WorldWideScience

Sample records for long-term radioactive contamination

  1. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Dept. of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940's at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima (Japan)), the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares (Spain)). This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. (authors)

  2. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  3. A United States perspective on long term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The United States has far-reaching experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. The events resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the Marshall Islands, follow-up from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, accidents, and the environmental cleanup of our weapons complex have resulted in an extensive body of lessons learned and best practices. The lack of trust created in the affected population, regardless of cause of the spread of radioactive material, creates the working environment for long-term management of the situation. The extent of advanced planning for such an event will define and bound your ultimate success in reaching a conclusion acceptable to the affected parties. The two key issues to be addressed in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials are the two 'T's' - technical and trust. The technical issues to be resolved include: access to the affected area; infrastructure to support operations; local and imported staffing; health care for the affected population; and payment to name a few. In addressing the issue of trust it is critical to establish open, honest and inclusive communications and decision making with the affected population and stakeholders, with clear roles and responsibilities defined. Actions must be sensitive to local cultural issues and agreements reached with affected populations prior to actions being taken. Establishment of an alternative views resolution process helps build trust and allow actions to taken. Government to government relations and agreements must be established with an acceptance and understanding of the long term investment in time and resources needed. Planning ahead for such an eventuality and putting in place procedures, agreements and resources needed to address the technical and trust issues associated with the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials enhances success. (author)

  4. Long term survey on food pollution and contamination by radioactive fallout in Fukuoka, Japan (1961 - 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Toshiko; Ishinishi, Noburu; Cho, Tetsuji.

    1977-01-01

    The contamination and the pollution of foodstuffs by radioactive fallout have been investigated since 1961 in Fukuoka city and its suburban area. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Recently, the degree of the contamination of greens by radioactive fallout which fell on the leaves decreased to one thousandth in the early stage of the investigation (1961 - 1962). In the period of the investigation, the remarkable increase of the radioactivity of fallout was observed within a week after the Chinese nuclear bomb explosion in the atmosphere (1st, 2nd, 5th, 12th, 13th, and 15th). The radioactivity was 2 to 300 times higher than the usual level. 2) The radioactivity was not remarkable in vegetables which were washed with soap, but it decreased gradually year by year. The increase of the radioactivity was also observed a few days after the atmospheric nuclear explosion. 3) In milk, there were no remarkable yearly decreases of the radioactivity from the beginning of the investigation, but the seasonal variations of the radioactivity, such as higher in April and May, were observed. 4) The radioactivity in diets based on the standard food production in Japan was the highest in 1967. It decreased gradually from 1967 to 1971 and after that the remarkable variation of the activity was not observed. 5) 137 Cs contamination of foodstuffs has been observed quantitatively by the method of gamma spectrometry, while sometimes 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 103 Ru, and 131 I were also detected from the specimens obtained immediately after the nuclear explosions. (auth.)

  5. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, James S.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure 137 Cs, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 99 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm 3 ) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y but is unsuitable for measuring 99 Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma radiation using beta radiation from a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source, and gamma radiation alone. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters

  6. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, James S.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measureable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure 137 Cs, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 99 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm 3 ) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y but is unsuitable for measuring 99 Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma and gamma radiation. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently attached to the longer cables. The third

  7. Long-term trend of radioactive contamination of food products in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, K.; Marinov, V.; Naidenov, M.

    1997-01-01

    Results which characterize the dynamics for the power of radioactive contamination of foods in the Bulgaria with Cesium radionuclides from May 1986 to December 1995 are presented. It was done for motivation of some conclusions during the progress of radiation situation in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident. The data are compared with Maximum residues limits (MRL) of our country as well as that of international organizations. They are compared with the background contamination of foods descended from regions affected after experimental nuclear explosion till 1963 too

  8. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  9. On the Techa’s reservoirs cascade influence on the long-term forecast of the Techa river radioactive contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Utkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1949–1956 years, the Techa river was exposed to the intense radioactive contamination, which consequences are not overcome up to now. Currently, the Techa Cascade of Water Reservoirs is the only source of contamination of this river that could be managed. In February 2016 the Chief Executive Officer of the State Corporation “ROSATOM” approved the «Strategic master-plan on the solution of the problems of the Techa Reservoir Cascade» providing a novel look at an issue of remediation of the Techa river. The aim of the article is the implementation of the modern radiation protection system to the existing or potential exposure situations of public residing near the Techa river and an analysis of possible features, events, and processes considered in the longterm forecasts performed in the field of public radiation safety. Although the current radiation state of the Techa River is relatively stable, the task of refining the traditional phenomenological retrospective analysis covering the assessment of the past and current radiation exposure and environmental impacts is considered quite relevant. The Calculation- monitoring complex “TCR-Prognoz” was developed in the framework of the “Strategic Master Plan”. This complex enables to evaluate multivariate scenario calculations resulting in long-term forecasts of radioactive contamination levels in the Techa River and its floodplain, depending on various sets of environmental conditions and anthropogenic factors. Complex radiation surveys to define the detailed character and the time frames of economic activities permitted under the existing radiation safety requirements in the floodplain of the Techa river are recommended to be started after 2020. By this time, the first steady effects associated with the “Strategic Master Plan” implementation will become evident, including those resulting from the efforts aimed at simultaneous minimization of radionuclide

  10. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Until now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  11. On the long-term development of population dose in radioactively contaminated parts of Korma County (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, H.; Pillath, J.; Heuel-Fabianek, B.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than normal background values due to external exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  12. Strategies and guidance for establishing an inclusive radiation monitoring in case of long term radioactive contamination: the SAGE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepicard, S.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of the rehabilitation strategies implemented in the CIS countries affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe pointed out the importance to involve the population in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation. The ETHOS experience in Belarus has revealed that to be effective and sustainable, this involvement must rely on the dissemination of a practical radiological protection culture within the population and especially within health professionals. As part of this culture, the implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system is a key element to allow the population and the local professionals to regain control on the day-to-day situation as far as the radiological risk is concerned. The SAGE Project, funded by the European Commission, started in October 2002 and will last 30 months. The objective is to develop strategies and guidance for disseminating such a system in Western Europe, in case of a long-term radiological contamination. The partnership of the Project is composed of 5 teams of researchers from the following institutions: BB RIR (the Brest Branch of the Research Institute of Radiology - Belarus), BELRAD (the Institute of Radiation Safety - Belarus), CEPN (France), GSF (Germany) and NRPB (United Kingdom). The key output of the project will be a handbook giving a comprehensive guidance on how to tackle the questionings and problems faced by the population. The proposed strategies and guidance are developed by national 'stakeholders panels' involving representatives from the society (medical doctors, radiation protection experts, teachers, representatives from NGOs,...) both in the contaminated territories of Belarus and in the above mentioned three Member States. This paper will present the methodology of work with the stakeholder panels and the major findings so far, especially the elements they have pointed out to be of a particular importance. The preliminary contents of the handbook will be presented as well. (author)

  13. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Eckersten, Henrik; Reinlert, Andre; Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo; Greger, Maria

    2009-10-01

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  14. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  15. Long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study analyses questions of a legal, administrative and financial nature connected with the implementation of programmes for the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It demonstrates that institutional controls do not involve technically different operations nor do they require the marshalling of large-scale industrial and administrative resources. Finally, the study analyses the different possible approaches in the light of regulations already adopted in certain OECD countries. The annex to the study gives examples of relevant provisions. (NEA) [fr

  16. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report II (1998-2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2015 in a region of Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of the village of Volincy (Korma district) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precautions in the course of time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. External exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, internal exposure is only slightly elevated and has no significant negative influence on the health of the inhabitants. In 2013, the internal dose decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/a. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Up to now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and individual advice is available, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former closed areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules.

  17. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report II (1998-2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2015 in a region of Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of the village of Volincy (Korma district) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precautions in the course of time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. External exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, internal exposure is only slightly elevated and has no significant negative influence on the health of the inhabitants. In 2013, the internal dose decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/a. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Up to now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and individual advice is available, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former closed areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules.

  18. Environmental radioactivity. Global transport, distribution and its long-term variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, which occurred as a result of huge earthquake and resulting tsunami, had a severe impact on world communities as did Japanese, because of cause of serious radioactivity contamination in the environment. Long-term effects of radioactivity contamination from F1NPP are concerned. To assess the long-term environmental effects of the F1NPP accident, it is important to review the history of global radioactivity contamination, which started from Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions in Aug. 1945. Radionuclides released in the environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear explosions, nuclear reactor accident and others are migrated between atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere according to natural processes. We describe long-term environmental behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides derived from the atmospheric nuclear explosions and others, which is useful to predict the behaviors and fate of the F1NPP-derived radionuclides. (author)

  19. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  20. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  1. Long-term behaviour of radioactive nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Report of recent advances in Europe, regarding the long-term development of radioactive nuclides in the environment. The corresponding scientific findings from three projects - Peace, Landscape and Epora (involving 18 European laboratories) - have been collected together. These projects were managed by the IPSN for the European Commission (DG XII) in the framework of the programme 'Surete de la fission nucleaire' (Nuclear fission safety programme). (author)

  2. GEMS: Underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartini, Ludovica, E-mail: ludovica.sartini@ingv.i [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Genoa University, Genoa (Italy); Simeone, Francesco; Pani, Priscilla [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Lo Bue, Nadia; Marinaro, Giuditta [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Grubich, Andry; Lobko, Alexander [Institute for Nuclear Problems (INP), Belarus State University, Minsk (Belarus); Etiope, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Capone, Antonio [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Favali, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Gasparoni, Francesco; Bruni, Federico [Tecnomare S.p.A., Venice (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework for a development of a submarine telescope for neutrino detection (KM3NeT Design Study Project). The spectrometer is highly sensitive to gamma rays produced by {sup 40}K decays but it can detect other natural (e.g., {sup 238}U,{sup 232}Th) and anthropogenic radio-nuclides (e.g., {sup 137}Cs). GEMS was firstly tested and calibrated in the laboratory using known sources and it was successfully deployed for a long-term (6 months) monitoring at a depth of 3200 m in the Ionian Sea (Capo Passero, offshore Eastern Sicily). The instrument recorded data for the whole deployment period within the expected specifications. This monitoring provided, for the first time, a continuous time-series of radioactivity in deep-sea.

  3. Influence on the long-term fertilizing on radioactivity soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubisic, M.; Stevanovic, D.; Stojanovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Pantelic, G.

    2007-01-01

    Researching in this work need to give the answer in which degree application the mineral fertilizers, especially phosphate, contribute to the contamination of a soil because of long-term continually fertilizing (35 years) and differences of adopting from the corn culture and wheat nursing in monocultures. Like control, it is made measuring activity of radionuclides of a soil on experimental variety where wasn't fertilizing during the making the experiment, separately for both cultures. Based on that it is given accent only on chronic contamination of a soil by radionuclides by application mineral fertilizers at once and transport in the system of soil of different biocenoses. Based on measuring activity 40K, 137Cs, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, 212Pb it is fortified differences in concentration of the activity of radionuclides of uranium row between the samples of smonica, fertilized and non-fertilized in the longer period. (author) [sr

  4. [Stabilization and long-term effect of chromium contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Qi-Shi; Zhang, Chang-Bo; Tan, Liang; Li, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Short-term (3 d and 28 d) and long-term (1 a) stabilization effects of Cr contaminated soil were investigated through nature curing, using four amendments including ferrous sulfide, ferrous sulfate, zero-valent iron and sodium dithionite. The results indicated that ferrous sulfide and zero-valent iron were not helpful for the stabilization of Cr(VI) when directly used because of their poor solubility and immobility. Ferrous sulfate could effectively and rapidly decrease total leaching Cr and Cr(VI) content. The stabilization effect was further promoted by the generation of iron hydroxides after long-term curing. Sodium dithionite also had positive effect on soil stabilization. Appropriate addition ratio of the two chemicals could help maintain the soil pH in range of 6-8.

  5. The long-term management of contaminated areas; the principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.; Cherp, A.; Gray, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There are three primary aspects to be considered in the remediation of areas contaminated by the accidental release of radioactivity, these are: the environment; health and well-being, including the psychological impact on the resident and adjaqent populations; the economic and social status of the affected populations. These aspects cannot be seen as independent of one another. In the case of the Chernobyl accident they have mutually interacted to produce a downward spiral in the quality of life of the affected populations. This paper will discuss the lessons that have emerged from that experience and propose ways in which. There is much, in practical terms, that can be done to manage, in both the short and the long term, the environmental aspects of the contamination, both at the collective and the individual levels. How effectively this is done and is seen to be done, will be a powerful determinant of the success in dealing with the other two primary aspects. Ring fencing the risk into the contaminated areas by the prohibition of processes that disperse the risk to populations outside the affected areas can be counterproductive for the affected population with minimal real detriment for the wider unaffected populations. In the case of the Chernobyl accident it can be argued that health and well-being have been more adversely affected by the psychosocial aspects of the accident than by the direct effects of radiation. A larger than real effect an health is perceived and this leads to the five dimensions of the psychosocial effect, social disruption of communities, illness behaviour, readiness to attribute illness to radiation, changed lifestyle habits, stress related illness. The effects of radiation exposure, if any, will appear after a few to tens of years. Their incidence should be carefully monitored in relation to the previous experience and the experience in comparable populations, in an open and objective way. The perception that health

  6. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-01

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  7. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-15

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  8. EC SAGE Project: Strategies and guidance for establishing a practical radiation protection culture in Europe in case of long-term radioactive contamination after a nuclear accident. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Crouail, P.; Bataille, C.; Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G.; Mercer, J.; Nisbet, A.; Sudas, A.; Zaitzev, A.; Zhukovskaya, L.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Nesterenko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of 'rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories' is a reality that overhangs widely the territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia affected by the catastrophe of Chernobyl. Thousands of people in Europe live in territories considered as contaminated areas. The SAGE project has contributed to the development of strategies and guidance for implementing and disseminating a practical radiation protection culture in Western Europe required for the management of contaminated areas following a nuclear incident or any accident having long term radiological impact. Moreover it highlighted that the involvement of stakeholders is an innovative approach that can significantly improve the quality of the answers and actions. Such an approach is pertinent and could be applied to any situation of long-term contamination at a local or national scale, in parallel to the countermeasures implemented by public authorities. The present final technical report presents the main results of the project and describes its fifth deliverables. (authors)

  9. Long-term storage of compressed radioactive krypton in cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, D.; Nommensen, O.; Bruecher, H.

    1982-01-01

    The recommendations of the German Radiation Protection Commission necessitate the separation of the radioactive noble gas krypton-85 (Kr-85) produced in large LWR reprocessing plants from the dissolver off-gas. A possible method of removal is a long-term storage of the compressed noble gas above ground in cylinders. The aim of the present study is to develop such a storage concept and evaluate its feasibility under the aspects of safety and cost. After having been filled, the gas cylinders are placed separately into transport racks serving to protect the cylinders. Following this, the cylinders are transferred out of the filling station in a transport cask, conveyed to the storage building and stored there. The storage building protects the gas cylinders against external impacts. The storage cells constitute a second barrier against the release of Kr-85. The heat produced during decay of the Kr-85 in the gas cylinders is carried off by natural convection of the air circulating in the storage cells. To study possible corrosion attack on special steels due to rubidium, experiments were conducted at 200 0 C during test periods up to 3500h. In order to compare properties at elevated temperatures, corrosion experiments were conducted at 500 0 C, which is far above the maximum licensed storage temperature of 200 0 C. Experiments were conducted concerning the adsorption of krypton on various adsorbents, thus reducing the pressure inside the gas cylinder during storage. A cost estimate based on 1980 prices

  10. Complex containment design for long-term encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungaila, M.A.; San, E.K.W.; Palmeter, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low-level radioactive waste in the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington. The Port Granby Project includes the construction of a long-term low-level radioactive waste management facility, the transfer of the contaminated material to the new facility from existing storage, construction and operation of a new waste water treatment facility, and monitoring and maintenance of the facility for a period of several hundred years. A key component of the new long-term facility is a highly-engineered containment mound incorporating a composite base liner, a leachate collection system, and a multi-layer final cover system. Issues of interest include the details of the design, the evolution of the design, as well as the field quality assurance measures that will be specified to ensure that the design is correctly implemented. (author)

  11. Waste Disposal: Long-term Performance Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marivoet, J

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on long-term performance studies are: (1) to develop a methodology and associated tools for assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal of all types of radioactive waste in clay formations and of the shallow-land burial of low-level waste; (2) to assess the performance and to identify the most influential elements of integrated repository systems for the disposal of radioactive waste; (3) to collect geological, piezometric and hydraulic data required for studying the hydrogeological system in north-eastern Belgium; (4) to develop a regional aquifer model for north-easter Belgium and to apply it in the performance assessments for the Mol site; (5) to test, verify and improve computer codes used in the performance assessment calculations of waste disposal concepts and contaminated sites (the computer codes simulate water flow and transport of radionuclides in engineered barriers, aquifers and contaminated sites). The scientific programme and achievements in 1999 are described.

  12. The long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    After setting out the terms of reference of ANDRA (National agency for the management of radioactive waste), the author describes the current situation and the projects for the surface storage of waste of low and medium activity. He then discusses the work which has started on the construction of an underground laboratory for studying the storage of long life waste [fr

  13. Long term industrial management of radioactive wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.

    1981-01-01

    All human activities including energy generation entail the wastes. This definitely applies also to nuclear power generation. Currently the nuclear power program is very extensive, and the plans of fuel reprocessing proceed along this line. In consequence, the Government has decided on tackling the problem of industrial radioactive waste management in earnest. For the purpose, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was created in November, 1979, within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Its main functions are the design, siting and construction of waste disposal centers and their management, the establishment of waste treatment and disposal standards, and the research and development. The following matters are described: the need for comprehensive industrial approach, the concept of industrial management, ANDRA business program, the industrial policy on waste disposal, and ANDRA financing. (J.P.N.)

  14. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report; Langzeitbeobachtung der Dosisbelastung der Bevoelkerung in radioaktiv kontaminierten Gebieten Weissrusslands. Korma-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2009-09-24

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Until now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  15. On the long-term development of population dose in radioactively contaminated parts of Korma County (Belarus); Langzeitentwicklung der Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung in radioaktiv kontaminierten Gebieten des Kreises Korma (Belarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, H.; Pillath, J.; Heuel-Fabianek, B.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2009-07-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than normal background values due to external exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  16. Stepwise Decision Making for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, Claudio; Vari, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Consideration is increasingly being given, in radioactive waste management (RWM), to concepts such as 'stepwise decision making' and 'adaptive staging' in which the public, and especially the local communities, are also meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability and provided they meet the requirements of an acceptable safety case. Stepwise decisions are designed to provide reassurance that actions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. Stepwise decision making has thus come to the fore as being especially important for making progress for radioactive waste management in a manner which is acceptable to large sectors of society. Despite its early identification within the RWM community as an important means for reaching decision in which there is broad-based confidence, stepwise decision making has not been widely debated. Accepted guiding principles of any such process have not yet been formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. This paper reviews the current developments regarding stepwise decision making in RWM with the aim to pinpoint where it stands, to highlight its societal dimension, to analyse its roots in social sciences, and to identify guiding principles and issues in implementation. It is observed that there is convergence between the approach taken by the practitioners of RWM and the indications received from field studies in social research, and that general guiding principles can be proposed at least as a basis for further discussion. A strong basis for dialogue across disciplines thus exists. General methodological issues are also identified. This paper was developed in the framework of the activities of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence, which is presented in a

  17. Long-term management of radioactive waste. Ethics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    1999-01-01

    The protection of the environment and the ethical issues that it raises are important topics in the debate on the long-term management of radioactive waste. An overview of the general ethical principles developed in the wider context of the debate on the environment is presented and the specific case of the management of long-lived radioactive waste is addressed. (author)

  18. Regulatory issues related to long-term storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.; Romanenko, O.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Zhunussova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Reported material is a result of activity accomplished in the framework of cooperation program between Kazakhstan and Norway within 2009-2012. This work was divided into three distinctive parts, as follows: 1. Analysis of existing threats associated with radioactive wastes in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The objective of this part of the work was to reveal the most important threats in the sphere of radioactive waste management in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which require an increased regulatory attention. Threat assessment needed to identify: main radiological threats both for people who work with radioactive wastes and for population living near the radioactive waste storage places now and in the long term which require an increased regulatory attention; problems that need urgent and detailed analysis; and main problems in the realization of regulatory process in Kazakhstan including weakness in the regulatory and legal framework. Threat assessment analysis showed that in order to reduce the level of threats it was necessary to begin developing a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management which need to be approved by the Government, to develop proposals for Radioactive Wastes new classification, including identification of relevant categories of Radioactive Wastes, as well as criteria for their disposal in accordance with IAEA recommendations and experience from other countries. 2. Development of new classification system for radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan. Following the results of threat assessment performed within the first stage, the objective of the second part of work was to develop a proposal to adopt a new Radioactive Wastes classification in Kazakhstan in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, including implementation of new categories, taking into account international experience and current situation in Kazakhstan. The result of this stage of work was a proposal for a new Radioactive Wastes classification and

  19. BIOPROTA: Key issues in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. Theme 2 Task 1: Model review and comparison for spray irrigation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Albrecht, A.; Kanyar, B.; Smith, G.; Thorne, M.C.; Yoshida, H.; Wasiolek, M.

    2006-04-01

    the relative significance of the pathway for contamination considered here with results for the effects of long term accumulation in soil, and exposures due to: root uptake; inhalation of suspended activity; and external irradiation. The first two of these three have been considered in Tasks 2 and 4 of Theme 2 of BIOPROTA, within which correspondingly similar model descriptions and data compilations have been prepared, as well as assessment results based on similar system descriptions. External irradiation is a relatively simple exposure pathway to address, once the activity level in the soil has been evaluated

  20. BIOPROTA: Key issues in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. Theme 2 Task 1: Model review and comparison for spray irrigation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U.; Albrecht, A.; Kanyar, B.; Smith, G.; Thorne, M.C.; Yoshida, H.; Wasiolek, M.

    2006-04-15

    depend on the relative significance of the pathway for contamination considered here with results for the effects of long term accumulation in soil, and exposures due to: root uptake; inhalation of suspended activity; and external irradiation. The first two of these three have been considered in Tasks 2 and 4 of Theme 2 of BIOPROTA, within which correspondingly similar model descriptions and data compilations have been prepared, as well as assessment results based on similar system descriptions. External irradiation is a relatively simple exposure pathway to address, once the activity level in the soil has been evaluated.

  1. Taking into account the long term dimension associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Lavelle, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste introduces a new time dimension in the field of risk management. This is why, for more than 10 years, there have been reflections on the societal and organisational mechanisms allowing a responsible management over the long term of the risk associated with radioactive waste. These reflections lead one to ask questions regarding interactions between what is at stake for societal and radiation protection criteria, demanding a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. Within the framework of the European project C.O.W.A.M. 2, dedicated to the improvement of governance of radioactive waste management in Europe, a working group involving experts, authorities, waste managers, locally elected representatives and N.G.O.s, discussed the stakes associated with the long term dimension. This article presents the main results of this working group, organised around four themes: meaning of the long term and what is at stake, the ethical dimension regarding long term issues, continuity and sustainability of the surveillance and control of radioactive waste facilities, effectiveness of financing schemes for the long term management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  2. Long-term stable, long-term safe storage of residues and radioactive waste. Contribution to discussion to the storage (final storage); Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rueckstaenden und radioaktiven Abfaellen. Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersow, Michael [DGGT e.V., Breitenbrunn/Erzgeb. (Germany). Ak 5.5 Tailings; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper it is presented, where radioactive waste and residues occur, how these materials can be classified, which rules and regulations have to be complied with regarding the disposal and which geotechnical environmental constructions (final repositories) are suitable to guarantee a safe long-term disposal of these materials. Primary protection objective is ''to permanently prevent the transfer of toxic, radioactive contaminations into the biosphere by air, water or rock path or to keep the amount of contamination within a commonly accepted range''. Radionuclide inventories and the given time period considered for long-term safety are compared with. It is shown, that the site-specific disposal solutions cannot be justified by the radioactive inventory deposited there. The given period of 10{sup 6} years is critically evaluated. Based on this it is suggested to subdivide this period into two time periods with different prognosis reliabilities. Results of a specially designed long-term monitoring as part of the site-specific waste disposal solution should be considered for the long-term safety proof. A modular concept for the final storage of High Active Waste (HAW) is derived based on the critical evaluation of the long-term safety, including transmutation, provisional storage and monitoring module. A foundation model is proposed to guarantee the financial resources required for the disposal of HAW.

  3. Moving Forward with Lessons Learned About Long-term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth; Dalton, John

    2006-01-01

    A range of lessons have been identified from previous attempts to implement long term radioactive waste management policy in the UK and internationally. Many of these relate to the way the decision-making process is undertaken and the fact that there needs to be an open, transparent process that enables continuous stakeholder involvement. Nirex believes that using the SEA and EIA frameworks will help to incorporate the lessons learned into the future decision-making process relating to long-term radioactive waste management

  4. Moving Forward with Lessons Learned About Long-term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, Elizabeth; Dalton, John [UK Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    A range of lessons have been identified from previous attempts to implement long term radioactive waste management policy in the UK and internationally. Many of these relate to the way the decision-making process is undertaken and the fact that there needs to be an open, transparent process that enables continuous stakeholder involvement. Nirex believes that using the SEA and EIA frameworks will help to incorporate the lessons learned into the future decision-making process relating to long-term radioactive waste management.

  5. Long term management of wastes contaminated by plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the different categories of wastes, the evolution of the cumulated production until the year 2000 is described by curves and the general situation of production points is presented, all that in France. The storage conditions are specified according to the type of wastes, category A, B, or C; the threshold under which the waste is classified in A category being fixed by the safety authorities at 2.10 4 CMA (maximum permissible concentration), that is to say for plutonium 1Ci/m 3 . The knowledge of waste activity is another basic element of the management of such wastes, the fixing of the threshold, above which wastes contaminated by plutonium have to be stored underground, still keeping to be specified [fr

  6. Long-term investigation of biosphere contamination by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnovec, T.; Kollar, J.; Tatara, M.; Chorvat, D.

    1974-03-01

    An apparatus was designed and built for isotope enrichment by electrolysis of water samples (taken in several localities in the vicinity of the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant) and a method was elaborated of measuring tritium using liquid scintillators, serving the determination of natural tritium concentrations. Operating experience showed that the degree of enrichment may easily be controlled and that the reproducibility of the enrichment coefficient value is conditional on the skill of personnel handling the apparatus. The apparatus constraints include a limited capacity of isotope enrichment (given by the number of electrolytic columns), demands on time, and sensitivity to secondary contamination. In addition to isotope enrichment of samples prior to measurement, also the feasibility of direct determination of natural tritium concentration without previous enrichment was tested. Tests were carried out of commercial products by Packard, INSTA-GEL and MONOPHASE-40. It was verified that the above method may be used in direct measuring tritium levels of several hundred TU. The preparation of a representative background sample was found to be the main problem involved in the type of determination described. The detection limit was mainly determined by the measurement statistics. (B.S.)

  7. Long-term storage of radioactive waste: IAEA perspectives on safety and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, J.H.; Louvat, D.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    As the amounts of radioactive waste in surface storage have increased, concern has grown over the safety and sustainability of storage in the long term. In response to increasing concerns, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has included an action to address the safety implications of the long-term storage (LTS) of radioactive waste in its action plan for waste safety; the action plan was endorsed by the IAEA's Member States in 2001. In 2003, the IAEA published a position paper on the safety and sustainability of LTS as part fulfilment of the action in question. A key theme of the position paper is the contrast of safety and sustainability implications of LTS with those of disposal. The present paper provides a summary of the position paper, describes current IAEA activities that deal with the subject of LTS, and discusses findings from the 2004 Cordoba symposium on disposal of low activity radioactive waste that pertain to LTS. (author)

  8. Compartment model for long-term contamination prediction in deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Clouvas, A.; Gagianas, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination from the Chernobyl accident of different parts (fruits, leaves, and shoots) of selected apricot trees in North Greece was systematically measured in 1987 and 1988. The results are presented and discussed in the framework of a simple compartment model describing the long-term contamination uptake mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident

  9. Legal, administrative and financial aspects of the long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.; Reyners, P.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the principal features of a study undertaken by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency on the institutional problems raised by the long-term management of radioactive waste. The purpose of this study is to provide the competent national authorities with a common approach based on experience. All management operations which may extend over periods of more than 50 years are covered by the study, which analyses the control measures or other institutional measures that must be taken with regard to such operations. It distinguishes between ''active'' and ''passive'' control measures and describes their application ''before closure'' and ''after closure'' of the disposal or storage sites. An attempt is made to evaluate the lifetime of such institutional control measures and it is proposed, on this basis, that a period of several centuries, at most 300 years, should be considered reasonable in view of the need to avoid imposing an excessive burden on future generations. The study also provides a description of relations between governments and industry, stressing the increased responsibility of governments in the context of long-term management of radioactive waste. Specific questions of financing and responsibility for civil nuclear activities which relate to long-term management are also analysed. The general conclusion arrived at is that a long-term management strategy must be based on a viable combination of technological methods and institutional measures. (author)

  10. Safety and optimization aspects of radioactive waste long-term storage at the ''Vector'' site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevs'kij, O.V.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Aleksjejeva, Z.M.; Ribalka, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes links between the final disposal option and needs for long-term storage of radioactive waste taking into proposals on possible changes in radwaste classification as regards disposal. It considers the conceptual approach to design facilities for long-term storage of long-lived radioactive waste at the Vector site and approaches to apply requirements of regulatory documents, radiation safety principles and criteria for long-term storage of radwaste and safety assessment.

  11. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  12. Estimation of long-term probabilities for inadvertent intrusion into radioactive waste management areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eedy, W.; Hart, D.

    1988-05-01

    The risk to human health from radioactive waste management sites can be calculated as the product of the probability of accidental exposure (intrusion) times the probability of a health effect from such exposure. This report reviews the literature and evaluates methods used to predict the probabilities for unintentional intrusion into radioactive waste management areas in Canada over a 10,000-year period. Methods to predict such probabilities are available. They generally assume a long-term stability in terms of existing resource uses and society in the management area. The major potential for errors results from the unlikeliness of these assumptions holding true over such lengthy periods of prediction

  13. NAGRA - Long-term safety - The main task of deep repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the necessity for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland and discusses the requirements placed on such long-term waste depositories The effects of ionizing radiation on people and the protection provided by the deep repositories are examined. The construction of such deep repositories is looked at, as are the developments expected in the depositories over thousands of years. A comparison with natural occurrences is made and lessons to be learned from nature are discussed. Ideas for the marking of the depository sites are presented. A glossary of relevant terms completes the report

  14. Tritium contamination of hematopoietic stem cells alters long-term hematopoietic reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giacomo, F.; Barroca, V.; Laurent, D.; Lewandowski, D.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Granotier, Ch.; Boussin, F.D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In vivo effects of tritium contamination are poorly documented. Here, we study the effects of tritiated Thymidine ([ 3 H] Thymidine) or tritiated water (HTO) contamination on the biological properties of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Materials and methods: Mouse HSC were contaminated with concentrations of [ 3 H] Thymidine ranging from 0.37-37.03 kBq/ml or of HTO ranging from 5-50 kBq/ml. The biological properties of contaminated HSC were studied in vitro after HTO contamination and in vitro and in vivo after [ 3 H] Thymidine contamination. Results: Proliferation, viability and double-strand breaks were dependent on [ 3 H] Thymidine or HTO concentrations used for contamination but in vitro myeloid differentiation of HSC was not affected by [ 3 H] Thymidine contamination. [ 3 H] Thymidine contaminated HSC showed a compromised long-term capacity of hematopoietic reconstitution and competition experiments showed an up to two-fold decreased capacity of contaminated HSC to reconstitute hematopoiesis. These defects were not due to impaired homing in bone marrow but to an initial decreased proliferation rate of HSC. Conclusion: These results indicate that contaminations of HSC with doses of tritium that do not result in cell death, induce short-term effects on proliferation and cell cycle and long-term effects on hematopoietic reconstitution capacity of contaminated HSC. (authors)

  15. High Hand Contamination Rates During Norovirus Outbreaks in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun Woo; Williamson, Keenan J; DeBess, Emilio; Cieslak, Paul R; Gregoricus, Nicole; De Nardo, Elizabeth; Fricker, Christopher; Costantini, Verónica; Vinjé, Jan

    2018-02-01

    We examined norovirus contamination on hands of ill patients during 12 norovirus outbreaks in 12 long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The higher frequency and norovirus titers on hands of residents compared to hands of heathcare workers highlights the importance of adhering to appropriate hand hygiene practices during norovirus outbreaks in LTCFs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:219-221.

  16. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, H.

    1980-10-01

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  17. Disposal of radioactive waste: can long-term safety be evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The long-term safety of any hazardous waste disposal system must be convincingly shown prior to its implementation. For radioactive wastes, safety assessments over timescales far beyond the normal horizon of social and technical planning have already been conducted in many countries. These assessments provide the principal means to investigate, quantify, and explain long-term safety of each selected disposal concept and site for the appropriate authorities and the public. Such assessments are based on four main elements: definition of the disposal system and its environment, identification of possible processes and events that may affect the integrity of the disposal system, quantification of the radiological impact by predictive modelling, and description of associated uncertainties. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee and the IAEA International Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee have carefully examined the current scientific methods for safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal systems, as briefly summarized in this report. The Committees have also reviewed the experience now available from using safety assessment methods in many countries, for different disposal concepts and formations, and in the framework of both nationally and internationally conducted studies, as referenced in this report [fr

  18. Long term radiocesium contamination of fruit trees following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Clouvas, A.; Gagianas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination form the Chernobyl accident of fruits and leaves from various fruit trees was systematically studied form 1990-1995 on two agricultural experimentation farms in Northern Greece. The results are discussed in the framework of a previously published model describing the long-term radiocesium contamination mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident. The results of the present work qualitatively verify the model predictions. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Long term radiocesium contamination of fruit trees following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Clouvas, A; Gagianas, A

    1996-12-01

    Radiocesium contamination from the Chernobyl accident of fruits and leaves from various fruit trees was systematically studied from 1990 to 1995 on two agricultural experimentation farms in Northern Greece. The results are discussed in the framework of a previously published model describing the long-term radiocesium contamination mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident. The results of the present work qualitatively verify the model predictions.

  20. Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste: practical issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen. In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop. (author)

  1. Prediction of long term stability for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Koide, Hitoshi; Kono, Itoshi

    1998-01-01

    On geological disposal of radioactive wastes, study on prediction of diastrophism has been paid many attentions, and then long term future prediction ranging from some thousands to some tends thousands years may be necessary for some target nuclides. As there are various methods in the future prediction, it is essential to use a computational dynamic procedure to conduct a quantitative prediction. However, it causes an obstacle to advancement of the prediction method that informations on deep underground have a lot of uncertain elements because of their few and indirect data. In this paper, a long term prediction procedure of diastrophism relating to geological disposal of radioactive wastes with low level but isolation terms required to some thousands years was investigated and each one example was shown on flow of the investigation and its modeling method by using the finite element method. It seems to be a key to upgrade accuracy of future diastrophism prediction how an earth fault can be analyzed. And, as the diastrophism is a long term and complex phenomenon and its prediction has many uncertain elements, it is important to judge comprehensively results of its numerical analysis geologically and on rock engineering. (G.K.)

  2. Long-Term Safety Analysis of Baldone Radioactive Waste Repository and Updating of Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The main objective of the project was to provide advice to the Latvian authorities on the safety enhancements and waste acceptance criteria for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities of the Baldone repository. The project included the following main activities: Analysis of the current status of the management of radioactive waste in Latvia in general and, at the Baldone repository in particular Development of the short and long-term safety analysis of the Baldone repository, including: the planned increasing of capacity for disposal and long term storage, the radiological analysis for the post-closure period Development of the Environment Impact Statement, for the new foreseen installations, considering the non radiological components Proposal of recommendations for future updating of radioactive waste acceptance criteria Proposal of recommendations for safety upgrades to the facility. The work programme has been developed in phases and main tasks as follows. Phase 0: Project inception, Phase 1: Establishment of current status, plans and practices (Legislation, regulation and standards, Radioactive waste management, Waste acceptance criteria), Phase 2: Development of future strategies for long-term safety management and recommendations for safety enhancements. The project team found the general approach use at the installation, the basic design and the operating practices appropriate to international standards. Nevertheless, a number of items subject to potential improvements were also identified. These upgrading recommendations deal with general aspects of the management (mainly storage versus disposal of long-lived sources), site and environmental surveillance, packaging (qualification of containers, waste characterization requirements), the design of an engineered cap and strategies for capping. (author)

  3. Regulatory objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes - long-term aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    It is the purpose of this document to present the regulatory basis for judging the long-term acceptability of radioactive waste disposal options, assuming that the operational aspects of waste emplacement and facility closure satisfy the existing regulatory framework of requirements. Basic objectives of radioactive waste disposal are given, as are the regulatory requirements which must be satisfied in order to achieve these objectives. In addition, guidelines are given on the application of the radiological requirements to assist proponents in the preparation of submissions to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The primary focus of the requirements is on radiation protection, although environmental protection and institutional controls are also addressed in a more general way since these factors stem directly from the overall objectives for radioactive waste disposal

  4. Microbial and plant ecology of a long-term TNT-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Emma R.; Bruce, Neil C.; Rosser, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of the environment with explosive residues presents a serious ecological problem at sites across the world, with the highly toxic compound trinitrotoluene (TNT) the most widespread contaminant. This study examines the soil microbial community composition across a long-term TNT-contaminated site. It also investigates the extent of nitroaromatic contamination and its effect on vegetation. Concentrations of TNT and its metabolites varied across the site and this was observed to dramatically impact on the extent and diversity of the vegetation, with the most heavily contaminated area completely devoid of vegetation. Bryophytes were seen to be particularly sensitive to TNT contamination. The microbial population experienced both a reduction in culturable bacterial numbers and a shift in composition at the high concentrations of TNT. DGGE and community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) revealed a clear change in both the genetic and functional diversity of the soil when soil was contaminated with TNT. - Long-term contamination of soil with TNT reduces the extent and diversity of vegetation, decreases culturable bacterial numbers and shifts the microbial community composition

  5. Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. The meaning of a demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The ''demonstration'' of the safe management of high level radioactive waste is a prerequisite for the further development of nuclear energy. It is therefore essential to be clear about both the meaning of the term ''demonstration'' and the practical means to satisfy this request. In the complex sequence of operations necessary to the safe management of high level waste, short term activities can be directly demonstrated. For longer term activities, such as the long term isolation of radioactive waste in deep undergroung structures, demonstration must be indirect. The ''demonstration'' of deep underground disposal for high level radioactive waste involves two steps: one direct, to prove that the system could be built, operated and closed safely and at acceptable costs, and one indirect, to make a convincing evaluation of the system's performance and long term safety on the basis of predictive analyses confirmed by a body of varied technical and scienfic data, much of it deriving from experimental work. The assessment of the evidence collected from current operations, existing experience in related fields and specific research and development activities, calls for specialized scientific expertise. Uncertainties in far future situations and probabilistic events can be taken into account in a scientific assessment. Competent national authorithies will have to satisfy themselves that the proposed waste management solutions can meet long term safety objectives. An element of judgement will always be needed in determining the acceptability of a waste disposal concept. However, the level of confidence in our ability to predict the performance of waste management systems will increase as supporting evidence is collected from current research and development activities and as our predictive techniques improve

  6. Legal, administrative and financial aspects of long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, Pierre.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive waste management raises technical, political and legal problems. The technical question covers mainly choice of the method and the location for waste disposal or storage: seabed, geologic formations or a disposal facility. The political problem is mainly acceptability by the public of decisions taken or planned by the competent authority. Finally, the legal frame is an important factor in the definition of long-term control. The institutional system to be created requires political consensus and an efficient and credible technique so as to be successful. (NEA) [fr

  7. Long-term evaluation for engineered capping (cover) of radioactive repository or landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Jamil Hashim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof

    2010-01-01

    This paper discussed the long-term evaluation of engineered capping for radioactive repository. It was done to gather knowledge and understand the suitability of granitic residual soil. Its resistance to hydrologic cycle and durability through a period of 100 to 300 years was checked. A hydrological program was used with forecast weather and manual checking all layers for hydraulic gradient to verify the results. Overall result shown that the grantic residual soil is able to last a few centuries before surcome to infiltration. (author)

  8. Prediction of long-term crustal movement for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Tabei, Kazuto; Koide, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Toshiharu

    2000-01-01

    Long-term stability of the geological environment is essential for the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, for which it is necessary to predict the crustal movement during an assessment period. As a case study, a numerical analysis method for the prediction of crustal movement in Japan is proposed. A three-dimensional elastic analysis by FEM for the geological block structure of the Kinki region and the Awaji-Rokko area is presented. Stability analysis for a disposal cavern is also investigated. (author)

  9. Stepwise decision making for the long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Vari, A.

    2003-01-01

    The context of long-term radioactive waste management is being shaped by changes in modern society. Values such as health, environmental protection and safety are increasingly important. This changes in turn necessitate new forms of dialogue and decision-making processes that include a large number of stakeholders. This paper deals with the new features of a stepwise decision-making approach, taking into account the public involvement and social learning processes, and showing the complexity of the new situation. (A.L.B.)

  10. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  11. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  12. Integrated system for long-term radioactive waste management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.; Wisbey, S.

    2003-01-01

    Since the failure of Nirex application to build a Rock Characterisation Facility near Sellafield in 1997, Nirex has been applying lessons learnt from that failure. Some of the issues involved are generic and relate to the process by which legitimate authority can be gained for government policy development, the structure of the nuclear industry and the behaviour of institutions. Transparency must be central to the culture of organisations attempting to win public acceptance. In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) have started a consultation process - stage one completed in March 2002 - to consult about the safe management of radioactive waste. Nirex has modified its approach to long-term waste management, using a concept of phased (stepwise and reversible) geological disposal. Nirex also provides waste producers with advice on, and endorsement of, the packaging and transport of wastes. Through these examples, this paper will demonstrate how Nirex is providing an integrated approach to the long-term management of radioactive wastes in the UK. (orig.)

  13. Technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management - a feasible option for small nuclear programmes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Mathieson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The EU project CATT - Co-operation and technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes investigated the feasibility of countries with small nuclear programmes implementing long-term radioactive waste management solutions within their national borders, through collaboration on technology transfer with those countries with advanced disposal concepts. The main project objective was to analyse the existing capabilities of technology owning Member States and the corresponding requirements of potential technology acquiring Member States and, based on the findings, to develop a number of possible collaboration models and scenarios that could be used in a technology transfer scheme. The project CATT was performed as a specific support action under the EU sixth framework programme and it brought together waste management organisations from six EU Member States: UK, Bulgaria, Germany, Lithuania, Slovenia and Sweden. In addition, the EC Joint Research Centre from the Netherlands also participated as a full partner. The paper summarises the analyses performed and the results obtained within the project. (author)

  14. Long-term environmental and health implications of morphological change and sediment transport with respect to contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Christopher; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Hunter, Peter; Smith, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The EPSRC-funded Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply (ARCoES) project encompasses four research strands, involving 14 institutions and six PhD studentships. ARCoES aims to determine the threats posed to future energy generation and the distribution network by flooding and erosion, changing patterns of coastal sedimentation, water temperature and the distribution of plants and animals in the coastal zone. Whilst this research has direct benefits for the operation of coastal power stations, ARCoES aims to have a wider stakeholder engagement through assessing how the resilience of coastal communities may be altered by five hundred years of coastal evolution. Coastal evolution will have substantial implications for the energy sector of the North West of England as former waste storage sites are eroded and remobilised within the intertidal environment. The current intertidal environmental stores of radioactivity will also experience reworking as ocean chemistry changes and saltmarsh chronologies are reworked in response to rising sea levels. There is a duel requirement to understand mass sediment movement along the North West coast of England as understanding the sediment transport dynamics is key to modelling long term coastal change and understanding how the environmental store of radioactivity will be reworked. The University of Stirling is researching the long-term environmental and health implications of remobilisation and transport of contaminated sediments around the UK coastline. Using a synergy of hyperspectral and topographic information the mobilisation of sediment bound contaminants within the coastal environment will be investigated. Potential hazards posed by contaminants are determined by a set of environmental impact test criteria which evaluate the bio-accessibility and ionising dose of contaminants. These test criteria will be used to comment on the likely environmental impact of modelled sediment transport and anticipated changes in

  15. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  16. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'')

  17. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  18. Long term governance of radioactive waste - research and guidance on governance methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2007-01-01

    levels, creating the conditions for an improved dialogue among representatives of civil society and the traditional public and private actors of RWM; Developing guidance on innovative democratic governance of RWM, integrating local, national and European levels of decision as well the key non technical and technical dimensions involved; Developing best practices and benchmarking on practical and sustainable decision making processes recognised as fair and equitable by the stakeholders involved at the local, national and European levels as well as consistent on the short, medium and long term of RWM; Contributing to enable European societies to make actual progress in the governance of RWM, in order to reach practicable, accountable and sustainable decisions. SCK-CEN-PISA engaged in work packages on 'Implementing Local Democracy' (WP1), 'Long Term Governance' (WP4) and 'Integration and Knowledge Management' (WP5)

  19. Suitable areas for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, P.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dept. de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Mateus, A. [Lisboa Univ., Dept. de Geologia and Creminer, Faculdade de Ciencias (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive wastes in Portugal result mainly from the application of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and from U-ores mining and milling activities. Sealed and unsealed sources (including liquid effluents and N.O.R.M.) classified as radioactive wastes have been collected, segregated, conditioned and stored in the Portuguese Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility (P.R.W.I.S.F.) since the sixties. The Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) is responsible for the R.W.I.S.F. management, located nearby Lisbon (S.a.c.a.v. ). Despite recent improvements performed at R.W.I.S.F., the 300 m3 storage capacity will be soon used up if current average store-rate remains unaltered. Being aware of the tendency for radioactive waste production increase in Portugal and of the international rules and recommendations on disposal sites for this kind of wastes, it becomes clear that the P.R.W.I.S.F. must be updated. In this work, a first evaluation of suitable areas to host a long-term radioactive waste storage facility was carried out using a Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) base. Preference and exclusionary criteria were applied, keeping constant the map scale (1:1000000). After processing exclusionary criteria, remaining areas were scored by overlaying three preference criteria. A composite score was determined for each polygon (problem solution) by summing the three preference criteria scores. The highest scores resulted from the combination of these criteria correspond to 4% of the territory, spatially distributed in seven of the eighteen Portuguese mainland administrative districts. Work in progress will use this area as reference for site selection, criss-crossing appropriate criteria for scales ranging from 1:50000 to 1:25000. (authors)

  20. Suitable areas for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, P.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R.; Mateus, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive wastes in Portugal result mainly from the application of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and from U-ores mining and milling activities. Sealed and unsealed sources (including liquid effluents and N.O.R.M.) classified as radioactive wastes have been collected, segregated, conditioned and stored in the Portuguese Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility (P.R.W.I.S.F.) since the sixties. The Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) is responsible for the R.W.I.S.F. management, located nearby Lisbon (S.a.c.a.v. ). Despite recent improvements performed at R.W.I.S.F., the 300 m3 storage capacity will be soon used up if current average store-rate remains unaltered. Being aware of the tendency for radioactive waste production increase in Portugal and of the international rules and recommendations on disposal sites for this kind of wastes, it becomes clear that the P.R.W.I.S.F. must be updated. In this work, a first evaluation of suitable areas to host a long-term radioactive waste storage facility was carried out using a Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) base. Preference and exclusionary criteria were applied, keeping constant the map scale (1:1000000). After processing exclusionary criteria, remaining areas were scored by overlaying three preference criteria. A composite score was determined for each polygon (problem solution) by summing the three preference criteria scores. The highest scores resulted from the combination of these criteria correspond to 4% of the territory, spatially distributed in seven of the eighteen Portuguese mainland administrative districts. Work in progress will use this area as reference for site selection, criss-crossing appropriate criteria for scales ranging from 1:50000 to 1:25000. (authors)

  1. Long term safety requirements and safety indicators for the assessment of underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    This presentation defines: waste disposal, safety issues, risk estimation; describes the integrated waste disposal process including quality assurance program. Related to actinides inventory it shows the main results of calculated activity obtained by deterministic estimation. It includes the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards and requirements; features related to site, design and waste package characteristics, as technical long term safety criteria for radioactive waste disposal facilities. Fundamental concern regarding the safety of radioactive waste disposal systems is their radiological impact on human beings and the environment. Safety requirements and criteria for judging the level of safety of such systems have been developed and there is a consensus among the international community on their basis within the well-established system of radiological protection. So far, however, little experience has been gained in applying long term safety criteria to actual disposal systems; consequently, there is an international debate on the most appropriate nature and form of the criteria to be used, taking into account the uncertainties involved. Emerging from the debate is the increasing conviction that the combined use of a variety of indicators would be advantageous in addressing the issue of reasonable assurance in the different time frames involved and in supporting the safety case for any particular repository concept. Indicators including risk, dose, radionuclide concentration, transit time, toxicity indices, fluxes at different points within the system, and barrier performance have all been identified as potentially relevant. Dose and risk are the indicators generally seen as most fundamental, as they seek directly to describe the radiological impact of a disposal system, and these are the ones that have been incorporated into most national standards to date. There are, however, certain problems in applying them. Application of a variety of different indicators

  2. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  3. Reference biospheres for the long term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Torres, C.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory guidance on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposals usually requires the consequences of any radionuclide releases to be considered in terms of their potential impact on human health. This requires consideration of the prevailing biosphere and the habits of the potentially exposed humans within it. However, it could take many thousands of years for migrating radionuclides to reach the surface environment. In these circumstances, an assessment model that was based on the present-day biosphere could be inappropriate while future biospheres would be unpredictable. These and other considerations suggest that a standardised, or reference biosphere, approach may be useful. Theme 1 of the IAEA BIOMASS project was established to develop the concept of reference biospheres into a practical system that can be applied to the assessment of the long term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The technical phase of the project lasted for four years until November 2000 and brought together disparate interests from many countries including waste disposal agencies, regulators and technical experts. Building on the experience from earlier BIOMOVS projects, a methodology was constructed for the logical and defensible construction of mathematical biosphere models that can be used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The methodology was then further developed through the creation of a series of BIOMASS Example Reference Biospheres ('Examples'). These are stylised biosphere models that, in addition to illustrating the methodology, are intended to be useful assessment tools in their own right. (author)

  4. Managing long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Thavamani, Palanisami; Meaklim, Jean; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants that consist of two or more aromatic rings fused together. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose significant risk to human and ecological health. Over the last 50 years, significant research has been directed towards the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soils to background level. However, this achieved only limited success especially with high molecular weight compounds. Notably, during the last 5-10 years, the approach to remediate PAH-contaminated soils has changed considerably. A risk-based prioritization of remediation interventions has become a valuable step in the management of contaminated sites. The hydrophobicity of PAHs underlines that their phase distribution in soil is strongly influenced by factors such as soil properties and ageing of PAHs within the soil. A risk-based approach recognizes that exposure and environmental effects of PAHs are not directly related to the commonly measured total chemical concentration. Thus, a bioavailability-based assessment using a combination of chemical analysis with toxicological assays and nonexhaustive extraction technique would serve as a valuable tool in risk-based approach for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this paper, the fate and availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and their relevance to risk-based management of long-term contaminated soils are reviewed. This review may serve as guidance for the use of site-specific risk-based management methods.

  5. Impact of microbial activity on the radioactive waste disposal: long term prediction of biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Marie; Schütz, Marta Kerber; Esnault, Loïc; Féron, Damien; Bildstein, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    This study emphasizes different experimental approaches and provides perspectives to apprehend biocorrosion phenomena in the specific disposal environment by investigating microbial activity with regard to the modification of corrosion rate, which in turn can have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. It is found that iron-reducing bacteria are able to use corrosion products such as iron oxides and "dihydrogen" as new energy sources, especially in the disposal environment which contains low amounts of organic matter. Moreover, in the case of sulphate-reducing bacteria, the results show that mixed aerobic and anaerobic conditions are the most hazardous for stainless steel materials, a situation which is likely to occur in the early stage of a geological disposal. Finally, an integrated methodological approach is applied to validate the understanding of the complex processes and to design experiments aiming at the acquisition of kinetic data used in long term predictive modelling of biocorrosion processes. © 2013.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal system for Cuba. Safety assessment for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Mirta Torrez, B.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is performed within the frame of evaluating the radiological impact of the post-closure stage of the facility for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in Cuba, including a description of the waste disposal systems defined in the country, and taking account of significant elements of their long term safety. The Methodology for Safety Assessment includes: the definition of possible scenarios for evaluation, the identification of principal present uncertainties, the model simulating the release of the radionuclides of the facility, their transport through the geosphere, and their final access to man, evaluating ultimately the radiological impact of the disposal system considering the dose for a critical group. The results obtained allow to demonstrate the radiological safety of the nominative barrier in the design of the system for the particular conditions of Cuba. (author)

  7. Regulatory document R-104, Regulatory objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes - long-term aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this document is to present the regulatory basis for judging the long-term acceptability of radioactive waste disposal options. The basic objectives of radioactive waste disposal are given as are the regulatory requirements to be satisfied. (NEA)

  8. China's current status and long-term outlook of nuclear power and radioactive waste disposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the current status and long-term outlook of China's nuclear power development and radioactive waste disposal management after the 3.11 FUKUSHIMA accidents. China strengthened the actions for achieving nuclear power safety and cost efficiency as well as safety management of radioactive waste. It is a hard work to expand the capacity to 58 GW, the governmental target in 2020. The long-term development will strongly depend on the progress in safety management of nuclear power and radioactive waste and economic competitiveness. (author)

  9. A synoptic summary approach to better understanding groundwater contamination problems and evaluating long-term environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    A summary approach has been developed within groundwater hydrology to communicate with a broad audience and more completely evaluate the long-term impacts of subsurface contamination problems. This synoptic approach both highlights the dominant features occurring in subsurface contamination problems and emphasizes the information required to determine the long-term environmental impacts. The special merit of a summary approach is in providing a better understanding of subsurface contamination problems to adjoining technical disciplines, public decision makers, and private citizens. 14 refs

  10. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy industrial activities such as mining, metal industry, coal fired power plants have produced large amount of by-products and wide-spread pollution, particularly in the period of centrally dictated economy after WWII, in Hungary. Several studies suggest that significant amount of these pollutants have been deposited in the urban environment. Nowadays, more than half of the world's population is living in urban areas and people spend almost 80% of their lives indoors in developed countries increasing human health risk due to contamination present in urban dwellings. Attic dust sampling was applied to determine the long-term airborne contamination load in the industrial town of Ajka (Hungary). There has been a high industrial activity in Ajka since the end of the 19th century. In addition to aluminum and alumina industry, coal mining, coal fired power plant and glass industry sites, generated numerous waste heaps which act as multi-contamination sources in the area. In October 2010 the Ajka red mud tailings pond failed and caused an accidental regional contamination of international significance. The major objective of this research was to study and map the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in airborne attic dust samples. At 27 sampling sites 30 attic dust samples were collected. Sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design. In each cell a house for attic dust sample collection was selected that was located the closest to a randomly generated point in the grid cell. The project area covers a 8x8 grid of 1x1 km cells with a total area of 64 km2. In order to represent long-term industrial pollution, houses with attics kept intact for at least 30-40 years were selected for sampling. Sampling included the collection of background samples remotely placed from the industrialized urban area. The concentration of the major and toxic elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn

  11. Long-term risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for long-term safety analysis of waste from nuclear power production in the European Community are under study at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra, Italy. Aim of the work is to develop a suitable methodology for long-term risk assessment. The methodology under study is based on the assessment of the quantitative value of a system of barriers which may be interposed between waste and man. The barriers considered are: a) quality of the segregation afforded by the geological formation, b) chemical and physical stability of conditioned waste, c) interaction with geological environments (subsoil retention), d) distribution in the biosphere. The methodology is presently being applied to idealized test cases based on the following assumptions: waste are generated during 30 years of operations in a nuclear park (reprocessing + refabrication plant) capable of treating 1000 ton/yr of LWR fuel. High activity waste is conditioned as borosilicate glass (HAW) while low- and medium-level wastes are bituminized (BIP). All waste is disposed off into a salt formation. Transport to the biosphere, following the containment failure occurs by groundwater, with no delay due to retention on adsorbing media. Distribution into the biosphere occurs according to the terrestrial model indicated. Under these assumptions, information was drawn concerning environmental contamination, its levels, contributing elements and pathways to man

  12. The essential conditions for the choice of location for a long-term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V.

    1964-10-01

    The paper deals with a long-term storage of radioactive wastes with a special reference to the parameters to be considered in choosing the location. It gives a short account of methods for disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes used in nuclear centers in the world. The possibilities of radioactive wastes disposal in our country using the methods investigated are also presented (author)

  13. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations. The future of Nirex will be

  14. Biochar as possible long-term soil amendment for phytostabilisation of TE-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Charlotte; Christl, Iso; Schulin, Rainer; Evangelou, Michael W H

    2016-09-01

    Soils contaminated by trace elements (TEs) pose a high risk to their surrounding areas as TEs can spread by wind and water erosion or leaching. A possible option to reduce TE transfer from these sites is phytostabilisation. It is a long-term and cost-effective rehabilitation strategy which aims at immobilising TEs within the soil by vegetation cover and amendment application. One possible amendment is biochar. It is charred organic matter which has been shown to immobilise metals due to its high surface area and alkaline pH. Doubts have been expressed about the longevity of this immobilising effect as it could dissipate once the carbonates in the biochar have dissolved. Therefore, in a pot experiment, we determined plant metal uptake by ryegrass (Lolium perenne) from three TE-contaminated soils treated with two biochars, which differed only in their pH (acidic, 2.80; alkaline, 9.33) and carbonate (0.17 and 7.3 %) content. Root biomass was increased by the application of the alkaline biochar due to the decrease in TE toxicity. Zinc and Cu bioavailability and plant uptake were equally reduced by both biochars, showing that surface area plays an important role in metal immobilisation. Biochar could serve as a long-term amendment for TE immobilisation even after its alkalinity effect has dissipated.

  15. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, K.G.; Batandjieva, B.; Cheng, J.-J.; Hwang, W.T.; Kaiser, J.C.; Kamboj, S.; Steiner, M.; Tomas, J.; Trifunovic, D.; Yu, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a radiological dispersal device, with reference surface contamination at selected sites used as the primary input information. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a 'no action' situation (with no remedial measures) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided an opportunity for comparison of three modelling approaches, as well as a comparison of the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures in terms of their short-term and long-term effects on predicted doses to humans.

  16. Stepwise decision making for the long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Vari, A.

    2005-01-01

    The context of long-term radioactive waste management is being shaped by changes in modern society. Values such as health, environmental protection and safety are increasingly important, as are trends towards improved forms of participatory democracy that demand new forms of risk governance in dealing with hazardous activities. These changes in turn necessitate new forms of dialogue and decision-making processes that include a large number of stakeholders. The new dynamic of dialogue and decision-making process has been characterised as a shift from a more traditional 'decide, announce and defend' model, focused on technical assurance, to one of 'engage, interact and cooperate', for which both technical assurance and quality of the process are of comparable importance to a constructive outcome. Consequently, the scientific and engineering aspects of waste management safety are no longer of exclusive importance. Organisational ability to communicate and to adapt to the new context has emerged as a critical contributor to public confidence. In the new decision-making context it is clear that (a) any significant decisions regarding the long-term management of radioactive waste will be accompanied by a comprehensive public review with involvement of a diverse range of stakeholders; (b) the public, and especially the local public, are not willing to commit irreversibly to technical choices on which they have insufficient familiarity and understanding; and (c) any management options will take decades to be developed and implemented, which will involve stakeholders who have not yet been born. Thus, a 'decision' no longer means opting for, in one go and for all time, a complete package solution. Instead, a decision is one step in an overall, cautious process of examining and making choices that preserve the safety and well-being of the present generation and the coming ones while not needlessly depriving the latter of their right of choice. Consideration is thus

  17. Semi-passive, Chemical Oxidation Schemes for the Long-term Treatment of Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank W. Schwartz

    2005-12-13

    This research involves a combined experimental and modeling study that builds on our previous DOE-sponsored work in investigating how KMnO{sub 4} can be better used with in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated ethylenes (e.g., PCE, TCE, DCE). This study aims to provide scientific basis for developing a new long-term, semi-passive ISCO scheme that uses controlled release KMnO{sub 4} as a reactive barrier component. Specific objectives of the study are (1) to construct controlled release KMnO{sub 4} as a new reactive barrier component that could deliver permanganate at a controlled rate over long time periods of years, (2) to quantitatively describe release mechanisms associated with the controlled release KMnO{sub 4}, (3) to demonstrate efficacy of the new remediation scheme using proof-of-concept experiments, and (4) to design advanced forms of controlled release systems through numerical optimization. The new scheme operates in a long-term, semi-passive manner to control spreading of a dissolved contaminant plume with periodic replacement of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} installed in the subsurface. As a first step in developing this remedial concept, we manufactured various prototype controlled release KMnO{sub 4} forms. Then we demonstrated using column experiments that the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} could deliver small amount of permanganate into flowing water at controlled rates over long time periods of years. An analytical model was also used to estimate the diffusivities and durations of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4}. Finally, proof-of-concept flow-tank experiments were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} scheme in controlling dissolved TCE plume in a long-term, semi-passive manner. Another important thrust of our research effort involved numerical optimization of controlled release systems. This study used a numerical model that is capable of describing release patterns of active

  18. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L P; Slade, J A; Vijayan, S; Wong, C F

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Slade, J.A.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Integrating Modeling and Monitoring to Provide Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogwell, Th.

    2009-01-01

    An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are given. References are given to other projects which bring together similar elements in systems for the control of contaminants. Trends are given for the development of the technical features of a robust system. Examples of monitoring methods for specific sites are given. The examples are used to illustrate how such a system would work. Examples of technology needs are presented. Finally, other examples of integrated modeling-monitoring approaches are presented. (authors)

  1. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  2. Qualification of polysiloxanes for long-term storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, P.

    2005-12-01

    At present German policy envisages interim storage of all radioactive waste (for approximately 30 years) until a final repository is available. This therefore leads to higher standards for storage containers. Silicone elastomers (polysiloxanes), materials on the basis of silicon and oxygen with organic substituents, have various physical and chemical properties and seem to be suitable for the long-term storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The aim of the present work is the qualification of a new coating material for storage containers. The use of polysiloxanes in other applications was also investigated. An important criterion for the coating is the simplicity of its application. Moreover, it should also have a high adhesion on steel as well as providing protection against corrosion. These properties were investigated for different polysiloxanes. The spraying tests showed that polysiloxane material with a viscosity of up to 45 000 mPas could be applied by the airless spraying method. An elastic coating was produced which could ensure protection against mechanical impacts. In the framework of water vapour experiments, a very high diffusion constant was determined. The corrosion test confirmed that the polysiloxane coating provided only insufficient corrosion protection if the sample was in contact with water and water vapour at the same time. This problem was solved by using an additional priming coat of 60 μm zinc paint. The adhesion test showed that polysiloxanes have different levels of adhesion. The best adhesion was determined for condensation-cured silicones. The addition-cured materials had a lower adhesion, which was improved by the application of a priming coat. The outcome of these investigations is a wide spectrum of applications for polysiloxanes which can be used as firmly adhering coatings or removable decontamination layers. (orig.)

  3. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  4. Application of geostatistical methods to long-term safety analyses for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehlig, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Long-term safety analyses are an important part of the design and optimisation process as well as of the licensing procedure for final repositories for radioactive waste in deep geological formations. For selected scenarios describing possible evolutions of the repository system in the post-closure phase, quantitative consequence analyses are performed. Due to the complexity of the phenomena of concern and the large timeframes under consideration, several types of uncertainties have to be taken into account. The modelling work for the far-field (geosphere) surrounding or overlaying the repository is based on model calculations concerning the groundwater movement and the resulting migration of radionuclides which possibly will be released from the repository. In contrast to engineered systems, the geosphere shows a strong spatial variability of facies, materials and material properties. The paper presented here describes the first steps towards a quantitative approach for an uncertainty assessment taking into account this variability. Due to the availability of a large amount of data and information of several types, the Gorleben site (Germany) has been used for a case study in order to demonstrate the method. (orig.)

  5. Modelling the long-term durability of concrete barriers for radioactive waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, B.; Didry, O.; Marchand, J.; Gerard, B.; Breysse, D.; Hornain, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the past decades, cement-based materials have been increasingly used for the construction of radioactive-waste barriers. The design of durable structures for this specific application requires a precise knowledge of the evolution of the engineering properties of the materials over a 1000-year period. Given the intricate nature of the physical mechanisms involved, a reliable prediction of the long term behavior of the concrete barriers can only be made through modelling and numerical developments. After a brief literature survey in which the main aspects of the problem are outlined, the features of a new modelling approach are presented. The main originality of this approach resides in the fact that the model considers the various chemical and mechanical solicitations and their eventual couplings. The physical and thermodynamical bases behind the development of the model are detailed. A section of the paper is specifically devoted to the experimental techniques (accelerated leaching test, assessment of the permeability and mechanical behavior of concretes under tensile loading, characterization of the concrete microstructure and microcracking by image-analysis) designed to validate the model. Results of selected numerical simulations are presented in the last section of the paper. The main difficulties associated with the implantation of such a model in a finite-element code are discussed. (author)

  6. Electrolyze radioactive contamination away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility is using electrolysis to clean the surfaces of hazardous materials. In the past, contaminated metals were cleaned with concentrated acids. Although these treatments make the surfaces safer, they produce other radioactive and toxic wastes in turn. Anodic current passes through a piece of stainless steel submersed in a sodium nitrate solution, and steel dissolves at the surfaces. Surface contamination strips away along with the surface layers. The authors are using this electrolysis approach to remove plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium. Unlike acid washing processes, electrolytic decontamination can be accomplished quickly. Little waste is generated regardless of how much material has to be removed from the surface. Material removal is proportional to the applied current, which gives the operator control over the rate and extent of decontamination

  7. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  8. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  9. Radioecological reduction of acute and long-term environmental contamination with 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of the research project 'Investigations on the radioecology of 129 I', analytical methods with extremely low detection limits for all important test materials have been developed. The behaviour of 129 I in a reprocessing plant and its emission from a reprocessing plant has been completely investigated and understood. The feared long-term hazard due to a single environmental contamination with 129 I is not to be expected as the biological availability of 129 I in the ground is reduced with a half-life of 0.3a. The 'basis for calculation' recommended by the Federal Minister of the Interior overestimate 129 I doses by at least a factor of 45. (orig.) [de

  10. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  11. Technologies for remediating radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of technologies that can be used for the remediation of radioactively contaminated ground. There are a wide variety of techniques available -most have established track records for contaminated ground, though in general many are only just being adapted to use for radioactively contaminated ground. 1) Remediation techniques for radioactively contaminated ground involve either removal of the contamination and transfer to a controlled/contained facility such as the national LLW repository at Drigg, or 2) immobilization, solidification and stabilization of the contamination where the physical nature of the soil is changed, or an 'agent' is added to the soil, to reduce the migration of the contaminants, or 3) isolation and containment of the contaminated ground to reduce contaminant migration and control potential detrimental effects to human health. Where contamination has to be removed, ex situ and in situ techniques are available which minimize the waste requiring disposal to an LLW repository. These techniques include: 1) detector-based segregation 2) soil washing by particle separations 3) oil washing with chemical leaching agents 4) electro remediation 5) phyto remediation. Although many technologies are potentially applicable, their application to the remediation of a specific contaminated site is dependent on a number of factors and related to detailed site characterization studies, results from development trials and BPEO (best practicable environmental option) studies. Those factors considered of particular importance are: 1) the clean-up target 2) technical feasibility relative to the particular site, soil and contaminant characteristics, and time frame 3) site infrastructure arrangements and needs, the working life of the site and the duration of institutional care 4) long-term monitoring arrangements for slow remedial techniques or for immobilization and containment techniques 5) validation of the remediation 6) health and

  12. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition. This

  13. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition. This

  14. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition

  15. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4–7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 μg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure.

  16. Long-term leach testing of solidified radioactive waste forms (International Standard Publication ISO 6961:1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Processes are developed for the immobilization of radionuclides by solidification of radioactive wastes. The resulting solidification products are characterized by strong resistance to leaching aimed at low release rates of the radionuclides to the environment. To measure this resistance to leaching of the solidified materials: glass, glass-ceramics, bitumen, cement, concrete, plastics, a long-term leach test is presented. The long-term leach test is aimed at: a) the comparison of different kinds or compositions of solidified waste forms; b) the intercomparison between leach test results from different laboratories on one product; c) the intercomparison between leach test results on products from different processes

  17. Long-term assessment of contaminated articles from the Chernobyl reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Monged, M H E

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused a release of radioactive materials from the reactor into the environment. This event contaminated people, their surroundings and their personal property, especially in the zone around the reactor. Among the affected individuals were British students who were studying in Minsk and Kiev at the time of the Chernobyl accident. These students were exposed to external and internal radiation, and the individuals' articles of clothing were contaminated. The primary objective of this study was to analyze a sample of this contaminated clothing 20 years after the accident using three different detectors, namely, a BP4/4C scintillation detector, a Min-Con Geiger-Müller tube detector and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The clothing articles were initially assessed and found not to be significantly contaminated. However, there were several hot spots of contamination in various regions of the articles. The net count rates for these hot spots were in the range of 10.00 ± 3.16 c/s to 41.00 ± 6.40 c/s when the BP4/4C scintillation detector was used. The HPGe detector was used to identify the radionuclides present in the clothing, and the results indicated that the only active radionuclide was (137)Cs because of this isotope's long half-life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biogeochemical cycles of Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems: long-term dynamics of the migration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Biogeochemical migration is a dominant factor of the radionuclide transport through the biosphere. In the early XX century, V.I. Vernadskii, a Russian scientist known, noted about a special role living things play in transport and accumulation of natural radionuclide in various environments. The role of biogeochemical processes in migration and redistribution of technogenic radionuclides is not less important. In Russia, V. M. Klechkovskii and N.V. Timofeev-Ressovskii showed some important biogeochemical aspects of radionuclide migration by the example of global fallout and Kyshtym accident. Their followers, R.M. Alexakhin, M.A. Naryshkin, N.V. Kulikov, F.A. Tikhomirov, E.B. Tyuryukanova, and others also contributed a lot to biogeochemistry of radionuclides. In the post-Chernobyl period, this area of knowledge received a lot of data that allowed building the radioactive element balance and flux estimation in various biogeochemical cycles [Shcheglov et al., 1999]. Regrettably, many of recent radioecological studies are only focused on specific radionuclide fluxes or pursue some applied tasks, missing the holistic approach. Most of the studies consider biogeochemical fluxes of radioactive isotopes in terms of either dose estimation or radionuclide migration rates in various food chains. However, to get a comprehensive picture and develop a reliable forecast of environmental, ecological, and social consequences of radioactive pollution in a vast contaminated area, it is necessary to investigate all the radionuclide fluxes associated with the biogeochemical cycles in affected ecosystems. We believe such an integrated approach would be useful to study long-term environmental consequences of the Fukushima accident as well. In our long-term research, we tried to characterize the flux dynamics of the Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems and landscapes as a part of the integrated biogeochemical process. Our field studies were started in June of

  19. Policy legitimacy - The key to long term Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, E.; Dalton, J.; Wild, D.

    2003-01-01

    Experience in the UK has shown that the central theme of delivering a solution is contingent on building a broad base of support for the long term management project. This is multi-layered, both in terms of local, regional and national political actors, but also across societal groups. Legitimacy is the key to success and needs to be understood in three main domains - equity, competence and economics. Finding the appropriate balance is essential for progress in the long term. (authors)

  20. Diverse perspectives on governance on the very long term. Biodiversity, climatic change, CO2 storage, radioactive wastes, space wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, Gilles; Gouyon, Pierre Henry; Rollinger, Francois; Besnus, Francois; Heriard Dubreuil, Gilles; Dahan, Amy; Alby, Fernand; Arnould, Jacques; Fabriol, Hubert; Hoummady, Moussa; Demarcq, Francois; Farret, Regis; Hubert, Philippe; Weber, Jacques; Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Lopez, Mirelle; Devisse, Jean-Jacques; Mathy, Sandrine; Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Bourcier, Danielle; Roure, Francoise; Henry, Claude; Bartet, Jean Hughes; Calame, Mathieu; Biteau, Benoit; Kastler, Guy; Ducret, Pierre; Berest, Pierre; Charron, Sylvie; Clin, Francois; Gadbois, Serge; Gueritte, Michel; Heriard-Dubreuil, Bertrand; Laville, Bettina; Marie, Michel; Marignac, Yves; Ollagnon, Henry; Pelegrin, Flora; Roure, Francoise; Rouyer, Michel; Schellenberger, Thomas; Toussaint, Jean-Francois

    2013-03-01

    This bibliographical note contains the program of a workshop and a presentation of a book based on the contributions to this workshop proposed by experts, representatives of institutional bodies and associations, or local representatives. This workshop addressed the issue of the governance on the very long term with respect to the management of resources such as climate, geology, biodiversity or space. How to make a possible usage of these resources while ensuring their protection and durability? What are the solutions or new challenges are raising these usages on the very long term? The first part addresses the main challenges and ethical issues for governance on the very long term for each of the examined topics: biodiversity, climatic change, CO 2 storage, radioactive waste storage, and space debris). The next parts propose contributions from different origins and disciplines, present relevant data, and report evidences

  1. Microbial processes relevant for the long-term performance of radioactive waste repositories in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshyn, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A number of investigations on occurrence and viability of microbes in compacted clays have been aimed at studying possible microbial effects on long-term performance of a deep geological repository (DGR) for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF). Compacted clays are considered in current DGR designs either as a buffer material or as a host rock. The primary purpose of the present work was to qualitatively evaluate the relevance of microbial activity for the long-term performance of a DGR and to identify which safety-relevant processes and properties can be potentially influenced by this activity. The present analysis identified eight clay properties essential for maintaining safety functions of containment and retardation of the disposal system - swelling pressure, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, anion sorption capacity, porosity, permeability, fluid pressure, plasticity - which can potentially be influenced by microbial processes in clay buffer and Clay-stone within a DGR for HLW/SF. Iron(III)- and sulphate-reducing, fermentative, methane-producing and oxidizing microbes can be considered to be present in any clay formation. Each habitat includes a massive number of microbial niches with perhaps only a small proportion of the species being metabolically active at the habitat's conditions, the remainder becoming not extinct. Moreover, clays contain electron donors and electron acceptors in amounts sufficient for these microbes to remain active during very long periods of time. Additional sources of electron donors or electron acceptors will inevitably be added to the repository system as a result of DGR excavation, placement of radioactive waste as well as backfilling and sealing of the DGR. In no case should the potential impact of microbes be underestimated based on a possible argument of comparably low biomass of the microbes in contact with metal surfaces or dissolved

  2. Enumeration and characterization of arsenic-tolerant diazotrophic bacteria in a long-term heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, A.; Pampulha, M.E.; Neto, M.M.; Almeida, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of arsenic-tolerant diazotrophic bacteria was compared in a long-term contaminated soil versus a non-contaminated one. In addition, the characterization of tolerant diazotrophic bacteria was carried out. Differences in the number of heterotrophic N2 fixers were found between soils. Contaminated soil showed a decrease in the microbial population size of about 80%, confirming the great sensitivity of this group of soil bacteria to metals. However, quantitat...

  3. Analysis of long-term groundwater dispersal of contaminants from proposed Jabiluka Mine tailing repositories. Supervising Scientist report 143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalf, F.; Dudgeon, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Jabiluka project area lies within a 73 km 2 mining lease near the edge of Kakadu National Park, a World Heritage area of approximately 19 800 km 2 . Existing approvals require all tailings to be disposed of underground. The current proposal is to add cement to the partially dewatered tailings to form a paste which would be deposited and allowed to set in the underground mine voids and specially excavated underground silos. Fears have been expressed that the park will suffer long term adverse effects as a result of the mining operation. Contamination of groundwater is one possibility to be considered. This report describes and gives the results of an investigation into the movement of the potential contaminants, magnesium sulphate, manganese, radium and uranium from mine tailings by groundwater flow towards the park after disposal of tailings underground in the mine voids and silos. The proposed silos would be constructed to hold the balance of the tailings which could not be accommodated in the mine workings. The tops of the silos would be approximately 100 m below ground surface. Tailings stored in mine voids would have an even greater average cover, with a minimum of approximately 90 m. Groundwater flow in the vicinity of the mine is topographically controlled. Groundwater flow and consequent contaminant transport from the mine site towards the Magela floodplain has been modelled to predict the concentrations of contaminants to be expected along the flow paths. The availability of data on aquifer properties and the nature of the drainage pattern led to the use of a two dimensional finite element numerical model of flow along the paths described above. A three dimensional numerical solute transport model applied in a single layer was used to predict relative concentrations along the flow paths of contaminants leached from the tailings repositories. An analytical contaminant transport model was used in conjunction with a numerical model to determine the effects

  4. An ethical dimension to sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Bay, Ingrid; Kaiser, Matthias; Howard, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Experience after the Chernobyl accident has shown that restoration strategies need to consider a wide range of different issues to ensure the long-term sustainability of large and varied contaminated areas. Thus, the criteria by which we evaluate countermeasures need to be extended from simple cost-benefit effectiveness and radiological protection standards to a more integrated, holistic approach, including social and ethical aspects. Within the STRATEGY project, the applicability of many countermeasures is being critically assessed using a wide range of criteria. Attention is being given to issues such as practicability, feasibility, capacity and environmental side-effects, as well as social factors such as public perceptions of risk, communication of information and the need for dialogue and consultation with affected communities, and ethical aspects such as informed consent and the fair distribution of costs and doses. Although such socio-ethical factors are now the subject of a substantial field of research, there has been little attempt to integrate them in a practical context for decision makers. Within this paper, we specifically consider the ethical aspects of restoration strategies and suggest practical means by which these can be taken into account in the decision making process, introducing a value matrix. The paper covers two critical areas: evaluation of individual countermeasures, and use of the matrix to ensure transparent and systematic consideration of values in selection of a restoration strategy

  5. Long-term strategy of rehabilitation of Byelorussian territories contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, I.; Rolevich, I.; Gurachevsky, V.; Poplyko, I.; Ageets, V.

    1999-01-01

    Thus, by applying a combination of countermeasures on various technological stages of agricultural production, one can control the process of production and the use of agricultural products, ensuring the production of major foodstuffs in contaminated regions in quantities sufficient for the population living there and in accordance with the consumption standards, and also corresponding to the standards of ecological and radiation safety. The following works in agriculture will require investment by the state: selection of new varieties of agricultural crops and creation of new technologies; development of seed production in a way allowing to reduce the contamination of the final product with radionuclides; refinement of the maps showing contamination of arable land with 137 Cs and 90 Sr based on the constant monitoring; improvement of pastures and hay fields for the private livestock. The following works are needed to stabilize livestock production and ensure production of clean livestock products in contaminated areas: increase the volume of production for major products made of livestock; equip livestock farms with machinery; improve production of forage at the farms by enhancing the structure of fields sown with forage crops, achieving higher yields, introducing progressive methods of harvesting and storing of forage, introduction of mineral additives and biologically active substances. The realistic assessment of the radioactive situation and its forecast lead to the conclusion that the contaminated territory can be rehabilitated with the help of the combined application of the above mentioned organisational and special measures leading to the reduction of the individual dose to 1 mSv per year. (authors)

  6. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    After decontamination of radioactive contaminates with d-limonene, a radioactive material separating agent not compatible with liquid wastes caused by decontamination is added to the liquid wastes. Then after stirring, they are stood still to be separated into two phases, and the radioactive materials in the liquid waste phase caused by decontamination are transferred to the phase of the radioactive material separating agent. With such procedures, they can satisfactorily be separated into two phases of d-limonene and the radioactive material separating agent. Further, d-limonene remaining after the separation can be used again as a decontaminating agent for radioactive contaminates. Therefore, the amount of d-limonene to be used can be reduced, to lower the cost for cleaning, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes formed. (T.M.)

  7. Long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The statement assesses and compares several alternatives for long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York. The alternatives include: (1) no action (continued interim storage at NFSS within a diked and capped containment area), (2) long-term management at NFSS (improved containment, with or without modified form of the residues), (3) long-term management at other DOE sites (Hanford, Washington, or Oak Ridge, Tennessee), and (4) offsite management of the residues at Hanford or Oak Ridge and either leaving the wastes at NFSS or removing them for disposal in the ocean. In addition to alternatives analyzed in depth, several options are also considered, including: other modifications of residue form, modification of the basic conceptual designs, other containment design options, transportation routes, and transportation modes. The radiological health effects (primarily increased risk of cancer) associated with long-term management of the wastes and residues are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. During the action period, the risk is highest for workers if all wastes and residues are moved to Hanford. The risk is highest for the general public if the residues are moved to Hanford and the wastes are moved to the ocean. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant impacts on the ocean environment or pose any significant radiological risk to humans. For all alternatives, if controls ceased, there would be eventual dispersion of the radioactive materials to the environment. If it is assumed that all controls cease, predicted time for loss of covers over the buried materials ranges from several hundred years to more than two million years, depending on the use of the land surface

  8. Chemodynamics of heavy metals in long-term contaminated soils: metal speciation in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The concentration and speciation of heavy metals in soil solution isolated from long-term contaminated soils were investigated. The soil solution was extracted at 70% maximum water holding capacity (MWHC) after equilibration for 24 h. The free metal concentrations (Cd2+, CU2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+) in soil solution were determined using the Donnan membrane technique (DMT). Initially the DMT was validated using artificial solutions where the percentage of free metal ions were significantly correlated with the percentages predicted using MINTEQA2. However, there was a significant difference between the absolute free ion concentrations predicted by MINTEQA2 and the values determined by the DMT. This was due to the significant metal adsorption onto the cation exchange membrane used in the DMT with 20%, 28%, 44%, and 8% mass loss of the initial total concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in solution, respectively. This could result in a significant error in the determination of free metal ions when using DMT if no allowance for membrane cation adsorption was made. Relative to the total soluble metal concentrations the amounts of free Cd2+ (3%-52%) and Zn2+ (11%-72%) in soil solutions were generally higher than those of Cu2+ (0.2%-30%) and Pb2+ (0.6%-10%). Among the key soil solution properties, dissolved heavy metal concentrations were the most significant factor governing free metal ion concentrations. Soil solution pH showed only a weak relationship with free metal ion partitioning coefficients (K(p)) and dissolved organic carbon did not show any significant influence on K(p).

  9. Coupling of realistic rate estimates with genomic for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2003-06-01

    Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. While perceived as being difficult to degrade, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct proof of the process and rate of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that proof for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project will derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  10. Modelling accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems originating from a long-term groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke I. [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7001, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Eckersten, Henrik [Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, SLU, P.O. Box 7042, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Reinlert, Andre [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); MMT, Sven Kaellfelts Gata 11 SE 426 71 Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Dept. Land and Water Resources, KTH, SE 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, Per-Anders [Facilia AB, Gustavlundsvaegen 151A, 167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Greger, Maria [Dept. of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted as part of the risk assessment of final deposits of nuclear fuel waste. The overall objective is to assess the possible accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems after an eventual long-term groundwater contamination. The specific objectives are to assess: i) What proportion of the contamination will accumulate in the soil-plant-system? ii) Where in the soil-plant- system will it accumulate? iii) Which ecosystem characteristics and radionuclides properties are important for the accumulation? and iv) Under which circumstances do losses from the ecosystems occur? We developed the dynamic model Tracey (Gaerdenaes et al. 2009) describing cycling of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems with high temporal resolution (1 day). The model is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclides are described for different plant parts and soil pools in each of the 10 soil layers. The radionuclide fluxes are driven either by water or carbon fluxes. The water and the carbon fluxes are simulated with the dynamic, bio-geophysical Coup Model (Jansson and Karlberg, 2004). Tracey includes two root uptake approaches of radionuclides; (i) passive uptake driven by root water uptake and (ii) active uptake driven by plant growth. A linear approach describes the adsorption of radionuclides to soil particles and organic matter. Tracey was applied on two ecosystems with contrasting hydrology, the mixed Pinus-Picea forests found in the dry, elevated areas and the Alnus forests found in the wet, low-land areas of Uppland in central east Sweden. Different varieties of the two forest types were created by varying the root depth and radiation use efficiency. The climate was cold-temperate and based on 30-year daily weather data from Uppsala. The assumed groundwater contamination was close to 1 mg of an unspecified radionuclide per m2 and year. This load corresponds to 1 Bq per m{sup 2} and year of {sup 238}U, a common long

  11. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  12. Radioactive contamination in imported foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)

  13. Research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2015-2021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Fujita, Natsuko; Shimizu, Mayuko; Shimada, Akiomi; Matsubara, Akihiro; Tamura, Hajimu; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Watanabe, Takahiro; Tokuyasu, Kayoko; Hama, Yuki

    2015-08-01

    The study on long-term geological stability has three objectives, namely, (1) development of technologies for determining the past and present conditions of the geological environment, (2) development of technologies for long-term prediction and evaluation of impacts and (3) development of dating techniques using advanced equipment on isotope geology and geochronology, in order to make contribution to site investigation and safety assessment for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This report is to outline 7 years plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) of research and development (R and D) for geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the HLW in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Background of this research is clarified with the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress in this report. The objectives, outline, contents and schedule during the next 7 years are described in detail. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and Systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  14. PEBS: an international challenge for improve understanding of the natural barriers to isolate long-term radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaus, I.

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive materials have a wide range of applications ranging from nuclear reactors to the use of isotopes in industries, medicine or research centres. These technologies generate waste whose disposal systems are becoming more sophisticated, to the point of using artificial barriers able to isolate them from contact with other materials, precipitation, surface water and groundwater subsurface. In this context, the European project long term Performance of the engineered Barrier Systems (PeBS), funded by the seventh framework (Fp7) Euratom and has counted with the participation of ENRESA, reviewed the evolution of the performance of sealing and barrier systems of artificial barriers in relevant time scales through the development of a comprehensive method that includes experiments, models, and a consideration of the potential impacts of long-term security functions. (Author)

  15. Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Yasue, Kenichi; Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; Shimizu, Mayuko; Hama, Yuki

    2016-08-01

    This report is a plan of research and development (R and D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in fiscal year 2016. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2016 are described in detail based on the outline of 7 years plan (fiscal years 2015-2021). Background of this research is clarified with the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress in this report. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  16. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a hypothetical dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Working Group of BIOMOVS II was initiated in Vienna in 1991 with the primary objective of comparing models which can be used to assess the long term impact of radioactive releases from uranium mill tailings, involving multiple pathways, multiple contaminants and multiple environmental receptors. A secondary objective was to examine how these models can be used to assess the fate of stable toxic elements. This is an interim report of the Working Group describing: development of a basic scenario describing a tailings system; application of models in deterministic calculations of contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks; comparison of model results and review of the modelling. A hypothetical scenario has been developed for contaminant releases from a uranium mill tailings facility. The assumptions for the tailings facility and its environs have been chosen to facilitate the evaluation of potentially important processes incorporated into models. The site description is therefore idealised and does not represent any particular facility or type of facility. Atmospheric and groundwater release source terms have been chosen to facilitate comparison of models and should not be considered realistic. The time and effort taken over derivation of the scenario description and the associated preliminary modelling has been an important and valuable learning exercise. It also reflects the importance of gaining a clear picture of what is being modelled so that comparisons of model results are meaningful. Work within the exercise has contributed to new model development and to improvements and extensions to existing models. The scenario is a simplified description of a real facility and the releases which might occur. No allowance has been made for engineered features on the tailings disposal system which might reduce releases. The source terms have been chosen so as to test the models

  17. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a hypothetical dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, H [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; and others

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Working Group of BIOMOVS II was initiated in Vienna in 1991 with the primary objective of comparing models which can be used to assess the long term impact of radioactive releases from uranium mill tailings, involving multiple pathways, multiple contaminants and multiple environmental receptors. A secondary objective was to examine how these models can be used to assess the fate of stable toxic elements. This is an interim report of the Working Group describing: development of a basic scenario describing a tailings system; application of models in deterministic calculations of contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks; comparison of model results and review of the modelling. A hypothetical scenario has been developed for contaminant releases from a uranium mill tailings facility. The assumptions for the tailings facility and its environs have been chosen to facilitate the evaluation of potentially important processes incorporated into models. The site description is therefore idealised and does not represent any particular facility or type of facility. Atmospheric and groundwater release source terms have been chosen to facilitate comparison of models and should not be considered realistic. The time and effort taken over derivation of the scenario description and the associated preliminary modelling has been an important and valuable learning exercise. It also reflects the importance of gaining a clear picture of what is being modelled so that comparisons of model results are meaningful. Work within the exercise has contributed to new model development and to improvements and extensions to existing models. The scenario is a simplified description of a real facility and the releases which might occur. No allowance has been made for engineered features on the tailings disposal system which might reduce releases. The source terms have been chosen so as to test the models

  18. Natural analogue studies for the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Lessons learned from the nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Yasuhisa

    2002-01-01

    'Natural analogues' can be defined as the processes or materials analogous to those operating in the geological disposal system of radioactive waste. Natural analogue studies provide the only means by which long-term data can be obtained under the real natural conditions, and also the most convincing support to the long-term performance assessment of the geological disposal system. The framework of our natural analogue studies concerning the stability of the engineered barrier materials for geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste is reviewed. One of the results is that the volcanic glass included in a clay bed did not alter during the past one million years. The Tono Uranium Deposits are studied as geochemical analogues of radioactive waste disposal in Japan. We conclude that although the deposits have been subjected to a variety of geological processes and events such as faulting, erosion and uplift/subsidence, the reducing condition has been maintained and uranium has not migrated for at least the past ten million years. Application and further development of the natural analogue studies are also discussed. (author)

  19. 2010 Survey on long-term preservation of information and memory for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of information and memory across generations is a cross-cutting theme of increasing importance for radioactive waste management. Because of the experience accumulated by the advanced national programmes that the RWMC represents, and the breadth of its related high-level initiatives, the Committee is uniquely placed internationally to combine resources and help develop state-of-the-art guidance on the long-term preservation of information and memory. In the context of fostering knowledge consolidation and transfer (KCT), the RWMC has already identified - in its reference document on KCT - the area of inter-generational transfer of knowledge as one of two areas needing development. In 2009, the RWMC decided to implement its programme of work in the area of information preservation and long-term memory as a series of projects or lines of actions opened by the RWMC and supervised by its Bureau. In order to better define its first series of projects the RWMC preformed a survey of its organisations needs and available materials and experience. At its meeting in 2010 the RWMC determined that the survey materials provided by organisations from 12 NEA countries constitute a good contribution to the literature in this field, and certainly to the upcoming projects. They provide as well a good baseline of information against which to measure progress a few years hence. This document reports the answers provided by organisations from 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA,) to five questions related to long-term preservation of information and memory in the field of geological disposal. The questions are as follows: o What specific priority areas for long-term memory development have been identified in your agencies/countries? Which are the time scales of largest interest? o Do these priority proceed from good practice or/and from specific laws, regulations, policies exist in

  20. Radioactive contamination of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytil, I.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model is discussed describing radioactivity transport between the source and the organism. The model is to be applied in assessing the effect of a nuclear installation on the organism. Fortran and Pascal appear to be the most appropriate computer languages. With respect to internal memory requirements, the program file is estimated to consist of a control program and a number of subprograms. Upon setting the radioactivity transport and the output requirements the control program should recall the necessary subprograms. The program file should allow the complete data file and the solutions of all possible radioactivity transport variants to be inputted. It is envisaged that several subprograms will be available for one type of radioactivity transport, this depending on different accuracy of the transport description. Thus, the requirements for input data will also differ. (Z.M.)

  1. Foodstuffs (radioactive contamination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Donald; Taylor, Teddy; Campbell-Savours, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings are given of the debate in the UK House of Commons on the maximum permitted radioactivity levels for foodstuffs, feeding stuffs and drinking water in the case of abnormal levels of radioactivity or of a nuclear accident. The motion takes note of European Community Document no. 7183/87 and urges the Community to assure a common standard of health protection by adopting a rational set of scientifically based intervention levels for foodstuffs. (UK)

  2. Risk-based approach to long-term safety assessment for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C.W.; Kim, K.I.; Lee, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Korean regulatory approach to safety assessment consistent with probabilistic, risk-based long-term safety requirements for near surface disposal facilities. The approach is based on: (1) From the standpoint of risk limitation, normal processes and probabilistic disruptive events should be integrated in a similar manner in terms of potential exposures; and (2) The uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be reduced using appropriate exposure scenarios. In addition, this paper emphasizes the necessity of international guidance for quantifying potential exposures and the corresponding risks from radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  3. Research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2010-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Asamori, Koichi; Yamada, Kunimi; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomohiro

    2010-09-01

    The concept of geological disposal of HLW in Japan is based on a multibarrier system which combines a stable geological environment with an engineered barrier system. Potential geological host formations and their surroundings are chosen, in particular, for their long-term stability, taking into account the fact that Japan is located in a tectonically active zone. This report is to outline 5 years plan (fiscal years 2010-2014) of research and development (R and D) for geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste in JAEA. Background of this research are clarified with the necessity and the significance, and the past progresses in this report. The objectives, outline, contents and schedule during the next 5 years are described in detail. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  4. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sociu F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa, to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  5. Activity and functional diversity of microbial communities in long-term hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metal pollution on soil microbial communities functioning were studied in soils taken from an old coke plant. The concentrations of PAHs in the tested soils ranged from 171 to 2137 mg kg-1. From the group of tested heavy metals, concentrations of lead were found to be the highest, ranging from 57 to 3478 mg kg-1, while zinc concentrations varied from 247 to 704 mg kg-1 and nickel from 10 to 666 mg kg-1. High dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in the most contaminated soil. This may indicate bacterial adaptation to long-term heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination. However, the Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs analysis showed that the microbial functional diversity was reduced and influenced to a higher extent by some metals (Pb, Ni, moisture and conductivity than by PAHs.

  6. Radioactive waste industrial management in France for medium- and long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.-M.

    1981-01-01

    The context within which the industrial scale management of radioactive wastes takes place is briefly outlined. The regulations already in force or envisaged in France in this field are exposed. Emphasis is given to the activities of the National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The reasons why this organization was created are discussed together with the type of work conferred to it, its present workload, the industrial management concepts it applies, its present and future potential, the costs envisaged for waste disposal and the financial solutions adopted. The industrial technical assistance policy of ANDRA is presented [fr

  7. The UK system for regulating the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.

    1997-01-01

    The general system is described for regulation of disposal of solid, long-lived radioactive wastes. The relevant Government policy is outlined, and the framework of legislation and arrangements for implementation, the associated guidance produced by regulatory bodies and the approach to assessment by regulators of a safety case for radioactive waste disposal are reported. Also, for the purposes of discussion in the Workshop, some of the practical issues are considered which are still in development in the UK in regard to regulatory methodology. (author)

  8. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  9. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study establi...

  10. The long term storage of radioactive waste: Safety and sustainability. A position paper of international experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the report is to reflect the currently prevailing views among experts in the field of radioactive waste storage and disposal. It is intended for use as a central and authoritative reference point for national discussions and policy papers. It is therefore potentially useful to national committees and bodies concerned with the management of radioactive waste. It may also be of value to concerned members of the public since it is written in language that should be comprehensible to the informed lay person. It was produced as a result of several meetings of experts in the first part of 2002. Since then, it has been reviewed by the international Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), by the WASSC Subgroup on Principles and Criteria for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste at its meeting in October 2000 and by a technical committee convened specifically to review the paper at a meeting held in November 2002. Finally, the essential conclusions of the paper were presented to and discussed with participants to the International Conference on Issues and Trends in Radioactive Waste Management, held in Vienna in December 2002.

  11. The long term storage of radioactive waste: Safety and sustainability. A position paper of international experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the report is to reflect the currently prevailing views among experts in the field of radioactive waste storage and disposal. It is intended for use as a central and authoritative reference point for national discussions and policy papers. It is therefore potentially useful to national committees and bodies concerned with the management of radioactive waste. It may also be of value to concerned members of the public since it is written in language that should be comprehensible to the informed lay person. It was produced as a result of several meetings of experts in the first part of 2002. Since then, it has been reviewed by the international Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), by the WASSC Subgroup on Principles and Criteria for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste at its meeting in October 2000 and by a technical committee convened specifically to review the paper at a meeting held in November 2002. Finally, the essential conclusions of the paper were presented to and discussed with participants to the International Conference on Issues and Trends in Radioactive Waste Management, held in Vienna in December 2002

  12. Stepwise approach to decision making for long-term radioactive waste management. Experience, issues and guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste exists as a result of both past and current practices. One of the most challenging tasks is the management of long-lived waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of years. Although significant technical progress has been made in developing management schemes that, according to technical experts, would ensure long-term safety (e.g. engineered geologic disposal), the rate of progress towards implementing such solutions has been slower than expected. The contrast between expected and observed rates may be partly attributable to an earlier technical optimism. More significant, however, are the setbacks, which have arisen mainly from an underestimation of the societal and political dimensions. In long-term radioactive waste management, consideration is increasingly being given to concepts such as stepwise decision making and adaptive staging in which the public, and especially the local public, are to be meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability. This is designed to provide reassurance that decisions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. A stepwise approach to decision making has thus come to the fore as being of value in advancing long-term radioactive waste management solutions in a societally acceptable manner. Despite its early identification within the radioactive waste management community as an important means for reaching solutions and decisions in which there is broad-based confidence, the bases for and application of stepwise decision making has not been widely reviewed. Guiding principles of any such process are still being formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. The report reviews current

  13. Long-term leaching of nutrients and contaminants from wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Hyks, J.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    With increasing amounts of woody biomass being combusted for energy purposes worldwide, more wood ash is being generated and needs management. As an alternative to landfilling, residues may be utilised for liming and fertilising purposes on forest soils. Comprehensive evaluations of long-term lea......With increasing amounts of woody biomass being combusted for energy purposes worldwide, more wood ash is being generated and needs management. As an alternative to landfilling, residues may be utilised for liming and fertilising purposes on forest soils. Comprehensive evaluations of long......-term leaching from these residues are needed in order to assess potential environmental impacts associated with their utilisation. Two Danish wood ash samples, one fly ash and one mixed ash (a combination of fly ash and bottom ash), were evaluated in long-term percolation column tests (up to L/S ∼2000 L....../kg), in order to quantify the release of major, minor and trace metal(loid)s. While columns of three different lengths were used, the leaching of individual elements could be described as a function of the L/S ratio – irrespective of the column length. At L/S 1000 L/kg, the cumulative releases of K, S, Na, Ca...

  14. Radioecological sensitivity in the Faroe Islands estimated from modeling long-term variation of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensen, H.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Faroes environment has received radioactive debris from the nuclear weapons tests in the 1950'ies and 1960'ies and from the Chernobyl accident 26 April 1986. The paper presents results from modeling the relation between 137 Cs and 90 Sr in precipitation and the radioactivity from these nuclides in selected foodstuffs, using available data from the last four decades. The model relates the concentration of a radionuclide in a sample from a given year to the deposition rate of the radionuclide in the given year and in the year before, and to the accumulated deposition two years before. The effective ecological half-life of the radionuclides in the selected foodstuffs is estimated, and model-calculated sensitivities defined as time-integrated radionuclide concentration in an environmental sample from a unit ground deposition, as e.g. (Bq/kg)y per (kBq/m2), are presented. (au)

  15. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, J; Silari, M; Vollaire, J

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H−H− linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling w...

  16. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F. P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new 160 MeV H- linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities.

  17. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F.P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H − linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities

  18. Long-term follow-up in toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, D.A.; Corstens, F.H.; Kloppenborg, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The long-term effects of radioiodine treatment on thyroid function in patients with a toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodule were evaluated. Fifty-two patients received a therapeutic dose of 20 mCi of iodine-131 ( 131 I). Duration of follow-up was 10 +/- 4 yr. Follow-up data included a biochemical evaluation of thyroid function. The failure rate (recurrent hyperthyroidism) was 2%. The incidence of hypothyroidism was 6% and was not related to the dose per gram of nodular tissue. Oral administration of 20 mCi of radioiodine is a simple and highly effective method for the treatment of patients with a toxic autonomous thyroid nodule. The risk of development of hypothyroidism is low if extranodular uptake of 131 I is prevented. This can be achieved by not treating euthyroid patients, by no longer using injections of exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone in the diagnostic work-up of the patients and by always performing radioiodine imaging shortly before treatment

  19. Long-term criticality control in radioactive waste disposal facilities using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Plant photosynthesis has created a unique planetary-wide geochemistry - an oxidizing atmosphere with oxidizing surface waters on a planetary body with chemically reducing conditions near or at some distance below the surface. Uranium is four orders of magnitude more soluble under chemically oxidizing conditions than it is under chemically reducing conditions. Thus, uranium tends to leach from surface rock and disposal sites, move with groundwater, and concentrate where chemically reducing conditions appear. Earth's geochemistry concentrates uranium and can separate uranium from all other elements except oxygen, hydrogen (in water), and silicon (silicates, etc). Fissile isotopes include 235 U, 233 U, and many higher actinides that eventually decay to one of these two uranium isotopes. The potential for nuclear criticality exists if the precipitated uranium from disposal sites has a significant fissile enrichment, mass, and volume. The earth's geochemistry suggests that isotopic dilution of fissile materials in waste with 238 U is a preferred strategy to prevent long-term nuclear criticality in and beyond the boundaries of waste disposal facilities because the 238 U does not separate from the fissile uranium isotopes. Geological, laboratory, and theoretical data indicate that the potential for nuclear criticality can be minimized by diluting fissile materials with- 238 U to 1 wt % 235 U equivalent

  20. Long term effect of radioactive iodine treatment in nontoxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, B.; Hegedues, L.; Gervil, M.; Hjalgrim Jensen, H.; Soee-Jensen, P.; Moelholm hansen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long term effect of 131 I treatment on thyroid function and size in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. The subjects were 69 consecutive patients with multinodular non-toxic goitre selected for 131 I treatment and followed for a minimum of 12 months. Outcome measures were standard thyroid function variable and ultrasonically determined thyroid volume before and after treatment. Fifty-nine patients were treated with a single dose of 131 I, 12 with tow doses, and one with four doses. In 45 patients treated with one dose who remained euthyroid the median thyroid volume was reduced from 73 (interquartile range 50-106) ml to 29 (interquartile range 23-48) ml at 24 months. The median reuction was 40 (22-48) ml, half of which occurred within three months. Patients treated with two doses as well as those developing hypo- or hyper-thyroidism also had a significant reduction in thyroid volume. Eleven patients develeoped hypothyroidism (cumulative five year risk 22%). Side effects were few. In conclusion we find that 131 I treatment of multinodular non-toxic goitre is an attractive alternative to surgery. (au) (19 refs.)

  1. Calculation of the magnitude of long term contaminated area with COSYMA and MACCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupa, J.

    1996-09-01

    A severe nuclear accident will contaminate large areas of land. This paper discusses the output that can be obtained with COSYMA and MACCS to evaluate this contamination. Both codes associate contamination with deposition of given nuclides and the severity of contamination is expressed in terms of the ground concentration (Bq/m 2 ). However, for this analysis we decided to judge the severity of the land contamination by the dose rate (Sv/year) to the local inhabitants. To explain the differences between the COSYMA and MACCS results some details of the results were compared. This revealed that the results depend strongly on the choice of the grid if severe contamination occurs beyond about 50 to 100 km from the source. Another important factor to take into account when judging the severity of land contamination is the duration of the contamination; i.e. the time it takes until the contamination has decreased below a given level. Since we judge the contamination by the dose to the local public, the 'averted dose' concept has been used to evaluate the duration of the contamination. (orig.)

  2. High-level radioactive wastes storage characterization and behaviour of spent fuels in long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arocas, P.; Cobos, J.; Quinones, J.; Rodriguez Almazan, J. L.; Serrano, J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to understand the long term spent fuel dissolution under repository this report shows the study performed by considering spent fuel as a part of the multi barriers containment system. The study takes into account that the oxidative alteration/dissolution of spent fuel matrix is influenced by the intrinsic spent fuel physicochemical characteristics and the repository environmental parameters. Experimental and modelling results for granite and saline repositories are reported. Parameters considered in this work were pH, pCO 2 , S/V ratio, redox conditions and the influence of the container material in the redox conditions. The influence of alpha, beta and gamma radiation and the resulting radiolytic products formed remains as one of the main uncertainties to quantify the spent fuel behaviour under repository conditions. It was studied in a first approach through dose calculations, modelling of radiolytic products formation and leaching experiments in the presence of external gamma irradiation source and leaching experiments of alpha doped UO 2 pellets. Materials considered are LWR spent fuel (UO 2 and MOX fuel) and their chemical analogues non irradiated UO 2 , SIMFUEL and alpha doped UO 2 . Lea chants were granite groundwater, synthetic granite groundwater, synthetic granite groundwater saturated in bentonite, and high concentrated saline solutions. The matrix dissolution rate and release rate of key radionuclides (i. e. actinides and fission products) obtained through the several experimental techniques and methodologies (dissolution, co-dissolution, precipitation and co-precipitation) together with modelling studies supported in geochemical codes are proposed. Moreover, secondary phases formed that could control release and retention of key nuclides are identified. Maximum concentration values for these radionuclides are reported. The data provided by this study were used in ENRESA-2000 performance assessment. (Author)

  3. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Breitwieser

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  4. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  5. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Nisbet, A; Cox, G; Oughton, D H; Hunt, J; Alvarez, B; Andersson, K G; Liland, A; Voigt, G

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed.

  6. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Nisbet, A.; Cox, G.; Oughton, D.H.; Hunt, J.; Alvarez, B.; Andersson, K.G.; Liland, A.; Voigt, G.

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed

  7. Long-term storage of radioactive solid waste within disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakerley, M.W.; Edmunds, J.

    1986-05-01

    A study of the feasibility and implications of operating potential disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste in a retrievable storage mode for extended periods of up to 200 years has been carried out. The arisings of conditioned UK radioactive waste up to the year 2030 have been examined. Assignments of these wastes to different types of underground disposal facilities have been made on the basis of their present activity and that which they will have in 200 years time. Five illustrative disposal concepts proposed both in the UK and overseas have been examined with a view to their suitability for adaption for storage/disposal duty. Two concepts have been judged unsuitable because either the waste form or the repository structure were considered unlikely to last the storage phase. Three of the concepts would be feasible from a construction and operational viewpoint. This suggests that with appropriate allowance for geological aspects and good repository and waste form design that storage/disposal within the same facility is achievable. The overall cost of the storage/disposal concepts is in general less than that for separate surface storage followed by land disposal, but more than that for direct disposal. (author)

  8. High level radioactive wastes storage characterization and long-term behaviour of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arocas, P.P.; Garcia Serrano, J.; Mendez Martin, F.J.; Quinones Diez, J.; Rodriguez Almazan, J.L.; Serrano Agejas, J.A.; Esteban Hernandez, J.A.

    1997-04-01

    The knowledge of long term spent fuel behaviour in a repository is one of the main goals in the waste management assessment due to its influence on repository design topics and on the performance assessment. At the moment, Spain has not selected a geological formation for a final repository. Therefore, R AND D activities are performed by considering granite, salt and clay as candidate options. This report summarises the activities carried out in CIEMAT from 1991 to 1995 in the frame of the Agreement between CIEMAT and ENRESA in the Area of spent fuel direct disposed. Experimental activities include leaching experiments of spent fuel, UO 2 and SIMFUEL and co-precipitation/solubility experiments of relevant secondary solid phases expected under repository conditions. The objective of leaching studies is to understand the processes which will occur when the underground water accede to the source term and to provide leaching rates of spent fuel and the influence of several variables as pH, Eh, etc. The co-precipitation/solubility experiments are focused on the knowledge of the formation conditions of relevant secondary phases, to characterise these phases and to determine their solubility, which could control the leaching of spent fuel. One of the main items to carry out the objectives before indicated in both leaching and co-precipitation/solubility experiments is to perform a extensive solid phases characterisation in order to facilitate the understanding of the processes involved. This report is structured in three parts, the first include experimental procedures, characterisation techniques and solid and solution analyses. The second shows the leaching results obtained by considering the effect of pH, complex formation, redox conditions, surface/volume ratio, etc. The third supply the results of the co-precipitation/solubility studies. The conclusions obtained in this work are considered as the start point of going on and more extensive studies on the mechanisms

  9. Stability and buffering capacity of the geosphere for long-term isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Most experts worldwide agree that radioactive waste disposal in engineered facilities, or repositories, located in appropriate formations deep underground, provide a suitable waste management option for protecting humans and the environment now and. in the future. An NEA workshop was organised on 9-11 December 2003 in Braunschweig, Germany, devoted specifically to argillaceous settings for deep geological repositories. The workshop brought together scientists from academic institutions, engineers from various research institutions or companies, consultants, regulatory authorities and national waste management organisations to establish the scientific basis for stability and buffering capacity of deep geological waste management systems. The present report synthesizes the main outcomes of that workshop and presents a compilation of the related abstracts. (author)

  10. Partnering for long-term management of radioactive waste. Evolution and current practice in thirteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent participation. With host community support, they also help ensure the desirable combination of a licensable site and management concept as well as a balance between compensation, local control and development opportunities. This report provides up-to-date information on experience with local partnership arrangements in 13 countries. The characteristics, advantages and aims of community partnerships are also described in addition to the concept's evolution over the past decade. (authors)

  11. Sensitivity analysis of the long-term performance of the grout system for the disposal of a low-level radioactive waste stream at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D.G.; Farris, W.T.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is planning to design and construct a Transportable Grout Facility at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The facility will combine grout-forming materials with low-level liquid radioactive wastes to produce solidified grout monoliths for near-surface disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting studies to verify that the process is workable and that the waste, as disposed of in grout, will provide long-term protection for people and the environment. The long-term performance of the grout disposal system is sensitive to several parameters that affect radionuclide release and transport (e.g., local climate, leach rate, and monolith integrity). The purpose of this analysis was to investigate variations in these parameters in order to evaluate several design options for the grout system, including the proposed design for the grout startup campaign. The analysis was performed by postulating several scenarios that included conditions that could potentially compromise the effectiveness of the grout system. The grout system's performance was then evaluated, under each set of conditions, to measure its ability to reduce the transport rate of contaminants to the biosphere

  12. Long-term evolution of radio-active waste storage in geological formations: analogy with the weathering of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinolle, P.; Griffault, L.; Jebrak, M.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select examples of mineral deposits and their weathering environment, showing the long-term behaviour, in geological time, measuring (area, volume) some constituent elements of radio-active waste storage subject to the hazards of hydrogeochemical weathering. Initially, a feasibility study was made to collate data available within the BRGM (mining group and public service) and from literature dealing with weathering of deposits. It was thus discovered that the analogy between radio-active waste storage and mineral deposits could be approached in two different yet complementary ways: - one approach is to observe the behaviour of a mineral deposit in relation to the country rocks. For this a bibliographic metallogenic study was made. The other approach is to observe the behaviour of chemical elements during deposition of a mineral deposit whose genesis is similar to the spatial and thermal environment of a deposit of radio-active waste in a geological formation. For this two sites were selected corresponding to hydrothermal systems showing strong analogies to those expected in the neighbourhood of the storage sites. These two sites, Langenberg in the Vosges and La Telhaie in Brittany, were the subject of complementary analytical work [fr

  13. Safety and performance indicators for the assessment of long-term safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.; Schneider, J.W.; Dorp, F. van; Zuidema, P.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of the ability to isolate radioactive waste and the assessment of the long-term safety of a deep geological repository is usually done in terms of the calculated dose and/or risk for an average individual of the population which is potentially most affected by the potential impacts of the repository. At present, various countries and international organisations are developing so-called complementary indicators to supplement such calculations. These indicators are called ''safety indicators'' if they refer to the safety of the whole repository system; if they address the isolation capability of individual system components or the whole system from a more technical perspective, they are called ''performance indicators''. The need for complementary indicators follows from the long time frames which characterise the safety assessment of a geological repository, and the corresponding uncertainty of the calculated radiation dose. The main reason for these uncertainties is associated with the uncertain long-term prognosis of the surface environment and the related human behaviour. (orig.)

  14. Integrated Corrosion Facility for long-term testing of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estill, J.C.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    A long-term-testing facility, the Integrated Corrosion Facility (I.C.F.), is being developed to investigate the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials for high-level-radioactive waste packages for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Corrosion phenomena will be characterized in environments considered possible under various scenarios of water contact with the waste packages. The testing of the materials will be conducted both in the liquid and high humidity vapor phases at 60 and 90 degrees C. Three classes of materials with different degrees of corrosion resistance will be investigated in order to encompass the various design configurations of waste packages. The facility is expected to be in operation for a minimum of five years, and operation could be extended to longer times if warranted. A sufficient number of specimens will be emplaced in the test environments so that some can be removed and characterized periodically. The corrosion phenomena to be characterized are general, localized, galvanic, and stress corrosion cracking. The long-term data obtained from this study will be used in corrosion mechanism modeling, performance assessment, and waste package design. Three classes of materials are under consideration. The corrosion resistant materials are high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys; the corrosion allowance materials are low-alloy and carbon steels; and the intermediate corrosion resistant materials are copper-nickel alloys

  15. Impact of long-term diesel contamination on soil microbial community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, Nora; Maphosa, Farai; Morillo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity at a diesel-contaminated railway site were investigated by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments to understand the interrelationships among microbial community composition, pollution level, and soil geochemical and physical...... properties. To this end, 26 soil samples from four matrix types with various geochemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations were investigated. The presence of diesel contamination significantly impacted microbial community composition and diversity, regardless of the soil matrix type. Clean...... observed in contaminated samples. Redundancy analysis indicated that increased relative abundances of the phyla Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Euryarchaeota correlated with the presence of contamination. Shifts in the chemical composition of diesel constituents across the site and the abundance of specific...

  16. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Especially during the last ten years, a part of Romanian research program 'Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel' was focused mainly on applicative research for the design of near-surface disposal facility, which intends to accommodate the low and intermediate radioactive waste generated from Cernavoda NPP. In this frame, our contribution was at the acquisition of technical data for the characterization of the future disposal facility. In the present, the project of the disposal facility, located on the Saligny site, near Cernavoda NPP, must be licensed. As regards to the safe disposal, the location of final disposal, the Saligny site, has been characterized through the five geological formations which contain potential routes for transport of radionuclide released from disposal facility, in the receiving zones(potential receiving zones), into liquid and gaseous phases. The technical characteristics of the disposal facility were adapted at the Romanian disposal concept using the reference data from IAEA technical report (IAEA,1999). Input parameters which characterized from physical and chemical point of view the disposal system, were partially taken from literature. The performance assessment studies, which follows the preliminary design development phases and the selection, describes how the source term is affected by the infiltration of water through the disposal facility, degradation process of engineering barriers (reflected in the distribution coefficient values) and solubility limit. The studies regard the evaluation of the source term, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provide the information on 'how' and 'why' were evaluated, following: (i) radiological safety assessment of near-surface disposal facility on Saligny site; (ii) complexity standard assessment of the Engineering Barriers Systems (EBS); (iii) identification of the elements which must be elaborated for the increase of the disposal safety and the necessity for new technical data for

  17. Annual report for research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste in fiscal years 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Ken-ichi; Asamori, Koichi; Niwa, Masakazu; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Sueoka, Shigeru; Makuuchi, Ayumu; Ikuta, Masafumi; Matsubara, Akihiro; Tamura, Hajimu; Kobori, Kazuo; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji

    2014-03-01

    This annual report documents the progress of R and D in the 3rd fiscal year during the JAEA 2nd Midterm Plan (FY 2010 - 2014) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: 1) development and systematization of investigation techniques for selecting suitable sites in geosphere stability, 2) development, application and verification of prediction models for evaluating the changes of geological environment in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical conditions for a long period of time, and 3) development of new dating techniques for providing information about geologic history and the timing of geologic events. In this report, the current status of R and D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized. (author)

  18. OBRA: a European project to create an observatory for long-term governance on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, Meritxell; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi; Kopetz, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper introduces a number of topics that will be addressed by the 'OBRA' project. The OBRA project (2006-2008) is a 2-year Coordination Action under the 6. EURATOM Framework Program (FP) which started on 1. November 2006 and will finish on 31. October 2008. The project aims to assess the feasibility of creating an Observatory for Long-term Governance on Radioactive Waste Management in Europe. OBRA will devise an Observatory to promote appropriate forms of interaction between stakeholders, mainly local and regional communities and experts. The focus and value of OBRA lies on the development of a concrete tool to promote governance processes. With respect to this objective, the paper introduces the project and some of the key questions that have been addressed in the first creative workshop and which will be the focus of OBRA in the following months. (authors)

  19. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  20. Rock salt as a medium for long-term isolation of radioactive wastes - a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1985-01-01

    Rock salt has been regarded as a suitable medium for the permanent disposal of high and medium level radioactive wastes since the National Academy of Sciences recommended it in 1957. As a result of detained site-specific studies conducted for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in New Mexico, however, several potential problems which are unique to bedded salt deposits have emerged. These include 1) the need to delineate the extent and rate of past dissolution and projections for the future, 2) the origin and significance of brines often found underlying the salt beds, 3) the rate and volume of migration of brine from the salt crystals towards the heat producing waste canisters, 4) the creep rates and implications for retrievability, and 5) the existence of potash and oil and gas resources with implications of human intrusion in the future. These questions will also be faced for sites in salt domes with added complications due to more complex structure and hydrology. The experience at WIPP shows that the site characterization process for high level waste repositories in bedded or dome salt should aim at identifying the important issues of site suitability early in the process and a clear program should be established to address these issues

  1. UK Regulators Long-term Management of Higher Activity Radioactive Wastes on Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are long time frames from the production of waste to packaging, transport, storage and final disposal in a repository. This entails changing custodians, as the responsible individuals and organisations change. This presentation once again pointed out the importance of a life cycle approach towards RK and M preservation and RWM in general. The traditional focus for the safety case has been examining individual facilities and short term goals (put bluntly, on 'getting the permit'). This approach does not lend itself to forward planning, or a holistic vision of the process. The 'Radioactive waste management case' is an effort to integrate the different individual safety cases, and focus on waste streams rather than facilities, so that the trail of decisions is documented. The concept of 'waste streams' was explained as having been developed in the context of decommissioning, in order to make concrete the idea of 'cradle to grave' life cycle analysis. The importance of creating an 'information management culture' at the level of organisations was underscored. With regard to needing to find a balance between completeness and overload, it was once again pointed out that one needs to wary to avoid a situation of 'Keep everything, find nothing'

  2. Long-term oil contamination alters the molecular ecological networks of soil microbial functional genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With knowledge on microbial composition and diversity, investigation of within-community interactions is a further step to elucidate microbial ecological functions, such as the biodegradation of hazardous contaminants. In this work, microbial functional molecular ecological networks were studied in both contaminated and uncontaminated soils to determine the possible influences of oil contamination on microbial interactions and potential functions. Soil samples were obtained from an oil-exploring site located in South China, and the microbial functional genes were analyzed with GeoChip, a high-throughput functional microarray. By building random networks based on null model, we demonstrated that overall network structures and properties were significantly different between contaminated and uncontaminated soils (P < 0.001. Network connectivity, module numbers, and modularity were all reduced with contamination. Moreover, the topological roles of the genes (module hub and connectors were altered with oil contamination. Subnetworks of genes involved in alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were also constructed. Negative co-occurrence patterns prevailed among functional genes, thereby indicating probable competition relationships. The potential keystone genes, defined as either hubs or genes with highest connectivities in the network, were further identified. The network constructed in this study predicted the potential effects of anthropogenic contamination on microbial community co-occurrence interactions.

  3. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  4. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  5. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  6. Conceptual costing study for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    Comparative conceptual cost estimates for several possible options for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes have been developed. Five potentially applicable concepts were considered in the study: shallow land burial, using either unlined trenches, lined trenches or concrete canisters; engineered storage mounds; above-ground concrete vaults; below-ground concrete vaults; and intermediate-depth caverns using either open stopes or shrinkage mining. The objective was to develop comparative estimates. The differences in costs between concepts reflect the differences in handling methodology or costs of additional engineered barriers around the stored waste. An in situ waste volume of 805 000 m 3 , relatively favorable site conditions, a four-year disposal schedule and a consistent costing basis were assumed for each concept. Limited effort was made to optimize specific facility designs or disposal operations. The projected disposal costs vary from $68/m 3 of waste for shallow land burial in unlined trenches, to $312/m 3 of waste disposal in concrete canisters in trenches. The results of this study are reasonably consistent with previous estimates prepared for the low-level Radioactive Waste Management Office

  7. The long-term management of information and records on radioactive waste packages in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshall, I.R.; Wisbey, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that information associated with the creation, conditioning and packaging of radioactive waste must be maintained for a considerable period of time. During the retention period not only must the storage media be preserved, but the data must remain accessible and in a form that can be interpreted with minimum 'processing'. This will ensure, as far as practicable, that the information accurately represents the nature of the waste and its packaging, that the media employed is suitable for long-term storage and that the storage conditions provide a stable environment. Careful consideration must be given to the type and form of the retained information and the threats to its continued integrity. United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex), in association with experts in records media and management, has undertaken a programme of work to consider the range of media currently available, the threats to media integrity and the implications of a general move towards 'electronic' records. The results of this study are being used to develop an information management system strategy, capable of retaining data for all future phases of radioactive waste management. (author)

  8. Impact of long-term Diesel Contamination on Soil Microbial Community Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Maphosa, F.; Morillo, J.A.; Abu Al-Soud, W.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Smidt, H.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity at a diesel-contaminated railway site were investigated by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments to understand the interrelationships among microbial community composition, pollution level, and soil geochemical and physical

  9. Effect of long-term zinc pollution on soil microbial community resistance to repeated contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Beata

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of stress (contamination trials) on the microorganisms in zinc-polluted soil (5,018 mg Zn kg(-1) soil dry weight) and unpolluted soil (141 mg Zn kg(-1) soil dw), measured as soil respiration rate. In the laboratory, soils were subjected to copper contamination (0, 500, 1,500 and 4,500 mg kg(-1) soil dw), and then a bactericide (oxytetracycline) combined with a fungicide (captan) along with glucose (10 mg g(-1) soil dw each) were added. There was a highly significant effect of soil type, copper treatment and oxytetracycline/captan treatment. The initial respiration rate of chronically zinc-polluted soil was higher than that of unpolluted soil, but in the copper treatment it showed a greater decline. Microorganisms in copper-treated soil were more susceptible to oxytetracycline/captan contamination. After the successive soil contamination trials the decline of soil respiration was greater in zinc-polluted soil than in unpolluted soil.

  10. Response of soil microbial communities and microbial interactions to long-term heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqi; Meng, Delong; Li, Juan; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Xueduan; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Zhenghua; Yan, Mingli

    2017-12-01

    Due to the persistence of metals in the ecosystem and their threat to all living organisms, effects of heavy metal on soil microbial communities were widely studied. However, little was known about the interactions among microorganisms in heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the present study, microbial communities in Non (CON), moderately (CL) and severely (CH) contaminated soils were investigated through high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16s rRNA gene amplicons, and networks were constructed to show the interactions among microbes. Results showed that the microbial community composition was significantly, while the microbial diversity was not significantly affected by heavy metal contamination. Bacteria showed various response to heavy metals. Bacteria that positively correlated with Cd, e.g. Acidobacteria_Gp and Proteobacteria_thiobacillus, had more links between nodes and more positive interactions among microbes in CL- and CH-networks, while bacteria that negatively correlated with Cd, e.g. Longilinea, Gp2 and Gp4 had fewer network links and more negative interactions in CL and CH-networks. Unlike bacteria, members of the archaeal domain, i.e. phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, class Thermoprotei and order Thermoplasmatales showed only positive correlation with Cd and had more network interactions in CH-networks. The present study indicated that (i) the microbial community composition, as well as network interactions was shift to strengthen adaptability of microorganisms to heavy metal contamination, (ii) archaea were resistant to heavy metal contamination and may contribute to the adaption to heavy metals. It was proposed that the contribution might be achieved either by improving environment conditions or by cooperative interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological Role of Soils upon Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetnov, Evgeny; Shcheglov, Alexei; Tsvenova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The ecological role of soils upon radioactive contamination is clearly manifested in the system of notions about ecosystems services, i.e., benefits gained by humans from ecosystems and their components, including soils (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For the soils, these services are considered on the basis of soil functions in the biosphere that belong to the protective ecosystem functions within the group of soil functions known under the names of "Buffer and protective biogeocenotic shield" (at the level of particular biogeocenoses) and "Protective shield of the biosphere" (at the global biospheric level) (according to Dobrovol'skii & Nikitin, 2005). With respect to radionuclides, this group includes (1) the depositing function, i.e., the accumulation and long-term sequestration of radioactive substances by the soil after atmospheric fallout; (2) the geochemical function, i.e., the regulation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of radionuclides in the system of geochemically conjugated landscapes and in the soil-groundwater and soil-plant systems; and (3) the dose-forming function that is manifested by the shielding capacity of the soil with respect to the external ionizing radiation (lowering of the dose from external radiation) and by the regulation of the migration of radionuclides in the trophic chain (lowering of the dose from internal radiation). The depositing and geochemical functions of the soils are interrelated, which is seen from quantitative estimates of the dynamics of the fluxes of radionuclides in the considered systems (soil-plant, soil-groundwater, etc.). The downward migration of radionuclides into the lower soil layers proceeds very slowly: for decades, more than 90% of the pool of radionuclides is stored in the topmost 10 cm of the soil profile. In the first 3-5 years after the fallout, the downward migration of radionuclides with infiltrating water flows decreases from several percent to decimals and hundredths of percent from the

  12. Long-term field phytoextraction of zinc/cadmium contaminated soil by Sedum plumbizincicola under different agronomic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Li, Zhu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Na; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In two long-term field experiments the zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola (S. plumbizincicola) was examined to optimize the phytoextraction of metal contaminated soil by two agronomic strategies of intercropping with maize (Zea mays) and plant densities. Soil total Zn and Cd concentrations decreased markedly after long-term phytoextraction. But shoot biomass and Cd and Zn concentrations showed no significant difference with increasing remediation time. In the intercropping experiment the phytoremediation efficiency in the treatment "S. plumbizincicola intercropped with maize" was higher than in S. plumbizincicola monocropping, and Cd concentrations of corn were below the maximum national limit. In the plant density experiment the phytoremediation efficiency increased with increasing plant density and 440,000 plants ha(-1) gave the maximum rate. These results indicated that S. plumbizincicola at an appropriate planting density and intercropped with maize can achieve high remediation efficiency to contaminated soil without affecting the cereal crop productivity. This cropping system combines adequate agricultural production with soil heavy metal phytoextraction.

  13. Protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident: the guidance of ICRP Publication 111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies in ICRP Publication 111 (Ann. ICRP 2009, 39(3)). The prolonged exposures resulting from such events are defined as existing exposure situations and the driving principle for managing exposure situations is the optimization of protection. In conjunction with optimization, the Commission recommends the use of reference levels to restrict individual doses. To be effective, protection strategies to maintain and reduce exposure as low as reasonably achievable should include actions implemented by public authorities and private businesses, but also by the affected population itself. The process through which inhabitants living in a contaminated environment identify problems and apply their own protective actions has been named 'self-help protection' by the Commission. Such a process supposes that affected individuals are fully aware of the situation and are well informed. It is the responsibility of the authorities to establish programmes for continuous radiation monitoring, information and education of the population. The involvement of local professionals and inhabitants in the definition and implementation of protection strategies is a key factor for the sustainability of long-term rehabilitation programmes. (note)

  14. Study on medium and long-term reductions in contaminant release from ground and surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, S.; Klinger, C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of uranium mining remediation in Saxony (Germany) is the long-term durability of remediation methods. In this context the development of mine and seepage water quality is of special interest. Research at 40 to 50 years old uranium mining sites and at sites under reclamation showed which natural processes or circumstances lead to an immobilization of radionuclides, heavy metals and arsenic. To enhance these natural attenuation processes the State of Saxony placed an order for a study at two adits of old mines. Three kinds of immobilizing material were placed in the mine water at the adit entrance. The water quality of both mines is in accordance with natural background, only uranium concentrations at one site and radium and arsenic concentrations at the other site were increased. The first results of the on-site tests show, that about 90% of uranium is immobilized by Fe(0). About 50% of radium and arsenic are immobilized by water treatment sludges. Another important study was done by Wismut as an on-site column test in the ISL uranium mine Koenigstein. In an underground drift acidic mine water (pH∝2, due to sulphuric acid leaching) was lead directly from a flooded area into 9 columns. The columns were filled with different mixtures of iron, coal, lignite, ash, baryte, calcite and organic residues as immobilisation materials. A mixture of lignite and iron cuttings showed the best capability to immobilize uranium and all other relevant pollutants. As a negative effect H 2 was generated in the columns containing iron. Further tests have to show if this effect can be minimized and also how far remobilization of the pollutants from the testing materials is possible. (orig.)

  15. Fire as a long-term stewardship issue for soils contaminated with radionuclides in the western U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, David S.; DuBois, David; Etyemezian, Vic; Kavouras, Ilias; Miller, Julianne J.; Nikolich, George; Stone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    On both U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Department of Defense sites in the southwestern United States (U.S.), significant areas of surface soils are contaminated with radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear testing, and with depleted uranium, primarily from military training. At DOE sites in Nevada, the proposed regulatory closure strategy for most sites is to leave contaminants in place with administrative controls and periodic monitoring. Closure-in-place is considered an acceptable strategy because the contaminated sites exist on access-restricted facilities, decreasing the potential risk to public receptor, the high cost and feasibility of excavating contaminated soils over large areas, and the environmental impacts of excavating desert soils that recover very slowly from disturbance. The largest of the contaminated sites on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada covers over 1,200 hectares. However, a factor that has not been fully investigated in the long-term stewardship of these sites is the potential effects of fires. Because of the long half-lives of some of the contaminants (e.g., 24,100 years for 239 Pu) and changes in land-cover and climatic factors that are increasing the frequency of fires throughout the western U.S., it should be assumed that all of these sites will eventually burn, possibly multiple times, during the time frame when they still pose a risk. Two primary factors are contributing to increased fire frequency. The first is the spread of invasive grasses, particularly cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens), which have out-competed native annuals and invaded inter-spaces between shrubs, allowing fires to burn easier. The second is a sharp increase in fire frequency and size throughout the western U.S. beginning in the mid-1980's. This second factor appears to correlate with an increase in average spring and summer temperatures, which may be contributing to earlier loss of soil moisture and longer periods of dry plant biomass

  16. Long-Term Effects of Legacy Copper Contamination on Microbial Activity and Soil Physical Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Holmstrup, Martin

    Soils heavily contaminated with copper (Cu) are considered unsuitable for agricultural use due to adverse impacts on microbial activity, soil physical properties, and direct toxicity to crops. This study investigated effects of Cu pollution from timber preservation activities between 1911 and 1924...... on soil micro-organisms and subsequent effects on physical properties of a sandy loam soil. Tillage operations over the last 70 years have caused spreading of the initially localized contamination and have created a Cu concentration gradient from 20 to 3800 mg kg-1 across an agricultural field in Hygum......, Denmark. Soil samples obtained from the fallow field were used to determine total microbial activity using fluorescein diacetate and dehydrogenase assays. The physical properties measured included water-dispersible clay, bulk density, air permeability and air-filled porosity. Significant differences...

  17. Effect of Long-Term Zinc Pollution on Soil Microbial Community Resistance to Repeated Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Beata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of stress (contamination trials) on the microorganisms in zinc-polluted soil (5,018 mg Zn kg−1 soil dry weight) and unpolluted soil (141 mg Zn kg−1 soil dw), measured as soil respiration rate. In the laboratory, soils were subjected to copper contamination (0, 500, 1,500 and 4,500 mg kg−1 soil dw), and then a bactericide (oxytetracycline) combined with a fungicide (captan) along with glucose (10 mg g−1 soil dw each) were added. There was a highl...

  18. Long-term oil contamination causes similar changes in microbial communities of two distinct soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jingqiu; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Dalin; Wang, Michael Cai; Huang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Since total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) are toxic and persistent in environments, studying the impact of oil contamination on microbial communities in different soils is vital to oil production engineering, effective soil management and pollution control. This study analyzed the impact of oil contamination on the structure, activity and function in carbon metabolism of microbial communities of Chernozem soil from Daqing oil field and Cinnamon soil from Huabei oil field through both culture-dependent techniques and a culture-independent technique-pyrosequencing. Results revealed that pristine microbial communities in these two soils presented disparate patterns, where Cinnamon soil showed higher abundance of alkane, (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) PAHs and TPH degraders, number of cultivable microbes, bacterial richness, bacterial biodiversity, and stronger microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism than Chernozem soil. It suggested that complicated properties of microbes and soils resulted in the difference in soil microbial patterns. However, the changes of microbial communities caused by oil contamination were similar in respect of two dominant phenomena. Firstly, the microbial community structures were greatly changed, with higher abundance, higher bacterial biodiversity, occurrence of Candidate_division_BRC1 and TAO6, disappearance of BD1-5 and Candidate_division_OD1, dominance of Streptomyces, higher percentage of hydrocarbon-degrading groups, and lower percentage of nitrogen-transforming groups. Secondly, microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism were significantly enhanced. Based on the characteristics of microbial communities in the two soils, appropriate strategy for in situ bioremediation was provided for each oil field. This research underscored the usefulness of combination of culture-dependent techniques and next-generation sequencing techniques both to unravel the microbial patterns and understand the ecological impact of

  19. SERDP and ESTCP Workshop on Long Term Management of Contaminated Groundwater Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    contaminant level MNA monitored natural attenuation NDMA N-nitrosodimethylamine NRC National Research Council ORP oxidation reduction potential...of importance, were per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), 1,4-dioxane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ...significant concern. Similarly, SERDP and ESTCP have funded several studies on NDMA , but recently released reports have revealed new data on NDMA occurrence

  20. Preconcentration for Improved Long-term Monitoring of Contaminants in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-10

    facilities where waste from weapons manufacture, storage, and reclamation processes has leached into the soil and groundwater. Key contaminants...and current testing and training facilities where waste from weapons manufacture, storage, and reclamation processes has leached into the soil and...scale, bread -board level, prototype was assembled using a peristaltic pump with a 900:1 motor and 0.143” rollers (P625/900.143, Instech Laboratories

  1. Phyto/rhizoremediation studies using long-term PCB-contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, M.; Prouzová, P.; Štursa, P.; Ryšlavá, E.; Uhlík, Ondřej; Beranová, K.; Rezek, Jan; Kurzawová, V.; Demnerová, K.; Macek, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2009), s. 817-829 ISSN 0944-1344 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA525/09/1058; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06156 Program:GA; 2B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : PCB * contaminated soil * phytoremediation * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2009

  2. Microbial contamination of embryos and semen during long term banking in liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielanski, A; Bergeron, H; Lau, P C K; Devenish, J

    2003-04-01

    We report on microbial contamination of embryos and semen cryopreserved in sealed plastic straws and stored for 6-35 years in liquid nitrogen. There were 32 bacterial and 1 fungal species identified from randomly drawn liquid nitrogen, frozen semen, and embryos samples stored in 8 commercial and 8 research facility liquid nitrogen (LN) tanks. The identified bacteria represented commensal or environmental microorganisms and some, such as Escherichia coli, were potential or opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the most common contaminant identified from the samples and was further shown to significantly suppress fertilization and embryonic development in vitro. Analysis of the strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed restriction patterns with no relatedness indicating that there was no apparent cross-contamination of S. maltophilia strains between the germplasm and liquid nitrogen samples. In addition, no transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) from infected semen and embryos straws to clean germplasm stored in the same LN tanks or LN was detected.

  3. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 10.3 to 95 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 5.2 to 183 mg kg{sup -1} Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 312 to 39,000 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 609 to 12,000 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  4. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl 2 ) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg -1 , 10.3 to 95 mg kg -1 Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg -1 and 5.2 to 183 mg kg -1 Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg -1 , 312 to 39,000 mg kg -1 Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg -1 and 609 to 12,000 mg kg -1 Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K d ) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  5. Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Radioactive analysis of samples from spent fuel leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geckeis, H.; Degering, D.; Goertzen, A.; Geyer, F.W.; Dressler, P.

    1995-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term performance of spent fuel during direct disposal, high burnup fuel (50 MWd/kg U) has been exposed to non-buffered brine solutions and to deionized water under static anaerobic conditions at 25 C. The leaching behaviour of several radionuclides has been observed over periods of approximately 500 d. Currently used radiometric methods (α-, β-, γ-spectrometry) were applied to the analysis of sample solutions. Due to its low specific activity, uranium was determined using ICP-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) or laser induced fluorescence spectrometry (LFS). In order to determine radionuclide concentrations without interferences a preceeding radiochemical separation by ion-exchange, solvent-extraction or extraction chromatography was necessary in most cases. The Sc-isotopes 134/137, which are present in a high excess over other γ-emitting nuclides, were separated using the inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdato phosphate (AMP). This step allowed the subsequent γ-spectrometric determination of Am-241, Ag-110m, Ru-106, Sb-125 and Eu-154/155. Activity concentrations of pure β-emitters like Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129 and Pu-241 were determined by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after selective separation using extraction chromatography or solvent extraction. The actinides Am-241, Cm-242/244, Pu-238/239/240 and Np-237 were analysed by α-spectrometry again after selective separation. The direct analysis of uranium by LFS or ICP-MS was hampered by high salt concentrations. Therefore a separation by extraction chromatography turned out to be necessary, too. The analytical procedures used throughout this work are described in detail. (orig.) [de

  6. Assessment of alternatives for long-term management of uranium ore residues and contaminated soils located at DOE's Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    About 11,000 m 3 of uranium ore residues and 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated soils (wastes) are consolidated within a diked containment area at the Niagara Falls Storage Site located about 30 km north of Buffalo, New York. The residues account for less than 6% of the total volume of contaminated materials but almost 99% of the radioactivity. The average radium-226 concentration in the residues is 67,000 pCi/g. The US Department of Energy is considering several alternatives for long-term management of the wastes and residues, including: improvement of the containment at NFSS, modification of the form of the residues, management of the residues separately from the wastes, management of the wastes and residues at another humid site (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) or an arid site (Hanford, Washington), and dispersal of the wastes in the ocean. Potential radiological risks associated with implementation of any of the alternatives are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant radiological risk to humans. The residues and wastes will remain hazardous for thousands of years. After controls cease, the radioactive materials will eventually be dispersed in the environment. Loss of the earthen covers over the buried materials is predicted to occur from several hundred to more than two million years, depending primarily on the use of the land surface. Groundwater will eventually be contaminated in all alternatives; however, the groundwater pathway is relatively insignificant with respect to radiological risks to the general population. 2 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  7. Some bioindicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Cozmuta, I.; Micu, C.

    1996-01-01

    The lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl accident were numerous and encompassed all areas. One of those lead to the discovery of new monitoring methods which also supply to cost-effective solutions to control contaminant radioactive discharges in the environment. Through the measurements performed, we discovered that some samples, because of their radioactive content restrained also for long periods of time, can be used as bioindicators. Hen eggs between May 1-30 1986 were analysed (identification of radionuclides with a Ge(Li) detector and measuring of total gamma activity with NaI(T1)). Various aspects pursued revealed that eggs are precious witness of vegetable food contamination with fission products, especially Ba-140 and I-131, behaving as radionuclide separators (Ba-140 in egg shell -301 Bq/egg and I-131 in the content - 182 Bq/egg). Some of the most important pharmaceutical plants from Transylvania measured during 1986-1994 period presents high cesium radioactivity. The perennial plants (as Lichen Islandicus) for the same period accumulated a greater activity that the annual ones. Especially the lichen, because of the their slow decreasing activity are suitable as biological detectors also in retrospective measurements. Measuring the activity of some pollen samples was rediscovered. The pollen grains, during their transport in air by the bees, are acting like a filter for radionuclides so that we could use they to monitor the deliverance of these substances in air. (author)

  8. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Sabino, J.F.; Oliva de Sandoval, B.E.; Orozco-Chilel, R.M.; Aguilar-Sandoval, E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 'Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala', concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying

  9. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sabino, J F; Oliva de Sandoval, B E; Orozco-Chilel, R M; Aguilar-Sandoval, E [Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Guatemala C.A. (Guatemala)

    1999-07-01

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 `Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala`, concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying 4 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    A small-scale bioremediation assay was developed in order to get insight into the functioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading community during the time course of bioremediation treatment of a contaminated soil. The study was conducted with the aim to better understand the key mechanisms involved in PCB-removal from soils. Materials and methods Two bioremediation strategies were applied in the assay: (a) biostimulation (addition of carvone as inducer of biphenyl pathway, soya lecithin for improving PCB bioavailability, and xylose as supplemental carbon source) and (b) bioaugmentation with selected seed cultures TSZ7 or Rhodococcus sp. Z6 originating from the transformer station soil and showing substantial PCB-degrading activity. Functional PCB-degrading community was investigated by using molecular-based approaches (sequencing, qPCR) targeting bphA and bphC genes, coding key enzymes of the upper biphenyl pathway, in soil DNA extracts. In addition, kinetics of PCBs removal during the bioremediation treatment was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results and discussion bphA-based phylogeny revealed that bioremediation affected the structure of the PCB-degrading community in soils, with Rhodococcus-like bacterial populations developing as dominant members. Tracking of this population further indicated that applied bioremediation treatments led to its enrichment within the PCB-degrading community. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community, estimated by quantifying the copy number of bphA and bphC genes, revealed that it represented up to 0.3% of the total bacterial community. All bioremediation treatments were shown to enhance PCB reduction in soils, with approximately 40% of total PCBs being removed during a 1-year period. The faster PCB reduction achieved in bioaugmented soils suggested an important role of the seed cultures in bioremediation processes. Conclusions The PCBs degrading community was modified in response to

  11. Contamination due to radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The peaceful exploitation of radioactivity and the expansion of the nuclear power programme ensure that the disposal of radioactive wastes will cause contamination of the marine environment in the foreseeable future. The exposure of marine organisms to radioactivity from wastes has been studied in depth and related to exposure to natural background radiation. Concentrations of natural radionuclides and those from marine waste disposal have been measured at various stations in the oceans and seas around the world. The fate of radionuclides at four representative sites has been studied and the concentrations of radionuclides in oysters, porphyra, plaice in the Windscale discharge area have been measured. The extent of human exposure, particularly with reference to seafood consumption in local fishing communities, has been assessed. Effects of radiation on developing fish embryos and eggs and genetic radiation effects in aquatic organisms has been studied. The above studies reveal that the controls applied to the discharge of radioactive wastes to limit hazards to humans also provide adequate protection for populations of marine organisms. (U.K.)

  12. Long-term Neurotoxic Effects of Early-life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschengrau, Ann; Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Vieira, Veronica M; Gallagher, Lisa G; Getz, Kelly D; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2016-01-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983, widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. A retrospective cohort study (the Cape Cod Health Study) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. This review describes the study methods and findings regarding the effects of prenatal and childhood exposure on neurologic outcomes during early adulthood, including vision, neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, risky behaviors, and mental illness. The review also describes the strengths and challenges of conducting population-based epidemiologic research in this unique setting. Participants were identified by cross-matching birth certificates and water system data. Information on health outcomes and confounding variables was collected from self-administered surveys (n = 1689), neuropsychological tests (n = 63), vision examinations (n = 63), and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 42). Early-life exposure to PCE was estimated using a leaching and transport model. The data analysis compared the occurrence of each health outcome among individuals with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure to unexposed individuals while considering the effect of confounding variables. The study found evidence that early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water has long-term neurotoxic effects. The strongest associations were seen with illicit drug use, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Key strengths of the study were availability of historical data on affected water systems, a relatively high exposure prevalence and wide range of exposure levels, and little confounding. Challenges arose mainly from the historical

  13. Minimal alteration of montmorillonite following long-term interaction with natural alkaline groundwater: Implications for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, Antoni E.; Norris, Simon; Alexander, W.Russell

    2016-01-01

    Bentonite is one of the more safety-critical components of the engineered barrier system in the disposal concepts developed for many types of radioactive waste. Bentonite is utilised because of its favourable properties which include plasticity, swelling capacity, colloid filtration, low hydraulic conductivity, high retardation of key radionuclides and stability in geological environments of relevance to waste disposal. However, bentonite is unstable under the highly alkaline conditions induced by Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC: initial porewater pH > 13) and this has driven interest in using low alkali cements (initial porewater pH9-11) as an alternative to OPC. To build a robust safety case for a repository for radioactive wastes, it is important to have supporting natural analogue data to confirm understanding of the likely long-term performance of bentonite in these lower alkali conditions. In Cyprus, the presence of natural bentonite in association with natural alkaline groundwater permits the zones of potential bentonite/alkaline water reaction to be studied as an analogy of the potential reaction between low alkali cement leachates and the bentonite buffer in the repository. Here, the results indicate that a cation diffusion front has moved some metres into the bentonite whereas the bentonite reaction front is restricted to a few millimetres into the clay. This reaction front shows minimal reaction of the bentonite (volumetrically, less than 1% of the bentonite), with production of a palygorskite secondary phase following reaction of the primary smectites over time periods of 10"5–10"6 years. - Highlights: • Alkaline porewaters from cement and concrete could destabilise bentonite buffer in a repository. • Evidence utilised to examine processes over repository timescales. • Alkaline water from the Troodos ophiolite reacts with bentonite. • Waters exchange Ca for Na on bentonite, smectite reacts to form palygorskite. • Observations indicate

  14. Qualification of polysiloxanes for long-term storage of radioactive waste; Qualifizierung von Polysiloxanen fuer die langzeitstabile Konditionierung radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucharczyk, P.

    2005-12-15

    At present German policy envisages interim storage of all radioactive waste (for approximately 30 years) until a final repository is available. This therefore leads to higher standards for storage containers. Silicone elastomers (polysiloxanes), materials on the basis of silicon and oxygen with organic substituents, have various physical and chemical properties and seem to be suitable for the long-term storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The aim of the present work is the qualification of a new coating material for storage containers. The use of polysiloxanes in other applications was also investigated. An important criterion for the coating is the simplicity of its application. Moreover, it should also have a high adhesion on steel as well as providing protection against corrosion. These properties were investigated for different polysiloxanes. The spraying tests showed that polysiloxane material with a viscosity of up to 45 000 mPas could be applied by the airless spraying method. An elastic coating was produced which could ensure protection against mechanical impacts. In the framework of water vapour experiments, a very high diffusion constant was determined. The corrosion test confirmed that the polysiloxane coating provided only insufficient corrosion protection if the sample was in contact with water and water vapour at the same time. This problem was solved by using an additional priming coat of 60 {mu}m zinc paint. The adhesion test showed that polysiloxanes have different levels of adhesion. The best adhesion was determined for condensation-cured silicones. The addition-cured materials had a lower adhesion, which was improved by the application of a priming coat. The outcome of these investigations is a wide spectrum of applications for polysiloxanes which can be used as firmly adhering coatings or removable decontamination layers. (orig.)

  15. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  16. Alternatives for long-term management of defense high-level radioactive waste, Hanford Reservations, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information or alternatives that are being considered for the long-term management of defense high-level radioactive waste stored at Hanford in underground tanks and in stainless steel-lined concrete basins. For purposes of basic programmatic decision making, four major alternatives based on disposal location are considered. The steps leading to placement of the waste in the following locations are illustrated: existing waste tanks; onsite engineered surface facilities; onsite geologic repository; and offsite geologic repository. The four major disposal alternatives are expanded into 27 alternative plans by considering: (1) variations in the final form of the high-level fraction (with radionuclide removal) to include glass, concrete, and powder; (2) variations in the final form of the dehydrated waste product to include glass, calcined clay, and powder; and (3) variations in the treatment and handling of encapsulated waste to include packaging of capsules in canisters and conversion of the strontium fluoride and cesium chloride to glass; canisters stored in sealed casks on the surface are disposed of in a surface vault after the radionuclides have decayed sufficiently to avoid a heat-transfer problem. A description of the technology, a preliminary risk assessment, and preliminary cost estimates for each of these 27 plans are presented. The technology required to implement any of the 27 alternative plans has not been developed to the point where any plan can be considered completely technically sound and feasible

  17. Long-term electrical resistivity monitoring of recharge-induced contaminant plume behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hubbard, Susan S; Watson, David B; Baker, Gregory S; Peterson, John E; Kowalsky, Michael B; Smith, Meagan; Brooks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Geophysical measurements, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data in particular, are sensitive to properties that are related (directly or indirectly) to hydrological processes. The challenge is in extracting information from geophysical data at a relevant scale that can be used to gain insight about subsurface behavior and to parameterize or validate flow and transport models. Here, we consider the use of ERT data for examining the impact of recharge on subsurface contamination at the S-3 ponds of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Tennessee. A large dataset of time-lapse cross-well and surface ERT data, collected at the site over a period of 12 months, is used to study time variations in resistivity due to changes in total dissolved solids (primarily nitrate). The electrical resistivity distributions recovered from cross-well and surface ERT data agrees well, and both of these datasets can be used to interpret spatiotemporal variations in subsurface nitrate concentrations due to rainfall, although the sensitivity of the electrical resistivity response to dilution varies with nitrate concentration. Using the time-lapse surface ERT data interpreted in terms of nitrate concentrations, we find that the subsurface nitrate concentration at this site varies as a function of spatial position, episodic heavy rainstorms (versus seasonal and annual fluctuations), and antecedent rainfall history. These results suggest that the surface ERT monitoring approach is potentially useful for examining subsurface plume responses to recharge over field-relevant scales. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Biological cycles of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michon, M.-G.

    1959-01-01

    Artificial radio-elements (synthesized for scientific or industrial purposes)having been released, may be absorbed by plants or animals, and may eventually involve a catenation of organisms as some feed on the others. All organisms living in a polluted river become more radioactive than the water, which was to be expected, in as much as organisms are hypertonic in respect to sweet water. Conversely, soil brings into play physico-chemical phenomena (absorption) such that plants can get only a small portion of contaminating radio-elements, land animal feeding on such plants are relatively less exposed to contamination, and carnivorous animals feeding on herbivorous are still less exposed. Man, notably is fairly well protected, whereas lower organisms, notably unicellular organisms may suffer (mutations..). Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue de Pathologie Generale et de Physiologie Clinique', n. 707, April 1959, p. 505-514 [fr

  19. Long-term management of radioactive waste - will the Price-Anderson system work for third party liability issues arising from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznick, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA) [fr

  20. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes...... the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a radiological dispersal device, with reference surface contamination at selected sites used as the primary input information. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included...... radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a "no action" situation (with no remedial measures...

  1. Emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes - would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for some of these wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, K. von

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. After some generalities on the pollution of natural environment and the legislations taken by the swedish government the author tries to answer to the question : would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for the non-radioactive hazardous wastes? Then is given the general discussion of the last three articles concerning the background to current environmental policies and their implementation and more particularly the evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies, the managing hazardous activities and substances and the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. Comments and questions concerning the similarity or otherwise between the present position of radioactive waste disposal and the background to current environmental policies are indicated. (O.L.)

  2. Bayesian evidence and epidemiological implications of environmental contamination from acute respiratory infection in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Decaro, J D; Launer, B; Mckinnell, J A; Singh, R; Dutciuc, T D; Green, N M; Bolaris, M; Huang, S S; Miller, L G

    2018-05-01

    Skilled nursing home facilities (SNFs) house a vulnerable population frequently exposed to respiratory pathogens. Our study aims to gain a better understanding of the transmission of nursing home-acquired viral respiratory infections in non-epidemic settings. Symptomatic surveillance was performed in three SNFs for residents exhibiting acute respiratory symptoms. Environmental surveillance of five high-touch areas was performed to assess possible transmission. All resident and environmental samples were screened using a commercial multiplex polymerase chain reaction platform. Bayesian methods were used to evaluate environmental contamination. Among nursing home residents with respiratory symptoms, 19% had a detectable viral pathogen (parainfluenza-3, rhinovirus/enterovirus, RSV, or influenza B). Environmental contamination was found in 20% of total room surface swabs of symptomatic residents. Environmental and resident results were all concordant. Target period prevalence among symptomatic residents ranged from 5.5 to 13.3% depending on target. Bayesian analysis quantifies the probability of environmental shedding due to parainfluenza-3 as 92.4% (95% CI: 86.8-95.8%) and due to rhinovirus/enterovirus as 65.6% (95% CI: 57.9-72.5%). Our findings confirm that non-epidemic viral infections are common among SNF residents exhibiting acute respiratory symptoms and that environmental contamination may facilitate further spread with considerable epidemiological implications. Findings further emphasise the importance of environmental infection control for viral respiratory pathogens in long-term care facilities.

  3. Non-destructive soil amendment application techniques on heavy metal-contaminated grassland: Success and long-term immobilising efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Platzer, Klaus; Riesing, Johann; Horak, Othmar; Waldner, Georg; Watzinger, Andrea; Gerzabek, Martin H

    2017-01-15

    Extensive contamination of grassland with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) is a typical problem close to Pb/Zn smelter sites. The entry of Cd or Pb into the food chain is very likely, as are toxicity effects of Zn in plants. Previous promising results from pot and field experiments showed the high potential of using amendments for immobilisation to reduce metal input into the food chain via crops grown on smelter-contaminated soils at Arnoldstein (Austria) (Friesl et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to find a practical solution for large-scale contaminations in hilly regions that avoids erosion. Field application of amendments without destroying the vegetation cover (grassland) involved two approaches: (a) slurrying (Slu) the amendments into cut gaps in the vegetation cover and (b) injecting (Inj) the amendments through the vegetation cover. Here, we investigate the immobilising and long-term efficiency of treatments [gravel sludge (2.5%) + red mud (0.5%) (GS + RM)]. Risk assessment was based on soil, plant and water samples taken over a period of 10 years. Ammonium-nitrate-extractable Cd was reduced up to 50%, Pb up to 90%, and Zn over 90%. Plant uptake into the grass mixture and narrow leaf plantain was significantly reduced for Cd, Pb, and Zn. Harvesting early in vegetation period can further reduce uptake and meet the threshold for fodder crops. The reduction of these elements in the seepage water in 24 samplings within these 10 years reached 40%, 45% and 50%, respectively. Immobilisation increased microbial biomass and decreased human bioaccessibility for Pb. Our investigation of the long-term efficiency of GS + RM in all treatments shows that the Slu and Inj amendment application techniques have promising potential as a realistic and practical method for extensively contaminated hilly land. Slurrying performed best. We conclude that grassland remediation methods involving tillage are counterproductive from the viewpoint of bioaccessibility

  4. Contamination of foods by radioactive rains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Nakae, Y; Higasayama, S

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivities of various vegetable foods contaminated by radioactive rains in May, 1954, in the Kagoshima Area were detected. Tea showed especially high radioactivities which could be extracted with hot water. Radioactive Nb, Zr, Hf, Ce, Y, Pr, and La were detected in the hot water extractions of tea by ion-exchange chromatography. The partial contribution of /sup 40/K in these radioactive vegetables was critically examined.

  5. The Behaviours of Cementitious Materials in Long Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    Radioactive waste with widely varying characteristics is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. This waste must be treated and conditioned, as necessary, to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Many countries use cementitious materials (concrete, mortar, etc.) as a containment matrix for immobilization, as well as for engineered structures of disposal facilities. Radionuclide release is dependent on the physicochemical properties of the waste forms and packages, and on environmental conditions. In the use of cement, the diffusion process and metallic corrosion can induce radionuclide release. The advantage of cementitious materials is the added stability and mechanical support during storage and disposal of waste. Long interim storage is becoming an important issue in countries where it is difficult to implement low level waste and intermediate level waste disposal facilities, and in countries where cement is used in the packaging of waste that is not suitable for shallow land disposal. This coordinated research project (CRP), involving 24 research organizations from 21 Member States, investigated the behaviour and performance of cementitious materials used in an overall waste conditioning system based on the use of cement - including waste packaging (containers), waste immobilization (waste form) and waste backfilling - during long term storage and disposal. It also considered the interactions and interdependencies of these individual elements (containers, waste, form, backfill) to understand the processes that may result in degradation of their physical and chemical properties. The main research outcomes of the CRP are summarized in this report under four topical sections: (i) conventional cementitious systems; (ii) novel cementitious materials and technologies; (iii) testing and waste acceptance criteria; and (iv) modelling long

  6. The Behaviours of Cementitious Materials in Long Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    Radioactive waste with widely varying characteristics is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. This waste must be treated and conditioned, as necessary, to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Many countries use cementitious materials (concrete, mortar, etc.) as a containment matrix for immobilization, as well as for engineered structures of disposal facilities. Radionuclide release is dependent on the physicochemical properties of the waste forms and packages, and on environmental conditions. In the use of cement, the diffusion process and metallic corrosion can induce radionuclide release. The advantage of cementitious materials is the added stability and mechanical support during storage and disposal of waste. Long interim storage is becoming an important issue in countries where it is difficult to implement low level waste and intermediate level waste disposal facilities, and in countries where cement is used in the packaging of waste that is not suitable for shallow land disposal. This coordinated research project (CRP), involving 24 research organizations from 21 Member States, investigated the behaviour and performance of cementitious materials used in an overall waste conditioning system based on the use of cement - including waste packaging (containers), waste immobilization (waste form) and waste backfilling - during long term storage and disposal. It also considered the interactions and interdependencies of these individual elements (containers, waste, form, backfill) to understand the processes that may result in degradation of their physical and chemical properties. The main research outcomes of the CRP are summarized in this report under four topical sections: (i) conventional cementitious systems; (ii) novel cementitious materials and technologies; (iii) testing and waste acceptance criteria; and (iv) modelling long

  7. Securing the long-term financing of decommissioning and radioactive waste management - From cost estimates to a comprehensive financing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the area of waste disposal concerns the long-term securing of the necessary financing. Large amounts of money will have to be invested, managed and subsequently spent at the appropriate time, over an extended period of 100 years or more. In an electricity market that is opening up across Europe and is characterised by complicated legal structures, a focus on a handful of major groups and cost pressure due to increased competition, it will be necessary to create the corresponding background conditions. The anticipated costs for decommissioning and disposal will have to be calculated or estimated on the basis of available know-how and criteria. The required funds will then have to be collected and invested on the domestic and international money markets, which given the current situation on the stock markets will by no means be an easy task. But the assurance that enough money will be available is essential for public confidence. Using Switzerland as an example, the author wishes to demonstrate which steps are necessary in order to calculate the potential decommissioning and waste disposal costs based on a defined disposal concept and programme, determine the annual contributions to be paid in by operators, and establish a suitable system for securing the necessary funding. This paper deals with the following issues: 1. Political background and legislative framework in Switzerland; 2. Swiss radioactive waste management policy and programmes; 3. Calculating the decommissioning and waste management costs; 4. Calculating the contributions to the Funds; 5. Financing system

  8. Holistic countermeasures evaluation and the sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Wright, S.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.; Cox, G.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Emergency planning as conducted by most national authorities is often focussed upon short-term response (few days - weeks) and addresses issues such as the need for evacuation, problems associated with 1 31I and immediate requirements for restrictions on food and water. There is limited systematic consideration of the long-term management of contaminated areas to ensure their sustainability. Experience following the Chernobyl accident, most especially within the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) but also in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, have demonstrated that countermeasures may have to be employed for a number of decades. The evaluation criteria for the many countermeasures which have been developed needs to be extended from simply effectiveness and radiological protection criteria to a more integrated, holistic approach. Specifically, there needs to be an assessment as to whether countermeasures: can be practically applied; incur considerable direct or side-effect costs; have significant environmental side-effects; and are acceptable to society. In addition, suitable approaches for successfully communicating with a wide range of stake holders must be explored. This is an essential step in developing a decision framework and avoiding problems previously experienced in emergency management. This paper presents results from an ongoing project (see www.strategy-ec.org.uk) to develop a framework for the identification of strategies for the sustainable management of contaminated urban, rural and industrial areas

  9. Long-term risks of metal contaminants in drinking water: a critical appraisal of guideline values for arsenic and vanadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Crebelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal contaminants in drinking water represent a relevant health issue in several areas of the world. In Italy, because of the geological features of the territory, high arsenic and vanadium are frequently reported in ground waters in concentrations above current guideline values. The implications for public health of the presence of contaminants above their legal limit are directly related to the biological basis of the guideline value. In the case of arsenic there are still major uncertainties in the mechanism of carcinogenesis which prevent a precise evaluation of long-term risks. Thus, the guideline value endorsed in the European Community (10 µg/L has to be considered as a pragmatic tool rather than a quality objective, bearing in mind that "every effort should be made to keep concentrations as low as reasonably possible" (WHO, 2011. A reverse situation holds for vanadium, for which a strict national limit (50 µg/L was previously proposed in consideration of data gaps, and for which new evidence indicated a less stringent health-based limit.

  10. Long-term stability of organic carbon-stimulated chromatereduction in contaminated soils, and its relation to manganese redoxstatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Sutton,Steve R.; Newville, Matthew; Rao, William

    2007-03-13

    In-situ reduction of toxic Cr(V1) to less hazardous Cr(II1)is becoming a popular strategy for remediating contaminated soils.However, the long term stability of reduced Cr remains to be understood,especially given the common presence of MnfIIIJV) oxides that reoxidizeCr(II1). This 4.6 year laboratory study tracked Cr and Mn redoxtransformations in soils contaminated with Cr(V1) which were then treatedwith different amounts of organic carbon (OC). Changes in Cr and Mnoxidation states within soils were directly and nondestructively measuredusing micro X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Chromatereduction was roughly lst-order, and the extent of reduction was enhancedwith higher OC additions. However, significant Cr(||1) reoxidationoccurred in soils exposed to the highest Cr(V1) concentrations (2,560 mgkg"'). Transient Cr(II1) reoxidation up to 420 mg kg1 was measured at 1.1years after OC treatment, followed by further reduction. Chromateconcentrations increased by 220 mg kgm1a t the end of the study (4.6years) in one soil. The causal role that Mn oxidation state had inreoxidizing Cr was supported by trends in Mn K-edge energies. Theseresults provide strong evidence for longterm dependence of soil Croxidation states on balances between OC availability and Mn redoxstatus.

  11. Levels of surface contamination with radioactive materials at workplaces of nuclear research centre at Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Nemcova, I.; Kasikova, M.; Popper, J.; Chysky, J.

    1983-01-01

    A hygiene supervision unit at workplaces of the nuclear Research Institute in Rez monitored on a long-term basis surface contamination with radioactive substances. Surface contamination was found at workplaces with open sources. Of the 4343 monitored places action levels were only exceeded in 13 cases. The obtained data were used for typifying workplaces with the highest level of surface contamination, to determine in certain instances the mechanism of the escape of radioactive substances from insulating facilities and to determine the rate of the spread of the radioactive substance into adjacent non-active workplaces. (author)

  12. Safety issues in construction of facilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste at vector site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarevskyi, O.; Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine); Rybalka, N. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, it is planned to create a number of near-surface facilities for disposal of short-lived RW and long-term (up to 100 years) storage of long-lived RW at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The expected streams of long-lived RW are analyzed in the paper. According to the analysis of RW streams, in particular, issues are considered on development of RW acceptance criteria, admissible radiological impacts during preparation of RW for long-term storage, reliability of barriers (RW packages, modules and structures, etc.) during long-term storage of RW. (orig.)

  13. ICRP Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-Term Contaminated Areas ICRP publication 111 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Rashad, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to through some lights on ICRP free release publication at 4 April 2011-Internationally Known as ICRP publication 111. The title of the publication is (application of the commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency). Nuclear accidents or a radiation emergency may cause contamination. The contamination may be spread on a large area. There are people living in these areas. For many factors the people refuse to leave their homes. They want to stay along their life as in the case of the normal conditions. So, it is important to facilitate their stay and make it safe. This is not easy. But it is possible without neglect the radiation hazard. The radiation hazard is effective on the life fields. It is harmful in plants, animals, foods, water, milk and the buildings it self. With considering the radiological protection principles the living of the people for a long time could be a fact of the life and will be more easy and safe. Optimization principle has priority to apply. This publication achieves these purposes.The ICRP-111 is translated into Arabic at August 2012. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the ICRP radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translations include, ICRP-105 (radiation protection in medicine) and ICRP -113 (education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures).

  14. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  15. Measurement of radioactivity in contaminated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y; Hasegawa, M; Kihara, T

    1956-01-01

    A method called the Direct Method was developed to correct for natural /sup 40/K radiation in plant samples. The K content of the ashed sample is determined by flamephotometry. The radioactivity in a 100 mg sample is measured and the natural radioactivity from /sup 40/K determined by calculation subtracted. Tea samples tested gave evidence of contamination by radioactive fallout.

  16. Long-term evacuation after the nuclear accident in Fukushima. Different daily living under low-dose radioactive suffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Kazunobu

    2013-01-01

    One year has passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident. Even currently, more than 150,000 evacuees in Fukushima Prefecture are forced to leave their home and to move throughout Japan. Because of the limited space of temporary housing and the weakening of personal ties in local communities, many families need to move and have separate lives. As a consequence, Fukushima has a serious shortage of caregivers for the elderly. There have been more than 1,300 disaster-related deaths due to shock and stress after long-distance drifts from town to town. Most of the victims were the elderly, who collapsed, caught pneumonia, suffered stroke and heart attack. Concerns about the safety of low-dose radiation exposure deprived the elderly of important contact with playing outside with their grandchildren in Fukushima. Fear of invisible radioactive contamination inactivated outdoor activities such as farming, dairy, fishing, gardening, hiking and wild-vegetable/mushroom hunting, although most of these activities have been traditionally supported by the wisdom of the elderly. Several recent questionnaire investigations revealed that older evacuees wish to go home even if the environment has significant contamination. In contrast, more than half of younger generation with small children have a different attitude. Nuclear accident brought serious social pains although it did not acutely hurt our bodies. (author)

  17. Modelling cadmium contamination in paddy soils under long-term remediation measures: Model development and stochastic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping

    2016-09-01

    A pollutant accumulation model (PAM) based on the mass balance theory was developed to simulate long-term changes of heavy metal concentrations in soil. When combined with Monte Carlo simulation, the model can predict the probability distributions of heavy metals in a soil-water-plant system with fluctuating environmental parameters and inputs from multiple pathways. The model was used for evaluating different remediation measures to deal with Cd contamination of paddy soils in Youxian county (Hunan province), China, under five scenarios, namely the default scenario (A), not returning paddy straw to the soil (B), reducing the deposition of Cd (C), liming (D), and integrating several remediation measures (E). The model predicted that the Cd contents of soil can lowered significantly by (B) and those of the plants by (D). However, in the long run, (D) will increase soil Cd. The concentrations of Cd in both soils and rice grains can be effectively reduced by (E), although it will take decades of effort. The history of Cd pollution and the major causes of Cd accumulation in soil were studied by means of sensitivity analysis and retrospective simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, F.S.; Crawford, R.L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers.

  19. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers. Third, we have systematically considered the aquifer contaminants at different locations in plumes at other DOE sites in order to determine whether MNA is a broadly applicable remediation strategy for chlorinated hydrocarbons (North Wind Inc.). Realistic terms for co-metabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE’s ability to predict and

  20. High polymer composites for containers for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, H.W.; Vui, V.T.; Legault, J.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of using polymeric composite materials as an alternative to metals in the design of a nuclear waste disposal container was examined. The disposal containers would be stored in deep underground vaults in plutonic rock formations within the Canadian Shield for several thousands of years. The conditions of disposal considered in the evaluation of the polymeric composite materials were based on the long-term disposal concept proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Four different composites were considered for this work, all based on boron fibre as reinforcing material, imbedded in polymeric matrices made of polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Devcon 10210 epoxy, and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Both PS and PMMA were determined as unsuitable for use in the fabrication of the storage container because of thermal failure. This was determined following thermal analysis of the materials in which heat transfer calculations yielded the temperature of the container wall and of the surroundings resulting from the heat generated by the spent nuclear fuel stored inside the container. In the case of the PS, the temperature of the container, the buffer and the backfill would exceed the 100 degrees C imposed in the AECL's proposal as the maximum allowable. In the case of the PMMA, the 100 degrees temperature is too close to the glass transition temperature of this material (105 degrees C) and would cause structural degradation of the container wall. The other two materials present acceptable thermal characteristics for this application. An important concern for polymeric materials in such use is their resistance to radiations. The Devcon 10210 epoxy has been the object of research at the Royal Military College in the past years and fair, but limited, resistance to both neutrons and gamma radiation has been demonstrated, with the evidence of increased mechanical strength when subjected to moderate doses. Provided that the container wall could be

  1. Review of the seismic risk in the design of civil engineering of nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This guide aims to define, for the nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes, from site data, the design specifications of earthquake resistant civil engineering and the possible methods for: the determination of the seismic response of the buildings, taking into account the interactions with the materials and the evaluation of the associated strains to size the installation; the determination of seismic displacements to be considered to size the materials. (A.L.B.)

  2. Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Ken-ichi; Asamori, Koichi; Kusano, Tomohiro; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Niwa, Masakazu; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Yamasaki, Seiko; Yamada, Kunimi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji

    2011-07-01

    The concept of geological disposal of HLW in Japan is based on a multi-barrier system which combines a stable geological environment with a robust barrier system. Potential geological host formations and their surroundings are chosen, in particular, for their long-term stability, taking into account the fact that Japan is located in a tectonically active zone. This report is a plan of research and development (R and D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of HLW in JAEA, in fiscal year 2011. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2011 are described in detail based on the outline of 5 years plan (fiscal years 2010-2014). In addition, the planed framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  3. Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamori, Koichi; Niwa, Masakazu; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Yamada, Kunimi; Kusano, Tomohiro; Makuuchi, Ayumu; Takatori, Ryoichi; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji

    2012-07-01

    The concept of geological disposal of HLW in Japan is based on a multi-barrier system which combines a stable geological environment with a robust barrier system. Potential geological host formations and their surroundings are chosen, in particular, for their long-term stability, taking into account the fact that Japan is located in a tectonically active zone. This report is a plan of research and development (R and D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of HLW in JAEA, in fiscal year 2012. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2012 are described in detail based on the outline of 5 years plan (fiscal years 2010-2014). In addition, the planned framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  4. Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Ken-ichi; Asamori, Koichi; Yamada, Kunimi; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Yamasaki, Seiko; Kurosawa, Hideki; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Negi, Tateyuki; Kusano, Tomohiro; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji

    2010-09-01

    The concept of geological disposal of HLW in Japan is based on a multibarrier system which combines a stable geological environment with an engineered barrier system. Potential geological host formations and their surroundings are chosen, in particular, for their long-term stability, taking into account the fact that Japan is located in a tectonically active zone. This report is a plan of research and development (R and D) for geosphere stability for long-term isolation of HLW in JAEA, in fiscal year 2010. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2010 are described in detail based on the outline of 5 years plan (fiscal years 2010-2014). In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  5. Long-term stability of the near-field about high-level radioactive waste repository in thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling action condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuemiao; Wang Ju; Ke Dan; Cai Meifeng

    2008-01-01

    It is a long-term process for the high-level radioactive waste repository, from opening, construction to end of its service. The long-term stability of the near-field is the key issue for the design of HLW repository because the opening and heat generated from the HLW. Through a nationwide investigation, Beishan area, a Gobi desert in Gansu province, is considered as a suitable candidate and GMZ bentonite deposit which located in Xinghe County, Inner Mongolia has been proposed for the supplier of buffer/backfill material for HLW geological repository in China. According to the R and D guide of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China, the 3D model of HLW repository with high-level radioactive waste, canister and buffer/backfill material is established using FLAC3D. To take into account in situ stress, geothermal gradient, groundwater, thermal relief of HLW and swelling pressure of buffer/backfill material, the evolution of temperature, stress and displacement of HLW repository under thermo-mechanical coupling, hydro-mechanical coupling and thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling conditions was analyzed respectively. The long-term stability of HLW repository in Beishan area was studied. (authors)

  6. Investigation on long-term safety aspects of a radioactive waste repository in a diagenic clay formation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Gazul, R. [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Fluegge, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); and others

    2017-03-28

    The report presents the sealing concept developed for a Russian near surface low/intermediate level (LILW) waste repository at the ''radon site'' in the lower Cambrian ''blue clay'' formation. The radioactive wastes will be transported to the repository through a tunnel that will connect the underground disposal areas with the surface facilities. Two ventilation shafts for fresh and exhaust air will also connect the underground facilities with the surface. Specific characteristics of the flow regime in the studied area have been simulated. For the construction of a potential repository site it is necessary to know the possible contaminant transport paths to the surface and the biosphere. Due to the lack of sufficient data the calculation can only indicate tendencies that can trigger future explorations. Simulations of the radionuclide (C-14, Cl-36, Se-79, I-129) release from the repository in the liquid phase show a similar behavior as for other repositories in clay. Probabilistic simulations show a large variation of obtained results as a result of the parameter uncertainty.

  7. The influence of biochar type on long-term stabilization for Cd and Cu in contaminated paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Xinxin; Geng, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongjian; Guo, Xisheng; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2016-03-05

    Long-term effect of biochar on PTEs (potential toxic elements) immobilization depends upon biochar own property and its aging process in soil. To understand the role of biachar type on PTEs stabilization, two types of biochar, corn-straw-derived biochar (CB) and hardwood-derived biochar (HB), were compared for their efficacy in achieving a stable decrease in the bio-availability of Cd and Cu in soils. The 3-year pot-culture experiment showed that HB reduced the concentration of CaCl2-extractable Cd and Cu by 57.9 and 63.8% in soil, and Cd and Cu uptake by 63.6 and 56.3% in rice tissue respectively, in the first year, whereas these values increased in the next two years. On the other hand, CB decreased these values steadily year by year. At the end of the 3 years, CB at 5% level had lowered the levels of CaCl2-extractable Cd and Cu by 53.6 and 66.8%, respectively. These variations between CB and HB were due to the differences in the way the two types of biochar age in the soil. The aging process was simulated in the laboratory, and the XPS results showed that the oxidization of the biochars introduced more oxygen-containing groups (especially carboxyl) on the surface of CB than HB, leading to a correspondingly greater number of oxygenated binding sites for Cd and Cu in the case of CB. The content of lignin was the major factor resulting in the variation of oxidation degree in two biochars. These results suggest that it is important to select the right kind of biochar to stably decrease the bio-availability of potential toxic elements (Cd and Cu) in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of biostimulation and Tween 80 addition for the bioremediation of long-term DDT-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy J; Cardona, Santiago; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation of a long-term contaminated soil through biostimulation and surfactant addition was evaluated. The concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) were monitored during an 8-week remediation process. Physicochemical characterization of the treated soil was performed before and after the bioremediation process. The isolation and identification of predominant microorganisms during the remediation process were also carried out. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated after each bioremediation protocol. Humidity and pH and the heterotrophic microorganism count were monitored weekly. The DDT concentration was reduced by 79% after 8 weeks via biostimulation with surfactant addition (B+S) and 94.3% via biostimulation alone (B). Likewise, the concentrations of the metabolites DDE and DDD were reduced to levels below the quantification limits. The microorganisms isolated during bioremediation were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis, Flavobacterium sp., Cuprivadius sp., Variovorax soli, Phenylobacterium sp. and Lysobacter sp., among others. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed visualization of the colonization patterns of soil particles. The toxicity of the soil before and after bioremediation was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent sensor. A decrease in the toxic potential of the soil was verified by the increase of the concentration/effect relationship EC50 to 26.9% and 27.2% for B+S and B, respectively, compared to 0.4% obtained for the soil before treatment and 2.5% by natural attenuation after 8 weeks of treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-06-01

    Dissolved dense nonaqueous-phase liquid plumes are persistent, widespread problems in the DOE complex. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) is disappearing from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) by natural attenuation, a finding that saves significant site restoration costs. Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation as a preferred treatment technology requires direct evidence of the processes and rates of the degradation. Our proposal aims to provide that evidence for one such site by testing two hypotheses. First, we believe that realistic values for in situ rates of TCE cometabolism can be obtained by sustaining the putative microorganisms at the low catabolic activities consistent with aquifer conditions. Second, the patterns of functional gene expression evident in these communities under starvation conditions while carrying out TCE cometabolism can be used to diagnose the cometabolic activity in the aquifer itself. Using the cometabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained at this location and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Realistic terms for cometabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE's ability to predict and monitor natural attenuation of chlorinated organics at other sites, increase the acceptability of this solution, and provide significant economic and health benefits through this noninvasive remediation strategy. Finally, this project aims to derive valuable genomic information about the functional attributes of subsurface microbial communities upon which DOE must depend to resolve some of its most difficult contamination issues.

  10. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.W.; Gaynor, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    In a process for reducing radioactive contamination of phosphogypsum, anhydrite crystals are obtained through dehydration of the phosphogypsum in strong sulfuric acid: a portion of the anhydrite crystals is converted to subtantially radiation free gypsum by crystallizing out on radiation free gypsum seed crystals. These coarse radiation free gypsum crystals are then separated from the small anhydrite crystal relics containing substantially all of the radioactive contamination

  11. Cleanup of radioactivity contamination in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    1994-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity cleanup is needed under a large scale accident in a reactor or in an RI irradiation facility which associates big disperse of radioactivities. Here, the fundamental concept including a radiation protection target, a period classification, planning, an information data base, etc. Then, the methods and measuring instruments on radioactivity contamination and the cleanup procedure are explained. Finally, the real site examples of accidental cleanup are presented for a future discussion. (author)

  12. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Doi

    Full Text Available Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1 trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2 the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  13. The challenge of long-term participatory repository governance. Lessons learned for high level radioactive waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landstroem, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    Voluntaristic siting procedures for deep geological repositories are becoming increasingly common; they reconfigure the relationship of repositories and society in ways that have implications for the long-term governance of these facilities. This paper identifies three challenges emerging in relation to this question: principles of monitoring, repository content, and facility closure. This paper discusses them in a comparison with similar challenges being addressed in Belgian partnerships founded to facilitate the siting and design of a low- and intermediate level short lived waste repository. The empirical exploration confirms the importance of securing stakeholder engagement throughout the repository lifecycle, for which there is a need to develop knowledge about how to encourage long-term democratic governance systems.

  14. Geosphere Stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Case study for hydrological change with earthquakes and faulting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate estimation and safety assessment for long-term changes in geological environment are essential to an improvement of reliability for geological disposal. Specifically, study on faults is important for understanding regional groundwater flow as well as an assessment as a trigger of future earthquakes. Here, possibility of changes in permeability of faulted materials induced by earthquakes was examined based on monitoring data of groundwater pressure before and after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. (author)

  15. Understanding the differences amongst national regulatory criteria for the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.M.; Ferch, R.; Pescatore, C.

    2008-01-01

    Carl-Magnus Larsson detailed then the work of the Regulators' Forum and the origin of the LTSC initiative. He explained that one of the objectives of the LTSC was to identify a set of issues on long-term protection criteria and collate findings in a report. He explained why the idea of a 'collective opinion' was abandoned and why it should be replaced by a common understanding where differences between countries ought to be explained and understood. C.-M. Larsson detailed the different types of approaches to regulating long-term safety and the different approaches for numerical targets. He gave some explanations of the reasons for the differences in regulatory targets between countries (level of conservatism, progress in the safety case methodology, etc.). The regulatory function takes into account the nature of the demonstration (illustrations and societal demands). C.-M. Larsson referred to the evolution of IAEA safety fundamentals and stressed that the 'sustainability' concept, introduced by the Joint Convention, is not mentioned in the new safety standard. The term 'adequately protected' is now preferred in relation to future generations. The ICRP recommends that less emphasis be placed on assessment of doses in the long term. C.-M. Larsson concluded that one of the challenges for the regulator is not to promise nor require the impossible. (authors)

  16. Consequences of long-term effects of low doses of radioactive exposure on females with adnexitis: Hematologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazhyna, M.

    1997-01-01

    Time cause in changes of haematological indices and Cs radioactivity in females with chronic adnexitis was studied. The significant changes in cellular structure of blood were demonstrated in patients with positive analysis on radioactivity (above 1000 Bq/1). Decelerated blood sedimentation rate, increased erythrocytes' anisocytosis (13-15%), decreased level of lymphocytes (18-25%) were revealed in this group of patients. (author)

  17. Long Term Behaviour Evaluation of Cement Conditioning Matrices Used for Management of Radioactive Wastes at IFIN-HH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical and structural characterization of the radioactive waste conditioning matrix is very important during the final disposal stage in the radioactive waste management cycle. The conditioning products should be a monolith with acceptable mechanical, chemical and physical properties that are maintained over an appropriate time such that the release of radioactivity from the waste form in the environment is minimized. The aim of this work is the XRD application for the phase identification of matrix that simulates the conditioned radioactive waste and the correlation with mechanical performance. The selected matrices for the study are normal cement with iron precipitates (hydroxide and phosphate), mineral additives (bentonite and volcanic tuff) and complexing agents (tartaric, citric and oxalic acids). The results obtained by this analysis give information about the chemical reactions between the radioactive precipitates and the hydrates, hydrolysis products of the cement. (author)

  18. Requirements for a long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a final storage facility for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, M.; Hippler, J.; Herzog, C.

    2007-01-01

    Within the scope of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie, BMWi), a safety certification concept for a future permanent final storage for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste (HAW disposal facility) in rock salt formations is being prepared. For a reference concept, compliance with safety requirements in regard to operational safety as well as radiological and non-radiological protection objectives related to long-term safety, including ground water protection, will be evaluated. This paper deals with the requirements for a long-term safety certification for the purpose of protecting ground water from chemotoxic substances. In particular, longterm safety certifications for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations and for the dumping of hazardous waste in underground storage facilities in rock salt formations are first discussed, followed by an evaluation as to whether these methods can be applied to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances. The authors find it advisable to apply the long-term safety certification for underground storage facilities to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations. In conclusion, a corresponding certification concept is introduced. (orig.)

  19. Residual radioactive contamination at Maralinga and Emu, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokan, K.H.

    1985-04-01

    An account is provided of residual contamination at Maralinga and Emu, in South Australia, where the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Research Establishment conducted nuclear weapons development trials between 1953 and 1963. Detailed information is presented about contamination levels at sites on the range where radioactive materials were dispersed. Some of these were associated with trials involving natural uranium or short-lived isotopes which are no longer present. There are four sites where plutonium-239 was dispersed in substantial quantities from minor trials and information is presented about its distribution. Much of this material has been diluted by mixing with local soil, but there is a significant quantity of material present in the form of contaminated fragments, particularly at Taranaki. A considerable quantity of uranium-235 is also present at Taranaki. An assessment is made of the radiological significance of the dispersed plutonium and it is concluded that the material represents a potential long term hazard while it remains in its present form. Residual radioactivity associated with all but one of the seven major trial sites involving nuclear explosions continues to decay in a predictable way and will in the worst case, fall below levels considered safe for continuous occupancy within about fifty years. One site, Tadje, contains significant concentrations of plutonium over a small area and onsidered to be an additional plutonium-contaminated locality. Measurements of beryllium concentrations in soil are presented

  20. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  1. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  2. Radioactive contamination in imported foods (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1991-01-01

    Five years have elapsed since the Chernobyl accident, but the effect of radioactivity contamination to foods has continued. Also in Japan, the imported foods which were ordered by the Ministry of Health and Welfare to be sent back due to radioactivity contamination do not cease. In fiscal year 1990, three cases occurred: tea from Albania, mushrooms from Yugoslavia and spices from france. If those are not checked at quarantines, it is feared that such foods are distributed in Japan. Among the foods which were ordered to be sent back in the past, there were those from Brazil and Hong Kong where the effect of the Chernobyl accident is little, and the foods contaminated with radioactivity spread worldwide through import and export. Therefore, attention must be paid to the foods from the countries where radioactivity contamination is little. Also it is feared that Japanese foods may be contaminated by being cultivated with imported feed, soil and fertilizer, for which there is no regulation. In this report, the radioactivity contamination of imported foods in fiscal year 1990 is described, and the experimental method and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Survey of radioactive contamination for foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan No; Lee, Chang Wu; Choi, Geun Sik; Cho, Yeong Hyeon; Kang, Mun Ja; Cheong, Geun Ho; Kim, Hui Ryeong; Park, Du Won; Park, Hyo Guk; Kwak, Ji Yeon

    2006-11-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a lot of countries including EU, Japan, USA are to strengthen survey of radioactive contamination for foodstuffs. Our country has also surveyed radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and started to check continuously the radioactivity contamination of the open market foodstuffs since 2003. In this year, imported foodstuffs(130 samples) and domestic foodstuffs(10 samples) are analyzed to investigate the radioactive contamination. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the open markets; one group is the imported foodstuffs and the other group is the domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities and northeast of Sokcho city concerning recent situations. Samples are usually bought from traditional markets, mart, department store or the Internet. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system for survey and assessment of radioactive contamination. The 131 I radionuclide isn't detected among all foodstuffs(imported and domestic). The 137 Cs radionuclide among the regulation radionuclides( 137 Cs, 13 4 C s, 131 I) of food code is only detected at the imported foodstuffs but its level is far below the maximum permitted level. For the improvement of measurement confidence, the developed analysis method is tested by the participation of the national and international intercomparison. The developed method based on test results and international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as an education of relative workers. It could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. It is technically supported for radioactive analysis of commercial company and the government including KFDA. Finally these results would be used to solve an ambiguous anxiety of a people for radiation exposure by foodstuffs intake and help the KFDA to manage systematically the radioactive contamination and to give

  4. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a realistic dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, H. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire] [and others

    1996-08-01

    This is the final report of the Working Group describing: the enhancement of the previously devised V1 scenario to produce a V2 scenario which includes more detailed source term and other site specific data; the application of models in deterministic and probabilistic mode to calculate contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks, including estimates of uncertainties; the comparison and analysis of the resulting calculations. A series of scenarios was developed based on data provided by Working Group members from a range of actual tailings disposal sites, culminating in the V2.2 and V2.3 scenarios. The V2.2 and V2.3 scenarios are identical in all respects, except that the V2.2 considers radioactive (U-238 chain) contaminants, whilst the V2.3 considers stable elements (As, Ni, Pb). Since the scenarios are based on data obtained from a range of actual sites, they should be considered to be generically realistic rather than representative of a particular single site. In both scenarios, the contaminants of interest are assumed to be released in leachate from a tailings pile into an underlying aquifer. They are transported in groundwater through the aquifer to a well. Water is abstracted from the well and used for: watering beef cattle; human consumption; and irrigating leafy vegetables. The beef and leafy vegetables are consumed by humans living in the area. The same contaminants are also released into the atmosphere due to the wind erosion of the pile and then deposited upon the soil, pasture and leafy vegetables. In addition, for the V2.2 scenario, Rn-222 is assumed to be released to atmosphere from the pile. Unlike the V1 scenario, no consideration is given to surface water exposure pathways. Results show that there is exceedingly good agreement between participants' deterministic and probabilistic estimates of total dose or intake. They agree within a factor of two to three for both scenarios

  5. Long term contaminant migration and impacts from uranium mill tailings. Comparison of computer models using a realistic dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.

    1996-08-01

    This is the final report of the Working Group describing: the enhancement of the previously devised V1 scenario to produce a V2 scenario which includes more detailed source term and other site specific data; the application of models in deterministic and probabilistic mode to calculate contaminant concentrations in biosphere media, and related radiation doses, contaminant intakes and health risks, including estimates of uncertainties; the comparison and analysis of the resulting calculations. A series of scenarios was developed based on data provided by Working Group members from a range of actual tailings disposal sites, culminating in the V2.2 and V2.3 scenarios. The V2.2 and V2.3 scenarios are identical in all respects, except that the V2.2 considers radioactive (U-238 chain) contaminants, whilst the V2.3 considers stable elements (As, Ni, Pb). Since the scenarios are based on data obtained from a range of actual sites, they should be considered to be generically realistic rather than representative of a particular single site. In both scenarios, the contaminants of interest are assumed to be released in leachate from a tailings pile into an underlying aquifer. They are transported in groundwater through the aquifer to a well. Water is abstracted from the well and used for: watering beef cattle; human consumption; and irrigating leafy vegetables. The beef and leafy vegetables are consumed by humans living in the area. The same contaminants are also released into the atmosphere due to the wind erosion of the pile and then deposited upon the soil, pasture and leafy vegetables. In addition, for the V2.2 scenario, Rn-222 is assumed to be released to atmosphere from the pile. Unlike the V1 scenario, no consideration is given to surface water exposure pathways. Results show that there is exceedingly good agreement between participants' deterministic and probabilistic estimates of total dose or intake. They agree within a factor of two to three for both scenarios. Even

  6. Application of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to predict bioremediation efficacy of long-term composting of PAH-contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cajthaml, Tomáš; Šašek, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 21 (2005), s. 8448-8452 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : SFE * long-term composting * PAH Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.054, year: 2005

  7. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  8. GEOSAF Part II. Demonstration of the operational and long-term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. IAEA international intercomparison and harmonization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Bruno, Gerard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Tichauer, Michael [IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hedberg, Bengt [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    International intercomparison and harmonization projects are one of the mechanisms developed by the IAEA for examining the application and use of safety standards, with a view to ensuring their effectiveness and working towards harmonization of approaches to the safety of radioactive waste management. The IAEA has organized a number of international projects on the safety of radioactive waste management; in particular on the issues related to safety demonstration for radioactive waste management facilities. In 2008, GEOSAF, Demonstration of The Operational and Long-Term Safety of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste, project was initiated. This project was completed in 2011 by delivering a project report focusing on the safety case for geological disposal facilities, a concept that has gained in recent years considerable prominence in the waste management area and is addressed in several international safety standards. During the course of the project, it was recognized that little work was undertaken internationally to develop a common view on the safety approach related to the operational phase of a geological disposal although long-term safety of disposal facility has been discussed for several decades. Upon completion of the first part of the GEOSAF project, it was decided to commence a follow-up project aiming at harmonizing approaches on the safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste through the development of an integrated safety case covering both operational and long-term safety. The new project was named as GEOSAF Part II, which was initiated in 2012 initially as 2-year project, involving regulators and operators. GEOSAF Part II provides a forum to exchange ideas and experience on the development and review of an integrated operational and post-closure safety case for geological disposal facilities. It also aims at providing a platform for knowledge transfer. The project is of particular interest to regulatory

  9. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.V.; Uspenskaya, E.Ju.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  10. Long-term durability of polyethylene for encapsulation of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.

    1991-01-01

    The durability of polyethylene waste forms for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes is examined. Specific potential failure mechanisms investigated include biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation. These data are supported by results from waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. Polyethylene was found to be extremely resistant to each of these potential failure modes under anticipated storage and disposal conditions. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  12. Radioactive contamination mapping system detailed design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.; O'Callaghan, P.B.

    1996-08-01

    The Hanford Site's 100 Area production reactors released radioactively and chemically contaminated liquids into the soil column. The primary source of the contaminated liquids was reactor coolant and various waste waters released from planned liquid discharges, as well as pipelines, pipe junctions, and retention basins leaking into the disposal sites. Site remediation involves excavating the contaminated soils using conventional earthmoving techniques and equipment, treating as appropriate, transporting the soils, and disposing the soils at ERDF. To support remediation excavation, disposal, and documentation requirements, an automated radiological monitoring system was deemed necessary. The RCMS (Radioactive Contamination Mapping System) was designed to fulfill this need. This Detailed Design Report provides design information for the RCMS in accordance with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Engineering Design Project Instructions

  13. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); P.S. Ross (Peter); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function

  14. Effects of long-term radionuclide and heavy metal contamination on the activity of microbial communities, inhabiting uranium mining impacted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteva, Silvena; Radeva, Galina; Traykov, Ivan; Kenarova, Anelia

    2016-03-01

    Ore mining and processing have greatly altered ecosystems, often limiting their capacity to provide ecosystem services critical to our survival. The soil environments of two abandoned uranium mines were chosen to analyze the effects of long-term uranium and heavy metal contamination on soil microbial communities using dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities as indicators of metal stress. The levels of soil contamination were low, ranging from 'precaution' to 'moderate', calculated as Nemerow index. Multivariate analyses of enzyme activities revealed the following: (i) spatial pattern of microbial endpoints where the more contaminated soils had higher dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, (ii) biological grouping of soils depended on both the level of soil contamination and management practice, (iii) significant correlations between both dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities and soil organic matter and metals (Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn, but not U), and (iv) multiple relationships between the alkaline than the acid phosphatase and the environmental factors. The results showed an evidence of microbial tolerance and adaptation to the soil contamination established during the long-term metal exposure and the key role of soil organic matter in maintaining high microbial enzyme activities and mitigating the metal toxicity. Additionally, the results suggested that the soil microbial communities are able to reduce the metal stress by intensive phosphatase synthesis, benefiting a passive environmental remediation and provision of vital ecosystem services.

  15. Decontamination of radioactively contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    By this standard objective conditions to evaluate and test the ease of decontamination of surfaces under laboratory conditions are to be laid down. Ease of decontamination in this context denotes the summed-up effect of two material properties: a) the capacity of the material for retaining radioactive substances at its surface; b) the ease with which these substances are given off again in the course of cleaning processes. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Long-term follow-up results in children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine (131I) for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safa, A.M.; Schumacher, O.P.; Rodriguez-Antunez, A.

    1975-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of 131 I therapy for children, the course of 87 patients (three to 18 years old, 24 boys and 63 girls) treated from 1949 through 1968, for hyperthyroidism due to Graves's disease was studied. Dose of 131 I per patient ranged from 2.9 to 31 mCi (mean +- S. D., 9.75 +- 6.5). Patients were followed for five to 24 years (mean, 12.3 +- 3.5). Hyperthyroidism was controlled in 85 within one to 14 months (mean, 3.3 +- 2.6). Recurrence of thyrotoxicosis due to toxic diffuse goiter, observed in only one case after 11 years, was successfully re-treated with 131 I. Reproductive history and health status of the progeny of 131 I-treated patients were not different from those of the general population. No deaths and no cancer or leukemia were observed in patients or their offspring. The major cause of goiter regrowth was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Hypothyroidism developed in 35 of 76 patients (46 percent). 131 I deserves further use in treatment of hyperthyroid children with Graves's disease

  17. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  18. Responses of the soil decomposer community to the radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlana, Maksimova

    2004-01-01

    radioactive plots had considerable changes in the physiology. Based on the results of our study, we have a conclusion the decomposer community exposed to irradiation for a long time reacts clearly by a noticeable suppression. Furthermore, the results also demonstrated that there was a strong relation between decomposition rates and numbers of decomposer fauna present in soil layers. Given the important role of decomposer invertebrates in the development and maintenance of soil structure, and in the incorporation and breakdown of organic residues in the soil, we made conclusion that the reduction of density and biodiversity of decomposer organisms in the radio-contaminated zone produced long term effects on the soil health. (author)

  19. Responses of the soil decomposer community to the radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlana, Maksimova [Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    radioactive plots had considerable changes in the physiology. Based on the results of our study, we have a conclusion the decomposer community exposed to irradiation for a long time reacts clearly by a noticeable suppression. Furthermore, the results also demonstrated that there was a strong relation between decomposition rates and numbers of decomposer fauna present in soil layers. Given the important role of decomposer invertebrates in the development and maintenance of soil structure, and in the incorporation and breakdown of organic residues in the soil, we made conclusion that the reduction of density and biodiversity of decomposer organisms in the radio-contaminated zone produced long term effects on the soil health. (author)

  20. Two-liquid-phase system: A promising technique for predicting bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congying; Wang, Ziyu; Li, Zengbo; Ahmad, Riaz

    2017-02-01

    A two-liquid-phase system (TLPS), which consisted of soil slurry and silicone oil, was employed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four long-term contaminated soils in order to assess the bioavailability of PAHs. Extraction kinetics of six PAHs viz. phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene were selected to investigate as they covered the susceptible and recalcitrant PAHs in soil. A parallel experiments were also carried out on the microbial degradation of these PAHs in soil with and without biostimulation (by adding (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ). The rapidly desorbed fraction of fluoranthene, as indicated by the two-fraction model, was found the highest, ranging from 21.4% to 37.4%, whereas dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene was the lowest, ranging from 8.9% to 20.5%. The rapid desorption of selected PAHs was found to be finished within 24 h. The rapidly desorbed fraction of PAHs investigated using TLPS, was significantly correlated (R 2  = 0.95) with that degraded by microorganisms in biostimulation treatment. This suggested that the TLPS-assisted extraction could be a promising technique in determining the bioavailability of aged PAHs in contaminated soils. It also suggested that applying sufficient nutrients in bioremediation of field contaminated soils is crucial. Further work is required to test its application to more hydrophobic organic pollutants in long-term contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social scientist on board in long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parotte, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste is under the exclusive competence of the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (knew as ONDRAF/NIRAS). Unlike low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste (knew as B and C waste). In this context, ONDRAF/NIRAS considers the public and stakeholders' participation as an essential factor in the formulation of an effective and legitimate policy. This is why it has decided to integrate them in different ways during the elaboration of the Waste Plan (ONDRAF/NIRAS-document containing guidelines to make a principled policy decision about nuclear waste management). To do so, social scientists have been regularly mobilized either as external evaluators, follow-up committee members, or participatory observants. Hence, the Waste Plan is only the first step in a long decision-making process. For a PhD student under contract with ONDRAF/NIRAS, this mandate consists of thinking out a way to construct an inter-organizational innovative communication system that would be participative, transparent and embedded in a long-term perspective, thus integrating all the further legal steps to take throughout the decision-making process. In this regard, two paradoxical constraints must be taken into account: on the one hand, my own influence on the legal decision-making process should remain limited, because of a series of constraints, lock-ins and previous decisions which have to be respected; on the other hand, ONDRAF/NIRAS expects the research conclusions to be policy relevant and useful. In this paper, the purpose is twofold. Firstly, the issues raised by this policy mandate is an opportunity to question the per-formative dimensions of the social scientist in the decision-making process and, more specifically, to have a reflexive view on our position as PhD Student. Secondly, assuming the

  2. Social scientist on board in long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parotte, C. [Spiral Research Center, Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Law, University of Liege (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste is under the exclusive competence of the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (knew as ONDRAF/NIRAS). Unlike low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste (knew as B and C waste). In this context, ONDRAF/NIRAS considers the public and stakeholders' participation as an essential factor in the formulation of an effective and legitimate policy. This is why it has decided to integrate them in different ways during the elaboration of the Waste Plan (ONDRAF/NIRAS-document containing guidelines to make a principled policy decision about nuclear waste management). To do so, social scientists have been regularly mobilized either as external evaluators, follow-up committee members, or participatory observants. Hence, the Waste Plan is only the first step in a long decision-making process. For a PhD student under contract with ONDRAF/NIRAS, this mandate consists of thinking out a way to construct an inter-organizational innovative communication system that would be participative, transparent and embedded in a long-term perspective, thus integrating all the further legal steps to take throughout the decision-making process. In this regard, two paradoxical constraints must be taken into account: on the one hand, my own influence on the legal decision-making process should remain limited, because of a series of constraints, lock-ins and previous decisions which have to be respected; on the other hand, ONDRAF/NIRAS expects the research conclusions to be policy relevant and useful. In this paper, the purpose is twofold. Firstly, the issues raised by this policy mandate is an opportunity to question the per-formative dimensions of the social scientist in the decision-making process and, more specifically, to have a reflexive view on our position as PhD Student. Secondly, assuming the

  3. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  4. Innovative Methods for Integrating Knowledge for Long-Term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater Sites: Understanding Microorganism Communities and their Associated Hydrochemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.

    2005-12-01

    This interdisciplinary study integrates hydrochemical and genome-based data to estimate the redox processes occurring at long-term monitoring sites. Groundwater samples have been collected from a well-characterized landfill-leachate contaminated aquifer in northeastern New York. Primers from the 16S rDNA gene were used to amplify Bacteria and Archaea in groundwater taken from monitoring wells located in clean, fringe, and contaminated locations within the aquifer. PCR-amplified rDNA were digested with restriction enzymes to evaluate terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community profiles. The rDNA was cloned, sequenced, and partial sequences were matched against known organisms using the NCBI Blast database. Phylogenetic trees and bootstrapping were used to identify classifications of organisms and compare the communities from clean, fringe, and contaminated locations. We used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to incorporate microbial data with hydrochemical information for improving our understanding of subsurface processes.

  5. Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190 0 F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of 2 . Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90 0 blast angle was more effective than a 45 0 blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft

  6. Vegetation cover and long-term conservation of radioactive waste packages: the case study of the CSM waste disposal facility (Manche District, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Berghem, Yves; Lemperiere, Guy

    2012-03-01

    The CSM is the first French waste disposal facility for radioactive waste. Waste material is buried several meters deep and protected by a multi-layer cover, and equipped with a drainage system. On the surface, the plant cover is a grassland vegetation type. A scientific assessment has been carried out by the Géophen laboratory, University of Caen, in order to better characterize the plant cover (ecological groups and associated soils) and to observe its medium and long term evolution. Field assessments made on 10 plots were complemented by laboratory analyses carried out over a period of 1 year. The results indicate scenarios and alternative solutions which could arise, in order to passively ensure the long-term safety of the waste disposal system. Several proposals for a blanket solution are currently being studied and discussed, under the auspices of international research institutions in order to determine the most appropriate materials for the storage conditions. One proposal is an increased thickness of these materials associated with a geotechnical barrier since it is well adapted to the forest plants which are likely to colonize the site. The current experiments that are carried out will allow to select the best option and could provide feedback for other waste disposal facility sites already being operated in France (CSFMA waste disposal facility, Aube district) or in other countries.

  7. Geological predictions for the long-term isolation of radioactive waste based on extrapolating uniform mode and rate of crustal movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term predictions of geological and tectonic disturbances are key issues for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, especially on the Japanese Islands. Geological predictions of disturbances should be performed by extrapolating uniform mode and rate of crustal movements under the current framework. Multiple lines of geological evidence in Japan strongly suggest that the present mode of tectonics began during the late Pliocene to early Quaternary, and was fully developed by the middle Pleistocene. The uplift rates of mountains in Japan are determined to have been approximately constant until the middle Pleistocene based on simulations of temporal changes in mean altitude developed under concurrent tectonics and denudation processes. The onset of the neotectonic mode of deformation was probably triggered by the initiation of the eastward movement of the Amur Plate and the collision of the Izu block with central Honshu. The uncertainty of predictions beyond steady-state crustal deformation would, in general, increase for long-term predictions using the extrapolation procedure. Consequently, future geological and tectonic disturbances in Japan can be estimated with relatively high reliability for the next 100,000 years. (author)

  8. Long term simulation of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the regional ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Misumi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute (Japan); Uematsu, M. [University of Tokyo (Japan); Maeda, Y. [CERES, Inc. (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A regional-scale simulation of {sup 137}Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of {sup 137}Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model for more than two years. Direct releases of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs were estimated for 1 year after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs were 11.1±2.2 PBq, 3.5±0.7 PBq, and 3.6±0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of {sup 131}I/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of {sup 137}Cs. Simulated {sup 137}Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated {sup 137}Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured {sup 137}Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated {sup 137}Cs activities attributable to the inflow of {sup 137}Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the

  9. Decontamination method for radioactively contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hitoshi; Komatsubara, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated materials having surfaces contaminated by radioactive materials are dissolved in molten salts by the effect of chlorine gas. The molten salts are brought into contact with a low melting point metal to reduce only radioactive materials by substitution reaction and recover them into the low melting point metal. Then, a low melting point metal phase and a molten salt phase are separated. The low melting point metal phase is evaporated to separate the radioactive materials from molten metals. On the other hand, other metal ions dissolved in the molten salts are reduced into metals by electrolysis at an anode and separated from the molten salts and served for regeneration. The low melting point metals are reutilized together with contaminated lead, after subjected to decontamination, generated from facilities such as nuclear power plant or lead for disposal. Since almost all materials including the molten salts and the molten metals can be enclosed, the amount of wastes can be reduced. In addition, radiation exposure of operators who handle them can be reduced. (T.M.)

  10. Development of radioactive surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Hasegawa, Toru; Fukumoto, Keisuke; Ooki, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In the radiation facilities such as nuclear power plants, surface contamination of the people accessing or articles conveyed in and out of the radiation controlled areas is detected and monitored by installing contamination monitors at the boundary of controlled areas and uncontrolled areas against the expansion of the radioactive materials to out of the facilities. It is required for the surface contamination of articles to be tightened of control criteria as 'Guidelines for discrimination ways of nonradioactive waste (not classified as radioactive waste) generated from nuclear power plants' (hereinafter referred to as 'the Guideline') was established by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in August, 2005. It predicts that the control criteria of monitors other than article monitors are also tightened in the future. Fuji electric has been fabricating and delivering surface contamination detecting monitors. Now we are developing the new contamination monitor corresponding to the tightening of the control criteria. 'Large article transfer monitor', 'Clothing monitor' and 'Body surface contamination monitor' are introduced in this article. (author)

  11. Method for electrolytic decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Horita, Masami; Onuma, Tsutomu; Kato, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to an electrolytic decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals. The contaminated sections are eluted by electrolysis after the surface of a piece of equipment used with radioactive substances has been immersed in an electrolyte. Metal contaminated by radioactive substances acts as the anode

  12. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this report, and the information contained in the associated computerized data bases, is to establish the DOE/OCRWM reference characteristics of the radioactive waste materials that may be accepted by DOE for emplacement in the mined geologic disposal system. This report provides relevant technical data for use by DOE and its supporting contractors and is not intended to be a policy document. This document is backed up by five PC-compatible data bases, written in a user-oriented, menu-driven format, which were developed for this purpose. The data bases are the LWR Assemblies Data Base; the LWR Radiological Data Base; the LWR Quantities Data Base; the LWR NFA Hardware Data Base; and the High-Level Waste Data Base. The above data bases may be ordered using the included form. An introductory information diskette can be found inside the back cover of this report. It provides a brief introduction to each of these five PC data bases. 116 refs., 18 figs., 67 tabs.

  13. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this report, and the information contained in the associated computerized data bases, is to establish the DOE/OCRWM reference characteristics of the radioactive waste materials that may be accepted by DOE for emplacement in the mined geologic disposal system. This report provides relevant technical data for use by DOE and its supporting contractors and is not intended to be a policy document. This document is backed up by five PC-compatible data bases, written in a user-oriented, menu-driven format, which were developed for this purpose. The data bases are the LWR Assemblies Data Base; the LWR Radiological Data Base; the LWR Quantities Data Base; the LWR NFA Hardware Data Base; and the High-Level Waste Data Base. The above data bases may be ordered using the included form. An introductory information diskette can be found inside the back cover of this report. It provides a brief introduction to each of these five PC data bases. 116 refs., 18 figs., 67 tabs

  14. Dissipation and phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in freshly spiked and long-term field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Ni, Jinzhi; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Weifeng; Yang, Yusheng

    2017-03-01

    Pot experiments were used to compare the dissipation and phytoremediation effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a freshly spiked soil and two field-contaminated soils with different soil organic carbon (SOC) contents (Anthrosols, 1.41% SOC; Phaeozems, 8.51% SOC). In spiked soils, the dissipation rates of phenanthrene and pyrene were greater than 99.5 and 94.3%, respectively, in planted treatments and 95.0 and 84.5%, respectively, in unplanted treatments. In field-contaminated Anthrosols, there were limited but significant reductions of 10.2 and 15.4% of total PAHs in unplanted and planted treatments, respectively. In field-contaminated Phaeozems, there were no significant reductions of total PAHs in either unplanted or planted treatments. A phytoremediation effect was observed for the spiked soils and the Anthrosols, but not for the Phaeozems. The results indicated that laboratory tests with spiked soils cannot reflect the real state of field-contaminated soils. Phytoremediation efficiency of PAHs in field-contaminated soils was mainly determined by the content of SOC. Phytoremediation alone has no effect on the removal of PAHs in field-contaminated soils with high SOC content.

  15. Long-term cover design for low-level radioactive and hazardous waste sites as applied to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site solar evaporation ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenseng, S.E.; Nixon, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) operated five lined solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Jefferson County, Colorado from 1953 until 1986. The SEPs were used primarily to store and evaporate low-level radioactive and hazardous process wastes. Operation of the SEPs has resulted in contamination of the surrounding soils, and may also provide a source of groundwater contamination. The DOE proposes to close the SEPs by consolidating the contaminated material beneath an engineered cover. The primary objective of the closure of such hazardous and radioactive sites is to limit the exposure of the general public to the contaminants for time periods ranging from 100 to 10,000 years. The goal of the SEPs engineered cover is to isolate hazardous and low-level radioactive soils for a minimum of 1,000 years. Since there is currently no existing regulatory design guidance for a 1,000-year engineered cover, the proposed design of the SEPs engineered cover is based on research and testing that has been conducted for many years at various DOE facilities in the US. This paper discusses the main design theories of the proposed engineered cover for the closure of the SEPs, and how the research and test results of these other programs have been used to arrive at the final cover configuration, the material selections, the component layering, layer thicknesses, and the balance and interaction between components to establish an overall effective cover system

  16. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  17. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  18. NERIS workshop. Lasting contaminations and land development. After Fukushima: the possibility of a lasting radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The document contains the contributions proposed during a workshop and the content of discussions after these contributions. For the first day, case studies are thus reported and commented: land contamination in Japan after the Fukushima accident, the CENTRACO plant accident, medium and long term stakes within the context of a lasting contamination by pesticides (the case of chlordecone pollution in the French West Indies), the complex and multiple actor challenges in the case of long duration radiological contamination for land agriculture, a lasting contamination in urban environment (the case of Metaleurop). The second session addressed the conditions and means for preparedness of local actors to a lasting radioactive contamination: the Norwegian approach, how to take the post-accidental perspective into account in the local safeguard plans, the PRIME project (research project on radio-ecological sensitivity indices and multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial territory), the pilot radiation protection project of the Montbeliard district, the OPAL project (to provide the local information commissions with post-accidental zoning information on the different French nuclear sites)

  19. Radiation exposure to skin following radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, H.; Beyermann, M.; Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of skin contamination intensive decontamination measures should not be carried out until the potential radiation exposure to the basal cell layer of the epidermis was assessed. Dose equivalent rates from alpha-, beta- or photon-emitting contaminants were calculated with reference to the surface activity for different skin regions as a function of radiation energy on the condition that the skin was healthy and uninjured and the penetration of contaminants through the epidermis negligible. The results have been presented in the form of figures and tables. In the assessment of potential skin doses, both radioactive decay and practical experience as to the decrease in the level of surface contamination by natural desquamation of the stratum corneum were taken into account. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 46 refs. (author)

  20. Prediction of concentration and model validation - key issues in assessment of long term safety for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Dverstorp, B.; Woerman, A.

    2008-01-01

    for various paths are used. Results and conclusions: Reviewing the discharge area data used in SR-Can, we found that the smallest discharge area during the entire simulation period was about 2.5 km 2 and the radiological consequences of canister leakage into this area was then analysed by SKB. Using equation (2) by accounting for both the spreading-length in the fracture and the QD we obtain a much smaller contaminated area of 25,000 m2. It should be noted that only gaussian spreading along a single path was taken into account in our calculation, i.e. the extreme heterogeneity caused by large scale fracture network effects have not been taken into account. Nevertheless this simple analysis strongly suggests that the discharge area is likely to be geographically restricted. According to our calculation, if a discharge area is 2.5 km 2 the estimated dose rates will be close to the LDF value because the dose rates are proportional to the discharge/contaminated area. In other words, the dose rates obtained from our calculations are two orders of magnitude higher than SKB's LDFs. As mentioned previously, compartmental model was used to mimic A/D type transport model in our calculations. A larger number of compartments are needed for the QD model because, for a moderately sorbing nuclide, the transport residence. time through 6 metres of QD is about 150,000 years. When 60 compartments are used in the QD compartment model, the simulated fluxes are close to those obtained using a semi-analytical solution for the same problem. There are no site-specific data available for parameters such as the advective velocity into sediment and the hydraulic radius for the river model. Therefore, we employ data obtained from a tracer experiment performed in Sava Brook in Uppland County as a typical characterisation of an agricultural stream in a landscape type that is likely to exist if leakage occurs from the repository after a considerable land rise has occurred. The lumped parameter, the

  1. An assessment of the long-term impact of chemically toxic contaminants from the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Garisto, N.C.; Barnard, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential for impact on man of chemically toxic contaminants associated with the Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The elements of concern are determined through a series of screening criteria such as elemental abundances and solubilities. A systems variability analysis approach is then used to predict the possible concentrations of these elements that may arise in the biosphere. These concentrations are compared with environmental guidelines such as permissible levels in drinking water. Conclusions are made regarding the potential for the chemically toxic contaminants to have an impact on man. 54 refs

  2. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Y.

    1960-01-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [fr

  3. Radioactive contamination of natural and artificial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, E.L.; Pomansky, A.A.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Temmoev, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma radiation of different materials was measured in an underground low-background chamber with extraordinary background characteristics. The excellent background conditions of the measurements enabled investigators to see the alpha-particle peaks of the internal radioactive contamination of NaI(Tl) detectors, which were especially made for these measurements. The sensitivity limit of the installation was determined by the internal contamination of the NaI(Tl) detectors alone. Any radiation background, except for three substances, tungsten, copper, and brass, could be registered

  4. An overview of sites contaminated by radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses contamination of land and water by radioactive material which is a subject that has been receiving widespread media attention, and has become the cause of much public anxiety. The contaminated sites can be divided broadly into three groups: Those that are quite old, relatively small in size, and the legacy of non-nuclear industrial activities involved with natural radioactivity, mostly in the early part of the century; the chain of uranium extraction plants used during and shortly after World War II, and the plants and laboratories that comprise the Department of Energy (DOE) research and weapons production complex today. It is the latter group that is the focus of greatest public attention at the present time

  5. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumu; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, M; Fujii, M; Kitaguchi, H

    1982-03-29

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode.

  7. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  8. Overview of long-term observations of radioactivity in the area around Institute of nuclear physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salikhbaev, U.S.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Radyuk, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The radiation protection problem is mainly important with its relation with potential radioactivity threat to society and environment. Therefore, development of nuclear science in Uzbekistan since foundation of the Institute of Nuclear Physic (INP) is directly related to radiation protection of the personnel, population and environment. One of the major tasks highlighted in this report, importance of complex approach to the radiation protection and security, is worth of mentioning. Development of such an approach allows creation of a concept to predict the radiation situation and transition to radiation monitoring around the research nuclear centre. The aim of this complex approach to the solution of the radiation protection task is to find the methods for making predictions and managing the radiation situation around the nuclear centre. Complex approach to this research implies integration of theoretical and experimental activities. Theoretical studies involve primarily radiation prediction models. Experimental works are, on one hand, the data to approve the theoretical models, the obtained empirical parameters, and, on the other hand, information on the radiation situation for its forecasting. Lack of reliable information on the radioactivity level creates various rumours and is the major reason for radiophobia. The aim of this report is to present realistic information on the radioactivity level at the INP AS RU site and at the surrounding area, which is based on long-term measurements provided by the radiation protection department. In this work the following results of the research are presented: -total beta and gamma-activity of herbs and soil; - specific activity of waters (waste, underground, and surface); - activity of the air aerosols; - activity of the atmospheric precipitations; - background at the site of the INP, at the sanitary-protection area and observation area. What has been accomplished for these years? Firstly, the model for cobalt

  9. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulovsky, S.M.; Kryshev, I.I.; Nikitin, A.I.; Savitsky, Y.V.; Malyshev, S.V.; Tertyshnik, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Based on observational data in the period 1971-1993, radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River ecosystem was analysed within 2000 km of the site of discharges from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Industrial Complex. Data on the content of 24 Na, 32 P, 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 56 Mn, 58 Co, 60 Co, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, 90 Sr, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 141 Ce, 144 Ce and 239 Np in the river ecosystem components were generalised. Radioactive contamination of water in the near zone of discharges (within 15 km) was shown to be determine mainly by the short-lived nuclides, such as 24 Na, 32 P, 56 Mn and 239 Np, as well as 51 Cr. Outside the near zone the water contamination level decreased appreciably. According to observational data of 1973, the total contamination inventory of the river bottom in the near zone was as great as 5800 kBq m -2 . More than half was accounted for by two radionuclides: 51 Cr and 65 Zn. At a distance of 1930 km from the site of discharges a technogenic activity of bottom sediments amounted to 5 kBq m -2 and was accounted for by 137 Cs and 65 Zn. The main radionuclide accumulated in fish was 32 P. Exposure doses to aquatic organisms and population were assessed in the near and far zones of the Krasnoyarsk radioactive contamination trace. Within 250 km of the site of discharges the exposure dose to the population from a consumption of 1 kg of fish was shown to amount to an average of 10 μSv. (author)

  11. Long-Term Spatio-Temporal Trends of Organotin Contaminations in the Marine Environment of Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K Y Ho

    Full Text Available Hong Kong imposed a partial restriction on application of organotin-based antifouling paints in 1992. Since September 2008, the International Maritime Organization prohibited the use of such antifouling systems on all sea-going vessels globally. Therefore, it is anticipated a gradual reduction of organotin contamination in Hong Kong's marine waters. Using the rock shell Reishia clavigera as a biomonitor, we evaluated the organotin contamination along Hong Kong's coastal waters over the past two decades (1990-2015. In 2010 and 2015, adult R. clavigera were examined for imposex status and analysed for tissue concentrations of six organotins. We consistently found 100% imposex incidence in female R. clavigera across all sites. Tissue triphenyltin (TPT concentrations were high in most samples. A probabilistic risk assessment showed that there were over 69% of chance that local R. clavigera would be at risk due to exposure to phenyltins. Comparing with those of previous surveys (2004-2010, both imposex levels and tissue concentrations of organotins did not decline, while the ecological risks due to exposure to organotins were increasing. We also observed high concentrations of monobutyltin and TPT in seawater and sediment from locations with intense shipping activities and from stormwater or sewage discharge. Overall, organotins are still prevalent in Hong Kong's marine waters showing that the global convention alone may be inadequate in reducing organotin contamination in a busy international port like Hong Kong. Appropriate management actions should be taken to control the use and release of organotins in Hong Kong and South China.

  12. Long-term ongoing impact of arsenic contamination on the environmental compartments of a former mining-metallurgy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, B; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Boente, C; Menéndez-Casares, E; Fernández-Braña, A; Gallego, J R

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are potentially toxic elements of concern for soil, surficial and ground waters, and sediments. In this work various geochemical and hydrogeological tools were used to study a paradigmatic case of the combined effects of the abandonment of Hg- and As-rich waste on these environmental compartments. Continuous weathering of over 40years has promoted As and Hg soil pollution (thousands of ppm) in the surroundings of a former Hg mining-metallurgy site and affected the water quality of a nearby river and shallow groundwater. In particular, the high availability of As both in soils and waste was identified as one of the main determinants of contaminant distribution, whereas the impact of Hg was found to be minor, which is explained by lower mobility. Furthermore, potential additional sources of pollution (coal mining, high natural backgrounds, etc.) discharging into the study river were revealed less significant than the contaminants generated in the Hg-mining area. The transport and deposition of pollutants within the water cycle has also affected several kilometres downstream of the release areas and the chemistry of stream sediments. Overall, the environmental compartments studies held considerable concentrations of Hg and As, as remarkably revealed by the average contaminant load released in the river (several tons of As per year) and the accumulation of toxic elements in sediments (enrichment factors of As and Hg above 35). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Wyoming bentonites. Evidence from the geological record to evaluate the suitability of bentonite as a buffer material during the long-term underground containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.

    2001-12-01

    In the Swedish programme for the deep, geological disposal of radioactive wastes, bentonite is planned to be used as a barrier material to reduce groundwater flow and minimise radionuclide migration into the geosphere. One of the possible threats to long-term bentonite stability is the gradual incursion of saline water into the repository confines which may reduce the swelling capacity of the bentonite, even to the extent of eliminating the positive effects of mixing bentonite into backfill materials. Important information may be obtained from the study of analogous processes in nature (i.e. natural analogue or natural system studies) where bentonite, during its formation, has been in long-term contact with reducing waters of brackish to saline character. Type bentonites include those mined from the Clay Spur bed at the top of the Cretaceous Mowry Formation in NE Wyoming and demarcated for potential use as a barrier material (e.g. MX-80 sodium bentonite) in the Swedish radioactive waste programme. This bentonite forms part of the Mowry Shale which was deposited in a southern embayment of the late Albian Western Interior Cretaceous sea (Mowry Sea). The question is whether these bentonite deposits show evidence of post-deposition alteration caused by the sea water in which they were deposited, and/or, have they been altered subsequently by contact with waters of increasing salinity? Bentonites are the product of pyroclastic fall deposits thought to be generated by the type of explosive, subaerial volcanic activity characteristic of Plinian eruptive systems. In Wyoming the overall composition of the original ash varied from dacite to rhyolite, or latite to trachyte. The ash clouds were carried to high altitudes and eastwards by the prevailing westerly winds before falling over the shallow Mowry Sea and forming thin but widespread and continuous horizons on sea floor muds and sands. Whilst bentonites were principally wind-transported, there is evidence of some water

  14. Wyoming bentonites. Evidence from the geological record to evaluate the suitability of bentonite as a buffer material during the long-term underground containment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J [Conterra AB (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    In the Swedish programme for the deep, geological disposal of radioactive wastes, bentonite is planned to be used as a barrier material to reduce groundwater flow and minimise radionuclide migration into the geosphere. One of the possible threats to long-term bentonite stability is the gradual incursion of saline water into the repository confines which may reduce the swelling capacity of the bentonite, even to the extent of eliminating the positive effects of mixing bentonite into backfill materials. Important information may be obtained from the study of analogous processes in nature (i.e. natural analogue or natural system studies) where bentonite, during its formation, has been in long-term contact with reducing waters of brackish to saline character. Type bentonites include those mined from the Clay Spur bed at the top of the Cretaceous Mowry Formation in NE Wyoming and demarcated for potential use as a barrier material (e.g. MX-80 sodium bentonite) in the Swedish radioactive waste programme. This bentonite forms part of the Mowry Shale which was deposited in a southern embayment of the late Albian Western Interior Cretaceous sea (Mowry Sea). The question is whether these bentonite deposits show evidence of post-deposition alteration caused by the sea water in which they were deposited, and/or, have they been altered subsequently by contact with waters of increasing salinity? Bentonites are the product of pyroclastic fall deposits thought to be generated by the type of explosive, subaerial volcanic activity characteristic of Plinian eruptive systems. In Wyoming the overall composition of the original ash varied from dacite to rhyolite, or latite to trachyte. The ash clouds were carried to high altitudes and eastwards by the prevailing westerly winds before falling over the shallow Mowry Sea and forming thin but widespread and continuous horizons on sea floor muds and sands. Whilst bentonites were principally wind-transported, there is evidence of some water

  15. Phytoremediation options for radioactively contaminated sites evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of the most important site and environmental radioactive contamination problems encountered. ► The potential role of different phytomanagement options is discussed and illustrated with examples. ► The phytomanagement options considered are: soil phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, wetlands and alternative land use. - Abstract: The application of nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for industrial, medical and research purposes have caused significant contamination of certain sites and their environment, which could result in health problems for several centuries if nothing is undertaken to remedy these situations. Except for the immediate environment of the facility, where decontamination activities may be feasible and affordable, the contamination often extents over a vast area and decontamination would be costly and could result in vast amounts of waste. Therefore, more realistic yet efficient remediation options should be searched for of which phytomanagement is among the potential options. A number of phytomanagement approaches will be discussed

  16. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  17. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  18. Criteria for the designation of radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titley, J.; Mobbs, S.; Burgess, P.; Hitchins, G.; Sinclair, P.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the criteria for the designation of radioactively contaminated land. It should be read in conjunction with reference to another output from the project i.e. Environment Agency report, Technical Support Material for the Regulation of Radioactively Contaminated Land 1999. This report deals with the intervention on radioactively contaminated sites i.e. where no change of land use is anticipated and where the land has become contaminated as a result of previous land use and not current practices. (author)

  19. Identification and understanding the factors affecting the public and political acceptance of long term storage of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorea, Valica

    2006-01-01

    In the end of 2004, according to the information available to the IAEA, there were 440 nuclear reactors operating worldwide, with a total net capacity of 366.3 GW(e), 6 of them being connected to the grid in 2004 ( 2 in Ukraine, one each in China, Japan and the Russian Federation and a reconnection in Canada) by comparison with 2 connections and 2 re-connections in 2003. Also, in the end of 2004, 26 nuclear power plants were under construction with a total net capacity of 20.8 GW(e). The conclusion accepted by common consent is that the nuclear power is still in progress and represents one of the options for power security on long and middle term. If we refer to the nuclear fusion which will produce commercial electric power, over 30 - 40 years, in practically unlimited quantities, the above underlining becomes even more evident. Fortunately, besides the beneficent characteristics, such as: clean, stable as engendering and price, has also a negative characteristic, which generally breathes fear into the people: radioactive waste. A classification of the radioactive waste is not the target of this presentation. I just want to point that a nuclear power plant produces during the time spent fuel - long life high radioactive, generating heat. Another high radioactive waste have similar characteristics (HLW = High Level Waste) for which reason these two categories of wastes are treated together. The spent fuel and the High Level Waste are interim stored for cooling, for around 50 years, afterwards it is transferred to the final repository where it will be kept for hundreds of years, in the case of an open fuel cycle and this is also the case of Cernavoda NPP. Taking into consideration that the Cernavoda Unit 1 reaches the age of 10 years of commercial running during December 2006, it results that the issue of the final disposal is not such urgent as it looks. The objectives of long term management of radioactive waste are public health and protection of the environment

  20. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  1. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  2. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  3. Global change effects on the long-term feeding ecology and contaminant exposures of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Arts, Michael T; Born, Erik W; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Dietz, Rune

    2013-08-01

    Rapid climate changes are occurring in the Arctic, with substantial repercussions for arctic ecosystems. It is challenging to assess ecosystem changes in remote polar environments, but one successful approach has entailed monitoring the diets of upper trophic level consumers. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) and fatty acid carbon isotope (δ(13) C-FA) patterns were used to assess diets of East Greenland (EG) polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 310) over the past three decades. QFASA-generated diet estimates indicated that, on average, EG bears mainly consumed arctic ringed seals (47.5 ± 2.1%), migratory subarctic harp (30.6 ± 1.5%) and hooded (16.7 ± 1.3%) seals and rarely, if ever, consumed bearded seals, narwhals or walruses. Ringed seal consumption declined by 14%/decade over 28 years (90.1 ± 2.5% in 1984 to 33.9 ± 11.1% in 2011). Hooded seal consumption increased by 9.5%/decade (0.0 ± 0.0% in 1984 to 25.9 ± 9.1% in 2011). This increase may include harp seal, since hooded and harp seal FA signatures were not as well differentiated relative to other prey species. Declining δ(13) C-FA ratios supported shifts from more nearshore/benthic/ice-associated prey to more offshore/pelagic/open-water-associated prey, consistent with diet estimates. Increased hooded seal and decreased ringed seal consumption occurred during years when the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was lower. Thus, periods with warmer temperatures and less sea ice were associated with more subarctic and less arctic seal species consumption. These changes in the relative abundance, accessibility, or distribution of arctic and subarctic marine mammals may have health consequences for EG polar bears. For example, the diet change resulted in consistently slower temporal declines in adipose levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants, as the subarctic seals have higher contaminant burdens than arctic seals. Overall, considerable changes are occurring in the EG

  4. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering

  5. Long-Term Survey of Cadmium and Lead Contamination in Japanese Black Bears Captured in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidney samples of 242 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) captured from 1999 to 2014 from two local populations in Japan. The median concentration of cadmium was 0.54 (mean: 0.80) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and 7.7 (mean: 11.8) mg/kg-w.w. in kidney. The median concentration of lead was 0.24 (mean: 0.40) and 0.21 (mean: 0.32) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and kidney, respectively. Bears in the Kita-ou local population had higher concentrations of cadmium and lead than those in the Kitakami Highlands local population. No chronological change was observed in cadmium levels in tissues, but the percentage of bears whose lead levels exceeded 0.5 mg/kg-w.w. has been decreasing in recent years. Countermeasures against lead poisoning in wildlife, which were instituted in 2002, may have contributed to the decrease in lead contamination of the Japanese black bear.

  6. Influence of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) on rhizosphere soil solution chemistry in long-term contaminated soils: a rhizobox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary; Kwon, Soon-lk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) root exudation on soil solution properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), metal solubility) in the rhizosphere using a rhizobox. Measurement was conducted following the cultivation of Indian mustard in the rhizobox filled four different types of heavy metal contaminated soils (two alkaline soils and two acidic soils). The growth of Indian mustard resulted in a significant increase (by 0.6 pH units) in rhizosphere soil solution pH of acidic soils and only a slight increase (soil solution varied considerably amongst different soils, resulting in significant changes to soil solution metals in the rhizosphere. For example, the soil solution Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased in the rhizosphere of alkaline soils compared to bulk soil following plant cultivation. In contrast, the soluble concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in acidic soils decreased in rhizosphere soil when compared to bulk soils. Besides the influence of pH and DOC on metal solubility, the increase of heavy metal concentration having high stability constant such as Cu and Pb resulted in a release of Cd and Zn from solid phase to liquid phase.

  7. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The 137 Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 131 I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of 137 Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting radionuclides

  8. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  9. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69... Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects evidence that a sealed source has ruptured or licensed materials have caused contamination, the licensee...

  10. The consequences of radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglova, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of forests on the radionuclide primary distribution in different components of the contaminated ecosystems is considered by the example of Chernobyl accident. A basic mathematical model is developed describing 137 Cs biogeochemical cycling under conditions of quasi-steady state radionuclide redistribution in the ecosystem. Forest ecosystems are proved to diminish radionuclide migration in the environment, and forest should be regarded as an important sanitary factor. The contribution of contaminated forests and forest products to the total irradiation dose to local population is estimated. Special countermeasures are elaborated in order to diminish unfavorable consequences of forest radioactive contamination. A long-term dynamics of radioactive situation in the forest ecosystems in forecasted and further studies on the subject are drafted

  11. Long-Term Monitoring of PAH Contamination in Sediment and Recovery After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 10,900 t of crude oil was released 10 km off the west coast of Korea after the collision between the oil tanker Hebei Spirit and a barge carrying a crane in December 2007. To assess the areal extent and temporal trends of PAH contamination, 428 sediment samples were collected from December 2007 through May 2015 for PAH analysis. Sedimentary PAH concentrations measured immediately after the spill ranged from 3.2 to 71,200 ng g -1 , with a mean of 3800 ng g -1 . Increases in PAH concentrations were observed at stations 7-23, which were heavily oiled due to tidal currents and northwesterly wind that transported the spilled oil to these locations. Mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased drastically from 3800 to 88.5 and 71,200 to 1700 ng g -1 , respectively, 4 months after the spill. PAH concentrations highly fluctuated until September 2008 and then decreased slowly to background levels. Reduction rate was much faster at the sandy beaches (k = 0.016) than in the muddy sites (k = 0.001). In muddy sediments, low attenuation due to low flushing rate in the mostly anaerobic sediment possibly contributed the persistence of PAHs. By May 2015 (~7.5 years after the spill), mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased by 54 and 481 times, respectively, compared with the peak concentrations. The sedimentary PAH concentrations in the monitoring area have returned to regional background levels.

  12. Long-term management of liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The statement assesses and compares environmental implications of possible alternatives for long-term management of the liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. Four basic alternatives, as well as options within these alternatives, have been considered in the EIS: (1) onsite processing to a terminal waste form for shipment and disposal in a federal repository (the preferred alternative); (2) onsite conversion to a solid interim form for shipment to a federal waste facility for later processing to a terminal form and shipment and subsequent disposal in a federal repository; (3) mixing the liquid wastes with cement and other additives, pouring it back into the existing tanks, and leaving onsite; and (4) no action (continued storage of the wastes in liquid form in the underground tanks at West Valley). Mitigative measures for environmental impacts have been considered for all alternatives. No significant stresses on supplies or irreversible and irretrievable resources are anticipated, and no scarce resource would be required

  13. A risk-informed approach of quantification of epistemic uncertainty for the long-term radioactive waste disposal. Improving reliability of expert judgements with an advanced elicitation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Chida, Taiji; Fujita, Tomonari; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    A quantification methodology of epistemic uncertainty by expert judgement based on the risk-informed approach is developed to assess inevitable uncertainty for the long-term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The proposed method in this study employs techniques of logic tree, by which options of models and/or scenarios are identified, and Evidential Support Logic (ESL), by which possibility of each option is quantified. In this report, the effect of a feedback process of discussion between experts and input of state-of-the-art knowledge in the proposed method is discussed to estimate alteration of the distribution of expert judgements which is one of the factors causing uncertainty. In a preliminary quantification experiment of uncertainty of degradation of the engineering barrier materials in a tentative sub-surface disposal using the proposed methodology, experts themselves modified questions appropriately to facilitate sound judgements and to correlate those with scientific evidences clearly. The result suggests that the method effectively improves confidence of expert judgement. Also, the degree of consensus of expert judgement was sort of improved in some cases, since scientific knowledge and information of expert judgement in other fields became common understanding. It is suggested that the proposed method could facilitate consensus on uncertainty between interested persons. (author)

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Long-Term Change in Contamination Hazards and Shallow Well Quality in Two Neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Okotto-Okotto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing rapid urbanisation and many urban residents use groundwater where piped supplies are intermittent or unavailable. This study aimed to investigate long-term changes in groundwater contamination hazards and hand-dug well water quality in two informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya. Buildings, pit latrines, and wells were mapped in 1999 and 2013–2014. Sanitary risk inspection and water quality testing were conducted at 51 hand-dug wells in 2002 to 2004 and 2014. Pit latrine density increased between 1999 and 2014, whilst sanitary risk scores for wells increased between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 (n = 37, Z = −1.98, p = 0.048. Nitrate levels dropped from 2004 to 2014 (n = 14, Z = −3.296, p = 0.001, but multivariate analysis suggested high rainfall in 2004 could account for this. Thermotolerant coliform counts dropped between 2004 and 2014, with this reduction significant in one settlement. Hand-dug wells had thus remained an important source of domestic water between 1999 and 2014, but contamination risks increased over this period. Water quality trends were complex, but nitrate levels were related to both sanitary risks and rainfall. Given widespread groundwater use by the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, the study protocol could be further refined to monitor contamination in hand-dug wells in similar settings.

  15. A longitudinal study of long-term change in contamination hazards and shallow well quality in two neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okotto-Okotto, Joseph; Okotto, Lorna; Price, Heather; Pedley, Steve; Wright, Jim

    2015-04-17

    Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing rapid urbanisation and many urban residents use groundwater where piped supplies are intermittent or unavailable. This study aimed to investigate long-term changes in groundwater contamination hazards and hand-dug well water quality in two informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya. Buildings, pit latrines, and wells were mapped in 1999 and 2013-2014. Sanitary risk inspection and water quality testing were conducted at 51 hand-dug wells in 2002 to 2004 and 2014. Pit latrine density increased between 1999 and 2014, whilst sanitary risk scores for wells increased between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 (n = 37, Z = -1.98, p = 0.048). Nitrate levels dropped from 2004 to 2014 (n = 14, Z = -3.296, p = 0.001), but multivariate analysis suggested high rainfall in 2004 could account for this. Thermotolerant coliform counts dropped between 2004 and 2014, with this reduction significant in one settlement. Hand-dug wells had thus remained an important source of domestic water between 1999 and 2014, but contamination risks increased over this period. Water quality trends were complex, but nitrate levels were related to both sanitary risks and rainfall. Given widespread groundwater use by the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, the study protocol could be further refined to monitor contamination in hand-dug wells in similar settings.

  16. ICRP Publication 111 - Application of the Commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochard, J; Bogdevitch, I; Gallego, E; Hedemann-Jensen, P; McEwan, A; Nisbet, A; Oudiz, A; Oudiz, T; Strand, P; Janssens, A; Lazo, T; Carr, Z; Sugier, A; Burns, P; Carboneras, P; Cool, D; Cooper, J; Kai, M; Lecomte, J-F; Liu, H; Massera, G; McGarry, A; Mrabit, K; Mrabit, M; Sjöblom, K-L; Tsela, A; Weiss, W

    2009-06-01

    In this report, the Commission provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas resulting from either a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency. The report considers the effects of such events on the affected population. This includes the pathways of human exposure, the types of exposed populations, and the characteristics of exposures. Although the focus is on radiation protection considerations, the report also recognises the complexity of post-accident situations, which cannot be managed without addressing all the affected domains of daily life, i.e. environmental, health, economic, social, psychological, cultural, ethical, political, etc. The report explains how the 2007 Recommendations apply to this type of existing exposure situation, including consideration of the justification and optimisation of protection strategies, and the introduction and application of a reference level to drive the optimisation process. The report also considers practical aspects of the implementation of protection strategies, both by authorities and the affected population. It emphasises the effectiveness of directly involving the affected population and local professionals in the management of the situation, and the responsibility of authorities at both national and local levels to create the conditions and provide the means favouring the involvement and empowerment of the population. The role of radiation monitoring, health surveillance, and the management of contaminated foodstuffs and other commodities is described in this perspective. The Annex summarises past experience of longterm contaminated areas resulting from radiation emergencies and nuclear accidents, including radiological criteria followed in carrying out remediation measures.

  17. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for Amchitka Island, Alaska, is to obtain data that will assure the public safety, inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination, and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. Amchitka's geographical setting, climate, geology, hydrology, and ecology are described. Site history including event information for LONG SHOT in 1965, MILROW in 1969, and CANNIKIN in 1971 is described. Event related contamination has been observed only at the LONG SHOT site. At this site, tritium in concentrations below the drinking water standards has been observed in mud pits and wells in the area adjacent to surface ground zero. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for Amchitka is described. No radioactive venting, significant radioactive leakage, or bioenvironmental damage resulted from any of the nuclear tests on Amchitka

  18. Long-term impact of biochar on the revegetation and mobility of Ni and Zn in an industrial contaminated site soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhengtao; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a promising material in soil remediation for its multiple benefits in sustainable development, greening and carbon storage in addition to immobilising heavy metals and organic contaminants. However, its long-term performance in immobilising heavy metals has not been well investigated yet. In this research, a British hardwood biochar accompanied by a small amount of compost was employed in an industrial contaminated site in UK in 2011. A following three-year study was conducted to explore the impact of biochar on the revegetation of the trial pits, as well as the mobility of Ni and Zn in the soils. The revegetation on site failed, and the further laboratory incubation tests indicate that the failure was due to the insufficient addition of biochar and compost. The three-year carbonic acid leaching results of the treated soils reveal a reduction of Ni and Zn concentrations in the leachates along the time. The total metal tests and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) on the third-year samples confirm that biochar can significantly reduce the mobility of Ni and Zn in the soils in the long term. Further, a quantitatively chemical method defined as "sequential extraction", which differentiates from the qualitative methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopies, was conducted to explore the interaction among heavy metals, biochar and soil. The results of the sequential extraction tests on the third-year samples indicate that Ni and Zn were mainly bound to Fe-Mn oxides and primary and secondary soil minerals, which had been enhanced by biochar addition. The findings in this research indicates that biochar rather than compost played the major role in immobilising Ni and Zn, and 0.5% (in w/w) addition of biochar was sufficient in practice. It also confirms the good performance of biochar in immobilising Ni and Zn in soils in the long term, and supports the potential large-scale application of biochar in soil remediation

  19. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites; Contamination radioactive, quelles actions pour les sites pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  20. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Natural attenuation of TCE under aerobic conditions at the INEEL Test Area North site was demonstrated largely on the basis of preferential loss of TCE relative to conservative solutes (PCE and H-3) along groundwater flow paths. First order degradation half-lives were calculated from the rate of preferential TCE loss. We are utilizing the same approach at other DOE sites that have aerobic TCE plumes to determine if aerobic natural attenuation of TCE is rapid enough at these sites to be environmentally significant, i.e. if natural attenuation can reduce concentrations to acceptable levels before groundwater reaches potential receptors. The first step in this process was to identify TCE plumes at DOE sites that have the appropriate site conditions and data needed to perform this analysis. The site conditions include the presence of TCE in groundwater at appreciable concentrations in an aerobic aquifer, a co-mingled contaminant that can be used as a conservative tracer (e.g. PCE, H-3, Tc-99), a flow path that represents at least a decade of travel time, and several monitoring wells located along this flow path. Candidate sites were identified through interviews with knowledgeable individuals in the DOE system and by screening the U.S. Dept. of Energy Groundwater Database using the keywords ''TCE'' and ''groundwater''. The initial screening yielded 25 plumes for consideration. These sites had anywhere from one to 37 individual plumes containing TCE. Of the 25 sites, 13 sites were further evaluated because they met the screening criteria or were promising. After contacting DOE personnel from the respective sites, they were divided into three groups: (1) sites that meet all the project criteria, (2) sites that could potentially be used for the project, and (3) DOE sites that did not meet the criteria. The five sites with plumes that met the criteria were: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats

  1. Combining Modeling and Monitoring to Produce a New Paradigm of an Integrated Approach to Providing Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwell, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    Sir David King, Chief Science Advisor to the British government and Cambridge University Professor, stated in October 2005, "The scientific community is considerably more capable than it has been in the past to assist governments to avoid and reduce risk to their own populations. Prime ministers and presidents ignore the advice from the science community at the peril of their own populations." Some of these greater capabilities can be found in better monitoring techniques applied to better modeling methods. These modeling methods can be combined with the information derived from monitoring data in order to decrease the risk of population exposure to dangerous substances and to promote efficient control or cleanup of the contaminants. An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are

  2. Using spatial-stream-network models and long-term data to understand and predict dynamics of faecal contamination in a mixed land-use catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Aaron James; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Strachan, Norval James Colin; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Avery, Lisa Marie; Watson, Helen; Soulsby, Chris

    2018-01-15

    An 11year dataset of concentrations of E. coli at 10 spatially-distributed sites in a mixed land-use catchment in NE Scotland (52km 2 ) revealed that concentrations were not clearly associated with flow or season. The lack of a clear flow-concentration relationship may have been due to greater water fluxes from less-contaminated headwaters during high flows diluting downstream concentrations, the importance of persistent point sources of E. coli both anthropogenic and agricultural, and possibly the temporal resolution of the dataset. Point sources and year-round grazing of livestock probably obscured clear seasonality in concentrations. Multiple linear regression models identified potential for contamination by anthropogenic point sources as a significant predictor of long-term spatial patterns of low, average and high concentrations of E. coli. Neither arable nor pasture land was significant, even when accounting for hydrological connectivity with a topographic-index method. However, this may have reflected coarse-scale land-cover data inadequately representing "point sources" of agricultural contamination (e.g. direct defecation of livestock into the stream) and temporal changes in availability of E. coli from diffuse sources. Spatial-stream-network models (SSNMs) were applied in a novel context, and had value in making more robust catchment-scale predictions of concentrations of E. coli with estimates of uncertainty, and in enabling identification of potential "hot spots" of faecal contamination. Successfully managing faecal contamination of surface waters is vital for safeguarding public health. Our finding that concentrations of E. coli could not clearly be associated with flow or season may suggest that management strategies should not necessarily target only high flow events or summer when faecal contamination risk is often assumed to be greatest. Furthermore, we identified SSNMs as valuable tools for identifying possible "hot spots" of contamination which

  3. The role of diet on long-term concentration and pattern trends of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in western Hudson Bay polar bears, 1991-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Stirling, Ian; Lunn, Nick J.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Letcher, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue was sampled from the western Hudson Bay (WHB) subpopulation of polar bears at intervals from 1991 to 2007 to examine temporal trends of PCB and OCP levels both on an individual and sum-(Σ-)contaminant basis. We also determined levels and temporal trends of emerging polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and other current-use brominated flame retardants. Over the 17-year period, Σ DDT (and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT) decreased (-8.4%/year); α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) decreased (-11%/year); β-HCH increased (+ 8.3%/year); and Σ PCB and Σ chlordane (CHL), both contaminants at highest concentrations in all years (> 1 ppm), showed no distinct trends even when compared to previous data for this subpopulation dating back to 1968. Some of the less persistent PCB congeners decreased significantly (-1.6%/year to -6.3%/year), whereas CB153 levels tended to increase (+ 3.3%/year). Parent CHLs (c-nonachlor, t-nonachlor) declined, whereas non-monotonic trends were detected for metabolites (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane). Σ chlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, Σ mirex, Σ MeSO 2 -PCB and dieldrin did not significantly change. Increasing Σ PBDE levels (+ 13%/year) matched increases in the four consistently detected congeners, BDE47, BDE99, BDE100 and BDE153. Although no trend was observed, total-(α)-HBCD was only detected post-2000. Levels of the highest concentration brominated contaminant, BB153, showed no temporal change. As long-term ecosystem changes affecting contaminant levels may also affect contaminant patterns, we examined the influence of year (i.e., aging or 'weathering' of the contaminant pattern), dietary tracers (carbon stable isotope ratios, fatty acid patterns) and biological (age/sex) group on congener/metabolite profiles. Patterns of PCBs, CHLs and PBDEs were correlated with dietary tracers and biological group, but only PCB and CHL patterns were correlated with year

  4. Packaging and transportation of radioactively contaminated lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, Eugene; Holden, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Under the management of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) the government of the United Kingdom has launched an ambitious program to remediate the nation's nuclear waste legacy. Over a twenty-five year period NDA plans to decommission several first generation nuclear power plants and other radioactive facilities. The use innovative, safe 'fit for purpose' technologies will be a major part of this complex program. This paper will present a case study of a recently completed project undertaken in support of the nuclear decommissioning activities at the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom. The focus is on an innovative application of new packaging technology developed for the safe transportation of radioactively contaminated lead objects. Several companies collaborated on the project and contributed to its safe and successful conclusion. These companies include British Nuclear Group, Gravatom Engineering, W. F. Bowker Transport, Atlantic Container Lines, MHF Logistical Solutions and Energy Solutions. New containers and a new innovative inter-modal packaging system to transport the radioactive lead were developed and demonstrated during the project. The project also demonstrated the potential contribution of international nuclear recycling activities as a safe, economic and feasible technical option for nuclear decommissioning in the United Kingdom. (authors)

  5. Review of the seismic risk in the design of civil engineering of nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes; Prise en compte du risque sismique a la conception des ouvrages de genie civil d'installations nucleaires de base a l'exception des stockages a long terme des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This guide aims to define, for the nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes, from site data, the design specifications of earthquake resistant civil engineering and the possible methods for: the determination of the seismic response of the buildings, taking into account the interactions with the materials and the evaluation of the associated strains to size the installation; the determination of seismic displacements to be considered to size the materials. (A.L.B.)

  6. Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Naghiyev, J.A.; Samadov, P.A.

    2010-11-01

    Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

  7. Radioactive contamination in the Arctic - Present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In 1991, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (author)

  8. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented 137 Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (T e ) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot T e was nearly four times longer than T e for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. T e could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.

    2007-11-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

  10. Research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Progress report for fiscal years 2005-2009: H22 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Tomohiro; Asamori, Koichi; Kurosawa, Hideki; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Negi, Tateyuki; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Yamasaki, Seiko; Yamada, Kunimi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji

    2011-01-01

    This progress report (H22 Report) documents progress made during JAEA 1st Midterm Plan (FY 2005 - 2009) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. For the current 5-year R and D programme, three major goals have been defined as follows: 1) development and systematization of investigation techniques for selecting suitable sites in geosphere stability, 2) development, application and verification of prediction models for evaluating the changes of geological environment in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical conditions for a long period of time, and 3) development of new dating techniques for providing information about geologic history and the timing of geologic events. For investigation techniques, an extracting technique of active faults with weak surface expressions by LiDAR, an integrated approach combining geophysical and geochemical methods for detecting crustal magma storage and an estimating method for uplift rates in an inland area using relative heights of fluvial terraces have been made. A numerical simulation code for predicting landform evolution in the next 100,000 years, and incorporating models of geophysical processes directly into probabilistic assessments for renewed volcanism using Bayesian inference (multiple inference model) have been prepared for prediction models. Improvement of AMS system for 14 C dating was conducted in order to precisely determine isotopic compositions. (U-Th)/He and K-Ar dating systems were also installed at Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) for determining the production age of fault gouge and precipitated within open fractures. In this paper, the current status of R and D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized. (author)

  11. Dry corrosion prediction of radioactive waste containers in long term interim storage: mechanisms of low temperature oxidation of pure iron and numerical simulation of an oxide scale growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, N.

    2006-10-01

    In the framework of research on long term behaviour of radioactive waste containers, this work consists on the one hand in the study of low temperature oxidation of iron and on the other hand in the development of a numerical model of oxide scale growth. Isothermal oxidation experiments are performed on pure iron at 300 and 400 C in dry and humid air at atmospheric pressure. Oxide scales formed in these conditions are characterized. They are composed of a duplex magnetite scale under a thin hematite scale. The inner layer of the duplex scale is thinner than the outer one. Both are composed of columnar grains, that are smaller in the inner part. The outer hematite layer is made of very small equiaxed grains. Markers and tracers experiments show that a part of the scale grows at metal/oxide interface thanks to short-circuits diffusion of oxygen. A model for iron oxide scale growth at low temperature is then deduced. Besides this experimental study, the numerical model EKINOX (Estimation Kinetics Oxidation) is developed. It allows to simulate the growth of an oxide scale controlled by mixed mechanisms, such as anionic and cationic vacancies diffusion through the scale, as well as metal transfer at metal/oxide interface. It is based on the calculation of concentration profiles of chemical species and also point defects in the oxide scale and in the substrate. This numerical model does not use the classical quasi-steady-state approximation and calculates the future of cationic vacancies at metal/oxide interface. Indeed, these point defects can either be eliminated by interface motion or injected in the substrate, where they can be annihilated, considering sinks as the climb of dislocations. Hence, the influence of substrate cold-work can be investigated. The EKINOX model is validated in the conditions of Wagner's theory and is confronted with experimental results by its application to the case of high temperature oxidation of nickel. (author)

  12. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the process for formulation of future policy for the long term management of UK solid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This report sets out the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's (RWMAC's) view of the way in which policy for the long-term management of the United Kingdom's (UK's) solid radioactive waste should be developed. It does not cover subsequent policy implementation stages, which will need to be the subject of separate consideration. It is RWMAC's view that 'do nothing' or 'decide-announce-defend' approaches to policy formulation are inappropriate, and what is needed is a consensus-building approach involving full and open discussion of the issues. Such an approach now offers the best chance of identifying a policy that can ultimately be delivered. This process must be founded on a set of clear guiding principles. These should be: provision of adequate time for exploration and resolution of complex issues; early involvement of the public and other stakeholders; openness and transparency; a deliberative and accessible process in decision-making; and commitment to appropriate peer review of scientific and other expert input. The issue of equity, that is the extent to which both the process for deciding policy and the policy itself are generally perceived and accepted to be fair, will also need to be explored. The process should provide for all the practicable options for the long-term management of the UK's radioactive waste to be assessed against a set of common evaluation criteria. Both the list of practicable options and the criteria against which they are evaluated should be developed through a process of open discussion.

  13. The changes in the ecology and physiology of soil invertebrates under influences of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.

    2006-01-01

    The soil biota is important in building and maintaining soil structure and fertility. Invertebrates are ideal as potential bio indicators of the environmental impact of radioactive contamination: they are widely distributed, often abundant and generally thought of as having low dispersive capacity. They can use as test organisms to detect the side-effects of radioactive contamination. The long-term analysis of ecological and physiological after-effects and biodiversity changes had been studied in the zone of radioactive contamination. Material was collected in the Gomel Region (Belarus), 30 km away from the CNPP in 1986-2004 applying usual pedobiological techniques (soil samples and Barber's pitfall traps) at reference points subjected to radioactive contamination. Soil samples were collected at 0 to 25 cm depth. Samples were taken in locations, which had received considerable radionuclide contaminations. These sites differed in contamination by the composition of fall-out, the forms of radionuclide content in soils, their intake into trophic chains and accumulation in animal and plant organisms. The impacts have been investigated at the: 1) organism and population levels , in terms of individual life histories (birth rate, growth, mortality) or species selection; 2) at the community level: to species diversity and to effects on trophic structure. The invertebrates were determined to species or genera, including juvenile stages. Radioactive contamination caused a distinct decrease in species number; the dominance structure of the community changed. The saprophagous are especially sensitive to environmental disturbances. An initial sharp reduction of animal biodiversity and simplification of the community structure of soil fauna were observed, followed by a long-term process of returning to the initial parameters. Changes in hemolymph, necroses of epithelium and cell structure in connective tissue were registered. The most drastic after-effects were manifested in

  14. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  15. Radioactive contamination of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1997-01-01

    The major source of man-made radioactivity in the oceans is derived from nuclear weapons testing fallout, which occurred mostly in the late 1950s and early 1960s. For example, 0.9 EBq of 137 Cs and 0.6 EBq of 90 Sr were introduced in this way. Only 60% of the released activity was disposed of in the oceans, rather than 70%, because the nuclear weapons testing occurred mainly in the Northern hemisphere, and the land masses cover more of the Northern hemisphere than the Southern hemisphere. There have also been other releases into the oceans; for example, the water-borne discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the UK, which occurred from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. During this decade, in the order of 40 PBq of 137 Cs was discharged into the Irish sea, and from there it was transported into the north Atlantic ocean. The third important source of radioactivity was the Chernobyl accident. Although most of this radioactivity was distributed over the land masses, about 5 PBq was deposited into the Baltic Sea and about 3 PBq into the Black Sea. The radioactive debris from Chernobyl was distributed around the Northern hemisphere, so some of the radioactivity must have been deposited in the North Atlantic ocean. There have also been a number of local contaminations of the oceans. Among these are satellite failures. For example, the SNAP-9A satellite, which burned up over the South Atlantic ocean in the early 1960s, became a major source of 238 Pu pollution. This is the reason why there is an increased 238 Pu: 239 Pu ratio, mostly in the Southern hemisphere, in global fallout. There are also a number of nuclear submarines on the bottom of the sea; for example, the American Thresher submarine in the Atlantic ocean and the Comsomolets submarine in the Norwegian-Barents sea. Furthermore, there have been several accidents with nuclear weapons; for example, the Palomares accident in Spain in 1966 and the Thule accident in Greenland in 1968. Finally, nuclear

  16. The impact of indoor air quality and contaminants on respiratory health of older people living in long-term care residences in Porto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Carreiro-Martins, Pedro; Bonassi, Stefano; Caires, Iolanda; Palmeiro, Teresa; Aguiar, Lívia; Pereira, Cristiana; Neves, Paula; Mendes, Diana; Botelho, Maria Amália Silveira; Neuparth, Nuno; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    persons who are 65 years or older often spend an important part of their lives indoors thus adverse indoor climate might influence their health status. to evaluate the influence of indoor air quality and contaminants on older people's respiratory health. cross-sectional study. 21 long-term care residences (LTC) in the city of Porto, Portugal. older people living in LTC with ≥65 years old. the Portuguese version of BOLD questionnaire was administered by an interviewer to older residents able to participate (n = 143). Indoor air contaminants (IAC) were measured twice, during winter and summer in 135 areas. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to study the association between the health questionnaire results and the monitored IAC, adjusted for age, smoking habits, gender and number of years living in the LTC. cough (23%) and sputum (12%) were the major respiratory symptoms, and allergic rhinitis (22%) the main self-reported illness. Overall particulate matter up to 2.5 micrometres in size median concentration was above the reference levels both in winter and summer seasons. Peak values of particulate matter up to 10 micrometres in size (PM10), total volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi exceeded the reference levels. Older people exposed to PM10 above the reference levels demonstrated higher odds of allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-7.2). high levels of PM10 were associated with 3-fold odds of allergic rhinitis. No association was found between indoor air chemical and biological contaminants and respiratory symptoms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maderich, V.; Bezhenar, R.; Heling, R.; With, G. de; Jung, K.T.; Myoung, J.G.; Cho, Y.-K.; Qiao, F.; Robertson, L.

    2014-01-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945–2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011–2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from 137 Cs data for the period 1945–2010. Calculated concentrations of 137 Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y −1 is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of 137 Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y −1 . Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  18. Radioactive contamination at Chelyabinsk-65, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.B.; Norris, R.S.; Suokko, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    As a consequence of poor waste management practices at Chelyabinsk-65, primarily during the first two decades of operations, the site and its surroundings were extensively contaminated, and thousands of people were unknowingly exposed to excessive levels of radiation. In terms of human health consequences, most of the damage has already been inflicted. Nevertheless, containment of the residual radioactivity in high-level waste tanks, in the reservoirs along the Techa River, and in and below Lake Karachay represents expensive challenges for which the best, or even adequate solutions, have yet to be devised. Russian scientists have the knowledge to address these problems, but lack practical experience with contemporary waste management practices. Western expertise could be helpful in quantifying the extent of the problems and devising solutions. However, the real challenge will be to mobilize the economic resources for effective cleanup at Chelyabinsk-65 in light of all the other economic and environmental problems Russia faces. 81 refs

  19. The role of national system of radiological survey in short, intermediate and long term monitoring the environment radioactivity and health status in uranium industry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Alina; Milu, C.

    2000-01-01

    The environment radioactivity survey in Romania is performed by CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) national network. The health status survey of population is carried out by national network of Health Ministry which comprises 23 laboratories. The tasks of the these networks are the following: assessment of natural and artificial irradiation of occupationally exposed personnel and population, as well as goods used by them; determination of population irradiation, survey of environment, food and human internal contamination; survey of health status of the population exposed to radiation, monitoring the medical checkups of the occupationally exposed personnel as well as their dosimetric monitoring; specific enactment, authorization and supervision of nuclear facilities, sanitary expertise and medical examinations; educational activities related to hygiene, radiotoxicology, radioecology and radiobiology. (authors)

  20. The development of technologies for the long-term containment of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes into geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    In the humid eastern half of the country, the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes has evolved from the use of shallow, sanitary landfill type, excavations to current plans for the complete containment of long half-life radionuclides in large-diameter boreholes and other excavations in the deeper subsurface. In general, the aim of current procedures and regulations is to prevent the migration of contaminants into groundwaters. For the short half-life materials, burials may be accommodated in lined and capped trenches along with ''tumulus'' or concrete encased structures that would ensure containment for a few tens of years to perhaps several hundreds of years. The greatest interest though is planned where new and emerging technologies are being developed to emplace special and long half-life wastes into geologic formations at moderate to deep depths for complete containment for periods of thousands of years. 7 refs., 2 figs

  1. Sources of radioactive contamination inside houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    People may be exposed at home to multiple sources of nuclear radiation such as gamma, beta and alpha rays emitters. House atmosphere is polluted with nuclear radiation from water pollutants and rocks used in the construction. Radon is the only radioactive non-metallic element. Environmental organizations estimated that all houses contain varying concentrations of radon gas, and the residents are exposed to levels of radon over the years. The source of radon in houses is uranium, which may be found in rocks of the house, soil of the garden, water of the deep artesian wells and building materials, especially granite rocks. Breathing air that contains high levels of radon causes lung cancer. Radon is the second cause of lung disease after smoking. There are many means to reduce house pollution including: utilisation of air filters to remove contaminated dust particles, keep residential areas away from the establishments that use nuclear technology or embedded by nuclear waste, avoid using materials made from asbestos in construction works and proper use and disposal of chemicals and medicines containing radioactive isotopes. (author)

  2. The Evolving Image and Role of the Regulator in Societal Decision Making for the Long-term Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Carmen Ruiz; Pescatore, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Institutions involved in long-term management of radioactive waste are facing a rapidly evolving environment stemming from societal changes, the new information technology, new roles for media, etc. This is taking place at the same time as some national programmes are in transition from research and development to site selection and implementation of a repository, whilst others are reviewing and defining their policies in the waste management area. As in many environmental areas, a demand for public participation in decision-making leads to a need for new approaches to involving stakeholders. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) has identified Public Perception and Confidence as one of the strategic areas where progress would be of most benefit to the further development of radioactive waste management programmes. The Committee intends to promote common understanding amongst its institutional members and provide bases for enhanced dialogue amongst all interested parties. In this light, the RWMC launched the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC). The FSC is intended to keep under review the worldwide experience of its participating organisations in outreach programs, to identify and examine stakeholder confidence issues, to distil the lessons that can be learnt and to help prepare the dialogue across institutional and non-institutional boundaries. The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) has carried out an intense and fruitful activity since its inauguration in August 2000. The alternation of workshops with FSC plenary meetings to analyse the lessons learnt has proved to be highly efficient, providing: A wide range of views by stakeholders, including implementers, regulators, policy makers, representatives of municipalities, oversight bodies, academics, and NGOs. A productive interaction between technical experts and experts in social sciences. Culture, politics, and history vary from country to country, providing differing contexts for

  3. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  4. Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.; Roberts, R.; Phillips, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department's remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials

  5. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderich, V; Bezhenar, R; Heling, R; de With, G; Jung, K T; Myoung, J G; Cho, Y-K; Qiao, F; Robertson, L

    2014-05-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from (137)Cs data for the period 1945-2010. Calculated concentrations of (137)Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y(-1) is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of (137)Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y(-1). Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  6. Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets: implications for plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Hoh, Eunha; Hentschel, Brian T; Kaye, Shawn

    2013-02-05

    Concerns regarding marine plastic pollution and its affinity for chemical pollutants led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and organic contaminants in an urban bay. At five locations in San Diego Bay, CA, we measured sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) throughout a 12-month period to the five most common types of mass-produced plastic: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP). During this long-term field experiment, sorption rates and concentrations of PCBs and PAHs varied significantly among plastic types and among locations. Our data suggest that for PAHs and PCBs, PET and PVC reach equilibrium in the marine environment much faster than HDPE, LDPE, and PP. Most importantly, concentrations of PAHs and PCBs sorbed to HDPE, LDPE, and PP were consistently much greater than concentrations sorbed to PET and PVC. These data imply that products made from HDPE, LDPE, and PP pose a greater risk than products made from PET and PVC of concentrating these hazardous chemicals onto fragmented plastic debris ingested by marine animals.

  7. Calculation of Radioactivity Concentration on Cover Depth of Contaminated Zone for Self-Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Daeseo; Sung, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Ilgook; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We have a lot of uranium contaminated soil and concrete wastes owing to dismantlement of uranium conversion facility. There are several radioactive material disposal methods such as regulation exemption, decontamination and long term storage. It is necessary for us to perform permanent disposal of these wastes. To acquire radiation dose under self-disposal from them, the study on decontamination of some uranium contaminated soil and concrete wastes was performed using electrokinectic-electrodialytic. In this study, we evaluated radiation dose on the cover depth of contaminated zone from the wastes under radiation dose limit using RESRAD Version 6.5. At first, the calculation of the radiation dose on the wastes of contaminated zone are carried out. The second, the cover depth of contaminated zone are analyzed. The application to self-disposal of contaminated zone are also analyzed. To acquire radiation dose under self-disposal from uranium contaminated soil and concrete wastes, we decontaminated some uranium contaminated soil and concrete wastes using electrokinectic-electrodialytic. To perform self-disposal of the quantity (30,000kg) of contaminated zone, the calculating conditions for radiation dose on the cover depth of contaminated zone are as follows. The area of contaminated zone is 10m{sup 2}. The thickness of contaminated zone is 2 m. The cover depth of contaminated zone are analyzed. The application to self-disposal of contaminated zone are also analyzed. Therefore, as the cover depth increases, the uranium concentration has an increasing trend. It realize that the cover depth of contaminated zone is adequate < 2m at the quantity(30,000kg) of contaminated zone. As the cover depth increases, the uranium concentration has a decreasing trend. As the cover depth increases, the radiation dose(residents) has also a decreasing trend.

  8. Influence of radioactive contaminants on absorbed dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Several popular radiopharmaceutical products contain low levels of radioactive contaminants. These contaminants increase the radiation absorbed dose to the patient without any increased benefit and, in some cases, with a decrease in image quality. The importance of a contaminant to the radiation dosimetry picture is a function of 1) the contaminant level, 2) the physical half-life of the contaminant, 3) the organ uptake and the biological half-time of the contaminant in the various body systems, and 4) the decay mode, energy, etc. of the contaminant. The general influence of these parameters is discussed in this paper; families of curves are included that reflect the changing importance of contaminant dosimetry with respect to the primary radionuclide as a function of these variables. Several specific examples are also given of currently used radiopharmaceutical products which can contain radioactive contaminants (I-123, In-111, Tl-201, Ir-191m, Rb-82, Au-195m). 7 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  9. Steering committee for the management of the post-accidental phase of a nuclear accident or of a radiological situation (CODIRPA). Guidelines for the preparation to long term management of contaminated territories after a nuclear accident on the French territory - September 2012. Work document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This publication aims at helping actors who want to be prepared to consider issues which would be raised by a post-accidental situation, at identifying economic, ecological and social vulnerabilities, notably local activities which might be impacted, even stopped, by a contamination of the environment. It discusses the situation assessment at the beginning of the long term phase, identifies governing principles for the post-accidental management on the long term. Then, it addresses the residence issue: to stay or to leave, to understand the situation or to be able to cope with radioactivity in everyday life, to care about one's health. The next addressed issues are work and production: identification of economic activity vulnerabilities, definition of a territory of project, adaptation of working conditions, re-deployment of activities and improvement of product radiological quality. The last part contains a set of proposals for a deeper preparation

  10. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  11. Methods for removing radioactive isotopes from contaminated streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, D.R.; Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.; Parish, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for removing radioactive isotopes from contaminated gas streams for use in atmospheric containment and cleanup systems in nuclear power plants are provided. The methods provide for removal of radioactive isotopes from a first portion of the contaminated stream, separated from the remaining portion of the stream, so that adsorbent used to purify the first portion of the contaminated stream by adsorption of the radioactive isotopes therefrom can be tested to determine the adsorbing efficacy of the generally larger portion of adsorbent used to purify the remaining portion of the stream

  12. The Barents Sea, distribution and fate of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeyn, L.; Heldal, H.E.; Svaeren, I.

    1999-01-01

    Possible contamination in the marine food webs of the Barents Sea may be a problem for a rational harvest of the area. Radioactive contamination has in this context a special public impact as even traces of radioactivity seems to be considered by the public to be a real danger. It is therefor of special importance, from a regulatory and fisheries point of view, to accumulate knowledge of the behaviour of radioactive elements in the marine ecosystems of the Barents Sea in order to place this contamination in proper and realistic proportions

  13. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, P.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum in which waste product gypsum is reacted with a dilute sulfuric acid containing barium sulfate to form an acid slurry at an elevated temperature, the slurry is preferably cooled, the acid component is separated from the solid, and the resulting solid is separated into a fine fraction and a coarse fraction. The fine fraction predominates in barium sulfate and radioactive contamination. The coarse fraction predominates in a purified gypsum product of reduced radioactive contamination

  14. Assessment of low levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a general methodology for the verification and clearance of sites contaminated with radioactive materials; general expressions for the risk or health detriment are derived. Techniques are developed, using Bayesian decision theory, to optimize the resources allocated to a site monitoring procedure, and to construct the probability distribution of the spatial distribution of specific activity within a site. A technique is also developed to determine the probability that a localized source of specified characteristics will not be detected by the monitoring procedure employed. The application of these techniques is illustrated by means of simple examples. This report confirms that a very large number of measurements are needed if a source of localized activity is to be detected with a high probability, and demonstrates how prior information about past radiological practices might be used to increase the probability of detection. Proposals are made for a programme of research to determine whether or not representative sites can be verified using current measuring techniques. (author)

  15. Lichens as indicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarzov, L.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of lichens were investigated, collected in 1987 in the Eastern Urals and in 1988 in the vicinity of Chernobyl. Data are given on the size of thalli of epiphytic lichens from trunks of pine in the Chernobyl area, and on the beta activity in epiphytic lichens in the birch forests of the Urals 30 years after the Kyshtym accident, as well as concentrations of 40 K, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and the bark of pine tree, taken at 5 locations in the vicinity of Chernobyl 1000 days after the accident. Also given are cross-ratios of radioactivity of 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and in the bark of pine trees. The results indicate that the activity of radionuclides in lichen thalli make a fairly reliable indicator of relative differences between the investigated areas in terms of the level of surface contamination and qualitative composition of the involved radionuclides. (J.B.) 4 tabs., 15 refs

  16. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  17. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  18. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  19. Assessing the fate of antibiotic contaminants in metal contaminated soils four years after cessation of long-term waste water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamtam, Fatima; Oort, Folkert van; Le Bot, Barbara; Dinh, Tuc; Mompelat, Sophie; Chevreuil, Marc; Lamy, Isabelle; Thiry, Medard

    2011-01-01

    Spreading of urban wastewater on agricultural land may lead to concomitant input of organic and inorganic pollutants. Such multiple pollution sites offer unique opportunities to study the fate of both heavy metals and pharmaceuticals. We examined the occurrence and fate of selected antibiotics in sandy-textured soils, sampled four years after cessation of 100 years irrigation with urban wastewater from the Paris agglomeration. Previous studies on heavy metal contamination of these soils guided our sampling strategy. Six antibiotics were studied, including quinolones, with a strong affinity for organic and mineral soil components, and sulfonamides, a group of more mobile molecules. Bulk samples were collected from surface horizons in different irrigation fields, but also in subsurface horizons in two selected profiles. In surface horizons, three quinolones (oxolinic acid, nalidixic acid, and flumequine) were present in eight samples out of nine. Their contents varied spatially, but were well-correlated one to another. Their distributions showed great similarities regarding spatial distribution of total organic carbon and heavy metal contents, consistent with a common origin by wastewater irrigation. Highest concentrations were observed for sampling sites close to irrigation water outlets, reaching 22 μg kg -1 for nalidixic acid. Within soil profiles, the two antibiotic groups demonstrated an opposite behavior: quinolones, found only in surface horizons; sulfamethoxazole, detected in clay-rich subsurface horizons, concomitant with Zn accumulation. Such distribution patterns are consistent with chemical adsorption properties of the two antibiotic groups: immobilization of quinolones in the surface horizons ascribed to strong affinity for organic matter (OM), migration of sulfamethoxazole due to a lower affinity for OM and its interception and retention in electronegative charged clay-rich horizons. Our work suggests that antibiotics may represent a durable

  20. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  1. Nuclear energy - Standard method for testing the long-term alpha irradiation stability of matrices for solidification of high-level radioactive waste. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method designed to check the long-term stability of a solid to alpha disintegration by detection of all modifications in the properties of an irradiated sample. The material favoured hitherto is a borosilicate glass, but possible alternatives include: ceramics or glass-ceramics, and other glass compositions

  2. Method of melting decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the transfer efficiency of radioactive materials into slags. Method: Contaminated metals are melt with adding slagging agent in order to transfer the radioactive materials into the slag, where the slagging agent holds less free energy than that of metal oxides contaminated with radioactive materials in order to promote the transfer of the contaminated materials into the slag layer. This effect can also be attained on metals or alloys other than iron contaminated with radioactive materials. In the case of alloy, the slagging agent is to containing such metal oxide that free energy is less than that of the oxide of metal being the main ingredient element of the alloy. The decontamination effect can further be improved by containing halogenide such as calcium fluoride together with the metal oxide into the slagging agent. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  4. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  5. Radioactive contamination of food and the intake by man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.; Blaauboer, R.O.; Koester, H.W.; Leenhouts, H.P.; Stoutjesdijk, J.F.; Vaas, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the different pathways by which food is contaminated after a release of radionuclides into the environment. Equations to calculate the contamination level, as well as the most important parameters used in these equations, are included. Thereupon is explained how the radiation dose can be calculated from the intake of radioactivity. The principles which are used to derive criteria for the amounts of radioactivity which are allowed in food are described. (author)

  6. Investigation of radioactive contamination at non-radioactive drains of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hiroaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Toru; Kawano, Shinji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1982-05-01

    In April, 1981, it was disclosed that a drainage area at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station was so much contaminated with radioactivites. Although Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) officially provided an explanation of a process that resulted in the contamination, many problems remain unsolved on account of insufficient and limited investigations. The authors collected mud samples from contaminated manholes and examined radioactivities in them through the measurement of #betta#- and #betta#-spectra. Chemical separation of the samples was carried out in order to obtain precise concentration of radioactive cesium. Results are as follows: i) the concentration of radioactivities does not show monotonous decrease along the stream line but an anomalous peak at downstream manholes, ii) at the manhole specified No. 6 located rather downstream, 137 Cs concentration is significantly high and the composition of radioactive nuclides is quite different from that in the other manholes, and iii) additional radioactive contamination was observed in other manholes of non-radioactive drains which would not be influenced by the accident explained by MITI. Our present work has provided much more data than by MITI and made it clear that the overall data cnnot be consistent with the simple MITI explanation; a single radioactive release accident caused the disclosed contamination. It is concluded that non-radioactive water drains at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station had been under continual contamination. (author)

  7. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km 2 , the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km 2 or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km 2 are posted as surface contamination and 10 km 2 are posted as underground contamination

  8. Economics and risks of recycling radioactively contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Ayers, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    As Decontamination and Decommissioning activities proceed within the DOE complex, tremendous volumes of both radioactively contaminated and non-contaminated concrete will be processed for disposal. Current practice is to decontaminate the concrete, dispose of the contamination at LLW facilities and ship the concrete rubble to C ampersand D landfills for disposal. This study evaluates the economic, health and safety, legal, and social aspects of recycling radioactively contaminated concrete. Probabilistic models were used to estimate costs and risks. The model indicates that the radioactively contaminated concrete can be recycled at the same or lower cost than current or alternative practices. The risks associated with recycling were consistently less than or equal to the other alternatives considered

  9. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-01-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  10. Radioactive waste management for a radiologically contaminated hospitalized patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina Jomir, G.; Michel, X.; Lecompte, Y.; Chianea, N.; Cazoulat, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase following caring for a radiologically contaminated patient in a hospital decontamination facility must be anticipated at a local level to be truly efficient, as the volume of waste could be substantial. This management must comply with the principles set out for radioactive as well as medical waste. The first step involves identification of radiologically contaminated waste based on radioactivity measurement for volume reduction. Then, the management depends on the longest radioactive half-life of contaminative radionuclides. For a half-life inferior to 100 days, wastes are stored for their radioactivity to decay for at least 10 periods before disposal like conventional medical waste. Long-lived radioactive waste management implies treatment of liquid waste and special handling for sorting and packaging before final elimination at the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). Following this, highly specialized waste management skills, financial responsibility issues and detention of non-medical radioactive sources are questions raised by hospital radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase. (authors)

  11. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  12. Airborne radioactive contamination following aerosol ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, A.; Hart, G.C.; Ibbett, D.A.; Whitehead, R.J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Lung aerosol ventilation studies may be accompanied by airborne contamination, with subsequent surface contamination. Airborne contamination has been measured prior to, during and following 59 consecutive 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol studies using a personal air sampler. Airborne contamination ranging between 0 and 20 330 kBq m -3 has been measured. Airborne contamination increases with degree of patient breathing difficulty. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to staff from ingested activity has been calculated to be 0.3 μSv per study. This figure is supported by data from gamma camera images of a contaminated staff member. However, surface contamination measurements reveal that 60% of studies exceed maximum permissible contamination limits for the hands; 16% of studies exceed limits for controlled area surfaces. (author)

  13. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  14. Control of radioactive contamination of food in the country Somogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, E.; Viragh, I.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of spinach, sorrel, lettuce, animal bones, milk and fish was determined in the period 1961-1978. Peak values were measured in 1963 and 1976. The contamination of plants reached higher levels, however, it did not exceed 25 pCi per g dry weight. (L.E.)

  15. PEBS: an international challenge for improve understanding of the natural barriers to isolate long-term radioactive waste; PEBS: un reto internacional para mejorar el conocimiento de las barreras naturales para aislar residuos radiactivos a largo plazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaus, I.

    2015-07-01

    The radioactive materials have a wide range of applications ranging from nuclear reactors to the use of isotopes in industries, medicine or research centres. These technologies generate waste whose disposal systems are becoming more sophisticated, to the point of using artificial barriers able to isolate them from contact with other materials, precipitation, surface water and groundwater subsurface. In this context, the European project long term Performance of the engineered Barrier Systems (PeBS), funded by the seventh framework (Fp7) Euratom and has counted with the participation of ENRESA, reviewed the evolution of the performance of sealing and barrier systems of artificial barriers in relevant time scales through the development of a comprehensive method that includes experiments, models, and a consideration of the potential impacts of long-term security functions. (Author)

  16. Radioactive contamination in Arctic - present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Per

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is probably the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In the last decade information has also been released concerning the nuclear situation which has caused concern in many countries. Due to such concerns, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched in 1991 and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. In 1996 IAEPS became part of the Arctic Council. AMAP presented one main report in 1997 and another in 1998. There are also several other national, bilateral and international programmes in existence which deal with this issue. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (au)

  17. Control System Radioactive Contamination in Food Samples in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The analyses of the level of radioactive contamination in food samples are carried out by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SMRC) in Poland. The Service was brought into existence in 1961. The Service comprises of a network of measurement stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (CRCM). The duty of the Centre is being executed by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP). The uniform methods of sampling are used in measurement stations. All important foodstuff: milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals are controlled in the Service stations. The radiochemical and spectrometric methods are used to determine the activity of radioactive isotopes. The standard equipment of the measurement station is the measurement system type SAPOS-90 and multichannel analyser with scintillation or germanium detector. The structure of the Service, kinds of samples tested by each station, program of sampling in normal and during accident situation are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Auburn Steel Company radioactive contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, F.J.; Cabasino, L.; Kelly, R.; Awai, A.; Kasyk, G.

    1986-04-01

    On February 21, 1983, workers at the Auburn Steel Company, Auburn, New York discovered that about 120 tons of steel poured that day had become contaminated with 60 Co. In addition to the steel, the air cleaning system and portions of the mill used in casting the steel were contaminated. Approximately 25 curies of 60 Co were involved. Decontamination and disposal of the contamination cost in excess of $2,200,000. This report details the discovery of the contamination, decontamination of the plant and disposal of the contamination

  20. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Roos, P.

    2006-05-15

    Analyses of marine and terrestrial samples collected in August 2003 from Bylot Sound at Thule, Northwest Greenland, show that plutonium from nuclear weapons in the American B52 plane, which crashed on the sea ice in January 1968, persists in the environment. The highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the marine sediments under the location where the plane crashed. The distribution of plutonium in the marine sediment is very inhomogeneous and associated with hot particles with activities found up to 1500 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Sediment samples collected in Wolstenholme Fjord north of the accident site show plutonium concentrations, which illustrates the redistribution of plutonium after the accident. The total plutonium inventory in the sediments has been assessed based on systematic analyses considering hot particles. The inventory of {sup 239,240}Pu in the sediments within a distance of 17 km from the point of impact of the B52 plane is estimated at 2.9 TBq (1 kg). Earlier estimates of the inventory were approximately 1.4 TBq {sup 239,240}Pu. Seawater and seaweed samples show increased concentrations of plutonium in Bylot Sound. The increased concentrations are due to resuspension of plutonium-containing particles from the seabed and transport further away from the area. Plutonium concentrations in seawater, seaweed and benthic animals in Bylot Sound are low but clearly above background levels. All soil samples collected from Narssarssuk show accident plutonium with levels above background. Plutonium is very inhomogeneously distributed and associated with particles in the surface layers. Hot particles were found in soil with activities up to 150 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule presents an insignificant risk to man. Most plutonium remains in the seabed under Bylot Sound far from man under relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of

  1. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Roos, P.

    2006-05-01

    Analyses of marine and terrestrial samples collected in August 2003 from Bylot Sound at Thule, Northwest Greenland, show that plutonium from nuclear weapons in the American B52 plane, which crashed on the sea ice in January 1968, persists in the environment. The highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the marine sediments under the location where the plane crashed. The distribution of plutonium in the marine sediment is very inhomogeneous and associated with hot particles with activities found up to 1500 Bq 239,240 Pu. Sediment samples collected in Wolstenholme Fjord north of the accident site show plutonium concentrations, which illustrates the redistribution of plutonium after the accident. The total plutonium inventory in the sediments has been assessed based on systematic analyses considering hot particles. The inventory of 239,240 Pu in the sediments within a distance of 17 km from the point of impact of the B52 plane is estimated at 2.9 TBq (1 kg). Earlier estimates of the inventory were approximately 1.4 TBq 239,240 Pu. Seawater and seaweed samples show increased concentrations of plutonium in Bylot Sound. The increased concentrations are due to resuspension of plutonium-containing particles from the seabed and transport further away from the area. Plutonium concentrations in seawater, seaweed and benthic animals in Bylot Sound are low but clearly above background levels. All soil samples collected from Narssarssuk show accident plutonium with levels above background. Plutonium is very inhomogeneously distributed and associated with particles in the surface layers. Hot particles were found in soil with activities up to 150 Bq 239,240 Pu. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule presents an insignificant risk to man. Most plutonium remains in the seabed under Bylot Sound far from man under relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of surface soil at

  2. Transboundary Movement of Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizamska, M., E-mail: m.nimzamska@bnra.bg [Emergency Planning and Preparedness Division, Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-15

    Starting in 1989, Bulgaria has undergone a comprehensive transformation of its economy and social conditions. Part of this process is related to the intensive privatization that started in 2001. This privatization included facilities, as well as sites that use radioactive material for different applications - industry, medicine, agriculture, science, etc. The rapid change of property ownership and, in some cases, the resulting bankruptcy, has caused difficulties in tracing and identifying radioactive sources and materials and a deterioration of the system of safety, physical protection, etc. of radioactive material. In some cases, radioactive sources were stolen because of the value of their protective containers and sold for scrap metal. This led to the occurrence of different types of radiation incidents, mainly related to the discovery of radioactive sources in scrap metal. The consequences of these incidents include the risk of radiation exposure of the workers at scrap metal yards or reprocessing facilities and of members of the public and, in addition, radioactive contamination of the environment. The Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (BNRA) has been responding to these incidents and has carried out a series of measures to improve the control over materials (e.g. activated or surface contaminated materials) and radioactive sources and to strengthen the preventive, monitoring, emergency preparedness and mitigating measures at facility, national and transboundary levels. This paper presents an analysis of the lessons learned by the BNRA and of the control of the transboundary movement of radioactively contaminated scrap metal through the territory of Bulgaria. (author)

  3. Method of preventing contaminations in radioactive material handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shunji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the contamination on the floor surface of working places by laying polyvinyl butyral sheets over the floor surface, replacing when the sheets are contaminated, followed by burning. Method: Polyvinyl butyral sheets comprising 50 - 70 mol% of butyral component are laid in a radioactive material handling facility, radioactive materials are handled on the polyvinyl butyral sheets and the sheets are replaced when contaminated. The polyvinyl butyral sheets used contain 62 - 68 mol% of butyral component and has 0.03 - 0.2 mm thickness. The contaminated sheets are subjected to burning processing. This can surely collect radioactive materials and the sheets have favorable burnability, releasing no corrosive or deleterious gases. In addition, they are inexpensive and give no hindrance to the workers walking. (Takahashi, M.)

  4. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  5. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables

  6. Some problems of risk assessment in cases of environmental radioactive and chemical contamination in regions of the Ural radioactive trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Isaeva, L.N.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology of risk assessment if being developed to permit the analysis of possible consequences of radioactive and chemical environment contamination on the territory of the Urals radioactive trail. The assessment of hazards from radioactive contamination of the Techa river (Muslyumovo) has been carried out. A comparison of radioactive and chemical risks for the population of Kasli has been made

  7. The radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rainwaters, caused by the accident in NPP 'Lenin'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barishicj, D.; Koshuticj, K.; Kvastek, K.; Lulicj, S.; Tuta, J.; Vertachnik, A.; Vrhovac, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rainwaters, caused by the accident in NPP 'Lenin', has been described. The results represent the sum of measured and evaluated data, the map of the radioactive contamination in Croatia caused by radioactive rainwaters between April, 28 to May, 20 1986 has been constructed. (author) 3 tabs.; 5 figs

  8. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, V.L.; Korostin, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm 2 xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  9. Risk considerations for a long-term open-state of the radioactive waste storage facility Schacht Asse II. Variation of the parameter sets for radio-ecological modeling using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    The risk considerations for a long-term open-state of the radioactive waste storage facility Schacht Asse II include the following issues: description of radio-ecological models for the radionuclide transport in the covering rock formations and determination of the radiation exposure, parameters of the radio-ecological and their variability, Monte-Carlo method application. The results of the modeling calculations include the group short-living radionuclides, long-living radionuclides, radionuclides in the frame of decay chains and sensitivity analyses with respect to the correlation of input data and results.

  10. Bonding of radioactive contamination. IV. Effect of surface finish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms by which radioactive contamination would be bonded to a DWPF canister are being investigated. Previous investigations in this series have examined the effects of temperature, oxidation before contamination, and atmosphere composition control on the bonding of contamination. This memorandum describes the results of tests to determine the effect of special surface finishes on the bonding of contamination to waste glass canisters. Surface pretreatments which produce smoother canister surfaces actually cause radioactive contamination to be more tightly bonded to the metal surface than on an untreated surface. Based on the results of these tests it is recommended that the canister surface finish be specified as having a bright cold rolled mill finish equivalent to ASTM No. 2B. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  11. Water in the March river radioactively contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englander, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A curve of the tritium contamination of the March river measured in Austria from 1976 to 1989 is shown. The conjecture is put forward that this contamination is caused by the Dukovani power plant in the neighbouring CSFR. Further measurements are called for

  12. Bonding of radioactive contamination. III. Auger electron spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Whitkop, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms by which radioactive contamination would be bonded to a DWPF canister surface are being investigated. Tests with low pressure water and air-injected water decontamination of radioactive specimens showed that bonding of contamination increases rapidly with postoxidation temperature. Even with the least severe temperature conditions expected on the waste glass canister, bonding is so great that decontamination cannot be affected by water-only techniques. A preoxidation film increased rather than decreased bonding. This memorandum describes detailed surface analyses of coupons simulating DWPF canister surfaces. Based on this examination we conclude: contamination will be dispersed throughout the oxide film on DWPF canisters. Contamination is concentrated at the surface, decreasing farther into the oxide film; some samples contain sludge contamination at the steel/oxide interface. This was not the case for semi-volatile (Cs 2 O) contamination; in samples with contamination at the steel/oxide interface, at least 80% of the contamination is usually in the oxide layer; no difference in contamination dispersion between preoxidized and non-preoxidized samples was found; and postoxidation atmosphere had no effect on the contamination dispersion within the oxide layer. 6 references, 9 figures

  13. Process for cleaning radioactively contaminated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihram, R.G.; Snyder, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for removing radioactive scale from a ferrous metal surface, including the steps of initially preconditioning the surface by contacting it with an oxidizing solution (such as an aqueous solution of an alkali metal permanganate or hydrogen peroxide), then, after removal or decomposition of the oxidizing solution, the metallic surface is contacted with a cleaning solution which is a mixture of a mineral acid and a complexing agent (such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid), and which preferably contains a corrosion inhibitor. A final step in the process is the treatment of the spent cleaning solution containing radioactive waste materials in solution by adding a reagent selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide or potassium permanganate and an alkali metal hydroxide to thereby form easily recovered metallic compounds containing substantially all of the dissolved metals and radioactivity. (auth)

  14. Radioactive elements found in plants contaminated by radioactive rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanidazawa, M; Ishihara, T

    1954-01-01

    Ashes obtained from contaminated trifolium repens, astragalus sinicus, and rumex japonicus were studied. The precipitate obtained by treating the acidic solution of the ash with H/sub 2/S followed by Fe/sup + +/ in the presence of NH/sub 3/ and NH/sub 4/Cl contained Y, Sr, and the rare earth elements.

  15. Procedures for the elicitation of expert judgements in the probabilistic risk analysis of the long-term effects of radioactive waste repositories: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This annotated bibliography describes the key literature relevant to the elicitation of expert judgements in radioactive waste management. The bibliography is divided into seven sections; section 2 lists the literature exploring the proper interpretation of probabilities used in Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). Section 3 lists literature describing other calculi for handling uncertainty in a numerical fashion. In section 4 comments are given on how to elicit probabilities from individuals as a measure of subjective degrees of belief and section 5 lists the literature concerning how expert judgements can be combined. Sections 6 and 7 list literature giving an overview of the issues involved in PRA for radioactive waste repositories. (author)

  16. Spatial structure of food contamination with 137Cs and estimation of long-term internal dose loads on population of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53,207 records of 137 Cs contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure by eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different types of geostatical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk could be used in decision making. (author)

  17. Development of plastic scintillator based food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, A.; Sahani, R.M.; Mahala, V.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity is naturally present in soil, water and food stuffs. Food can be contaminated after discharge of radioactivity into the environment from industries that concentrate natural radionuclide and from civil or military nuclear operations. The contamination can be in three ways; by direct deposition, through the food chain and induced radioactivity due to exposure of high neutron flux. The health effects on human depend on the type of radionuclide and the length of time people are exposed to it. The studies of fission product behaviour in the food chain have revealed radionuclide Strontium-90, Caesium 137 and Iodine-131 are of major concern. Plastic scintillator is already developed indigenously at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. Efforts has been made to develop a portable field instrument using plastic scintillator for assessment of beta ( 90 Sr) and gamma ( 137 Cs and 131 I) radioactivity in food

  18. Investigation to radioactive contamination of pool water in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. K.

    2003-06-01

    The pool (3x6x10) in irradiated materials examination facility is usually used for the purpose of taking the specimen out of cask loaded into the pool, and carrying in/out the specimen to/ from the hot cell. Always, it must be cared for the water into the pool to be fine condition because all operation are worked with the naked eye during taking an irradiated materials out of the cask and plunging them in the bucket-elevator. In the aspects of the radioactive remained substances in the water must be controlled so that the amount of substances to be lower than the standard amount prescribed by RCA Korea Activity in a part of radioactive contamination control. In consequence, an expertness of status and a practical use of skill make possible the prevention of radioactive material's diffusion or the radioactive contamination of pool water and safety work

  19. Radioactive contamination in environment and food in Poland in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Muszynski, W.; Petrykowska, M.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Wilgos, J.

    1993-01-01

    The level analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environment and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1992. The results were compared to the data from 1985-1991 period. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been stated. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tap and surface water were at the level of 1985. Still higher contamination level of cesium isotopes in soil has been reported and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly the animal food. Actually, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. The average effective dose equivalent, due to the contaminated food consumption, was estimated at the level 15 μSv for a Pole in 1992. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs, 20 tabs

  20. Method of melt-decontaminating alumium contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Iba, Hajime; Miura, Noboru; Kawasaki, Katsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable optimum deontamination for radioactive-contaminated aluminum by further improving the decontaminating effect of the slag agent added to radioactive contaminated materials. Method: The slag agent is mainly composed of chloride type slags having a high reactivity for mainly incorporating uranium compounds and easily reacting near the melting point of aluminum and incorporated with fluorides for weakening the deliquescent characteristic to the chloride materials. Further, those slag agents are selected which can be treated at a low temperature in order to prevent the uranium compounds once incorporated into the slags from re-melting into the molten aluminum. Typically, a slag agent comprising 14 LiF, 76 KCl - 10 BaCl 2 is preferred. The basicity of the slag agent ranges from 0.5 to 2 and the melting point is 700 deg C. The melting decontaminating efficiency for the radioactive-contaminated aluminum can thus be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Chernobyl three years later: radiobiologic evaluation of a radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, A.; Cohen-Boulakia, F.; Othmani, S.

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, after partial fusion and confining loss by explosion of a nuclear reactor, 5 x 10(7) Ci of radionuclides escaped from Chernobyl. Three years later, maps show contamination by radioactive isotopes (formed during that period) of 21,000 km2 of Soviet soil, mainly in Byelorussia and part of the Ukraine. Decontamination measures have not been effective to date and 135,000 persons are being followed medically, taking into account the radioactive doses they received. An initial excess of morbidity from solid tumors has been noted much sooner than in the case of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but its significance is in dispute. Three years later, only the extent of the ecologic disaster caused by the radioactive contamination can be confirmed. It is too early to draw conclusions about radiation-induced carcinogenesis for the contaminated population

  2. Radioactive contamination of animal bones by 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Maracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    90 Sr has been regarded as the fission product of great potential hazard to living things because of the unique combination of its 28-y long half-life, the very energetic beta particle of its 90 Y daughter, and its general resemblance to calcium in metabolic processes. Therefore, due to chemical and metabolic similarity to calcium, bone is the critical organ for radioactive isotopes of strontium. The Department of Radiation Protection of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, has carried out radioactivity measurements of the food chain as part of an extended monitoring programme, since 1963. This includes systematic, long-term measurements of 90 Sr in long bones of some domestic animals (cows and pigs) while data on lamb bones exist for the very beginning of the investigated period, and for the period after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

  3. Design and development of food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Bohra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity has been part and parcel of living being since the existence of the earth. It is available everywhere in our environment and being responsible for evolution of life on earth at some extent. However, the radioactivity in excess of the natural radioactive can have harmful effects on living being. The radiation exposure can be of external or internal origin or of both. The main route of internal radiation exposure is through the contaminated food chains. The concentration of natural radioactivity in food varies in range of 40-600 Bq/kg. 40 K being the single major radionuclide of food with typical radioactivity; 50 Bq/kg in milk, 420 Bq/kg in milk powder, 165 Bq/kg in potatoes, and 125 Bq/kg in beef is also the main contributor of natural radiation doses to human being. Measurement of radioactivity in food items and drinks is thus very important in controlling the internal exposure to human being especially in case of nuclear disaster. Though, the methods and techniques for food radioactivity measurement already existing, the need of portable instrument is warranted to measure the radioactivity in food items in raw form. Measurement of radioactivity may help in quick and mass screening of food items in case of nuclear emergencies. Any enhanced level of radioactivity in food items especially in case of nuclear emergency need to be evaluated for controlling its spread and restriction of consumption by the public. This way, it may help in managing internal radioactivity contamination to human being

  4. Dosimetric system for measurement of radioactive contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litynski, Z.; Pienkos, J.P.; Witkowski, J.; Zadrozny, S.

    1985-01-01

    A dosimetric system for personnel dosimetry and monitoring measuring a contamination without time delay and dead time is described. The system ensures many-point measurement and minimalization of background radiation influence. 1 fig. (A.S.)

  5. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  6. The definition of commonly agreed stylized human intrusion scenarios for use in the long term safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneras, P.

    2002-01-01

    Recent international advice on the treatment of human intrusion in relation to the safety of radioactive waste repositories is reviewed. The outstanding issues which need to be resolved in order to establish an agreed international approach to assessing the consequences and judging the impact of human intrusion are summarized. Finally, a way forward towards an internationally agreed assessment approach is proposed. (author)

  7. Investigation and study of radioactive dusts in high altitude air. Consideration on the long-term trends of gross beta activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Kumiko; Sato, Mihoko

    2005-01-01

    The data for radioactivities of airborne dust that have been measured by JDA since 1961 was stored in database. Generally, the gross beta activity that have been obtained in the past was analyzed, using the data base. The behavior of fallout in environment and the effect on Japanese sky were considered. (author)

  8. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer; Flesch, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  9. Method of melting and decontaminating radioactive contaminated aluminum material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Noboru; Kawasaki, Katsuo; Iba, Hajime.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the decontaminating efficiency upon melting decontamination of radioactive-contaminated aluminum materials. Method: This invention concerns an improvement for the method of melting decontamination by adding slug agent composed of organic compound to contaminated aluminum material and extracting the radioactive materials into the slug thereby decontaminating the aluminum material. Specifically metals effective for reducing the active amount of aluminum are added such that the content is greater than a predetermined value in the heat melting process. The metal comprises Mg, Cu or a mixture thereof and the content is more than 4 % including those previously contained in the aluminum material. (Ikeda, J.)

  10. Radioactive contamination of the biosphere and consequences for food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with all aspects of radioactive contamination of the biosphere and corresponding consequences for food supply. In particular, releases of radioactivity by nuclear weapon tests in the early 60's and nuclear accidents in recent years are discussed. Contamination of food in the Federal Republic of Germany by these events and corresponding ingestion dose are demonstrated using examples. Furthermore diffusion of radionuclides and their transfer through the food chains to man are described. Suitable methods of decontamination at different production steps and their viability are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Radioactive contamination of workers. General recommendation and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Santos, O.R. dos; Silva, E.N.D.; Santos, A.J. dos.

    1987-09-01

    The present publication has an objective to provide data and information to be used by workers who handle with or eventually could enter in touch with radioactives substances. The authors have made a compilation of subjects got from the literature on several aspects about radiocontamination, physical and chemical characteristics of radioisotopes, main sources of radioactive contamination, biological basis and treatement of internal and external decontamination. Special attention was paid to iodine and actinides contamination, particularly to uranium and plutonium. The conclusion are presented as general recommendation and synoptic tables. (Author) [pt

  12. Transfer of radioactive contamination from milk to commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.G.; Sutton, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fate of radioactive contamination resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl accident was studied during milk processing. A range of commercial dairy products was produced on a pilot-laboratory scale and the radiocaesium contents were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the radiocaesium partitioned with the water phase and therefore butter, cream and cheese had relatively low levels of radioactivity. Ion exchange demineralization was effective in removing radiocaesium from whey. Ultrafiltration of whey resulted in a reduction of radioactivity relative to retentate solids. (author)

  13. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  14. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  15. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  16. Radiation safety for incineration of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryuzhs'kij, Yu.V.; Gryin'ko, O.M.; Tokarevs'kij, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Problems in the treatment of radioactive waste contaminated by cesium nuclides are considered in the paper. Chornobyl experience in the management of contaminated soil and contaminated forests is analyzed in relation to the accident at Fukushima-1. The minimization of release of cesium aerosols into atmosphere is very important. Radiation influence of inhaling atmosphere aerosols polluted by cesium has damage effect for humans. The research focuses on the treatment of forests contaminated by big volumes of cesium. One of the most important technologies is a pyro-gasification incineration with chemical reactions of cesium paying attention to gas purification problems. Requirements for process, physical and chemical properties of treatment of radioactive waste based on the dry pyro-gasification incineration facilities are considered in the paper together with the discussion of details related to incineration facilities. General similarities and discrepancies in the environmental pollution caused by the accidents at Chornobyl NPP and Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan are analyzed

  17. Assessment of costs related to the implementation of management solutions on the long term for high and medium level long life radioactive wastes. ANDRA's proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    This huge document contains several volumes which propose detailed costing of the various parts of the Cigeo project after sketch studies (this project deals with the deep geological storage of high and medium level long life radioactive wastes). It notably states the various hypotheses regarding the inventory of radioactive wastes, the waste supply prediction, and works closure. This cost assessment takes the different project stages into account and a cost update. Various aspects are thus assessed, some related to investments (design studies, preliminary works, construction of the various installations, renewal of equipment during exploitation, installation dismantling and works closure, insurance, commissioning authority and engineering subcontracting), to exploitation (production and maintenance, support, activities related to safety, radiation protection and control of the environment, operating costs, utilities, storage containers, insurance), and to other expenses (tax, research and development, technological tests, control after closure)

  18. Probablistic approach to the assessment of the long-term risk linked to the disposal of radioactive waste in geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, G; D' Alessandro, M [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    1982-12-01

    A probabilistic approach is described for the assessment of the risk linked to the underground disposal of radioactive materials. Risk quantification is split into the assessment of radioactivity release probabilities and the corresponding consequences. Both probabilities and consequences may be quantified through the use of models which, because of unavoidable uncertainties in input data, are implemented in a probabilistic way. For any uncertain parameter a probability distribution must be defined, in order that the model results reflect the uncertainties of the input data. The probability distribution of the results can be obtained by using analytical codes as well as with Monte Carlo simulations. A simple application of the methodology is given to show what kind of information can be drawn.

  19. Test and evaluation of radioactively contaminated transducers and transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strahm, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    People in the nuclear industries face some unique problems when handling, testing, or examining transducers and transmitters that have been radioactively contaminated. Although many people and organizations, including EG and G Idaho, have performed such work for many years, there are no set, structured approaches or procedures. This paper discusses a disciplined laboratory approach to contaminated transducer testing and evaluation, utilizing equipment and facilities developed specifically for this type of work

  20. Soil magnetic susceptibility as indicator of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curda, S.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic susceptibility is a method, which is used in many areas of research. The locality Ak-Tjuz is typical example of old ecological load. One of the negative effects represents radioactive contamination. This situation is caused by environmental disaster in 1964. For useful reparation it is really necessary to determinate the surface range of contamination. And measurement of the magnetic susceptibility could be the suitable method for that kind of monitoring. (author)

  1. The role of bioindicators in assessing radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovicj, G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is a survey of investigations into radioactive contamination of selected plant and animal species (bioindicators) which have the capacitr for multiple accumulation of fission products. Literature data on the contamination of bioindicators are compared with special reference to the accumulation of 131 I, 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a result of atmospheric nuclear experiments and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. (author) 52 refs.; 3 figs [sh

  2. Development of a Code for the Long Term Radiological Safety Assessment of Radioactive Wastes from Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment code based on the Goldsim has been developed. It was designed to compare the environmental impacts from many fuel cycle options such as direct disposal, wet and dry recycling. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios

  3. Ultimate disposal of radioactive waste - Long-term safe containment. Also a contribution to giving concrete shape to our reponsibility towards the life of future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, H.W.; Oberpottkamp, U.

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental issue arising in connection with the plan approval procedure for the construction and operation of radwaste repositories is the question whether the documentation submitted in evidence of appropriate precaution being taken according to the state of the art in science and technology to prevent damage to the population and the environment, is to include evidence that the precautions envisaged and their efficiency can be maintained by the operator over a prolonged period of time. The opinion of the authors is that demanding such evidence of long-term safe containment of hazardous waste is in agreement with Art. 20 a GG (German Constitution) and is to be given for the full period of time that is accessible to assessment and computation using the state-of-the-art means and technology, yielding reliable scientific results void of any data of a speculative nature. Computed evidence is to be submitted for this period of time in compliance with the means and principles given in section 45 StrlSchV (Radiation Protection Ordinance). The article thus is a contribution to giving more concrete shape to the responsibility towards future generations. (orig.) [de

  4. Rapid Evaluation of Radioactive Contamination in Rare Earth Mine Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.

    2017-12-01

    In order to estimate the current levels of environmental radioactivity in Bayan Obo rare earth mine and to study the rapid evaluation methods of radioactivity contamination in the rare earth mine, the surveys of the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry and gamma dose rate measurement were carried out around the mining area and living area. The in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer was composed of a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75mm×75mm) and a multichannel analyzer. Our survey results in Bayan Obo Mine display: (1) Thorium-232 is the radioactive contamination source of this region, and uranium-238 and potassium - 40 is at the background level. (2) The average content of thorium-232 in the slag of the tailings dam in Bayan Obo is as high as 276 mg/kg, which is 37 times as the global average value of thorium content. (3) We found that the thorium-232 content in the soil in the living area near the mining is higher than that in the local soil in Guyang County. The average thorium-232 concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7±7.5 and 26.2±9.1 mg/kg, respectively. (4) It was observed that thorium-232 was abnormal distributed in the contaminated area near the tailings dam. Our preliminary research results show that the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry is an effective approach of fast evaluating rare earths radioactive pollution, not only can the scene to determine the types of radioactive contamination source, but also to measure the radioactivity concentration of thorium and uranium in soil. The environmental radioactive evaluation of rare earth ore and tailings dam in open-pit mining is also needed. The research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41674111).

  5. On policies to regulate long-term risks from hazardous waste disposal sites under both intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhongbin

    In recent years, it has been recognized that there is a need for a general philosophic policy to guide the regulation of societal activities that involve long-term and very long-term risks. Theses societal activities not only include the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and global warming, but also include the disposal of non-radioactive carcinogens that never decay, such as arsenic, nickel, etc. In the past, attention has been focused on nuclear wastes. However, there has been international recognition that large quantities of non-radioactive wastes are being disposed of with little consideration of their long-term risks. The objectives of this dissertation are to present the significant long-term risks posed by non-radioactive carcinogens through case studies; develop the conceptual decision framework for setting the long-term risk policy; and illustrate that certain factors, such as discount rate, can significantly influence the results of long-term risk analysis. Therefore, the proposed decision-making framework can be used to systematically study the important policy questions on long-term risk regulations, and then subsequently help the decision-maker to make informed decisions. Regulatory disparities between high-level radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes are summarized. Long-term risk is rarely a consideration in the regulation of disposal of non-radioactive hazardous chemicals; and when it is, the matter has been handled in a somewhat perfunctory manner. Case studies of long-term risks are conducted for five Superfund sites that are contaminated with one or more non-radioactive carcinogens. Under the same assumptions used for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, future subsistence farmers would be exposed to significant individual risks, in some cases with lifetime fatality risk equal to unity. The important policy questions on long-term risk regulation are identified, and the conceptual decision-making framework to regulate

  6. Radioactive substances found on the contaminated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiba, T; Ohashi, S; Shibata, M; Mizube, T

    1954-01-01

    Radiochemical investigation of the substance collected from the surface of tuna fish which were brought back by the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru was performed. Most of the radioactivity was found on the scales which could not be decontaminated by treating with H/sub 2/O; 80% of the activity was removed by washing the dried scales with 3N HCl. Paper chromatographic separation of the HCl fraction showed the presence of /sup 140/Ba, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 132/Te, and probably /sup 95/Zr, /sup 140/La, and rare earths.

  7. Biological effects of water reservoir radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation damage to fresh water fishes at early stages of ontogenesis is revealed only during the spawn incubation in a solution with 10 -5 to 10 -3 Cu/l radioactivity and at relatively high dosages exceeding 500-1000 rad. Damaging effect of a fission product mixture of 9, 30 and 100 day age as well as of several separate radionuclides on embryogenesis of freshwater fishes depends mainly on fish species, concentration, toxicity, chemical form of radionuclides in the residence medium, on peculiarities of metabolism between the aqueous medium and an organism, stage of the embryo development by the moment of radiation effect and duration of this effect

  8. Long-term observations programme on the geological environment of a radioactive waste repository in clayey or related formations, implications on the various phases of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfroy, P.; Raynal, M.; Bonne, A.

    1993-01-01

    The process of emplacing radioactive waste in deep clayey or related formations involves numerous interdependent actions, the common objective of which is to guarantee optimum isolation of the waste for the durations required. Among these actions, observations on the geological environment will have to extend over a very long period of time, from site characterization to repository closure. All the far-field and near-field observations will constitute the basis and confirmation of the models intended to describe the phenomena which take place in the repository and its surrounding host formation and will have to be taken into account in the repository closure procedures. 6 refs

  9. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes; Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung von bestrahlten Brennelementen und verglastem HAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, A.; Geupel, S.; Gewehr, K.; Gmal, B.; Hannstein, V.; Hummelsheim, K.; Kilger, R.; Wagner, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schmidt, G.; Spieth-Achtnich, A. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer angewandte Oekolgie (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing

  10. Radiological risk assessment of a radioactively contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted at a radioactively contaminated site under current site use conditions and based on the available preliminary radiological characterization data for the site. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  12. Radioactive air and surface contamination in Czechia and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on the radioactive substance effluents into the environment in conditions of NPP normal operation and on the air contamination by 85 Kr due to operation of the European and Soviet plants for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. Data are given on the dosage of the Czechoslovakia population due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

  13. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, E.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Wahba, A.G.; Elraey, M.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  14. Thermoexoemission detectors for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obukhov, V.T.; Sobolev, I.A.; Khomchik, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Detectors on base of BeO(Na) monocrystals with thermoemission to be used for monitoring radioactive contamination of industrial waste waters are suggested. The detectors advantages are sensitivity to α and low-ehergy β radiations, high mechanical strength and wide range of measurements. The main disadvantage is the necessity of working in red light

  15. Microwave/vacuum drying treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Zhang Yinsheng; Teng Hongdi; Zhu Chongde; Ge Lixin; Wang Jinliang

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a microwave/vacuum drying process for the treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of the process. The treatment process could completely remove the water from carcasses and effectively extend the preservation period. No radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  16. Protection against radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Methods suitable for diminishing radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products and reducing at the same time the irradiation hazards for the human organism are dealt with. The possibilities for the decontamination of foods vegetal and of animal origin are discussed separately. (author)

  17. High polymer-based composites for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage or disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedema, I.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This study considers the application of PEEK and continuous graphite fibre composite as the principal component in a high level nuclear waste disposal container. The ultimate radioactive environment to which the containers will be exposed has been simulated using a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor and a specialized heated irradiation chamber. Doses of up to 1 MGy were given to samples in combination with elevated temperatures (15{sup o}C to 75{sup o}C), which induced mechanical and chemical changes in the material. Mechanically, the composite and virgin polymer samples were minimally affected, rarely deviating beyond one standard deviation of the properties of unirradiated samples. Molecularly, crosslinking between adjacent polymer chains in the amorphous region is the primary observed phenomenon as a consequence of the radiation treatment. This effect is diminished with the application of heat during irradiation. Slight changes in crystallinity were also noted through molecular rearrangement, beginning with slight increases at lower radiation doses, and then minor decreases are noted with larger doses ({approx}10{sup 6} Gy). It is also shown in this study that the rate of radiation effects that is typical in this polymer is dependent on the temperature of irradiation. The results confirm that polymer-based composite materials, such as the PEEK/graphite fibre material studied here, are excellent candidates for the fabrication of the containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  18. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  19. Treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This rule is to be applied to the design, construction, and operation of facilities for treatment of water contaminated with radioactive material in stationary nuclear power plants with LWRs and HTRs. According to the requirements of the rule these facilities are to be designed, constructed, and operated in such a way that a) uncontrolled discharge of water contaminated with radioactive material is avoided, b) the activity discharged with water is as low as possible, c) water contaminated with radioactive material will not reach the ground, d) the radiation exposure as a consequence of direct radiation, contamination, and inhalation of the persons occupied in the facilities is as low as possible and as a maximum corresponds to the values laid down in the radiation protection regulation or to the values of the operating license. This rule is not to be applied to facilities for coolant and storage pit clean-up as well as facilities for the treatment of concentrates produced during the contamination of the water. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  1. Contamination and decontamination of vehicles when driven in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.; Nygren, U.

    1999-10-01

    There is reason to ask whether it is beneficial to decontaminate vehicles, in view of the great effort applied. If the level of contamination is low before the decontamination process, then the cost is not motivated, even if the decontamination is shown to be effective in relative terms. The report describes two trials at the National NBC Defence School in Umeaa and one trial at the French test site in Bourges. The aim is to investigate how vehicles are contaminated and at which ground deposition levels troublesome levels of contamination will arise. In the trials, a non-radioactive agent substituting real radioactivity was used. The trials in Sweden so far have used the oversnow vehicle BV 206, during both winter and summer conditions. The vehicles were driven a specific distance along a road on which a known amount of the test substance had been dispersed. Samples were taken on pre-determined areas on one side of the vehicles to measure the amount of test substance. Later, the vehicles continued along a 'clean' road where additional samples were taken, but on the other side of the vehicles. The largest amount of test substance was collected on the tracks and on the back of the vehicle. The tracks and mud-flaps were effectively decontaminated when the vehicles were driven along a clean road, while most of the contamination remained on the backside. The purpose of the trials in France was to compare the results from our non-radioactive and their radioactive method, based on the radioactive La-140. Due to ground conditions, the level of contamination on the vehicles was much less than in the trials in Umeaa, but the effect decontamination could be measured after all

  2. Contamination and decontamination of vehicles driven in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.; Nygren, U.

    1999-03-01

    There is reason to ask whether it is beneficial to decontaminate vehicles, in view of the great effort applied. If the level of contamination is low before the decontamination process, then the cost is not motivated, even if the decontamination is shown to be effective in relative terms. The report describes two trials at the National NBC Defence School in Umeaa and one trial at the French test site in Bourges. The aim is to investigate how vehicles are contaminated and at which ground deposition levels troublesome levels of contamination will arise. In the trials, a non-radioactive agent substituting real radioactivity was used. The trials in Sweden so far have used the oversnow vehicle BV 206, during both winter and summer conditions. The vehicles were driven a specific distance along a road on which a known amount of the test substance had been dispersed. Samples were taken on pre-determined areas on one side of the vehicles to measure the amount of test substance. Later, the vehicles continued along a 'clean' road where additional samples were taken, but on the other side of the vehicles. The largest amount of test substance was collected on the tracks and on the back of the vehicle. The tracks and mud-flaps were effectively decontaminated when the vehicles were driven along a clean road, while most of the contamination remained on the backside. The purpose of the trials in France was to compare the results from our non-radioactive and their radioactive method, based on the radioactive La-140. Due to ground conditions, the level of contamination on the vehicles was much less than in the trials in Umeaa, but the effect decontamination could be measured after all

  3. Microorganisms associated with feathers of barn swallows in radioactively contaminated areas around chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-08-01

    The Chernobyl catastrophe provides a rare opportunity to study the ecological and evolutionary consequences of low-level, environmental radiation on living organisms. Despite some recent studies about negative effects of environmental radiation on macroorganisms, there is little knowledge about the effect of radioactive contamination on diversity and abundance of microorganisms. We examined abundance patterns of total cultivable bacteria and fungi and the abundance of feather-degrading bacterial subset present on feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), a colonial migratory passerine, around Chernobyl in relation to levels of ground level environmental radiation. After controlling for confounding variables, total cultivable bacterial loads were negatively correlated with environmental radioactivity, whereas abundance of fungi and feather-degrading bacteria was not significantly related to contamination levels. Abundance of both total and feather-degrading bacteria increased with barn swallow colony size, showing a potential cost of sociality. Males had lower abundance of feather-degrading bacteria than females. Our results show the detrimental effects of low-level environmental radiation on total cultivable bacterial assemblage on feathers, while the abundance of other microorganism groups living on barn swallow feathers, such as feather-degrading bacteria, are shaped by other factors like host sociality or host sex. These data lead us to conclude that the ecological effects of Chernobyl may be more general than previously assumed and may have long-term implications for host-microbe interactions and overall ecosystem functioning.

  4. Assessment of the long-term stability of cementitious barriers of radioactive waste repositories by using digital-image-based microstructure generation and reactive transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindez, Juan Manuel; Molinero, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Cement-based grout plays a significant role in the design and performance of nuclear waste repositories: used correctly, it can enhance their safety. However, the high water-to-binder ratios, which are required to meet the desired workability and injection ability at early age, lead to high porosity that may affect the durability of this material and undermine its long-term geochemical performance. In this paper, a new methodology is presented in order to help the process of mix design which best meets the compromise between these two conflicting requirements. It involves the combined use of the computer programs CEMHYD3D for the generation of digital-image-based microstructures and CrunchFlow, for the reactive transport calculations affecting the materials so simulated. This approach is exemplified with two grout types, namely, the so-called Standard mix 5/5, used in the upper parts of the structure, and the 'low-pH' P308B, to be injected at higher depths. The results of the digital reconstruction of the mineralogical composition of the hardened paste are entirely logical, as the microstructures display high degrees of hydration, large porosities and low or nil contents of aluminium compounds. Diffusion of solutes in the pore solution was considered to be the dominant transport process. A single scenario was studied for both mix designs and their performances were compared. The reactive transport model adequately reproduces the process of decalcification of the C-S-H and the precipitation of calcite, which is corroborated by empirical observations. It was found that the evolution of the deterioration process is sensitive to the chemical composition of groundwater, its effects being more severe when grout is set under continuous exposure to poorly mineralized groundwater. Results obtained appear to indicate that a correct conceptualization of the problem was accomplished and support the assumption that, in absence of more reliable empirical data, it might

  5. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.; Crouse, D.J.

    1970-01-01

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  6. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W D; Crouse, D J

    1970-05-15

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  7. Development of thermal conditioning technology for alpha-contaminated wastes: a study on leaching characteristics and long-term safety assessment of simulated waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yong Chil [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Choi, Yong Cheol [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Radioactive wastes should be stabilized for safe management during several hundred years. To assess stability of solidified waste forms, mechanical properties and chemical durability of the waste forms should be analyzed. Chemical durability is one of the most important factors in the assessment of waste forms, which could be examined by leaching tests. Various methods in leaching test are suggested by different organizations, but a formal test method in Korea is not ready yet. Therefore, the leaching test method applicable to various constituents is necessary for the safe management of radioactive wastes In this study, leaching behavior and characteristics of components such as solidification materials, heavy metals and radioactive nuclids were analyzed for cement waste form and glassy waste form. 58 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  8. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  9. The supposed radioactive contamination of the Puelche aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Leopoldo E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper attempts to clarify the supposed radioactive contamination of the Puelche Aquifer in the Ezeiza Atomic Center Area, Ezeiza, province of Buenos Aires (Argentina). Reports are listed that show categorically that no anthropogenic uranium contamination is present. As far as the nitrates contamination is concerned, it is not generated by the Ezeiza Atomic Center, because the Center is downward from the contaminated zone. It is possible that the contamination is produced by houses in the area without suitable sewage. In the present case the best contribution to the environmental right, besides the adaptation and the systematization of the different legal instruments, is to found the analysis of the facts on the scientific and technical knowledge. (author) [es

  10. Radioactivity contamination of the Russian Arctic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Rovaniemi (Finland); Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Matishov, D.; Matishov, G.G. [Murmansk Marine Biological Inst., Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2001-04-01

    The levels of the anthropogenic radionuclides in the Russian Arctic Seas are low compared to the potential sources of pollution and originata mainly from the global fallout, Chernobyl fallout and from the western nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Fresh release of radioactivity was noticed in this study only in the Kola Bay and in two sampling locations in the White Sea. The increased {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in the estuaries of River Dvina and River Yenisey are caused by the riverine transport from the large catchment area. The sediments of the Russian Arctic Seas are hard. Good and enough long cores for sedimentation rate determination were obtained only in two locations in the White Sea. All the cores from river estuaries were badly mixed. (EHS)

  11. Change in microbial community in landfill refuse contaminated with antibiotics facilitates denitrification more than the increase in ARG over long-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Chen, Guanzhou; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yang, Kai; Xie, Bing

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the addition of sulfamethazine (SMT) to landfill refuse decreased nitrogen intermediates (e.g. N2O and NO) and dinitrogen (N2) gas fluxes to resistome facilitated the denitrification (the nitrogen accumulated as NO gas at ~6 μg-N/kg-refuse·h-1) to a lesser extent than OTC-amended samples. Further, deep sequencing results show that long-term OTC exposure partially substituted Hyphomicrobium, Fulvivirga, and Caldilinea (>5%) for the dominant bacterial hosts (Rhodothermus, ~20%) harboring nosZ and norB genes that significantly correlated with nitrogen emission pattern, while sulfamethazine amendment completely reduced the relative abundance of the “original inhabitants” functioning to produce NOx gas reduction. The main ARG carriers (Pseudomonas) that were substantially enriched in the SMT group had lower levels of denitrifying functional genes, which could imply that denitrification is influenced more by bacterial dynamics than by abundance of ARGs under antibiotic pressures.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON SOILS ISOLATIVE PROPERTIES FOR SITING OF A NEW NEAR-SURFACE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY IN POLAND IN THE LIGHT OF THE LONG TERM SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skrzeczkowska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief description of the occurrence of favorable isolative conditions for new surface radioactive waste repository in Poland. Selected soils may be used as a natural bottom layer or engineering barrier in multi-barrier system of RW repository. Currently, there is no regulation establishing standards for the bottom isolation, and the only quantifiable parameter with regard to water permeability is given for the repository objects, which in their case has to be lower than 10-9 m/s. For the purposes of this paper, treating on providing suitable bottom isolation for the new repository, this parameter has been transferred onto the consideration for soils suitability with a statement that it shall not be lower than the one given for the infrastructure. Submitted information should be taken into consideration by updating the information for the siting process according to IAEA Safety Standards.

  13. A modelling study for long-term life prediction of carbon steel overpack for geological isolation of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Honda, Akira; Ishikawa, Hirohisa

    1996-01-01

    Current plans for the geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) in Japan include metal overpacks which contain HLW. Overpacks may be required to remain intact for more than several hundred years in order to provide containment of radio nuclides. The main factor limiting the performance of overpacks is considered to be corrosion by groundwater. Carbon steel is one of the candidate material for overpacks. A mathematical model for life prediction of carbon steel overpack has been developed based on corrosion mechanism. General corrosion and localized corrosion are considered because these are likely to initiate in repository conditions. In general corrosion model, the reduction of oxygen and water are considered as cathodic reaction. In localized corrosion model, we have constructed a model which predict the period for localized corrosion based on oxygen transport in bentonite. We also developed a model which predict the propagation rate of localized corrosion that is based on mass balance within the corroding cavity. (author)

  14. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  15. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  16. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Mirzoyeva, N.Yu.; Egorov, V.N.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m −3 , respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq 137 Cs and 22 Bq 90 Sr per m 3 as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly 90 Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995–1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. -- Highlights: • Concentration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the Black Sea water is still relatively high. • The Black Sea continues to receive considerable radionuclide amount from the rivers. • The North-Crimean Canal is significant source of the Black Sea radioactivity. • Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea increased in the late 1990's. • Radionuclide remobilization from sediments leads to a further Black Sea pollution

  17. Long term radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.

    2001-01-01

    A major issue to secure the development of nuclear energy in future is the radioactive waste minimization, both inside the fuel cycle and in a deep geological storage. The aim of this paper is to establish the physical principles which provide an inherent minimization of the radioactive wastes. A new concept is introduced to characterize the radiotoxicity associated to various nuclei families in equilibrium state. The analysis shows the potential of evolutionary nuclear systems, mostly based on known technologies and the potential of more futuristic systems, like accelerator-driven systems and Th-fuel cycle. Several groups of the toxicity sources are object of the studies: Actinides as a part of the nuclear fuel which is remaining unusable after irradiation in nuclear power plants; long-lived fission products as the inevitable result of nuclear energy production; Lanthanides as an important part of fission products which separation from Actinides is technologically difficult because of similar chemical properties

  18. Long-term groundwater contamination after source removal—The role of sorbed carbon and nitrogen on the rate of reoxygenation of a treated-wastewater plume on Cape Cod, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Barber, Larry B.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of groundwater contamination can remain long after a contaminant source has been removed. Documentation of natural aquifer recoveries and empirical tools to predict recovery time frames and associated geochemical changes are generally lacking. This study characterized the long-term natural attenuation of a groundwater contaminant plume in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, after the removal of the treated-wastewater source. Although concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and other soluble constituents have decreased substantially in the 15 years since the source was removed, the core of the plume remains anoxic and has sharp redox gradients and elevated concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Aquifer sediment was collected from near the former disposal site at several points in time and space along a 0.5-km-long transect extending downgradient from the disposal site and analyses of the sediment was correlated with changes in plume composition. Total sediment carbon content was generally low (rates in laboratory incubations, which ranged from 11.6 to 44.7 nmol (g dry wt)− 1 day− 1. Total water extractable organic carbon was groundwater velocity. This suggests that the total sorbed carbon pool is large relative to the rate of oxygen entrainment and will be impacting groundwater geochemistry for many decades. This has implications for long-term oxidation of reduced constituents, such as ammonium, that are being transported downgradient away from the infiltration beds toward surface and coastal discharge zones.

  19. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation potential of a new acid tolerant, diazotrophic P-solubilizing and heavy metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus sp. MTS-7 isolated from long-term mixed contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    An isolate of Cupriavidus (strain MTS-7) was identified from a long-term PAHs and heavy metals mixed contaminated soil with the potential to biodegrade both LMW and HMW PAHs with added unique traits of acid and alkali tolerance, heavy metal tolerance, self-nutrient assimilation by N fixation and P solubilization. This strain completely degraded the model 3 (150 mg L(-1) Phe), 4 (150 mg L(-1) Pyr) and 5 (50 mg L(-1) BaP) ring PAHs in 4, 20 and 30 days, respectively. It could mineralize 90-100% of PAHs (200 mg L(-1) of Phe and Pyr) within 15 days across pH ranging from 5 to 8 and even in the presence of toxic metal contaminations. During biodegradation, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 (Cu(2+)) and 3 (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+)) mg L(-1) of the potentially bioavailable metal ions and over 17 mg L(-1) metal levels was lethal for the microbe. Further, it could fix 217-274 μg mL(-1) of N and solubilize 79-135 μg mL(-1) of P while PAHs degradation. MTS-7 as a superior candidate could be thus used in the enhanced bioaugmentation and/or phytoremediation of long-term mixed contaminated sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lair, G.J.; Zehetner, F.; Fiebig, M.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Hein, T.; Hohensinner, S.; Hsu, P.; Jones, K.C.; Jordan, G.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded 'AquaTerra' project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management. - Human activities have changed the hydraulics and contaminant fate in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  1. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  2. Long term behavior of radioactive plume of TEPCO FNPP1 released 134Cs and 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean through the end of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Michio; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Hamajima, Yasunori; Kumamoto, Yuichiro

    2015-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major likely pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima NPP1 accident site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northe