan as an integrated network that shows the project activities, all critical interfaces, and schedules. The integrated network will provide the project manager with a frame work for strategic planning and risk management throughout the life of the project.

  12. Nature of the Background Ultraviolet Radiation Field at High Redshifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Samantaray; Pushpa Khare


    We have tried to determine the flux of the ultraviolet background radiation field from the column density ratios of various ions in several absorption systems observed in the spectra of QSOs. We find that in most cases the flux is considerably higher than what has been estimated to be contributed by the AGNs. The excess flux could originate locally in hot stars. In a few cases we have been able to show that such galactic flux can only contribute a part of the total required flux. The results suggest that the background gets a significant contribution from an unseen QSO population.

  13. Surface force measurement of ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography materials (United States)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Hasegawa, Masayuki; Amemiya, Hironao; Kobayashi, Hayato


    Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) has advantages such as room-temperature operation, high through-put, and high resolution. In the UV-NIL process, the mold needs a release coating material to prevent adhesion of the transfer resin. Usually, fluorinated silane coupling agents are used as release coating materials. To evaluate the release property, surface force analyzer equipment was used. This equipment can measure the surface forces between release-coated or noncoated mold material surfaces and UV-cured resin surfaces in the solid state. Lower surface forces were measured when a release coating was used on the mold material surface.

  14. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars


    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  15. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of old novae and symbiotic stars (United States)

    Lambert, D. L.; Slovak, M. H.; Shields, G. A.; Ferland, G. J.


    The IUE spectra are presented for two old novae and for two of the symbiotic variables. Prominent emission line spectra are revealed as a continuum whose appearance is effected by the system inclination. These data provide evidence for hot companions in the symbiotic stars, making plausible the binary model for these peculiar stars. Recent IUE spectra of dwarf novae provide additional support for the existence of optically thick accretion disks in active binary systems. The ultraviolet data of the eclipsing dwarf novae EX Hya and BV Cen appear flatter than for the noneclipsing systems, an effect which could be ascribed to the system inclination.

  16. Optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy of three F + B binary stars (United States)

    Bopp, Bernard W.; Dempsey, Robert C.; Parsons, Sidney B.


    Optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy is presented for three F + B objects that are members of the first group of strongly interacting, F II + B systems. The data obtained confirm that HD 59771, HD 242257, and CoD -30 5135 are all binary star systems consisting of a luminous F-type component and a B star. Strong, variable H-alpha emission is seen in all the stars. It is found that the UV spectrum of HD 59771 resembles the spectrum of HD 207739. CoD -30 5135 has the most dramatic mid-UV spectrum seen among the scores of observed cool + hot star systems.

  17. Ultraviolet Radiation from Evolved Stellar Populations -- I. Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R


    This series of papers comprises a systematic exploration of the hypothesis that the far ultraviolet radiation from star clusters and elliptical galaxies originates from extremely hot horizontal-branch (HB) stars and their post-HB progeny. This first paper presents an extensive grid of calculations of stellar models from the Zero Age Horizontal Branch through to a point late in post-HB evolution or a point on the white dwarf cooling track. We use the term `Extreme Horizontal Branch' (EHB) to refer to HB sequences of constant mass that do not reach the thermally-pulsing stage on the AGB. These models evolve after core helium exhaustion

  18. Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfullmann, Nils; Noack, Monika; Cardoso de Andrade, Jose; Rausch, Stefan; Nagy, Tamas; Kovacev, Milutin [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Quantum Optics Institute (Germany); QUEST Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Hannover (Germany); Reinhardt, Carsten [Laser Zentrum Hannover (Germany); Knittel, Vanessa; Bratschitsch, Rudolf; Leitenstorfer, Alfred [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics (Germany); Akemeier, Dieter; Huetten, Andreas [Universitaet Bielefeld, AG Duenne Schichten Physik der Nanostrukturen (Germany); Morgner, Uwe [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Quantum Optics Institute (Germany); QUEST Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Hannover (Germany); Laser Zentrum Hannover (Germany)


    High-order harmonic generation in xenon with oscillator repetition rates is studied. The necessary intensity is reached via plasmonic field enhancement at nanostructured arrays of bow-tie gold antennae. The theoretical analysis focuses on the thermal properties and the damage threshold of the bow-tie antennae. On the experimental side the number of contributing atoms is determined and optimized. Extreme ultraviolet radiation is successfully observed with photon fluxes almost an order of magnitude larger than previously reported. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Calibration Capability (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.


    NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed and developed a steady state vacuum ultraviolet automated (SSVUVa) facility with in situ VUV intensity calibration capability. The automated feature enables a constant accelerated VUV radiation exposure over long periods of testing without breaking vacuum. This test facility is designed to simultaneously accommodate four isolated radiation exposure tests within the SSVUVa vacuum chamber. Computer-control of the facility for long, term continuous operation also provides control and recording of thermocouple temperatures, periodic recording of VUV lamp intensity, and monitoring of vacuum facility status. This paper discusses the design and capabilities of the SSVUVa facility.

  20. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.


    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  1. Deep ultraviolet laser micromachining of novel fibre optic devices (United States)

    Li, J.; Dou, J.; Herman, P. R.; Fricke-Begemann, T.; Ihlemann, J.; Marowsky, G.


    A deep ultraviolet F2 laser, with output at 157-nm wavelength, has been adopted for micro-shaping the end facets of single and multi-mode silica optical fibres. The high energy 7.9-eV photons drive strong interactions in the wide-bandgap silica fibres to enable the fabrication of surface-relief microstructures with high spatial resolution and smooth surface morphology. Diffraction gratings, focusing lenses, and Mach-Zehnder interferometric structures have been micromachined onto the cleaved-fibre facets and optically characterized. F2-laser micromachining is shown to be a rapid and facile means for direct-writing of novel infibre photonic components.

  2. The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Engelsen


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main factors influencing the synthesis of vitamin D, with particular focus on ultraviolet radiation exposure. On the global level, the main source of vitamin D is the sun. The effect of solar radiation on vitamin D synthesis depends to some extent on the initial vitamin D levels. At moderate to high latitudes, diet becomes an increasingly important source of vitamin D due to decreased solar intensity and cold temperatures, which discourage skin exposure. During the mid-winter season, these factors result in decreased solar radiation exposure, hindering extensively the synthesis of vitamin D in these populations.

  3. Ground Based Ultraviolet Remote Sensing of Volcanic Gas Plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. S. McGonigle


    Full Text Available Ultraviolet spectroscopy has been implemented for over thirty years to monitorvolcanic SO2 emissions. These data have provided valuable information concerningunderground magmatic conditions, which have been of utility in eruption forecastingefforts. During the last decade the traditionally used correlation spectrometers have beenupgraded with miniature USB coupled UV spectrometers, opening a series of exciting newempirical possibilities for understanding volcanoes and their impacts upon the atmosphere.Here we review these technological developments, in addition to the scientific insightsthey have precipitated, covering the strengths and current limitations of this approach.

  4. Ground Based Ultraviolet Remote Sensing of Volcanic Gas Plumes (United States)

    Kantzas, Euripides P.; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.


    Ultraviolet spectroscopy has been implemented for over thirty years to monitor volcanic SO2 emissions. These data have provided valuable information concerning underground magmatic conditions, which have been of utility in eruption forecasting efforts. During the last decade the traditionally used correlation spectrometers have been upgraded with miniature USB coupled UV spectrometers, opening a series of exciting new empirical possibilities for understanding volcanoes and their impacts upon the atmosphere. Here we review these technological developments, in addition to the scientific insights they have precipitated, covering the strengths and current limitations of this approach.

  5. Visible and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Gas Phase Rhodamine 575 Cations


    Daly, Steven; Kulesza, Alexander; Knight, Geoffrey; Macaleese, Luke; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe


    International audience; The visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy of gas phase rhodamine 575 cations has been studied experimentally by action-spectroscopy in a modified linear ion trap between 220 and 590 nm and by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Three bands are observed that can be assigned to the electronic transitions S0 → S1, S0 → S3, and S0 → (S8,S9) according to the theoretical prediction. While the agreement between theory and experiment is excellent for ...

  6. Effect of ultraviolet illumination on metal oxide resistive memory

    KAUST Repository

    Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon


    We investigate the photoelectrical and resistive switching properties of Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor operated in unipolar mode under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The oxygen photodesorption under UV illumination explains the photoconduction observed in initial and high resistance states. Meanwhile, oxygen readsorption at surface-related defects justifies the different photoresponses dynamics in both states. Finally, UV illumination significantly reduces the variations of resistance in high resistance state, set voltage and reset voltage by 58%, 33%, and 25%, respectively, stabilizing Pt/ZnO/Pt capacitor. Our findings in improved switching uniformity via UV light give physical insight into designing resistive memory devices.

  7. Ultraviolet-induced erasable photochromism in bilayer metal oxide films (United States)

    Terakado, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nakazawa, Akira


    We demonstrate that the optical transmittance of bilayer samples consisting of pyrolytically coated amorphous Mg-Sn-O and metal oxide films such as In 2O 3 and SnO 2 decreases upon ultraviolet illumination, but can be recovered by annealing in air at ˜300 ∘C. Spectral, structural, and compositional studies suggest that this photochromic phenomenon is induced by photoelectronic excitation in the Mg-Sn-O film, electron injection into the metal oxide, which becomes negatively charged, and subsequent formation of metallic particles, which absorb and/or scatter visible light.

  8. Palomar Ultraviolet Laser for the Study of Exoplanets (United States)

    Baranec, C.; Dekany, R.; van Dam, M.; Burruss, R.


    PULSE is a new concept to augment the currently operating 5.1-m Hale PALM-3000 exoplanet adaptive optics system with an ultraviolet Rayleigh laser and associated wavefront sensor. By using an ultraviolet laser to measure the high spatial and temporal order turbulence near the telescope aperture, where it dominates, one can extend the faintness limit of natural guide stars needed by PALM-3000. Initial simulations indicate that very-high infrared contrast ratios and good visible-light adaptive optics performance will be achieved by such an upgraded system on stars as faint as mV = 16-17 using an optimized low-order NGS sensor. This will enable direct imaging searches for, and subsequent characterization of, companions around cool, low-mass stars for the first time, as well as routine visible-light imaging twice as sharp as HST for fainter targets. PULSE will reuse the laser and wavefront sensor technology developed for the automated Robo-AO laser system currently operating at the Palomar 60-inch telescope, as well as take advantage of pending optimization of low-order NGS wavefront sensing and planned new interfaces to the PALM-3000 real-time reconstruction computer. A copy of the Robo-AO laser will be installed in the prime focus cage of the 5.1-m, and a new ultraviolet high-order wavefront sensor, fed by an ultraviolet dichroic, will be installed in the space above the PALM-3000 optical bench near the calibration sources. The laser measurements will drive the 3,388 active element high-order deformable mirror in open-loop, while an adaptive optics sharpened faint natural source will be measured by the current PALM-3000 wavefront sensor in its lowest spatial sampling mode, with commands sent in closed-loop to the 241 active element low-order deformable mirror. The natural guide star loop corrects for both the relatively weak low-order high-altitude turbulence as well as functioning as both the tip-tilt and low-bandwidth `truth' sensor loops in a traditional laser

  9. Ultraviolet Studies of Jupiter's Hydrocarbons and Aerosols from Galileo (United States)

    Gladstone, G. Randall


    This is the final report for this project. The purpose of this project was to support PI Wayne Pryor's effort to reduce and analyze Galileo UVS (Ultraviolet Spectrometer) data under the JSDAP program. The spectral observations made by the Galileo UVS were to be analyzed to determine mixing ratios for important hydrocarbon species (and aerosols) in Jupiter's stratosphere as a function of location on Jupiter. Much of this work is still ongoing. To date, we have concentrated on analyzing the variability of the auroral emissions rather than the absorption signatures of hydrocarbons, although we have done some work in this area with related HST-STIS data.

  10. Bioinspired ultraviolet reflective photonic structures derived from butterfly wings (Euploea) (United States)

    Song, Fang; Su, Huilan; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Di; Moon, Won-Jin


    Butterfly wings have been demonstrated to have potential applications in various optical devices. For complementarily, we extend them to ultraviolet (UV) reflectors, inspired by the UV reflective photonic structures that have been evolved to satisfy UV communication systems of butterflies. UV reflective photonic structures of butterfly wings were replicated in multiscale, and thus endowed the resultant SnO2 materials with enhanced UV reflection. This biomimetic strategy provides us a universal way towards UV reflectors without changing the chemical compositions. Furthermore, the UV reflection could be potentially tuned by choosing different photonic structures of butterfly wings and other bio-species.

  11. Oxidation of graphene in ozone under ultraviolet light

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun


    Based on first-principles calculations, the process of grapheneoxidation in ozone under ultraviolet light is explored by studying the effects of O(3P) on the structural and electronic properties of a graphene sheet. On initial absorption of O(3P), an epoxy group is formed on the graphene sheet and the Dirac cone is shifted away from the Brillouin zone corners without carrier doping. When the oxidation progresses, an adjacent C-C bond is broken, a vacancy is formed, and CO and/or CO2 molecules are released.

  12. Broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy in the deep ultraviolet region (United States)

    Kuramochi, Hikaru; Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei


    We report broadband stimulated Raman measurements in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region, which enables selective probing of the aromatic amino acid residues inside proteins through the resonance enhancement. We combine the narrowband DUV Raman pump pulse (1000 cm-1) to realize stimulated Raman measurements covering a >1500 cm-1 spectral window. The stimulated Raman measurements for neat solvents, tryptophan, tyrosine, and glucose oxidase are performed using 240- and 290-nm Raman pump, highlighting the high potential of the DUV stimulated Raman probe for femtosecond time-resolved study of proteins.

  13. Vacuum ultra-violet and ultra-violet scintillation light detection by means of silicon photomultipliers at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, A., E-mail: [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bertoni, R. [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Boffelli, F. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bonesini, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Cervi, T. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Menegolli, A. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Montanari, C.; Prata, M.C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Simonetta, M. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Spanu, M. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Torti, M. [University of Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Zani, A. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)


    We tested the performance of two types of silicon photomultipliers, AdvanSiD ASD-NUV-SiPM3S-P and Hamamatsu 3×3 MM-50 UM VUV2, both at room (300 K) and at liquid nitrogen (77 K) temperature: breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, signal shape, gain and dark counts rate have been studied as function of temperature. The response of the devices to ultra-violet light is also studied. - Highlights: • We tested 2 SiPMs both at room and at cryogenic temperature. • Breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, gain and dark rate were measured. • Efficiency for VUV light detection was measured.

  14. Long waves over a bi-viscous seabed: transverse patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Becker


    Full Text Available The coupled interaction of long standing hydrodynamic waves with a deformable non-Newtonian seabed is examined using a two-layer model for which the upper layer fluid is inviscid and the lower layer is bi-viscous. The two-dimensional response of the system to forcing by a predominantly longitudinal (cross-shore standing wave perturbed by a small transverse (along-shore component is determined. With a constant yield stress in the bi-viscous lower layer, there is little amplification of these transverse per-turbations and the model response typically remains quasi-one-dimensional. However, for a bi-viscous layer with a pressure-dependent yield stress (which represents the effect that the seabed deforms less readily under compression and hence renders the rheology history dependent, the initially small transverse motions are amplified in some parameter regimes and two-dimensional, permanent bedforms are formed in the lower layer. This simple dynamical model is, therefore, able to explain the formation of permanent bedforms with significant cross- and along-shore features by predominantly cross-shore standing wave forcing.

  15. Multicolor Detectors for Ultrasensitive Long-Wave Imaging Cameras (United States)

    Brown, Ari; Benford, Dominic; Chervenak, James; Wollack, Edward


    A document describes a zeptobolometer for ultrasensitive, long-wavelength sensors. GSFC is developing pixels based on the zeptobolometer design that sense three THz wavelengths simultaneously. Two innovations are described in the document: (1) a quasiparticle (QO) filter arrangement that enables a compact multicolor spectrum at the focal plane, and (2) a THz antenna readout by up to three bolometers. The innovations enable high efficiency by greatly reducing high, frequency-dependent microstrip losses, and pixel compactness by eliminating the need for bulky filters in the focal plane. The zeptobolometer is a small TES bolometer, on the scale of a few microns, which can be readily coupled through an impedance-matching resistor to a metal or dielectric antenna. The bolometer is voltage-biased in its superconducting transition, allowing the use of superconducting RF multiplexers to read out large arrays. The antenna is geometrically tapped at three locations so as to efficiently couple radiation of three distinct wavelengths to the individual TESs. The transition edge hot electrons in metals offer a simple, compact arrangement for antenna readout, which can be crucial in the THz where line losses at high frequencies can be substantial. A metallic grill filter acts as a high-pass filter and directs the low-frequency components to a location where they will be absorbed. The absorption spectrum shows that three well-separated THz bands are feasible. The filters can be made from high-purity dielectrics such as float zone silicon or sapphire.

  16. Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.


    The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

  17. Electronic crosstalk characterization of Terra MODIS long wave infrared channels (United States)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu; Wu, Aisheng


    Terra (T) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a heritage Earth observing sensor has completed 15 years of operation as of December 18 2014. T-MODIS has 36 spectral channels designed to monitor the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The long term climate data record from T-MODIS is an important dataset for global change monitoring. Sixteen of the spectral channels fall in the Mid (M) (3.7-4.5μm) to Long (L) (6.7-14.1μm)Wave InfraRed (M/LWIR) wavelengths, which are also referred to as the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). To date the TEBs have very satisfactory performance which is attributed to the scan-by-scan calibration using an on-board BlackBody whose temperature is traceable to the NIST temperature standards. However, with an aging instrument, it was observed from 2010 onwards that the Photo Voltaic LWIR channels (Bands 27-30) have suffered significantly from electronic crosstalk. This is mainly due to the deterioration of the electronic circuits of the relevant bands in the LWIR Focal Plane Array (FPA). In this paper, we report the characterization of the electronic crosstalk in the above-mentioned bands using the well characterized test site such as Dome Concordia (C). Such characterization can be used to reduce the effects of crosstalk when implemented in the future Level 1B reprocessing and thereby increasing the radiometric fidelity of the concerned bands.

  18. Long-wave forcing for regional atmospheric modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, H. von; Langenberg, H.; Feser, F. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik


    A new method, named 'spectral nudging', of linking a regional model to the driving large-scale model simulated or analyzed by a global model is proposed and tested. Spectral nudging is based on the idea that regional-scale climate statistics are conditioned by the interplay between continental-scale atmospheric conditions and such regional features as marginal seas and mountain ranges. Following this 'downscaling' idea, the regional model is forced to satisfy not only boundary conditions, possibly in a boundary sponge region, but also large-scale flow conditions inside the integration area. We demonstrate that spectral nudging succeeds in keeping the simulated state close to the driving state at large scales, while generating smaller-scale features. We also show that the standard boundary forcing technique in current use allows the regional model to develop internal states conflicting with the large-scale state. It is concluded that spectral nudging may be seen as a suboptimal and indirect data assimilation technique. (orig.) [German] Eine neue Methode, genannt 'spektrales nudging', ein Regionalmodell an das durch ein Globalmodell simulierte grossskalige Antriebsfeld zu koppeln, wird vorgestellt und getestet. Das spektrale nudging basiert auf der Annahme, dass regionale Klimastatistik durch die Wechselwirkung zwischen dem kontinental-skaligen atmosphaerischen Zustand und regionalen Gegebenheiten, wie kleinere Seen und Gebirgszuege, bestimmt wird. Demnach muss das Regionalmodell nicht nur die Randbedingungen erfuellen, sondern auch die grossskaligen Zustaende innerhalb des Integrationsgebietes wiedergeben koennen. Wir zeigen, dass durch das spektrale nudging der grossskalige modellierte Zustand nahe an dem des Antriebsfeldes liegt, ohne die Modellierung regionaler Phaenomene zu beeintraechtigen. Ausserdem zeigen wir, dass das Regionalmodell durch die zur Zeit benutzte Antriebstechnik ueber den Modellrand interne Felder produzieren kann, die zu dem grossskaligen Zustand im Widerspruch stehen. Wird schliessen daraus, dass das spektrale nudging als eine suboptimale, indirekte Datenassimilierungsmethode angesehen werden kann. (orig.)

  19. Generation of Long Waves using Non-Linear Digital Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedal, Michael; Frigaard, Peter; Christensen, Morten


    transform of the 1st order surface elevation and subsequently inverse Fourier transformed. Hence, the methods are unsuitable for real-time applications, for example where white noise are filtered digitally to obtain a wave spectrum with built-in stochastic variabillity. In the present paper an approximative...... method for including the correct 2nd order bound terms in such applications is presented. The technique utilizes non-liner digital filters fitted to the appropriate transfer function is derived only for bounded 2nd order subharmonics, as they laboratory experiments generally are considered the most...

  20. General characteristics of long waves around the South African Coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, M


    Full Text Available ] and Joosting [6] investigated these problems and concluded that the main cause was long-period waves. These waves were amplified in the main basin, Duncan Dock, as standing waves (also called seiches). Modifications were later made to the layout... of Duncan Dock and an additional basin, Schoeman Dock, was constructed. With the aid of physical and numerical 1.E‐06 1.E‐05 1.E‐04 1.E‐03 1.E‐02 1.E‐01 1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02 Wave period: 24 h 12 h 1 h 5 min 25 s 10 1 s 0...

  1. Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)


    The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.).

  2. The far-ultraviolet spectra of "cool" PG1159 stars

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K; Kruk, J W


    We present a comprehensive study of Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra (912-1190 A) of two members of the PG1159 spectral class, which consists of hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs with effective temperatures in the range Teff = 75,000-200,000 K. As two representatives of the cooler objects, we have selected PG1707+427 (Teff = 85,000 K) and PG1424+535 (Teff = 110,000 K), complementing a previous study of the hotter prototype PG1159-035 (Teff = 140,000 K). The helium-dominated atmospheres are strongly enriched in carbon and oxygen, therefore, their spectra are dominated by lines from C III-IV and O III-VI, many of which were never observed before in hot stars. In addition, lines of many other metals (N, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, Fe) are detectable, demonstrating that observations in this spectral region are most rewarding when compared to the near-ultraviolet and optical wavelength bands. We perform abundance analyses of these species and derive upper limits for several undetected light and ...

  3. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T; Hoversten, Erik A; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Berk, Daniel Vanden


    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby(redshift z = 0.004--0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way (MW) extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1_rc covering ~2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ~3000--4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ~2000-2400 A). The uvw1_rc-b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2-uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with ...

  4. Bat eyes have ultraviolet-sensitive cone photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Müller

    Full Text Available Mammalian retinae have rod photoreceptors for night vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and colour vision. For colour discrimination, most mammals possess two cone populations with two visual pigments (opsins that have absorption maxima at short wavelengths (blue or ultraviolet light and long wavelengths (green or red light. Microchiropteran bats, which use echolocation to navigate and forage in complete darkness, have long been considered to have pure rod retinae. Here we use opsin immunohistochemistry to show that two phyllostomid microbats, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata, possess a significant population of cones and express two cone opsins, a shortwave-sensitive (S opsin and a longwave-sensitive (L opsin. A substantial population of cones expresses S opsin exclusively, whereas the other cones mostly coexpress L and S opsin. S opsin gene analysis suggests ultraviolet (UV, wavelengths <400 nm sensitivity, and corneal electroretinogram recordings reveal an elevated sensitivity to UV light which is mediated by an S cone visual pigment. Therefore bats have retained the ancestral UV tuning of the S cone pigment. We conclude that bats have the prerequisite for daylight vision, dichromatic colour vision, and UV vision. For bats, the UV-sensitive cones may be advantageous for visual orientation at twilight, predator avoidance, and detection of UV-reflecting flowers for those that feed on nectar.

  5. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis. (United States)

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin


    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging.

  6. Disinfection of swine wastewater using chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone. (United States)

    Macauley, John J; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig D; Surampalli, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R


    Veterinary antibiotics are widely used at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to prevent disease and promote growth of livestock. However, the majority of antibiotics are excreted from animals in urine, feces, and manure. Consequently, the lagoons used to store these wastes can act as reservoirs of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is currently no regulation or control of these systems to prevent the spread of these bacteria and their genes for antibiotic resistance into other environments. This study was conducted to determine the disinfection potential of chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone against swine lagoon bacteria. Results indicate that a chlorine dose of 30 mg/L could achieve a 2.2-3.4 log bacteria reduction in lagoon samples. However, increasing the dose of chlorine did not significantly enhance the disinfection activity due to the presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria. The chlorine resistant bacteria were identified to be closely related to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. A significant percentage of lagoon bacteria were not susceptible to the four selected antibiotics: chlortetracycline, lincomycin, sulfamethazine and tetracycline (TET). However, the presence of both chlorine and TET could inactivate all bacteria in one lagoon sample. The disinfection potential of UV irradiation and ozone was also examined. Ultraviolet light was an effective bacterial disinfectant, but was unlikely to be economically viable due to its high energy requirements. At an ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the bacteria inactivation efficiency could reach 3.3-3.9 log.

  7. PULSE: Palomar Ultraviolet Laser for the Study of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; van Dam, Marcos; Burruss, Rick


    PULSE is a new concept to augment the currently operating 5.1-m Hale PALM-3000 exoplanet adaptive optics system with an ultraviolet Rayleigh laser and associated wavefront sensor. By using an ultraviolet laser to measure the high spatial and temporal order turbulence near the telescope aperture, where it dominates, one can extend the faintness limit of natural guide stars needed by PALM-3000. Initial simulations indicate that very-high infrared contrast ratios and good visible-light adaptive optics performance will be achieved by such an upgraded system on stars as faint as mV = 16-17 using an optimized low-order NGS sensor. This will enable direct imaging searches for, and subsequent characterization of, companions around cool, low-mass stars for the first time, as well as routine visible-light imaging twice as sharp as HST for fainter targets. PULSE will reuse the laser and wavefront sensor technologies developed for the automated Robo-AO laser system currently operating at the Palomar 60-inch telescope, as...

  8. Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet. (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio


    A three dimensional computer model of the human face has been developed to represent solar ultraviolet exposures recorded by dosimeter measurements on a manikin headform under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles. Additionally, polysulfone dosimeters have been successfully miniaturised to provide the detailed measurements required across the face. The headform used in this research was scanned at 709 individual locations to make a wireframe mesh consisting of 18 vertical contours and 49 horizontal contours covering half the manikin's frontal facial topography. Additionally, the back of the headform and neck have also been scanned at 576 locations. Each scanned location has been used as a viable dosimeter position on the headform and represents a grid intersection point on the developed computer wireframe. A series of exposures recorded by dosimeters have been translated into three dimensional exposure ratio maps, representing ambient solar ultraviolet exposure. High dosimeter density has allowed for the development of individual topographic contour models which take into account complex variation in the face and improve upon previously employed techniques which utilise fewer dosimeters to interpolate exposure across facial contours. Exposure ratios for solar zenith angle ranges of 0 degrees -30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and 50 degrees -80 degrees have been developed.

  9. Research on the calibration of ultraviolet energy meters (United States)

    Lin, Fangsheng; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng; Lai, Lei; Xia, Ming


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a kind of non-lighting radiation with the wavelength range from 100nm to 400nm. Ultraviolet irradiance meters are now widely used in many areas. However, as the development of science and technology, especially in the field of light-curing industry, there are more and more UV energy meters or UV-integrators need to be measured. Because the structure, wavelength band and measured power intensity of UV energy meters are different from traditional UV irradiance meters, it is important for us to take research on the calibration. With reference to JJG879-2002, we SIMT have independently developed the UV energy calibration device and the standard of operation and experimental methods for UV energy calibration in detail. In the calibration process of UV energy meter, many influencing factors will affect the final results, including different UVA-band UV light sources, different spectral response for different brands of UV energy meters, instability and no uniformity of UV light source and temperature. Therefore we need to take all of these factors into consideration to improve accuracy in UV energy calibration.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation for the sterilization of contact lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritz, D.C.; Lee, T.Y.; McDonnell, P.J.; Shih, K.; Baron, N. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))


    Two sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation with peak wavelengths in the UV-C or UV-B ranges were compared for their ability to sterilize contact lenses infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acanthamoeba castellani, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Also examined was the effect of prolonged UV light exposure on soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. The UV-C lamp (253.7 nm, 250 mW/cm2 at 1 cm) was germicidal for all organisms within 20 minutes but caused destruction of the soft lens polymers within 6 hours of cumulative exposure. UV-C caused damage to RGP lenses in less than 100 hours. The UV-B lamp (290-310 nm, 500 mW/cm2 at 1 cm) was germicidal for all organisms tested (except Aspergillus) with a 180-minute exposure and caused less severe changes in the soft lens polymers than did the UV-C lamp, although cumulative exposure of 300 hours did substantially weaken the soft lens material. RGP materials were minimally affected by exposure to 300 hours of UV-B. Ultraviolet light is an effective germicidal agent but is injurious to soft lens polymers; its possible utility in the sterilization of RGP lenses and lens cases deserves further study.

  11. International Conference “Ultraviolet Properties of Evolved Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez Dagostino, Miguel


    This book presents an up-to-date collection of reviews and contributed articles in the field of ultraviolet astronomy. Its content has been mainly motivated by the recent access to the rest frame UV light of distant red galaxies, gained through large optical facilities. This driveway has derived in a renewed interest on the stars that presumably dominate or have important effects on the integrated UV properties of evolved systems of the nearby and faraway Universe. The topics included in this volume extend from the fresh spectroscopic analyses of high redshift early-type galaxies observed with the 8-10m class telescopes to the fundamental outcomes from various satellites, from the long-lived International Ultraviolet Explorer to current facilities, such as the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. This is one of the few volumes published in recent years devoted to UV astronomical research and the only one dedicated to the properties of evolved stellar populations at these wavelengths. This contemporary panorama will be ...

  12. The Second Galex Ultraviolet Variability (GUVV-2) Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Wheatley, Jonathan M; Browne, Stanley E


    We present the second Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Ultraviolet Variability (GUVV-2) Catalog that contains information on 410 newly discovered time-variable sources gained through simultaneous near (NUV 1750-2750A) and far (FUV 1350-1750A) ultraviolet photometric observations. Source variability was determined by comparing the NUV and/or FUV fluxes derived from orbital exposures recorded during a series of multiple observational visits to 169 GALEX fields on the sky. These sources, which were contained within a sky-area of 161 square deg, varied on average by amplitudes of NUV = 0.6 mag and FUV = 0.9 mag during these observations. Of the 114 variable sources in the catalog with previously known identifications, 67 can be categorized as being active galaxies (QSO's, Seyfert 1 or BL Lac objects). The next largest groups of UV variables are RR Lyrae stars, X-ray sources and novae. By using a combination of UV and visible color-color plots we have been able to tentatively identify 36 possible RR Lyrae and/or ...

  13. Spectrophotometry of extreme helium stars - Ultraviolet fluxes and effective temperatures (United States)

    Heber, U.; Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.


    Ultraviolet flux distributions are presented for the extremely helium rich stars BD +10 deg 2179, HD 124448, LSS 3378, BD -9 deg 4395, LSE 78, HD 160641, LSIV -1 deg 2, BD 1 deg 3438, HD 168476, MV Sgr, LS IV-14 deg 109 (CD -35 deg 11760), LSII +33 deg 5 and BD +1 deg 4381 (LSIV +2 deg 13) obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Broadband photometry and a newly computed grid of line blanketed model atmospheres were used to determine accurate angular diameters and total stellar fluxes. The resultant effective temperatures are in most cases in satisfactory agreement with those based on broadband photometry and/or high resolution spectroscopy in the visible. For two objects, LSII +33 deg 5 and LSE 78, disagreement was found between the IUE observations and broadband photometry: the colors predict temperatures around 20,000 K, whereas the UV spectra indicate much lower photospheric temperatures of 14,000 to 15,000 K. The new temperature scale for extreme helium stars extends to lower effective temperatures than that of Heber and Schoenberner (1981) and covers the range from 8,500 K to 32,000 K. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24433

  14. Photoprotection of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki from ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.; Rozen, H.; Joseph, T.; Braun, S.; Margulies, L. (Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel))


    Irradiation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD1 at 300-350 nm for up to 12 hr using a photochemical reactor results in a rapid loss of its toxicity to larvae of Heliothis armigera. Photoprotection of the toxic component was obtained by adsorption of cationic chromophores such as acriflavin (AF), methyl green, and rhodamine B to B. thuringiensis. AF gave the best photoprotection and a level of 0.42 mmol/g dye absorbed per gram of B. thuringiensis was highly toxic even after 12 hr of ultraviolet (uv) irradiation as compared to the control (77.5 and 5% of insect mortality, respectively). Ultraviolet and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic studies indicate molecular interactions between B. thuringiensis and AF. The nature of these interactions and energy or charge transfer as possible mechanisms of photoprotection are discussed. It is speculated that tryptophan residues are essential for the toxic effect of B. thuringiensis. It is suggested that photoprotection is attained as energy is transferred from the excited tryptophan moieties to the chromophore molecules.

  15. Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, I. [ed.


    This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).

  16. Ozone and Pollution Measuring Ultraviolet Spectrometer (OPUS): an overview (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Suzuki, M.; Sano, T.; Watanabe, M.; Yoshida, S.; Yui, Y.; Okumura, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Ogawa, T.

    Atmospheric composition measurements from space are essential for monitoring earth's environment. Ozone and Pollution Measuring Ultraviolet Spectrometer (OPUS) is a nadir-looking, cross-track scanning ultraviolet spectrometer, which will be onboard Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1). It will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit in 2007, with an inclination angle of 69 deg. OPUS consists of a mechanical scanner, a Fastie-Ebert type polychromator with a one-dimensional UV Si-CMOS array detector, and a radiometer for cloud detection using O2 A band. It will provide information about cloud height and tropospheric O3 , SO2 , NO2 , BrO, OClO, HCHO, as well as the global distribution of total O3 , surface albedo, and aerosol in one day. This paper describes scientific objectives, instrument design, and retrieval algorithm. Pre-launch calibration, onboard calibration, and validation plan will be also presented. In addition, the ground test results using laboratory models will be discussed.

  17. Ultraviolet (UV)/visible absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric pollution measurements (United States)

    Stergis, Christos G.


    The primary objective of this effort is the development of instrumentation and techniques for determining the species, concentrations and lifetimes of atmospheric pollutants that may be generated by U.S. Air Force operations. The instrumentation being developed covers the spectral range of 200 nm to 900 nm, namely, the middle ultraviolet, the near ultraviolet, the visible and a portion of the near infrared. It has the capability of scanning throughout this range to look for unknown pollutants and also to look in detail at one or more suspected pollutants. The advantages of looking in this wavelength range, as well as some limitations, are discussed. Among the characteristics of the instrumentation that are described are the focal length and aperture ratio of the spectrometer, the gratings used, the spectral resolution and spectral dispersion of the spectrometer, the CCD detector, the digitization of the video signal, and the computer with the software needed for controlling the instrumentation and for recording and analyzing the data. Special attention is placed on the sensitivity of the instrumentation which is expected to be in the parts per trillion range for those molecules that have a substantial absorption cross section.

  18. Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Jong-Ho


    In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dust of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly-inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are in general well reproduced by two dust layers and one light-source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR_UV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the rest three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GA...

  19. Spectral signature of ultraviolet solar irradiance in Zacatecas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo V, J. L; Mireles G, F; Rios M, C; Quirino T, L. L; Davila R, J. I [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)


    This study presents an analysis of the global ultraviolet spectral irradiance (290-400 nm) registered in Zacatecas, a city near the Tropic of Cancer, located at 2500 m above sea level, latitude of 22 degrees N and longitude of 102 degrees W. The spectra have been measured using a Bentham radiometer with a 0.5 nm step in wavelength. The measurements show relatively high levels of ultraviolet irradiance (UV), which may be characteristic of areas close to the Tropic of Cancer. Faced with an increase of the incidence of skin cancer among the population of Zacatecas, these measurements highlight that a damage prevention plan is required. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un analisis de la radiacion espectral global ultravioleta (290-400 nm) registrada en Zacatecas, una ciudad vecina al tropico de cancer, situada a 2500 m sobre el nivel del mar, latitud de 22 grados N y longitud de 102 grados O. Los espectros correspondientes han sido medidos mediante un espectroradiometro Bentham con un paso de 0.5 nm de longitud de onda. Las mediciones muestran niveles de radiacion ultravioleta (UV) relativamente elevados, que pueden ser caracteristicos de las zonas vecinas al tropico de cancer. Frente al aumento de incidencia de cancer en la piel en la poblacion del estado de Zacatecas, estas mediciones ponen en relieve la necesidad de formular un plan preventivo de danos.

  20. The far-ultraviolet spectra of "cool" PG 1159 stars (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.


    We present a comprehensive study of Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra (912-1190 Å) of two members of the PG 1159 spectral class, which consists of hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs with effective temperatures in the range Teff = 75 000-200 000 K. As two representatives of the cooler objects, we have selected PG 1707+427 (Teff = 85 000 K) and PG 1424+535 (Teff = 110 000 K), complementing a previous study of the hotter prototype PG 1159-035 (Teff = 140 000 K). The helium-dominated atmospheres are strongly enriched in carbon and oxygen, therefore, their spectra are dominated by lines from C iii-iv and O iii-vi, many of which were never observed before in hot stars. In addition, lines of many other metals (N, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, Fe) are detectable, demonstrating that observations in this spectral region are most rewarding when compared to the near-ultraviolet and optical wavelength bands. We perform abundance analyses of these species and derive upper limits for several undetected light and heavy metals including iron-group and trans-iron elements. The results are compared to predictions of stellar evolution models for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis and good agreement is found. Appendix A is available in electronic form at