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Sample records for long-term leaching behavior

  1. Prediction models of long-term leaching behavior and leaching mechanism of glass components and surrogated nuclides in radioactive vitrified waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, K. S. [Department of Industrial Environment and Health, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, I. T.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Melting solidification is considered to be a perspective technology for stabilizing incineration ash remaining after incineration of combustible radioactive waste since it has the advantage of improving the physicochemical properties of waste forms. Final waste forms should be characterized to determine the degree to which they fulfills the acceptance criteria of the disposal facility. Chemical durability (leaching resistance) is known to be the most important factor in the assessment of waste forms. In this study, vitrified waste forms are manufactured and characterized. Feed materials consist of simulated radioactive incineration ash and base-glass with different mixing ratios. To assess the chemical durability of vitrified waste forms, the International Standard Organization (ISO) leach test has been conducted at 70 degree C with deionized distilled water as a leachant for 820 days, and the concentrations of glass components and surrogates in the leachates are then analyzed. Two models for predicting long-term leaching behavior of glass components and radionuclides in a glass form are applied to the leached data after 820 days. The model including a fitted parameter from the longer experimental data shows more accuracy, however, the model with shorter leaching test results offers the advantage of being able to predict the long-term behavior from the short-term experimental data. The leaching mechanisms of surrogates and glass components were also investigated by using two semi-empirical kinetic models and were found to be dissolution with diffusion. (author)

  2. Long-term leaching behavior of phenol in cement/activated-carbon solidified/stabilized hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Nie, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Xianwei; Su, Zhaoji

    2013-01-30

    The long-term leaching behavior of phenol in solidified/stabilized (S/S) hazardous wastes cured for 28 d with different amounts of activated carbon (AC) was investigated using synthetic inorganic acid (H(2)SO(4):HNO(3) = 2:1, pH = 3.2), acetic acid buffer (HAc/NaAc, pH = 4.93), and deionized water as leachants to simulate the leaching of phenol in three exposure scenarios: acid-precipitation, co-disposal, and neutral-precipitation. Phenol immobilization was enhanced by AC adsorption and impaired by the growth of micropores with increasing amount of AC; thus the optimal added amount of AC to be to added S/S wastes was 2%. The leaching behavior of phenol in co-disposal scenario was unpredictable due to inadequate ionization of HAc in the HAc-NaAc buffer solution. The findings indicated that S/S products should be disposed of in hazardous waste landfills rather than municipal solid waste landfills.

  3. Evaluation of long-term behavior of concretes in high level waste repositories. An accelerated leaching test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes an accelerated leaching method that with a rapid process allows to develop and evaluate cements for use in a nuclear disposal, and the understanding of the long term effects. The method has been developed to study the stability of cementitious materials in contact with bentonite, to be used in high level radioactivity waste repositories. Nitric acid has been selected to simulate in an accelerated way the pH decreasing produced when concrete is in contact with groundwaters.

    El presente trabajo describe un ensayo acelerado de lixiviación, que mediante un proceso rápido, permite desarrollar y evaluar cementos para su uso en instalaciones nucleares, y la comprensión de su comportamiento a largo plazo. El método se ha desarrollado para estudiar la estabilidad de materiales de base cemento, en contacto con bentonita, que serán utilizados en almacenamientos de resíduos radiactivos de alta actividad. Como agente lixiviante se seleccionó el ácido nítrico, con objeto de simular de forma acelerada, la disminución del pH que se produce cuando el hormigón entra en contacto con aguas subterráneas.

  4. Solid State Characterizations of Long-Term Leached Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Parker, Kent E.; Miller, Brian W.; Lee, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Washton, Nancy M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lawter, Amanda R.; McElroy, Erin M.; Serne, R Jeffrey

    2016-09-30

    This report describes the results from the solid phase characterization of six Cast Stone monoliths from the extended leach tests recently reported on (Serne et al 2016),that were selected for characterization using multiple state-of-the-art approaches. The Cast Stone samples investigated were leached for > 590 d in the EPA Method 1315 test then archived for > 390 d in their final leachate. After reporting the long term leach behavior of the monoliths, it was suggested that physical changes to the waste form samples and a depleting inventory of contaminants of potential concern may mean that effective diffusivity calculations past 63 d should not be used to t accurately represent long-term waste form behavior. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that occur in the Cast Stone during the long-term leaching process is thus imperative to support long term modelling of cementitious waste form performance. These novel investigations provide an initial arsenal of techniques which can be utilized to perform such Cast Stone solid phase characterization work, which in turn can support upcoming performance assessment maintenance. The work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to characterize several properties of the long term leached Cast Stone monolith samples:

  5. Solid State Characterizations of Long-Term Leached Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Parker, Kent E.; Miller, Brian W.; Lee, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Washton, Nancy M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lawter, Amanda R.; McElroy, Erin M.; Serne, R Jeffrey

    2016-09-30

    This report describes the results from the solid phase characterization of six Cast Stone monoliths from the extended leach tests recently reported on (Serne et al. 2016),that were selected for characterization using multiple state-of-the-art approaches. The Cast Stone samples investigated were leached for > 590 d in the EPA Method 1315 test then archived for > 390 d in their final leachate. After reporting the long term leach behavior of the monoliths (containing radioactive 99Tc and stable 127I spikes and for original Westsik et al. 2013 fabricated monoliths, 238U), it was suggested that physical changes to the waste forms and a depleting inventory of contaminants of potential concern may mean that effective diffusivity calculations past 63 d should not be used to accurately represent long-term waste form behavior. These novel investigations, in both length of leaching time and application of solid state techniques, provide an initial arsenal of techniques which can be utilized to perform such Cast Stone solid phase characterization work, which in turn can support upcoming performance assessment maintenance. The work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to characterize several properties of the long- term leached Cast Stone monolith samples.

  6. Long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control residues: Leaching characterization and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column...

  7. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products...... to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone...... of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied...

  8. The long-term stability of cement - Leaching tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engkvist, I.; Albinsson, Y.; Johansson Engkvist, W. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    The concrete construction in the Swedish repository for long-lived low and intermediate level waste will give a stable chemical near field environment for 10{sup 5} years. The pH is expected to exceed 12 for the life time for most of the radionuclides in the repository in both saline and non-saline groundwaters. This is shown by static leaching experiments performed in saline and non-saline granitic groundwater conditions. Five gram portions of crushed ordinary Portland cement paste were equilibrated with 20 ml of synthetic saline or non-saline groundwater in a nitrogen atmosphere. Each week 12 ml (60%) of the water was replaced. The withdrawn water was used for chemical analyses and the results were used to monitor the degradation of the cement paste. After eighty weeks, some samples were analysed for mineral composition and compared with the original unleached paste. The results indicated no secondary ettringite or calcite formation. The results also supported the conclusion that the salinity of the contacting water is of minor importance for the long-term performance of the cement paste. 18 refs, 32 figs.

  9. Assessment of long-term leaching from waste incineration air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Mosbæk, Hans; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control (APC) residues is discussed with respect to use in environmental impact assessment, such as life-cycle assessment (LCA). A method was proposed for estimating leaching as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in a long-term p...

  10. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, L L; Gottman, J M; Levenson, R W

    1995-03-01

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction. In older couples, the resolution of conflict was less emotionally negative and more affectionate than in middle-aged marriages. Differences between husbands and wives and between happy and unhappy marriages were also found. Wives were more affectively negative than husbands, whereas husbands were more defensive than wives, and unhappy marriages involved greater exchange of negative affect than happy marriages.

  11. Sustainable long-term intensive application of manure to sandy soils without phosphorus leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asomaning, Samuel K.; Abekoe, Mark K.; Dowuona, G.N.N.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of manure to sandy soils to ensure high crop productivity may lead to phosphorus (P) leaching, which, in turn, may deteriorate the quality of recipient waters because of eutrophication. The risk of P leaching depends on contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) oxides...... soils, whereas in the deepest soil layers the P contents in the cultivated and uncultivated soils were almost the same indicating very limited downward P transport despite long-term manure application. This was supported by comparable P concentrations in groundwater taken under cultivated...

  12. Long-term leaching mechanisms of ashes and slags; Combining laboratory experiments with computer simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeverman, C.

    1997-12-31

    The leaching properties of slags and ashes have been studied on four waste materials: municipal solid waste incineration, MSWI, bottom ash, wood ash, electric arc furnace slag and blast furnace slag. The aim of the study has been to investigate properties that influence the long-term leaching of these materials. The results of the laboratory experiments have been used in computer simulations using CHEMFRONTS. CHEMFRONTS is a coupled geochemical and transport computer program developed by the author within this work. The main variable influencing the leaching of metal from solid waste is the final pH of the solution. This can be controlled by several factors, but if the contact time between the water and the waste material is sufficient, the waste itself often controls the pH by buffering reactions. The buffering capacity of a material is, therefore, one of the most important factors to investigate when the long-term leaching behaviour is to be predicted. A pH titration curve has been made for each material within this work, using a pH batch experimental series. The change in pH with time has also been studied. The materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy / Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy to assess the mineralogy and morphology of the materials. The mineralogy is important for computer simulations. A number of leaching experiments have been performed. A batch flow-through method has been developed which is a serial batch experiment, in which the contact time can be controlled. This technique makes it possible to have oxygen access in all the {sup c}olumns{sup ,} to simulate partly saturated conditions. Sampling is also possible in the {sup c}olumns{sup .} The influence of particle size has been studied, and surprisingly no influence of the particle size could be noted after 24 hours of leaching. The substitution of sand in concrete with steel slag has been studied by both physical and chemical tests. The steel slag

  13. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields e Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products aimed at avoiding any unacceptable influence on the environment, in particular contamination of water, including drinking water and groundwater...

  14. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Saavedra, R.; Iguatemy, M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees and

  15. Long term behavior of self-compacting reinforced concrete beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-jie; YU Zhi-wu; JIANG Li-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Tests were carded out on 8 self-compacting reinforced concrete(SCC) beams and 4 normal reinforced concrete beams. The effects of mode of consolidation, load level, reinforcing ratio and structural type on long term behavior of SCC were investigated. Under the same environmental conditions, the shrinkage-time curve of self-compacting concrete beam is very similar to that of normal concrete beam. For both self-compacting reinforced concrete beams and normal reinforced concrete beams, the rate of shrinkage at early stages is higher, the shrinkage strain at 2 months is about 60% of the maximum value at one year. The shrinkage strain of self-compacting reinforced concrete beam after one year is about 450×10-6. Creep deflection of self-compacting reinforced concrete beam decreases as the tensile reinforcing ratio increases. The deflection creep coefficient of self-compacting reinforced concrete beam after one and a half year is about 1.6, which is very close to that of normal reinforced concrete beams cast with vibration. Extra cautions considering shrinkage and creep behavior are not needed for the use of SCC in engineering practices.

  16. Ability of the MACRO Model to Predict Long-Term Leaching of Metribuzin and Diketometribuzin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Kjær, Jeanne; Henriksen, Trine;

    2009-01-01

    sorption and first-order degradation kinetics as recommended in the European Union pesticide authorization procedure, MACRO was unable to accurately simulate the long-term fate of metribuzin and diketometribuzin; the concentrations in the soil were underestimated by many orders of magnitude. By introducing...

  17. Long-term Photometric Behavior of Outbursting AM CVn Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Laher, Russ; Ofek, Eran O; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The AM CVn systems are a class of He-rich, post-period minimum, semi-detached, ultra-compact binaries. Their long-term light curves have been poorly understood due to the few systems known and the long (hundreds of days) recurrence times between outbursts. We present combined photometric light curves from the LINEAR, CRTS, and PTF synoptic surveys to study the photometric variability of these systems over an almost 10 yr period. These light curves provide a much clearer picture of the outburst phenomena that these systems undergo. We characterize the photometric behavior of most known outbursting AM CVn systems and establish a relation between their outburst properties and the systems' orbital periods. We also explore why some systems have only shown a single outburst so far and expand the previously accepted phenomenological states of AM CVn systems. We conclude that the outbursts of these systems show evolution with respect to the orbital period, which can likely be attributed to the decreasing mass transfe...

  18. Long-term nitrogen addition decreases carbon leaching in nitrogen-rich forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC plays a critical role in the carbon (C cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine how long-term N addition affects DOC dynamics below the primary rooting zones (the upper 20 cm soils in typically N-rich lowland tropical forests. We have a primary assumption that long-term continuous N addition minimally affects DOC concentrations and effluxes in N-rich tropical forests. Experimental N addition was administered at the following levels: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results showed that seven years of N addition significantly decreased DOC concentrations in soil solution, and chemo-physical controls (solution acidity change and soil sorption rather than biological controls may mainly account for the decreases, in contrast to other forests. We further found that N addition greatly decreased annual DOC effluxes from the primary rooting zone and increased water-extractable DOC in soils. Our results suggest that long-term N deposition could increase soil C sequestration in the upper soils by decreasing DOC efflux from that layer in N-rich ecosystems, a novel mechanism for continued accumulation of soil C in old-growth forests.

  19. Long-term nitrogen addition decreases carbon leaching in a nitrogen-rich forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC plays a critical role in the carbon (C cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine how long-term N addition affects DOC dynamics below the primary rooting zones (the upper 20 cm soils in typically N-rich lowland tropical forests. We have a primary assumption that long-term continuous N addition minimally affects DOC concentrations and effluxes in N-rich tropical forests. Experimental N addition was administered at the following levels: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results showed that seven years of N addition significantly decreased DOC concentrations in soil solution, and chemo-physical controls (solution acidity change and soil sorption rather than biological controls may mainly account for the decreases, in contrast to other forests. We further found that N addition greatly decreased annual DOC effluxes from the primary rooting zone and increased water-extractable DOC in soils. Our results suggest that long-term N deposition could increase soil C sequestration in the upper soils by decreasing DOC efflux from that layer in N-rich ecosystems, a novel mechanism for continued accumulation of soil C in old-growth forests.

  20. Contaminant desorption during long-term leaching of hydroxide-weathered Hanford sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.; Steefel, C.I.; Perdrial, N.; Chorover, J.

    2009-11-01

    Considerable efforts have been made toward understanding the behavior of contaminants introduced into sediments surrounding high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) storage sites at several Department of Energy (DOE) facilities (Hanford Site, WA; Savannah River Site, SC; Oak Ridge Site, TN).

  1. Long Term Fatigue Behavior of Zirconia Based Dental Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa N. Aboushelib

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of cyclic loading on zirconia bar-shaped specimens after being subjected to three different surface treatments: particle abrasion with either 50 μm or 110 μm alumina and grinding with diamond points, while polished specimens served as a control. Statistical analysis revealed significant reduction (38-67% in flexure strength (P < 0.001 after three million cycles of dynamic loading for all surface treatments. Scanning electron imaging revealed grain boundary thickening, grain pull-out, and micro-cracking as the main structural defects. The results suggest that various surface treatments of zirconia based dental ceramics may significantly influence their long term fatigue resistance in the oral environment.

  2. Probabilistic simulation of long term behavior in polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A. R.; Singhal, S. N.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1995-04-01

    A methodology to compute cumulative probability distribution functions (CDF) of fatigue life for different ratios, r of applied stress to the laminate strength based on first ply failure criteria has been developed and demonstrated. Degradation effects due to long term environmental exposure and mechanical cyclic loads are considered in the simulation process. A unified time-stress dependent multi-factor interaction equation model developed at NASA Lewis Research Center has been used to account for the degradation/aging of material properties due to cyclic loads. Fast probability integration method is used to perform probabilistic simulation of uncertainties. Sensitivity of fatigue life reliability to uncertainties in the primitive random variables are computed and their significance in the reliability based design for maximum life is discussed. The results show that the graphite/epoxy (0/+45/90) deg laminate with ply thickness 0.125 in. has 500,000 cycles life for applied stress to laminate strength ratio of 0.6 and a reliability of 0.999. Also, the fatigue life reliability has been found to be most sensitive to the ply thickness and matrix tensile strength. Tighter quality controls must therefore be enforced on ply thickness and matrix strength in order to achieve high reliability of the structure.

  3. Comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in long-term care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The IPA Taskforce on Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Care Homes seeks to improve mental health care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations on comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in order to further stimulate countri

  4. Comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in long-term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Leontjevas, Roeslan; Gerritsen, Debby L

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The IPA Taskforce on Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Care Homes seeks to improve mental health care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations on comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in order to further stimulate countri

  5. Prosocial Behavior: Long-Term Trajectories and Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elinor; Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Underwood, Marion K

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated developmental trajectories for prosocial behavior for a sample followed from age 10 - 18 and examined possible adjustment outcomes associated with membership in different trajectory groups. Participants were 136 boys and 148 girls, their teachers, and their parents (19.4% African American, 2.4% Asian, 51.9% Caucasian, 19.5% Hispanic, and 5.8% other). Teachers rated children's prosocial behavior yearly in grades 4 - 12. At the end of the 12(th) grade year, teachers, parents, and participants reported externalizing behaviors and participants reported internalizing symptoms, narcissism, and features of borderline personality disorder. Results suggested that prosocial behavior remained stable from middle childhood through late adolescence. Group-based mixture modeling revealed three prosocial trajectory groups: low (18.7%), medium (52.8%), and high (29.6%). Membership in the high prosocial trajectory group predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior as compared to the low prosocial trajectory group, and for girls, lower levels of internalizing symptoms. Membership in the medium prosocial trajectory group also predicted being lower on externalizing behaviors. Membership in the high prosocial trajectory group predicted lower levels of borderline personality features for girls only.

  6. Long-term behavior of refractory thorium-plutonium dioxide solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claparede, Laurent; Guigue, Mireille; Jouan, Gauthier; Nadah, Nassima; Dacheux, Nicolas; Moisy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The long-term behavior of Th0.87Pu0.13O2 was examined in nitric acid concentrations. The normalized dissolution rates after 3380 days, range from (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10-6 g m-2 d-1 in 5 M HNO3 down to (3.2 ± 0.4) × 10-8 g m-2 d-1 in 10-3 M HNO3, which confirms the high chemical durability of this solid solution. The amounts of plutonium measured in solution lead to 0.9% and 2.1% of dissolved solid in 1 M and 5 M HNO3, respectively. In such conditions, the time required to reach the full dissolution of the material varies from 430 years (5 M HNO3) to 18,000 years (10-3 M HNO3). Moreover, the partial order related to the proton activity (n = 0.45 ± 0.03) suggests that the dissolution is mainly driven by surface reactions occurring at the solid/liquid interface. The characterization of the leached samples by SEM shows small microstructural modifications (i.e. detachment of crystallites) and the absence of neoformed phase while from PXRD, the unit cell parameter and crystallite size are not significantly affected.

  7. Long-Term Association between Developmental Assets and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on internal and external assets, the positive youth development approach aims to increase the capacity among adolescents to overcome challenges as they transition to adulthood. Developmental assets have been found to be positively associated with academic achievement, a variety of health promoting behaviors, and improved…

  8. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were amended plots, in spite of increased soil organic matter, factor of metal retention. Indeed, DOC, also increased by amendments, favours the

  9. Commitment and Lapse Behavior in Long-Term Insurance: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pinquet, Jean; Guillén, Montserrat; Ayuso, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a case study of a portfolio of individual long-term insurance contracts sold by a Spanish mutual company. We describe the risk levels, the rating structure and the implied cross-subsidies on a portfolio of policies providing health, life and long-term care insurance. We show evidence of reclassification risk through the history of disability spells. We also analyze the lapse behavior and seek to provide a rationale for the portfolio's dynamics. Last...

  10. Quantifying long-term responses of crop yield and nitrate leaching in an intensive farmland using agro-eco-environmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Huo, Zailin; Zheng, Yanxia; Dai, Xiaoqin; Feng, Shaoyuan; Mao, Xiaomin

    2017-09-21

    Quantitatively ascertaining and analyzing long-term responses of crop yield and nitrate leaching on varying irrigation and fertilization treatments are focal points for guaranteeing crop yield and reducing nitrogen loss. The calibrated agricultural-hydrological RZWQM2 model was used to explore the long-term (2003-2013) transport processes of water and nitrogen and the nitrate leaching amount into groundwater in summer maize and winter wheat rotation field in typical intensive plant area in the North China Plain, Daxing district of Beijing. Simulation results showed that application rates of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer have couple effects on crop yields and nitrogen leaching of root zone. When both the irrigation and fertilizer for summer maize and winter wheat were 400mm and 400kgNha(-1), respectively, nitrate leaching into groundwater accounted for 47.9% of application amount of nitrogen fertilizer. When application amount of irrigation is 200mm and fertilization is 200kgNha(-1), NUPE (nitrogen uptake efficiency), NUE (nitrogen use efficiency), NPFP (nitrogen partial factor productivity), and Wpi (irrigation water productive efficiency) were in general higher than that under other irrigation and fertilization condition (irrigation from 104-400mm, fertilizer 104-400kgNha(-1)). Irrigation bigger than 200mm could shorten the response time of nitrate leaching in deeper soil layer in different irrigation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  12. Short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder: long-term efficacy and predictors of long-term treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Dremmel, Daniela; Schlup, Barbara; Munsch, Simone

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluates the long-term efficacy (four years after treatment) of a short-term Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CBT) of Binge Eating Disorder (BED). We examined patient characteristics, mostly measured at the end of treatment, for their predictive value of long-term success. Forty-one BED-patients between 18 and 70 years took part in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for a short-term treatment and were evaluated until 4 years after treatment. Assessments comprised structured interviews on comorbid mental disorder/eating disorder pathology and questionnaires on eating disorder pathology/general psychopathology. BED core symptoms and associated psychopathology improved substantially during treatment phase and further improved or at least remained stable during the follow-up period. End of treatment predictors for long term success were elevated weight and eating concern and higher frequency of objective binges. Tailoring additional interventions to patients' individual needs could further improve treatment efficacy.

  13. Long-term use of electrical aversion treatment with self-injurious behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duker, P.C.C.; Seys, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Twelve severely and profoundly mentally retarded individuals with life-threatening self-injurious behaviors were exposed to electrical aversion treatment using a remotely controlled device. Long-term effectiveness was assessed for periods ranging from 2 to 47 months for the 12 individuals,

  14. Behavioral Specifications of Reward-Associated Long-Term Memory Enhancement in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Duzel, Emrah

    2011-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies link reward-related activation of the midbrain substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), the site of origin of ascending dopaminergic projections, with improved long-term episodic memory. Here, we investigated in two behavioral experiments how (1) the contingency between item properties and reward, (2) the…

  15. An Evaluation of Persistence of Treatment Effects during Long-Term Treatment of Destructive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Padilla, Yaniz C.; Nevin, John A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Eight young children who displayed destructive behavior maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement received long-term functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children completed a portion of a task and then touched a communication card attached to a microswitch to obtain brief breaks. Prior to and intermittently…

  16. Long-term performance and behavior of sows fed high levels of non-starch polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the long-term effects of feeding sows high levels of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides CNSP) (i.e., NSP from sugar beet pulp) restrictedly or ad libitum during gestation or ad libitum during lactation on behavior, reproductive perform

  17. Impact of a long-term fire retardant (Fire Trol 931) on the leaching of Ca, Mg, and K from a Mediterranean forest loamy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Koufopoulou, Sofia; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Pappa, Athina

    2016-03-01

    The present laboratory study was conducted in pot soil taken from forest. The leaching of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) (plant macronutrients) due to the application of a nitrogen phosphate-based long-term fire retardant (LTFR) (Fire Trol 931) was investigated. The concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) were measured in the resulting leachates from pots with forest soil and pine tree alone and in combination with fire. Magnesium is a minor component of Fire Trol 931. The leaching of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) from treated soils with the retardant pots was significantly greater than that from control pots. The leaching of Mg(2+) was found to be of small percentage of the initially applied Mg quantities. Fire Trol 931 application resulted in the leaching of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) from a typical Mediterranean forest soil in pots, following the application of simulated annual precipitation probably due to ammonium (one of the major retardant components) soil deposition that mobilizes base cations from the soil. It seems that LTFR application may result in chemical leaching from the soil to the drainage water.

  18. Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shanping; Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Sun, Philip Y-W; Roberts, Adam C.; Glanzman, David L.

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Cells called neurons allow information to travel quickly around the body so that we can rapidly respond to any changes that we sense in our environment. This includes non-conscious reactions, such as the knee-jerk reflex in humans. Reflexes and other behaviors can be influenced by long-term memory, and it is thought that long-term memory is stored by changes in the synapses that connect neurons to each other. The reflexes of a sea slug known as Aplysia are often used to study mem...

  19. Release of heavy metals during long-term land application of sewage sludge compost: Percolation leaching tests with repeated additions of compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S; van der Sloot, Hans A; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Leaching assessment procedures have been used to determine the leachability of heavy metals as input for evaluating the risk from sewage sludge compost land application. However, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding leaching from soils with repeated application of sewage sludge compost with elevated levels of heavy metals. In this paper, leaching assessment is extended to evaluate the potential leaching of heavy metals during repetitive application of composted sewage sludge to soils. Four cycling of compost additions and percolation leaching were conducted to investigate how leaching behavior of heavy metals changed with repeated additions of compost. Results showed that repetitive additions of compost to soil significantly increased the content of organic matter, which favored the formation of reducing condition due to improved microbial activities and oxygen consumption. Establishment of reducing conditions can enhance the leaching concentrations of As by approximately 1 order of magnitude, especially for the soil rich in organic matter. For Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, repeated additions of compost will cause accumulation in total contents but not enhancement in leaching concentrations. The infiltration following compost additions will leach out the mobile fraction and the residual fraction might not release in the next cycling of compost addition and infiltration. The cumulative release of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb accounted for less than 5% of the total contents during four times of compost applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long Term Behavior of Composite Material Polyester-Wood Reinforced Glass Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Olodo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available If the industry generally considers composite materials as potentially interesting, the lack of durability makes their often limited employment. Indeed, the design of composite structures often requires taking account of the long-term behaviour under various types of complex solicitations. This study is based on the development of a methodology for modeling the long term behavior under constant load for multilayer composite structures subjected to complex solicitations. This study is on the evaluation of the long-term behaviour of tri-layers glass/polyester-wood composite material. The objective is the evaluation of the long term strength of this material by the Goldenblat-Kopnov criterion. The studied model is an orthotropic tri layer plate of sandwich type with upper and lower flanges (skins are in composite material glass/polyester KACT-B and the intermediate layer (soul is pine wood. The character of loading of the plate is reflected in the model by the functions &sigmaik(&xi, &sigmamn(&xi which can be of different natures. For example, to load in the long term by constant constraints in time (the weight own element for example, we will have: &sigmaik = const &sigmamn = const. The results of the calculations show that, for this type of material, the conditions of strength to the dangerous points of the plate are met.

  1. An Evaluation of Persistence of Treatment Effects During Long-Term Treatment of Destructive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K; Lee, John F.; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Padilla, Yaniz C; Nevin, John A.; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Eight young children who displayed destructive behavior maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement received long-term functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children completed a portion of a task and then touched a communication card attached to a microswitch to obtain brief breaks. Prior to and intermittently throughout FCT, extinction probes were conducted within a withdrawal design in which task completion, manding, and destructive behavior were placed on ext...

  2. The maintenance of behavioral change: the case for long-term follow-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses response maintenance, the durability of behavior change after therapy, treatment, or training ends. Response maintenance is one of the three forms of generalized behavior change, with the others being setting/situation generalization and response generalization. Long-term maintenance of treatment effects is an important issue after behavior change has taken place and is the goal of most programs. Areas discussed include factors affecting the study of maintenance, techniques for programming it, and analyzing and evaluating strategies for promoting it. This article presents a number of long-term follow-ups of programs designed to treat the addictive behaviors of typical adults (Foxx, 1982; Foxx, Brown, & Katz, 1981) and to teach social skills (Foxx & Faw, 1992) and language (Foxx & Faw, 1990) to individuals with intellectual disabilities and autism as well as to decrease their severe maladaptive behaviors (Foxx, 1990; Foxx & Livesay, 1984). In the process, various factors that appeared to contribute to long-term maintenance are identified. The article concludes with some recommendations regarding the study of maintenance.

  3. NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME ACTIVATION CONTRIBUTES TO LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL ALTERATIONS IN MICE INJECTED WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, WEI; CAO, FENG-SHENG; FENG, JUN; CHEN, HUA-WENG; WAN, JIE-RU; LU, QING; WANG, JIAN

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5 mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test. We also assessed protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase-1 p10 in hippocampus by Western blotting; measured levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-10 in hippocampus; measured TNFα and IL-1β in serum by ELISA; and evaluated microglial activity in hippocampus by Iba1 immunofluorescence. We found that LPS-injected mice displayed long-term depression-like behaviors and recognition memory deficit; elevated expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 p10; increased levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and TNFα; decreased levels of IL-10; and increased microglial activation. These effects were blocked by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone. The results demonstrate proof of concept that NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice, probably through enhanced inflammation, and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition might alleviate peripheral and brain inflammation and thereby ameliorate long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice. PMID:27923741

  4. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaka Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl’s social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. Conclusion This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  5. Long-Term Behaviors of Stochastic Interest Rate Models with Jumps and Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Jianhai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show the convergence of the long-term return $t^{-\\mu}\\int_0^tX(s)\\d s$ for some $\\mu\\geq1$, where $X$ is the short-term interest rate which follows an extension of Cox-Ingersoll-Ross type model with jumps and memory, and, as an application, we also investigate the corresponding behavior of two-factor Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model with jumps and memory

  6. Preparation, characterization and application of alkaline leached CuNiZn ternary coatings for long-term electrolysis in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmaz, Ramazan [Bingoel University, Science and Letters Faculty, Chemistry Department, 12000 Bingoel (Turkey); Doener, Ali; Kardas, Guelfeza [Cukurova University, Science and Letters Faculty, Chemistry Department, 01330 Balcali Adana (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    The NiCuZn ternary coating was electrochemically deposited on a copper electrode. Then, it was etched in a concentrated alkaline solution (30% NaOH) to produce a porous and electrocatalytic surface suitable for use in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The surface composition of coating before and after alkaline leaching was determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The surface morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The long-term stability of electrode prepared for alkaline water electrolysis was investigated in 1 M KOH solution with the help of cathodic current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. It was found that, the NiCuZn coating has a compact and porous structure with good physical stability. Alkaline leaching process further improved the activity of NiCuZn coating in comparison with binary NiCu deposit for the HER. The long-term operation at -100 mA cm{sup -2} showed good electrochemical stability over 120 h. (author)

  7. SPIN90 Modulates Long-Term Depression and Behavioral Flexibility in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hwan Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of actin-binding proteins (ABPs in the regulation of synapse morphology and plasticity has been well established. SH3 protein interacting with Nck, 90 kDa (SPIN90, an Nck-interacting protein highly expressed in synapses, is essential for actin remodeling and dendritic spine morphology. Synaptic targeting of SPIN90 to spine heads or dendritic shafts depends on its phosphorylation state, leading to blockage of cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization and spine shrinkage. However, the physiological role of SPIN90 in long-term plasticity, learning and memory are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Spin90-knockout (KO mice exhibit substantial deficits in synaptic plasticity and behavioral flexibility. We found that loss of SPIN90 disrupted dendritic spine density in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus and significantly impaired long-term depression (LTD, leaving basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP intact. These impairments were due in part to deficits in AMPA receptor endocytosis and its pre-requisites, GluA1 dephosphorylation and postsynaptic density (PSD 95 phosphorylation, but also by an intrinsic activation of Akt-GSK3β signaling as a result of Spin90-KO. In accordance with these defects, mice lacking SPIN90 were found to carry significant deficits in object-recognition and behavioral flexibility, while learning ability was largely unaffected. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a novel modulatory role for SPIN90 in hippocampal LTD and behavioral flexibility.

  8. Long term bending behavior of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Alexandru BARBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike normal concrete (NC the behavior of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC is different under long-term efforts, if we refer to creep, shrinkage or long-term deflections. It is well known that UHPC has special properties, like compressive strength higher than 150 MPa and tensile strength higher than 20 MPa - in case of UHPC reinforced with steel-fibers. Nevertheless, UHPC behavior is not completely elucidated in what concerns creep straining or serviceability behavior in case of structural elements. Some studies made on UHPC samples shown that creep is significantly reduced if the concrete is subjected to heat treatment and if it contains steel-fiber reinforcement. Relating thereto, it is important to know how does structural elements made of this type of concrete works in service life under long-term loadings. The results obtained on UHPC samples, regarding creep straining from tension or compression efforts may not be generalized in case of structural elements (e.g. beams, slabs, columns subjected to bending. By performing this study, it was aimed to understand the influence of heat treatment and steel-fiber addition on the rheological phenomena of UHPC bended beams.

  9. [Dynamic leaching behavior of heavy metals in eco-cement mortar block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Jun-Li; Yue, Dong-Bei; Nie, Yong-Feng; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2008-03-01

    A dynamic leaching test with the renewal of acidic leaching medium was designed to study the leaching behavior of the seven heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in three solidified eco-cement mortar samples with different particle size (fine granule, coarse granule, block) under a long-term leaching condition. It was demonstrated that all the heavy metals were detected in the leachate except Cd. The leaching ratio of Cr was the highest when compared with other metals in the same sample, and the leaching ratio of every metal showed an identical tendency: fine granule> coarse granule > block. The on-going leaching part of the relationship curve of accumulative leaching point (Pt) and t1/2 of each metal presented a fairly good linearity, which indicated that the leaching process was under the control of diffusion mechanism by the Fick Law. To each metal, the effective diffusion coefficient (Deff) showed a tendency of fine granule mortar with a bigger size would have a lower leaching ratio and a shorter period to finish the leaching test. To all the metals, the Deff was very low, with the magnitude around 10(-10) cm2/s, which meant the leaching process would take a relatively long time.

  10. Magnetic Behavior of Sintered NdFeB Magnets on a Long-Term Timescale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Haavisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable polarization of permanent magnets over the lifetime of the application is an important aspect in electrical machine design. Specification of the long-term stability of magnet material is difficult, since knowledge of the phenomenon is incomplete. To be able to optimize magnet material selection, the long-term magnetic behavior of the material must also be understood. This study shows that material with a very square JH curve is stable until a certain critical operating temperature is reached. Major losses are detected as the critical temperature is exceeded. Material with a rounder JH curve does not show a well-defined critical temperature, but increasing losses over a large temperature range. The critical temperature of a material is also dependent on the field conditions. Results differ whether the tests are performed in an open or closed magnetic circuit. In open-circuit tests, the opposing field is not homogeneously distributed throughout the volume of the magnet and thus the long-term behavior is different than that in closed-circuit conditions. Open-circuit tests seem to give bigger losses than closed-circuit tests in cases where the permeance coefficient of the open-circuit sample is considered to be the average permeance coefficient, calculated according to the dimensions of the magnet.

  11. An expectancy-value theory approach to the long-term modification of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R W; Deckner, C W; Mewborn, C R

    1978-04-01

    Despite the research interest in modifying smoking behavior, therapeutic treatments that can produce long-term cessation have not been demonstrated rigorously. A follow-up study of two attitude change experiments (N = 173) examined the effects of a fear appeal, that is, increasing smokers' awareness and appreciation of the highly noxious consequences of smoking. Although this familiar type of information may be an integral component of many smoking treatment programs, its long-term suppressive effect has not been demonstrated in well-controlled experiments. The results disclosed that 3 months and also 1 year after treatment, a high-fear manipulation had increased significantly the percentage of smokers who were able to stop smoking completely.

  12. Decoupling the short- and long-term behavior of stochastic volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko

    behavior) from long memory and persistence (long-term behavior) in a simple and parsimonious way, which allows us to successfully model volatility at all intraday time scales. Our prime model is based on the so-called Brownian semistationary process and we derive a number of theoretical properties...... measures of close to two thousand individual US equities, we find that both roughness and persistence appear to be universal properties of volatility. Inspired by the empirical findings, we introduce a new class of continuous-time stochastic volatility models, capable of decoupling roughness (short-term...

  13. Long-Term Acid-Generating and Metal Leaching Potential of a Sub-Arctic Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Mumford

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shales are increasingly being exploited for oil and unconventional gas. Exploitation of sub-arctic oil shales requires the creation of gravel pads to elevate workings above the heaving effects of ground ice. These gravel pads can potentially generate acidic leachate, which can enhance the mobility of metals from the shale. To examine this potential, pyrite-bearing shale originating from sub-Arctic gravel pad sites were subjected to leaching tests for 600 days at initial pH values ranging from 2 to 5, to simulate potential real world conditions. At set times over the 600 day experiment, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP, dissolved oxygen and temperature were recorded and small liquid samples withdrawn and analysed for elemental concentrations using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TRXRF. Six of eight shale samples were found to be acid generating, with pH declining and ORP becoming increasingly positive after 100 days. Two of the eight shale samples produced increasingly alkaline leachate conditions with relatively low ORP after 100 days, indicating an inbuilt buffering capacity. By 600 days the buffering capacity of all samples had been consumed and all leachate samples were acidic. TRXRF analyses demonstrated significant potential for the leaching of S, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn with greatest concentrations found in reaction vessels with most acidic pH and highest ORP.

  14. Effect of long-term fertilizer application in maize crop growing on chemical element leaching in Fluvisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Tsetska; Stoicheva, Dimitranka; Koleva, Venelina; Sokołowska, Zofia; Hajnos, Mieczysław

    2017-04-01

    The study characterized the regime of nutrient leaching under different nitrogen and phosphorus supply of irrigated maize grown as monoculture on Fluvisol for the period 1999-2008 and additionally studied in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of longterm fertilizer application on the leaching of nutrients from the soil under maize grown as monoculture. The experiment design included four nitrogen fertilizer rates (B1-control, B5, B4, B3, B2) calculated to compensate 50, 75, 100, and 125% from the plant N uptake, respectively. The field plots were equipped with lysimeters (at 50 and 100 cm depth) for studying the relationship between the applied fertilizer rates and the nutrient concentrations in the lysimetric water. The greatest nitrogen concentration in lysimetric water was observed under variant (B3-N200 P150) throughout the study period and the highest N losses were registered (36 kg ha-1) in 2010 under the same treatment (B3). A very good correlation was found between the N rates, calcium, and magnesium losses. Lysimetric water component compensation shows that agricultural activities have only influenced the speed of weathering and had no significant effect on the rates.

  15. Long-term effects of prevention and treatment on youth antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Aaron M; Borduin, Charles M; Dopp, Alex R

    2015-12-01

    Youth antisocial behavior exacts a tremendous toll on society and often persists into adulthood. Although researchers have identified a number of psychosocial interventions that prevent or reduce youth antisocial behavior in the short term, evidence of long-term intervention benefits has only recently become available. In addition, research on such interventions spans two substantial but largely separate bodies of literature: prevention and therapy. The present study used meta-analysis to integrate research on the long-term effects of preventive and therapeutic interventions for youth antisocial behavior and examined potential moderators of these effects. Results from 66 intervention trials (i.e., 34 prevention, 32 therapy) indicated that a broad range of youth psychosocial interventions demonstrated modest effects on antisocial behavior (mean d=0.31, 95% confidence interval=0.23-0.39) for at least one year beyond the end of interventions relative to control conditions. Among other findings, moderator analyses revealed that inclusion of a peer group intervention component was associated with reduced intervention effects for samples consisting predominantly of boys or older youths. The results of this study have important implications for service providers, administrators, and policymakers involved in the implementation of preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting youth antisocial behavior.

  16. Long-term reactive transport modelling of stabilized/solidified waste: from dynamic leaching tests to disposal scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windt, Laurent de [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CG-Hydrodynamics and Reaction Group, 35 R. St-Honore, 77300 Fontainebleau (France)]. E-mail: laurent.dewindt@ensmp.fr; Badreddine, Rabia [INERIS, Direction des Risques Chroniques, Unite Dechets et Sites Pollues, Parc Technologique Alata BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Lagneau, Vincent [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CG-Hydrodynamics and Reaction Group, 35 R. St-Honore, 77300 Fontainebleau (France)

    2007-01-31

    Environmental impact assessment of hazardous waste disposal relies, among others, on standardized leaching tests characterized by a strong coupling between diffusion and chemical processes. In that respect, this study shows that reactive transport modelling is a useful tool to extrapolate laboratory results to site conditions characterized by lower solution/solid (L/S) ratios, site specific geometry, infiltration, etc. A cement solidified/stabilized (S/S) waste containing lead is investigated as a typical example. The reactive transport model developed in a previous study to simulate the initial state of the waste as well as laboratory batch and dynamic tests is first summarized. Using the same numerical code (HYTEC), this model is then integrated to a simplified waste disposal scenario assuming a defective cover and rain water infiltration. The coupled evolution of the S/S waste chemistry and the pollutant plume migration are modelled assessing the importance of the cracking state of the monolithic waste. The studied configurations correspond to an undamaged and fully sealed system, a few main fractures between undamaged monoliths and, finally, a dense crack-network in the monoliths. The model considers the potential effects of cracking, first the increase of rain water and carbon dioxide infiltration and, secondly, the increase of L/S ratio and reactive surfaces, using either explicit fracture representation or dual porosity approaches.

  17. Long term dynamics of nitrate concentrations and leaching losses in tile drainage water from cultivated clayey till at field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Since 1985, several political agreements have been adopted to protect the aquatic environment and nature in Denmark. The farmers have repeatedly been ordered to reduce the consumption of nitrogen in their agricultural production. The reductions have been imposed nation-wide regardless of e.g. cli...... in concentrations and leaching losses of nitrate as well as in the dynamic over time. The results highlight some of the problems ahead when future regulations change from nation-wide to local scale........g. climate, soil type and local hydraulic conditions. By the end of 2013, the Danish Commission of Nature and Agriculture issued a report which recommend that for the future protection of surface nitrogen regulations should be locally adapted, and if possible, at the level of field scale. This kind...... of regulations will require very detailed information concerning e.g. climate, soil, geological settings, and hydrological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of nitrate (concentrations and losses) from drainage water at three fields (1.3-2.3 ha) located across Denmark...

  18. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes following Resolution of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Biggs

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35 and non-snoring controls (N = 25, underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35 of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20. 43% (15/35 were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15 had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype.

  19. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes following Resolution of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N.; Walter, Lisa M.; Jackman, Angela R.; Nisbet, Lauren C.; Weichard, Aidan J.; Hollis, Samantha L.; Davey, Margot J.; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35) and non-snoring controls (N = 25), underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG) and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35) of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20). 43% (15/35) were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15) had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype. PMID:26418065

  20. The geochemical release feature of Tl in Tl-rich pyrite mine wastes: a long-term leaching test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinwen; Chen, Nan; Rajan, Ivy; Sun, Zhehua; Wu, Huiming; Chen, Diyun; Kong, Lingjun

    2017-05-01

    Identifying and revealing the geochemical behaviour of Tl during mine waste weathering are very important to assess the potential environmental impact of Thallium (Tl) from open mine-waste piles. Herein, two methods including the modified BCR sequential extraction and the long-term humidity cell tests (HCT) were employed to understand the Tl chemical fractions and to stimulate intense chemical weathering process, respectively. The results from BCR sequential extraction showed that the Tl concentration in the studied sample was 18.78 mg/kg, containing 1.878 mg/kg oxidisable, 0.282 mg/kg acid exchangeable and 1.596 mg/kg reducible Tl. The acid exchangeable fraction contributed to a particular potential risk to the aquatic marine life in the early stages and the Fe/Mn oxidisable fraction posed a potential risk being dissolved into solution at low pH (i.e. acidic conditions). The variations of Tl concentration in leachates were classified as two period as the pH values decrease. In the first period, the Tl concentrations decreased positively with pH value with poor correlation between pH value and SO4(2-) concentration in leachates. Drastic release of Tl was observed in the early period once the material was exposed to air and water, being ascribe to the acid exchangeable fraction bound to carbonate as dissolved by acid. During the second period, three increased peaks of Tl concentration (11.02, 16.03, 43.15 μg/L) and four increased peaks of SO4(2-) concentration (315, 390, 899.61 and 2670 mg/L) were observed. A good correlation (R (2) = 0.8384) between the concentrations of Tl and SO4(2-) was observed, indicating the Tl was mainly released from the oxidation of sulphide.

  1. Long-term synchronized electrophysiological and behavioral wireless monitoring of freely moving animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Laszlo; Ftomov, Sergiu; Timofeev, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Parallel electrophysiological recording and behavioral monitoring of freely moving animals is essential for a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying behavior. In this paper we describe a novel wireless recording technique, which is capable of synchronously recording in vivo multichannel electrophysiological (LFP, MUA, EOG, EMG) and activity data (accelerometer, video) from freely moving cats. The method is based on the integration of commercially available components into a simple monitoring system and is complete with accelerometers and the needed signal processing tools. LFP activities of freely moving group-housed cats were recorded from multiple intracortical areas and from the hippocampus. EMG, EOG, accelerometer and video were simultaneously acquired with LFP activities 24-h a day for 3 months. These recordings confirm the possibility of using our wireless method for 24-h long-term monitoring of neurophysiological and behavioral data of freely moving experimental animals such as cats, ferrets, rabbits and other large animals. PMID:23099345

  2. Modeling and characterization of long term material behavior in polymer composites with woven fiber architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas

    The purpose of this research is to develop an analytical tool which, when coupled with accelerated material characterization, is capable of predicting long-term durability of polymers and their composites. Conducting creep test on each composite laminate with different fibers, fiber volume fractions, and weave architectures is impractical. Moreover, in case of thin laminates, accurately characterizing the out-of-plane matrix dominated viscoelastic response is not easily achievable. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper is to present a multi-scale modeling methodology to simulate the long-term interlaminar properties in polymer matrix woven composites and then predict the critical regions where failure is most likely to occur. A micromechanics approach towards modeling the out-of-plane viscoelastic behavior of a five-harness satin woven-fiber cross-ply composite laminate is presented, taking into consideration the weave architecture and time-dependent effects. Short-term creep tests were performed on neat resin at different test temperatures and stress levels to characterize physical aging of the resin matrix. In addition, creep and recovery experiments were conducted on un-aged resin specimens in order to characterize the pronounced stress-dependent nonlinear viscoelastic response of the PR500 resin. Two-dimensional micromechanics analysis was carried out using a test-bed finite element code, NOVA-3D, including interactions between non-linear material constitutive behavior, geometric nonlinearity, aging and environmental effects.

  3. Long-term evaluation of the degradation behavior of three apatite-forming calcium phosphate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jie; Liao, Hongbing; Kucko, Nathan W; Herber, Ralf-Peter; Wolke, Joop G C; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2016-05-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are injectable bone substitutes with a long clinical history because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Nevertheless, their cohesion upon injection into perfused bone defects as well as their long-term degradation behavior remain major clinical challenges. Therefore, the long-term degradation behavior of two types of α-tricalcium phosphate-based, apatite-forming CPCs was compared to a commercially available apatite-forming cement, that is HydroSet™ . Carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) was used as cohesion promotor to improve handling properties of the two experimental cements, whereas poly (d, l-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles were added to introduce macroporosity and stimulate CPC degradation. All three CPCs were injected into defects drilled into rabbit femoral condyles and explanted after 4, 12, or 26 weeks, after which the bone response was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. CPCs without PLGA microparticles degraded only at the periphery of the implants, while the residual CPC volume was close to 90%. On the contrary, bone ingrowth was observed not only at the periphery of the CPC, but also throughout the center of the implants after 26 weeks of implantation for the PLGA-containing CPCs with a residual CPC volume of approximately 55%. In conclusion, it was shown that CPC containing CMC and PLGA was able to induce partial degradation of apatite-forming CPCs and concomitant replacement by bone tissue.

  4. Long-term pollution by chlordecone of tropical volcanic soils in the French West Indies: A simple leaching model accounts for current residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabidoche, Y.-M., E-mail: cabidoch@antilles.inra.f [INRA, UR 135 Agropedoclimatique de la Zone Caraibe, Environment and Agronomy, Domaine Duclos, 97170 Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe (France); Achard, R., E-mail: achard@cirad.f [CIRAD, UPR Systemes Bananes et Ananas (Martinique), 97285 Le Lamentin (France); Cattan, P., E-mail: cattan@cirad.f [CIRAD, UPR Systemes Bananes et Ananas (Guadeloupe), 97130 Capesterre-Belle-Eau (France); Clermont-Dauphin, C., E-mail: clermont@ird.f [INRA, UR 135 Agropedoclimatique de la Zone Caraibe, Environment and Agronomy, Domaine Duclos, 97170 Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe (France); Massat, F., E-mail: fmassat@ladrome.f [Laboratoire Departemental d' Analyses de la Drome, LDA26, 26000 Valence (France); Sansoulet, J., E-mail: Julie.Sansoulet@cirad.f [INRA, UR 135 Agropedoclimatique de la Zone Caraibe, Environment and Agronomy, Domaine Duclos, 97170 Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe (France)

    2009-05-15

    Chlordecone was applied between 1972 and 1993 in banana fields of the French West Indies. This resulted in long-term pollution of soils and contamination of waters, aquatic biota, and crops. To assess pollution level and duration according to soil type, WISORCH, a leaching model based on first-order desorption kinetics, was developed and run. Its input parameters are soil organic carbon content (SOC) and SOC/water partitioning coefficient (K{sub oc}). It accounts for current chlordecone soil contents and drainage water concentrations. The model was valid for andosol, which indicates that neither physico-chemical nor microbial degradation occurred. Dilution by previous deep tillages makes soil scrapping unrealistic. Lixiviation appeared the main way to reduce pollution. Besides the SOC and rainfall increases, K{sub oc} increased from nitisol to ferralsol and then andosol while lixiviation efficiency decreased. Consequently, pollution is bound to last for several decades for nitisol, centuries for ferralsol, and half a millennium for andosol. - Soil and water contamination by chlordecone will persist for several centuries in the French West Indies, because the only decontamination is through leaching by drainage water.

  5. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welinton Alessandro Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL and drug (Pramipexole—PPX groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  6. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole—PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions. PMID:26483930

  7. Chronic dietary chlorpyrifos causes long-term spatial memory impairment and thigmotaxic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Ruiz-Muñoz, Ana M; Nieto-Escámez, Francisco A; Colomina, María T; Aschner, Michael; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and the role of neurotransmitter systems, other than the cholinergic system, in mediating OP neurotoxicity. In this study, rats were administered 5mg/kg/day of chlorpyrifos (CPF) for 6 months commencing at 3-months-of-age. The animals were examined 7 months later (at 16-months-of-age) for spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and locomotor activity. In addition, we assessed the chronic effects of CPF on glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) function using pharmacological challenges with dizocilpine (MK801) and diazepam. Impaired performance related to altered search patterns, including thigmotaxis and long-term spatial memory was noted in the MWM in animals exposed to CPF, pointing to dietary CPF-induced behavioral disturbances, such as anxiety. Twenty-four hours after the 31st session of repeated acquisition task, 0.1mg/kg MK801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected for 4 consecutive days. Decreased latencies in the MWM in the control group were noted after two sessions with MK801 treatment. Once the MWM assessment was completed, animals were administered 0.1 or 0.2mg/kg of MK801 and 1 or 3mg/kg of diazepam i.p., and tested for locomotor activity. Both groups, the CPF dietary and control, displayed analogous performance in motor activity. In conclusion, our data point to a connection between the long-term spatial memory, thigmotaxic response and CPF long after the exposure ended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of long-term creep behavior and lifetime of PPC pipe materials by linear extrapolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The universal creep equation relates creep behavior(ε/εo)to aging time(ta),coefficient of retardation time(β),and intrinsic time(to).The relation was used to treat the creep experimental data for pipe specimens of polypropylene block copelymer(PPC),which were aged for different days(short-term)and tested under different stress levels at a certain temperature.Then unified master lines were constructed with the treated data and curves according to the universal equation.The master straight lines can be used for extrapolation to predict the long-term creep behavior and lifetime of the pipe materials of PPC in the same way as plate materials.

  9. Long-term tillage effects on soil metolachlor sorption and desorption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guangwei; Novak, Jeffrey M; Herbert, Stephen; Xing, Baoshan

    2002-09-01

    Sorption and desorption are two important processes that influence the amount of pesticides retained by soils. However, the detailed sorption mechanisms as influenced by soil tillage management are unclear. This study examined the sorption and desorption characteristics of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)-acetamide] using the soil samples collected from the long-term conservation tillage (CnT) and conventional tillage (CT) research plots established in 1979 in Darlinton, SC. Humic acid (HA) and humin were extracted from the soils and used in the sorption experiments along with the whole soil samples. The sorption experiments were conducted using a batch-equilibration method. Three sequential desorption rinses were carried out following the sorption experiments. By comparing metolachlor sorption and desorption results we observed hysteresis for all soil samples and their organic matter fractions. Sorption nonlinearity (N) and hysteresis were dependent on the structure and composition of soil organic matter (SOM), e.g., Freundlich isotherm exponents (N) of HA and humin from CnT were higher than those of CT treatment, which may be related to high aromaticity of SOM fractions in CT treatment. Sorption capacity (K'f) was positively correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. These results show that long-term tillage management can greatly affect metolachlor sorption and desorption behavior probably by qualitative differences in the structural characteristics of the humic substances.

  10. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  11. Long-Term Association Between Developmental Assets and Health Behaviors: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Based on internal and external assets, the positive youth development approach aims to increase the capacity among adolescents to overcome challenges as they transition to adulthood. Developmental assets have been found to be positively associated with academic achievement, a variety of health promoting behaviors, and improved physical and mental health. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the long-term association between positive youth developmental assets with health risk and promoting behaviors. Method A continuous scale of developmental assets was created using 30 items from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, when participants were in 7th to 12th grades. Health behavior outcomes including cigarette use, substance use, fast food consumption, and physical activity were measured at both Wave III (age 18-26) and Wave IV (age 24-32). Path analysis was employed to assess the relationship between these observed measures. Results The well-fitted path model revealed associations between developmental assets with each health behavior at Wave III. Developmental assets indirectly influenced each health behavior and direct associations were observed between assets with substance use and physical activity at Wave IV. Conclusion Findings provide additional support for the developmental assets approach to adolescent health. Implications include Healthy People 2020 objectives related to tobacco and alcohol use and nutrition and physical activity.

  12. Calibrating and validating a FE model for long-term behavior of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Nikola D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research carried out in finding an optimal finite element (FE model for calculating the long-term behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams. A multi-purpose finite element software DIANA was used. A benchmark test in the form of a simply supported beam loaded in four point bending was selected for model calibration. The result was the choice of 3-node beam elements, a multi-directional fixed crack model with constant stress cut-off, nonlinear tension softening and constant shear retention and a creep and shrinkage model according to CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. The model was then validated on 14 simply supported beams and 6 continuous beams. Good agreement was found with experimental results (within ±15%.

  13. Long-term transport behavior of psychoactive compounds in sewage-affected groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nham, Hang Thuy Thi; Greskowiak, Janek; Hamann, Enrico; Meffe, Raffaella; Hass, Ulrike; Massmann, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    The present study provides a model-based characterization of the long-term transport behavior of five psychoactive compounds (meprobamate, pyrithyldione, primidone, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide) introduced into groundwater via sewage irrigation in Berlin, Germany. Compounds are still present in the groundwater despite the sewage farm closure in the year 1980. Due to the limited information on (i) compound concentrations in the source water and (ii) substance properties, a total of 180 cross-sectional model realizations for each compound were carried out, covering a large range of possible parameter combinations. Results were compared with the present-day contamination patterns in the aquifer and the most likely scenarios were identified based on a number of model performance criteria. The simulation results show that (i) compounds are highly persistent under the present field conditions, and (ii) sorption is insignificant. Thus, back-diffusion from low permeability zones appears as the main reason for the compound retardation.

  14. Long-term behavior of a cyclic max-type system of difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Stevic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the long-term behavior of positive solutions of the cyclic system of difference equations $$ x^{(i}_{n+1}=\\max\\Big\\{\\alpha,\\frac{(x^{(i+1}_n^p}{(x^{(i+2}_{n-1}^q}\\Big\\}, \\quad i=1,\\ldots,k,\\; n\\in\\mathbb{N}_0, $$ where $k\\in\\mathbb{N}$, $\\min\\{\\alpha, p, q\\}>0$ and where we regard that $x^{(i_1}_n=x^{(i_2}_n$ when $i_1\\equiv i_2$ (mod $k$. We determine the set of parameters $\\alpha$, p and q in $(0,\\infty^3$ for which all such solutions are bounded. In the other cases we show that the system has unbounded solutions. For the case p=q we give some sufficient conditions which guaranty the convergence of all positive solutions. The main results in this paper generalize and complement some recent ones.

  15. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Valori, Luca; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-01-01

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are well understood, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that inter-opinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultramet...

  16. The Influence of NaCl Crystallization on the Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Feng, Xia-Ting; Jiang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Salt precipitation can occur in saline aquifers when the pore-fluid concentration exceeds saturation during carbon dioxide sequestration, especially in the dry-out region closest to the wellbore. Results from uniaxial and triaxial compression tests, creep tests, and poromechanical tests indicate that NaCl crystallization in pores enhances the compressive strength and bulk modulus under the given confining pressure, and reduces creep. In addition, it makes the pore liquid pressure in the sandstone less sensitive to changes in the hydrostatic stress under undrained conditions. A poro-viscoelastic model with crystals in the pores is proposed to quantitatively estimate the influence of in-pore NaCl crystallization on the long-term mechanical behavior of sandstone. By considering the thermodynamics of crystallization, a geometrical model of a crystal in a pore space is applied to the quasi-static equilibrium state of the crystallization. The solid-liquid interfacial energy is introduced to provide a convenient approach to couple the mechanical properties of sandstone (as a porous material) and the thermochemistry of the in-pore NaCl crystallization. By adding the solid-liquid interfacial energy, the Clausius-Duhem inequality for the skeleton is established for the viscoelasticity based on the proposed geometrical model of a crystal in the pore space. The constitutive equations are deduced from the free energy balance relationship to evaluate the influence of crystallization on the effective stress in terms of the solid-liquid interfacial energies and the pore-size distribution. By comparing the model's output with the test results, it is found that the poro-viscoelastic model describes the influence of in-pore NaCl crystallization on the long-term mechanical behavior of the sandstone reasonably well.

  17. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling; Etude de la stabilite thermique du verre nucleaire. Modelisation de son evolution a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlhac, X

    2000-07-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO{sub 4}, CeCO{sub 2}, ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO{sub 2}SiO{sub 2}) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  18. Long-Term Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Wrought Commercial Alloys at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingtao Li

    2003-08-05

    The oxidation resistance of a high-temperature alloy is dependent upon sustaining the formation of a protective scale, which is strongly related to the alloying composition and the oxidation condition. The protective oxide scale only provides a finite period of oxidation resistance owing to its eventual breakdown, which is especially accelerated under thermal cycling conditions. This current study focuses on the long-term cyclic oxidation behavior of a number of commercial wrought alloys. The alloys studied were Fe- and Ni-based, containing different levels of minor elements, such as Si, Al, Mn, and Ti. Oxidation testing was conducted at 1000 and 1100 C in still air under both isothermal and thermal cycling conditions (1-day and 7-days). The specific aspects studied were the oxidation behavior of chromia-forming alloys that are used extensively in industry. The current study analyzed the effects of alloying elements, especially the effect of minor element Si, on cyclic oxidation resistance. The behavior of oxide scale growth, scale spallation, subsurface changes, and chromium interdiffusion in the alloy were analyzed in detail. A novel model was developed in the current study to predict the life-time during cyclic oxidation by simulating oxidation kinetics and chromium interdiffusion in the subsurface of chromia-forming alloys.

  19. Long-Term Fluoride Release from Dental Resins Affects STRO-1+ Cell Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calarco, A; Di Salle, A; Tammaro, L; De Luca, I; Mucerino, S; Petillo, O; Riccitiello, F; Vittoria, V; Peluso, G

    2015-08-01

    Fluoride-releasing restorative dental materials can be beneficial to remineralize dentin and help prevent secondary caries. However, the effects of fluoride release from dental materials on the activity of dental pulp stem cells are not known. Here we investigate whether different fluoride release kinetics from dental resins supplemented with modified hydrotalcite (RK-F10) or fluoride-glass filler (RK-FG10) could influence the behavior of a human dental pulp stem cell subpopulation (STRO-1(+) cells) known for its ability to differentiate toward an odontoblast-like phenotype. The 2 resins, characterized by similar physicochemical properties and fluoride content, exhibited different long-term fluoride release kinetics. Our data demonstrate that long-term exposure of STRO-1(+) cells to a continuous release of a low amount of fluoride by RK-F10 increases their migratory response to transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), both important promoters of pulp stem cell recruitment. Moreover, the expression patterns of dentin sialoprotein (dspp), dentin matrix protein 1 (dmp1), osteocalcin (ocn), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (mepe) indicate a complete odontoblast-like cell differentiation only when STRO-1(+) cells were cultured on RK-F10. On the contrary, RK-FG10, characterized by an initial fluoride release burst and reduced lifetime of the delivery, did not elicit any significant effect on both STRO-1(+) cell migration and differentiation. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of taking into account fluoride release kinetics in addition to fluoride concentration when designing new fluoride-restorative materials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  20. An empirical approach to predicting long term behavior of metal particle based recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Allan S.

    1991-01-01

    Alpha iron particles used for magnetic recording are prepared through a series of dehydration and reduction steps of alpha-Fe2O3-H2O resulting in acicular, polycrystalline, body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-Fe particles that are single magnetic domains. Since fine iron particles are pyrophoric by nature, stabilization processes had to be developed in order for iron particles to be considered as a viable recording medium for long term archival (i.e., 25+ years) information storage. The primary means of establishing stability is through passivation or controlled oxidation of the iron particle's surface. Since iron particles used for magnetic recording are small, additional oxidation has a direct impact on performance especially where archival storage of recorded information for long periods of time is important. Further stabilization chemistry/processes had to be developed to guarantee that iron particles could be considered as a viable long term recording medium. In an effort to retard the diffusion of iron ions through the oxide layer, other elements such as silicon, aluminum, and chromium have been added to the base iron to promote more dense scale formation or to alleviate some of the non-stoichiometric behavior of the oxide or both. The presence of water vapor has been shown to disrupt the passive layer, subsequently increasing the oxidation rate of the iron. A study was undertaken to examine the degradation in magnetic properties as a function of both temperature and humidity on silicon-containing iron particles between 50-120 deg C and 3-89 percent relative humidity. The methodology to which experimental data was collected and analyzed leading to predictive capability is discussed.

  1. Preadoption adversity and long-term clinical-range behavior problems in adopted Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A; Kim, Eun Sook

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we report findings on the role of preadoption adversity on long-term clinical-range problems in adopted Chinese girls. Four waves (2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011) of problem behavior data on 1,223 adopted Chinese girls (M = 4.86 years, SD = 2.82 in 2005) were collected from the adoptive mothers with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). At Wave 1 (2005), data on the following indicators of preadoption adversity was collected: age at adoption, physical signs/symptoms (e.g., sores) of preadoption adversity, developmental delays at arrival, refusal/avoidance behaviors and crying/clinging behaviors toward adoptive parents during the first 3 weeks of adoption. We found that the percentage of clinical-range internalizing problems was 11.1%, 16.5%, 11.3%, and 16.1% at Wave 1, Wave 2, Wave 3, and Wave 4, respectively; the corresponding percentage of clinical-range externalizing problems was 8.4%, 10.5%, 8.4% and 9.9% respectively; and the corresponding percentage of clinical-range total CBCL problems was 9.3%, 13.0%, 9.8% and 12.6% respectively. Analyses with Mplus showed that controlling for demographic variables, indicators of preadoption adversity, except age at adoption, increased the odds for clinical-range behavior problems. Longitudinal path models revealed that controlling for demographic variables and the children's adjustment status in the previous wave, refusal/avoidance remained significant in predicting clinical-range internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL problems at Wave 2, delays at arrival and signs/symptoms were significant in predicting clinical-range internalizing problems at Wave 3. Overall, adoptees with clinical-range CBCL problems in earlier waves were 9-28 times as likely to show clinical-range CBCL problems in subsequent waves.

  2. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L.; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.

    2015-01-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently…

  3. A smart homecage system with 3D tracking for long-term behavioral experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byunghun Lee; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    A wirelessly-powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface (GUI) is presented for long-term electrophysiology experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils (WWCs) with optimal geometries to form 3-and 4-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multi-coil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared to conventional 2-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers (PAs) to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and dissipated heat. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6 cm accuracy. An in vivo experiment was conducted on a freely behaving rat by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for > 7 hours inside a standard homecage.

  4. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  5. Modeling the complex and long term swelling behavior of argillaceous rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doostmohammadi R.; Mutschler Th.; Osan C.

    2011-01-01

    The swelling behavior of argillaceous rocks is a complex phenomenon and has been determined using a lot of indexes in the literature.Determining the required modeling indexes that need to be performed requires expensive tests and extensive time in different laboratories.In some of the cases,it is too difficult to find a relation between the effective variables and swelling potential.This paper suggests a method for modeling the time dependent swelling pressure of argillaceous rocks.The trend of short term swelling potential during the first 3 days of the swelling pressure testing is used for modeling the long term swelling pressure of mudstone that is recorded during months.The artificial neural network (ANN) as a power tool is used for modeling this nonlinear and complex behavior.This method enables predicting the swelling potential of argillaceous rocks when the required indexes and also correlation between them is unattainable.This method facilitates the model of all studied samples under a unique formulation.

  6. Long-term behavior of glass-ceramic zirconolite; Etude du comportement a long terme des vitrocristallins a base de zirconolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch

    2003-07-01

    This work is a part of the investigation of new containment matrices considered for specific conditioning of radionuclides after separation. The aim was to demonstrate the long-term aqueous corrosion resistance of the glass-ceramic zirconolite considered for the conditioning of plutonium and the minor actinides. This material is composed of crystals of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) dispersed in a residual vitreous phase. It appears that glass-ceramic zirconolite presents a better kinetic behavior than the nuclear glass R 7T7. This is mainly due to a more important rate decrease that occurs more rapidly, that induces a quantity of glass altered at least 10 times as small as for R 7T7 glass. This high slowdown of the alteration rate is attributed to the formation of an alteration film that has been the subject of a specific study. We have demonstrated that the rate decrease was controlled as for the R7T7 glass by the amorphous phase of the alteration film forming a diffusion barrier for reactive species. It seems that the porosity is not the single parameter that explains the protective effect of the gel. The main differences compared with R7T7 glass are that silicon does not control the alteration of the material and that the gel is composed of two distinct phases. We have in particular identified a dense phase enriched in titanium and neodymium that probably influences deeply the kinetics. (author)

  7. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  8. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  9. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  10. Medium to long term behavior of MR dampers for structural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, N.; Azmoodeh, B. M.; Occhiuzzi, A.

    2014-10-01

    The medium to long term behavior of a prototype magnetorheological (MR) damper for structural control of earthquake induced vibrations is investigated herein. Unlike some applications for which MR devices experience frequent dynamic loads, seismic dampers might not be used for most of their life, staying dormant for a long period until an earthquake hits the hosting structure. This work aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a MR damper after years of inactivity. A MR device has been tested twice, first in 2008 and then in 2013, after five years of absolute inactivity. The comparison between the results of the two tests is made in terms of force-displacement loops. It is shown that, after a 5-year rest, only part of the first stroke of the damper is characterized by an unexpected response of the damper. After half a stroke, the damper quickly returned to behave like in 2008, even if a slight non-reversible decrease of the reacting force has been recorded. The latter is found to be more evident (5-7%) for larger currents, less visible in the case of zero magnetic field. From the point of view of civil engineering, this decay of performance is definitely acceptable, being largely bounded within the limits of the uncertainties typically involved and taken into account in the structural design. Finally, starting from a literature review, the paper discusses the possible causes of the observed changes in the mechanical response of the damper over time.

  11. Long-term management of the fearful adult patient using behavior modification and other modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, U

    2001-12-01

    This paper reviews reports on the treatment of fearful adult dental patients with special emphasis on behavioral and cognitive methods and long-term followup. A number of such treatment methods are available that can be used by dentists for the alleviation of fear and anxiety in their patients. At an "intuitive" level, many dentists probably use these methods frequently as a comprehensive part of everyday praxis. Considering the high number of fearful individuals visiting dentists regularly, a better knowledge of such methods would improve dental care for the majority of these patients. It would also help prevent aggravation of fears among individuals at risk. However, despite the success of treatment methods performed by specially trained dentists, it seems reasonable that there should be limits to what can be expected of a dentist in terms of psychological, diagnostic, and therapeutic competence. Dental phobia may constitute a complex psychological and odontological problem with far-reaching consequences for a relatively large proportion of fearful individuals. It therefore seems likely that optimal care of such patients can best be achieved by cross-disciplinary efforts involving both dentists and psychologists.

  12. Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Long-Term Effects on Anxiety and Secondary Disorders in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Long-Term Effects on Anxiety and Secondary Disorders in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…

  15. Long-Term Effects of Ammonia on the Behavioral Activity of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Camargo, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    An appropriate approach to assess the effect of toxicants on aquatic animals is to monitor behavioral endpoints, as they are a link between physiological and ecological processes. A group that can be exposed long-term to low toxic concentrations is benthic macroinvertebrates, as their mobility in aq

  16. Long term behavior of radiocaesium in moose: conclusions from 25 years of monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, R.; Sonesten, L.; Goedkoop, W. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment (Sweden); Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden); Wikenros, C. [Department of Ecology (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) deposited after the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986, still persist in forest ecosystems in parts of Sweden at relatively high concentrations. In the forest, radiocaesium is assumed to be reversibly bound to the soil, which facilitates its uptake by plant roots and fungal mycelia thus making it available, as fodder, to wild animals. Even today this leads to contaminated meat from moose (Alces alces) and other game species. Around 100 000 moose, approximately 1/3 of the whole population, are shot each year in Sweden which makes moose the main source of consumed game meat. Hence understanding the long-term behavior of radiocaesium in forest ecosystems is important for the evaluation of future potential health risks to consumers. The two municipalities of Heby and Uppsala, in east-central Sweden, experienced relatively large deposition in 1986 (5 - 100 kBq/m{sup 2}). Monitoring of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in meat from moose hunted in these areas was initiated already in autumn 1986 and is still continuing. Muscle samples from front leg of the slaughtered moose are received from local hunters during the hunting season and more than 3500 samples have been collected during the years. The samples are adjoined with a sampling protocol containing information on estimated age, sex and weight, as well as where and when each moose was shot. Gamma spectrometry of the {sup 137}Cs- activities is performed on fresh or frozen moose muscle samples using HPGe detectors. The main part of all the samples analyzed since 1986 are from the northern part of Heby municipality. This study area covers approximately 400 km{sup 2} and received a mean ground deposition of approximately 35 kBq/m{sup 2} of {sup 137}Cs in 1986. The area is dominated by managed coniferous forests, but also includes large parts of agricultural land. A database of > 3 500 moose samples collected from hunts between 1986 and 2010 was used in this study. The results of the

  17. Prediction of Individual Social-Demographic Role Based on Travel Behavior Variability Using Long-Term GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of and advances in smartphones and global positioning system (GPS devices, travelers’ long-term travel behaviors are not impossible to obtain. This study investigates the pattern of individual travel behavior and its correlation with social-demographic features. For different social-demographic groups (e.g., full-time employees and students, the individual travel behavior may have specific temporal-spatial-mobile constraints. The study first extracts the home-based tours, including Home-to-Home and Home-to-Non-Home, from long-term raw GPS data. The travel behavior pattern is then delineated by home-based tour features, such as departure time, destination location entropy, travel time, and driving time ratio. The travel behavior variability describes the variances of travelers’ activity behavior features for an extended period. After that, the variability pattern of an individual’s travel behavior is used for estimating the individual’s social-demographic information, such as social-demographic role, by a supervised learning approach, support vector machine. In this study, a long-term (18-month recorded GPS data set from Puget Sound Regional Council is used. The experiment’s result is very promising. The sensitivity analysis shows that as the number of tours thresholds increases, the variability of most travel behavior features converges, while the prediction performance may not change for the fixed test data.

  18. Prediction of Individual Social-Demographic Role Based on Travel Behavior Variability Using Long-Term GPS Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401, USA; Gonder, Jeffrey [Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401, USA; Lin, Lei [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA

    2017-01-01

    With the development of and advances in smartphones and global positioning system (GPS) devices, travelers’ long-term travel behaviors are not impossible to obtain. This study investigates the pattern of individual travel behavior and its correlation with social-demographic features. For different social-demographic groups (e.g., full-time employees and students), the individual travel behavior may have specific temporal-spatial-mobile constraints. The study first extracts the home-based tours, including Home-to-Home and Home-to-Non-Home, from long-term raw GPS data. The travel behavior pattern is then delineated by home-based tour features, such as departure time, destination location entropy, travel time, and driving time ratio. The travel behavior variability describes the variances of travelers’ activity behavior features for an extended period. After that, the variability pattern of an individual’s travel behavior is used for estimating the individual’s social-demographic information, such as social-demographic role, by a supervised learning approach, support vector machine. In this study, a long-term (18-month) recorded GPS data set from Puget Sound Regional Council is used. The experiment’s result is very promising. The sensitivity analysis shows that as the number of tours thresholds increases, the variability of most travel behavior features converges, while the prediction performance may not change for the fixed test data.

  19. Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanping; Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Sun, Philip Y-W; Roberts, Adam C; Glanzman, David L

    2014-11-17

    Long-term memory (LTM) is believed to be stored in the brain as changes in synaptic connections. Here, we show that LTM storage and synaptic change can be dissociated. Cocultures of Aplysia sensory and motor neurons were trained with spaced pulses of serotonin, which induces long-term facilitation. Serotonin (5HT) triggered growth of new presynaptic varicosities, a synaptic mechanism of long-term sensitization. Following 5HT training, two antimnemonic treatments-reconsolidation blockade and inhibition of PKM--caused the number of presynaptic varicosities to revert to the original, pretraining value. Surprisingly, the final synaptic structure was not achieved by targeted retraction of the 5HT-induced varicosities but, rather, by an apparently arbitrary retraction of both 5HT-induced and original synapses. In addition, we find evidence that the LTM for sensitization persists covertly after its apparent elimination by the same antimnemonic treatments that erase learning-related synaptic growth. These results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.

  20. Experimental observations on long-term behavior of migrating alternate bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosato, A.; Desta, F.B.; Cornelisse, J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating alternate bars form in alluvial channels as a result of morphodynamic instability. Extensive literature can be found on their origin and short-term development, but their long-term evolution has been poorly studied so far. In particular, it is not clear whether they eventually reach an equ

  1. MINTEQ modeling for evaluating the leaching behavior of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; JIANG Jianguo; CHEN Maozhe

    2008-01-01

    At present, all kinds of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization technology has been reported and successfully applied in many countries. However, leaching procedures are very different that the technologies lack uniform standard, and it is even impossible to predict the long-term stabilization. Geochemical model can explain the environmental stabilization based on chemical phase and thermodynamic crystal structure, and it is also able to guide the development of environment-friendly stabilization technology and choosing of chemical agents. Both experiment analysis and geochemical modeling were used to study the correlation between leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash and variation of pH. Dissolution/precipitation mechanism was applied in the simulation. The result indicated that the pH-dependent leaching behavior predicted by Visual MINTEQ is well in agreement with the result of pH-dependent test. pH value of leachate can significantly change the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash. The leaching behavior of heavy metals for Pb and Cd is controlled by dissolution/precipitation mechanism, whereas for Zn and Ni, it is effected by surface adsorption reaction over a special extent of pH value.

  2. MINTEQ modeling for evaluating the leaching behavior of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Maozhe

    2008-01-01

    At present, all kinds of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization technology has been reported and successfully applied in many countries. However, leaching procedures are very different that the technologies lack uniform standard, and it is even impossible to predict the long-term stabilization. Geochemical model can explain the environmental stabilization based on chemical phase and thermodynamic crystal structure, and it is also able to guide the development of environment-friendly stabilization technology and choosing of chemical agents. Both experiment analysis and geochemical modeling were used to study the correlation between leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash and variation of pH. Dissolution/precipitation mechanism was applied in the simulation. The result indicated that the pH-dependent leaching behavior predicted by Visual MINTEQ is well in agreement with the result of pH-dependent test. pH value of leachate can significantly change the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash. The leaching behavior of heavy metals for Pb and Cd is controlled by dissolution/precipitation mechanism, whereas for Zn and Ni, it is effected by surface adsorption reaction over a special extent of pH value.

  3. The role of short- and long-term cognitive empathy activation in preventing cyberbystander reinforcing cyberbullying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlińska, Julia; Szuster, Anna; Winiewski, Mikołaj

    2015-04-01

    The long- versus short-term effectiveness of empathy activation on reducing bystander behavior reinforcing cyberbullying was tested. The focus was on limiting the frequency of forwarding a message ridiculing a peer. Experimental research on adolescent students was conducted in conditions simulating online contact. The results confirmed the significance of cognitive empathy activated immediately prior to decision making on limiting involvement in reinforcing cyberbullying behavior. The long-term impact of empathy was markedly limited.

  4. In-Plant Fission Product Behavior in SGTR Accident with Long-Term SBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The off-site AC power was recovered in 9 days after the accident in the NPS. Therefore safety injection by fire pump truck with fresh water or seawater is only available in the Fukushima accident. However, safety injection by fire pump truck is not always effective due to the high pressure of RPV inside or leakages of alternative water injection flow paths. In the SBO situations in pressurized water reactor plant (PWR), turbine driven auxiliary feedwater (TD-AFW) pump can inject water to the secondary side of steam generator. However, turbine inlet steam flow control valve cannot work properly when loss of vital DC power occurs. Vital DC power is designed to be maintained during 4 or 8 hours in the SBO conditions. In this paper motor-driven and turbine driven AFW pumps are all assumed to be not working at time 0 sec as a worst case assumption. Iodine pool-scrubbing can occur in the secondary side of the faulted steam generator. However, iodine pool-scrubbing in the secondary side of the faulted steam generator is assumed not to be working, due to the assumption of the loss of DC battery for turbine inlet flow control valve. Iodine pool-scrubbing is one of the long-term research issues in safety assessment of nuclear power plant severe accident. PHEBUS FPT series and THAI experiment projects are typical projects on the resolving source term issues in severe accident of nuclear power plants. However, iodine retention by pool scrubbing is still a debating issue. In such containment bypass sequences, fission products can be released out to environment directly from RCS without retention or deposition in containment structures. SGTR is one of the hazardous accident scenarios in the typical PSA, because SGTR induces a large release amount of source term to environment directly. A key operation strategy was the isolation of the broken reactor coolant system loop from the intact loop. Typical core degradation in SGTR scenarios occurs with multiple failures of the isolation

  5. Long-Term Prediction of Large Earthquakes: When Does Quasi-Periodic Behavior Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, L. R.

    2003-12-01

    every great earthquake. The 2002 Working Group on large earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay region followed Ellsworth et al. (1999) in adopting much larger values of CV for several critical fault segments and underestimating their likelihood of rupture in the next 30 years. The Working Group also gives considerable weight to a Poisson model, which is in conflict with both renewal processes involving slow stress accumulation and with values of CV near 0.2. The failure of the Parkfield prediction has greatly influenced views in the U.S. about long-term forecasts. The model of the repeated breaking of a single asperity is incorrect since past Parkfield shocks of about magnitude 6 likely did not rupture the same part of the San Andreas fault.

  6. Leach behavior of high-level borosilicate glasses under deep geological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the activities in high-level radioactive waste glass which is considered as the most practicable form of waste, and also is intended to be used in the disposal of national high-level radioactive waste in future. Leach theory of waste glass and the leach effects of ground water, metal barrier, buffer materials and rocks on the waste glass were reviewed. The leach of waste glass was affected by various factors such as composition, pH and Eh of ground water, temperature, pressure, radiation and humic acid. The crystallization, crack, weathering and the formation of altered phases of waste glass which is expected to occur in real disposal site were reviewed. The results of leaching in laboratory and in-situ were compared. The behaviors of radioactive elements leached from waste glass and the use of basalt glass for the long-term natural analogue of waste glass were also written in this report. The appraisal of durability of borosilicate waste glass as a waste media was performed from the known results of leach test and international in-situ tests were introduced. (author). 134 refs., 15 tabs., 24 figs

  7. Leach behavior of high-level borosilicate glasses under deep geological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the activities in high-level radioactive waste glass which is considered as the most practicable form of waste, and also is intended to be used in the disposal of national high-level radioactive waste in future. Leach theory of waste glass and the leach effects of ground water, metal barrier, buffer materials and rocks on the waste glass were reviewed. The leach of waste glass was affected by various factors such as composition, pH and Eh of ground water, temperature, pressure, radiation and humic acid. The crystallization, crack, weathering and the formation of altered phases of waste glass which is expected to occur in real disposal site were reviewed. The results of leaching in laboratory and in-situ were compared. The behaviors of radioactive elements leached from waste glass and the use of basalt glass for the long-term natural analogue of waste glass were also written in this report. The appraisal of durability of borosilicate waste glass as a waste media was performed from the known results of leach test and international in-situ tests were introduced. (author). 134 refs., 15 tabs., 24 figs

  8. Computer-assisted direct observation of behavioral agitation, engagement, and affect in long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anne-Nicole; Low, Lee-Fay; Goodenough, Belinda; Fletcher, Jennifer; Brodaty, Henry

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the current research were (1) to test and evaluate the investigator-designed Behavior, Engagement, and Affect Measure (BEAM) touchpad direct observational data collection tool, and (2) to implement this tool to investigate residents' patterns of behavioral agitation, engagement, affect, behaviors associated with positive mood, general time-activity use, and social interactions within long-term care. Raters collected cross-sectional observational data and conducted semistructured interviews with participants of the Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns (SMILE) Study. Researchers tested the BEAM's reliability and validity and evaluated the instrument's discriminate validity for sampling resident behaviors. Data were collected in 36 long-term care homes. The sample included low-care hostels, high-care nursing homes, and residential facilities offering aging-in-place. Participants were 406 residents aged 52 to 105 years, with and without dementia. Researchers collected direct observational data using the BEAM and operationalized behavioral domains based largely on concepts from Kitwood's model of person-centered care. Care staff reported on resident behavior using standardized measures of agitation, depression, quality of life, and social engagement. The BEAM showed moderate-to-substantial interrater reliability and slight-to-moderate correlations with staff-report data gathered through standardized questionnaire measures. Observations showed that residents spent the greatest amount of time stationary and expressing little emotion, although actively engaged with their environment. Residents were observed to be coping adequately and experiencing a positive social and/or positive care interaction in approximately half of observations; however, close to a third of ratings identified "ill-being." Residents showed more positive behavior, appeared happier and less anxious, and exhibited higher "well-being" during structured

  9. Sevoflurane exposure during the neonatal period induces long-term memory impairment but not autism-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woosuk; Park, Saegeun; Hong, Jiso; Park, Sangil; Lee, Soomin; Heo, Junyoung; Kim, Daesoo; Ko, Youngkwon

    2015-10-01

    To examine whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces autism-like behaviors in mice. There are continuing reports regarding the potential negative effects of anesthesia on the developing brain. Recently, several studies suggest that neurotoxicity caused by anesthesia may lead to neurodevelopmental impairments. However, unlike reports focusing on learning and memory, there are only a few animal studies focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders after general anesthesia. Therefore, we have focused on autism, a representative neurodevelopmental disorder. Neonatal mice (P6-7) were exposed to a titrated dose of sevoflurane for 6 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by assessing the expression level of cleaved (activated) caspase-3. Autism-like behaviors, general activity, anxiety level, and long-term memory were evaluated with multiple behavioral assays. Western blotting confirmed that neonatal exposure to sevoflurane increased the expression level of activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. Mice exposed to sevoflurane also showed impaired long-term memory in fear tests. However, sevoflurane-exposed mice did not exhibit autism-like features in all of the following assays: social interaction (three-chamber test, caged social interaction), social communication (ultrasonic vocalization test), or repetitive behavior (self-grooming test, digging). There were also no differences in general activity (open field test, home cage activity) and anxiety (open field test, light-dark box) after sevoflurane exposure. Our results confirm previous studies that neonatal sevoflurane exposure causes neurodegeneration and long-term memory impairment in mice. However, sevoflurane did not induce autism-like features. Our study suggests that mice are more vulnerable to long-term memory deficits than autism-like behaviors after exposure to sevoflurane. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gin, Stephane [CEA Marcoule DTCD SECM LCLT, Bagnols/Ceze (France); Abdelouas, Abdessalam [SUBATECH, Nantes (France); Criscenti, Louise J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ferrand, Karine [SCK·CEN, Mol (Belgium); Geisler, Thorsten [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ., Bonn (Germany); Harrison, Mike T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Kyushu Univ. (Japan). Dept. Appl. Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering; Mitsui, Seiichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental and Molecular Science Lab.; Marra, James C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Pierce, Eric M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schofield, James M. [AMEC, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom); Steefel, Carl I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Nations producing borosilicate glass as an immobilization material for radioactive wastes resulting from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing have reinforced scientific collaboration to obtain consensus on mechanisms controlling the long-term dissolution rate of glass. This goal is deemed to be crucial for the development of reliable performance assessment models for geological disposal. The collaborating laboratories all conduct fundamental and/or applied research with modern materials science techniques. The paper briefly reviews the radioactive waste vitrification programmes of the six participant nations and summarizes the state-of-the-art of glass corrosion science, emphasizing common scientific needs and justifications for on-going initiatives.

  11. An international initiative on long-term behavior of high-level nuclear waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nations using borosilicate glass as an immobilization material for radioactive waste have reinforced the importance of scientific collaboration to obtain a consensus on the mechanisms controlling the long-term dissolution rate of glass. This goal is deemed to be crucial for the development of reliable performance assessment models for geological disposal. The collaborating laboratories all conduct fundamental and/or applied research using modern materials science techniques. This paper briefly reviews the radioactive waste vitrification programs of the six participant nations and summarizes the current state of glass corrosion science, emphasizing the common scientific needs and justifications for on-going initiatives.

  12. Abiotic behavior of entrapped petroleum products in the subsurface during leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Ishai; Gerstl, Zev; Prost, Rene; Yaron, Bruno

    2002-12-01

    Petroleum products are generally volatile hydrocarbon mixtures. These mixtures may contaminate land surfaces, the unsaturated zone and ground waters at numerous sites and thus represent a long-term source of environmental subsurface pollution. Based on laboratory and field evidence obtained by our research groups and others we emphasize in the present review paper the effect of leaching on the abiotic processes controlling the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures (VPHMs) in the soil environment. The modification of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures due to changes in the soil water content is considered the result of a "leaching phenomenon". The experimental evidence of VPHM behavior in the porous media is linked to four major processes: retention, redistribution and attenuation in the subsurface, and dissolution in the soil water. Once VPHMs reach the soil surface, their residual concentration and composition is influenced by the amount and quality of the leaching water. The transport and natural attenuation of the VPHMs in the unsaturated zone is affected by the amount and rate of leaching. Since VPHM are a mixture of volatile and non-volatile hydrocarbons whose components differ by several orders of magnitude in their vapor pressure and water solubility, their fates in the soil environment under leaching will be diverse too. This will influence the temporal concentrations of the VPHM components and their distributions with depth, as vapors, solutes, or water-immiscible solutions. Wetting the soil before or after the VPHMs reach it, differentially affects the abiotic processes governing petroleum products behavior into the porous media.

  13. Long-Term Evolution of Email Networks: Statistical Regularities, Predictability and Stability of Social Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Lorite, Antonia; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In social networks, individuals constantly drop ties and replace them by new ones in a highly unpredictable fashion. This highly dynamical nature of social ties has important implications for processes such as the spread of information or of epidemics. Several studies have demonstrated the influence of a number of factors on the intricate microscopic process of tie replacement, but the macroscopic long-term effects of such changes remain largely unexplored. Here we investigate whether, despite the inherent randomness at the microscopic level, there are macroscopic statistical regularities in the long-term evolution of social networks. In particular, we analyze the email network of a large organization with over 1,000 individuals throughout four consecutive years. We find that, although the evolution of individual ties is highly unpredictable, the macro-evolution of social communication networks follows well-defined statistical patterns, characterized by exponentially decaying log-variations of the weight of social ties and of individuals' social strength. At the same time, we find that individuals have social signatures and communication strategies that are remarkably stable over the scale of several years.

  14. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  15. Long-term faulting behavior of eastern Altyn Tagh fault, north Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Klinger, Y.; Tapponnier, P.; Chen, G.; Li, K.; Tan, X. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) bounds the Tibetan Plateau to the north and is the longest continental active strike-slip fault at lithospheric scale within the India-Eurasia collision zone (Wittlinger et al., 1998). Together with other mega strike-slip faults, e.g., the Kunlun, Haiyuan, Xianshuihe and Jiali faults, it plays an important role in both the two end member models, eastward block-like motion and distributed deformation or channel flow, to accommodate the India-Eurasia convergence. However, how much amount of northward motion, from convergence between Indian and Eurasian plates to the south, has been transferred by localized slip on the ATF into eastward motion of the Plateau relative to the Tarim basin is still unclear. Its main reason may be originated from disagreements over quite scattered Quaternary left-slip rates from 2 mm/yr up to 30 mm/yr and also difference in slip rate over time scales of 10 yr from GPS and InSAR to 10 kyr from Quaternary offset-landforms. However, accurate Quaternary long-term average slip rate is the first step for quantitatively evaluating the role of the ATF in transferring northward convergence of the India-Eurasia collision into eastward escape and then for understanding the kinematic model of the Tibetan Plateau. Here we present a synthetic approach to well constrain long-term left-slip rate by identifying paleo-earthquake sequence as precise chronologic bounds for the associated measured cumulative displacements at two sites on the Aksay segment of the ATF. This result is very important not only to establish surface-rupturing earthquake recurrence model to reduce its potential earthquake hazards along the ATF, but also to solve the long-standing dispute over the high or low Quaternary slip rates by using diferent terrace models and geodetic strain rate. Analysis of the paleo-earthquakes from trenches and recent cumulative offsets reveals a Holocene surface-rupturing faulting process, which well constrains the long-term slip

  16. Effects of Aging-Time Reference on the Long Term Behavior of the IM7/K3B Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the time-based shift reference on the long term behavior of the graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide composite IM7/K3B at elevated temperature. Creep compliance and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(sub g). Two matrix dominated loading modes, shear and transverse, were investigated in tension and compression. The momentary sequenced creep/aging curves were collapsed through a horizontal (time) shift using the shortest, middle and longest aging time curve as the reference curve. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. The use of effective time expressions in a laminated plate model allowed for the prediction of long term creep compliance. The effect of using different reference curves with time/aging-time superposition was most sensitive to the physical aging shift rate at lower test temperatures. Depending on the loading mode, the reference curve used can result in a more accurate long term prediction, especially at lower test temperatures.

  17. Long-term desorption behavior of uranium and neptunium in heterogeneous volcanic tuff materials /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Cynthia A.

    2010-05-01

    Uranium and neptunium desorption were studied in long-term laboratory experiments using four well-characterized volcanic tuff cores collected from southeast of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objectives of the experiments were to 1. Demonstrate a methodology aimed at characterizing distributions of sorption parameters (attributes of multiple sorption sites) that can be applied to moderately-sorbing species in heterogeneous systems to provide more realistic reactive transport parameters and a more realistic approach to modeling transport in heterogeneous systems. 2. Focus on uranium and neptunium because of their high solubility, relatively weak sorption, and high contributions to predicted dose in Yucca Mountain performance assessments. Also, uranium is a contaminant of concern at many DOE legacy sites and uranium mining sites.

  18. Grain Growth and Precipitation Behavior of Iridium Alloy DOP-26 During Long Term Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Dean T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, Ethan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cox, Victoria A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Geer, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The influence of long term aging on grain growth and precipitate sizes and spatial distribution in iridium alloy DOP-26 was studied. Samples of DOP-26 were fabricated using the new process, recrystallized for 1 hour (h) at 1375 C, then aged at either 1300, 1400, or 1500 C for times ranging from 50 to 10,000 h. Grain size measurements (vertical and horizontal mean linear intercept and horizontal and vertical projection) and analyses of iridium-thorium precipitates (size and spacing) were made on the longitudinal, transverse, and rolling surfaces of the as-recrystallized and aged specimens from which the two-dimensional spatial distribution and mean sizes of the precipitates were obtained. The results obtained from this study are intended to provide input to grain growth models.

  19. Short- and long-term behavioral analysis of social interaction, ultrasonic vocalizations and social motivation in a chronic phencyclidine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Suzanne M; Tuffnell, Joe A; Pinter, Ilona J; van der Harst, Johanneke E; Spruijt, Berry M

    2017-05-15

    Phencyclidine (PCP) has been suggested to induce symptoms of schizophrenia. However, animal models using PCP administration have produced ambiguous results thus far. It seems that acute effects are similar to symptoms of schizophrenia, however, it is not clear if PCP can induce permanent behavioral changes that reflect schizophrenic-like symptoms. Therefore, we assessed the ability of chronic PCP administration (3mg/kg, 14 days) to induce short or long lasting behavioral changes in rats. Social behavior, including ultrasonic vocalizations and motivation for social contact were investigated at different time points, up to 29-36 days, after cessation of PCP treatment. During a social separation test, performed at 5 and 36 days, PCP treated rats spent less time near the divider that separates them from their familiar cage mate compared with saline (SAL) treated rats. Further, at short term, PCP was able to induce a decrease in social behavior. In contrast, at long-term, PCP treated animals spent more time in contact when exposed to an unfamiliar partner as compared to SAL treated rats. But, this difference was not observed when exposed to a familiar partner. We did not find any difference in ultrasonic vocalizations at all time points. The results of our study indicate that PCP is unable to induce overt long term deficits in social interaction behavior. Rather, it seems that PCP diminishes motivation for social contact. The long-term consequences of chronic PCP administration on social behavior in rodent models remain complex, and future studies addressing this are still needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the leaching behaviour of concrete mortars and of cement-stabilized wastes with different waste loading for long term environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sloot, H A

    2002-01-01

    The leaching behaviour of cement-based products-both construction products and cement-stabilized wastes--have been shown to be similar after assessing the leaching characteristics by means of a pH dependence leaching test. This procedure is particularly suited to identifying the chemical speciation of materials. Geochemical modelling has shown a number of solubility controlling phases in this largely inorganic matrix, that can very well explain the observed leaching patterns as a function of pH. Understanding these relationships allows the prediction of leaching behaviour under other exposure conditions and to improve the ultimate quality of products, if so desired. The role of ettringite-type phases for the binding of oxyanions in the pH range above pH 12 has been identified before and confirmed in this work. The order of incorporation follows from the ratio between the maximum leachability at mildly alkaline pH and at high pH. Increased levels of sulfate negatively influence the binding of oxyanions in cement-stabilized waste through site competition.

  1. Long-term in vivo corrosion behavior, biocompatibility and bioresorption mechanism of a bioresorbable nitrided iron scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenjiao; Qin, Li; Qi, Haiping; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Gui; Gao, Runlin; Qiu, Hong; Xia, Ying; Cao, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Wei

    2017-03-15

    Pure iron as a potential bioresorbable material for bioresorbable coronary scaffold has major disadvantages of slow corrosion and bioresorption. However, so far, there are neither quantitative data of long-term in vivo corrosion nor direct experimental evidence for bioresorption of pure iron and its alloys, which are fundamental and vital for developing novel Fe-based alloys overcoming the intrinsic drawbacks of pure iron. This work systemically investigated scaffold performance, long-term in vivo corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of a nitrided iron coronary scaffold and explored its bioresorption mechanism. It was found that the 70μm Fe-based scaffold was superior to a state of the art Co-Cr alloy stent (Xience Prime™) in terms of crossing profile, recoil and radial strength. Mass loss was 76.0±8.5wt% for the nitrided iron scaffold and 44.2±11.4wt% for the pure iron scaffold after 36months implantation in rabbit abdominal aorta (pscaffold showed good long-term biocompatibility in both rabbit and porcine model. Its insoluble corrosion products were demonstrated biosafe and could be cleared away by macrophages from in situ to adventitia to be indiscernible by Micro Computed Tomography and probably finally enter the lymphatics and travel to lymph nodes after 53months implantion in porcine coronary artery. The results indicate that the nitrided iron scaffold with further improvements shall be promising for coronary application.

  2. Synthesis on the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.1,2; Synthese sur l'evolution a long terme des colis de combustibles irradies. Tome 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Toulhoat, P.; Grouiller, J.P.; Pavageau, J.; Piron, J.P.; Pelletier, M.; Dehaudt, Ph.; Cappelaere, Ch.; Limon, R.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, Ch.; Corbel, C.; Maillard, S.; Faure, M.H.; Cicariello, J.C.; Masson, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DDIN/DPRGD, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this report is to present the major objectives, the key scientific issues, and the preliminary results of the research conducted in France in the framework of the third line of the 1991 Law, on the topic of the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel in view of long term storage or geological disposal. Indeed, CEA launched in 1998 the Research Program on the Long Term Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel (abbreviated and referred to as PRECCI in French; Poinssot, 1998) the aim of which is to study and assess the ability of spent nuclear fuel packages to keep their initially allocated functions in interim storage and geological disposal: total containment and recovery functions for duration up to hundreds of years (long term or short-term interim storage and/or first reversible stages of geological disposal) and partial confinement function (controlled fluxes of RN) for thousands of years in geological disposal. This program has to allow to obtain relevant and reliable data concerning the long term behavior of the spent fuel packages so that feasibility of interim storage and/or geological disposal can be assessed and demonstrated as well as optimized. Within this framework, this report presents for every possible scenario of evolution (closed system, in Presence of water in presence of gases) what are estimated to be the most relevant evolution mechanism. For the most relevant scientific issues hence defined, a complete scientific review of the best state of knowledge is subsequently here given thus allowing to draw a clear guideline of the major R and D issues for the next years. (authors)

  3. Long-term Dynamical Behavior of Highly Perturbed Natural and Artificial Celestial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.

    This thesis explores the dynamical evolution of celestial bodies, both natural and artificial, which are strongly perturbed by solar radiation pressure---a non-gravitational force that has played an increasingly important role in celestial mechanics since the early 1900s. The particular focus is on the high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) space debris discovered in near geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) through optical observations in 2004, and on micron-sized circumplanetary dust particles in the outer Saturnian system. The formalism developed can also be applied to---and, indeed, was unquestionably influenced by---the orbital motion of spacecraft about small bodies (asteroids and comets). The chief difficulties which arise in getting an accurate understanding of the motion of such bodies in highly perturbed dynamical environments come, in part, from the nonlinearity of the dynamical system, but more so from the inadequacy of the classical approaches and methods. While modern formulations based on numerical integrations can give "precise" solutions for specific initial conditions, these afford little insight into the nature of the problem or the essential dependence of the perturbed motion on the system parameters. The predominant perturbations acting on HAMR objects and circumplanetary dust grains are solar radiation pressure, planetary oblateness, and third-body gravitational interactions induced by the Sun and nearby natural satellites. We developed first-order averaged models, based on the Milankovitch formulation of perturbation theory, which govern the long-term evolution of orbits subject to these perturbing forces. The unexpectedly rich results obtained by the use of this vector formalism are due to certain important circumstances in celestial and quantum mechanics which gave rise to its origin and development. An attempt has been made to trace these historical developments and to put them into the perspective of the present. The averaged equations of motion hold

  4. Solar irradiance at the earth's surface: long-term behavior observed at the South Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research examines a 17-year database of UV-A (320–400 nm and visible (400–600 nm solar irradiance obtained by a scanning spectroradiometer located at the South Pole. The goal is to define the variability in solar irradiance reaching the polar surface, with emphasis on the influence of cloudiness and on identifying systematic trends and possible links to the solar cycle. To eliminate changes associated with the varying solar elevation, the analysis focuses on data averaged over 30–35 day periods centered on each year's austral summer solstice. The long-term average effect of South Polar clouds is a small attenuation, with the mean measured irradiances being about 5–6% less than the clear-sky values, although at any specific time clouds may reduce or enhance the signal that reaches the sensor. The instantaneous fractional attenuation or enhancement is wavelength dependent, where the percent deviation from the clear-sky irradiance at 400–600 nm is typically 2.5 times that at 320–340 nm. When averaged over the period near each year's summer solstice, significant correlations appear between irradiances at all wavelengths and the solar cycle as measured by the 10.7 cm solar radio flux. An approximate 1.8 ± 1.0% decrease in ground-level irradiance occurs from solar maximum to solar minimum for the wavelength band 320–400 nm. The corresponding decrease for 400–600 nm is 2.4 ± 1.9%. The best-estimate declines appear too large to originate in the sun. If the correlations have a geophysical origin, they suggest a small variation in atmospheric attenuation with the solar cycle over the period of observation, with the greatest attenuation occurring at solar minimum.

  5. Long-term influence of divorce and single parenting on adolescent family- and work-related values, behaviors, and aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, B L; Eccles, J S

    1992-01-01

    Following a summary of the relevant divorce research, this article examines possible long-term influences of both divorce and living with a single mother on the development of adolescents' values and plans. We examine how divorce affects children both directly and indirectly through its impact on the mother's resources, attitudes, and socialization goals. Particular focus is placed on those aspects of family interaction that impact on identity formation as it is linked to educational and occupational goals and to gender-role related behaviors associated with marriage, family, and job plans. Possible benefits as well as potential costs of living with a single mother are discussed.

  6. Maternal Behavior Modifications during Pretense and Their Long-Term Effects on Toddlers' Understanding of Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their…

  7. Long term chemo-hydro-mechanical behavior of compacted soil bentonite polymer complex submitted to synthetic leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razakamanantsoa, Andry Rico; Djeran-Maigre, Irini

    2016-07-01

    An experimental program is carried out to investigate the long term hydro-mechanical behavior correlated with chemical one of compacted soils with low concentration of Ca-bentonite and Ca-bentonite polymer mixture. The effect of prehydration on the hydraulic performance is compared to the polymer adding effect. All specimens are submitted to synthetic leachate (LS) under different permeation conditions. Several issues are studied: mechanical stability, hydraulic performance, chemical exchange of cations validated with microstructure observations. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observations demonstrate two distinct behaviors: dispersive for Bentonite (B) and B with Polymer P1 (BP1) and flocculated for B with Polymer P2 (BP2). Direct shear tests show that bentonite adding increases the Soil (S) cohesion and decreases the friction angle. Polymer adding behaves similarly by maintaining the soil cohesion and increasing the friction angle. Hydraulic conductivity of prehydrated soil bentonite (SB) and direct permeation of polymer added soil bentonite are studied (SBP1 and SBP2). Hydraulic test duration are in range of 45days to 556days long. Prehydration allows to delay the aggressive effect of the LS in short term but seems to increase its negative effect on the hydraulic conductivity value in long term exposure. SB and SBP1 behave similarly and seem to act in the long term as a granular filler effect. SBP2 presents positive results comparing to the other mixtures: it maintains the hydraulic conductivity and the chemical resistance. Chemical analysis confirms that all specimens are subjected to Na(+) dissolution and Ca(2+) retention which are more pronounced for prehydrated specimen. The short term effect of prehydration and the positive effect of SBP2 are also confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long Term Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Gokdag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct systematic review the articles on long term effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for treatment of major depressive disorder. Articles in English and Turkish published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (January were searched in national and international databases. The articles that did not include follow-up studies were excluded. Although the main aim of this study is to evaluate permanent effect of the cognitive behavioral group therapy, 21 articles that met the criteria were examined also in terms of some other variables such as research method, therapy characteristics and post test results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is effective for major depressive disorder and post therapy gains are maintained for a long time. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 23-38

  9. Brief embryonic strychnine exposure in zebrafish causes long-term adult behavioral impairment with indications of embryonic synaptic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nicole M; Arpie, Brianna; Lugo, Joseph; Linney, Elwood; Levin, Edward D; Cerutti, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish provide a powerful model of the impacts of embryonic toxicant exposure on neural development that may result in long-term behavioral dysfunction. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 1.5mM strychnine for short embryonic time windows to induce transient changes in inhibitory neural signaling, and were subsequently raised in untreated water until adulthood. PCR analysis showed indications that strychnine exposure altered expression of some genes related to glycinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal synapses during embryonic development. In adulthood, treated fish showed significant changes in swimming speed and tank diving behavior compared to controls. Taken together, these data show that a short embryonic exposure to a neurotoxicant can alter development of neural synapses and lead to changes in adult behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Security Behavior Observatory: Infrastructure for Long-term Monitoring of Client Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    desired privacy settings. Another example of planned analysis consists of measuring how often users’ actu- ally make purchases derived from behavioral ...phishing attacks,’’ Communications of the ACM, vol 55, no. 1, 2012. [7] M. Jak.obsson, ’’The human factor in phishing," Privacy & Security of Consumer ...FC). Springer, 2011. [16] D. Van Broggen, S. Liu, M. Kajzer, A. Striegel, C. Crowell, and J. D’ Arey, ’’Modifying smartphone user locking behavior

  11. Behavior of calcium silicate in leaching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生

    2003-01-01

    Based on the thermodynamic calculation, the mole ratio of CaO to SiO2, temperature and A/S of bauxitehave a profound influence on the mole ratio of 2CaO @ SiO2 to CaO @ SiO2 in sinter. CaO @ SiO2 and β-2CaO @ SiO2appear stable in caustic solution but unstable in soda solution, and CaO @ SiO2 is more stable than β-2CaO @ SiO2 un-der the same leaching condition. Compared with the conventional sinter, the rate of alumina extraction of the newsinter is large and the secondary reaction is restricted in the leaching, which might be mainly due to the more contentof CaO @ SiO2 in sinter and better stability of CaO @ SiO2 in leaching.

  12. Long-Term Post-Intensive Behavioral Intervention Outcomes for Five Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne B.; Healy, Olive

    2010-01-01

    Research clearly indicates that early intensive behavioral intervention is an effective intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However little is known about the longitudinal development of these children. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes for a number of children with ASD following intensive…

  13. [Long-term changes in adaptive behavior of rats after neonatal inflammatory pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, V A; Butkevich, I P; Vershinina, E A; Ulanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    In this study we addressed the tonic nociceptive system functional activity in the formalin test, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and spatial learning in adolescent male rats exposed in the neonatal development to repeated inflammatory pain peripheral stimulation. The following groups of 25-day-old rats were used after being exposed on days 7 and 8 to: 1) formalin-induced inflammatory pain with maternal separation for 60 min (FS), 2) the same inflammatory pain stimulation without maternal separation (FWS), 3) physiological saline injection with maternal separation for 1 h (SS), 4) physiological saline injection without maternal separation (SWS) and 5) no stimulation (intact rats). The data obtained indicate that pain caused in 7-8-day-old rat pups by formalin injection into the plantar pad of the hind paw manifests by adolescence (day 25 as a strengthened inflammatory response under the analogous painful stimulation in the formalin test, adaptive behavior disorder in the forced swimming test and spatial learning disability. Our findings that a short-term repeated maternal deprivation of the 7-8-day-old rat pups without inflammatory pain increases the depression-like behavior are also of particular interest. Thus, a repeated inflammatory pain during the neonatal development brings about significant changes in the adaptive behaviors studied as well as in spatial learning in adolescent rats.

  14. The Impact of Long-Term Dental Health Education on Oral Hygiene Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Bonnie A.

    1982-01-01

    A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)

  15. The Hidden Cost of Tourism: Detecting Long-term Effects of Tourism Using Behavioral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lusseau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, whales and dolphins are the focus of tourism activities in many coastal locations. Although these activities can affect individuals and populations of cetaceans, the biological significance and hence the cost of these impacts are as yet largely unknown. This study assessed the effects of boat interactions on the behavioral budget of two populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tersiops truncatus living in similar fjords but exposed to different levels of tourism activities. This comparison makes it possible to assess the costs of short-term avoidance strategies and the threshold at which those strategies are no longer effective. The effects of boat interactions were the same in both fjords. The resting state was the most sensitive to interactions; socializing was less sensitive. Short-term displacement was a typical response to boat exposure: dolphins were more likely to travel after an interaction with a vessel. Although the behavioral budgets of these populations were significantly altered during interactions with boats, their overall behavioral budgets were unchanged. Dolphins in Milford Sound actively avoided boat interactions, possibly to maintain their overall behavioral budget unchanged. This active avoidance led to avoidance of the area. Characteristics of dolphin-boat interactions in Milford Sound suggest that the advantages gained by short-term avoidance are lost if, on average, fewer than 68 min elapse between successive interactions with boats. If dolphin-boat interactions were more frequent than this, the dolphins switched to a longer-term response: area avoidance.

  16. [The deformation behavior of human lumbar intervertebral discs subjected to long term axial dynamic compressive forces (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köller, W; Funke, F; Hartmann, F

    1981-04-01

    49 specimens were studied in 67 axial compression tests; the duration test varied between 2 and 6 hours. All discs showed marked creep; after a big decrease in the first minutes the rate of creep decreases still slightly. Additional the results reveal a decreasing axial deformability with time. In the beginning of a test quickly the viscoelastic behavior alters to such a steady state that the disc behaves more like an elastic body. Loss of mass normally observed after compression tests is due to loss of liquid, but liquid absorption during mechanical load is possible too. The long term biochmechanical behavior is reproducible very well; a second experiment done with the same disc yields nearly the same results.

  17. Arm injury produces long-term behavioral and neural hypersensitivity in octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alupay, Jean S; Hadjisolomou, Stavros P; Crook, Robyn J

    2014-01-13

    Cephalopod molluscs are the most neurally and behaviorally complex invertebrates, with brains rivaling those of some vertebrates in size and complexity. This has fostered the opinion that cephalopods, particularly octopuses, may experience vertebrate-like pain when injured. However, it is not known whether octopuses possess nociceptors or if their somatic sensory neurons exhibit sensitization after injury. Here we show that the octopus Abdopus aculeatus expresses nocifensive behaviors including arm autotomy, and displays marked neural hyperexcitability both in injured and uninjured arms for at least 24h after injury. These findings do not demonstrate that octopuses experience pain-like states; instead they add to the minimal existing literature on how cephalopods receive, process, and integrate noxious sensory information, potentially informing and refining regulations governing use of cephalopods in scientific research.

  18. Mode Analysis for Long-Term Behavior in a Resonant Earth-Moon Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Cody; Howell, Kathleen; Haapala, Amanda; Dichmann, Donald

    2016-11-01

    Trajectory design in chaotic regimes allows for the exploitation of system dynamics to achieve certain behaviors. For example, for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, the selected science orbit represents a stable option well-suited to meet the mission objectives. Extended analysis of particular solutions nearby in the phase space reveals transitions into desirable terminal modes induced by natural dynamics. This investigation explores the trajectory behavior and borrows from flow-based analysis strategies to characterize modes of such a motion. Perturbed initial states from a TESS-like orbit are evolved to supply motion suitable for contingency analysis. Through the associated analysis, mechanisms are identified that drive the spacecraft into particular modes and supply conditions necessary for such transitions.

  19. Long-term effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on reproductive physiology and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B Patisaul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that, over the course of development, hormones shape the vertebrate brain such that sex specific physiology and behaviors emerge. Much of this occurs in discrete developmental windows that span gestation through the prenatal period, although it is now becoming clear that at least some of this process continues through puberty. Perturbation of this developmental progression can permanently alter the capacity for reproductive success. Wildlife studies have revealed that exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs, either naturally occurring or man made, can profoundly alter reproductive physiology and ultimately impact entire populations. Laboratory studies in rodents and other species have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which this occurs and strongly indicate that humans are also vulnerable to disruption. Use of hormonally active compounds in human medicine has also unfortunately revealed that the developing fetus can be exposed to and affected by endocrine disruptors, and that it might take decades for adverse effects to manifest. Research within the field of environmental endocrine disruption has also contributed to the general understanding of how early life experiences can alter reproductive physiology and behavior through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. These types of effects have the potential to impact future generations if the germ line is affected. This review provides an overview of how exposure to EDCs, particularly those that interfere with estrogen action, impacts reproductive physiology and behaviors in vertebrates.

  20. The leaching behavior of simulated HLW glass under repository condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the multibarrier system has been adopted to dispose HLW glass in geological formation in many countries, it was important to study the leaching behavior of vitrification under geological formation. This article describes the leaching behavior of simulated high level waste glass (90Nd/10), which can incorporate 16 wt.% simulated HLW in five kinds of geological media, such as granite, cement, bentonite, Fe3O4, etc. The durable experimental results show that the glass had less mass loss in granite and more mass loss in bentonite after a two-year leaching test. The SEM/XEDS analysis shows some element distributions on the leached specimen's surface, i.e., Na, Si and Mg elements were reduced on the specimen's surface, whereas Ba, Al, and Fe were enriched on the specimen's surface.

  1. Comparison of the long-term behavioral effects of neonatal exposure to retigabine or phenobarbital in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Sari; Medvedeva, Natalia; Gutherz, Samuel; Kulick, Catherine; Kondratyev, Alexei; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs, when given during vulnerable periods of brain development, can have long-lasting consequences on nervous system function. In rats, the second postnatal week approximately corresponds to the late third trimester of gestation/early infancy in humans. Exposure to phenobarbital during this period has been associated with deficits in learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, and social behavior, among other domains. Phenobarbital is the most common anticonvulsant drug used in neonatology. Several other drugs, such as lamotrigine, phenytoin, and clonazepam, have also been reported to trigger behavioral changes. A new generation anticonvulsant drug, retigabine, has not previously been evaluated for long-term effects on behavior. Retigabine acts as an activator of KCNQ channels, a mechanism that is unique among anticonvulsants. Here, we examined the effects retigabine exposure from postnatal day (P)7 to P14 on behavior in adult rats. We compared these effects with those produced by phenobarbital (as a positive control) and saline (as a negative control). Motor behavior was assessed by using the open field and rotarod, anxiety-like behavior by the open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition task, and learning/memory by the passive avoidance task; social interactions were assessed in same-treatment pairs, and nociceptive sensitivity was assessed via the tail-flick assay. Motor behavior was unaltered by exposure to either drug. We found that retigabine exposure and phenobarbital exposure both induced increased anxiety-like behavior in adult animals. Phenobarbital, but not retigabine, exposure impaired learning and memory. These drugs also differed in their effects on social behavior, with retigabine-exposed animals displaying greater social interaction than phenobarbital-exposed animals. These results indicate that neonatal retigabine induces a subset of behavioral alterations previously described for other anticonvulsant drugs and extend

  2. Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert J. Botvin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19% reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8% reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and

  3. Long-term effects of self-control on alcohol use and sexual behavior among urban minority young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kenneth W; Scheier, Lawrence M; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2012-01-01

    High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors.

  4. Exploring Behavioral Markers of Long-Term Physical Activity Maintenance: A Case Study of System Identification Modeling within a Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Aiken Morgan, Adrienne; McCrae, Christina S.; Roberts, Beverly L.; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects…

  5. A Smart Wirelessly Powered Homecage for Long-Term High-Throughput Behavioral Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-09-01

    A wirelessly powered homecage system, called the EnerCage-HC, that is equipped with multicoil wireless power transfer, closed-loop power control, optical behavioral tracking, and a graphic user interface is presented for longitudinal electrophysiology and behavioral neuroscience experiments. The EnerCage-HC system can wirelessly power a mobile unit attached to a small animal subject and also track its behavior in real-time as it is housed inside a standard homecage. The EnerCage-HC system is equipped with one central and four overlapping slanted wire-wound coils with optimal geometries to form three- and four-coil power transmission links while operating at 13.56 MHz. Utilizing multicoil links increases the power transfer efficiency (PTE) compared with conventional two-coil links and also reduces the number of power amplifiers to only one, which significantly reduces the system complexity, cost, and heat dissipation. A Microsoft Kinect installed 90 cm above the homecage localizes the animal position and orientation with 1.6-cm accuracy. Moreover, a power management ASIC, including a high efficiency active rectifier and automatic coil resonance tuning, was fabricated in a 0.35-μm 4M2P standard CMOS process for the mobile unit. The EnerCage-HC achieves a max/min PTE of 36.3%/16.1% at the nominal height of 7 cm. In vivo experiments were conducted on freely behaving rats by continuously delivering 24 mW to the mobile unit for >7 h inside a standard homecage.

  6. Synergistic Effects of Physical Aging and Damage on Long-Term Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, L. Cate

    1999-01-01

    The research consisted of two major parts, first modeling and simulation of the combined effects of aging and damage on polymer composites and secondly an experimental phase examining composite response at elevated temperatures, again activating both aging and damage. For the simulation, a damage model for polymeric composite laminates operating at elevated temperatures was developed. Viscoelastic behavior of the material is accounted for via the correspondence principle and a variational approach is adopted to compute the temporal stresses within the laminate. Also, the effect of physical aging on ply level stress and on overall laminate behavior is included. An important feature of the model is that damage evolution predictions for viscoelastic laminates can be made. This allows us to track the mechanical response of the laminate up to large load levels though within the confines of linear viscoelastic constitutive behavior. An experimental investigation of microcracking and physical aging effects in polymer matrix composites was also pursued. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of aging on damage accumulation, in ten-ns of microcracking, and the impact of damage on aging and viscoelastic behavior. The testing was performed both at room and elevated temperatures on [+/- 45/903](sub s) and [02/903](sub s) laminates, both containing a set of 90 deg plies centrally located to facilitate investigation of microcracking. Edge replication and X-ray-radiography were utilized to quantify damage. Sequenced creep tests were performed to characterize viscoelastic and aging parameters. Results indicate that while the aging times studied have limited ]Influence on damage evolution, elevated temperature and viscoelastic effects have a profound effect on the damage mode seen. Some results are counterintuitive, including the lower strain to failure for elevated temperature tests and the catastrophic failure mode observed for the [+/- 45/9O3](sub s), specimens. The

  7. Canonical modeling of anticipatory vaccination behavior and long term epidemic recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaig, Julien; Houy, Nicolas; Michel, Philippe

    2017-09-28

    Vaccination is one of humanity's main tools to fight epidemics. In most countries and for most diseases, vaccination is offered on a voluntary basis. Hence, the spread of a disease can be described as two interacting opposite dynamic systems: contagion is determined by past vaccination, while individuals decide whether to vaccinate based on beliefs regarding future disease prevalence. In this study, we show how the interplay between such anticipating behavior and the otherwise biological dynamics of a disease may lead to the emergence of recurrent patterns. We provide simulation results for (i) a Measles-like outbreak, (ii) canonical fully rational and far-sighted individuals, (iii) waning vaccine efficacy and vital dynamics, and (iv) long periods of time, i.e. long enough to observe several vaccination peaks. For comparison, we conducted a similar analysis for individuals with adaptive behavior. As an extension, we investigated the case where part of the population has an anti-vaccination stance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term relations among prosocial-media use, empathy, and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Sara; Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward; Lim, Kam Ming; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Jelic, Margareta; Krahé, Barbara; Liuqing, Wei; Liau, Albert K; Khoo, Angeline; Petrescu, Poesis Diana; Sakamoto, Akira; Tajima, Sachi; Toma, Roxana Andreea; Warburton, Wayne; Zhang, Xuemin; Lam, Ben Chun Pan

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent growth of research on the effects of prosocial media, processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Two studies explored theoretically relevant mediators and moderators of the effects of prosocial media on helping. Study 1 examined associations among prosocial- and violent-media use, empathy, and helping in samples from seven countries. Prosocial-media use was positively associated with helping. This effect was mediated by empathy and was similar across cultures. Study 2 explored longitudinal relations among prosocial-video-game use, violent-video-game use, empathy, and helping in a large sample of Singaporean children and adolescents measured three times across 2 years. Path analyses showed significant longitudinal effects of prosocial- and violent-video-game use on prosocial behavior through empathy. Latent-growth-curve modeling for the 2-year period revealed that change in video-game use significantly affected change in helping, and that this relationship was mediated by change in empathy.

  9. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, www.bioprota.org.

  10. Long-Term Creep Behavior of the Intervertebral Disc: Comparison between Bioreactor Data and Numerical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APG eCastro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Loaded Disc Culture System (LDCS is an Intervertebral Disc (IVD-oriented bioreactor developed by the VU Medical Center (VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, which has the capacity of maintaining up to 12 IVDs in culture, for approximately 3 weeks after extraction. Using this system, 8 goat IVDs were provided with the essential nutrients and submitted to compression tests without losing their biomechanical and physiological properties, for 22 days. Based on previous reports (Detiger et al., 2013; Paul et al., 2013, 2012, 4 of these IVDs were kept in physiological condition (control and the other 4 were previously injected with chondroitinase ABC (CABC, in order to promote Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD. The loading profile intercalated 16h of activity loading with 8h of loading recovery to express the standard circadian variations.The displacement behavior of these 8 IVDs along the first 2 days of the experiment was numerically reproduced, using an IVD osmo-poro-hyper-viscoelastic and fiber-reinforced Finite Element (FE model. The simulations were run on a custom FE solver (Castro et al., 2014.The analysis of the experimental results allowed concluding that the effect of the CABC injection was only significant in 2 of the 4 IVDs. The 4 control IVDs showed no signs of degeneration, as expected. In what concerns to the numerical simulations, the IVD FE model was able to reproduce the generic behavior of the two groups of goat IVDs (control and injected. However, some discrepancies were still noticed on the comparison between the injected IVDs and the numerical simulations, namely on the recovery periods. This may be justified by the complexity of the pathways for DDD, associated with the multiplicity of physiological responses to each direct or indirect stimulus. Nevertheless, one could conclude that ligaments, muscles and IVD covering membranes could be added to the FE model, in order to improve its accuracy and properly describe the recovery

  11. Short and long term neuro-behavioral alterations in type 1diabetes mellitus pediatric population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edna Litmanovitch; Ronny Geva; Marianna Rachmiel

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the mostprevalent chronic conditions affecting individualsunder the age of 18 years, with increasing incidenceworldwide, especially among very young age groups,younger than 5. There is still no cure for the disease,and therapeutic goals and guidelines are a challenge.Currently, despite T1DM intensive management andtechnological interventions in therapy, the majorityof pediatric patients do not achieve glycemic controlgoals. This leads to a potential prognosis of longterm diabetic complications, nephrological, cardiac,ophthalmological and neurological. Unfortunately, theneurological manifestations, including neurocognitiveand behavioral complications, may present soon afterdisease onset, during childhood and adolescence.These manifestations may be prominent, but at timessubtle, thus they are often not reported by patients orphysicians as related to the diabetes. Furthermore, themetabolic mechanism for such manifestations has beeninconsistent and difficult to interpret in practical clinicalcare, as reported in several reviews on the topic ofbrain and T1DM. However, new technological methodsfor brain assessment, as well as the introduction ofcontinuous glucose monitoring, provide new insightsand information regarding brain related manifestationsand glycemic variability and control parameters, whichmay impact the clinical care of children and youth withT1DM. This paper provides a comprehensive reviewof the most recently reported behavioral, cognitivedomains, sleep related, electrophysiological, andstructural alterations in children and adolescences froma novel point of view. The review focuses on reportedimpairments based on duration of T1DM, its timeline,and modifiable disease related risk parameters. Thesefindings are not without controversy, and limitations ofdata are presented in addition to recommendations forfuture research direction.

  12. Short-term and long-term behavior of PP-polymer nanocomposites produced by injection molding compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, M. G.; Guttmann, P.; Chitu, L.; Friesenbichler, W.

    2015-05-01

    There are only few investigations considering the impact of nanoscale fillers on the mechanical und thermo-mechanical properties of polymers. Particularly there is a lack of results regarding long term creep behavior of Polypropylene-based polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the influence of nanofiller content on the mechanical and thermo-mechanical behavior of Polypropylene-based PNCs. Processing of the test specimens was carried out using the Polymer NanoComposite Injection Molding Compounder (PNC-IMC). In comparison to the conventional compounding process, in which the compound must be pelletized and fed into the injection molding machine for the second plasticizing process, injection molding compounding combines these two processing steps. Material compounding and subsequent injection molding are done directly with only one plasticizing process, using a heated melt pipe and a melt accumulator for melt transfer from the compounder to the injection molding machine. The PNCs were produced in the 3-in-1 process at the PNC-IMC, where all components (polymer, compatibilizer, nanofiller) were added simultaneously into the compounder. Furthermore, the polymer melt was treated using elongational flow generating devices for better intercalation and exfoliation of the nanofillers. Tensile tests were made to characterize the short-term-mechanical properties. Tensile creep tests show the influence of nanofillers on the long-term-creep-performance and dynamic mechanical tests (DMA) were performed to investigate the thermo-mechanical behavior. Both, the improvements in the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties in comparison to the pure polypropylene are shown and give an excellent overview of possibilities and limitations of the PNCs. Further research will focus on the detailed understanding of the different mechanisms of property improvement of layered silicates in polymer. By using small angle X-ray scattering

  13. Leaching behavior of butanedionedioxime as gold ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Butanedionedioxime, a small organic compound with low-toxicity and good chemical stability, has been proposed as an effective gold ligand in gold extraction. The result of experiment shows that: 1) highly effective gold lixiviantcan be composed of butanedionedioxime (BDM) with many oxidants, especially potassium permanganate; 2)in the leaching system of BD M- K M nO4 the suitable Ox/Lig(ratio of oxidants to gold ligands) tange is 0.20 ~ 0. 50, optimally 0.25 ~0.45 at the pH range of 7 ~ 11; 3) BDM-KMnO4 extraction of gold from an oxide ore is similar to cyanide(cyanide-O2)extraction, but the leaching rate of gold by BDM-KMnO4 is faster than that by cyanide-O2; 4) gold may readily be recov-ered by carbon adsorption and zinc precipitation

  14. Weaver mutant mice exhibit long-term learning deficits under several measures of instrumental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Adam; Arsenault, Matthew L; Austin, David P; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2007-12-01

    Homozygous weaver mutant mice (wv/wv) exhibit symptoms that parallel Parkinson's disease, including motor deficits and the destruction of dopaminergic neurons as well as degeneration in the cerebellum and hippocampus. To develop a more complete behavioral profile of these organisms, groups of wv/wv, wv/+ mice and C57BL/6 mice were observed on a within-subjects basis under a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement, a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-of-responding schedule, and a discrimination task in which a saccharin solution and tap water were concurrently available from two food cups. Under both reinforcement schedules, the wv/wv mice responded as frequently as the comparison subjects, but they responded in a manner that was inappropriate to the contingencies. Rather than respond with increasing frequency as the upcoming reinforcer became temporally proximate, wv/wv mice responded with decreasing probability as a function of the time since the previous reinforcer. Under the discrimination task, the wv/wv mice, unlike the controls, obtained saccharin over tap water at the level of chance. The findings suggest that weaver mutant mice express learning deficits similar to those found in other dopamine-deficient organisms.

  15. Estimating long-term behavior of periodically driven flows without trajectory integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyland, Gary; Koltai, Péter

    2017-05-01

    Periodically driven flows are fundamental models of chaotic behavior and the study of their transport properties is an active area of research. A well-known analytic construction is the augmentation of phase space with an additional time dimension; in this augmented space, the flow becomes autonomous or time-independent. We prove several results concerning the connections between the original time-periodic representation and the time-extended representation, focusing on transport properties. In the deterministic setting, these include single-period outflows and time-asymptotic escape rates from time-parameterized families of sets. We also consider stochastic differential equations with time-periodic advection term. In this stochastic setting one has a time-periodic generator (the differential operator given by the right-hand-side of the corresponding time-periodic Fokker-Planck equation). We define in a natural way an autonomous generator corresponding to the flow on time-extended phase space. We prove relationships between these two generator representations and use these to quantify decay rates of observables and to determine time-periodic families of sets with slow escape rate. Finally, we use the generator on the time-extended phase space to create efficient numerical schemes to implement the various theoretical constructions. These ideas build on the work of Froyland et al (2013 SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 51 223-47), and no expensive time integration is required. We introduce an efficient new hybrid approach, which treats the space and time dimensions separately.

  16. Long-Term Seismicity Behavior of the Zagros Region in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madahizadeh, Rohollah; Mostafazadeh, Mehrdad; Ansari, Anooshiravan

    2016-08-01

    To achieve a comprehensive attitude about seismicity, it is necessary to consider spatial and magnitude distributions of earthquakes. Earthquake distributions in space and magnitude can be quantified by means of spatial fractal dimension D( s) and Gutenberg-Richter b value. In this paper, b value and D( s) are used to evaluate seismicity of the Zagros zone (Iran) in time interval 1964 to 2012. Seismic catalog of the Zagros zone is extracted from unified seismic catalog of the Iranian Plateau. The b value and D( s) are estimated using frequency-magnitude distribution, Kijko-Sellevoll (Bull Seism Soc Am 79(3):645-654, 1989) and correlation integral methods. Correlations between spatial variations in b value and D( s) along individual profiles across the North Zagros and the Central Zagros indicate different stress release regimes for North and Central parts of the Zagros zone. Evaluation of b value with respect to depth along the profiles indicates larger b values at shallower depths. Temporal variations in b value and D( s) are also obtained from background seismicity to evaluate seismicity behavior of the Zagros zone. Our results indicate high b values and moderate D( s) for seismicity of the North Zagros, while seismicity of the Central Zagros has low b values and high D( s) during time interval 1964-2012. Asperities of the Main Zagros Thrust are also located by investigating ratio D( s)/ b along the Main Zagros Thrust.

  17. Are long-term cancer survivors and physicians discussing health promotion and healthy behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzik, Kelly M; Fouad, Mona N.; Pisu, Maria; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to 1) describe the proportion of survivors reporting that a physician discussed strategies to improve health and 2) identify which groups are more likely to report these discussions Methods Lung and colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors (>5 years from diagnosis) (n=874) completed questionnaires, including questions on whether in the previous year a physician discussed 1) strategies to improve health, 2) exercise, and 3) diet habits. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to examine whether the likelihood of these discussions varied by demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Approximately 59% reported a physician discussed strategies to improve health and exercise, 44% discussed diet, and 24% reported no discussions. Compared to their counterparts, survivors with lower education were less likely report discussing all three areas, while survivors with diabetes were more likely. Survivors ≥65 were less likely to report discussing strategies to improve health and diet. Males and CRC survivors reported discussing diet more than their female and lung cancer counterparts, respectively Conclusion The frequency of health promotion discussions varies across survivor characteristics. While discussions were more frequently reported by some groups, e.g., survivors with diabetes, or among individuals less likely to engage in healthy behaviors, e.g., males, older and less educated survivors were less likely to have these discussions. Implications for survivors Decreasing physician barriers and activating patients to discuss health promotion especially in the context of clinical care for older survivors and those with low education, is critical to promoting the overall well-being of cancer survivors. PMID:26210659

  18. Uncertainty of the Numerical Solution of a Nonlinear System's Long-term Behavior and Global Convergence of the Numerical Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡淑娟; 丑纪范

    2004-01-01

    The computational uncertainty principle in nonlinear ordinary differential equations makes the numerical solution of the long-term behavior of nonlinear atmospheric equations have no meaning. The main reason is that, in the error analysis theory of present-day computational mathematics, the non-linear process between truncation error and rounding erroris treated as a linear operation. In this paper, based on the operator equations of large-scale atmospheric movement, the above limitation is overcome by using the notion of cell mapping. Through studying the global asymptotic characteristics of the numerical pattern of the large-scale atmospheric equations, the definitions of the global convergence and an appropriate discrete algorithm of the numerical pattern are put forward. Three determinant theorems about the global convergence of the numerical pattern are presented, which provide the theoretical basis for constructing the globally convergent numerical pattern. Further, it is pointed out that only a globally convergent numerical pattern can improve the veracity of climatic prediction.

  19. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper "Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure" (Kichou et al., 2016) [1].

  20. Reforming Management of Behavior Symptoms and Psychiatric Conditions in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Different Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Steven A; Desai, Abhilash K

    2017-02-24

    Despite much attention including national initiatives, concerns remain about the approaches to managing behavior symptoms and psychiatric conditions across all settings, including in long-term care settings such as nursing homes and assisted living facilities. One key reason why problems persist is because most efforts to "reform" and "correct" the situation have failed to explore or address root causes and instead have promoted inadequate piecemeal "solutions." Further improvement requires jumping off the bandwagon and rethinking the entire issue, including recognizing and applying key concepts of clinical reasoning and the care delivery process to every situation. The huge negative impact of cognitive biases and rote approaches on related clinical problem solving and decision making and patient outcomes also must be addressed.

  1. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bicanic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS, including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years. STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods: Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions: The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  2. Leaching behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in shredder residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S; Urano, S; Takatsuki, H

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that some kinds of waste contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/DFs and PCBs. Leaching behaviors of these chemicals, however, have not been focused so much because of their low leachability. On the other hand, shredder residues originated from automobiles and electric appliances consist mainly of plastics, such as PVC, which contain additives including DEHP. In this study, contents analyses and leaching tests with and without surfactant-like substances for shredder residues were conducted. As a result, shredder residues from automobile and electric appliance contained PCBs in ppm level and a quantity of PCDD/DFs. Surfactant-like substances increase the leaching concentration of POPs. DEHP also leached out considerably even though using distilled water.

  3. The long-term effects of superovulation on fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zeng-Tao; Lu, Xi-Lan; Zhang, Gang; Yu, Jing; Li, Hua; Jia, Gui-Hua; Li, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of superovulation on fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice. The mice were superovaluted, and the fertility of male offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) were evaluated in terms of the percentage of plugs and pregnancies, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm motility. Furthermore, the sexual behavior of male offspring and sex ratio (F1 generation and F2 generation) were measured. There were no significant differences in the percentage of plug and pregnancies, serum testosterone concentrations, sperm motilities and sex ratio between the offspring in naturally conceived group and superovulation groups (both F1 generation and F2 generation). The sperm hyperactivity at 90 min after incubation of F1 generation in naturally conceived group were higher than that of F1 generation in superovulation group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The offspring produced by superovaluted oocytes (both F1 generation and F2 generation) did not exhibit significant alterations in sexual behavior. No significant alterations were found in fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice produced by superovaluted oocytes compared with those of naturally conceived offspring.

  4. Compound stimulus presentation and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine enhance long-term extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Patricia H; Bowers, M Scott; Corbit, Laura H

    2012-03-01

    Drug abstinence is frequently compromised when addicted individuals are re-exposed to environmental stimuli previously associated with drug use. Research with human addicts and in animal models has demonstrated that extinction learning (non-reinforced cue-exposure) can reduce the capacity of such stimuli to induce relapse, yet extinction therapies have limited long-term success under real-world conditions (Bouton, 2002; O'Brien, 2008). We hypothesized that enhancing extinction would reduce the later ability of drug-predictive cues to precipitate drug-seeking behavior. We, therefore, tested whether compound stimulus presentation and pharmacological treatments that augment noradrenergic activity (atomoxetine; norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) during extinction training would facilitate the extinction of drug-seeking behaviors, thus reducing relapse. Rats were trained that the presentation of a discrete cue signaled that a lever press response would result in cocaine reinforcement. Rats were subsequently extinguished and spontaneous recovery of drug-seeking behavior following presentation of previously drug-predictive cues was tested 4 weeks later. We find that compound stimulus presentations or pharmacologically increasing noradrenergic activity during extinction training results in less future recovery of responding, whereas propranolol treatment reduced the benefit seen with compound stimulus presentation. These data may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of extinction learning, as well as for improving the outcome of extinction-based therapies.

  5. Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant and its Effect on Long-term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-14

    The creep behavior of glass or glass-ceramic sealant materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the creep of glass-ceramic sealants was experimentally examined, and a standard linear solid model was applied to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic sealant materials developed for planar SOFCs at high temperatures. The parameters of this model were determined based on the creep test results. Furthermore, the creep model was incorporated into finite-element software programs SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for multi-physics simulation of SOFCs. The effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on the long-term performance of SOFC stacks was investigated by studying the stability of the flow channels and the stress redistribution in the glass seal and on the various interfaces of the glass seal with other layers. Finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stresses in glass seals were released because of creep behavior during operations.

  6. Community-based behavioral weight-loss treatment: long-term maintenance of weight loss, physiological, and psychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C; Wendicke, Annemarie U; Murakami, Jessica M; Durso, Laura E

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem, and sustainable long-term treatments are needed. This study examined a community-based model of weight-loss treatment. Ninety participants were recruited from eight community organizations (mean age: 49.65 years, mean body mass index: 35.80 kg/m(2); 64% female). Treatment groups were randomly assigned to two maintenance conditions: 1) self-help continuing care, or 2) assessment-only. Both received the same initial 20-session group behavioral treatment. Those randomized to continuing care were additionally instructed to meet as self-sustaining groups for 18 months post-treatment. Weight, physiological, behavioral, and psychological outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and at six-month and 18-month follow-up. Eighty-seven percent of participants completed treatment. Participant treatment satisfaction and therapist adherence to treatment protocol were high. No group differences or time by group interaction effects emerged. Participants achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment, with no significant weight regain at six-month or 18-month follow-up. Treatment produced sustained changes in waist circumference, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, eating patterns, physical activity, quality of life, and body image. A community-based treatment program may be an effective form of behavioral-weight-loss treatment for overweight/obese adults. Weight losses, along with physiological and psychological benefits, were sustained over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving effects of long-term growth hormone treatment on monoaminergic neurotransmission and related behavioral tests in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Susana; Garau, Celia; Aparicio, Sara; Moranta, David; Barceló, Pere; Ramis, Margarita; Tresguerres, Jesús A F; Rial, Rubén

    2010-12-01

    An age-related decline in cognitive functions and physical performance has been associated with reductions in growth hormone (GH) secretion and brain neurotransmitter function. In vivo experiments were performed to study the long-term effects of exogenously administered GH on the central monoaminergic neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline and behavioral tests in old Wistar rats. The accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) after decarboxylase inhibition was used as a measure of the rate of tryptophan and tyrosine hydroxylation in vivo. Also, the content of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline and some metabolites was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in adult memory processing and motor coordination. The age-related decline observed in all the neurochemical parameters in control rats was significantly reversed after repeated subcutaneous administration of GH (2 mg/kg per day, 4 weeks). Thus, GH treatment exerted a long-term effect on serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline neurotransmission by enhancing neurotransmitter synthesis and metabolism in aged rats. The results obtained after examining working memory tasks in the eight-radial maze and motor ability in the Rotarod treadmill in aged rats were consistent with these neurochemical data; both tests were significantly improved after chronic GH treatment. Overall, these in vivo findings suggest that the positive effects induced by GH on serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline neurotransmitters might explain, at least in part, the effects of chronic GH treatment in improving cognitive and motor ability in aged rats, and could aid in preventing or delaying deficits in monoamines associated with learning or motor disabilities.

  8. Relationship between Physical Disabilities or Long-Term Health Problems and Health Risk Behaviors or Conditions among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Lollar, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study explores the relationship between self-reported physical disabilities or long-term health problems and health risk behaviors or adverse health conditions (self-reported engagement in violent behaviors, attempted suicide, cigarette smoking, alcohol and other drug use, sexual activity, physical activity, dietary behaviors,…

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: access to treatment, prediction of long-term outcome with neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neill J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph O'Neill,1 Jamie D Feusner,2 1Division of Child Psychiatry, 2Division of Adult Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD: improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. Keywords: follow-up, access to treatment, relapse, resting-state fMRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  10. Lack of long-term behavioral alterations after early postnatal treatment with tropisetron: implications for developmental psychobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Dragos; Vogt, Miriam A; Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Schneider, Miriam; Gass, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The early postnatal period represents a critical time window for brain development. Transient Cajal-Retzius cells in layer I of the cortex play an important role in cortical lamination by modulating neuronal migration and maturation. Recent data have demonstrated that the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist and alpha7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist tropisetron, acting via 5-HT(3) receptors expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells, can disturb the formation of cortical columns at perinatal stages. This process is thought to be involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated the possible long-term behavioral effects of exposure to tropisetron at early postnatal stages in mice. We found that the administration of 1mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) tropisetron from postnatal days 2-12 (P2-P12) did not induce significant cognitive, schizophrenia-like or emotional alterations in tropisetron-treated animals as compared to controls, when tested in multiple behavioral assays. These results may be of relevance regarding the possible protracted deleterious neuropsychiatric effects of tropisetron during early life.

  11. Production of an impermeable composite of irradiated graphite and glass by hot isostatic pressing as a long term leach resistant waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachinger, Johannes; Muller, Walter [FNAG ZU Hanau, Hanau (Germany); Marsat, Eric [FNAG SAS Le Pont de Claix (France); Grosse, Karl-Heinz; Seemann, Richard [ALD Hanau (Germany); Scales, Charlie; Easton, Michael Mark [NNL, Workington (United Kingdom); Anthony Banford [NNL, Warrington (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    negligible porosity and a water impermeable structure. Structural analysis shows that the glass in the composite has replaced the pores in the graphite structure. The typical pore volume of a graphite material is in the range of 20 vol.%. Therefore no volume increase will occur in comparison with the former graphite material. This IGM material will allow the encapsulation of graphite with package densities larger than 1.5 ton per cubic meter. Therefore a huge volume saving can be achieved by such an alternative encapsulation method. Disposal performance is also enhanced since little or no leaching of radionuclides is observed due to the impermeability of the material NNL and FNAG have proved that IGM can be produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which has several advantages for radioactive materials over the HVP process. - The sealed HIP container avoids the release of any radionuclides. - The outside of the waste package is not contaminated. - The HIP process time is shorter than the HVP process time. The isostatic press avoids anisotropic density distributions. - Simple filling of the HIP container has advantages over the filling of an axial die. (authors)

  12. Pairing behavior and reproduction in Hyalella azteca as sensitive endpoints for detecting long-term consequences of pesticide pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Signe; Palmqvist, Annemette; Thorbek, Pernille; Hamer, Mick; Forbes, Valery

    2013-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine acute and delayed effects of pulse exposure of the pyrethroid pesticide, permethrin, on precopulatory pairs of Hyalella azteca. Pairs of H. azteca were exposed to a single 1h pulse of different nominal concentrations of permethrin: 0, 0.3, 0.9 or 2.7 μg/L. During exposure, pairing behavior was observed, and during a 56 day post-exposure period the treatments were monitored for pairing behavior, survival and reproductive output. All permethrin-exposed pairs separated within minutes during exposure and shortly thereafter became immobile; however they regained mobility after transfer to clean water. The time to re-form pairs was significantly longer in all tested concentrations compared to the control, although all surviving pairs re-formed within the 56 day test period. Nevertheless not all pairs exposed to 0.9 and 2.7 μg/L reproduced. Furthermore the numbers of juveniles produced by pairs exposed to 0.9 and 2.7 μg/L, but not 0.3 μg/L, were lower throughout the entire post-exposure period compared to the control groups, and the total numbers of juveniles produced during 56 days were significantly lower in organisms exposed to 0.9 and 2.7 μg/L, but not 0.3 μg/L, compared to the control groups. The long-term effects of short-term exposure on reproductive behavior of pairs could potentially have consequences for the population dynamics of H. azteca. However, since individual-level responses can both overestimate and underestimate effects at the population level, appropriate population models are needed to reduce the uncertainty in extrapolating between these levels of biological organization.

  13. Prior Exposure to Interpersonal Violence and Long-term Treatment Response for Boys with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Insana, Salvatore P.

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is common in children with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and increases the risk for greater DBD symptom severity, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and neuroendocrine disruption. Thus, IPV may make it difficult to change symptom trajectories for families receiving DBD interventions given these relationships. The current study examined whether IPV prior to receiving treatment for a DBD predicted trajectories of a variety of associated outcomes, specifically DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol concentrations. Boys with a DBD diagnosis (N = 66; age range = 6-11 years; 54.5% of whom experienced IPV prior to treatment) of either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder participated in a randomized clinical trial and were assessed 3 years following treatment. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that prior IPV predicted smaller rates of change in DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol trajectories, indicating less benefit from intervention. The effect size magnitudes of IPV were large for each outcome (d = 0.88 – 1.07). These results suggest that IPV is a predictor of the long-term treatment response for boys with a DBD. Including trauma-focused components into existing DBD interventions may be worth testing to improve treatment effectiveness for boys with a prior history of IPV. PMID:25270151

  14. Long-term reproductive and behavioral toxicity of anthracene to fish in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A.T. [Sandoz Agro, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Oris, J.T. [Miami Univ. Oxford, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The long-term, low-level effects of anthracene in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR) were examined in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Adult fish exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced egg laying capacity, with altered oocyte maturation as a potential mechanism of action. Eggs and larvae maternally exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced hatching success and severe developmental abnormalities when incubated under SUVR. The combination of reduced egg output and developmental effects resulted in an inhibition in reproductive capacity in the range of 70--100%. Maternal transfer of anthracene to eggs was efficient; the BCF was 717 for maternally exposed eggs. However, anthracene deputation from eggs after oviposition with only maternal PAH exposure was rapid; anthracene half-life from eggs equaled 1.3 days. Exposure to anthracene under SUVR altered locomotor activity patterns in fathead minnows by inducing hyperactivity or hypoactivity during the light or dark phases of the photoperiod, respectively. Altered activity patterns indicated potential effects of anthracene on the nervous system and/or pineal gland. These alterations disrupted normal activity patterns and reproductive behaviors, and thus have major implications on a fish`s ability to survive and reproduce. Anthracene, a model phototoxic PAH, has many potential sites of toxic action, and any organism exposed to such contaminants will be an considerable SUVR-enhanced risk in the environment.

  15. Long-term investigation of erosion behaviors on metal surfaces by impingement of liquid droplet with high-speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Duk Hyun; Kim, Kyung Hoon [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Understanding wall-thinning erosion of pipelines in nuclear or steam power plants is critically important for predicting and preventing human and material accidents. Wall thinning of pipelines in power plants occurs mainly by flow acceleration corrosion (FAC), cavitation erosion (C/E), and liquid droplet impingement erosion (LIE). Wall thinning by FAC and C/E has been well-investigated; however, LIE in plant industries has rarely been studied due to the experimental difficulty of setting up a long injection of highly pressurized air. We designed a long-term experimental system for LIE and investigated the behavior of LIE for three kinds of materials (A106B, SS400, A6061). The main control parameter was the air-water ratio (α), which was defined as the volumetric ratio of water to air (0.79, 1.00, 1.72). To clearly understand LIE, the spraying velocity (v) of liquid droplets was controlled larger than 160 m/s and the experiments were performed for 15 days. The surface morphology and hardness of the materials were examined every five days. Since the spraying velocity of liquid droplets and their contact area (A{sub c}) on specimens were changed according to the air-water ratio, we analyzed the behavior of LIE for the materials using the impulse (I), which was defined as I = (α × v) / A{sub c} . Finally, the prediction equations (the erosion rate) for the LIE of the materials were determined for the air-water ratios.

  16. Short- and long-term biomarkers for bacterial robustness: a framework for quantifying correlations between cellular indicators and adaptive behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidy M W den Besten

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms to adapt to changing environments challenges the prediction of their history-dependent behavior. Cellular biomarkers that are quantitatively correlated to stress adaptive behavior will facilitate our ability to predict the impact of these adaptive traits. Here, we present a framework for identifying cellular biomarkers for mild stress induced enhanced microbial robustness towards lethal stresses. Several candidate-biomarkers were selected by comparing the genome-wide transcriptome profiles of our model-organism Bacillus cereus upon exposure to four mild stress conditions (mild heat, acid, salt and oxidative stress. These candidate-biomarkers--a transcriptional regulator (activating general stress responses, enzymes (removing reactive oxygen species, and chaperones and proteases (maintaining protein quality--were quantitatively determined at transcript, protein and/or activity level upon exposure to mild heat, acid, salt and oxidative stress for various time intervals. Both unstressed and mild stress treated cells were also exposed to lethal stress conditions (severe heat, acid and oxidative stress to quantify the robustness advantage provided by mild stress pretreatment. To evaluate whether the candidate-biomarkers could predict the robustness enhancement towards lethal stress elicited by mild stress pretreatment, the biomarker responses upon mild stress treatment were correlated to mild stress induced robustness towards lethal stress. Both short- and long-term biomarkers could be identified of which their induction levels were correlated to mild stress induced enhanced robustness towards lethal heat, acid and/or oxidative stress, respectively, and are therefore predictive cellular indicators for mild stress induced enhanced robustness. The identified biomarkers are among the most consistently induced cellular components in stress responses and ubiquitous in biology, supporting extrapolation to other microorganisms

  17. Rapid and Delayed Effects of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Neuropathic Pain: Electrophysiological, Molecular, and Behavioral Evidence Supporting Long-Term Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ren-Yu; Liao, Chia-Chi; Tsai, Shih-Ying; Yen, Chen-Tung; Lin, Chii-Wann; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Lin, Wei-Tso; Chang, Chi-Heng; Wen, Yeong-Ray

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been widely employed for ameliorating clinical neuropathic pain. How PRF alters electrophysiological transmission and modulates biomolecular functions in neural tissues has yet to be clarified. We previously demonstrated that an early application of low-voltage bipolar PRF adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) reduced acute neuropathic pain in animals. By contrast, the present study investigated how PRF alters postsynaptic sensitization to produce early and delayed effects on neuropathic pain. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 5-minute session of PRF could rapidly produce selective long-term depression (LTD) on C-fiber-mediated spinal sensitization and sustain the effect through the long-lasting inhibition of injury-induced ERK-MAPK activation. This may explain the prolonged analgesic effect of PRF on chronic neuropathic pain. Experiments were conducted on both normal rats and neuropathic pain rats that received spinal nerve ligation (SNL) 8 days prior. An animal laboratory in a medical center of a university in Taiwan. We first compared changes in field potentials in the L5 superficial spinal dorsal horn (SDH) that were evoked by conditioning electrical stimuli in the sciatic nerve in male adult rats before (as the baseline) and after PRF stimulation for at least 2 hours. Bipolar PRF was applied adjacent to the L5 DRG at an intensity of 5 V for 5 minutes, whereas the control rats were treated with sham applications. The electrophysiological findings were tested for any correlation with induction of spinal phospho-ERK (p-ERK) in normal and neuropathic pain rats. We then investigated the delayed effect of PRF on SNL-maintained pain behaviors for 2 weeks as well as p-ERK in SDH among the control, SNL, and PRF groups. Finally, potential injury in the DRGs after PRF stimulation was evaluated through behavioral observations and ATF-3, a neuronal stress marker. In the evoked field-potential study, the recordings mediated

  18. Long-term behavioral sensitization to apomorphine is independent of conditioning and increases conditioned pecking, but not preference, in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, Patrick; Edeş, Neslihan; Tabrik, Sepideh; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-08-30

    When rodents are given a free choice between a variable option and a constant option, they may prefer variability. This preference is even sometimes increased following repeated administration of a dopamine agonist. The present study was the first to examine preference for variability under the systemic administration of a dopamine agonist, apomorphine (Apo), in birds. Experiment 1 tested the drug-free preference and the propensity to choose of pigeons for a constant over a variable delay. It appeared that they preferred and decided more quickly to peck at the optimal delay option. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of a repeated injection of Apo on delay preference, in comparison with previous control tests within the same individuals. Apo treatment might have decreased the number of pecks at the constant option across the different experimental phases, but failed to induce a preference for the variable option. In Experiment 3, two groups of pigeons (Apo-sensitized and saline) were used in order to avoid inhomogeneity in treatments. They had to choose between a 50% probability option and a 5-s delay option. Conditioned pecking and the propensity to choose were higher in the Apo-sensitized pigeons, but, in each group, the pigeons showed indifference between the two options. This experiment also showed that long-term behavioral sensitization to Apo can occur independently of a conditioning process. These results suggest that Apo sensitization can enhance the attractiveness of conditioned cues, while having no effect on the development of a preference for variable-delay and probabilistic schedules of reinforcement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Precipitation behavior of Z phase after long-term creep in high chromium ferritic heat resistant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, K.; Kushima, H.; Kimura, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan). Materials Reliability Center

    2006-07-01

    The precipitation behavior of the Z phase was investigated after long-term creep exposure in ASME-T91, T92, T122 without {delta}-ferrite, and T122 with {delta}-ferrite through elemental mapping using EF-TEM. The Z phase was identified by comparing the Cr map with the V map. Most of the Z phase was observed around prior austenite grain boundaries and/or packet boundaries in all of the steels examined. In T122 with {delta}-ferrite, the Z phase also precipitates around the {delta}-ferrite. In particular, the number of MX carbonitrides was very small in T122 with a large amount of the Z phase. The main metallic composition of the Z phase in T91 was the same as that in T92. In T122, the Z phase contained a lower Nb content. The main metallic composition of the Z phase around the {delta}-ferrite was the same as that in the other areas. There was no large difference in the size distribution of the Z phase among the steels. The mean diameter of the Z phases for T122 with {delta}-ferrite was relatively large in spite of a shorter creep exposure in contrast with T91 and T92. The number density of the Z phases increased with increasing creep exposure time except in the case of T91. The order of the number density was T122 with {delta}-ferrite, T91, T122 without {delta}-ferrite, and T92. In crept samples, the amount of Z phase in the gauge portion was higher than that in the grip portion, meaning that stress and/or strain promotes the formation of a Z phase during creep exposure. (orig.)

  20. Using Psychodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral, and Control Mastery Prototypes to Predict Change: A New Look at an Old Paradigm for Long-Term Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi; Ablon, J. Stuart; O'Connor, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates a method of testing models of change in individual long-term psychotherapy cases. A depressed client was treated with 208 sessions of control mastery therapy (CMT), an unmanualized approach that integrates elements of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Panels of experts developed prototypes…

  1. An Immediate and Long-Term Study of a Temperament and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Based Community Program for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pade, Hadas; Taube, Daniel O.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Reiser, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The immediate and long-term effects of a Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) derived program offered at a Kaiser Permanente facility were evaluated. There were 73 participants in the initial sample and 23 in the 5-6 year follow-up sample. Child behaviors improved significantly immediately following treatment and some improvements were…

  2. Preventive Intervention for Preschoolers at High Risk for Antisocial Behavior: Long-Term Effects on Child Physical Aggression and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Huang, Keng-Yen; Rosenfelt, Amanda; O'Neal, Colleen; Klein, Rachel G.; Shrout, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This article presents long-term effects of a preventive intervention for young children at high risk for antisocial behavior. Ninety-two children (M age = 4 years) were randomly assigned to an 8-month family intervention or no-intervention control condition and assessed 4 times over a 24-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant…

  3. The Short- and Long-term Effects of Simple Behavioral Interventions for Nocturnal Enuresis in Young Children : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Kamphuis, M.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Wilde, J.A. de; Rijpstra, A.; Campagne, A.E.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short- and long-term effects of 3 simple behavioral interventions to overcome nocturnal enuresis in young children. Study design: We performed a randomized controlled trial in children aged four to five years with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (n = 570). The children w

  4. Repeated mild lateral fluid percussion brain injury in the rat causes cumulative long-term behavioral impairments, neuroinflammation, and cortical loss in an animal model of repeated concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sandy R; Bao, Feng; Omana, Vanessa; Chiu, Charlotte; Brown, Arthur; Cain, Donald Peter

    2012-01-20

    There is growing evidence that repeated brain concussion can result in cumulative and long-term behavioral symptoms, neuropathological changes, and neurodegeneration. Little is known about the factors and mechanisms that contribute to these effects. The current study addresses the need to investigate and better understand the effects of repeated concussion through the development of an animal model. Male Long-Evans rats received 1, 3, or 5 mild lateral fluid percussion injuries or sham injuries spaced 5 days apart. After the final injury, rats received either a short (24 h) or long (8 weeks) post-injury recovery period, followed by a detailed behavioral analysis consisting of tests for rodent anxiety-like behavior, cognition, social behavior, sensorimotor function, and depression-like behavior. Brains were examined immunohistochemically to assess neuroinflammation and cortical damage. Rats given 1, 3, or 5 mild percussion injuries displayed significant short-term cognitive impairments. Rats given repeated mild percussion injuries displayed significantly worse short- and long-term cognitive impairments. Rats given 5 mild percussion injuries also displayed increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Neuropathological analysis revealed short-term neuroinflammation in 3-injury rats, and both short- and long-term neuroinflammation in 5-injury rats. There was also evidence that repeated injuries induced short- and long-term cortical damage. These cumulative and long-term changes are consistent with findings in human patients suffering repeated brain concussion, provide support for the use of repeated mild lateral fluid percussion injuries to study repeated concussion in the rat, and suggest that neuroinflammation may be important for understanding the cumulative and chronic effects of repeated concussion.

  5. Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Williams, Lauren F.; Suvak, Michael K.; Monson, Candice M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a long-term follow-up (LTFU) assessment of participants from a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive processing therapy (CPT) with prolonged exposure (PE) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing hypotheses for positive outcomes (i.e., additional therapy, medication) were examined. Method:…

  6. Long-term behavior of the concentration of the minor constituents in the mesosphere – a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grygalashvyly

    2009-04-01

    of the upper atmosphere. The long-term behavior of water vapor is discussed in particular with respect to its impact on the NLC region.

  7. Long-Term Impact of Community-Based Information, Education and Communication Activities on Food Hygiene and Food Safety Behaviors in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumiko Takanashi; Dao To Quyen; Nguyen Thi Le Hoa; Nguyen Cong Khan; Junko Yasuoka; Masamine Jimba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of childr...

  8. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Yucca Mountain Tuff and its Variability, Final Technical Report for Task ORD-FY04-021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, Jaak J.K.; Ma, Lumin; Zhao, Guohua

    2006-03-20

    The study of the long term mechanical behavior of Yucca Mountain tuffs is important for several reasons. Long term stability of excavations will affect accessibility (e.g. for inspection purposes), and retrievability. Long term instabilities may induce loading of drip shields and/or emplaced waste, thus affecting drip shield and/or waste package corrosion. Failure of excavations will affect airflow, may affect water flow, and may affect temperature distributions. The long term mechanical behavior of rocks remains an elusive topic, loaded with uncertainties. A variety of approaches have been used to improve the understanding of this complex subject, but it is doubtful that it has reached a stage where firm predictions can be considered feasible. The long term mechanical behavior of "soft" rocks, especially evaporites, and in particular rock salt, has been the subject of numerous investigations (e.g. Cristescu and Hunsche, 1998, Cristescu et al, 2002), and basic approaches towards engineering taking into account the long term behavior of such materials have long been well established (e.g. Dreyer, 1972, 1982). The same is certainly not true of "hard" rocks. While it long has been recognized that the long term strength of ?hard? rocks almost certainly is significantly less than that measured during "short", i.e. standard (ASTM D 2938), ISRM suggested (Bieniawski et al, 1978) and conventionally used test procedures (e.g. Bieniawski, 1970, Wawersik, 1972, Hoek and Brown, 1980, p. 150), what limited approaches have been taken to develop strategies toward determining the long term mechanical behavior of "hard" rock remain in the early research and investigation stage, at best. One early model developed specifically for time dependent analysis of underground "hard" rock structures is the phenomenological model by Kaiser and Morgenstern (1981). Brady and Brown (1985, p. 93) state that over a wide range of strain rates, from 10^-8 to 10^2/s the difference in strength is only

  9. Long-term evolution of techno-social networks: Statistical regularities, predictability and stability of social behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Godoy-Lorite, Antonia; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In social networks, individuals constantly drop ties and replace them by new ones in a highly unpredictable fashion. This highly dynamical nature of social ties has important implications for processes such as the spread of information or of epidemics. Several studies have demonstrated the influence of a number of factors on the intricate microscopic process of tie replacement, but the macroscopic long-term effects of such changes remain largely unexplored. Here we investigate whether, despite the inherent randomness at the microscopic level, there are macroscopic statistical regularities in the long-term evolution of social networks. In particular, we analyze the email network of a large organization with over 1,000 individuals throughout four consecutive years. We find that, although the evolution of individual ties is highly unpredictable, the macro-evolution of social communication networks follows well-defined statistical laws, characterized by exponentially decaying log-variations of the weight of socia...

  10. Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sophie; Mian, Firoz M.; Stanisz, Andrew M.; Bindels, Laure B.; Cambier, Emmanuel; Ben-Amram, Hila; Koren, Omry; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children's health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria. PMID:28375200

  11. Contributions of vitreous natural analogs to the investigation of long-term nuclear glass behavior; Apports des analogues naturels vitreux a la validation des codes de prediction du comportement a long terme des verres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techer, I

    1999-07-01

    This study assesses the extend of the analogy between the alteration behavior in water and in a moist clay environment of aluminosilicate volcanic glass and alumino-borosilicate nuclear containment glass. Basaltic glass alteration in water initially occurs by hydrolysis processes with an activation energy on the order of 73 kJ.mol{sup -1}. As the reaction progresses, the alteration rate drops by over four orders of magnitude from the initial rate r{sub 0}, The alteration kinetics are not governed by the alteration solution chemistry alone, the glass alteration film appears to have a major role as a diffusion barrier limiting the transfer of reaction species and products. All these aspects highlight the behavioral analogy between basaltic glass and nuclear borosilicate glass in aqueous media. Conversely, the alteration reaction of obsidian-type volcanic glass involves other mechanisms than those governing the dissolution of borosilicate glass. Basaltic glass alteration is also examined in the presence of a clay environmental material, in a study of the natural basaltic glass and argillaceous pelites system of the Salagou basin in southern France, in an approach combining mineralogical, chemical and isotopic data to assess the interactions between a basaltic glass and the argillaceous pelites. Laboratory leach test results with basaltic glass and measured data for the Salagou glass in its natural environment are modeled using a code implementing a kinetic law coupling diffusive transfer of dissolved silica with a reaction affinity law. (author)

  12. Acute and long-term effects of intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid on oxidative stress parameters and cognitive and noncognitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschetto, Luciane; Scaini, Giselli; Zapelini, Hugo G; Ramos, Ândrea C; Strapazzon, Giulia; Andrade, Vanessa M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Michels, Monique; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-05-27

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is biochemically characterized by elevated levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-keto acids in tissue and biological fluids. Neurological symptoms and cerebral abnormalities, whose mechanisms are still unknown, are typical of this metabolic disorder. In the present study, we evaluated the early effects (1 h after injection) and long-term effects (15 days after injection) of a single intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on oxidative stress parameters and cognitive and noncognitive behaviors. Our results showed that KIC induced early and long-term effects; we found an increase in TBARS levels, protein carbonyl content and DNA damage in the hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex both one hour and 15 days after KIC administration. Moreover, SOD activity increased in the hippocampus and striatum one hour after injection, whereas after 15 days, SOD activity decreased only in the striatum. On the other hand, KIC significantly decreased CAT activity in the striatum one hour after injection, but 15 days after KIC administration, we found a decrease in CAT activity in the hippocampus and striatum. Finally, we showed that long-term cognitive deficits follow the oxidative damage; KIC induced impaired habituation memory and long-term memory impairment. From the biochemical and behavioral findings, it we presume that KIC provokes oxidative damage, and the persistence of brain oxidative stress is associated with long-term memory impairment and prepulse inhibition.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Buspirone during Adolescence Reduce the Adverse Influences of Neonatal Inflammatory Pain and Stress on Adaptive Behavior in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Irina P; Mikhailenko, Viktor A; Vershinina, Elena A; Aloisi, Anna M; Barr, Gordon A

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity and behavior. Previously we found alterations in pain sensitivity in adolescent rats exposed to early-life adverse events. We tested whether these alterations have long-lasting effects and if those effects can be improved by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone injected chronically during the adolescent period. This study investigates: (1) effects of inflammatory pain (the injection of formalin into the pad of a hind paw) or stress (short maternal deprivation-isolation, MI), or their combination in 1-2-day-old rats on the adult basal pain, formalin-induced pain, anxiety and depression; (2) effects of adolescent buspirone in adult rats that experienced similar early-life insults. Changes in nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate (HP) and formalin tests; levels of anxiety and depression were assessed with the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests respectively. Both neonatal painful and stressful treatments induced long-term alterations in the forced swim test. Other changes in adult behavioral responses were dependent on the type of neonatal treatment. There was a notable lack of long-term effects of the combination of early inflammatory pain and stress of MI on the pain responses, anxiety levels or on the effects of adolescent buspirone. This study provides the first evidence that chronic injection of buspirone in adolescent rats alters antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects limited to adult rats that showed behavioral alterations induced by early-life adverse treatments. These data highlight the role of 5-HT1A receptors in long-term effects of neonatal inflammatory pain and stress of short MI on adaptive behavior and possibility of correction of the pain and psychoemotional behavior that were altered by adverse pain/stress intervention using buspirone during critical adolescent period.

  14. The Effects of a Self-Efficacy Intervention on Exercise Behavior of Fitness Club Members in 52 Weeks and Long-Term Relationships of Transtheoretical Model Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM is often used to understand changes in health-related behavior, like exercise. Exercise behavior in fitness clubs is an understudied topic, but preliminary studies showed low frequencies and large numbers of drop-out. An initial 12-week self-efficacy intervention reported significant effects on exercise behavior. The objective of this follow up study is testing effects on exercise behavior over 52 weeks and the long-term relationships of all TTM constructs. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females were recruited and randomly assigned to group 1 (control, group 2 (self-set activities and group 3 (self-set goals coaching. All participants were monitored 52-weeks. Measurements at baseline, 4, 8, 12, 26 and 52 weeks, using validated scales for stages of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance and processes of change. Exercise behavior and drop-outs were registered. An ANOVA revealed that group 3 significantly (p < 0.05 differed in exercise sessions from group 1 and 2 during the 12 weeks. A chi-square test indicated significant differences for continuing exercising after the intervention: 7 of group 1; 6 of group 2; 19 of group 3. In total 5 demonstrated regular exercise behavior at 26 weeks, and 3 at 52 weeks. Self-efficacy, decisional balance, and processes of change showed limited long-term changes over the later stages of change. At all measurements, participants reported more pros than cons and used more behavioral than cognitive processes. Exercise behavior of members in fitness clubs demonstrated dramatic developments in 52 weeks. The frequencies of sessions were so low that health effects will be minimal. The integrative character of the TTM appears to be weak; the data indicated limited relationships. More research is needed to understand exercise behavior and define optimal strategies to increase exercise attendance and decrease drop-outs in the long term.

  15. Geochemical modeling of leaching from MSWI air-pollution control residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrup, T.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Christensen, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an improved understanding of the leaching behavior of waste incineration air-pollution-control (APC) residues in a long-term perspective. Leaching was investigated by a series of batch experiments reflecting leaching conditions after initial washout of highly soluble salts from r

  16. Geochemical modeling of leaching from MSWI air-pollution control residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrup, T.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Christensen, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an improved understanding of the leaching behavior of waste incineration air-pollution-control (APC) residues in a long-term perspective. Leaching was investigated by a series of batch experiments reflecting leaching conditions after initial washout of highly soluble salts from r

  17. Long-term effectiveness and prediction of treatment outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline for late-life anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Josien; Comijs, Hannie; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Weijnen, Ingrid J C; van den Hout, Marcel; van Dyck, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Although anxiety disorders are prevalent in older adults, randomized controlled trials of treatment effectiveness for late-life anxiety are scarce and have focused primarily on the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions. However, recent findings suggest that in some cases, pharmacological treatment may be more beneficial for late-life anxiety disorders. As yet, there have been no systematic studies investigating prognostic factors for the outcome of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy for late-life anxiety. The objective of the present study was to study long-term treatment outcomes and to explore differential predictors for both short-term and long-term treatment outcomes of sertraline and CBT for late-life anxiety disorders. Participants of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing sertraline and CBT for the treatment of late-life anxiety were contacted one year after completing their treatment, so that predictors for both short-term and long-term treatment outcome could be established. Sertraline showed a greater reduction of symptoms than CBT on anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; HARS) and worry (Worry Domain Questionnaire) ratings at one-year follow-up. The strongest predictor for short-term CBT outcome was poor perceived health, explaining 40% of the variance in post-treatment residual gain scores on the HARS. The strongest predictor for long-term CBT outcome was neuroticism, explaining 20% of the variance in residual gain scores at one-year follow-up. Analyses revealed no significant predictors for treatment outcome in sertraline participants. Our study suggests that long-term use of sertraline might be more beneficial for late-life anxiety than a 15-week CBT program. Poor perceived health and neuroticism are predictive of less improvement after CBT in anxious older adults. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Yamanashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC. Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1 and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS, Kyoto University (Study 2. We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than

  19. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC). Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1) and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS), Kyoto University (Study 2). We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than relocation alone.

  20. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  1. Long-term and real-time monitoring of chondrocyte behavior synthesizing extracellular matrix with biologically coupled field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroto; Saito, Akiko; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the differential measurement method of accurately monitoring cellular metabolism with a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET), focusing on the proliferation potency of chondrocytes utilized in the field of orthopedics. By adding growth factors to chondrocytes on the gate, cellular activity was induced and continuously monitored as a change in pH during a cellular respiration for ten days using the FET biosensor. Moreover, the electrical signal of the FET device reflected the reproduction property of chondrocytes to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). A platform based on the FET device is suitable as a noninvasive, real-time and long-term monitoring system for cellular functions; it will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of ECM synthesis by chondrocytes.

  2. Thermally Activated Deformation Behavior of ufg-Au: Environmental Issues During Long-Term and High-Temperature Nanoindentation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Verena; Leitner, Alexander; Pippan, Reinhard; Kiener, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    For testing time-dependent material properties by nanoindentation, in particular for long-term creep or relaxation experiments, thermal drift influences on the displacement signal are of prime concern. To address this at room and elevated temperatures, we tested fused quartz at various contact depths at room temperature and ultra-fine grained (ufg) Au at various temperatures. We found that the raw data for fused quartz are strongly affected by thermal drift, but corrected by use of dynamic stiffness measurements all the datasets collapse. The situation for the ufg Au shows again that the data are only useful with drift correction, but with this applied it turns out that there is a significant change of elastic and plastic properties when exceeding 200°C, which is also reflected by an increasing strain rate sensitivity.

  3. Staff Member Reactions to Same-Gender, Resident-to-Resident Sexual Behavior Within Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrendt, Andrew; Sprankle, Eric; Kuka, Alex; McPherson, Keagan

    2017-01-01

    The current study assesses ageism and heterosexism relating to older adult sexual activity within long-term care facilities. To assess caregiver reactions, 153 residential care facility staff members read one of three vignettes. Each vignette described a scenario in which a staff member walks in on two residents (male/female, male/male, or female/female) engaging in sexual activity. Although no main effects were discovered for vignette type, exploratory analyses revealed that the facility where participants were employed was significantly related to their ratings of approval. Furthermore, an interaction effect between vignette and facility types was also discovered for caregivers' approval of sexual activity among residents. Additionally, a strong overall approval rating of older adult sexuality was reported by staff members. The results of this study warrant that further research is necessary regarding older adults' perception of caregiver bias, as well as further investigation of caregivers' perceptions of older adults' sexual activity.

  4. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses.

  5. Social phobia: individual response patterns and the long-term effects of behavioral and cognitive interventions. A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersch, P P; Emmelkamp, P M; Lips, C

    1991-01-01

    In this study the long-term effectiveness of Social Skills Training (SST) and Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), on social phobia was studied, as well as the differential influence of patient characteristics on treatment effectiveness. Fifty-seven patients were assessed 14 months after the post-test. Results showed that long-term effectiveness was independent of the response-pattern of the patients. Comparisons between methods, irrespective of the response-pattern of the patients, showed no differences in effectiveness in favor of either SST or RET. Explorative analysis indicated the potential predictive power for treatment-outcome of confederate ratings of overt behavior on the SSIT. Patients who needed additional treatment appeared to perform significantly worse on this measure at the pretest. No factors could be traced that predict relapse after a relatively successful treatment.

  6. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and long-term cardiovascular risk in young people:A review and discussion of methodology in prospective studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakob Tarp; Jan Christian Brønd; Lars Bo Andersen; Niels Christian Møller; Karsten Froberg; Anders Grøntved

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of physical activity (PA) or sedentary behavior on cardiovascular health in young people are not well understood. In this study, we use a narrative format to review the evidence for a prospective association with adiposity and other well-established biological cardiovascular risk factors in healthy young people, considering only studies with at least 2 years of follow-up. PA appears to elicit a long-term beneficial effect on adiposity and particularly markers of cardiovascular health. With adiposity, however, a few studies also reported that higher levels of PA were associated with higher levels of adiposity. Time spent sedentary does not appear to be related to adiposity or markers of cardiovascular health independent of PA. We then discuss the uncertainties in the underlying causal chain and consider a number of alternative modeling strategies, which could improve our understanding of the relationship in future studies. Finally, we consider the current methodology for assessing PA and sedentary time.

  7. Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals from Cement Pastes Using a Modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minrui; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Chen, Yingqiang; Shentu, Jiali

    2016-03-01

    As the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) can not exhaust the acid neutralizing capacity of the cement rotary kiln co-processing solid wastes products which is particularly important for the assessment of the leaching concentrations of heavy metals. A modified TCLP was proposed. The extent of leaching of heavy metals is low using the TCLP and the leaching performance of the different metals can not be differentiated. Using the modified TCLP, however, Zn leaching was negligible during the first 180 h and then sharply increased (2.86 ± 0.18 to 3.54 ± 0.26 mg/L) as the acidity increased (pH cement rotary kiln co-processing products.

  8. Long-term effects of early adolescent methamphetamine exposure on depression-like behavior and the hypothalamic vasopressin system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joca, Lauren; Zuloaga, Damian G; Raber, Jacob; Siegel, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has neurotoxic effects on the adult human brain that can lead to deficits in behavior and cognition. However, relatively little research has examined the behavioral or neurotoxic effects of MA in adolescents. The rising rates of adolescent MA use make it imperative that we understand the long-term effects of MA exposure on the adolescent brain and how these effects may differ from those seen in adults. In this study, the long-term effects of MA exposure during early adolescence on behavior and the vasopressin system in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in late adolescent and adult male and female C57BL/6J mice were examined. MA exposure increased depression-like behavior in the Porsolt forced swim test in both late adolescent and adult male and female mice. Late adolescent male mice exposed to MA also showed a decrease in the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus compared to sex-matched saline-treated controls. Thus, similar to humans exposed to MA during adolescence, mice exposed to MA during adolescence show increased depression-like behavior later in life. These changes in behavior may be related to MA-induced alterations in vasopressin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially in males.

  9. New Rapid Evaluation for Long-Term Behavior in Deep Geological Repository by Geotechnical Centrifuge—Part 2: Numerical Simulation of Model Tests in Isothermal Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Masataka; Nishimoto, Soshi; Okada, Tetsuji

    2017-01-01

    In high-level radioactive waste disposal repositories, there are long-term complex thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena that involve the generation of heat from the waste, the infiltration of ground water, and swelling of the bentonite buffer. The ability to model such coupled phenomena is of particular importance to the repository design and assessments of its safety. We have developed a T-H-M-coupled analysis program that evaluates the long-term behavior around the repository (called "near-field"). We have also conducted centrifugal model tests that model the long-term T-H-M-coupled behavior in the near-field. In this study, we conduct H-M-coupled numerical simulations of the centrifugal near-field model tests. We compare numerical results with each other and with results obtained from the centrifugal model tests. From the comparison, we deduce that: (1) in the numerical simulation, water infiltration in the rock mass was in agreement with the experimental observation. (2) The constant-stress boundary condition in the centrifugal model tests may cause a larger expansion of the rock mass than in the in situ condition, but the mechanical boundary condition did not affect the buffer behavior in the deposition hole. (3) The numerical simulation broadly reproduced the measured bentonite pressure and the overpack displacement, but did not reproduce the decreasing trend of the bentonite pressure after 100 equivalent years. This indicates the effect of the time-dependent characteristics of the surrounding rock mass. Further investigations are needed to determine the effect of initial heterogeneity in the deposition hole and the time-dependent behavior of the surrounding rock mass.

  10. Long-term Behaviors of Two Versions of FGOALS2 in Preindustrial Control Simulations with Implications for 20th Century Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Pengfei; LIU Hailong; YU Yongqiang; ZHOU Tianjun

    2013-01-01

    Climate drift in preindustrial control (PICTL) simulations can lead to spurious climate trends and large uncertainties in historical and future climate simulations in coupled models.This study examined the longterm behaviors and stabilities of the PICTL simulations in the two versions of FGOALS2 (the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model Version 2),which have been submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5).As verified by examining time series of thermal fields and their linear trends,the PICTL simulations showed stable long-term integration behaviors and no obvious climate drift [the magnitudes of linear trends of SST were both less than 0.04℃ (100 yr)-1] over multiple centuries.The changed SSTs in a century (that corresponded to the linear trends) were less than the standard deviations of annual mean values,which implied the internal variability was not affected.These trend values were less than 10% of those of global averaged SST from observations and historical runs during the periods of slow and rapid warming.Such stable long-term integration behaviors reduced the uncertainty of the estimation of global warming rates in the historical and future climate projections in the two versions of FGOALS2.Compared with the trends in the Northern Hemisphere,larger trends existed in the SST and sea ice extents at the middle to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH).To estimate the historical and future climate trends in the SH or at some specific regions in FGOALS2,corrections needed to be carried out.The similar long-term behaviors in the two versions of FGOALS2 may be attributed to proper physical processes in the ocean model.

  11. A numerical investigation into the long-term behaviors of Fukushima-derived137Cs in the ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chang; WANG Gang; QIAO Fangli; WANG Guansuo; JUNG Kyung-Tae; XIA Changshui

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 released large amounts of radionuclides, including137Cs, into the Pacific Ocean. A quasi-global ocean radioactive transport model with horizontal grid spacing of 0.5°×0.5° and 21 vertical layers was thereafter established to study the long-term transport of the Fukushima-derived137Cs in the ocean. The simulation shows that the plume of137Cs would be rapidly transported eastward alongside the Kuroshio Current and its extensions. Contaminated waters with concentrations lower than 2 Bq/m3 would reach the west coast of North America 4 or 5 years after the accident. The137Cs tends to be carried, despite its very low concentration, into the Indian and South Pacific Oceans by 2016 via various branches of ocean currents. Meanwhile, the137Cs concentrations in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean decrease rapidly with time. Up to now the highly contaminated waters have remained in the upper 400 m, showing no evidence of significant penetration to deeper layers.

  12. Long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus: a model for behavioral and mechanistic studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maldonado

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A decade of studies on long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus is reviewed. Upon sudden presentation of a passing object overhead, the crab reacts with an escape response that habituates promptly and for at least five days. LTH proved to be an instance of associative memory and showed context, stimulus frequency and circadian phase specificity. A strong training protocol (STP (³15 trials, intertrial interval (ITI of 171 s invariably yielded LTH, while a weak training protocol (WTP (£10 trials, ITI = 171 s invariably failed. STP was used with a presumably amnestic agent and WTP with a presumably hypermnestic agent. Remarkably, systemic administration of low doses was effective, which is likely to be due to the lack of an endothelial blood-brain barrier. LTH was blocked by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA activators and reduced by PKA inhibitors, facilitated by angiotensin II and IV and disrupted by saralasin. The presence of angiotensins and related compounds in the crab brain was demonstrated. Diverse results suggest that LTH includes two components: an initial memory produced by spaced training and mainly expressed at an initial phase of testing, and a retraining memory produced by massed training and expressed at a later phase of testing (retraining. The initial memory would be associative, context specific and sensitive to cycloheximide, while the retraining memory would be nonassociative, context independent and insensitive to cycloheximide

  13. Long-term outcome of cognitive functions, emotional behavior, and quality of life in a family with familial hemiplegic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Elfriede; Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Bodner, Thomas; Benke, Thomas; Boesch, Sylvia; Delazer, Margarete

    2012-06-01

    To investigate long-term cognitive outcome, mood, and quality of life in a family with genetically proven familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). FHM is a rare autosomal-dominant subtype of migraine with aura, characterized by some degree of hemiparesis during the aura. In a previous study, we showed preserved and impaired cognitive functions in patients with FHM. Until now, the progression of cognitive dysfunctions has not been known. However, the ability to predict progression is important for counseling patients about education, career, and family life. Seven years after extensive baseline neuropsychological testing, we retested 6 members of a family with FHM, including questionnaires about mood and quality of life. The follow-up assessment revealed no global cognitive decline. All the patients' linguistic abilities and verbal memory remained intact; however, their figural memory, attention, and some aspects of executive function were impaired. Half the patients had a slight deterioration in their visuoconstructional functions. Half had higher scores on the trait and state anxiety measures. Cognitive deficits in a family with FHM persisted, but without marked progression. Worsening of visuoconstructional abilities may be related to executive dysfunction, confirming a disturbance of cerebrocerebellar circuits.

  14. Biochemical and behavioral effects of long-term citalopram administration and discontinuation in rats Role of serotonin synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Fokko J.; Tanke, Marit A. C.; Jongsma, Minke E.; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.; Jagtman, Evelien; Pietersen, Charmaine Y.; van der Hart, Marieke G. C.; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V.; Kema, Ido P.; Westerink, Ben H. C.; Korf, Jakob; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated effects of continuous SSRI administration and abrupt discontinuation on biochemical and behavioral indices of rat brain serotonin function and attempted to identify underlying mechanisms Biochemistry of serotonin was assessed with brain tissue assays and microdialysis behavior w

  15. Associations Between Long-Term Gang Membership and Informal Social Control Processes, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behavior Among Mexican American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-10-01

    Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed.

  16. Solar irradiance at the Earth's surface: long-term behavior observed at the South Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Frederick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines a 17-year database of UV-A (320–400 nm and visible (400–600 nm solar irradiance obtained by a scanning spectroradiometer located at the South Pole. The goal is to define the variability in solar irradiance reaching the polar surface, with emphasis on the influence of cloudiness and on identifying systematic trends and possible links to the solar cycle. To eliminate changes associated with the varying solar elevation, the analysis focuses on data averaged over 30–35 day periods centered on each year's austral summer solstice. The long-term average effect of South Polar clouds is a small attenuation, with the mean measured irradiances being about 5–6% less than the clear-sky values, although at any specific time clouds may reduce or enhance the signal that reaches the sensor. The instantaneous fractional attenuation or enhancement is wavelength dependent, where the percent deviation from the clear-sky irradiance at 400–600 nm is typically 2.5 times that at 320–340 nm. When averaged over the period near each year's summer solstice, significant correlations appear between irradiances at all wavelengths and the solar cycle as measured by the 10.7 cm solar radio flux. An approximate 1.8 ± 1.0% decrease in ground-level irradiance occurs from solar maximum to solar minimum for the wavelength band 320–400 nm. The corresponding decrease for 400–600 nm is 2.4 ± 1.9%. The best-estimate declines appear too large to originate in the sun. If the correlations have a geophysical origin, they suggest a small variation in atmospheric attenuation with the solar cycle over the period of observation, with the greatest attenuation occurring at solar minimum.

  17. Comparison of long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus mindfulness-based therapy on reduction of symptoms among patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zomorodi, Saeedeh; Abdi, Saeed; Tabatabaee, Seyed Kazem Rasulzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to compare the long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment and mindfulness-based treatment on decreasing symptoms of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Background One of the most modern therapies put forward in therapy of IBS is mindfulness-based metacognitive therapy. Patients and methods In this quasi-experimental study, 36 people with mean age of 32 years old, including 24 patients with IBS and 12 healthy normal subjects as control...

  18. Use of short-term (5-Minute) and long-term (18-Hour) leaching tests to characterize, fingerprint, and rank mine-waste material from historical mines in the Deer Creek, Snake River, and Clear Creek Watersheds in and around the Montezuma Mining District, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation-induced runoff from historical mine-waste located adjacent to the headwaters of the Snake River, Deer Creek, Saints John Creek, Grizzly Gulch, Stevens Gulch, and Leavenworth Creek contributes to the degradation of water quality in these streams. Because historical mine-waste piles have had long-term exposure to the atmosphere, it is surmised that runoff from these piles, induced by meteorological events such as cloudbursts and snowmelt, may cause mobility of acid and metals into a watershed due to dissolution of soluble minerals. For this study, 13 mine-waste composite samples from various mine-wastes in these drainage basins were leached using both a short-term and a long-term leach test. Analytical results from this combination of leach tests are tools that allow the investigator to quantify (fingerprint) which geochemical components could be expected in runoff from these piles if they were leached by a cloudburst (5-minute leach test), as well as what the ?worst-case? geochemical profile would look like if the material were subject to extended leaching and breakdown of the mine-waste material (18-hour leach test). Also, this combination of leach tests allows the geoscientist the ability to see geochemical changes in the mine-waste leachate over time. That is, does the leachate become more or less acidic over time; does the specific conductance increase or decrease; and are there changes in the concentrations of major or trace elements? Further, use of a ranking scheme described herein will aid in prediction of which historical mine-waste piles have the greatest potential for impact on a watershed should runoff occur. Because of long-term weathering of these historical mine-waste piles, geochemical profiles, leachate time-trends, and relative ranking of the mine-wastes produced from analysis of the leachates are Hageman_SIR_2508.doc 1 7/21/2004 2:50 PM indicative of how the mine-waste piles can be expected to act in the environment and may help to

  19. Provision or Good Genes? Menstrual Cycle Shifts in Women's Preferences for Short-Term and Long-Term Mates' Altruistic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Oda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Men's altruism may have evolved, via female choice, as a signal of either their genetic quality or their willingness to allocate resources to offspring. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their genetic quality may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism across the stages of the menstrual cycle. Because women can maximize reproductive benefits by mating with men who have “good genes” on high-fertility versus low-fertility days, women should show a heightened preference for male altruism on high-fertility days compared to low-fertility days, and this heightened preference should be more apparent when women evaluate men for short-term sexual relationships than for long-term committed relationships. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their willingness to provision, as opposed to their genetic quality, may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism toward different recipients. More specifically, altruistic behavior toward family members may reflect a willingness to provide resources for kin and, hence, willingness to provision, whereas altruistic behavior toward strangers may function as an honest signal of genetic quality. In two samples of young women (TVs = 131 and 481, we found no differences between high- and low-fertility participants in preference for men's altruism, and women preferred men's altruism more in long-term than short-term relationships. The findings suggest that men's altruistic behavior functions as a signal of willingness to provide resources rather than genetic quality.

  20. Short- and Long-Term Biomarkers for Bacterial Robustness: A Framework for Quantifying Correlations between Cellular Indicators and Adaptive Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Arvind, A.; Gaballo, H.M.S.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to adapt to changing environments challenges the prediction of their history-dependent behavior. Cellular biomarkers that are quantitatively correlated to stress adaptive behavior will facilitate our ability to predict the impact of these adaptive traits. Here, we prese

  1. Long-term follow-up of home-based behavioral management training provided by migraine patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, J.S.; de Klerk, C.; Mérelle, S.Y.M.; Aartsen, E.; Timman, R.; Sorbi, M.J.; Passchier, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral migraine approaches are effective in reducing headache attacks. Availability of treatment might be increased by using migraine patients as trainers. Therefore, Mérelle and colleagues developed and evaluated a home-based behavioral management training (BMT) by lay trainers (1).

  2. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes Following Re-socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Crailsheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years. The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined.

  3. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  4. Effects of Chronic Vitamin D3 Hormone Administration on Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adult Female Rats after Long-Term Ovariectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present preclinical study was created to determine the therapeutic effects of vitamin D hormone treatment as an adjunctive therapy alone or in a combination with low dose of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 on anxiety-like behavior in female rats with long-term absence of estrogen. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic cholecalciferol administration (1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg subcutaneously, SC, once daily, for 14 days on the anxiety-like state after long-term ovariectomy in female rats. Twelve weeks postovariectomy, cholecalciferol was administered to ovariectomized (OVX rats and OVX rats treated with 17β-E2 (0.5 µg/rat SC, once daily, for 14 days. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM and the light/dark test (LDT, and locomotor and grooming activities were tested in the open field test (OFT. Cholecalciferol at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg alone or in combination with 17β-E2 produced anxiolytic-like effects in OVX rats as evidenced in the EPM and the LDT, as well as increased grooming activity in the OFT. Our results indicate that cholecalciferol, at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, has a profound anxiolytic-like effects in the experimental rat model of long-term estrogen deficiency.

  5. Long term dietary methoxychlor exposure in rats increases sodium solution consumption but has few effects on other sexually dimorphic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, K M; Delclos, K B; Newbold, R R; Ferguson, S A

    2005-09-01

    Methoxychlor is an insecticide with estrogen-like activity, thus exposure during development might cause sexually dimorphic behavioral alterations. To evaluate this, pregnant rats consumed diets containing 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppm methoxychlor from gestational day 7, and offspring continued on these diets until postnatal day (PND) 77. Assessments of sexually dimorphic behaviors in offspring indicated that intake of a 3.0% sodium chloride solution was significantly increased (41%) in males and females of the 1000 ppm group. No treatment group differed from controls in open field nor running wheel activity, play behavior, nor 0.3% saccharin solution intake. Offspring of the 1000 ppm group showed significantly decreased body weight, reaching 17% less than controls at PND 77, but not clearly related to their salt solution intake. During pregnancy, 1000 ppm dams consumed 23% less food and weighed 10% less than controls, but this did not affect litter outcomes. These results indicate that in rodents, developmental and chronic exposure to dietary methoxychlor alters the sexually dimorphic behavior of salt-solution intake in young adults of both sexes. Similar behavioral alterations with other xenoestrogens, and the potential for interactions among xenoestrogens, suggest that this report may minimize the true effects of dietary methoxychlor exposure.

  6. Effects of Physical Environment on Health and Behaviors of Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook Young; Chaudhury, Habib; Hung, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    The challenges in investigating the effects of the physical environment on residents with dementia include having a sample of comparable study groups and a lack of long-term follow-up evaluation. The current study attempted to address these two challenges by carefully matching residents and analyzing long-term measurement data. The aim of the study was to examine whether residents with dementia (N = 12) living in a traditional large-scale setting or a small-scale, home-like setting exhibit any difference in health and behaviors over time. Physical environmental assessment of the two care facilities was conducted using the Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes. Residents' behavioral assessments were performed using three tools at three assessments over a period of 1 year: (a) Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, (b) Minimum Data Set, and (c) Dementia Care Mapping. The results suggest that older adults with dementia can have increased social interaction and engagement with the support of an optimal physical environment.

  7. Long-term neprilysin gene transfer is associated with reduced levels of intracellular Abeta and behavioral improvement in APP transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Christina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic degradation has emerged as a key pathway involved in controlling levels of the Alzheimer's disease (AD-associated amyloid-β (Aβ peptide in the brain. The endopeptidase, neprilysin, has been implicated as a major Aβ degrading enzyme in mice and humans. Previous short and intermediate term studies have shown the potential therapeutic application of neprilysin by delivering this enzyme into the brain of APP transgenic mice using gene transfer with viral vectors. However the effects of long-term neprilysin gene transfer on other aspects of Aβ associated pathology have not been explored yet in APP transgenic mice. Results We show that the sustained expression of neprilysin for up to 6 months lowered not only the amyloid plaque load but also reduced the levels of intracellular Aβ immunoreactivity. This was associated with improved behavioral performance in the water maze and ameliorated the dendritic and synaptic pathology in the APP transgenic mice. Conclusion These data support the possibility that long-term neprilysin gene therapy improves behavioral and neurodegenerative pathology by reducing intracellular Aβ.

  8. First Long-Term Behavioral Records from Cuvier’s Beaked Whales (Ziphius cavirostris) Reveal Record-Breaking Dives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Gregory S.; Falcone, Erin A.; Moretti, David J.; Andrews, Russel D.

    2014-01-01

    Cuvier’s beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are known as extreme divers, though behavioral data from this difficult-to-study species have been limited. They are also the species most often stranded in association with Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar use, a relationship that remains poorly understood. We used satellite-linked tags to record the diving behavior and locations of eight Ziphius off the Southern California coast for periods up to three months. The effort resulted in 3732 hr of dive data with associated regional movements – the first dataset of its kind for any beaked whale – and included dives to 2992 m depth and lasting 137.5 min, both new mammalian dive records. Deep dives had a group mean depth of 1401 m (s.d. = 137.8, n = 1142) and duration of 67.4 min (s.d. = 6.9). The group mean time between deep dives was 102.3 min (s.d. = 30.8, n = 783). While the previously described stereotypic pattern of deep and shallow dives was apparent, there was considerable inter- and intra-individual variability in most parameters. There was significant diel behavioral variation, including increased time near the surface and decreased shallow diving at night. However, maximum depth and the proportion of time spent on deep dives (presumed foraging), varied little from day to night. Surprisingly, tagged whales were present within an MFA sonar training range for 38% of days locations were received, and though comprehensive records of sonar use during tag deployments were not available, we discuss the effects frequent acoustic disturbance may have had on the observed behaviors. These data better characterize the true behavioral range of this species, and suggest caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions about behavior using short-term datasets. PMID:24670984

  9. First long-term behavioral records from Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) reveal record-breaking dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Gregory S; Falcone, Erin A; Moretti, David J; Andrews, Russel D

    2014-01-01

    Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are known as extreme divers, though behavioral data from this difficult-to-study species have been limited. They are also the species most often stranded in association with Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar use, a relationship that remains poorly understood. We used satellite-linked tags to record the diving behavior and locations of eight Ziphius off the Southern California coast for periods up to three months. The effort resulted in 3732 hr of dive data with associated regional movements--the first dataset of its kind for any beaked whale--and included dives to 2992 m depth and lasting 137.5 min, both new mammalian dive records. Deep dives had a group mean depth of 1401 m (s.d. = 137.8, n = 1142) and duration of 67.4 min (s.d. = 6.9). The group mean time between deep dives was 102.3 min (s.d. = 30.8, n = 783). While the previously described stereotypic pattern of deep and shallow dives was apparent, there was considerable inter- and intra-individual variability in most parameters. There was significant diel behavioral variation, including increased time near the surface and decreased shallow diving at night. However, maximum depth and the proportion of time spent on deep dives (presumed foraging), varied little from day to night. Surprisingly, tagged whales were present within an MFA sonar training range for 38% of days locations were received, and though comprehensive records of sonar use during tag deployments were not available, we discuss the effects frequent acoustic disturbance may have had on the observed behaviors. These data better characterize the true behavioral range of this species, and suggest caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions about behavior using short-term datasets.

  10. First long-term behavioral records from Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris reveal record-breaking dives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Schorr

    Full Text Available Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris are known as extreme divers, though behavioral data from this difficult-to-study species have been limited. They are also the species most often stranded in association with Mid-Frequency Active (MFA sonar use, a relationship that remains poorly understood. We used satellite-linked tags to record the diving behavior and locations of eight Ziphius off the Southern California coast for periods up to three months. The effort resulted in 3732 hr of dive data with associated regional movements--the first dataset of its kind for any beaked whale--and included dives to 2992 m depth and lasting 137.5 min, both new mammalian dive records. Deep dives had a group mean depth of 1401 m (s.d. = 137.8, n = 1142 and duration of 67.4 min (s.d. = 6.9. The group mean time between deep dives was 102.3 min (s.d. = 30.8, n = 783. While the previously described stereotypic pattern of deep and shallow dives was apparent, there was considerable inter- and intra-individual variability in most parameters. There was significant diel behavioral variation, including increased time near the surface and decreased shallow diving at night. However, maximum depth and the proportion of time spent on deep dives (presumed foraging, varied little from day to night. Surprisingly, tagged whales were present within an MFA sonar training range for 38% of days locations were received, and though comprehensive records of sonar use during tag deployments were not available, we discuss the effects frequent acoustic disturbance may have had on the observed behaviors. These data better characterize the true behavioral range of this species, and suggest caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions about behavior using short-term datasets.

  11. A relationship between reduced nucleus accumbens shell and enhanced lateral hypothalamic orexin neuronal activation in long-term fructose bingeing behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacki M Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day exposure to the IAM, rats given 8-12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR. This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF, a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p. equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  12. Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a client with panic disorder and agoraphobia who relapses following a full course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To frame the client's treatment, the major components of CBT for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) are reviewed. Likely reasons for the treatment's failure and strategies for improving…

  13. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Gebhardt, Ursel; Mueller, Hermann L.

    Background: As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Methods: Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the

  14. The Long-Term Consequences of Vietnam-Era Conscription and Genotype on Smoking Behavior and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Lauren; Conley, Dalton

    2016-01-01

    Research is needed to understand the extent to which environmental factors moderate links between genetic risk and the development of smoking behaviors. The Vietnam-era draft lottery offers a unique opportunity to investigate whether genetic susceptibility to smoking is influenced by risky environments in young adulthood. Access to free or reduced-price cigarettes coupled with the stress of military life meant conscripts were exposed to a large, exogenous shock to smoking behavior at a young age. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we interact a genetic risk score for smoking initiation with instrumented veteran status in an instrumental variables (IV) framework to test for genetic moderation (i.e. heterogeneous treatment effects) of veteran status on smoking behavior and smoking-related morbidities. We find evidence that veterans with a high genetic predisposition for smoking were more likely to have been smokers, smoke heavily, and are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with cancer or hypertension at older ages. Smoking behavior was significantly attenuated for high-risk veterans who attended college after the war, indicating post-service schooling gains from veterans' use of the GI Bill may have reduced tobacco consumption in adulthood.

  15. Long-Term, Multimodal Treatment of a Child with Asperger's Syndrome and Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Problems: A Case Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Robb, Jessica A.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Arnold, Frances W.; Brice, Anne-Christina; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2005-01-01

    Despite Asperger's Syndrome (AS) becoming a widely recognized disorder on the pervasive developmental spectrum, surprisingly few studies have assessed the utility of psychosocial and/or pharmacological treatments for children with AS. Further, studies have not examined the effects of treatment on disruptive behavior problems commonly exhibited by…

  16. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Gebhardt, Ursel; Mueller, Hermann L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Methods: Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the

  17. CARDIAC AND BEHAVIORAL-RESPONSES OF LONG-TERM OBESE AND LEAN ZUCKER RATS TO EMOTIONAL-STRESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NYAKAS, C; BALKAN, B; STEFFENS, AB; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is known as a risk factor in stress-related cardiovascular pathology in man. The length of obesity can be an important interacting variable. Therefore, cardiac and behavioral responses to emotional stress were studied in 1-year-old, genetically obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/-) male Zucker rats,

  18. Neural rhythms of change: Long-term improvement after successful treatment in children with disruptive behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, S.; Liao, V.; Liu, Z.X.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorde

  19. CARDIAC AND BEHAVIORAL-RESPONSES OF LONG-TERM OBESE AND LEAN ZUCKER RATS TO EMOTIONAL-STRESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NYAKAS, C; BALKAN, B; STEFFENS, AB; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is known as a risk factor in stress-related cardiovascular pathology in man. The length of obesity can be an important interacting variable. Therefore, cardiac and behavioral responses to emotional stress were studied in 1-year-old, genetically obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/-) male Zucker rats,

  20. Long-Term Maintenance of Therapeutic Gains Associated With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia Delivered Alone or Combined With Zolpidem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Ivers, Hans; Guay, Bernard; Morin, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    To document the long-term sleep outcomes at 12 and 24 months after patients with chronic insomnia were treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), either singly or combined with zolpidem medication. Participants were 160 adults with chronic insomnia. They were first randomized for a six-week acute treatment phase involving CBT alone or CBT combined with nightly zolpidem, and randomized for a six-month extended treatment phase involving CBT, no additional treatment, CBT combined with zolpidem as needed, or CBT with zolpidem tapered. This paper reports results of the 12- and 24-month follow-ups on the main outcome measures derived from the Insomnia Severity Index and sleep diaries. Clinical improvements achieved 6 months following the end of treatment were well-maintained in all four conditions, with insomnia remission rates ranging from 48% to 74% at the 12-month follow-up, and from 44% to 63% at the 24-month follow-up. Participants receiving CBT with zolpidem taper in the extended treatment phase had significantly better results than those receiving CBT with continued zolpidem as needed. The magnitude of improvements on sleep diary parameters was similar between conditions, with a slight advantage for the CBT with zolpidem taper condition. The addition of extended CBT did not alter the long-term outcome over improvements obtained during the initial 6-week CBT. The results suggest that CBT for insomnia, when delivered alone or in combination with medication, produce durable sleep improvements up to two years after completion of treatment. These long-term results indicate that even if a combined CBT plus medication approach provide an added benefit immediately after treatment, extending CBT while tapering medication produce better sustained improvements compared to continued use of medication as needed.

  1. The effects of quality of life on behavioral and psychological symptoms in elderly people with dementia residing at long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mizue; Hattori, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Koji; Ooshiro, Hajime; Saruhara, Takayuki; Furuta, Yoshie; Abe, Kunihiko; Kanamori, Masao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify how quality of life (QOL) affects the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) among elderly individuals with dementia within long-term care facilities (e.g., long-term healthcare facilities, sanatorium-type medical facilities, and special nursing homes for the elderly). Elderly individuals with dementia were evaluated to determine their activities of daily living (ADL; Katz), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Quality of life inventory for the elderly with dementia (QOLD) scores. The subjects were recruited from intermediate welfare facilities (n = 226, 43.7%), hospitals with supportive care (n=91, 17.6%), and intermediate care facilities (n = 200, 38.7%). The mean age of the subjects was 85.18±7.13 years. The NPI scores revealed that Agitation/Aggression was high among subjects who resided in healthcare health facilities and sanatorium-type medical facilities, while Apathy/Indifference was high in those who resided in special nursing homes. Additionally, a multiple regression analysis found that most of the NPI items, when set as independent variables, displayed a significant association with the same subscale of the QOLD. When each item of the NPI was set as a dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis, the scores were significantly related to both subscales of the QOLD. It is suggested that QOL should be maintained or improved in an effort to reduce the incidence of the associated BPSDs in long-term care facilities.

  2. Long-term Behavior of Serous Borderline Tumors Subdivided Into Atypical Proliferative Tumors and Noninvasive Low-grade Carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Russell; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Junge, Jette

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) have been the subject of considerable controversy, particularly with regard to terminology and behavior. It has been proposed that they constitute a heterogenous group of tumors composed, for the most part, of typical SBTs that are benign and designated...... "atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST)" and a small subset of SBTs with micropapillary architecture that have a poor outcome and are designated "noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (niLGSC)". It also has been argued that the difference in behavior between the 2 groups is not due to the subtype...... of the primary tumor but rather the presence of extraovarian disease, specifically invasive implants. According to the terminology of the 2014 WHO Classification, typical SBTs are equivalent to APSTs and SBTs displaying micropapillary architecture are synonymous with niLGSC. In addition, "invasive implants" were...

  3. Evidence for the long-term stability of HIV transmission-associated sexual behavior after HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Julia C; Harrington, Robert D; Golden, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Most persons diagnosed as having HIV alter their sexual behavior in a way that reduces the risk of HIV transmission, but the durability of such behavior change is unknown. We conducted annual anonymous cross-sectional surveys in randomly selected patients with appointments at a large, public hospital HIV clinic in Seattle, Washington, from 2005 to 2009. We used logistic regression to assess the association between time since HIV diagnosis and self-report of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI) with partners of negative or unknown HIV status (nonconcordant UAVI), and quantile regression to evaluate the association between time since HIV diagnosis and number of anal or vaginal sex partners. We analyzed 845 surveys collected for 5 years. Men who have sex with men (MSM) had been diagnosed as having HIV a mean (standard deviation) of 12 (7) years and non-MSM a mean of 11 (6) years. Among 597 MSM, longer time since HIV diagnosis was associated with lower age-adjusted odds of reporting nonconcordant UAVI (odds ratio, 0.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.99]) and a lower age-adjusted number of sex partners (β coefficient = -0.03, P = 0.007). Among 248 women and heterosexual men, time since HIV diagnosis was not significantly associated with age-adjusted odds of nonconcordant UAVI (odds ratio 0.99 [95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.04]) or number of sex partners (β coefficient = -0.01, P = 0.48). These results indicate that HIV transmission-associated behavior is relatively stable following the first year after HIV diagnosis. Our findings suggest that behavior change in the first year after HIV diagnosis, reported in other studies, is durable.

  4. Long-term betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium treatment has distinct effects in CD1 and DBA/2 mice on animal behavior accompanied by opposite effects on neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rossana; Crupi, Rosalia; Leo, Antonio; Chimirri, Serafina; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Marra, Rosario; Citraro, Rita; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    One of the most peculiar characteristics of the stress response is the pronounced inter-individual and inter-strain variability both in behavioral and neurochemical outcomes. Several studies confirm that rodents belonging to the same or different strain and/or gender, when exposed to a stressor, may show behavioral and cognitive differences. We compared the effects of long-term betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (BTM), a widely clinically used corticosteroid, on animal behavior and neurogenesis in CD1 and DBA/2 mice. BTM treatment, in CD1 mice, increased body weight gain and anxiety parameters while having pro-depressant effects. Furthermore, BTM significantly reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Finally, BTM treatment induced a significant impairment in memory and learning performance in the Morris water maze. At odds, BTM administration, in DBA/2 mice, caused a significant reduction in the body weight while not modifying anxiety parameters. In addition, both an increased synaptogenesis and neurogenesis were found. Similarly to CD1 mice, also in DBA/2 mice, memory and learning were impaired. Our data confirm that long-term exposure to corticosteroids can generate or aggravate psychiatric/neurologic disorders such as depression, anxiety, memory and learning. Our study did not reveal significant differences between corticosterone and BTM treatment in CD1 mice. In contrast, BTM treatment in mice with an anxious phenotype (DBA/2 mice) revealed some contrasting results indicating that genetic factors can influence corticosteroids dependent effects. Finally, our data further underline the need for a re-evaluation of neurogenesis role; the increased neurogenesis observed in DBA/2 mice and behavioral effects might be distinguished phenomena.

  5. Long-term prevention of Alzheimer's disease-like behavioral deficits in PDAPP mice carrying a mutation in Asp664.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Veronica; Zhang, Junli; Gorostiza, Olivia F; Banwait, Surita; Huang, Wei; Ataie, Marina; Tang, Huidong; Bredesen, Dale E

    2008-08-22

    The deficits of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are believed to result, at least in part, from neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta), a set of 38-43 amino acid fragments derived from the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition, APP generates the APP-C31 and Jcasp toxic fragments intracellularly by cleavage at Asp664. We reported that mutation of Asp664 to Ala in a FAD-human APP transgene prevented AD-like deficits but did not affect Abeta production or deposition in PDAPP mice, arguing that D664A plays a crucial role in the generation of AD-like deficits. Whether D664A simply delays or completely prevents AD-like deficits, however, remained undefined. To address this question, we performed behavioral studies longitudinally on a pretrained mouse cohort at 9 and 13 months (mo) of age. While behavioral deficits were present in PDAPP mice, performance of Tg PDAPP(D664A) mice was not significantly different from non-Tg littermates' across all ages tested. Moreover, aberrant patterns in non-cognitive components of behavior in PDAPP mice were ameliorated in PDAPP(D664A) animals as well. A trend towards poorer retention at 9 mo and poorer learning at 13 mo that did not reach statistical significance was observed in PDAPP(D664A) mice. These results support and extend recent studies showing that cleavage of APP at Asp664 (or protein-protein interactions dependent on Asp664) is a crucial event in the generation of AD-like deficits in PDAPP mice. Our results thus further demonstrate that the D664A mutation either completely precludes, or markedly delays (beyond 13 mo) the appearance of AD-like deficits in this mouse model of AD.

  6. Brief predator sound exposure elicits behavioral and neuronal long-term sensitization in the olfactory system of an insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, S.; Evengaard, K.; Barrozo, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    these processes have been described. However, the influence of sensory signals on the sensitivity of a different modality is largely unknown. In males of the noctuid moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the sensitivity to the female-produced sex pheromone increases 24 h after a brief preexposure with pheromone...... at the behavioral and central nervous level. Here we show that this effect is not confined to the same sensory modality: the sensitivity of olfactory neurons can also be modulated by exposure to a different sensory stimulus, i.e., a pulsed stimulus mimicking echolocating sounds from attacking insectivorous bats. We......, but also on the central nervous level, in an insect....

  7. Long-term exposure to paraquat alters behavioral parameters and dopamine levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, Josiane W; Cognato, Giana P; Christoff, Raissa R; Roesler, Laura N; Leite, Carlos E; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Mauricio R; Vianna, Monica R; Bonan, Carla D

    2014-04-01

    Chronic exposure to paraquat (Pq), a toxic herbicide, can result in Parkinsonian symptoms. This study evaluated the effect of the systemic administration of Pq on locomotion, learning and memory, social interaction, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels, and dopamine transporter (DAT) gene expression in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish received an i.p. injection of either 10 mg/kg (Pq10) or 20 mg/kg (Pq20) of Pq every 3 days for a total of six injections. Locomotion and distance traveled decreased at 24 h after each injection in both treatment doses. In addition, both Pq10- and Pq20-treated animals exhibited differential effects on the absolute turn angle. Nonmotor behaviors were also evaluated, and no changes were observed in anxiety-related behaviors or social interactions in Pq-treated zebrafish. However, Pq-treated animals demonstrated impaired acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory in the Y-maze task. Interestingly, dopamine levels increased while DOPAC levels decreased in the zebrafish brain after both treatments. However, DAT expression decreased in the Pq10-treated group, and there was no change in the Pq20-treated group. The amount of TH protein showed no significant difference in the treated group. Our study establishes a new model to study Parkinson-associated symptoms in zebrafish that have been chronically treated with Pq.

  8. Corporal punishment and long-term behavior problems: the moderating role of positive parenting and psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Straus, Murray A; Carrobles, José Antonio; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Almendros, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the prevalence of corporal punishment (CP) of children in Spain; (b) to analyze the extent to which CP is used in combination with psychological aggression and positive parenting among Spanish parents; and (c) to investigate whether the relation between CP and behavior problems is moderated by a positive parenting context in which CP may be used, and by the co-occurrence of psychological aggression. The sample comprised 1,071 Spanish university students (74.8% female; 25.2% male). Findings indicate a high prevalence of CP of Spanish students, revealing that significantly more mothers than fathers used CP. Furthermore, more CP is related to more use of psychological aggression and less of positive parenting. Regression analyses revealed that CP was associated with an increased probability of antisocial traits and behaviors regardless of whether there was positive parenting and psychological aggression. These results highlight that, though many Spanish parents use CP as a disciplinary strategy, it appears to be related to negative outcomes for children regardless the parental context in which it is used.

  9. Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing acceptance and commitment therapy and standard cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M; Shaw, Jena A; Goetter, Elizabeth M; Herbert, James D; Park, Jennie A; Yuen, Erica K

    2012-12-01

    The present study represents one of the first comparisons of the long-term effectiveness of traditional cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). One hundred thirty-two anxious or depressed outpatients were randomly assigned to receive either CT or ACT, and were assessed at posttreatment (n=90) and at 1.5-year (n=91) follow-up. As previously reported, the two treatments were equivalently effective at posttreatment according to measures of depression, anxiety, overall (social/occupational/symptom-related) functioning, and quality of life. However, current results suggest that treatment gains were better maintained at follow-up in the CT condition. Clinical significance analyses revealed that, at follow-up, one-third more CT patients were in the clinically normative range in terms of depressive symptoms and more than twice as many CT patients were in the normative range in terms of functioning levels. The possible long-term advantage of CT relative to ACT in this population is discussed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Ozarowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryngium planum L. (EP is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o. on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, and beta-secretase (BACE-1 mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU, scopolamine (SC was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins in the extract of EP roots.

  11. Investigation of structure-property relationships of polyisobutylene-based biomaterials: Morphology, thermal, quasi-static tensile and long-term dynamic fatigue behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, C; Lim, G T; Puskas, J E; Altstädt, V

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the morphology, thermal, quasi-static and long-term dynamic creep properties of one linear and three arborescent polyisobutylene-based block copolymers (L_SIBS31, D_IBS16, D_IBS27 and D_IBS33). Silicone rubber, a common biopolymer, was considered as a benchmark material for comparison. A unique hysteretic testing methodology of Stepwise Increasing Load Test (SILT) and Single Load Test (SLT) was used in this study to evaluate the long-term dynamic fatigue performance of these materials. Our experimental findings revealed that the molecular weight of polyisobutylene (PIB) and polystyrene (PS) arms [M(n)(PIB(arm)) and M(n)(PS(arm))], respectively had a profound influence on the nano-scaled phase separation, quasi-static tensile, thermal transition, and dynamic creep resistance behaviors of these PIB-based block copolymers. However, silicone rubber outperformed the PIB-based block copolymers in terms of dynamic creep properties due to its chemically crosslinked structure. This indicates a need for a material strategy to improve the dynamic fatigue and creep of this class of biopolymers to be considered as alternative to silicone rubber for biomedical devices.

  12. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and long-term cardiovascular risk in young people: A review and discussion of methodology in prospective studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Tarp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of physical activity (PA or sedentary behavior on cardiovascular health in young people are not well understood. In this study, we use a narrative format to review the evidence for a prospective association with adiposity and other well-established biological cardiovascular risk factors in healthy young people, considering only studies with at least 2 years of follow-up. PA appears to elicit a long-term beneficial effect on adiposity and particularly markers of cardiovascular health. With adiposity, however, a few studies also reported that higher levels of PA were associated with higher levels of adiposity. Time spent sedentary does not appear to be related to adiposity or markers of cardiovascular health independent of PA. We then discuss the uncertainties in the underlying causal chain and consider a number of alternative modeling strategies, which could improve our understanding of the relationship in future studies. Finally, we consider the current methodology for assessing PA and sedentary time.

  13. Long-term impact of community-based information, education and communication activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors in Vietnam: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Takanashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of children aged between six months and four years in suburban Hanoi. Baseline data were collected in January 2006 (n = 125. After conducting IEC interventions, we collected a 1(st set of evaluation data in January 2007 (n = 132. To examine the long-term impact of the interventions, we then collected a 2(nd set of evaluation data in January 2008 (n = 185. Changes in childhood diarrhea prevalence, IEC coverage, and food hygiene and food safety behaviors were assessed over a two-year period using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Effective IEC channels were determined through multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Childhood diarrhea was significantly reduced from 21.6% at baseline to 7.6% at the 1(st post-intervention evaluation (P = 0.002, and to 5.9% at the 2(nd evaluation. Among 17 food hygiene and food safety behaviors measured, a total of 11 behaviors were improved or maintained by the 2(nd evaluation. Handwashing after toilet use was significantly improved at both evaluation points. Overall, 3 food safety behaviors and 7 food hygiene behaviors were found to have significantly improved at the 1(st and at the 2(nd evaluations, respectively. Flip chart communication administered by community groups was identified to be the most effective IEC channel for effecting behavior change (P = 0.018. CONCLUSIONS: Flip chart communication administered by community groups is effective for improving multiple food hygiene and food safety

  14. Long-term impact of community-based information, education and communication activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors in Vietnam: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Quyen, Dao To; Le Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of children aged between six months and four years in suburban Hanoi. Baseline data were collected in January 2006 (n = 125). After conducting IEC interventions, we collected a 1(st) set of evaluation data in January 2007 (n = 132). To examine the long-term impact of the interventions, we then collected a 2(nd) set of evaluation data in January 2008 (n = 185). Changes in childhood diarrhea prevalence, IEC coverage, and food hygiene and food safety behaviors were assessed over a two-year period using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Effective IEC channels were determined through multiple linear regression analysis. Childhood diarrhea was significantly reduced from 21.6% at baseline to 7.6% at the 1(st) post-intervention evaluation (P = 0.002), and to 5.9% at the 2(nd) evaluation. Among 17 food hygiene and food safety behaviors measured, a total of 11 behaviors were improved or maintained by the 2(nd) evaluation. Handwashing after toilet use was significantly improved at both evaluation points. Overall, 3 food safety behaviors and 7 food hygiene behaviors were found to have significantly improved at the 1(st) and at the 2(nd) evaluations, respectively. Flip chart communication administered by community groups was identified to be the most effective IEC channel for effecting behavior change (P = 0.018). Flip chart communication administered by community groups is effective for improving multiple food hygiene and food safety behaviors in sustainable ways, and should be included in

  15. The impact of chronic mild stress on long-term depressive behavior in rats which have survived sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckert, Amanda V; Dominguini, Diogo; Michels, Monique; Abelaira, Helena M; Tomaz, Débora B; Sonai, Beatriz; de Moura, Airam B; Matos, Danyela; da Silva, Júlia B I; Réus, Gislaine Z; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2017-11-01

    The present study was created to investigate the effects of chronic mild stress (CMS) on the depressive behavior and neurochemical parameters of rats that were subjected to sepsis. Wistar rats were subjected to a CMS protocol, and sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). The animals were then divided into 4 separate groups; Control + Sham (n = 20), Control + CLP (n = 30), CMS + Sham (n = 20) and CMS + CLP (n = 30). Body weight, food and water intake and mortality were measured on a daily basis for a period of 10 days after the induction of sepsis. Locomotor activity, splash and forced swimming tests were performed ten days after CLP. At the end of the test period, the animals were euthanized, and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were removed to determine the levels of cytokines and oxidative damage. Our results show that there was no significant interaction between CMS and CLP in relation to locomotor activity and the forced swimming test. However, we did observe a significant decrease in total grooming time in the Control + CLP and CMS + Sham groups, with the CMS + CLP group showing behavior similar to that of the control animals. This was found to be related to a decrease in the levels of brain cytokines, and not to oxidative damage parameters. Collectively, our results suggest that a previous stress caused by CMS can protect the brain against the systemic acute and severe stress elicited by sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term running alleviates some behavioral and molecular abnormalities in Down syndrome mouse model Ts65Dn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Elizabeth; Rabe, Ausma; Walus, Marius; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2013-02-01

    Running may affect the mood, behavior and neurochemistry of running animals. In the present study, we investigated whether voluntary daily running, sustained over several months, might improve cognition and motor function and modify the brain levels of selected proteins (SOD1, DYRK1A, MAP2, APP and synaptophysin) in Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Ts65Dn and age-matched wild-type mice, all females, had free access to a running wheel either from the time of weaning (post-weaning cohort) or from around 7 months of age (adult cohort). Sedentary female mice were housed in similar cages, without running wheels. Behavioral testing and evaluation of motor performance showed that running improved cognitive function and motor skills in Ts65Dn mice. However, while a dramatic improvement in the locomotor functions and learning of motor skills was observed in Ts65Dn mice from both post-weaning and adult cohorts, improved object memory was seen only in Ts65Dn mice that had free access to the wheel from weaning. The total levels of APP and MAP2ab were reduced and the levels of SOD1 were increased in the runners from the post-weaning cohort, while only the levels of MAP2ab and α-cleaved C-terminal fragments of APP were reduced in the adult group in comparison with sedentary trisomic mice. Hence, our study demonstrates that Ts65Dn females benefit from sustained voluntary physical exercise, more prominently if running starts early in life, providing further support to the idea that a properly designed physical exercise program could be a valuable adjuvant to future pharmacotherapy for DS.

  17. Radioactive waste forms stabilized by ChemChar gasification: characterization and leaching behavior of cerium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, and neptunium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T W; Morris, J S; Manahan, S E

    2004-02-01

    The uses of a thermally reductive gasification process in conjunction with vitrification and cementation for the long-term disposal of low level radioactive materials have been investigated. gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for analysis of carrier-free protactinium-233 and neptunium-239 and a stoichiometric amount of cerium (observed cerium-141) subsequent to gasification and leaching, up to 48 days. High resolution ICP-MS was used to analyze the cerium, thorium, and uranium from 46 to 438 days of leaching. Leaching procedures followed the guidance of ASTM Procedure C 1220-92, Standard Test Method for Static Leaching of Monolithic Waste Forms for Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The combination of the thermally reductive pretreatment, vitrification and cementation produced a highly non-leachable form suitable for long-term disposal of cerium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, and neptunium.

  18. Automated analysis of long-term bridge behavior and health using a cyber-enabled wireless monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sean M.; Zhang, Yilan; Lynch, Jerome; Ettouney, Mohammed; van der Linden, Gwen

    2014-04-01

    ) regression are used to predict changes in the bridge behavior as a function of environmental parameters. Based on these analyses, pertinent behavioral information relevant to bridge management is autonomously extracted.

  19. Long-Term Electrophysiological and Behavioral Analysis on the Improvement of Visual Working Memory Load, Training Gains, and Transfer Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Chang; Zhang, Cheng; Rissman, Robert A; Chiu, Alan W L

    2014-05-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that with training, one can enhance visual working memory (VWM) capacity and attention over time in the near transfer tasks. Not only do these studies reveal the characteristics of VWM load and the influences of training, they may also provide insights into developing effective rehabilitation for patients with VWM deficiencies. However, few studies have investigated VWM over extended periods of time and evaluated transfer benefits on non-trained tasks. Here, we combined behavioral and electroencephalographical approaches to investigate VWM load, training gains, and transfer benefits. Our results reveal that VWM capacity is directly correlated to the difference of event-related potential waveforms. In particular, the "magic number 4" can be observed through the contralateral delay amplitude and the average capacity is 3.25-item over 15 participants. Furthermore, our findings indicate that VWM capacity can be improved through training; and after training exercises, participants from the training group are able to dramatically improve their performance. Likewise, the training effects on non-trained tasks can also be observed at the 12th week after training. Therefore, we conclude that participants can benefit from training gains, and augmented VWM capacity sustained over long periods of time on specific variety of tasks.

  20. Long-term effects of psychotherapy on moderate depression: a comparative study of narrative therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rodrigo T; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Machado, Paulo P P; Sousa, Inês

    2014-01-01

    In a previous clinical controlled trial (Lopes et al., 2014), narrative therapy (NT) showed promising results in ameliorating depressive symptoms with comparable outcomes to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) when patients completed treatment. This paper aims to assess depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in this clinical sample at follow-up. Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 Interpersonal Relations Scale, naturalistic prospective follow-up assessment was conducted at 21 and 31 months after the last treatment session. At follow-up, patients kept improving in terms of depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. The odds that a patient maintained recovery from depressive symptoms at follow-up were five times higher than the odds that a patient maintained recovery from interpersonal problems. In the same way, the odds of a patient never recovering from interpersonal problems were five times higher than the odds of never recovering from depressive symptoms. The study did not control for the natural course of depression or treatment continuation. For depressed patients with greater interpersonal disabilities, longer treatment plans and alternative continuation treatments should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses.

  2. Long-term behavioral change as a result of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish: Evidence for a role for sonic hedgehog but not retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Derek F; Zhang, Chengjin; Boa-Amponsem, Oswald; Mackinnon, Shanta; Cole, Gregory J

    2017-05-01

    Developmental exposure to ethanol is recognized to produce long-term neurobehavioral impairment in multiple animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits remain poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether two well-characterized targets of prenatal alcohol exposure, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoic acid (RA), that induce the hallmark morphological phenotypes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), are involved in the generation of behavioral alterations as a result of alcohol exposure. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to ethanol (0%, 1%, 3%) at either 8-10 or 24-27h post-fertilization (hpf) and then evaluated during adolescence in the novel tank dive test to assess anxiety and risk-taking behavior. Overt signs of dysmorphogenesis were also scored and behavioral and morphological changes were compared for embryos treated with alcohol alone or in combination with subthreshold doses of shh or alhh1a3 morpholinos (MOs). Ethanol treated fish displayed altered tank diving behavior that was not exacerbated by combined MO treatment. While treatment of embryos with either shha mRNA or RA prior to ethanol exposure only ameliorated the altered tank diving response in the case of shha mRNA overexpression, dysmorphogenesis was rescued by both treatments. These results suggest that the effects of ethanol exposure on changes in anxiety and risk-taking behavior in adolescent zebrafish is manifested by a blunting of Shh, but not RA, signaling during early development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sturrock

    Full Text Available The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith (87Sr/(86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000 and drier (2003 year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10% and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%. These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  4. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  5. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  6. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Document Server

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  7. New experimental data reveal possible relation of chaotic behavior of the long-term geoelectric potential difference to seismic activity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ifantis, Apostolos [Control Systems and Signals Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Patras, Patras 26334 (Greece) and Seismological Laboratory, Department of Geology, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)]. E-mail: ifantisa@teipat.gr; Giannakopoulos, Konstantine [Electronics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)]. E-mail: kgian1@physics.upatras.gr

    2007-11-15

    In this paper, observations of the long-term geoelectric potential difference are presented based on data collected during a six-year (1998-2003) investigating period. Moreover, this paper constitutes a continuation of a previously published work with five-year (1993-1997) experimental data. For data logging purposes, an automatic system for collection of geoelectric measurements operates at the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Patras. The analysis of these data using Lyapunov exponents and Takens estimator confirm their quite chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov exponents have also been calculated for short periods of fifteen days, ten days before and five days after the earthquakes occurred during this six-year period. By thorough examination of the resulting Lyapunov spectrums, it seems that these are subject to possible changes prior to an earthquake.

  8. Long-term omega-3 supplementation modulates behavior, hippocampal fatty acid concentration, neuronal progenitor proliferation and central TNF-α expression in 7 month old unchallenged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Trent; Toben, Catherine; Jaehne, Emily J; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) manipulation is being investigated as a potential therapeutic supplement to reduce the risk of developing age-related cognitive decline (ARCD). Animal studies suggest that high omega (Ω)-3 and low Ω-6 dietary content reduces cognitive decline by decreasing central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and modifying neuroimmune activity. However, no previous studies have investigated the long term effects of Ω-3 and Ω-6 dietary levels in healthy aging mice leaving the important question about the preventive effects of Ω-3 and Ω-6 on behavior and underlying molecular pathways unaddressed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of long-term Ω-3 and Ω-6 PUFA dietary supplementation in mature adult C57BL/6 mice. We measured the effect of low, medium, and high Ω-3:Ω-6 dietary ratio, given from the age of 3-7 months, on anxiety and cognition-like behavior, hippocampal tissue expression of TNF-α, markers of neuronal progenitor proliferation and gliogenesis and serum cytokine concentration. Our results show that a higher Ω-3:Ω-6 PUFA diet ratio increased hippocampal PUFA, increased anxiety, improved hippocampal dependent spatial memory and reduced hippocampal TNF-α levels compared to a low Ω-3:Ω-6 diet. Furthermore, serum TNF-α concentration was reduced in the higher Ω-3:Ω-6 PUFA ratio supplementation group while expression of the neuronal progenitor proliferation markers KI67 and doublecortin (DCX) was increased in the dentate gyrus as opposed to the low Ω-3:Ω-6 group. Conversely, Ω-3:Ω-6 dietary PUFA ratio had no significant effect on astrocyte or microglia number or cell death in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that supplementation of PUFAs may delay aging effects on cognitive function in unchallenged mature adult C57BL/6 mice. This effect is possibly induced by increasing neuronal progenitor proliferation and reducing TNF-α.

  9. Long-term omega-3 supplementation modulates behavior, hippocampal fatty acid concentration, neuronal progenitor proliferation and central TNF-α expression in 7 month old unchallenged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent eGrundy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA manipulation is being investigated as a potential therapeutic supplement to reduce the risk of developing age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Animal studies suggest that high omega (Ω-3 and low Ω-6 dietary content reduces cognitive decline by decreasing central nervous system (CNS inflammation and modifying neuroimmune activity. However, no previous studies have investigated the long term effects of Ω-3 and Ω-6 dietary levels in healthy aging mice leaving the important question about the preventive effects of Ω-3 and Ω-6 on behavior and underlying molecular pathways unaddressed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of long-term Ω-3 and Ω-6 PUFA dietary supplementation in mature adult C57BL/6 mice. We measured the effect of low, medium and high Ω-3:Ω-6 dietary ratio, given from the age of 3 to 7 months, on anxiety and cognition-like behavior, hippocampal tissue expression of TNF-α, markers of neuronal progenitor proliferation and gliogenesis and serum cytokine concentration. Our results show that a higher Ω-3:Ω-6 PUFA diet ratio increased hippocampal PUFA, increased anxiety, improved hippocampal dependent spatial memory and reduced hippocampal TNF-α levels compared to a low Ω-3:Ω-6 diet. Furthermore, serum TNF-α concentration was reduced in the higher Ω-3:Ω-6 PUFA ratio supplementation group while expression of the neuronal progenitor proliferation markers KI67 and doublecortin (DCX was increased in the dentate gyrus as opposed to the low Ω-3:Ω-6 group. Conversely, Ω-3:Ω-6 dietary PUFA ratio had no significant effect on astrocyte or microglia number or cell death in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that supplementation of PUFAs may delay ageing effects on cognitive function in unchallenged mature adult C57BL/6 mice. This effect is possibly induced by increasing neuronal progenitor proliferation and reducing TNF-α.

  10. Long-term changes in brain cholinergic system and behavior in rats following gestational exposure to lead: protective effect of calcium supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basha Chand D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6–21 of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure. Male offspring treated with Pb showed marginal alterations in developmental landmarks such as unfolding of pinnae, lower and upper incisor eruption, fur development, eye slit formation and eye opening on postnatal day (PND 1, whereas significant alterations were found in the righting reflex (PNDs 4–7, slant board behavior (PNDs 8–10 and forelimb hang performance (PNDs 12–16. Biochemical analysis showed decrease in synaptosomal acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and an increase in acetylcholine (ACh levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus on PND 14, PND 21, PND 28 and in the four-month age group of rats following Pb exposure. Significant deficits were also observed in total locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and open field behavior in selected age groups of Pb-exposed rats. These alterations were found to be maximal on PND 28, corresponding with the greater blood lead levels observed on PND 28. Addition of 0.02% Ca to Pb reversed the Pb-induced impairments in the cholinergic system as well as in behavioral parameters of rats. In conclusion, these data suggest that gestational exposure to Pb is able to induce long-term changes in neurological functions of offspring. Maternal Ca administration reversed these neurological effects of Pb later in life, suggesting a protective effect of

  11. Evaluation Effects of the Short- and Long-Term Freeze-Thaw Exposure on the Axial Behavior of Concrete-Filled Glass Fiber-Reinforced-Polymer Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend El-Zefzafy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the high performance of the concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP tubes (CFFTs as a stay-in-place formwork and confining material for concrete structures. However, there are several concerns related to the behavior of CFFT as a protective jacket against harsh environmental effects. The environmental effects such as freeze-thaw cycles and deicing salt solutions may affect materials properties, which may affect the structural response of CFFT members as well. This paper presents the test results of experimental investigation on the durability of short- and long-term behaviors of CFFT members. Test variables included the effect of confining using GFRP tubes, freeze-thaw cycles exposure in salt water, and the number of freeze-thaw cycles. CFFT cylinders (150 × 300 mm were prepared and exposed to 100 and 300 freeze-thaw cycles in salt water condition. Then, pure axial compression tests were conducted in order to evaluate the performance of specimens due to freeze-thaw exposure, by comparing the stress-strain behavior and their ultimate load capacities. Test results indicated that the confinement using CFFT technique significantly protected the concrete when subjected to freeze-thaw exposure.

  12. Effects of long-term 50Hz power-line frequency electromagnetic field on cell behavior in Balb/c 3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guang-Zhou; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Du, Le; Miao, Xia; Jiang, Da-Peng; Li, Kang-Chu; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Power-line frequency electromagnetic field (PF-EMF) was reported as a human carcinogen by some epidemiological research, but the conclusion is lack of robust experiment evidence. To identify the effects of long-term PF-EMF exposure on cell behavior, Balb/c 3T3 cells in exponential growth phase were exposed or sham-exposed to 50 Hertz (Hz) PF-EMF at 2.3 mT for 2 hours (h) one day, 5 days every week. After 11 weeks exposure, cells were collected instantly. Cell morphology was observed under invert microscope and Giemsa staining, cell viability was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell cycle and apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry, the protein level of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and CyclinD1 was detected by western blot, cell transformation was examined by soft agar clone assay and plate clone forming test, and cell migration ability was observed by scratch adhesion test. It was found that after PF-EMF exposure, cell morphology, apoptosis, cell migration ability and cell transformation didn't change. However, compared with sham group, cell viability obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution also changed after 11 weeks PF-EMF exposure. Meanwhile, the protein level of PCNA and CyclinD1 significantly decreased after PF-EMF exposure. These data suggested that although long-term 50Hz PF-EMF exposure under this experimental condition had no effects on apoptosis, cell migration ability and cell transformation, it could affect cell proliferation and cell cycle by down-regulation the expression of PCNA and CyclinD1 protein.

  13. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  14. Effects of long-term 50Hz power-line frequency electromagnetic field on cell behavior in Balb/c 3T3 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhou An

    Full Text Available Power-line frequency electromagnetic field (PF-EMF was reported as a human carcinogen by some epidemiological research, but the conclusion is lack of robust experiment evidence. To identify the effects of long-term PF-EMF exposure on cell behavior, Balb/c 3T3 cells in exponential growth phase were exposed or sham-exposed to 50 Hertz (Hz PF-EMF at 2.3 mT for 2 hours (h one day, 5 days every week. After 11 weeks exposure, cells were collected instantly. Cell morphology was observed under invert microscope and Giemsa staining, cell viability was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, cell cycle and apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry, the protein level of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA and CyclinD1 was detected by western blot, cell transformation was examined by soft agar clone assay and plate clone forming test, and cell migration ability was observed by scratch adhesion test. It was found that after PF-EMF exposure, cell morphology, apoptosis, cell migration ability and cell transformation didn't change. However, compared with sham group, cell viability obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution also changed after 11 weeks PF-EMF exposure. Meanwhile, the protein level of PCNA and CyclinD1 significantly decreased after PF-EMF exposure. These data suggested that although long-term 50Hz PF-EMF exposure under this experimental condition had no effects on apoptosis, cell migration ability and cell transformation, it could affect cell proliferation and cell cycle by down-regulation the expression of PCNA and CyclinD1 protein.

  15. Behavior of leaching and precipitation of weathering crust ion-absorbed type by magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Tingsheng; FANG Xihui; CUI Lifeng; FANG Yanxi

    2008-01-01

    With weathering crust Ion-Absorbed Type Rare Earth (IATRE) ores in southern Jiangxi as an example, rare earth percolation leaching and leaching solution precipitation process research were carried out under conditions of magnetic field. The effect on the rare earth leaching process such as magnetic field strength, magnetization time, magnetization manner, and other factors were discussed. The effect on the mother rare earth liquor sedimentation rate, purity, and crystallization behavior such as magnetic field strength, magnetization time, and magnetization manner were investigated. Leaching and precipitation mechanism of magnetization on IATRE were analyzed. The results showed that the magnetic treatment can improve leaching rate of weathering crust IATRE and the sedimentation rate, and reduce consumption of reagents.

  16. Long-Term Behavioral Outcomes after a Randomized, Clinical Trial of Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving for Adolescents with Complicated Mild-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Taylor, H Gerry; Cassedy, Amy; Zhang, Nanhua; Kirkwood, Michael W; Brown, Tanya M; Stancin, Terry

    2015-07-01

    Family problem-solving therapy (FPST) has been shown to reduce behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is unclear whether treatment gains are maintained. We sought to evaluate the maintenance of improvements in behavior problems after a Web-based counselor-assisted FPST (CAPS) intervention compared to an Internet resource comparison (IRC) intervention provided to adolescents within the initial year post-TBI. We hypothesized that family socioeconomic status, child educational status, and baseline levels of symptoms would moderate the efficacy of the treatment over time. Participants included 132 adolescents ages 12-17 years who sustained a complicated mild-to-severe TBI 1-6 months before study enrollment. Primary outcomes were the Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing and Externalizing Totals. Mixed-models analyses, using random intercepts and slopes, were conducted to examine group differences over time. There was a significant group×time×grade interaction (F(1,304)=4.42; p=0.03) for internalizing problems, with high school-age participants in CAPS reporting significantly lower symptoms at 18 months postbaseline than those in the IRC. Post-hoc analyses to elucidate the nature of effects on internalizing problems revealed significant group×time×grade interactions for the anxious/depressed (p=0.03) and somatic complaints subscales (p=0.04). Results also indicated significant improvement over time for CAPS participants who reported elevated externalizing behavior problems at baseline (F(1, 310)=7.17; p=0.008). Findings suggest that CAPS may lead to long-term improvements in behavior problems among older adolescents and those with pretreatment symptoms.

  17. Enhanced treatment for depression in primary care: long-term outcomes of a psycho-educational prevention program alone and enriched with psychiatric consultation or cognitive behavioral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, H.J; De Jonge, P.; Kluiter, H; Smit, A.; Van Der Meer, K.; Jenner, J.A; van Os, T.W.D.P.; Emmelkamp, P.M G; Ormel, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background. The long-term outcome of major depression is often unfavorable, and because most cases of depression are managed by general practitioners (GPs), this places stress on the need to improve treatment in primary care. This study evaluated the long-term effects of enhancing the GP's usual

  18. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  19. Anticipating Long-Term Stock Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Christian; Loch, Karin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between long-term U.S. stock market risks and the macroeconomic environment using a two component GARCH-MIDAS model. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of counter-cyclical behavior of long-term stock market volatility. Among the various macro variables in our dataset the term spread, housing starts, corporate profits and the unemployment rate have the highest predictive ability for stock market volatility . While the term spread and housing starts are...

  20. Soil dissipation and leaching behavior of a neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suman; Gajbhiye, V T; Gupta, R K

    2008-05-01

    Persistence and leaching of thiamethoxam in soil were studied under laboratory conditions. The persistence studies carried out at two fortification levels and under three moisture regimes revealed that thiamethoxam persisted beyond 90 days in all the treatments with half-life varying from 46.3 to 301.0 days. Under dry conditions, the dissipation was faster at 10 mg kg(-1) level as compared to 1 mg kg(-1), whereas the reverse trend was observed under field capacity moisture and submerged conditions. The effect of moisture was prominent and longer persistence was observed under dry conditions (t1/2 200.7-301.0 days) followed by field capacity moisture (t1/2 91.2-94.1 days) and submerged condition (t1/2 46.3-75.3 days). The leaching experiment carried out under laboratory conditions showed that on leaching the soil column with water equivalent to 65 cm rainfall, 66-79% of the applied thiamethoxam was recovered from leachate and no residues were detected in soil. Results showed that thiamethoxam has a potential to leach down under heavy rainfall conditions.

  1. Long-Term Treatment with Losartan Attenuates Seizure Activity and Neuronal Damage Without Affecting Behavioral Changes in a Model of Co-morbid Hypertension and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekalarova, Jana D; Ivanova, Natasha; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Lazarov, Nikolai; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Lozanov, Valentin; Stoynev, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 10 years, accumulated experimental and clinical evidence has supported the idea that AT1 receptor subtype is involved in epilepsy. Recently, we have shown that the selective AT1 receptor antagonist losartan attenuates epileptogenesis and exerts neuroprotection in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in epileptic Wistar rats. This study aimed to verify the efficacy of long-term treatment with losartan (10 mg/kg) after kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) on seizure activity, behavioral and biochemical changes, and neuronal damage in a model of co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy. Spontaneous seizures were video- and EEG-monitored in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for a 16-week period after SE. The behavior was analyzed by open field, elevated plus maze, sugar preference test, and forced swim test. The levels of serotonin in the hippocampus and neuronal loss were estimated by HPLC and hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. The AT1 receptor antagonism delayed the onset of seizures and alleviated their frequency and duration during and after discontinuation of treatment. Losartan showed neuroprotection mostly in the CA3 area of the hippocampus and the septo-temporal hilus of the dentate gyrus in SHRs. However, the AT1 receptor antagonist did not exert a substantial influence on concomitant with epilepsy behavioral changes and decreased 5-HT levels in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the antihypertensive therapy with an AT1 receptor blocker might be effective against seizure activity and neuronal damage in a co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy.

  2. Ability of palatable food consumption to buffer against the short- and long-term behavioral consequences of social defeat exposure during juvenility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, J C; Kent, P; James, J S; Cayer, C; Merali, Z

    2017-08-01

    In adult rats, access to a palatable diet can buffer against the effects of stressors. Approximately 10% of all adolescents are repeatedly victimized by their peers raising the possibility that palatable food consumption may be relevant to this developmental window. This study assessed the long-term impact of juvenile social defeat exposure on anxiety and depressive-like behavior and whether daily limited access to a palatable diet moderated these behavioral consequences. We also investigated the impact of the palatable diet on behavior during the defeat sessions. Juvenile rats were exposed to either a different adult resident rat (Stress) or handling (Control) from postnatal day (PD) 28-34. All rats had ad libitum access to either chow alone or both chow and limited access (4h/day) to palatable food commencing on PD 21. Results showed that during the defeat sessions, juvenile rats with access to the palatable diet spent less time in submissive postures and displayed significantly longer latencies to submit to the resident. In adulthood, previous exposure to juvenile social defeat resulted in a mild anxiogenic profile in the open field among rats with access to Chow only. Furthermore, defeated rats, regardless of diet, displayed reduced locomotor activity and increased social interaction as adults. These findings suggested only minimal enduring negative consequences from juvenile social defeat exposure which made it challenging to assess potential stress-buffering effects of the palatable diet. This was not the case during the defeat sessions where previous exposure to palatable food appeared protective against the acute stressor effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term treatment with L-DOPA or pramipexole affects adult neurogenesis and corresponding non-motor behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W-H; Depboylu, C; Hermanns, G; Maurer, L; Windolph, A; Oertel, W H; Ries, V; Höglinger, G U

    2015-08-01

    Non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia and depression are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can precede the onset of motor symptoms for years. The underlying pathological alterations in the brain are not fully understood so far. Dysregulation of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb has been recently suggested to be implicated in non-motor symptoms of PD. However, there is so far no direct evidence to support the relationship of non-motor symptoms and the modulation of adult neurogenesis following dopamine depletion and/or dopamine replacement. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of l-DOPA and pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in a mouse model of bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA lesion, in order to assess the impact of adult neurogenesis on non-motor behavior. We found that l-DOPA and pramipexole can normalize decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the periglomerular layer of the olfactory bulb caused by a 6-OHDA lesion. Interestingly, pramipexole showed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in the forced swim test and social interaction test. However, there was no significant change in learning and memory function after dopamine depletion and dopamine replacement, respectively.

  4. Psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: long-term effectiveness of resource-oriented cognitive-behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willutzki, Ulrike; Teismann, Tobias; Schulte, Dietmar

    2012-06-01

    Resource-oriented cognitive-behavioral therapy (ROCBT) and cognitive therapy (CT) have been shown to be effective treatments for social anxiety disorder. However, so far few studies have examined the long-term effectiveness of these treatments. Thus, there is little information available about the durability of change in treated patients with social anxiety disorder. This study examined the effectiveness of both treatments at 2-year and 10-year follow-up assessments. Patients who received ROCBT or CT were re-contacted after 2 (n = 51), and 10 years (n = 27), respectively, and completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. Treatment gains were maintained over the 2-year follow-up on all measures. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement on 2 social anxiety measures between posttreatment and the 10-year follow-up. ROCBT and CT did not differ in overall effectiveness. The results suggest that both treatments are effective and durable approaches in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The stability of hydrogen evolution activity and corrosion behavior of NiCu coatings with long-term electrolysis in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmaz, Ramazan; Doener, Ali; Kardas, Guelfeza [Cukurova University, Science and Letters Faculty, Chemistry Department, 01330, Balcali, Adana (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, NiCu composite coating was electrochemically deposited on a copper electrode (Cu/NiCu) and tested for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 1 M KOH solution for long-term electrolysis with the help of cathodic current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The bulk and surface composition of the coating was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of electrolysis on the corrosion behavior of the Cu/NiCu electrode was also reported. It was found that the NiCu coating had a compact and porous structure with good time stability. The HER activity of the coating was stable over 120 h electrolysis and the HER mechanism was not modified during the operation. The corrosion tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the Cu/NiCu electrode changed when a cathodic current was applied to the electrolysis system. (author)

  6. Assessment of long-term effects of exposure to toluene based on the analysis of selected behavioral responses with particular reference to the ability to trigger behavioral hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiaderna, Dorota; Tomas, Tadeusz

    2002-01-01

    Toluene is a major component of numerous commercial organic solvent formulations. It is often listed among the chemicals capable of producing the organic solvent syndrome and a neurobehavioral hypersensitivity condition. The hypersensitivity condition (continued long-term intensification of some behavioral reactions in response to pharmacological or environmental stressors) is usually associated with the increased tonus of the functional dopaminergic system. The aim of our current research was to determine whether, under conditions of inhalation exposure, toluene can produce long-term behavioral changes or modify the intensity of the behavioral response to apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist. In our experiment, male rats were exposed to 25, 100 and 250 ppm toluene for 4 weeks (5 days/week, 6h/day). The following behaviors were tested: finding water in a radial maze; open field motor activity, acquiring the conditional response of passive avoidance; sensitivity to a thermal pain stimulus (hot plate test) and changes in this sensitivity caused by stress; and acquiring the conditional response of two-directional active avoidance. The behavioral response to apomorphine, i.e. the increased spontaneous locomotor activity, was assessed on day 10 after the termination of the exposure in the rotary drum test. In the behavioral experiment, significant differences between groups were recorded only for the hot plate test; in the 100 and 250 ppm rats, electric-shock-related anxiety response was stronger than in the control group. In the experiment using pharmacological provocation, the behavioral response to apomorphine in the rats exposed to 100 ppm or 250 ppm toluene was significantly lower. Our results indicate that low concentrations of toluene may produce long-term behavioral changes in rats. However, these changes seem to be linked with reduced rather than increased functional tonus of the dopaminergic system.

  7. Long term performance session summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanauer, S.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents brief summaries of reports given on plutonium disposal. Topics include: performance of waste forms; glass leaching; ceramic leaching; safeguards and security issues; safeguards of vitrification; and proliferation risks of geologic disposal.

  8. Kinetics and leaching behaviors of aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters in sodium hydroxide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重庆; 王晖; 顾帼华; 符剑刚; 刘又年

    2015-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recycling pharmaceutical blisters. Leaching aluminum from pharmaceutical blisters using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions was investigated with respect to leaching behaviors and kinetics. A L9(34) orthogonal design of experiments suggests that the most significant factor is NaOH concentration followed by temperature and leaching time. Factorial experiments demonstrate that the leaching rate of aluminum increases with increasing of the factors. The optimum conditions are temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 20 min, NaOH concentration of 1.25 mol/L, liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 15:1 and agitation speed of 400 r/min. Under optimum conditions, the leaching rate is up to 100%, implying that aluminum and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in pharmaceutical blisters are separated completely. Kinetics of leaching aluminum is best described by the product layer diffusion control model, and the activation energy is calculated to be 19.26 kJ/mol.

  9. Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J A; Shukitt-Hale, B; Denisova, N A; Prior, R L; Cao, G; Martin, A; Taglialatela, G; Bickford, P C

    1998-10-01

    Recent research has indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the major factor involved in CNS functional declines in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and that antioxidants, e.g., vitamin E, may ameliorate or prevent these declines. Present studies examined whether long-term feeding of Fischer 344 rats, beginning when the rats were 6 months of age and continuing for 8 months, with diets supplemented with a fruit or vegetable extract identified as being high in antioxidant activity, could prevent the age-related induction of receptor-mediated signal transduction deficits that might have a behavioral component. Thus, the following parameters were examined: (1) oxotremorine-enhanced striatal dopamine release (OX-K+-ERDA), (2) cerebellar beta receptor augmentation of GABA responding, (3) striatal synaptosomal 45Ca2+ clearance, (4) carbachol-stimulated GTPase activity, and (5) Morris water maze performance. The rats were given control diets or those supplemented with strawberry extracts (SE), 9.5 gm/kg dried aqueous extract (DAE), spinach (SPN 6.4 gm/kg DAE), or vitamin E (500 IU/kg). Results indicated that SPN-fed rats demonstrated the greatest retardation of age-effects on all parameters except GTPase activity, on which SE had the greatest effect, whereas SE and vitamin E showed significant but equal protection against these age-induced deficits on the other parameters. For example, OX-K+-ERDA enhancement was four times greater in the SPN group than in controls. Thus, phytochemicals present in antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach may be beneficial in retarding functional age-related CNS and cognitive behavioral deficits and, perhaps, may have some benefit in neurodegenerative disease.

  10. Leaching behavior of Pb and Zn in air pollution control residues and their modeling prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; HE Pin-jing; SHAO Li-ming; FENG Jun-hui; CAO Qun-ke

    2006-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to air pollution control (APC) residues in China recently due to the rising proportion of waste incineration and the hazardous characteristics of the residues, among which heavy metal leaching toxicity plays an important role. Leaching behavior and potential risk of Pb and Zn in the APC residues from a Shanghai municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator was studied, based on the leaching tests under different conditions and theoretical calculation using a geochemical thermodynamic equilibrium model MINTEQA2. Results showed that, extractant species and liquid to solid (L/S) ratio predominantly controlled the leaching toxicity of Pb and Zn, while ionic strength, vibration method and leaching time had less effect on the metals release.Leachate/final pH determined the metal leaching behavior, which changed the speciation of heavy metals in the extraction system. The equilibrium aqueous speciation, precipitation-dissolution of Pb and Zn was investigated according to the model computation, which was well in agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  12. Improving Women’s Preconceptional Health: Long-Term Effects of the Strong Healthy Women Behavior Change Intervention in the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Feinberg, Mark E.; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Botti, John J.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the long-term (6- and 12-month) effects of the Strong Healthy Women intervention on health-related behaviors, weight and body mass index (BMI), and weight gain during pregnancy. Strong Healthy Women is a small-group behavioral intervention for pre- and interconceptional women designed to modify key risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes; pretest–posttest findings from a randomized, controlled trial have been previously reported. The following questions are addressed: 1) were significant pretest–posttest changes in health-related behaviors (previously reported) maintained over the 12-month follow-up period; 2) did the intervention impact weight and BMI over the 12-month follow-up period; and 3) did the intervention impact pregnancy weight gain for those who gave birth during the follow-up period? Methods Data are from 6- and 12-month follow-up telephone interviews of women in the original trial of the Strong Healthy Women intervention (n = 362) and from birth records for singleton births (n = 45) during the 12-month follow-up period. Repeated measures regression was used to evaluate intervention effects. Main Findings At the 12-month follow-up, participants in the Strong Healthy Women intervention were significantly more likely than controls to use a daily multivitamin with folic acid and to have lower weight and BMI. The intervention’s effect on reading food labels for nutritional values dropped off between the 6- and 12-month follow-up. Among those who gave birth to singletons during the follow-up period, women who participated in the intervention had lower average pregnancy weight gain compared with controls. Although the intervention effect was no longer significant when controlling for pre-pregnancy obesity, the adjusted means show a trend toward lower weight gain in the intervention group. Conclusion These findings provide important evidence that the Strong Healthy Women behavior change intervention is effective in modifying

  13. Spectral kinetic modeling and long-term behavior assessment of Arthrospira platensis growth in photobioreactor under red (620 nm) light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Bérangère; Laroche, Céline; Cornet, Jean-François; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2009-01-01

    The ability to cultivate the cyanobacterium Arhtrospira platensis in artificially lightened photobioreactors using high energetic efficiency (quasi-monochromatic) red LED was investigated. To reach the same maximal productivities as with the polychromatic lightening control conditions (red + blue, P/2e(-) = 1.275), the need to work with an optimal range of wavelength around 620 nm was first established on batch and continuous cultures. The long-term physiological and kinetic behavior was then verified in a continuous photobioreactor illuminated only with red (620 nm) LED, showing that the maximum productivities can be maintained over 30 residence times with only minor changes in the pigment content of the cells corresponding to a well-known adaptation mechanism of the photosystems, but without any effect on growth and stoichiometry. For both poly and monochromatic incident light inputs, a predictive spectral knowledge model was proposed and validated for the first time, allowing the calculation of the kinetics and stoichiometry observed in any photobioreactor cultivating A. platensis, or other cyanobacteria if the parameters were updated. It is shown that the photon flux (with a specified wavelength) must be used instead of light energy flux as a relevant control variable for the growth. The experimental and theoretical results obtained in this study demonstrate that it is possible to save the energy consumed by the lightening device of photobioreactors using red LED, the spectral range of which is defined according to the action spectrum of photosynthesis. This appears to be crucial information for applications in which the energy must be rationalized, as it is the case for life support systems in closed environments like a permanent spatial base or a submarine.

  14. Evaluation of guanfacine as a potential medication for alcohol use disorder in long-term drinking rats: behavioral and electrophysiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Ida; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; Wirf, Malin; Nylander, Erik; Nyström, Erica; Jardemark, Kent; Steensland, Pia

    2015-03-13

    One of the main treatment challenges in alcohol use disorder (AUD) is the high rate of craving in combination with decreased cognitive functioning including impaired decision making and impulse control that often lead to relapse. Recent studies show that guanfacine, an α-2-adrenoceptor agonist and FDA-approved ADHD medication, attenuates stress-induced relapse of several drugs of abuse including alcohol. Here we evaluated guanfacine's effects on voluntary alcohol intake, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), alcohol seeking behavior, and cue/priming-induced reinstatement in Wistar rats that had voluntarily consumed alcohol for at least 2 months before treatment. In addition, guanfacine's ability to regulate glutamatergic neurotransmission was evaluated through electrophysiological recordings in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) slices prepared from long-term drinking rats (and alcohol-naive controls) that had received three daily guanfacine (0.6 mg/kg/day) or vehicle injections in vivo. Guanfacine decreased alcohol intake in high, but not low, alcohol-consuming rats and the effects were generally more long lasting than that of the AUD medication naltrexone. Repeated guanfacine treatment induced a long-lasting decrease in alcohol intake, persistent up to five drinking sessions after the last injection. In addition, guanfacine attenuated the ADE as well as alcohol seeking and cue/priming-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Finally, subchronic guanfacine treatment normalized an alcohol-induced dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission in the mPFC. These results support previous studies showing that guanfacine has the ability to improve prefrontal connectivity through modulation of the glutamatergic system. Together with the fact that guanfacine appears to be clinically safe, these results merit evaluation of guanfacine's clinical efficacy in AUD individuals.

  15. Meteoric 10Be in volcanic materials and its behavior during acid-leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaoka, Akiko; Sakamoto, Minoru; Hiyagon, Hajime; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Kaneoka, Ichiro; Imamura, Mineo

    2004-08-01

    We have investigated the chemical and isotopic behavior of beryllium (Be) during acid leaching for removing meteoric 10Be in volcanic samples. Determination of the Be isotopic ratio in the leachate was carried out using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductivity coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Elemental distribution of Be and other incompatible elements including boron (B) were also examined by ion microprobe (SIMS) for a deeper understanding of their chemical behavior in volcanic samples. SIMS analysis show that Be is concentrated in the groundmass together with B. However, the behavior of their elements during acid leaching is quite different. The Be concentration decreases through progressive leaching, while the concentration of B remains constant. Furthermore, the variation in the Be isotopic ratio after acid leaching is different between the two samples, neither of which has altered minerals under microscopic observation. It is demonstrated that meteoric 10Be resides in a rather narrow region of the rock and can be removed by acid leaching with minimum loss of the main host phase of Be.

  16. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  17. Long-Term Interactions of Full-Scale Cemented Waste Simulates with Salt Brines (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7721)

    OpenAIRE

    Kienzler, Bernhard [Hrsg.; Borkel, Christoph; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A signifi-cant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO3 solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1...

  18. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues; Influence des variations de composition des vitrifiats de refiom - residus d'epuration des fumees d'incineration d'ordures menageres - sur leur comportement a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

  19. [Influence of ammonia on leaching behaviors of incineration fly ash and its geochemical modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, De-Zhen; Thomas, Astrup

    2013-06-01

    Incineration fly ash could be contaminated with NH3 that was slipped from the ammonia-based selective non-catalytic reduction(SNCR) process and from evaporation of municipal solid wastes' leachate involved in the wastes. This research was conducted to investigate the impacts of ammonia on leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals from incineration fly ash in the pH range of 3.66-12.44 with an active ammonia spike. A geochemical modeling software Visual MINTEQ was adopted to calculate the chemical speciation of metals under the leaching conditions to reveal the mechanism behind the impacts. It was proved that at pH > 9, the leaching of DOC increased significantly in the presence of high concentrations of ammonia (> or = 1 357 mg x L(-1)), but there was little effect when the ammonia level in eluates was not higher than 537 mg x L(-1). At pH or = 3 253 mg x L(-1)) mobilized Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn significantly due to the formation of soluble metal-ammonia complexes, and the leaching rates reached their peaks at pH around 9; however, ammonia had little impacts on Al and Pb leaching within this pH range. At pH > 12, for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, their leaching species were predominantly in the form of hydroxide complexes. Under the ammonia concentration of 3253 mg x L(-1), the Visual MINTEQ modeling results were compared with the experimental data, and it was proved that the leaching of Al, Pb and Zn was mainly controlled by precipitation/dissolution modeling, while Cd, Cu and Ni were controlled by precipitation/dissolution and surface complexation/precipitation processes; Visual MINTEQ modeling could well describe the leaching behaviors of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn from incineration fly ash.

  20. Sociometric and ethological approach to the assessment of individual and group behavior in extra long-term isolation during simulated interplanetary mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushin, Vadim; Tafforin, Carole; Kuznetsova, Polina; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina

    Several factors, such as hazard to life, reduced social communications, isolation, high workload, monotony, etc., can cause deconditioning of individual status and group dynamics in long-term spaceflight. New approaches to the assessment of group behavior are being developed in order to create necessary counter-measures and to keep optimal psychological climate in the crew. Psychological methods combined with ethological approach to dynamic monitoring of the isolated crew had been tested and validated in Mars-500 experiment. The experiment (duration of 520 days) was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of a piloted mission to Mars. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. We used psychological tests: sociometric questionnaire to assess group status (popularity) of the crewmembers (monthly), color choice test to assess the level of frustration and anxiety (twice a month). We performed observations from video recordings of group discussions (monthly) and during breakfast time (twice a month). The video analysis was supplied with a software based-solution: The Observer XT®. The results showed that occurrence of collateral acts may indicate psychological stress and fatigue in crewmembers under isolation and that facial expressions may indicate less anxiety. The data of psychological tests allowed to define two subgroups in the crew. The first one consisted of the subjects with high group status and lower level of frustration (not anxious), the second one consisted of less popular subjects, having respectively higher anxiety level. The video analysis showed two times more manifestations of facial expressions and interpersonal communications for the first subgroup. We also identified the subgroups on the basis of their verbal expressions in Russian and in English. Video observation of individual and group behavior, combined with other psychological tests gives opportunity to emphasize more objectively the signs

  1. Controls on the long term earthquake behavior of an intraplate fault revealed by U-Th and stable isotope analyses of syntectonic calcite veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Randolph; Goodwin, Laurel; Sharp, Warren; Mozley, Peter

    2017-04-01

    U-Th dates on calcite precipitated in coseismic extension fractures in the Loma Blanca normal fault zone, Rio Grande rift, NM, USA, constrain earthquake recurrence intervals from 150-565 ka. This is the longest direct record of seismicity documented for a fault in any tectonic environment. Combined U-Th and stable isotope analyses of these calcite veins define 13 distinct earthquake events. These data show that for more than 400 ka the Loma Blanca fault produced earthquakes with a mean recurrence interval of 40 ± 7 ka. The coefficient of variation for these events is 0.40, indicating strongly periodic seismicity consistent with a time-dependent model of earthquake recurrence. Stochastic statistical analyses further validate the inference that earthquake behavior on the Loma Blanca was time-dependent. The time-dependent nature of these earthquakes suggests that the seismic cycle was fundamentally controlled by a stress renewal process. However, this periodic cycle was punctuated by an episode of clustered seismicity at 430 ka. Recurrence intervals within the earthquake cluster were as low as 5-11 ka. Breccia veins formed during this episode exhibit carbon isotope signatures consistent with having formed through pronounced degassing of a CO2 charged brine during post-failure, fault-localized fluid migration. The 40 ka periodicity of the long-term earthquake record of the Loma Blanca fault is similar in magnitude to recurrence intervals documented through paleoseismic studies of other normal faults in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range Province. We propose that it represents a background rate of failure in intraplate extension. The short-term, clustered seismicity that occurred on the fault records an interruption of the stress renewal process, likely by elevated fluid pressure in deeper structural levels of the fault, consistent with fault-valve behavior. The relationship between recurrence interval and inferred fluid degassing suggests that pore fluid pressure

  2. Early and long-term effects of low- and high-LET radiation on rat behavior and monoamine metabolism in different brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Oleg

    Space radiation is one of the factors representing a significant health risk to the astronauts during deep-space missions. A most harmful component of space radiation beyond the Earth's magnetosphere is the galactic cosmic rays which are composed of high-energy protons, α particles, and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. Recent studies performed at particle accelerators have revealed a significant impact of HZE nuclei on the central nervous system and, in particular, on the cognitive functions. However the exact molecular mechanisms behind the observed impairments remain mostly unclear. This research is focused on study of early and long-term effects of low- and high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation on the rat behavior and monoamine metabolism in the brain regions involved in behavior and motor control and form emotional and motivational states. Different groups of rats were whole-body exposed to 500 MeV/u (12) C particles (LET 10.6 keV/µm) available at the Nuclotron accelerator of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) and to gamma rays at the equivalent dose of 1 Gy. An additional group of animals was sham-irradiated and considered as a control. The isolated brain regions have included the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum where we determined the concentrations of noradrenalin, dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-doxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and 3-methoxytyramine and serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The following effects were observed in the different periods after irradiation. 1 day after exposure to (12) C particles strong changes in the concentration of monoamines and their metabolites were observed in three structures, namely, the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. However, significant changes were found in the prefrontal cortex and weaker changes were seen in the nucleus accumbens, whereas changes were insignificant in the hippocampus

  3. Solidification/stabilization and leaching behavior of PbCl₂ in fly-ash hydrated silicate matrix and fly-ash geopolymer matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Gao, Xingbao; Wang, Qi; He, Jie; Yan, Dahai

    2015-05-01

    Fly ash (FA) for reuse as a construction material is activated using two methods, to produce hydrated silicate and geopolymer gels. We investigated the solidification/stabilization and leaching behavior of PbCl2 in a geopolymer matrix (GM) and hydrated silicate matrix (HSM), based on FA as the source material, to evaluate the environmental and health risks. The GM and HSM synthetic conditions were 60 °C, 20 % relative humidity (RH), and 12 wt% (6 mol/L) NaOH, and 20 ± 2 °C, ≥ 90 % RH, and 30 wt.%, respectively, based on their compressive strength performances. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Pb participated in hydration and geopolymerization, and was incorporated in the structural components of the hydrated silicate and geopolymer. In leaching experiments, the solidification/stabilization effects of Pb and Cl in the HSM and GM improved with increasing curing time. After long-term curing (28 days), the immobility of Pb in the GM was better than that in the HSM. Sodalite improved the Cl-stabilizing ability of the GM compared with that of the HSM. In static monolithic leaching experiments, HSM and GM had the same Pb-leaching behaviors. Based on the changes in the location of the neutral sphere layer with decreasing acid-neutralizing capacity, Pb release was divided into alkaline-release, stagnation, and acid-release stages. The neutral sphere layer contained the highest Pb concentration during permeation toward the block center from the block edge. This behavior regulation could also apply to other amphoteric metals immobilized by GMs and HSMs.

  4. Transport, retention, and long-term release behavior of ZnO nanoparticle aggregates in saturated quartz sand: Role of solution pH and biofilm coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transport, retention, and long-term fate of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were investigated in saturated, bare and biofilm (Pseudomonas putida) coated sand packed columns. Almost complete retention of ZnO-NPs occurred in bare and biofilm coated sand when the influent solution pH was 9 and t...

  5. The ten-year course of depression in primary care and long-term effects of psychoeducation, psychiatric consultation and cognitive behavioral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, Henk Jan; Bos, Elisabeth H; Kamphuis, Jan H; de Jonge, Peter

    BACKGROUND: While the majority of depressed patients are treated in primary care, long-term follow-up data on the naturalistic course of depression and treatment effectiveness in this setting are scarce. This study examined the ten-year course of depression in primary care patients who had

  6. Changes in health risk behaviors of elementary school students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003: results from the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that children's behaviors have long-term effects on later life. Hence it is important to monitor the development of health risk behaviors in childhood. This study examined the changes in health risk behaviors in fourth- to sixth-grade students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003. Methods The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution (CABLE study collected data from 1,820 students from 2001 to 2003 (students were 9 or 10 years old in 2001. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the aggregation of health risk behaviors. A linear growth curve model was used to determine whether health risk behaviors changed over time. Results Of the 13 behaviors, staying up late and eating snacks late at night were the most prevalent (82.3% of subjects in 2001, 81.8% in 2002, 88.5% in 2003 and second most prevalent (68.7%, 67.4%, 71.6% behaviors, respectively, from 2001 to 2003. The three least prevalent health risk behaviors were chewing betel nut (1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2%, smoking (1.4%, 1.0%, 0.8%, and drinking alcohol (8.5%, 6.0%, 5.2%. The frequencies of swearing and staying up late showed the greatest significant increases with time. On the other hand, suppressing urination and drinking alcohol decreased over time. Using exploratory factor analysis, we aggregated the health risk behaviors into three categories: unhealthy habits, aggressive behaviors, and substance use. Although students did not display high levels of aggressive behavior or experimentation with substances, the development of these behaviors in a small proportion of students should not be ignored. The results of the linear growth curve model indicated that unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased over time. However, substance use slightly decreased over time. Conclusion We found that some health risk behaviors increased with time while others did not. Unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased, whereas

  7. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  8. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  9. Gratitude in Long Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Abrams Sunding

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a group gratitude intervention with 29 permanent residents at a long term care/skilled nursing facility in improving elder mood, behavior and well- being over a 3 week time period. The sample included individuals diagnosed with dementia, other cognitive impairment, major depressive disorder, insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. The gratitude intervention consisted of asking elders to share what they are thankful for at the dinner table each day. Measures included the Elder Well Being Scale and The Dinner Rating Scale. On both measures, higher scores indicated better functioning. To test the hypothesis that post treatment elder well-being will be significantly higher than pretreatment elder well-being ratings, a one-way ANOVA was conducted. Post-hoc tests revealed a statistically significant increase in Elder Well Being Scale scores. An ANOVA of comparing Dinner Ratings demonstrated a nonsignificant increase over the 3 week experiment. Implications are discussed.

  10. Leaching behavior of hollandite ceramics for cesium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bart, F.; Rabiller, H.; Leturcq, G.; Rigaud, D

    2004-07-01

    Barium hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) ceramics are suitable for cesium immobilization by virtue of their loading capacity and high chemical durability. A 5 wt% Cs{sub 2}O-doped Fe-substituted hollandite was synthesized at laboratory scale (100 g), using an alkoxide process. The resulting materials were dense single-phase pellets. Leaching experiments were carried out to assess the chemical durability of this specific hollandite. In pure water at 100 deg C, the measured rate was about 6 x 10{sup -4} g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. Tests were also conducted under static conditions for 1 year at 90 deg C. Under saturation conditions the mean alteration rate measured between 7 and 30 days dropped to about 8 x 10{sup -5} g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. The residual rate over longer durations was less than 10{sup -5} g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. The chemical durability of iron hollandites, loaded with 5 wt% cesium oxide was comparable to that of Synroc hollandite. (authors)

  11. Influence of ammonia on leaching behaviors of incineration fly ash and its geochemical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Guan, Zhen Zhen; Chen, De Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Incineration fly ash could be contaminated with NH3 that was slipped from the ammonia-based selective non-catalytic reduction(SNCR) process and from evaporation of municipal solid wastes' leachate involved in the wastes. This research was conducted to investigate the impacts of ammonia on leaching...... of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals from incineration fly ash in the pH range of 3.66-12.44 with an active ammonia spike. A geochemical modeling software Visual MINTEQ was adopted to calculate the chemical speciation of metals under the leaching conditions to reveal the mechanism behind the impacts...... by precipitation/dissolution and surface complexation/precipitation processes; Visual MINTEQ modeling could well describe the leaching behaviors of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn from incineration fly ash....

  12. Evaluation of leaching behavior and immobilization of zinc in cement-based solidified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolo Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has examined leaching behavior of monolithic stabilized/solidified products contaminated with zinc by performing modified dynamic leaching test. The effectiveness of cement-based stabilization/solidification treatment was evaluated by determining the cumulative release of Zn and diffusion coefficients, De. The experimental results indicated that the cumulative release of Zn decreases as the addition of binder increases. The values of the Zn diffusion coefficients for all samples ranged from 1.210-8 to 1.1610-12 cm2 s-1. The samples with higher amounts of binder had lower De values. The test results showed that cement-based stabilization/solidification treatment was effective in immobilization of electroplating sludge and waste zeolite. A model developed by de Groot and van der Sloot was used to clarify the controlling mechanisms. The controlling leaching mechanism was found to be diffusion for samples with small amounts of waste material, and dissolution for higher waste contents.

  13. Analysis of the Long-Term Corrosion Behavior of X80 Pipeline Steel in Acidic Red Soil Using Electrical Resistance Test Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaixing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term corrosion rate of X80 steel in an acidic red soil was monitored in situ by using a precise electrical resistance (ER test system. The corrosion characteristics of X80 steel were examined via SEM, EDS, and XRD. The results indicated that the corrosion rate determined from ER test was very similar to that obtained from the mass loss test. The ER test technique made it possible to predict the long-term corrosion rate of steel in soil in situ. The corrosion rate of X80 steel in acidic red soil was about 0.0902 mm/a at 38 weeks, but the corrosion rate was dropped to 0.0226 mm/a after 5 years. The final corrosion product layer was composed mainly of FeOOH, γ-Fe2O3, and FeCO3.

  14. Anomalous transient leaching behavior of metals solidified/stabilized by pozzolanic fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Lucy Mar [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)]. E-mail: lcamacho@nmsu.edu; Munson-McGee, Stuart H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2006-09-01

    This study presents observations on the transient leaching behavior of chromium, cadmium, and aluminum that were solidified/stabilized by pozzolanic fly ash. These three metals were selected since they were present in a simulated waste stream generated by an evaporator during plutonium purification and also because the minimum solubility of these metals occurs at significantly different pHs. The transient pH behavior of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate showed a monotonic increase for all cases, but the equilibrium value was affected by process conditions. The transient leachate concentration behavior showed curves with one or two local maxima for some cases and curves with a monotonic increase for other cases. Data from the leaching experiments was compared to the solubility curves for the hydroxides of each metal since it was assumed that the highly alkaline conditions inside the fly ash waste would cause the metals to precipitate as hydroxides after initially dissolving in the acidic leaching solution. It was found that of the three metals, only cadmium followed the solubility curve for pure hydroxide solutions or for fly ash systems currently reported in the literature.

  15. Long-term corrosion behavior of ODS-Eurofer in flowing Pb-15.7Li at 550°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krauss

    2016-12-01

    In this paper results from long-term corrosion testing of ODS-Eurofer will be reported for exposure times up to 1.5 years at a flow velocity of 0.1m/s. The evaluated data for ODS-Eurofer corrosion will be compared with values of ‘single’ phase ’classical‘ Eurofer. The observed corrosion attack and mechanisms will be discussed in detail considering the testing conditions and the microstructure of the RAFM-steels.

  16. Effect of enamel coating on long-term oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of Ti-24Al-17Nb-0.5Mo alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG De-you; XIONG Yu-ming; ZHU Sheng-long; WANG Fu-hui

    2004-01-01

    The effect of enamel coating on long-term isothermal oxidation at 700 ℃ and cyclic oxidation at 800 ℃ in air and hot corrosion resistance of Ti-24Al-17Nb-0. 5Mo in 75% (Na2SO4 + K2SO4 ) + 25% NaCl (mass fraction) molten mixed salts at 700 ℃ was investigated. The results indicate that Ti-24Al-17Nb-0.5Mo alloy exhibits relatively poor long-term oxidation resistance due to the formation of Al2O3 + TiO2 + Nb2O5 mixed scales and poor hot corrosion resistance due to the spallation of scales formed in molten (Ns, K)2 SO4 +NaCl. Enamel coating can effectively protect Ti-24Al-17Nb-0.5Mo alloy from long-term oxidation at high temperature in air and remarkably improve the hot corrosion resistance of Ti-24Al-17Nb-0. 5Mo alloy, and can act as the barrier to suppress the migration of oxygen and corrosive ions into the substrate.

  17. ASSESSING THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM A MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE AS A FUNCTION OF LIQUID TO SOLID RATIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mineral processing waste was used to study the effect of liquid to solid ratio (L/S) on the leaching behavior of metals. Leaching tests in the form of column and batch studies were carried out to investigate liquid to solid ratios ranging from 0.7 to 50. Although the waste pa...

  18. Expectation value analysis of wave packet solutions for the quantum bouncer: Short-term classical and long-term revival behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncheski, M. A.; Robinett, R. W.

    2001-10-01

    We discuss the time development of Gaussian wave packet solutions of the "quantum bouncer" (a quantum mechanical particle subject to a uniform downward force, above an impermeable flat surface). We focus on the evaluation and visualization of the expectation values and uncertainties of position and momentum variables during a single quasi-classical period as well as during the long-term collapsed phase and several revivals. This approach complements existing analytic and numerical analyses of this system, as well as being useful for comparison with similar results for the harmonic oscillator and infinite well cases.

  19. Expectation value analysis of wave packet solutions for the quantum bouncer: short-term classical and long-term revival behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Doncheski, M A

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the time development of Gaussian wave packet solutions of the quantum bouncer' (a quantum mechanical particle subject to a uniform downward force, above an impermeable flat surface). We focus on the evaluation and visualization of the expectation values and uncertainties of position and momentum variables during a single quasi-classical period as well as during the long term collapsed phase and several revivals. This approach complements existing analytic and numerical analyses of this system, as well as being useful for comparison with similar results for the harmonic oscillator and infinite well cases.

  20. Long-term photometric behavior of the PMS stars V977 Cep and V982 Cep in the vicinity of NGC 7129

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryamov, Sunay I; Milanov, Teodor R; Peneva, Stoyanka P

    2016-01-01

    Long-term BVRI photometric light curves of the pre-main sequence stars V977 Cep and V982 Cep during the period from 2000 October to 2016 August are presented. The stars are located in the vicinity of the reflection nebula NGC 7129. Our photometric data shows that both stars exhibit strong photometric variability in all optical passbands, which is typical for Classical T Tauri stars. Using our observational data we defined the reasons for the observed brightness variations. In the case of V977 Cep we registered previously unknown periodicity in its light curve.

  1. [Modeling research on impact of pH on metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues from MSW incinerator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Li, Xin-Jie; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues (APC residues) from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is greatly dependent on the leachate pH. pH-varying leaching tests and Visual MINTEQ modeling were conducted to investigate the mechanism of pH effect on the metals leaching characteristics from MSWI APC residues. Results show that, under acidic environment (for Cd, Zn, and Ni, pH < 8; for Pb, Cu, and Cr, pH < 6; for Al, pH < 4), leaching concentrations of metals increase greatly with the decrease of pH. Release of amphoteric metals, Pb and Zn, can be induced in strong alkaline leachate, reaching to 42 and 2.4 mg x L(-1) at pH 12.5 respectively. The equilibrium modeling results are well in agreement with the analyzed leaching concentrations. Variation of leachate pH changes the metals speciation in the leaching system, thus influencing their leaching concentrations. Speciation and leaching behavior of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ca, and Al mainly depend on their dissolution/precipitation reactions under different leachate pH. Leachability of Cd, Cr, and Ni can be lowered under acidic and neutral leachate pH due to HFO adsorption, while under alkaline conditions, the effect of adsorption is not significant and dissolution/precipitation becomes the major reactions controlling the leaching toxicity of these heavy metals.

  2. Combustion and leaching behavior of elements in the argonne premium coal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Palmer, C.A.; Krasnow, M.R.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Sellers, G.A.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal samples and two other coal samples were used to observe the effects of combustion and leaching on 30 elements. The results were used to infer the modes of occurrence of these elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis indicates that the effects of combustion and leaching on many elements varied markedly among the samples. As much as 90% of the selenium and bromine is volatilized from the bituminous coal samples, but substantially less is volatilized from the low-rank coals. We interpret the combustion and leaching behavior of these elements to indicate that they are associated with the organic fraction. Sodium, although nonvolatile, is ion-exchangeable in most samples, particularly in the low-rank coal samples where it is likely to be associated with the organic constituents. Potassium is primarily in an ion-exchangeable form in the Wypdak coal but is in HF-soluble phases (probably silicates) in most other samples. Cesium is in an unidentified HNO3-soluble phase in most samples. Virtually all the strontium and barium in the low-rank coal samples is removed by NH4OAc followed by HCl, indicating that these elements probably occur in both organic and inorganic phases. Most tungsten and tantalum are in insoluble phases, perhaps as oxides or in organic association. Hafnium is generally insoluble, but as much as 65% is HF soluble, perhaps due to the presence of very fine grained or metamict zircon. We interpret the leaching behavior of uranium to indicate its occurrence in chelates and its association with silicates and with zircon. Most of the rare-earth elements (REE) and thorium appear to be associated with phosphates. Differences in textural relationships may account for some of the differences in leaching behavior of the REE among samples. Zinc occurs predominantly in sphalerite. Either the remaining elements occur in several different modes of occurrence (scandium, iron), or the leaching data are equivocal (arsenic, antimony

  3. Leaching behavior of microtektite glass compositions in sea water and the effect of precipitation on glass leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The present study attempts to account for the slow corrosion rates of microtektite glass in nature by comparing the leach rates of synthetic microtektite glass samples in deionized water and in sea-water, respectively. In order to obtain systematic data about leachant composition effects, leach tests were also carried out with synthetic leachant compositions enriched with respect to silica or depleted with respect to certain major components of sea-water (Mg, Ca).

  4. The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Yoonna

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals.

  5. Chromium behavior during cement-production processes: A clinkerization, hydration, and leaching study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyoung, Suthatip [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, PO Box 93 Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Asavapisit, Suwimol, E-mail: suwimol_s@hotmail.com [Environmental Technology, School of Energy and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat, E-mail: puangratk@nu.ac.th [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 65000 (Thailand)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Behavior of chromium during cement-production processes. {yields} Formation of new chromium compounds in clinker with chromium oxidation states of +3, +4.6, +5, and +6. {yields} Addition of chromium altered the composition of the clinker phases, setting time, and compressive strength of hydrated mixes. {yields} Cr{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 6} were leached during leaching tests, whereas other species remained in the mortar. - Abstract: The behavior of chromium during the production of cement clinker, during the hydration of cement and during the leaching of cement mortars was investigated. The microstructures of clinker and mortar properties were investigated using free lime, XRD, SEM/EDS, and TG/DTA techniques. Chromium was found to be incorporated in the clinker phase. The formation of new chromium compounds such as Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 4}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 15}, Ca{sub 5}Cr{sub 3}O{sub 12}, Ca{sub 5}Cr{sub 2}SiO{sub 12}, and CaCr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with chromium oxidation states of +3, +4.6, +5, and +6, respectively, was detected. After the hydration process, additional chromium compounds were identified in the mortar matrix, including Ca{sub 5}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH, CaCrO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, and Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 4}CrO{sub 4}, with chromium oxidation states of +4.6, +6, and +6, respectively. Additionally, some species of chromium, such as Cr{sup 3+} from Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 4}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 15} and Cr{sup 6+} from CaCr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, CaCrO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, and Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 4}CrO{sub 4}, were leached during leaching tests, whereas other species remained in the mortar. The concentrations of chromium that leached from the mortar following U.S. EPA Method 1311 and EA NEN 7375:2004 leaching tests were higher than limits set by the U.S. EPA and the Environment Agency of England and Wales related to hazardous waste disposal in landfills. Thus, waste containing chromium should not be allowed to mix with raw materials in the cement manufacturing process.

  6. Leaching behavior of chromium in chrome shaving generated in tanning process and its stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mehmet; Ozverdi, Arzu

    2008-08-15

    In this study, leaching properties and pollution potential of chromium in chrome shaving (CS), which is a solid residue of leather industry, containing 2.27% Cr were investigated and thermal stabilization procedure was applied to the CS for chromium immobilization. For this purpose, firstly, effects of the liquid/solid ratio, contact time, pH and sequential extraction on the leaching behavior of chromium in the CS were studied. It was determined that the CS-caused chromium pollution is a hazardous material for environment. Thermal stabilization procedure was applied to the CS in the temperature range of 250-500 degrees C for the chromium immobilization. Effective stabilization of chromium in the CS was achieved by heating of CS at 350 degrees C under CO(2) atmosphere. Leaching experiments were also carried out with the samples obtained from the stabilization process and the results compared with that of the CS. Also, TCLP test method was applied to the samples to determine pollution potentials and discharge situations of the CS and its stabilization products. While the chromium concentrations in the test solutions of all samples stabilized thermally at above 350 degrees C were below the USEPA regulatory limit of 5 mg/l, the concentration of chromium leached out from the CS was 30-fold bigger than the USEPA regulatory limit.

  7. Pitting Behavior of L415 Pipeline Steel in Simulated Leaching Liquid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H. X.; Yang, X. J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Song, D. D.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.

    2016-12-01

    The corrosion behavior and laws of the west-east gas pressure pipeline of L415 steel were studied in simulated leaching liquid. The failure of the L415 steel during the pressure testing process was investigated using electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test. The corrosion rate of the L415 steel increased with ion concentration in the leaching liquid. This rate reached about 0.8 mm a-1 and belonged to the severe corrosion grade. Pitting corrosion was observed in various simulated solutions with different aggressive species concentrations. The original ion concentration in the leaching liquid (1×) is the key factor influencing pitting initiation and development. Pitting showed easy nucleation, and its growth rate was relatively slow, in the basic simulating solution of the leach liquid (i.e., the ion content is compactable to the real condition in the rust on the inner steel pipe surface). Pitting was also highly sensitive and easily grew in the solution with doubled ion concentration in the basic simulating solution (2×). A uniform corrosion, instead of pitting, mainly occurred when the ion concentration was up to 10× of the basic solution.

  8. Transport, retention, and long-term release behavior of ZnO nanoparticle aggregates in saturated quartz sand: Role of solution pH and biofilm coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yosep; Hwang, Gukhwa; Kim, Donghyun; Bradford, Scott A; Lee, Byoungcheun; Eom, Igchun; Kim, Pil Je; Choi, Siyoung Q; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-03-01

    The transport, retention, and long-term release of zinc oxide nanoparticle aggregates (denoted below as ZnO-NPs) were investigated in saturated, bare and biofilm (Pseudomonas putida) coated sand packed columns. Almost complete retention of ZnO-NPs occurred in bare and biofilm coated sand when the influent solution pH was 9 and the ionic strength (IS) was 0.1 or 10 mM NaCl, and the retention profiles were always hyper-exponential. Increasing the solution IS and biofilm coating produced enhanced retention of ZnO-NPs near the column inlet. The enhanced NPs retention at high IS was attributed to more favorable NP-silica and NP-NP interactions; this was consistent with the interaction energy calculations. Meanwhile, the greater NPs retention in the presence of biofilm was attributed to larger roughness heights which alter the mass transfer rate, the interaction energy profile, and lever arms associated with the torque balance; e.g., scanning electron and atomic force microscopy was used to determine roughness heights of 33.4 nm and 97.8 nm for bare sand and biofilm-coated sand, respectively. Interactions between NPs and extracellular polymeric substances may have also contributed to enhanced NP retention in biofilm-coated sand at low IS. The long-term release of retained ZnO-NPs was subsequently investigated by continuously injecting NP-free solution at pH 6, 9, or 10 and keeping the IS constant at 10 mM. The amount and rate of retained ZnO-NP removal was strongly dependent on the solution pH. Specifically, almost complete removal of retained ZnO-NPs was observed after 627 pore volumes when the solution pH was 6, whereas much less Zn was recovered when the eluting solution pH was buffered to pH = 9 and especially 10. This long-term removal was attributed to pH-dependent dissolution of retained ZnO-NPs because: (i) the solubility of ZnO-NPs increases with decreasing pH; and (ii) ZnO-NPs were not detected in the effluent. The presence of biofilm also decreased the

  9. Chromium behavior during cement-production processes: a clinkerization, hydration, and leaching study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyoung, Suthatip; Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon; Asavapisit, Suwimol; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2011-07-15

    The behavior of chromium during the production of cement clinker, during the hydration of cement and during the leaching of cement mortars was investigated. The microstructures of clinker and mortar properties were investigated using free lime, XRD, SEM/EDS, and TG/DTA techniques. Chromium was found to be incorporated in the clinker phase. The formation of new chromium compounds such as Ca(6)Al(4)Cr(2)O(15), Ca(5)Cr(3)O(12), Ca(5)Cr(2)SiO(12), and CaCr(2)O(7), with chromium oxidation states of +3, +4.6, +5, and +6, respectively, was detected. After the hydration process, additional chromium compounds were identified in the mortar matrix, including Ca(5)(CrO(4))(3)OH, CaCrO(4)·2H(2)O, and Al(2)(OH)(4)CrO(4), with chromium oxidation states of +4.6, +6, and +6, respectively. Additionally, some species of chromium, such as Cr(3+) from Ca(6)Al(4)Cr(2)O(15) and Cr(6+) from CaCr(2)O(7), CaCrO(4)·2H(2)O, and Al(2)(OH)(4)CrO(4), were leached during leaching tests, whereas other species remained in the mortar. The concentrations of chromium that leached from the mortar following U.S. EPA Method 1311 and EA NEN 7375:2004 leaching tests were higher than limits set by the U.S. EPA and the Environment Agency of England and Wales related to hazardous waste disposal in landfills. Thus, waste containing chromium should not be allowed to mix with raw materials in the cement manufacturing process.

  10. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder.

  11. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...... which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations...

  12. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  13. Cambio de conductas en tratamientos de larga duracion: Relacion medico-paciente Behavior changes in long-term treatment: Physician-patient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Facchini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades crónicas como la diabetes, la obesidad y la hipertensión arterial, entre otras, requieren de tratamientos prolongados. El establecimiento de un vínculo básico se constituye en la piedra fundamental de toda acción terapéutica. En el enfoque centrado en el paciente se busca entrar en su mundo para comprender la vivencia subjetiva de la enfermedad en un marco más amplio. Es relevante integrar al paciente como un participante activo, valorado y esencial para el proceso de cambio. La manera en que se prescribe es tan valiosa como el tratamiento mismo; el objetivo es enseñar al paciente a seguirlo, las recaídas no deben ser vistas como fracasos sino como una oportunidad más de aprender. Los pacientes necesitan encontrar sus propias soluciones y motivaciones, y hacerse responsables de su salud; los profesionales de la salud necesitamos darles el poder para hacerlo. Las intervenciones exitosas y más efectivas en el largo plazo requieren de un enfoque terapéutico que haga hincapié en la adherencia al mismo y en el autocuidado.Chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension, among others, need long term treatments. The constitution of a basic alliance is the cornerstone of any therapeutic action. In the patient-centered approach, the aim is to enter their world in order to understand the subjective experience of the disease in a broader frame. It is relevant to involve the patient as an active, respected and fundamental participant of the changing process. The way a treatment is prescribed is as important as the treatment itself; the aim is to teach the patient how to follow his/her own treatment, relapses must not be considered failures but opportunities for learning. Patients need to find their own solutions and motivations and be responsible for their health on a daily basis. We need to empower them to do so. Long-term, successful and effective interventions require a treatment which focuses on compliance and

  14. Long-term behavior of the Kelvin waves revealed by CHAMP/GPS RO measurements and their effects on the tropopause structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkat Ratnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The vertical and temporal variations of Kelvin waves and the associated effects on the tropical tropopause were studied using long-term (from May 2001 to October 2005 CHAMP/GPS (CHAllenging Mini satellite Payload/Global Positioning System radio occultation (RO measurements. The periods of these waves were found to be varying in between 10 and 15 days, with vertical wavelengths 5–8 km. These variations clearly show eastward phase propagation in the time-longitude section and eastward phase tilts with height in altitude-longitude, displaying the characteristics of Kelvin waves. The peak variance in the temperature is found over the Indian Ocean and into the western Pacific within the broad region of the equator. Kelvin wave amplitudes were found significantly enhanced in the eastward shear of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and are confined in and around the tropopause during westward phase of QBO, where it extends between 17 and 25 km during the eastward phase of QBO and is damped away above, consistent with earlier reported results. The amplitudes are increasing during the months of Northern Hemisphere winter and sometimes they are highly sporadic in nature. Seasonal and inter-annual variations in the Kelvin wave amplitudes near the tropical tropopause coincide exactly with the tropopause height and temperature, with a sharp tropopause during maximum Kelvin wave activity. A clear annual oscillation, along with a month-to-month coincidence is evident most of the time in both the tropopause height and Kelvin wave activity, with maximum and minimum Kelvin wave amplitudes during the Northern Hemisphere winter and summer, respectively. In addition, a signature of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO in the tropopause structure is also seen in long-term tropopause variations, although the amplitudes are less when compared to the annual oscillation. In the westward phase of QBO (during strong Kelvin wave activity at 20km (in 2001–2002 winter and

  15. Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Liu, Zhao-Peng; Jin, Fei

    2014-04-30

    Cement stabilization is a practical approach to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of lead. However, the potential for leaching of lead out of these stabilized soils under variable acid rain pH conditions is a major environmental concern. This study investigates the effects of acid rain on the leaching characteristics of cement stabilized lead contaminated soil under different pH conditions. Clean kaolin clay and the same soil spiked with 2% lead contamination are stabilized with cement contents of 12 and 18% and then cured for 28 days. The soil samples are then subjected to a series of accelerated leaching tests (or semi-dynamic leaching tests) using a simulated acid rain leachant prepared at pH 2.0, 4.0 or 7.0. The results show that the strongly acidic leachant (pH ∼2.0) significantly altered the leaching behavior of lead as well as calcium present in the soil. However, the differences in the leaching behavior of the soil when the leachant was mildly acidic (pH ∼4.0) and neutral (pH ∼7.0) prove to be minor. In addition, it is observed that the lead contamination and cement content levels can have a considerable impact on the leaching behavior of the soils. Overall, the leachability of lead and calcium is attributed to the stability of the hydration products and their consequent influence on the soil buffering capacity and structure.

  16. Content, mineral allocation and leaching behavior of heavy metals in urban PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti Tagliani, Simona; Carnevale, Monica; Armiento, Giovanna; Montereali, Maria Rita; Nardi, Elisa; Inglessis, Marco; Sacco, Fabrizio; Palleschi, Simonetta; Rossi, Barbara; Silvestroni, Leopoldo; Gianfagna, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    To clarify the relationship between airborne particulate exposure and negative impacts on human health, focusing on the heavy metal content alone might not be sufficient. To address this issue, in the present work, mineral allocation and leaching behavior of heavy metals in the PM2.5 were investigated. This work, therefore, provides a novel perspective in the field of urban airborne particle investigation that is not currently found in the literature. Four sampling campaigns were performed in the urban area of Rome (Central Italy) during the winter and summer seasons (February and July 2013 and 2014, respectively). The measured concentrations of the regulated elements of As, Cd, Ni and Pb were consistent with those reported by the local Environmental Agency (ARPA Lazio), but non-regulated heavy metals, including Fe, Cu, Cr and Zn, were also found in PM2.5 and analyzed in detail. As a novelty, heavy metals were associated with the host-identified mineral phases, primarily oxides and alloys, and to a lesser extent, other minerals, such as sulfates, carbonates and silicates. Leaching tests of the collected samples were conducted in a buffered solution mimicking the bodily physiological environment. Despite the highest concentration of heavy metals found during the winter sampling period, all of the elements showed a leaching trend leading to major mobility during the summer period. To explain this result, an interesting comparative analysis between the leaching test behavior and innovative mineral allocation was conducted. Both the heavy metal content and mineral allocation in PM2.5 might contribute to the bioavailability of toxic elements in the pulmonary environment. Hence, for regulatory purposes, the non-linear dependency of heavy metal bioavailability on the total metal content should be taken into account.

  17. The pH-dependent leaching behavior of slags from various stages of a copper smelting process: Environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošíková, Alice; Ettler, Vojtěch; Mihaljevič, Martin; Kříbek, Bohdan; Mapani, Ben

    2017-02-01

    The leaching behaviors of primary copper (Cu) slags originating from Ausmelt, reverbatory, and converter furnaces operating under a single technological process were compared to a residual slag tailing obtained by slag re-processing via flotation and metal recovery. The EN 12457-2 leaching test, used for assessment of the hazardous properties, was followed by the CEN/TS 14997 pH-static leaching test (pH range 3-12). Both leaching experiments were coupled with a mineralogical investigation of the primary and secondary phases as well as geochemical modeling. Metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) exhibit the highest leaching at low pH. Under acidic conditions (pH 3-6), Ausmelt slag and slag tailing exhibited higher metal leaching compared to other slag types. Very low leaching of metals (far below EU limits for non-hazardous waste) was observed at natural pH (7.9-9.0) for all the studied slag samples. In contrast, relatively high leaching of As was observed over the entire pH range, especially for Ausmelt slag (exceeding the EU limit for hazardous waste by 1.7×). However, geochemical modeling and scanning electron microscopy indicated that formation of stable Ca-Cu-Pb arsenates and the binding of As to newly formed Fe (oxyhydr)oxides play an important role in efficient As immobilization at the slag-water interface. In contrast, no controls were predicted for Sb, whose leaching was almost pH-independent. Nevertheless Sb leached concentrations at natural pH were below EU limit for hazardous waste. Re-processing of primary Cu slags for metal recovery, and subsequent co-disposal of the resulting slag tailing with dolomite-rich mine tailing and local laterite is suitable for stabilizing the remaining contaminants (except Sb) and limiting their leaching into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun, E-mail: kyling@swust.edu.cn; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  19. Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao; Zhao, Hainan; Liu, Pengfei; Xu, Yang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chuai, Yunhai

    2016-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR). All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM) observation, forced swim test (FST), the open field test (OFT), the chromosome aberration (CA), the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA), the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR. PMID:27774116

  20. Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR. All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM observation, forced swim test (FST, the open field test (OFT, the chromosome aberration (CA, the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA, the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR.

  1. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  2. Long-term consequences of membership in trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in an urban sample: violence, drug use, interpersonal, and neighborhood attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Elaine N; Brook, David W

    2013-01-01

    Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used growth mixture modeling to extract trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether memberships in the trajectory groups of delinquent behavior from mean age 14 to mean age 24 were associated with violence, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood at mean age 29 when compared with the reference trajectory group of participants with low or no delinquent behavior. Four trajectory groups of delinquent behavior were identified: the no/low, the decreasing, the moderate, and the high persistent trajectory groups. Memberships in the trajectory groups were significantly correlated with variations in adult functioning. Memberships in some trajectory groups of delinquent behavior are significant predictors of later violent behavior, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood. The findings reinforce the importance of investing in interventions to address different patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to previous investigations with non-Hispanic White samples.

  3. Perceived Work Ability in the Light of Long-Term and Stress-Related Unhealthy Behaviors-a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanperä, Nina; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Remes, Jouko; Hopsu, Leila; Auvinen, Juha; Tammelin, Tuija; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2016-04-01

    Most of the few studies that exist on the longitudinal associations between health behaviors and work ability target to single health behaviors. To investigate how lifetime clusters of unhealthy behaviors associate with perceived work ability in early midlife. The study population consisted of 46-year-old men and women (n = 3107) born in Northern Finland in 1966. Their current perceived work ability compared to lifetime best, and their unhealthy behaviors (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) were assessed by questionnaires. We determined clusters of unhealthy behaviors at the ages of 14, 31, and 46 and created lifetime development trajectories of health behaviors. We also assessed stress-related eating and drinking at the ages of 31 and 46. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between clusters of health behaviors, stress-related eating and drinking, and work ability at 46 years. The analyses were controlled for basic education and physical strenuousness of work, psychosocial job characteristics, perceived work ability, and BMI (kg/m(2)) at 31 years. Four health behavior trajectories emerged: always healthy, moderate (reference group), deteriorated. and always unhealthy. Among men, always unhealthy behaviors [OR (95 % confidence interval) 2.81 (1.35, 5.86)], and among women, deteriorated health behaviors [1.67 (1.07, 2.58)] associated with poor perceived work ability at 46 years. In addition, stress-related eating and drinking associated independently with poor perceived work ability at 46 years [men 2.58 (1.62, 4.12) and women 2.48 (1.70, 3.61)]. Long-lasting and stress-related unhealthy behaviors increase the risk of poor work ability in midlife.

  4. New Rapid Evaluation for Long-Term Behavior in Deep Geological Repository by Geotechnical Centrifuge. Part 1: Test of Physical Modeling in Near Field Under Isotropic Stress-Constraint Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Soshi; Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term geomechanical behavior of a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal, using the centrifugal near-field model test. The model consisted of a sedimentary rock mass, bentonite buffer, and model overpack, and was enclosed within a pressure vessel. Tests were conducted with a centrifugal force field of 30 G under isotropic stress-constraint conditions with confining pressures of 5-10 MPa and injection of pore water up through a time period equivalent to about 165 years in the field. Our results showed that the measured values and the temporal changes in the displacement of the overpack, the soil pressure of the bentonite, and the strain of the rock mass were clearly dependent on the confining pressure. These data were not convergent during the test. Our data experimentally revealed that long-term behavior in the near field was changed by the geomechanical interaction between the deformation stress of the bedrock/disposal hole and the swelling behavior of the bentonite buffer.

  5. Effect of long-term fertilization on soil nitrate distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A thirteen years long-term field fertilizer experiment was conducted to monitor the effect of different fertilization on soil nitrate distribution. The results showed: (1) Applying relative excessive N fertilizer could result large quantities of NO3- residue and NO3- movement downward in soil profiles; amending phosphate fertilizer or organic manure with nitrogen fertilizer together could significantly improve the status of NO3- leaching downward due to the balanced uptake of nutrients by crops. (2) Appropriate amounts of nitrogen fertilizer which was equal or smaller than the optimal fertilization rate could not result in more NO3- leaching in Northern China. (3) Precipitation influenced the amounts and depth of soil NO3- leaching: NO3- could move to 80 cm depth or below at autumn or at the next spring when rainfall was higher during the rainy season through July to September in North China.

  6. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Cyclical Long-term Unemployment, Skill Loss, and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Movements in long-term unemployment (LTU) exhibit a substantial cyclical component. I develop a business cycle model featuring labor market frictions and skill loss during unemployment to capture various stylized facts about the cyclical behavior of long-term unemployment. I find that the skill loss mechanism helps reproduce negative duration dependence, high persistence in unemployment and output, volatility patterns across macroeconomic variables and the behavior of the incidence of LTU aro...

  8. Effects of Leaching Behavior of Calcium Ions on Compression and Durability of Cement-based Materials with Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaching of calcium ions increases the porosity of cement-based materials, consequently resulting in a negative effect on durability since it provides an entry for aggressive harmful ions, causing reinforcing steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of leaching behavior of calcium ions on the compression and durability of cement-based materials. Since the parameters influencing the leaching behavior of cement-based materials are unclear and diverse, this paper focuses on the influence of added mineral admixtures (fly ash, slag and silica fume on the leaching behavior of calcium ions regarding compression and durability of cemented-based materials. Ammonium nitrate solution was used to accelerate the leaching process in this study. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to analyze and compare the cement-based material compositions prior to and after calcium ion leaching. The experimental results show that the mineral admixtures reduce calcium hydroxide quantity and refine pore structure through pozzolanic reaction, thus enhancing the compressive strength and durability of cement-based materials.

  9. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media; Comprehension de l'alteration a long terme des colis de verre R7T7: etude du couplage chimie transport dans un milieu fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L

    2008-04-15

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH{>=}11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  10. A study of the reported long-term attitudinal and behavioral effects of an eighth-grade environmental education project and the development of an innovation configuration to promote environmental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomino, Jean A.

    Problem. Increasing scientific evidence reveals that this planet is in serious environmental jeopardy. Since 1977, when an international group of K--12 educators met in the USSR and established goals for teaching environmental education worldwide, many schools have endeavored to fulfill these goals through the use of various curricula and teaching strategies. Although some progress has been made, most K--12 public schools have not done enough to meet the demands of environmental problems. In 1996, my co-teacher and I designed and implemented an environmental project, called Mission Environment, that we hoped would help our students develop long-term positive environmental attitudes and behaviors. Purpose. This study is an attempt to discover how effective the Mission Environment project (ME) was in contributing to long-term, positive environmental attitudes and behaviors among the participating students. Methodology. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods. Data were collected by surveying the members of a high-school senior class to determine their current environmental attitudes, behavior, affect, and knowledge. Of the 71 students surveyed, 28 indicated that they had been ME participants during their eighth-grade year (1996--97). The survey data were analyzed using the students' independent samples t test and chi square. Additionally, through student interviews, the study investigated the hypothesis that the teaching methods used during the course of the project contributed to producing these long-term effects. As a result of reflective interviews about the ME project and data from the literature review, a model has been created for a middle-school environmental education project in the form of an Innovation Configuration. This model is presented as part of the results of this study. Findings and conclusions. The results of the statistical analysis of the environmental survey data showed statistically significant differences between the ME

  11. Evidence that limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates partial kindling induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior: effects of low frequency stimulation (quenching?) on long term potentiation of amygdala efferents and behavior following kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1999-08-21

    Behavioral and physiological effects of partial kindling of the right ventral hippocampus by perforant path (PP) stimulation were investigated in the cat. Partial kindling produced lasting changes in affect (increased defensive response to rats) and predatory attack (decreased pawing and biting attack). Partial kindling also induced long term potentiation (LTP) of amygdala efferent transmission to ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) in left and right hemispheres. LTP of field population spikes evoked in area CA3 by PP stimulation was also observed. LTP was detected using evoked potential methods. These findings parallel previous studies of left PP-CA3 partial kindling. Analysis of covariance removing effects of LTP from behavioral changes suggests that initiation of increased defensiveness at 2 days after completion of partial kindling depended on LTP of left and right amygdalo-VMH and right amygdalo-PAG transmission. From 6 days after kindling onward, increased defensiveness depended on LTP of right amygdalo-PAG transmission. Depotentiation of amygdala efferent LTP by bilateral low frequency amygdala stimulation (LFS) (900 pulses at 1 Hz, once daily for 7 days) selectively reduced LTP in right amygdala efferents. At the same time, defensive, but not predatory attack behavior, was returned to levels seen prior to partial kindling. Both depotentiation and reduction of defensiveness were transient. Defensiveness increased to post-kindling levels by 76 days after LFS. At the same time, LTP was restored in the right amygdalo-PAG pathway. In contrast LTP in the right amygdalo-VMH pathway remained depotentiated. Effects of LFS were not due to damage, as thresholds to evoke amygdala efferent response were unchanged. These findings suggest that lasting change in affect following partial hippocampal kindling depends on LTP of right amygdala efferent transmission to PAG. The findings parallel studies of non-convulsant pharmacological induction of

  12. Geochemical Modeling of Leaching from MSWI Air-Pollution-Control Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, T.; Christensen, T.H. [Institute of Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Building 115, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Dijkstra, J.J.; Van der Sloot, H.A. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    This paper provides an improved understanding of the leaching behavior of waste incineration air-pollution-control (APC) residues in a long-term perspective. Leaching was investigated by a series of batch experiments reflecting leaching conditions after initial washout of highly soluble salts from residues. Leaching experiments were performed at a range of pH-values using carbonated and noncarbonated versions of two APC residues. The leaching data were evaluated by geochemical speciation modeling and discussed with respect to possible solubility control. The leaching of major elements as well as trace elements was generally found to be strongly dependent on pH. As leaching characterization was performed in the absence of high salt levels, the presented results represent long-term leaching after initial washout from a disposal site, that is, liquid-to solid ratios above 1-2 L/kg. The leaching of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Pb, S, Si, V, and Zn was found influenced by solubility control from Al2O3, Al(OH)3, Ba(S,Cr)O4 solid solutions, BaSO4, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O, CaAl2Si4O12.2H2O, Ca(OH)2, CaSiO3, CaSO4.2H2O, CaZn2(OH)6.2H2O, KAlSi2O6, PbCO3, PbCrO4, Pb2O3, Pb2V2O7, Pb3(VO4)2, ZnO, Zn2SiO4, and ZnSiO3. The presented dataset and modeling results form a thorough contribution to the assessment of long-term leaching behavior of APC residues under a wide range of conditions.

  13. A Cognitive- Behavioral Therapeutic Program for Patients with Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short- and Long- Term Follow-Up Data of a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…

  14. Inositol-deficient food augments a behavioral effect of long-term lithium treatment mediated by inositol monophosphatase inhibition: an animal model with relevance for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Liza; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2015-04-01

    Lithium treatment in rodents markedly enhances cholinergic agonists such as pilocarpine. This effect can be reversed in a stereospecific manner by administration of inositol, suggesting that the effect of lithium is caused by inositol monophosphatase inhibition and consequent inositol depletion. If so, inositol-deficient food would be expected to enhance lithium effects. Inositol-deficient food was prepared from inositol-free ingredients. Mice with a homozygote knockout of the inositol monophosphatase 1 gene unable to synthesize inositol endogenously and mimicking lithium-treated animals were fed this diet or a control diet. Lithium-treated wild-type animals were also treated with the inositol-deficient diet or control diet. Pilocarpine was administered after 1 week of treatment, and behavior including seizures was assessed using rating scale. Inositol-deficient food-treated animals, both lithium treated and with inositol monophosphatase 1 knockout, had significantly elevated cholinergic behavior rating and significantly increased or earlier seizures compared with the controls. The effect of inositol-deficient food supports the role of inositol depletion in the effects of lithium on pilocarpine-induced behavior. However, the relevance of this behavior to other more mood-related effects of lithium is not clear.

  15. Multiple Factors in the Long-Term Effectiveness of Contingent Electric Shock Treatment for Self-Injurious Behavior: A Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, Thomas R.; Reichenbach, Heidi

    2002-01-01

    Data are presented to document the initial dramatic reduction in self-injurious behavior and the ongoing effectiveness of contingent electric shock treatment of an adolescent. Positive effects of the intervention are documented, as is information on the interaction of a medical condition, psychoactive mediation status, and staff changes. (Contains…

  16. A Cognitive- Behavioral Therapeutic Program for Patients with Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short- and Long- Term Follow-Up Data of a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…

  17. Influences of humic acid and fulvic acid on horizontal leaching behavior of anthracene in soil barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Li, Bang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Hu

    2015-12-01

    The influences of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) on horizontal leaching behaviors of anthracene in barriers were investigated. Soil colloids (≤1 μm) were of concern because of their abilities of colloid-facilitated transport for hydrophobic organic compounds with soluble and insoluble organic matters. Through freely out of the barriers in the presence of soil colloids with FA added, the higher concentrations of anthracene were from 320 μg L(-1) (D1 and D3) to 390 μg L(-1) (D2 and D4) with 1 to 20 cm in length. The contents of anthracene were distributed evenly at 25 ng g(-1) dry weight (DW) (D1 and D3) and 11 ng g(-1) DW (D2 and D4) in barriers. Therefore, anthracene leaching behaviors were mainly induced by soil colloids with soluble organic matters. The insoluble organic matters would facilitate anthracene onto soil colloids and enhance the movement in and through porous media of soil matrix.

  18. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.

  19. Long-term (15 mo) dietary supplementation with pomegranates from Oman attenuates cognitive and behavioral deficits in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash, Selvaraju; Braidy, Nady; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Zayana, Al-Buraiki; Ragini, Vaishnav; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice, which possess an amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene mutation, develop extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) deposition in the brain, and severe memory and behavioral deficits with age. These mice serve as an important animal model for testing the efficacy of novel drug candidates for the treatment and management of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports have suggested that oxidative stress is the underlying cause of Aβ neurotoxicity in AD. Pomegranates contain very high levels of antioxidants and several medicinal properties that may be useful for improving quality of life in individuals with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Omani pomegranate extract on memory, anxiety, and learning skills in an AD mouse model possessing the double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576). The experimental groups of APP-Tg mice from the age of 4 mo were fed a custom mixed diet (pellets) containing 4% pomegranate. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4 to 5 mo and 18 to 19 mo using the Morris water maze test, rotarod performance test, elevated plus-maze test, and open field test. APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a standard chow diet without pomegranates showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability, and motor coordination compared with the wild-type mice on the same diet, at the age of 18 to 19 mo. In contrast, APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a diet containing 4% pomegranates showed significant improvements in memory, learning, locomotor function, as well as reduction in anxiety, compared with APPsw/Tg2576 mice fed the standard chow diet. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with pomegranates may slow the progression of cognitive and behavioral impairments in AD. Copyright

  20. Leaching Behavior of Selected Trace and Toxic Metals in Coal Fly Ash Samples Collected from Two Thermal Power Plants, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, P; Sahu, S K; Kothai, P; Pandit, G G

    2016-09-01

    Studies on leaching behavior of metals associated with coal fly ash (FA) are of great concern because of possible contamination of the aquatic environment. In the present study, leaching behavior of metals (As, Se, Cr, Pb, V, Zn, etc.) in two different FA samples (FA1 and FA2) was investigated at various pH (2-12), temperatures of leachate solution and using TCLP. At pH 2, the highest leaching was observed for Fe (21.6 and 32.8 µg/g), whereas at pH 12, Arsenic was found to have the highest leaching (1.5 and 2.4 µg/g) in FA1 and FA2. Leachate solution temperature showed a positive effect on the metal's leachability. In TCLP, most of the metal's leachability was observed to be higher than that of batch leaching tests. The present study suggests that, leaching of As and Se from FA samples can moderately affect ground/surface water quality at the study locations.

  1. Corrosivity and leaching behavior of controlled low-strength material (CLSM) made using bottom ash and quarry dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the corrosivity and leaching behavior of CLSM made using two different industrial wastes i.e. bottom ash from an incineration facility and quarry dust. The leachate samples were derived from fresh and hardened CLSM mixtures, and studied for leaching and electrical resistivity. The release of various contaminants and the consequent environmental impact caused by the contaminants were studied by the measurement of contaminants in the bleed, in the leachate at 28 days, and on the leachate derived from crushed block and whole block leaching done over a period of 126 days. Results indicated that the CLSM mixtures are non corrosive; diffusion was the leaching mechanism; and the contaminants were found to be moderate to low mobility.

  2. Long-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes in children following anesthesia: A comparison of the effects of general versus regional anesthesia on term infants delivered by elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouni Alameddine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the effects of general anesthesia on the fetal and neonatal brain are limited. Animal studies demonstrated that anesthetic agents leave their consequences in the form of learning and memory deficits. The effects of propofol on the fetal neurodevelopment are not clear yet. Materials and Methods: This is a telephone-based questionnaire survey that addressed the effect of general anesthesia by propofol during cesarean section at term with no perinatal complications on the psychosocial behavior of children at 8-10 years of age compared with children having same characteristics except for delivery under neuraxial anesthesia using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a score. Results: A total of 187 children were born at term between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 with no perinatal distress under induction of general anesthesia by propofol. 66 children (35.3% were lost to follow-up and parents of two children (1.1% refused to participate. A total of 189 children were included in the study: 119 were born by cesarean section under general anesthesia and 70 were born by cesarean section under neuraxial block. The incidence of psychosocial behavior impairment at 8-10 years of age was not found to be affected by the mode of anesthesia during delivery by cesarean section nor by neonatal nor parental characteristics. Conclusion: Exposure to propofol as an induction agent for general anesthesia or cesarean section does not seem to increase the psychosocial behavior disorder development risk at 8-10 years of age.

  3. Long-term prevention of Alzheimer’s disease-like behavioral deficits in PDAPP mice carrying a mutation in Asp664

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Veronica; Zhang, Junli; Gorostiza, Olivia F.; Banwait, Surita; Huang, Wei; Ataie, Marina; Tang, Huidong; Bredesen, Dale E.

    2009-01-01

    The deficits of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are believed to result, at least in part, from neurotoxicity of β-amyloid (Aβ), a set of 38–43 amino acid fragments derived from the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition, APP generates the APP-C31 and Jcasp toxic fragments intracellularly by cleavage at Asp664. We reported that mutation of Asp664 to A in a FAD-human APP transgene prevented AD-like deficits but did not affect Aβ production or deposition in PDAPP mice, arguing that D664A plays a crucial role in the generation of AD-like deficits. Whether D664A simply delays or completely prevents AD-like deficits, however, remained undefined. To address this question, we performed behavioral studies longitudinally on a pretrained mouse cohort at 9 and 13 months of age. While behavioral deficits were present in PDAPP mice, performance of Tg PDAPP(D664A) mice was not significantly different from non-Tg littermates’ across all ages tested. Moreover, aberrant patterns in non-cognitive components of behavior in PDAPP mice were ameliorated in PDAPP(D664A) animals as well. A trend towards poorer retention at 9 mo and poorer learning at 13 mo that did not reach statistical significance was observed in PDAPP(D664A) mice. These results support and extend recent studies showing that cleavage of APP at Asp664 (or protein-protein interactions dependent on Asp664) is a crucial event in the generation of AD-like deficits in PDAPP mice. Our results thus further demonstrate that the D664A mutation either completely precludes, or markedly delays (beyond 13 mo) the appearance of AD-like deficits in this mouse model of AD. PMID:18485495

  4. Effect of Tungsten on Long-Term Microstructural Evolution and Impression Creep Behavior of 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Vijayanand, V. D.; Sudha, C.; Saroja, S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the changes in the creep properties associated with microstructural evolution during thermal exposures to near service temperatures in indigenously developed reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels with varying tungsten (1 and 1.4 wt pct W) contents. The creep behavior has been studied employing impression creep (IC) test, and the changes in impression creep behavior with tungsten content have been correlated with the observed microstructures. The results of IC test showed that an increase in 0.4 pct W decreases the creep rate to nearly half the value. Creep strength of 1.4 pct W steel showed an increase in steels aged for short durations which decreased as aging time increased. The microstructural changes include coarsening of precipitates, reduction in dislocation density, changes in microchemistry, and formation of new phases. The formation of various phases and their volume fractions have been predicted using the JMatPro software for the two steels and validated by experimental methods. Detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis shows coarsening of precipitates and formation of a discontinuous network of Laves phase in 1.4 W steel aged for 10,000 hours at 823 K (550 °C) which is in agreement with the JMatPro simulation results.

  5. Effect of Tungsten on Long-Term Microstructural Evolution and Impression Creep Behavior of 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Vijayanand, V. D.; Sudha, C.; Saroja, S.

    2016-10-01

    The present study describes the changes in the creep properties associated with microstructural evolution during thermal exposures to near service temperatures in indigenously developed reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels with varying tungsten (1 and 1.4 wt pct W) contents. The creep behavior has been studied employing impression creep (IC) test, and the changes in impression creep behavior with tungsten content have been correlated with the observed microstructures. The results of IC test showed that an increase in 0.4 pct W decreases the creep rate to nearly half the value. Creep strength of 1.4 pct W steel showed an increase in steels aged for short durations which decreased as aging time increased. The microstructural changes include coarsening of precipitates, reduction in dislocation density, changes in microchemistry, and formation of new phases. The formation of various phases and their volume fractions have been predicted using the JMatPro software for the two steels and validated by experimental methods. Detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis shows coarsening of precipitates and formation of a discontinuous network of Laves phase in 1.4 W steel aged for 10,000 hours at 823 K (550 °C) which is in agreement with the JMatPro simulation results.

  6. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  7. Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with orthotopic diversion in male ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes beyond 1 year, both ...

  8. Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine alloys after long-term aging at 760 deg C in low-pressure hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Nine candidate Stirling automotive engine alloys were aged at 760 C for 3500 hr in low pressure hydrogen or argon to determine the resulting effects on mechanical behavior. Candidate heater head tube alloys were CG-27, W545, 12RN72, INCONEL-718, and HS-188 while candidate cast cylinder-regenerator housing alloys were SA-F11, CRM-6D, XF-818, and HS-31. Aging per se is detrimental to the creep rupture and tensile strengths of the iron base alloys. The presence of hydrogen does not significantly contribute to strength degradation. Based percent highway driving cycle; CG-27 has adequate 3500 hr - 870 C creep rupture strength and SA-Fll, CRM-6D, and XF-818 have adequate 3500 hr - 775 C creep rupture strength.

  9. Nutrition, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy: a review of experimental evidence for long-term effects on the risk of obesity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Carpenter, Arielle H; Hochstadt, Jessica; Huddleston, Juli Y; Kustanovich, Vladimir; Reynolds, Ashley A; Roberts, Susan

    2012-08-20

    Obesity has reached near epidemic proportions in the developed world. As reproductive age women are a part of this trend, the effect of maternal obesity on the developing fetus must be investigated. In this review, we evaluated the experimental evidence relating maternal nutritional status and eating behavior before and during pregnancy on the risk of obesity in the offspring. The studies were compiled and selected based on their methodologies, study design and relevance. The analyzed studies were compiled to quantify, if possible, the relationship between maternal and offspring weight. Descriptive and observational studies were also included if they were seminal in the field. Based on the current data, maternal obesity is a critical factor exacerbating multigenerational obesity. Mechanistic studies, mainly in animals, have identified potential areas for intervention which might limit transmission of adverse risk factors for obesity from mothers to infants during pregnancy.

  10. How domain growth is implemented determines the long-term behavior of a cell population through its effect on spatial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert J. H.; Baker, R. E.; Yates, C. A.

    2016-07-01

    Domain growth plays an important role in many biological systems, and so the inclusion of domain growth in models of these biological systems is important to understanding how these systems function. In this work we present methods to include the effects of domain growth on the evolution of spatial correlations in a continuum approximation of a lattice-based model of cell motility and proliferation. We show that, depending on the way in which domain growth is implemented, different steady-state densities are predicted for an agent population. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the way in which domain growth is implemented can result in the evolution of the agent density depending on the size of the domain. Continuum approximations that ignore spatial correlations cannot capture these behaviors, while those that account for spatial correlations do. These results will be of interest to researchers in developmental biology, as they suggest that the nature of domain growth can determine the characteristics of cell populations.

  11. Phase behavior of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon double-chain hydroxylated and galactosylated amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles. Long-term shelf-stability of their liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, L; Gadras, C; Greiner, J; Rolland, J P; Santaella, C; Vierling, P; Gulik, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the morphological characterization, by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and the thermotropic phase behavior, by differential scanning calorimetry and/or X-ray scattering, of aqueous dispersions of various hydroxylated and galactosylated double-chain amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles, several of them containing one or two hydrophobic fluorocarbon chains. Colloidal systems are observed in water with the hydroxylated hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon bolaamphiphiles only when they are dispersed with a co-amphiphile such as rac-1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or rac-1,2-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Liposomes are formed providing the relative content of bolaamphiphiles does not exceed 20% mol. Most of these liposomes can be thermally sterilized and stored at room temperature for several months without any significant modification of their size and size distribution. The hydrocarbon galactosylated bolaamphiphile HO[C24][C12]Gal forms in water a lamellar phase (the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition is complete at 45 degrees C) and a Im3m cubic phase above 47 degrees C. The fluorocarbon HO[C24][F6C5]Gal analog displays a more complex and metastable phase behavior. The fluorinated non-bolaform galactosylated [F8C7][C16]AEGal and SerGal amphiphiles form lamellar phases in water. Low amounts (10% molar ratio) of the HO[C24][F6C5]Gal or HO[C24][C12]Gal bolaamphiphiles or of the single-headed [F8C7][C16]AEGal improve substantially the shelf-stability of reference phospholipon/cholesterol 2/1 liposomes. These liposomes when co-formulated with a single-headed amphiphile from the SerGal series are by far less stable.

  12. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Undernutrition on Cannabinoid Receptor-Related Behaviors: Sex and Tissue-Specific Alterations in the mRNA Expression of Cannabinoid Receptors and Lipid Metabolic Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María T.; Arco, Rocío; Decara, Juan; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Rosario Noemi; Alén, Francisco; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition causes long-lasting alterations in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in offspring. It is still unknown whether both, the endocannabinoid (eCB) machinery and the lipid metabolism are implicated in long-term adaptive responses to fetal reprogramming caused by maternal undernutrition. We investigated the long-term effects of maternal exposure to a 20% standard diet restriction during preconceptional and gestational periods on the metabolically-relevant tissues hypothalamus, liver, and perirenal fat (PAT) of male and female offspring at adulthood. The adult male offspring from calorie-restricted dams (RC males) exhibited a differential response to the CB1 antagonist AM251 in a chocolate preference test as well as increased body weight, perirenal adiposity, and plasma levels of triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, bilirubin, and leptin. The gene expression of the cannabinoid receptors Cnr1 and Cnr2 was increased in RC male hypothalamus, but a down-expression of most eCBs-metabolizing enzymes (Faah, Daglα, Daglβ, Mgll) and several key regulators of fatty-acid β-oxidation (Cpt1b, Acox1), mitochondrial respiration (Cox4i1), and lipid flux (Pparγ) was found in their PAT. The female offspring from calorie-restricted dams exhibited higher plasma levels of LDL and glucose as well as a reduction in chocolate and caloric intake at post-weaning periods in the feeding tests. Their liver showed a decreased gene expression of Cnr1, Pparα, Pparγ, the eCBs-degrading enzymes Faah and Mgll, the de novo lipogenic enzymes Acaca and Fasn, and the liver-specific cholesterol biosynthesis regulators Insig1 and Hmgcr. Our results suggest that the long-lasting adaptive responses to maternal caloric restriction affected cannabinoid-regulated mechanisms involved in feeding behavior, adipose β-oxidation, and hepatic lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:28082878

  14. Does Long-Term High Fat Diet Always Lead to Smaller Hippocampi Volumes, Metabolite Concentrations, and Worse Learning and Memory? A Magnetic Resonance and Behavioral Study in Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Setkowicz

    memory behavioral tasks than CONs throughout the experiment. At one year, their hippocampi were by 2.6% larger than in CONs (p = 0.05, whereas concentration of tNAA was 9.8% higher (p = 0.014.Long-term HFD in our study resulted in better memory, larger hippocampal volumes, as well as higher hippocampal metabolite concentrations, possibly due to increased levels of blood ketone bodies. The results should be interpreted with caution, as results from animal models do not necessarily directly translate in human condition.

  15. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the \\'learning\\' processes.

  16. Leaching Behavior and Potential Environmental Effects of Trace Elements in Coal Gangue of an Open-Cast Coal Mine Area, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the role of coal gangue in potential environmental and ecological risks, the leaching behavior of trace elements from coal gangue has been investigated in an open-cast coal mine, Inner Mongolia, China. Four comparative column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of leaching time, pH values and sample amount on the leaching behavior of trace elements. Enrichment factors (EF, maximum leached amount (Lam, maximum leachability (Lrm, effects range low (ERL and effects range median (ERM were employed to evaluate potential environmental and ecological hazards resulting from the leaching behavior of environment-sensitive trace elements from coal gangue. Leaching time and sample amount display important effects on trace element concentrations, leached amounts and leachability. The pH values exhibit a weak influence on the leaching behavior of the selected trace elements (e.g., As, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, Pb and Hg. The coal gangue are enriched in As, Co, Se and Pb and, in particular, show higher environmental pollution levels of As and Se (EF > 2. Lam values suggest that all of the elements investigated do not show potential risk to soils and vegetation, but have a high hazard risk for ground water. Elements including Ni, As, Cr and Zn are inclined to show high or moderate biological toxicity.

  17. Study on the leaching behavior of galena concentrate in fluosilicic acid solution using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, Rezky Iriansyah; Mubarok, M. Zaki; Amalia, Dessy

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) extraction from galena through leaching has not been commercialized in Indonesia. Therefore, the study of leaching behavior of Bogor galena concentrate in fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) solution with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant was studied. The study was focused to investigate the effect of dissolution parameters such as temperature, stirring speed, solid percentage, acid concentration and particle sizes of the feed. The added oxidant (H2O2) was kept constant at 9.80 M. The result of Pb extraction percentage without oxidant addition was only 58.28% while by using oxidant in the leaching process, Pb extraction as high as 99.26% was achieved when conducted at 97 °C in 2.25 hours (135 minutes) using -100+150 mesh of concentrate in 3.44 M of H2SiF6 with 12% of solid percentage.

  18. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  19. Long-term dynamics simulation: Modeling requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morched, A.S.; Kar, P.K.; Rogers, G.J.; Morison, G.K. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    This report details the required performance and modelling capabilities of a computer program intended for the study of the long term dynamics of power systems. Following a general introduction which outlines the need for long term dynamic studies, the modelling requirements for the conduct of such studies is discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on models for system elements not normally modelled in power system stability programs, which will have a significant impact in the long term time frame of minutes to hours following the initiating disturbance. The report concludes with a discussion of the special computational and programming requirements for a long term stability program. 43 refs., 36 figs.

  20. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  1. Effects of a gerotranscendence educational program on gerotranscendence recognition, attitude towards aging and behavioral intention towards the elderly in long-term care facilities: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Wang, Chi-Jane; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers in long-term care (LTC) facilities have to uphold a positive attitude toward the elderly, so they will be more willing to provide the elderly with care of higher quality. Theory of Gerotranscendence is a theory which can assist the elderly in developing more mature and intellectual state of mind. It is hoped that the caregivers who receive gerotranscendence education may apply its concept to the care for the elderly. To evaluate the effects of the gerotranscendence educational program on caregivers' gerotranscendence recognition, attitude towards aging, and behavioral intention towards caring for the elderly. A quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was conducted. A total of 41 caregivers in LTC facilities participated and completed the study. Participants were invited to participate in a 2-day gerotranscendence educational program, and measurement took place at baseline, the end of the program (post-test) and three months after the program (follow-up test). The research tools included Gerotranscendence Recognition Scale-Chinese version, Aging Attitude scale, and Caregivers' Behavioral Intention Scale. This study used GLM repeated measures to perform analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in three repeated measures of participants' gerotranscendence recognition and behavior intention toward caring for the elderly (p=.002, .002, respectively) but not in the aging attitude score (p=.21). The post hoc comparison showed that the scores of these two outcomes in the post-test were significantly higher than those in the pre-test (p=.000; .024). However, the scores in the follow-up test were almost the same as those in the pre-test. The gerotranscendence educational program had timely effects on caregivers' gerotranscendence recognition and behavioral intention towards aging, and so caregivers working in LTC facilities may require ongoing training in the gerotranscendence educational program to ensure that these positive effects

  2. Long-term effect on the solidified degraded cellulose-based waste slurry in cement matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam El-Din Mostafa Saleh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects on solidification/stabilization (s/s of the secondary wastes, resulting from the oxidative degradation of some solid cellulosic-based wastes, in Portland Cement (CEM I have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (X-RD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR techniques. The effect of seven years leaching of the cemented waste forms obtained was carried out to assess the long-term immobilization behavior of the radionuclide in the solidified/stabilized waste that maybe exposed to fresh, ground or sea water.The results of this study confirm our previously published work that the oxidative degradation treatment of some cellulosic-based wastes is essential before incorporating into the cementitious inert matrix. In addition, the release of radionuclides from the cemented waste form is a diffusion controlling process, after the first washing out period lasting for nearly thirty days.Based on the results so far obtained it is concluded that Portland Cement could be considered as a potential inert matrix to immobilize the degraded cellulosic-based wastes for a short or long time of storage or a final disposal.

  3. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  4. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  5. Irradiation effect on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan

    2012-01-15

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is commonly classified as hazardous waste. High-energy electron beam irradiation systems have gained popularity recently as a clean and promising technology to remove environmental pollutants. Irradiation effects on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash have not been investigated in any significant detail. An electron beam accelerator was used in this research. Electron beam irradiation on fly ash significantly increased the leaching potential of heavy metals from fly ash. The amount of absorbed dose and the metal species affected leaching behavior. When electron beam irradiation intensity increased gradually up to 210 kGy, concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased linearly as absorbed dose increased, while that of Cu underwent no significant change. Concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased up to 15.5% (10.7 mg/kg), and 35.6% (9.6 mg/kg) respectively. However, only 4.8% (0.3mg/kg) increase was observed in the case of Cu. The results imply that irradiation has significant effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash, and the effect is quite different among the metal species tested in this study. A commonly used sequential extraction analysis which can classify a metal species into five forms was conducted to examine any change in metal form in the irradiated fly ash. Notable change in metal form in fly ash was observed when fly ash was irradiated. Change in Pb form was much greater than that of Cu form. Change in metal form was related to leaching potential of the metals. Concentration of heavy metal in leachate was positively related to the exchangeable form which is the most mobile. It may be feasible to treat fly ash by electron beam irradiation for selective recovery of valuable metals or for pretreatment prior to conventional processes.

  6. Reciprocal relationship between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence: 10-year follow-up of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Luh, Dih-Lin; Lin, Ching-I; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Hung, Chao-Chia; Wang, Sabrina; Wu, Chi-Chen; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Chang, Yi-Han; Yen, Lee-Lan; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the reciprocal relationship between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence. Unhealthy eating behaviours were measured by the frequencies of eating foods with excess salt, sugar or fat in the past week. Depressive symptoms in the past two weeks were measured using a seven-item scale. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to analyse longitudinal associations between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms. Time-fixed variables (sex, parents' education level and household monthly income) and time-varying variables (parents' marital status, family activities, body weight, vegetable or fruit consumption, exercising and smoking) were controlled for. The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution study, which commenced in 2001 and has annual follow-up. Students (n 2630) followed from 2nd grade (8 years old in 2002) to 11th grade. The frequency of unhealthy eating behaviours in the previous year and the difference between the frequency in the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initiation and growth rate of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in the previous year and the difference in depressive symptoms between the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initial state and growth rate of unhealthy eating behaviours. Our results suggest a reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and unhealthy eating behaviours. This relationship should be considered when developing programmes targeting depressive symptoms and unhealthy diet in children and adolescents.

  7. Long-term diffusion of U(VI) in bentonite: Dependence on density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Claudia; Mibus, Jens; Trepte, Paul; Müller, Christa; Brendler, Vinzenz; Park, Dan M; Jiao, Yongqin; Kersting, Annie B; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2017-01-01

    As a contribution to the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories, U(VI) diffusion through the potential buffer material MX-80 bentonite was investigated at three clay dry densities over six years. Synthetic MX-80 model pore water was used as background electrolyte. Speciation calculations showed that Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) was the main U(VI) species. The in- and out-diffusion of U(VI) was investigated separately. U(VI) diffused about 3mm, 1.5mm, and 1mm into the clay plug at ρ=1.3, 1.6, and 1.9g/cm(3), respectively. No through-diffusion of the U(VI) tracer was observed. However, leaching of natural uranium contained in the clay occurred and uranium was detected in all receiving reservoirs. As expected, the effective and apparent diffusion coefficients, De and Da, decreased with increasing dry density. The Da values for the out-diffusion of natural U(VI) were in good agreement with previously determined values. Surprisingly, Da values for the in-diffusion of U(VI) were about two orders of magnitude lower than values obtained in short-term in-diffusion experiments reported in the literature. Some potential reasons for this behavior that were evaluated are changes of the U(VI) speciation within the clay (precipitation, reduction) or changes of the clay porosity and pore connectivity with time. By applying Archie's law and the extended Archie's law, it was estimated that a significantly smaller effective porosity must be present for the long-term in-diffusion of U(VI). The results suggest that long-term studies of key transport phenomena may reveal additional processes that can directly impact long-term repository safety assessments.

  8. 腐蚀钢绞线与混凝土的长期粘结蠕变性能试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BEHAVIOR OF LONG-TERM BOND-CREEP BETWEEN CORRODED STEEL STRANDS AND CONCRETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富民; 袁迎曙

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of steel strands corrosion on the long-term behavior of bond-creep, 6 pre-tensioned prestressed concrete beams were fabricated, of which, 5 beams were mixed with salt and set in different places to be corroded in different intensity for 47 weeks, and the bond-slip of all the 6 beams was tested periodically through the whole period, and then the time varying curves of bond-slip under prestressing were obtained. The results show that under the condition of no corrosion crack, the bond strength increases with corrosion and the bond-creep is restrained, which contribute the creep slip of corrosion beams being less than that of the uncorrosion beam. Moreover, with the increase of corrosion rate and corrosion products expansion ratio, the long-term bond-slip decreases. The analysis shows that if there are corrosion cracks and the bond strength deteriorates, the long-term bond-creep and the load cracks width in anchoring segments should increase, but the prestressing loss and the anchoring bearing capacity should not decrease.%为探讨腐蚀对钢绞线与混凝土长期粘结蠕变性能的影响,制作6根先张法预应力混凝土梁试件,其中5根试件通过掺盐并置于不同环境中进行为期47周不同强度的长期腐蚀,期间对所有6根试件进行定期粘结滑移监测,得到各试件在预应力作用下的粘结滑移时变曲线。结果表明:在未发生锈胀开裂的条件下,腐蚀引起粘结强度增大,从而抑制了粘结蠕变,使腐蚀试件的蠕变滑移小于无腐蚀试件;而且,腐蚀率越高、腐蚀产物体积膨胀率越大,长期粘结滑移也越小。分析表明:如果腐蚀引起锈胀开裂并导致粘结强度退化,则会引起长期粘结蠕变及锚固段裂缝宽度的增大,但不会引起预应力损失及锚固承载力的降低。

  9. Bar Simulation Method for Analysis on Long-term Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Box Girder%配筋混凝土箱梁长期受力性能的比拟杆分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志; 伍琼芳; 曹国辉

    2012-01-01

    为使配筋混凝土箱梁长期受力性能的分析趋于简便,将线弹性匀质箱梁短期弯曲性能分析的比拟杆法推广应用于其长期受力性能的分析.引入按龄期调整的有效弹性模量来考虑箱梁混凝土徐变的影响,基于换算截面的原理来考虑箱梁配筋的影响,建立能综合考虑箱梁受力特征和配筋影响的混凝土箱梁长期受力性能分析的比拟杆法.对一根预应力混凝土模型箱梁进行长达l001d的徐变试验,并用其结果对所提方法的适用性进行验证.结果表明:混凝土箱梁长期受力性能的比拟杆法计算结果与试验结果之间吻合较好.与试验值相比,t0~1001d时段内箱梁顶板混凝土压应变的计算值相差7%~11%、跨中截面长期挠曲变形的计算结果相差9%~17%.随着持荷时间的增长,箱梁顶板的剪力滞系数逐渐减小,持荷1001d后剪力滞系数减小了7.1%.%In order to develop a simple method to determine the long-term behavior of the reinforced concrete box girder structure with the shear lag effect of box girder involved, a new bar simulation method was presented in which the Age-adjusted Effective Modulus was used to consider the effects of concrete creep and the principle of transformed section was used to consider the effects of reinforcement. The results of the method were testified by the long-term performance test of a prestressed concrete simply-supported box girder under sustained loading of 1001d. The results show as follows:The developed method can give a reasonable prediction to the creep reponse of the concrete box girder; compared with the measured values, the predicted compressive strain in the top plate and the long-term deflection at the mid-span of the tested box girder is of error range of (7~11)% and (9~17)% respectively;the shear lag coefficient of the top plate of the box girder reduces gradually in extension of the sustained loading period and till by 7. 1% after 1001d.

  10. Long term structural dynamics of mechanical systems with local nonlinearities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey, R.H.B.; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the long term behavior of periodically excited mechanical systems consisting of linear components and local nonlinearities. The number of degrees of freedom of the linear components is reduced by applying a component mode synthesis technique. Lyapunov exponents are used to iden

  11. Semi-automatic long-term acoustic surveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Tórur; Surlykke, Annemarie; Hallam, John

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Acoustic monitoring is an efficient non-invasive method, which may be deployed for surveys of animals as diverse as insects, birds, and bats. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique...... to determine bat behavior and correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying....

  12. Long-Term Sequelae after Cerebellar Astrocytoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects on neurologic, neuropsychological, and behavioral functioning in a consecutive series of 23 children treated surgically for cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma without additional radio- and chemotherapy are determined in a study at Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and other medical centers.

  13. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a pree

  14. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  15. Environmental Factors in Suicide in Long Term-Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Nancy J.

    1992-01-01

    Explored environmental factors related to suicide in 463 long-term care facilities. Staff turnover, size, auspices, and per diem cost related to suicidal behavior and deaths from suicide. More suicides occurred in larger facilities and facilities with higher staff turnover. Religious or "other" facilities experienced more suicidal deaths than…

  16. A Universal Reduced Rupture Creep Approach for Prediction of Long Term Failure Behavior of Aged Glass Polymers from the Short Term Test of Rupture Creep Compliance by the Unified Master Curved Extrapolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jun Song; Da-ming Wu; Wei-yue Song; Ming-shi Song; Gui-xian Hu

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of long term failure behaviors and lifetime of aged glass polymers from the short term tests of reduced rupture creep compliance (or strain) is one of difficult problems in polymer science and engineering.A new "universal reduced rupture creep approach" with exact theoretical analysis and computations is proposed in this work.Failure by creep for polymeric material is an important problem to be addressed in the engineering.A universal equation on reduced extensional failure creep compliance for PMMA has been derived.It is successful in relating the reduced extensional failure creep compliance with aging time,temperature,levels of stress,the average growth dimensional number and the parameter in K-W-W function.Based on the universal equation,a method for the prediction of failure behavior,failure strain criterion,failure time of PMMA has been developed which is named as a universal "reduced rupture creep approach".The results show that the predicted failure strain and failure time of PMMA at different aging times for different levels of stress are all in agreement with those obtained directly from experiments,and the proposed method is reliable and practical.The dependences of reduced extensional failure creep compliance on the conditions of aging time,failure creep stress,the structure of fluidized-domain constituent chains are discussed.The shifting factor,exponent for time-stress superposition at different levels of stress and the shifting factor,exponent for time-time aging superposition at different aging time are theoretically defined respectively.

  17. Changes in speciation and leaching behaviors of heavy metals in dredged sediment solidified/stabilized with various materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianping; Wang, Liang; Xiao, Man

    2016-05-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of sediments is frequently used to treat contaminants in dredged sediments. In this study, sediment collected from the Pearl River Delta (China) was solidified/stabilized with three different kinds of functional materials: cement, lime and bentonite. Lime primarily acted via induced increases in pH, while cements stabilization occurred through their silicate-based systems and the main function of bentonite was adsorption. The speciation and leaching behaviors of specific heavy metals before and after S/S were analyzed and the results showed that the residual speciation of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn increased in all treatments except for Cu, as the exchangeable speciation, carbonate-bound speciation and Fe-Mn-oxide-bound speciation of Cu (all of which could be stabilized) were less than 2 % of the total amount. Pb leaching only decreased when pH increased, while the mobility of Cr and Ni only decreased in response to the silicate-based systems. The leached portion of the Fe-Mn-oxide-bound speciation followed the order Zn > Cu > Ni/Cd > Pb > Cr. The leached portion of organic-matter-bound species was less than 4 % for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb, but 35.1 % and 20.6 % for Cu and Zn, respectively.

  18. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  19. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long-term...... in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  20. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  1. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  2. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program ( ... Prevention HIV/AIDS Nutrition Services Oral Health Elder Justice & Adult Protective Services Elder Justice Coordinating Council Prevention ...

  3. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  4. Long-term outcome of meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Ostenberg, A; Roos, H;

    2001-01-01

    To describe the long-term influence of meniscectomy on pain, functional limitations, and muscular performance. To assess the effects of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA), gender and age on these outcomes in patients with meniscectomy....

  5. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  6. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  7. 玻纤增强阻燃PBT长期弯曲蠕变行为预测%Long-term Flexural Creep Behavior Prediction of GF-reinforced Flame Retardant PBT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大华; 吴博; 雷彩红

    2011-01-01

    The short term creep data of glass-fiber reinforced flame retardant poly (butylene terephthalate) (PBT-RG301) was studied under different stress using universal testing machine. The long term creep behavior was predicted based on time-stress superposition (TSS) principle, Burgers model and Findley power law. It was found that using TSS principle, the creep value up to 104 h could be predicted. Within experimental time of 4 000 s, the predicted results from Burgers model and Findley power law were in good agreement with the experimental results. The strain values under long time of 10 000h predicted based on Burgers model were far larger than those based on TSS principle and Findley power law, which was further proved by experimental results within 14 h.%采用万能电子拉力机测试了不同应力下玻纤增强阻燃PBT(PBT-RG301)的短期蠕变数据,并采用时间应力等效原理、Burgers模型以及Findley指数定律预测了长期蠕变行为.结果发现:依据时间应力等效原理可预测10000h后体系的蠕变数值,在4000s实验时间内Burgers模型和Findley指数定律均可很好的拟合实验结果,但Burgers模型预测的长期蠕变数据高于Findley指数定律和时间应力等效原理预测数值,实验时间14h的跟踪数据也证实了该结果.

  8. Analysis of the leaching behavior of elements from coal combustion residues for better management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Samadder, S R

    2015-06-01

    In this study, fly ash, pond ash, bottom ash, slurry ash, raw water, pond water, and slurry samples were collected from Bokaro Thermal Power Plant, Bokaro, Jharkhand, India, and studied for the leachability of different elements by acid digestion and shake test at different liquid to solid (L/S) ratios. The raw water, pond water, slurry water, and leachates of acid digestion and shake tests were analyzed for the elements sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Shake test results confirmed that the water got saturated when the L/S ratio was equal to or above 10, indicating no further increase in concentration of elements at the L/S ratio of 10. Leaching behavior of Na from pond ash was not understood in the present study. In the study, the chemical composition showed that all the four types of ashes contain a small fraction of CaO (about 0.37 to 0.90 % by weight) and very high contents of SiO2 (about 55.14 to 58.34 % by weight) and Al2O3 (about 29.44 to 32.81 % by weight) that are the major composition of Portland cement. The study will help to understand the leachability potential of harmful elements present in fly ash, pond ash, bottom ash, and slurry ash under natural conditions and to take regulatory measures to protect the surface water, groundwater, and soil environment.

  9. Spatial distribution and leaching behavior of pollutants from phosphogypsum stocked in a gypstack: Geochemical characterization and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisone, Sara; Gautier, Mathieu; Chatain, Vincent; Blanc, Denise

    2017-05-15

    Phosphogypsum (PPG) is the byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers from phosphate rocks (PR) by acid digestion. Despite the technical feasibility, the impurities present in this waste make its reuse critical and large amounts of PPG are stockpiled, resulting in the production of polluted acid leachates. The aim of the present study was to characterize the spatial variability and evolution in time of a 20-year-old gypstack and to study the geochemical behavior of the waste in order to assess the best management options. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were performed on core samples taken from 4 different depths of the stack down to 13.5 m. Despite the high homogeneity shown by chemical and mineral characterization, leaching tests revealed a different chemical behavior with depth. pH-dependent leaching tests were also performed to measure the acid neutralization capacity of the studied matrices and to determine the leachability of the elements or pollutants of concern as a function of pH. The study was focused on Ca, Fe Na, Si, Cd and Sr and on F(-), PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) anions. The geochemical modeling of these tests with PHREEQC enabled the identification of the minor phases controlling the solubilization of the elements analyzed. Validation of the model by the simulation of a column leaching test suggested that the model could be used as a predictive tool to assess different management scenarios.

  10. 富蕴断裂:低应变速率条件下断层滑动习性%FUYUN FAULT: LONG-TERM FAULTING BEHAVIOR UNDER LOW CRUSTAL STRAIN RATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锡伟; 孙鑫喆; 谭锡斌; 李康; 于贵华; Marie Etchebes; Yann Klinger; Paul Tapponnier; J.Van DerWoerd

    2012-01-01

    average characteristic slip of 6. 3m,a maximum slip of ~6. 7m and a slip rate of (0. 76+0. 24) mm/a yield a recurrence interval of (9 700+3 300) a. Then, great earthquakes on the Fuyun Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip fault follow a characteristic slip behavior with a low long-term slip rate and long recurrence interval, which is a faulting response to the far-field strain resulting from the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates.

  11. Study on long term effect of early education on behavior problem of children%早期教育对学龄儿童行为问题长期影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段娅莉; 张丽珊; 孙恩; 徐兵; 胡雯

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the long term effect of infant early education on behavior problem of children.[Methods]One hundred and forty children were divided into early education group and control group rand(ó)mly.Children in early education group received "The infant physical and mental exercise" designed by us from the embryo to 1 year old,and their parents carried on the training by parental manual from 1 ~ 3 years old.Behavior problem and parental rearing styles were evaluated at 7 years old.[Results]The scores of study factor and discipline factor were statistical different between boys of two groups.No statistical difference of other factor scores or parental rearing styles between two groups was found.[Conclusions]Early education may play a positive role in mental health of children.%[目的]探索婴幼儿期早期教育对学龄儿童行为问题的长期影响,为临床提供依据. [方法]140名正常孕妇随机分为早教组和对照组,早教组自胎儿5月至婴儿1岁期间在医生指导下实施早教训练,1~3岁期间提供家长训练手册由家长在家中训练.7岁时对两组儿童进行行为问题和父母养育方式评估. [结果]两组男童的学习因子和违纪因子得分差异存在统计学意义,早教组表现优于对照组;两组男童的其它因子得分和女童的所有因子得分差异无统计学意义.两组儿童的父母养育方式差异无统计学意义. [结论]早期教育可能对学龄儿童的心理行为产生积极影响.

  12. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of

  13. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  14. Leaching Behavior of Slags from AN Old Lead Smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico: Metals, Chlorides, Nitrates, Sulfates and Tds Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Waste materials (such as, smelter slags, waste glass, tires, plastics, rubbish, ashes, etc.), have a large potential to substitute natural materials, reducing costs, especially for the construction industry. Smelter slags are resistant and have better compression strength values in comparison to natural aggregates, and generally are far beyond of what the standard ratios need to qualify a material as a good one for construction. But this material has a big problem within it: the existence of toxic elements and compounds in high concentrations, which means that water and soil contamination can be present after water infiltrates through this material; so we perform leaching experiments to characterize and measure the possible contamination under controlled conditions. To perform the slags-leaching experiments, we used an EA-NEN-7375-2004 tank test standard from Netherlands. This test was selected because to our knowledge it is the only one which allows the use of coarse material, as the one utilized in construction. The leaching experiments sampling was performed at different times: 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours, to compare the leachate concentration at the two different pH's values (5 and 8) selected to simulate real conditions. For the leaching experiments, the slags were mixed with natural road base material (gravel-sands from volcanic rocks) at different proportions of 30% and 50%. In order to understand the slags' leaching behavior, other experiments were carried out with the pure material, for both (slags and natural aggregates). After analyses by ICP-OES , the slags from this smelter in Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%), as well such as: bicarbonates, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, Mg, K, Na, Ca and TDS. Based on the results of the leaching analyses, via atomic absorption technique, we conclude that Pb and As concentrations are provided by the slags, meanwhile, the bicarbonates, chlorides, Na and Ca are contributed by the road

  15. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  16. Keratoprosthesis: a long-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnham, J J; Roper-Hall, M J

    1983-07-01

    A keratoprosthesis (KP), is an artificial cornea which is inserted into an opacified cornea in an attempt to restore useful vision or, less commonly, to make the eye comfortable in painful keratopathy. Results o a retrospective study of 35 patients, with 55 KP insertions, are reviewed with regard to visual acuity, length of time vision is maintained, retention time, and complication. Overall there were a number of long-term real successes, eith retention of the KP and maintenance of improved vision in eyes not amenable to conventional treatment. Careful long-term follow-up was needed, with further surgical procedures often being necessary.

  17. Leaching Behavior and Mechanism of Cement Solidiifed Heavy Metal Pb in Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mingkai; WANG Caiping; CHEN Yan; CHEN Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between Pb leaching concentration and the solution’s pH with time was analyzed when cement in its solidiifed form was leached in an acid medium. The effects of the particle size of the solidified form, the cement adding method, and the hydration degree on Pb solidification were also investigated. The experimental results indicate that cement is quickly dissolved and hydrated in the acid medium, forming a C-S-H gel or silicic acid sol with good adsorption. When cement-Pb solidified form is leached in an acetate solution, the hydrated product erodes with time, so the Pb concentration increases slightly in the beginning. Then, some of the Pb ions are absorbed by the newly generated silicic acid sol, C-S-H. Others produce Pb(OH)2 precipitation for secondary solidification, leading to a gradual decrease in the Pb concentration in a leaching time of more than two hours. Moreover, the particle size of the solidiifed form has important effects on the Pb dissolution. When the amount of added cement is low, with a pH of less than 9.5, the solidiifcation affects the sequence of the original cement powder, the cement hydrated powder, and the cement-Pb solidiifed form. When the added amount of cement increases with a pH of more than 11, the effect of adding methods on solidiifcation decreases, and the solidiifed form is a little better than others.

  18. Leaching Behavior Of Mineral Processing Waste: Comparison Of Batch And Column Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid–solid ratios (LS) to determ...

  19. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL-modified IAEA method. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.

    1982-08-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test of the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu, and various stable elements were measured at 25/sup 0/ and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The purposes of the study were: (1) to compare SPCF leaching results with the results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL); (2) to establish elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition; and (3) to gain insight into the leaching mechanisms. The LLNL and PNL leach tests yielded results which appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements.

  20. Methods for estimation of long-term non-carbonate neutralisation of acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stuart D; Stewart, Warwick S; Rusdinar, Yuni; Schumann, Russell E; Ciccarelli, Joseph M; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C

    2010-04-01

    In the long-term phase of an acid rock drainage (ARD) evolution profile, after any short-term neutralisation capacity provided by carbonate minerals is exhausted, the net acid release is a product of a declining acid generation rate (AGR) and a slower, long-term acid neutralisation rate mainly provided by gangue silicate minerals. At some point, the AGR and the non-carbonate acid neutralisation rate (ANRnc) will be similar. Matching of the AGR and ANRnc near 10mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week is demonstrated in data from 10-year columns. This long-term neutralisation is not measured at present in any accepted assessment tests. Methods to estimate ANRnc, based on silicate mineralogy and solution assays from long-term column leach tests, are compared. Good agreement is demonstrated between rates measured from the solution assay data and those calculated from mineralogy using kinetic databases. More rigorous analysis of the leachate chemistry of selected long-term leach tests also suggests possible cover design criteria based on the maximum AGR that will maintain a pH>4 in leachate from ARD materials. The data show a distinct break at an AGR of 3mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week, below which no leachate pH is less than 4. The results indicate that an AGR of 10t H(2)SO(4)/ha/year is conservative and a suitable cover design target for ARD control that would be matched by ANRnc.

  1. Geochemical characterization and leaching behavior of slags: by-product materials from an old lead smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    Steel slags are stored in piles or stocks around or near the smelter site. Currently, there is an increasing interest in the use of waste materials, especially in the construction industry, to replace natural aggregates, help the environment and reduce the costs. Slags are being used widely as road ballast, road base or sub-base material, sandblasting agents or cement additives, but normally contain high concentrations of potentially toxic metals. Although these metals are associated with glass, silicate and oxide minerals, with slow solubilities in water, a characterization of the leaching behavior is essential in environmental evaluation for reuse scenarios. The state of Chihuahua is located in northern Mexico, and mining has been an important economic activity since the 18th century. In the early 1900's, a lead smelter operated in Avalos, Chihuahua (in the southern surroundings of Chihuahua city), and left considerable slag piles after their closure in the 1980's. In this study, this material has been geochemically analyzed to identify the metals contained in it, and used in "tank tests" experiments, to assess its leaching behavior. The slags from Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%) in different minerals such as hardystonite (Ca2ZnSi2O7), melanotekite (Pb2Fe3+3O2Si2O7), kentrolite (Pb2Mn2Si2O9) and sphalerite (ZnS) or trapped in the glass. Major elements are present in phases such as monticellite (CaMgSiO4), kirschsteinite (CaFe2+SiO4), hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6), babingtonite (Fe2Si3O9), magnetite (Fe3O4), and calcite (CaCO3). The leaching experiments were performed for 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours in mixtures of 30 and 50% of slags with natural road base material using distilled water at a pH 5 and 8 to recreate acidic and alkaline waters. The amounts of leached Pb ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 ppm, Zn from 0.1 to 0.6 ppm, As from 0 to 0.09 ppm, and Ca from 40 to 180 ppm, being the acidic experiments the ones that leached out the highest

  2. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  3. Nitrogen budget in agroecosystems on gray forest soils under long-term fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitishen, V. I.; Lichko, V. I.

    2008-04-01

    Long-term stationary field experiments were performed to study the efficiency of increased rates of nitrogen fertilizer in crop rotations with cereal crops, perennial grasses, clover, and plow fallow on gray forest soils. It was found that an excess of mineral nitrogen (mainly of nitrates) accumulated in the soil in the case of unbalanced nitrogen fertilization and long-term fallowing creates conditions for the development of unfavorable processes in the nitrogen cycle. Significantly increasing nitrogen losses from the agroecosystem because of leaching and denitrification constitute a depletion hazard for the soil nitrogen pool.

  4. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  5. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, se

  6. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K J; Hansen, H P; Tarnow, L

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin-a...

  7. Long Term Transfer Effect of Metaphoric Allusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David A.; Mateja, John A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the long term transfer effect of metaphoric allusion used to clarify unfamiliar subject matter. Forty-nine high school students were given unfamiliar prose materials variously augmented by metaphoric allusion. The subjects' immediate performance on a transfer task was compared to their performance on an…

  8. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  9. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  10. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  11. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  12. Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence causes long-term anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaby, L E; Cavigelli, S A; Hirrlinger, A M; Caruso, M J; Braithwaite, V A

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to stress during adolescence can cause long-term changes in behavior and cognition. Anxiety diagnoses rise during adolescence and are increased by adverse experiences. Currently, it is unknown how long stress during adolescence alters anxiety in adulthood. We found that rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence expressed altered behavior 6.5 months later; showing increased anxiety in a feeding test in a novel environment. Although behavioral changes indicative of anxiety were detected in late adulthood, the basal levels of fecal corticoid metabolites in prior-stressed rats did not differ from unstressed, control rats.

  13. Leaching behavior of enrofloxacin in three different soils and the influence of a surfactant on its mobility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyong Yu; Ayfer Yediler; Min Yang; Sigurd Schulte-Hostede

    2012-01-01

    The leaching behaviors of enrofloxacin(ENR),a fluoroquinolone group antibiotic,in three different standard soils,namely sandy,loamy sand and sandy loam were investigated according to OECD guideline 312.In addition,the effects of tenside,sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate(DBS)on the mobility of ENR in two different soils were studied.The mobility of ENR in all three standard soils was very similar and was mostly(98%)concentrated on the top 0-5 cm segment of the soils at pH 5.7.The DBS can enhance the mobility of ENR in soils but the impact was in general negligible under the studied conditions.

  14. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  15. Business Students' Choice of Short-Term or Long-Term Study Abroad Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Stacey R.; Flanagan, David J.; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of short-term study abroad opportunities. Although they are both supplementing and replacing semester-long study abroad programs, research has focused primarily on semester (long-term) programs. We draw on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore factors that predict why students choose long-term and…

  16. 镍红土矿高压酸浸过程的金属元素浸出行为%Leaching behavior of metals from limonitic laterite ore by high pressure acid leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭学益; 石文堂; 李栋; 田庆华

    2011-01-01

    以镍、钴的提取为目的,研究褐铁矿型镍红土矿高压酸浸过程中各金属元素的浸出行为,探讨硫酸加入量、浸出温度、浸出时间及液固比对各金属元素浸出率的影响.实验结果表明,在优化条件下Ni、Co、Mn和Mg的浸出率分别达到97%、96%、93%和95%以上,则Fe的浸出率小于1%.对高压浸出渣的分析表明,渣中的铁和硫主要分别以赤铁矿和明矾石的形式存在.高压浸出过程提供了一种从镍红土矿中提取镍和钴的简单有效的方法,同时产生具有利用价值的铁渣.%The leaching behavior of metals from a nickeliferous limonitic laterite ore was investigated by high pressure acid leaching process for the extraction of nickel and cobalt. The effects of sulfuric acid added, leaching temperature, leaching time and liquid/solid (L/S) ratio on metals extraction were examined. More than 97% Ni, 96% Co, 93% Mn, 95% Mg and less than 1% Fe are extracted under optimum conditions. Analysis of the high pressure acid leaching residue by chemical and XRD analysis indicates that the residual iron and sulfur are mainly present in phases of hematite and alunite, respectively. The high pressure leaching process provides a simple and efficient way for the high recovery of nickel and cobalt from laterite ore, leaving residue as a suitable iron resource.

  17. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  18. Capsosomes as Long-Term Delivery Vehicles for Protein Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, James W; Richardson, Joseph J; Chandrawati, Rona; Kempe, Kristian; van Koeverden, Martin P; Caruso, Frank

    2015-07-21

    We report the preparation of polymer capsules containing liposomal subcompartments, termed capsosomes, and their ability for the sustained delivery of protein therapeutics. Capsosomes were formed through the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polymers and protein-loaded liposomes, followed by the formation of a capsule membrane based on disulfide cross-linked poly(methacrylic acid). The loading capacities of a model cargo (lysozyme) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neurotrophin that has significant physiological functions on the nervous system, were determined, and the long-term release kinetics of the proteins was investigated in simulated physiological conditions. The capsosomes exhibited protein loading and release behavior that can be tuned by the lipid composition of the liposomal compartments, where inclusion of anionic lipids resulted in enhanced protein loading and slower release over the course of 80 days. These findings highlight the potential of capsosomes for the long-term delivery of protein therapeutics.

  19. A technique for long term continent gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, D L; Foster, J E; Craun, M L; Torma, M J

    1985-01-01

    The use of the continent gastrostomy described herein offers several advantages: 1, the elimination of an indwelling catheter; 2, prevention of soiling at skin level; 3, long term access to the normal gastrointestinal track for alimentation without fear of tube erosion; 4, little compromise to gastric volume, and 5, ease of stoma care. We recommend this operation in instances when long term tube feedings are indicated either because of damage to the central nervous system or as a palliative treatment for patients with higher obstructing gastrointestinal malignant disease. The procedure may also be useful for patients in whom esophagogastric continuity has been interrupted (surgically or traumatically) and in whom reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract would not seem feasible within a three to six month interval.

  20. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid users. METHODS: Data were obtained from the national representative Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys and The Danish National Prescription Registry. Respondents with no dispensed opioids the year before the survey were followed from 2000 and from 2005 until the end of 2012 (n = 12...... defined as those who were dispensed at least one opioid prescription in six separate months within a year. RESULTS: The incidence of L-TOT was substantially higher in CNCP patients at baseline than in others (9/1000 vs. 2/1000 person-years). Smoking behaviour and dispensed benzodiazepines were...

  1. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  2. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  3. Cutaneous oxalosis after long-term hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G; Schwartz, S T; Reginato, A J

    1992-07-01

    A 27-year-old woman undergoing long-term hemodialysis developed cutaneous calcifications on her fingers. A skin biopsy specimen showed that the deposits were calcium oxalate. To our knowledge, only one previous article has reported pathologic and crystallographic studies on calcifications of the skin resulting from dialysis oxalosis. We speculate that vitamin C supplements, liberal tea consumption, an increased serum ionized calcium concentration, and the long duration of hemodialysis contributed to the production of these deposits.

  4. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  5. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-07-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, severe and long-standing hypocalcaemia ('hungry bone syndrome') developed after parathyroidectomy. We discuss the consequences of hyperparathyroidism, especially the effects on bone, the complications of parathyroidectomy and the possibilities of preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates.

  6. Long-term behaviour of GRP pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, H; A Vieira; Reis, J; Marques, A. T.; Guedes, R.M.; Ferreira, A. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the research programme /1/ described is the study of creep and relaxation behaviour of glass-rein forced thermosetting (GRP) pipes, in order to find alternative methods to predict the long-term properties, rendering a considerable reduction of the time needed for testing and assuring, as far as possible, equivalent reliability when compared to the existing methods. Experimental procedures were performed and are presented here, together with discussion of results, as well...

  7. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  8. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  9. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL modified IAEA method. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-10-04

    A long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test was conducted on the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu and various stable elements were measured at 25 and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The SPCF leaching results were compared with results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). Elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition were established. The LLNL and PNL leach test results appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements. 23 figures, 12 tables.

  10. [Leaching behavior of Pb, Cd and Zn from soil stabilized by lime stabilized sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Song, Yun; Liu, Yong-Bing

    2014-05-01

    Stabilization of Pb, Cd and Zn spiked soil by using lime-stabilized sewage sludge( LSS) as amendment was investigated in this study, and the effectiveness was evaluated by using leaching tests ( TCLP, SPLP and de-ionized water) and modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The results of TCLP indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals in TCLP leachate reduced significantly with the increase of the mass percentage of the LSS and the leaching reduction rates were as high as 99. 54% for Zn, 99. 60% for Pb, 99. 85% for Cd at 40% of LSS addition. When evaluated by SPLP and de-ionized water leaching method, the concentrations of Zn and Pb in leachate decreased obviously at 10% and 20% of LSS additions, but subsequently increased at 30% and 40% because of redissolution of Zn and Pb at strong base condition. After pH value of LLS-stabilized soil was adjusted by ferrous sulfate and phosphoric acid for recovering soil plantation function, the pH value of the soil decreased effectively, in the meantime promoting the stabilization effectiveness of Pb and Zn. The BCR test revealed that compared with the spiked soil exchangeable proportion of Zn, Pb, Cd in the soil and the soils adjusted by ferrous sulfate obviously declined, which implied the migration for Pb, Cd and Zn of contaminated soil could be confined. This study results show that municipal LSS can be reused in the stabilization of heavy metal contaminated soils and physical and chemical properties of LLS-stabilized soil are improved for plantation.

  11. Review of long-term results of stereotactic psychosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Chan; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Choi, Chang-Rak

    2002-09-01

    Stereotactic psychosurgery is an effective method for treating some medically intractable psychiatric illnesses. However, it is unfamiliar and the long-term clinical results have not been reported in Asia. The long-term results of psychosurgery are evaluated and the neuroanatomical basis is discussed. Twenty-one patients underwent stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable psychiatric illnesses since 1993. All were referred from psychiatrists for these disorders. Two patients showed aggressive behavior, 12 had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and seven had depression with anxiety disorders. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were performed for aggressive behavior, limbic leucotomy was performed for OCD, and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was performed for depression with anxiety. OCD was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the visual analogue scale, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were used for the evaluation of aggressive behavior. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) was used for evaluation of depression. Ventriculography was used in the first seven patients and magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotaxy was used in the recent 14 cases for localization of the target. The lesions were made with a radiofrequency lesion generator. OAS scores in the two patients with aggressive behavior during follow up declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement. All 12 patients with OCD returned to their previous life and showed the mean YBOCS scores decreased from 34 to 3. Ten patients with OCD could be followed up (mean 45 months). All patients returned to their previous social life. In seven patients with depression with anxiety, HAMD scores declined from 28.5 to 16.5. There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except for one case of mild

  12. Comparative behavior of britholites and monazite/brabantite solid solutions during leaching tests: a combined experimental and DFT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilly, E; du Fou de Kerdaniel, E; Roques, J; Dacheux, N; Clavier, N

    2008-12-01

    In the field of the specific immobilization of actinides, several phosphate-based ceramics have already been proposed as suitable candidates. Among them, britholite and monazite/brabantite (now called monazite/cheralite) solid solutions have been considered as serious candidates on the basis of several properties of interest. Although both matrices appear almost similar from a chemical point of view, their chemical behavior during leaching tests appear to be strongly different with normalized dissolution rates of typically (2.1 +/- 0.2) g.m(-2).day(-1) for Th-britholites (10(-1)M HNO(3), theta = 25 degrees C, dynamic conditions) and (2.2 +/- 0.2) 10(-5) g.m(-2).day(-1) for Th-brabantites (10(-1)M HNO(3), theta = 90 degrees C, dynamic conditions). To understand such difference from a crystallographic point of view, comparative leaching tests have been performed using either high or low renewal of the leachate. The results obtained clearly revealed a lower chemical durability of An-britholites compared to that of (Ln, Ca, An)-monazite/brabantite solid solutions. As a confirmation of this point, density functional theory calculations clearly showed some great differences in the cohesive energy of calcium in both crystal structures, which can explain this strong difference in the chemical durability of both materials.

  13. Comparative Behavior of Britholites and Monazite/Brabantite Solid Solutions during Leaching Tests: A Combined Experimental and DFT Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veilly, E.; Du Fou De Kerdaniel, E.; Roques, J.; Dacheux, N.; Clavier, N. [Univ Paris Sud 11, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, CNRS, Grp Radiochim, UMR 8608, F-91406 Orsay, (France); Clavier, N. [Inst Chim Separat Marcoule, Ctr Marcoule, CEA - CNRS, UMR 5257, UM2/ENSCM, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France)

    2008-07-01

    In the field of the specific immobilization of actinides, several phosphate-based ceramics have already been proposed as suitable candidates. Among them, britholite and monazite/brabantite (now called monazite/cheralite) solid solutions have been considered as serious candidates on the basis of several properties of interest. Although both matrices appear almost similar from a chemical point of view, their chemical behavior during leaching tests appear to be strongly different with normalized dissolution rates of typically (2.1 {+-} 0.2) g.m{sup -2}.day{sup -1} for Th-britholites (10{sup -1} M HNO{sub 3}, {theta} = 25 degrees C, dynamic conditions) and (2.2 {+-} 0.2) 10{sup -5} g.m{sup -}2{sup .}day{sup -1} for Th-brabantites (10{sup -1} M HNO{sub 3}, {theta} = 90 degrees C, dynamic conditions). To understand such difference from a crystallographic point of view, comparative leaching tests have been performed using either high or low renewal of the leachate. The results obtained clearly revealed a lower chemical durability of An-britholites compared to that of (Ln, Ca, An)-monazite/brabantite solid solutions. As a confirmation of this point, density functional theory calculations clearly showed some great differences in the cohesive energy of calcium in both crystal structures, which can explain this strong difference in the chemical durability of both materials. (authors)

  14. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Talmi

    Full Text Available Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM despite an intact short-term memory (STM. The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR. This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation.

  15. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation.

  16. Long-term policy on gas composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, M.J.M.

    2012-03-13

    This letter sets out the policy of the Dutch cabinet on the long-term change to the composition of low calorific gas that is distributed via the public gas grid. The title of a separate attachment to this letter is 'The composition of low calorific gas in the more distant future and the requirements for gas appliances covered by the Gas Appliances Directive'. The attachment sets out the composition of low calorific gas as network operators can distribute it via the public gas grid from 2021 (or from a later date). This relates to the changes in the 'exit specification' of the gas.

  17. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published...... is based on a relevant indication. The concern for complications should primarily be directed at elderly, malnourished with significant co-morbidity. In this population an increased risk for enteric infections, fractures and nutritional deficiencies might have clinical consequences and should lead...

  18. Long-term space flights - personal impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V. V.

    During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

  19. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li-dars......-ters pertaining in the different calibration periods. This is supported by sliding-window analyses of one lidar at one location where the same order of variation is observed as between pre-service and post-service calibrations....

  20. Long-term effects of sibling incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daie, N; Witztum, E; Eleff, M

    1989-11-01

    Although sexual abuse of children is recognized as a serious problem, sibling incest has received relatively little attention. A distinction has been made between power-oriented sibling incest and nurturance-oriented incest. The authors review the relevant literature and present four clinical examples. The cases illustrate the broad range of sibling incest and demonstrate its effects, including the long-term consequences for the perpetrator. Lasting difficulties in establishing and maintaining close relationships, especially sexual ones, are prominent features of each case. Without denying the occurrences of benign sex-play between siblings, the authors emphasize exploitation and abuse as pathogenic aspects of sibling incest.

  1. Long Term Analysis for the BAM device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, D.; Gardiol, D.

    2011-02-01

    Algorithms aimed at the evaluation of critical quantities are based on models with many parameters, which values are estimated from data. The knowledge, with high accuracy, of these values and the control of their temporal evolution are important features. In this work, we focus on the latter subject, and we show a proposed pipeline for the BAM (Basic Angle Monitoring) Long Term Analysis, aimed at the study of the calibration parameters of the BAM device and of the Basic Angle variation, searching for unwanted trends, cyclic features, or other potential unexpected behaviours.

  2. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  3. Terminating a long-term clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R

    1981-05-01

    Long-term clinical trials often include more than one active treatment group. These may be discontinued independently if found to be ineffective or possibly harmful. Certain subgroups of patients may be discovered, in the course of a clinical trial, who do not respond satisfactorily and are, therefore, excluded during the course of a trial. Yet another kind of termination comes when we have a therapeutic breakthrough or when hope has to be abandoned for demonstrating beneficial effects for one, several, or all treatments included in a trial. Examples from the authors' experience are presented, as are successful and unsuccessful techniques in managing terminations of various types.

  4. Super long-term creep tests of advanced HP and IP rotor steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchizhik, A.A. [The Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, Department the Fatigue Life of Materials for Power Plans Equipment, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    A creep model has been developed for predicting the long-term creep behavior, in excess of 200,000 h for advanced materials.The new creep theory is based on a continuum microdamage model and is used to calculate the fields of stress and strain and wedge and cavities damage in critical components of steam and gas turbines. The application of this new model increases the reliability and service life of modern turbines. The accuracy of the model to predict long - term creep behavior, creep ductility was verified using the data bank of super long-term creep tests of advanced materials. (orig.) 12 refs.

  5. Silylation of leached-vermiculites following reaction with imidazole and copper sorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Saloana S.G.; Pereira, Mariana B.B. [Chemistry Department of Paraíba Federal University, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Almeida, Ramon K.S. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Souza, Antônio G. [Chemistry Department of Paraíba Federal University, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Fonseca, Maria G., E-mail: mgardennia@quimica.ufpb.br [Chemistry Department of Paraíba Federal University, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Jaber, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Laboratoire d' archéologie moléculaire et structurale (LAMS), Boîte courrier 225, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Silylated vermiculites reacted covalently with imidazole. • Modified vermiculites adsorbed copper from aqueous solution. • Copper retention in all solids occurred at rapid time of 80 min. • Higher organic content on the solid improved the copper adsorption. - Abstract: Organically modified vermiculites were synthesized by previous silylation of three leached vermiculites, V0.3Cl, V0.5Cl and V0.8Cl, under anhydrous conditions following reaction with imidazole (Im), which acted as chelating agent for copper retention. Elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C NMR and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were used to characterize pristine, leached and organofunctionalized solids. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to evaluate the surface after copper sorption. Parameters such as contact time, pH and initial cation concentration for the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted using the Langmuir isotherm model and the monolayer adsorption capacities were 2.38, 2.52 and 2.69 mmol g{sup −1} for V0.5Cl-Im, V0.3Cl-Im and V0.8Cl-Im, respectively, at pH 6.0 and 298 K for a time reaction of 80 min. The sorption rates were described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The chloropropyl imidazole vermiculites are promising adsorbents for the rapid removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution.

  6. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by 15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  7. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight.

  8. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  9. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  10. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  11. Climate Predictability and Long Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Liu, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The benefit of climate Long Term Memory (LTM) for long term prediction is assessed using data from a millennium control simulation with the atmosphere ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPIOM. The forecast skills are evaluated for surface temperature time series at individual grid points. LTM is characterised by the Hurst exponent in the power-law scaling of the fluctuation function which is determined by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). LTM with a Hurst exponent close to 0.9 occurs mainly in high latitude oceans, which are also characterized by high potential predictability. Climate predictability is diagnosed in terms of potentially predictable variance fractions. Explicit prediction experiments for various time steps are conducted on a grid point basis using an auto-correlation (AR1) predictor: in regions with LTM, prediction skills are beyond that expected from red noise persistence; exceptions occur in some areas in the southern oceans and over the northern hemisphere continents. Extending the predictability analysis to the fully forced simulation shows large improvement in prediction skills.

  12. Long-term Caspian Sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Pekker, T.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.; Kostianoy, A. G.; Cretaux, J.-F.; Safarov, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    Caspian Sea level (CSL) has undergone substantial fluctuations during the past several hundred years. The causes over the entire historical period are uncertain, but we investigate here large changes seen in the past several decades. We use climate model-predicted precipitation (P), evaporation (E), and observed river runoff (R) to reconstruct long-term CSL changes for 1979-2015 and show that PER (P-E + R) flux predictions agree very well with observed CSL changes. The observed rapid CSL increase (about 12.74 cm/yr) and significant drop ( -6.72 cm/yr) during the periods 1979-1995 and 1996-2015 are well accounted for by integrated PER flux predictions of +12.38 and -6.79 cm/yr, respectively. We show that increased evaporation rates over the Caspian Sea play a dominant role in reversing the increasing trend in CSL during the past 37 years. The current long-term decline in CSL is expected to continue into the foreseeable future, under global warming scenarios.

  13. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP.

  14. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  15. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  16. Long term (since the late palaeogene) tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Lesser Antilles fore-arc at Marie-Galante Basin: a clue for geodynamical behavior at the subduction interfac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Frederic, L.; DeMin, L.; Garrigou, J.; Münch, P.; Léticée, J. L.; Cornée, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Oblique subduction of late cretaceous lithosphere of the Atlantic ocean beneath the thick (25km) crust of the Caribbean plate results in widespread deformation and vertical motions in the Lesser Antilles fore-arc. The present-day deformation includes a major transtensive left lateral fault system along the arc and several forearc transverse basins accommodating lengthening of the fore-arc northward. These deformations result from plate motion partitioning under increasing subduction obliquity from the Marie-Galante Basin (MGB) latitude (central Lesser Antilles) northward. Vertical motions in the fore-arc at a regional scale were interpreted as resulting from the effect of subducting ridges and reliefs. The present day uplift of the fore-arc islands acting since the late(?) Pleistocene is believed to attest for long wavelength bending of the plate under strongly coupled plate interface. Recent GPS data suggests a mostly uncoupled plate interface. To decipher between the models and to understand the long-term evolution of the Lesser Antilles forearc since the Late Palaeogene, we interpret high-resolution bathymetric and seismic data from the MGB, together with the onland geology of shallow water carbonate platforms. The tectonic pattern reveals both inherited and late Neogene structures (re)activated under multidirectional extensive tectonic. The sismo-stratigraphic interpretation of sedimentary deposit displays long-term drowning and flexing of the upper plate similar to that occurring under intensive tectonic erosion at the subduction interface. Several short term period of second order uplift can correlate with sweeping of subducting ridges or transient events at the plate interface. The evolution of the Lesser Antilles fore-arc since the Late Palaeogene is interpreted within the regional geodynamical evolution of the plate boundary following its last major reorganization: collision of the Bahamas Bank and inception of the Greater Antilles strike-slip fault zone.

  17. Long-term reliability of the visual EEG Poffenberger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan

    2017-07-14

    The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term effects of synthetic fibers on concrete pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi Gozarchi, Sasan

    The studies undertaken by this research were to evaluate the long-term performance and durability of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The target long-term performance is for 9000 hours. Two sets of pipes 8 ft. (2400 mm) long with inside diameters of 24 in. (600 mm) and 36 in. (1200 mm) were manufactured, with a wall thickness of 3 and 4 in., respectively. The pipes were produced based on ASTM C76, for a Class III type with a Wall B. The two set of pipes included RCP's (as control) and SYN-FRCP's. The SYN-FRCP's had several fiber dosages ranging from 6 lb/yd3 (3.5 kg/m 3) to 12 lb/yd3 (7.0 kg/m3) in order to evaluate the long-term performance of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The pipes were pre-cracked until the first visible crack was observed in the three-edge bearing test. As a result, the sustained load simulated, was calculated from the Peak D-load observed; and also the appropriate fiber dosages required for the 24. in (600 mm) and 36 in. (900 mm) pipes were obtained. Three of the 24 in. and three of the 36 in. pipes were installed in 7 ft. (2100 mm) and 8 ft. (2400 mm) wide trenches with 16 ft. (4800 mm) and 18 ft. (5500 mm) of cover respectively. The pipe was initially backfilled with native soil up to 2 ft. (600 mm) and 4 ft. (1200 mm) over the top of the pipe then backfilled again with pea-gravel weighing 100 lb/ft3, to a height of 14ft. to simulate the sustained loading. A type two installation was used during the development of the test setup. Once the long-term test set up was complete, the data was immediately recorded, and vertical deflections were observed from the time-dependent behavior of the pipes. It was observed from results obtained from the three-edge bearing test, that synthetic fibers improve the mechanical properties of concrete pipes, in dry-cast manufacturing. Also, it was observed from the time-dependent deformation, that there was no significant deformation of SYN-FRCP, while the shear capacity was enhanced. Based

  19. Long-term academic stress enhances early processing of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Yao, Zhuxi; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to long-term stress can lead to a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. Although widely investigated, the neural basis of how long-term stress impacts emotional processing in humans remains largely elusive. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effects of long-term stress on the neural dynamics of emotionally facial expression processing. Thirty-nine male college students undergoing preparation for a major examination and twenty-one matched controls performed a gender discrimination task for faces displaying angry, happy, and neutral expressions. The results of the Perceived Stress Scale showed that participants in the stress group perceived higher levels of long-term stress relative to the control group. ERP analyses revealed differential effects of long-term stress on two early stages of facial expression processing: 1) long-term stress generally augmented posterior P1 amplitudes to facial stimuli irrespective of expression valence, suggesting that stress can increase sensitization to visual inputs in general, and 2) long-term stress selectively augmented fronto-central P2 amplitudes for angry but not for neutral or positive facial expressions, suggesting that stress may lead to increased attentional prioritization to processing negative emotional stimuli. Together, our findings suggest that long-term stress has profound impacts on the early stages of facial expression processing, with an increase at the very early stage of general information inputs and a subsequent attentional bias toward processing emotionally negative stimuli.

  20. [Femoral angioplasty. Long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, H; Carlier, C; Baudrillard, J C; Joffre, F; Cécile, J P

    1990-01-01

    A study on the long-term efficacy of femoral-popliteal angioplasty was carried out on 185 angioplasty cases over a 5 year follow-up period. A classification of data according to the type of lesion treated, revealed that results were favorable in case of stenosis (87%), short obstruction (70%) and long obstruction (35%). A special study of the outcome of treatments for stage IV arteritis was carried out. After comparing results with those obtained by other teams, the authors list the complications encountered, hematomas, and thromboses, and show their current tendency for regression. Lastly, the authors stress the advantages of angioscopy, which permits to identify the nature of the treated lesions and to predict possible complications, which are usually underrated by angiography.

  1. Technology for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

    2010-01-01

    Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices.

  2. Long-Term Stability of Horseshoe Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Ćuk, Matija; Holman, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Unlike Trojans, horseshoe coorbitals are not generally considered to be long-term stable (Dermott and Murray, 1981; Murray and Dermott, 1999). As the lifetime of Earth's and Venus's horseshoe coorbitals is expected to be about a Gyr, we investigated the possible contribution of late-escaping inner planet coorbitals to the lunar Late Heavy Bombardment. Contrary to analytical estimates, we do not find many horseshoe objects escaping after first 100 Myr. In order to understand this behaviour, we ran a second set of simulations featuring idealized planets on circular orbits with a range of masses. We find that horseshoe coorbitals are generally long lived (and potentially stable) for systems with primary-to-secondary mass ratios larger than about 1200. This is consistent with results of Laughlin and Chambers (2002) for equal-mass pairs or coorbital planets and the instability of Jupiter's horseshoe companions (Stacey and Connors, 2008). Horseshoe orbits at smaller mass ratios are unstable because they must approa...

  3. [Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique.

  4. Long-term variations of solar activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram we analyzed two sunspot series: the one over the past 11000 years at the 10-year interval based upon the survey data of 14C concentration in tree-rings, reconstructed by Solanki et al.; and the sunspot number over the past 7000 years, derived from geomagnetic variations by Usoskin et al. We found the periods and quasi-periods in solar activity, such as about 225, 352, 441, 522 and 561 a, and near 1000 and 2000 a. An approach of wavelet transform was applied to check the two sunspot time series, with emphasis on investigating time-varying characteristics in the long-term fluctuations of solar activity. The results show that the lengths and amplitudes of the periods have changed with time, and large variations have taken place during some periods.

  5. Autobiographical reasoning in long-term fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lee Harrington

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the social psychological processes through which fan-based experiences become situated in fans' larger life narratives. Drawing on original survey data with long-term U.S. soap opera fans, we examine how the psychological mechanism of autobiographical reasoning functions in fans' construction of self-narratives over time. The case study presented here is a subset of a larger investigation into the age-related structure of fans' activities, identities, and interpretive capacities. Situated at the intersections of gerontological (life span/life course theory and contemporary fan studies, our project mines relatively uninvestigated theoretical terrain. We conclude with a brief discussion of implications for future fan studies.

  6. Brodie's abscess. A long-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, M M; MacAuley, P

    1988-09-01

    In 20 patients with 21 Brodie's abscesses, a long-term review revealed that 13 occurred in the second decade of life. All had local symptoms for six weeks or more. The tibia was involved in 11 cases and seven of these were in the proximal metaphysis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in only six cases. When the ESR was more than 40 mm per hour, recurrence was more likely. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 11 abscesses. Curettage and antibiotics for six weeks were adequate for treatment in most cases. However, lesions larger than 3 cm in diameter should be grafted, and patients with an elevated ESR require more aggressive decompression and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Lesions within the neck of the femur pose particular anatomic problems and should not be approached laterally. All cases were followed to full bone maturity. No significant leg length inequality was clinically or roentgenologically apparent. If an abscess was juxtaphyseal, deformity of the epiphysis could develop.

  7. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  8. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folmer Robert L

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic. All patients were then evaluated and treated within a comprehensive tinnitus management program. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the same 300 patients 6 to 36 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. Results One hundred ninety patients (133 males, 57 females; mean age 57 years returned follow-up questionnaires 6 to 36 months (mean = 22 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. This group of patients exhibited significant long-term reductions in self-rated tinnitus loudness, Tinnitus Severity Index scores, tinnitus-related anxiety and prevalence of current depression. Patients who improved their sleep patterns or Beck Depression Inventory scores exhibited greater reductions of tinnitus severity scores than patients who continued to experience insomnia and depression at follow-up. Conclusions Individualized tinnitus management programs that were designed for each patient contributed to overall reductions in tinnitus severity exhibited on follow-up questionnaires. Identification and treatment of patients experiencing anxiety, insomnia or depression are vital components of an effective tinnitus management program. Utilization of acoustic therapy also contributed to improvements exhibited by these patients.

  9. Long term results of pneumatic retinopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellakwa AF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amin F EllakwaMenoufiya University, Shibin el Kom, Al-Menoufiya, EgyptBackground: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a commonly encountered retinal problem where rapid treatment can prevent irreversible vision loss. Pneumatic retinopexy (PR is a simple, minimally invasive procedure for retinal reattachment.Purpose: This study aimed to assess the long-term anatomical and functional outcome of pneumatic retinopexy in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.Patients and methods: A prospective interventional study was performed. Subjects with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pneumatic retinopexy from May 2006 to May 2007 at Menoufiya University Hospital were included in this study with at least 3 years follow-up.Results: A total of 40 cases were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 44.25 ± 10.85 years. Reattachment of the retina was achieved in 100% of cases. In 75% of cases, the primary intervention was successful. However, the retina redetached in 20% of these during the first 6 months, requiring reinjection or another procedure. Three years after the first intervention, follow-up measurement of the mean visual acuity of the eyes without reoperation was 0.40 ± 0.21 while the mean visual acuity of the eyes which needed additional operations was 0.22 ± 0.13.Conclusion: Sixty percent of the cases obtained long-term retinal reattachment with a single operation success (SOS, with good visual recovery and less morbidity than other more invasive procedures like scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy, translating to higher productivity for the patient. This procedure, being quicker than the alternatives, also saves the surgeon's time, making PR a good choice for managing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in developing countries.Keywords: pneumatic, retinopexy, rhegmatogenous, retinal detachment

  10. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  11. Leaching behavior of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from the fly ash and bottom ash of a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The leaching behavior of dioxins from landfill containing bottom ash and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration has been investigated by leaching tests with pure water, non-ionic surfactant solutions, ethanol solutions, or acetic acid solutions as elution solvents for a large-scale cylindrical column packed with ash. Larger amounts of dioxins were eluted from both bottom ash and fly ash with ethanol solution and acetic acid solution than with pure water. Large quantities of dioxins were leached from fly ash but not bottom ash by non-ionic surfactant solutions. The patterns of distribution of the dioxin congeners in the leachates were very similar to those in the bottom ash or fly ash from which they were derived.

  12. Geochemical modeling of leaching from MSVI air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an improved understanding of the leaching behavior of waste incineration air-pollution-control (APC) residues in a long-term perspective. Leaching was investigated by a series of batch experiments reflecting leaching conditions after initial washout of highly soluble salts from...... residues. Leaching experiments were performed at a range of pH-values using carbonated and noncarbonated versions of two APC residues. The leaching data were evaluated by geochemical speciation modeling and discussed with respect to possible solubility control. The leaching of major elements as well...... of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Pb, S, Si, V, and Zn was found influenced by solubility control from Al2O3, Al(OH)3, Ba(S,Cr)O4 solid solutions, BaSO4, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12â26H2O, CaAl2Si4O12â2H2O, Ca-(OH)2, CaSiO3, CaSO4â2H2O, CaZn2(OH)6â2H2O, KAlSi2O6, PbCO3, PbCrO4, Pb2O3, Pb2V2O7, Pb3(VO4)2, ZnO, Zn2SiO4, and Zn...

  13. Stabilizing cadmium into aluminate and ferrite structures: Effectiveness and leaching behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Minhua; Shih, Kaimin; Kong, Lingjun

    2017-02-01

    The inappropriate disposal of sludge, particularly for those enriched in heavy metals, is highly hazardous to the environment. Thermally converting sludge into useful products is a highly promising technique as heavy metals are immobilized and organic substances are mineralized. This work investigated the feasibility of stabilizing simulated cadmium-laden sludge by sintering with Al-and Fe-rich precursors. To simulate the process, cadmium oxide was alternatively mixed and sintered with γ-Al2O3 and α-Fe2O3. Cadmium was crystallographically incorporated into aluminate (CdAl4O7) monoclinic structure and ferrite (CdFe2O4) spinel, dependent on the type of precursor used. The CdFe2O4 formation was initialed at about 150-300 °C lower than that of CdAl4O7. With Rietveld refinement analysis of the collated XRD data, the weight percentages of crystalline phases in the fired samples were quantified. To evaluate the cadmium incorporation efficiency, a transformation ratio (TR) index was devised. The TR values revealed that, to effectively incorporate cadmium, 950 °C was favored by γ-Al2O3 and 850 °C was for α-Fe2O3 within a 3-h sintering treatment. Constant pH leaching test (CPLT) was used to assess the metal stabilization effects, revealing a remarkable reduction of cadmium by transformation into CdAl4O7 and CdFe2O4. Both CdAl4O7 and CdFe2O4 were incongruently dissolved in an acid solution. The overall finding indicated a potentially feasible technology in cadmium-laden sludge stabilization.

  14. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  15. Long term hypolipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long term hypolipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of Carica papaya Linn. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... This study was designed to assess the long term (24 weeks) effects of daily oral ...

  16. Seasonal And Long Term Rainfall Trends In Calabar, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal And Long Term Rainfall Trends In Calabar, Nigeria. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Both seasonal and long term trends of rain fall in Calabar between 1985 and 2003 have been examined.

  17. Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The results were reflected in the students' short-term and long-term memory retention.

  18. IPO-related organizational change and long-term performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, J.H. von; Witte, M.C. de; Zwaan, A.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    Mainstream literature on long-term performance of initial public offerings focuses on long-term underperformance. Because underperformance is an anomalous phenomenon, many authors search for explanations based on financial market imperfections. More recently, however, the attention shifts from

  19. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  20. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.