WorldWideScience

Sample records for long-term leaching behavior

  1. Long-term leaching behavior of vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Sonobe, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Noriaki; Kashihara, Hidechiyo

    1985-01-01

    A long-term Soxhlet leaching test, long-term static leaching test, solubility evaluation test and actual-scale glass solid leaching test were carried out for simulated vitrified wastes. Under high flow-rate leachate conditions, the leaching of high-solubility substances such as B and Na increases almost linearly with time while that of Fe, Ni and rare earth metals strongly depends on their solubility. The overall leaching rate changes (tends to decrease) with time under static conditions. The elution or diffusion is the rate determining step in the earlier region of the leaching process while the solubilities of major components have greater effects in the latter region. The change of the dominant leaching mechanism is delayed more largely as the surface-area to leachate-volume (SA/V) ratio decreases. Actual-scale glass specimens showed almost the same leaching behaviors as small-scale ones. If cracks exist in glass solid, the leaching in them is slow causing little effects on the overall leaching rate. This may be due to the fact that solubility-dependent leaching is occuring in the cracks. The long-term static leaching observations were not satisfactorily explained by the MCC-3 type solubility test results. It is important to clarify the solubility-dependent leaching behaviors at large SA/V ratios. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Long-term leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant waste glass: Part 1, MCC-1 leachability results, four-year leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Stone, J.A.; Chandler, G.T.; Williams, S.

    1986-08-01

    Long-term leaching data were obtained on SRP 131/TDS waste glass using MCC-1 or slightly modified MCC-1 standard leaching tests. Experiments were conducted out to four years at 40 0 C and 3-1/2 years at 90 0 C. These experiments have produced the longest standardized leaching data currently available in the waste management community. Long-term leaching data provide important input to modeling of waste glass behavior and ultimate prediction of waste glass performance. In this study, the leaching behavior of SRP waste glass was found to be excellent; leachates based on a variety of elements were not only very low, but also improved with increasing time. In addition to these data, results are also reported from another independent Savannah River study. Leaching behavior at 40 0 C and 90 0 C was assessed not only for a similar SRP 131 waste glass composition, but also for extreme waste glass compositions involving high-iron and high-aluminum waste. In addition, these experiments were performed using not only a standard deionized water leachant, but also simplified brine and silicate groundwater simulations. These two large data bases will be summarized and correlated along with some of the more interesting results recently reported in another study, a two-year leaching program performed on a similar SRP waste glass composition at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories

  3. Long-term elevated temperature leaching of solid waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.; Levine, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term soxhlet leaching of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials was initiated to elucidate leaching behavior of complex wasteforms. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20 month period. Maxima and minima were observed in the leaching rates of all components studied with the minima coinciding. The data suggested several mechanistic features which are described, but they did not conform with reported simple leaching mechanisms

  4. Natural analogue study of long-term leaching behavior of vitrification glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Takashi; Yusa, Yasuhisa; Kamei; Gento

    1990-01-01

    In the research on the formation disposal of high level radioactive wastes, the evaluation of the leaching behavior of vitrification glass over ultralong term is one of the important themes. Therefore, the research on the phenomena of quality change in natural environment of volcanic glass, of which the chemical composition resembles well, was carried out (natural analogue study). Among the pyroclastic fall deposit in Fuji and Izu Oshima Volcanoes, the examples of the weathering change of quality of basaltic glass over several hundreds-several thousands years were selected, and on the spot survey, the analysis of groundwater, SEM observation, EPMA and so on were carried out. As the results, the following facts were found. According to the review of the literatures on ancient climate, the atmospheric temperature and precipitation in the past 3000 years were regarded as nearly the same as now. The products from the quality change were similar to the case of laboratory leaching experiment on vitrification glass. The measured ion concentration in groundwater agreed with the calculated values. (K.I.)

  5. Evaluation of long-term behavior of concretes in high level waste repositories. An accelerated leaching test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes an accelerated leaching method that with a rapid process allows to develop and evaluate cements for use in a nuclear disposal, and the understanding of the long term effects. The method has been developed to study the stability of cementitious materials in contact with bentonite, to be used in high level radioactivity waste repositories. Nitric acid has been selected to simulate in an accelerated way the pH decreasing produced when concrete is in contact with groundwaters.

    El presente trabajo describe un ensayo acelerado de lixiviación, que mediante un proceso rápido, permite desarrollar y evaluar cementos para su uso en instalaciones nucleares, y la comprensión de su comportamiento a largo plazo. El método se ha desarrollado para estudiar la estabilidad de materiales de base cemento, en contacto con bentonita, que serán utilizados en almacenamientos de resíduos radiactivos de alta actividad. Como agente lixiviante se seleccionó el ácido nítrico, con objeto de simular de forma acelerada, la disminución del pH que se produce cuando el hormigón entra en contacto con aguas subterráneas.

  6. Evaluation of long term leaching of borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.; Parnisari, E.

    1978-01-01

    For the evaluation of long term hazard of glass, data on long term glass leaching are needed. Moreover for long term leaching a model of homogeneous dissolution seems reasonable and ask for confirmation. Tests were performed at 30 0 , 80 0 , 100 0 , using an apparatus of the Soxhlet type, to 3.600 hours. Results were obtained as a weight loss and analysed following a relation with time composed by a parabolic and a linear part. Analysis of the surface layer using energy dispersion X ray spectrometry were performed. A critical analysis of the results and of the apparatus is presented

  7. Renewal of corrosion progress after long-term leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, I.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past 18 years a large inventory of glasses which have undergone leach testing has been built up at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America. These glasses include a very wide range of compositions, most from actual mixed wastes and many natural analogs. A variety in the test protocol have been used, including PCT, ANSI, TCLP, IAEA, Flow, Soxhlet, MCC1, MCC3, and DIN. Many of these tests have been conducted for over a decade and are still ongoing. The progress of the tests is monitored by periodic sampling with fluid replacement. Twenty different leachants (including groundwaters, humic acid and pH buffers) have been employed. Occasionally, some of the glass is removed from the leaching vessels to observe the altered layers forming on the glass and to identify reaction products. Slight variations in the composition of the glass, subjected to PCT leaching, exhibit widely differing leaching behaviors. The evolution of leachate composition over time often shows a basically stable leach rate followed by a dramatic increase, with times of onset varying considerably, primarily as a function of glass composition. The same rapid rise in leachate has also been observe for a given glass composition studied at different S/V ratio. The study of such non-linearity in glass leaching is the subject of this review. (author)

  8. Solid State Characterizations of Long-Term Leached Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Parker, Kent E.; Miller, Brian W.; Lee, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Washton, Nancy M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lawter, Amanda R.; McElroy, Erin M.; Serne, R Jeffrey

    2016-09-30

    This report describes the results from the solid phase characterization of six Cast Stone monoliths from the extended leach tests recently reported on (Serne et al. 2016),that were selected for characterization using multiple state-of-the-art approaches. The Cast Stone samples investigated were leached for > 590 d in the EPA Method 1315 test then archived for > 390 d in their final leachate. After reporting the long term leach behavior of the monoliths (containing radioactive 99Tc and stable 127I spikes and for original Westsik et al. 2013 fabricated monoliths, 238U), it was suggested that physical changes to the waste forms and a depleting inventory of contaminants of potential concern may mean that effective diffusivity calculations past 63 d should not be used to accurately represent long-term waste form behavior. These novel investigations, in both length of leaching time and application of solid state techniques, provide an initial arsenal of techniques which can be utilized to perform such Cast Stone solid phase characterization work, which in turn can support upcoming performance assessment maintenance. The work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to characterize several properties of the long- term leached Cast Stone monolith samples.

  9. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and Pu released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution

  10. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and plutonium released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution. 5 figures, 3 tables

  11. The long-term stability of cement - Leaching tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engkvist, I.; Albinsson, Y.; Johansson Engkvist, W.

    1996-06-01

    The concrete construction in the Swedish repository for long-lived low and intermediate level waste will give a stable chemical near field environment for 10 5 years. The pH is expected to exceed 12 for the life time for most of the radionuclides in the repository in both saline and non-saline groundwaters. This is shown by static leaching experiments performed in saline and non-saline granitic groundwater conditions. Five gram portions of crushed ordinary Portland cement paste were equilibrated with 20 ml of synthetic saline or non-saline groundwater in a nitrogen atmosphere. Each week 12 ml (60%) of the water was replaced. The withdrawn water was used for chemical analyses and the results were used to monitor the degradation of the cement paste. After eighty weeks, some samples were analysed for mineral composition and compared with the original unleached paste. The results indicated no secondary ettringite or calcite formation. The results also supported the conclusion that the salinity of the contacting water is of minor importance for the long-term performance of the cement paste. 18 refs, 32 figs

  12. Long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control residues: Leaching characterization and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column percolat......Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column...... percolation experiments; liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios of 200-250 L/kg corresponding to more than 10,000 years in a conventional landfill were reached. Less than 2% of the initially present As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Sb had leached during the Course of the experiments. Concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mg, Hg, Mn, Ni, Co......, Sn, Ti, and P were generally bellow 1 mu g/L; overall less than 1% of their mass leached. Column leaching data were further used in a two-step geochemical modeling in PHREEQC in order to (i) identify solubility controlling minerals and (ii) evaluate their interactions in a water-percolated column...

  13. Long term creep behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an experimental investigation to evaluate the long term creep behavior of concrete subjected to sustained uniaxial loads for an extended period of time at 75 0 F. The factors investigated were (1) curing time (90, 183, and 365 days); (2) curing history (as-cast and air-dried); and (3) uniaxial stress (600 and 2400 psi). The experimental investigation applied uniaxial compressive loads to cylindrical concrete specimens and measured strains with vibrating wire strain gages that were cast in the concrete specimen along the axial and radial axes. Specimens cured for 90 days prior to loading were subjected to a sustained load for a period of one year, at which time the loads were removed; the specimens which were cured for 183 or 365 days, however, were not unloaded and have been under load for 5 and 4.5 years, respectively. The effect of each of the above factors on the instantaneous and creep behavior is discussed and the long term creep behavior of the specimens cured for 183 or 365 days is evaluated. The findings of these evaluations are summarized. (17 figures, 10 tables) (U.S.)

  14. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields – Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbom, Annette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K.; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. - Highlights: • Field-results reveal shortcomings in the EU authorization procedure for pesticides. • The plough layer can be bypassed via preferential transport in e.g. wormholes. • Pesticides properties are decisive for leaching pattern on the sandy fields. • The hydrogeological settings control the leaching patterns on the loamy fields. • Pesticide detection frequency seems to be independent of the month of the year. - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveals shortcomings in the European Union authorization procedure for pesticides

  16. Assessment of long-term leaching from waste incineration air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Mosbæk, Hans; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control (APC) residues is discussed with respect to use in environmental impact assessment, such as life-cycle assessment (LCA). A method was proposed for estimating leaching as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in a long......-term perspective (L/S 5000l/kg). Data for changes in residue pH as a function of L/S was used in combination with pH dependent leaching data to predict leachate concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Ba, Mg, Ni, Pb, S, Pb, V and Zn as a function of L/S. Mass balance calculations were used to determine the element fractions...... leached with respect to L/S. The estimated long-term leaching from a semi-dry residue and a fly ash was compared with short-term leaching determined by batch tests at L/S 10l/kg, both carbonated and non-carbonated versions of the residues were investigated. Generally, very high L/S ratios above 2000l...

  17. Long term leaching of chlorinated solvents from source zones in low permeability settings with fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Troldborg, Mads

    2008-01-01

    spreads to the low permeability matrix by diffusion. This results in a long term source of contamination due to back-diffusion. Leaching from such sources is further complicated by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions to sequentially form the daughter products trichloroethylene, cis...

  18. Ability of the MACRO Model to Predict Long-Term Leaching of Metribuzin and Diketometribuzin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Kjær, Jeanne; Henriksen, Trine

    2009-01-01

    In a regulatory context, numerical models are increasingly employed to quantify leaching of pesticides and their metabolites. Although the ability of these models to accurately simulate leaching of pesticides has been evaluated, little is known about their ability to accurately simulate long...... alternative kinetics (a two-site approach), we captured the observed leaching scenario, thus underlining the necessity of accounting for the long-term sorption and dissipation characteristics when using models to predict the risk of groundwater contamination.......-term leaching of metabolites. A Danish study on the dissipation and sorption of metribuzin, involving both monitoring and batch experiments, concluded that desorption and degradation of metribuzin and leaching of its primary metabolite diketometribuzin continued for 5-6 years after application, posing a risk...

  19. Modelling the Long Term Leaching Behaviour of 137CS from Different Stabilized Waste Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kamash, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaching characteristics of ''1''3''7Cs from immobilized waste matrices in different cement-based grouts have been assessed to investigate the influence of the additives on the leaching behavior of the solid waste matrices. The International Atomic Energy's Agency (IAEA) standard leach method has been employed to study the leach pattern of 137 Cs radionuclide from the immobilized waste form. The examination of the leaching data revealed that clay additives reduces the leach rate for the studied radionuclide. The controlling leaching mechanism has been studied and the transport parameters were calculated for all studied waste matrices. Simplified analytical models have been derived to predict the Cumulative Leach Fraction (CLF) of radionuclides over the studied experimental period. These simplified research models could be used as a screening tool to assess the performance of the waste matrix under repository conditions. (author)

  20. Long-term leach testing of solidified radioactive waste forms (International Standard Publication ISO 6961:1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Processes are developed for the immobilization of radionuclides by solidification of radioactive wastes. The resulting solidification products are characterized by strong resistance to leaching aimed at low release rates of the radionuclides to the environment. To measure this resistance to leaching of the solidified materials: glass, glass-ceramics, bitumen, cement, concrete, plastics, a long-term leach test is presented. The long-term leach test is aimed at: a) the comparison of different kinds or compositions of solidified waste forms; b) the intercomparison between leach test results from different laboratories on one product; c) the intercomparison between leach test results on products from different processes

  1. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products...

  2. Long-term leaching of nutrients and contaminants from wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Hyks, J.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    With increasing amounts of woody biomass being combusted for energy purposes worldwide, more wood ash is being generated and needs management. As an alternative to landfilling, residues may be utilised for liming and fertilising purposes on forest soils. Comprehensive evaluations of long-term lea......With increasing amounts of woody biomass being combusted for energy purposes worldwide, more wood ash is being generated and needs management. As an alternative to landfilling, residues may be utilised for liming and fertilising purposes on forest soils. Comprehensive evaluations of long......-term leaching from these residues are needed in order to assess potential environmental impacts associated with their utilisation. Two Danish wood ash samples, one fly ash and one mixed ash (a combination of fly ash and bottom ash), were evaluated in long-term percolation column tests (up to L/S ∼2000 L....../kg), in order to quantify the release of major, minor and trace metal(loid)s. While columns of three different lengths were used, the leaching of individual elements could be described as a function of the L/S ratio – irrespective of the column length. At L/S 1000 L/kg, the cumulative releases of K, S, Na, Ca...

  3. Processing, microstructure, leaching, and long-term stability studies related to titanate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Headley, T.J.; Northrup, C.J.; Hlava, P.F.

    1983-05-01

    A process leading to titanate-based waste forms for commercial high-level nuclear waste is described. Radionuclides are fixed on hydrous calcium titanate by ion exchange/sorption reactions and the material is converted to a dense, ceramic form by hot pressing. Transmission electron microscopy-electron microprobe characterization was done to determine the effects of compositional changes and process variations on microstructure. Leaching studies in the range of 22 to 150 0 C and pH 2 to 12 were done to assess the effects of the same variables on leaching behavior. Samples of a reference borosilicate glass waste form were leached under the same conditions to provide a direct comparison between the two waste forms. Lead-ion implantation was used to simulate long-term α-recoil damage in the crystalline titanate phases. Comparison of α-recoil damage in natural minerals with damage induced in synthesized samples of the same mineral suggest that Pb-ion implantation is a valid technique for simulating α-recoil effects. All the titanate phases sustained significant lattice damage at equivalent α-doses of 1 x 10 19 /cm 3 ; however, Rutherford backscattering and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the damage did not result in significant matrix dissolution in these leaching tests

  4. Long-term release from high level waste glass. Part IV. The effect of leaching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freude, E.; Grambow, B.; Lutze, W.; Rabe, H.; Ewing, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A linear time dependence for the corrosion under near saturation conditions is considered, and a rate equation in the QTERM code is used to model the long-term behavior of the German glass, C-31-3EC, JSS A, and SRL TDS 131. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Long-term behavior of nuclear glass: the r(t) operational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribet, I.; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Vernaz, E.; Chaix, P.; Do Quang, R.

    2001-01-01

    Predicting the long-term behavior of vitrified waste packages requires the development of models incorporating knowledge of the aqueous alteration mechanisms of nuclear glass. The r(t) model allows for the formation of a protective gel layer during leaching, and is thus able to account for the major drops in the glass alteration rate that are observed experimentally. This article describes the model hypotheses, the methodology implemented to determine its three internal parameters, and the results obtained from about fifty leaching experiments performed under various conditions. The orders of magnitude of the internal parameter values are indicated according to the alteration conditions. (author)

  6. Simulation of long-term dynamic behavior of runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yulei; Liu Jian; Zhang Ruili; He Yang

    2015-01-01

    The secular dynamics of runaway electrons in Tokamak electromagnetic field is studied. The radiation effect is added into a relativistic volume-preserving algorithm to gain long-term stability of calculation. The results shows that the method we used is able to reveal the behavior of a runaway electron in configuration space. (author)

  7. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2002-03-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays a essential role for their long-term behavior. For elucidating long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) observation of joint surfaces of granite and Fourier analysis, 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, 3) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by LSM under uniaxial compression, and 4) a viscoelastic homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. Rock image processing and analysis become a fundamental procedure to determine rock surface discontinuities. But the complexity of rock surface discontinuities seems beyond the manual image processing method. In Chapter 2 a Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope that can acquire three-dimensional images is introduced to observe the rock roughness of a discontinuity. Then, scanning three-dimensional images are changed its data form in order to adapt various image analysis programs, and granitic rock roughness of discontinuities are displayed by graphic images. For example, these datas are analyzed by Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) program and Inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation (IDFT) program. Microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock. In Chapter 3 a progressive development of cracking in granite is revealed by using stereoscopic microscope under triaxial compression condition and by using LSM under uniaxial compression condition. With a viscoelastic theory applied in homogenization method, we can calculate macro behavior of medium influenced by its micro structure by analyse the long-term time-dependent behavior of granite under the same condition to the relaxation experiment. (author)

  8. On the very long term delayed behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrenti, J.M.; Benboudjema, F.; Barre, F.; Gallitre, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of very long-term deformation of prestressed concrete structures is a major challenge considering the service life of these structures. It is therefore necessary to correctly model the delayed behavior of these structures. Using a review of laboratory tests and observations of the delayed behavior of structures (bridges and nuclear power plants), the main conclusions of this work are the following ones. First, very long term creep in laboratory or of real structures seems to be non asymptotic. In the actual Eurocode-2, creep is calculated by means of an asymptotic hyperbolic function while in the recent Model Code 2010 creep is expressed as a combination of an asymptotic and a logarithmic functions. In the latter case the logarithmic function corresponds to basic creep while drying creep is asymptotic. Secondly, using a long test (3 years) in a laboratory is not enough to assess the long term behaviour of a massive structure. We need physical relations for creep in codes in order to predict the delayed behavior of massive structures. Thirdly, the biaxial creep of nuclear power plant could be modelled but using data of the structure itself. This would allow to predict the delayed behavior of these structures. Further work is needed to improve the prediction in the design phase

  9. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2004-02-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays an essential role for their long-term behavior. For understanding long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) under uniaxial compression (before loading and at each loading stage), 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, and 3) a study of strong discontinuity analysis included in the homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. First, CLSM was used to acquire clearly focused three-dimensional images of granite specimens, and observed the change of microscale structure including the mineral configuration under applying uniaxial compression stress. Then though microcracks have ever thought to be initiated and propagated on intergranular boundaries, we understand through the CLSM observation that new microcracks are generated from the ends of pre-existing cracks which are distributed in quartz and biotite. Second, we showed the results of stress-relaxation test of granite specimens observed by an optical microscope under water-saturated triaxial compression condition. Since microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock, we managed the experiments with careful attention of 1) keeping constant edge-displacement and constant strain in the whole specimen accurately, and 2) measuring the relaxed stress exactly. Next, in order to simulate the experimental results which indicate that initiation and propagation of microcracks control the stress-relaxation phenomenon, we introduce a homogenization analysis procedure together with the strong discontinuity analysis which has recently established the mechanical implication and mathematical foundation. The numerical results show that we can

  10. Optogenetic long-term manipulation of behavior and animal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schultheis

    Full Text Available Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 is widely used for rapid photodepolarization of neurons, yet, as it requires high-intensity blue light for activation, it is not suited for long-term in vivo applications, e.g. for manipulations of behavior, or photoactivation of neurons during development. We used "slow" ChR2 variants with mutations in the C128 residue, that exhibit delayed off-kinetics and increased light sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Following a 1 s light pulse, we could photodepolarize neurons and muscles for minutes (and with repeated brief stimulation, up to days with low-intensity light. Photoactivation of ChR2(C128S in command interneurons elicited long-lasting alterations in locomotion. Finally, we could optically induce profound changes in animal development: Long-term photoactivation of ASJ neurons, which regulate larval growth, bypassed the constitutive entry into the "dauer" larval state in daf-11 mutants. These lack a guanylyl cyclase, which possibly renders ASJ neurons hyperpolarized. Furthermore, photostimulated ASJ neurons could acutely trigger dauer-exit. Thus, slow ChR2s can be employed to long-term photoactivate behavior and to trigger alternative animal development.

  11. Long-term bedrock behavior research for soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Noda, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    When a formation disposal system is thought about, it is important to evaluate long-term dynamics behavior of boundary condition and near field bedrock of an artificial barrier adequately. In this study, three matters were executed for improvement of a dependability of the evaluation as follows. (1) Creep test was executed as purpose by dependability improvement of evaluation technique of creep problem by Okubo model. Okubo model constant was calculated than the unconfined compression test which let strain rate change with true rock, and the creep test which the constant was used, and estimated breaking time was done. As a result, the estimation of breaking time by Okubo model almost suffered according to the estimation although a variation of test-piece influenced it. (2) A tunnel model apparatus was produced in the purpose which grasped near field bedrock behavior, and it was tested. Simulation rock test body of 1 m * 1 m * 0.5 m was used for a test, and 15 cm tunnel excavation was carried out in an initial stress bottom. Quantities of inner space displacement were measured in a test, and a hardness-test was done after dismantlement, and looseness area was grasped quantitatively. As a result, the looseness area was able to be estimated with about 17.5 cm than tunnel center position. (3) A test approach in deep underground laboratory was examined, and examination/the in situ test which took advantage of rock core analysis/borehole as purpose and done examination item by grip of long-term bedrock behavior (a bord is taken advantage of, and bord itself is used) was shown. In addition, layout of the deep underground laboratory which carried out various tests about long-term behavior in 3 depth was shown. (author)

  12. A Framework for Estimating Long Term Driver Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gadepally

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for estimation of long term driver behavior for autonomous vehicles and vehicle safety systems. The Hybrid State System and Hidden Markov Model (HSS+HMM system discussed in this article is capable of describing the hybrid characteristics of driver and vehicle coupling. In our model, driving observations follow a continuous trajectory that can be measured to create continuous state estimates. These continuous state estimates can then be used to estimate the most likely driver state using decision-behavior coupling inherent to the HSS+HMM system. The HSS+HMM system is encompassed in a HSS structure and intersystem connectivity is determined by using signal processing and pattern recognition techniques. The proposed method is suitable for a number of autonomous and vehicle safety scenarios such as estimating intent of other vehicles near intersections or avoiding hazardous driving events such as unexpected lane changes. The long term driver behavior estimation system involves an extended HSS+HMM structure that is capable of including external information in the estimation process. Through the grafting and pruning of metastates, the HSS+HMM system can be dynamically updated to best represent driver choices given external information. Three application examples are also provided to elucidate the theoretical system.

  13. Long-Term Clock Behavior of GPS IIR Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Marvin; Dass, Todd; Rajan, John; Gilmour, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Rubidium clocks, as opposed to cesium clocks, have significant long-term drift. The current literature describes an initial model of drift aging for rubidium atomic clocks followed by a long-term characteristic...

  14. Evaluation of long-term leaching of borosilicate glass in pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.; Parnisari, E.

    1979-01-01

    In order to confirm the validity of the model of the dissolving sphere, a series of tests of leaching of borosilicate glasses has been performed. The leaching rate is followed by measurements of weight loss and analysis of the surface composition. An accumulation at the surface of the less soluble cations is observed

  15. Long term leaching of silicate systems: testing procedure, actinides behaviour and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louwrier, K.; Matzke, H.; Ray, I.; Thiele, H.; Scheffler, K.; Riege, U.

    1977-06-01

    High-level waste borosilicate glasses and medium-level waste cement products have been leached with various aqueous solutions at ambient temperature. The leach rates of americium and plutonium are determined as well as the behaviour of the actinides in the boundary surface glass/leachant and in the leachant itself. Methods like light-scattering photometry and differential refractometry, molecular filtration, scanning electron microscopy and α-spectrometry of the energy-loss of α-particles in thin layers have been applied. From the experimental results a general model for the leaching mechanism has been established. A critical review of leach test procedures is accomplished aiming at the improvement of common tests with respect to the extrapolation of the obtained leach test data to final disposal safety considerations. (orig.) [de

  16. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    1997-03-01

    One must consider micro-structures of rock and rock mass in order to predict the long-term behavior for more than ten thousand years. First we observe the micro-crack distribution of granite which is commonly distributed in Japan, and is widely used for several structures. The creep under constant load and the relaxation under constant displacement are typical time dependent phenomena, and we performed a series of relaxation tests under microscope observation in laboratory. The specimen that is preserved in water is granite as mentioned above. The aim of this experiment is to observe the sequential propagation of micro-cracks and its affect to the macroscopic response of the rock material under relaxation state. Next, a viscoelastic homogenization method is applied for analyzing the behavior of granite that is composed of several kinds of minerals (i.e., a polycrystalline material). The homogenization method developed for analyzing mechanics of composite materials is a mathematical theory that can describe the macroscopic behavior accounting for the microscopic characteristics with periodic microstructures. In this study, it is applied to a polycrystalline rock which involves a few minerals and micro-cracks. Furthermore, it is required to apply the homogenization analysis for rock materials which show a nonlinear time dependent behavior, so we develop a new elasto-visco-plastic homogenization theory, and its validity is checked for some ground structures made by clay. (author)

  17. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields e Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products aimed at avoiding any unacceptable influence on the environment, in particular contamination of water, including drinking water and groundwater...

  18. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R.M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Saavedra, R.; Iguatemy, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the 'Universidade Federal Fluminense' has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees

  19. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Saavedra, R.; Iguatemy, M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees and

  20. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength.

  1. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nong; Zhang, Chenghao; Qian, Deyu; Han, Changliang; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-01

    The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength. PMID:29337897

  2. Long-term behavior of glass-ceramic zirconolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    This work is a part of the investigation of new containment matrices considered for specific conditioning of radionuclides after separation. The aim was to demonstrate the long-term aqueous corrosion resistance of the glass-ceramic zirconolite considered for the conditioning of plutonium and the minor actinides. This material is composed of crystals of zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ) dispersed in a residual vitreous phase. It appears that glass-ceramic zirconolite presents a better kinetic behavior than the nuclear glass R 7T7. This is mainly due to a more important rate decrease that occurs more rapidly, that induces a quantity of glass altered at least 10 times as small as for R 7T7 glass. This high slowdown of the alteration rate is attributed to the formation of an alteration film that has been the subject of a specific study. We have demonstrated that the rate decrease was controlled as for the R7T7 glass by the amorphous phase of the alteration film forming a diffusion barrier for reactive species. It seems that the porosity is not the single parameter that explains the protective effect of the gel. The main differences compared with R7T7 glass are that silicon does not control the alteration of the material and that the gel is composed of two distinct phases. We have in particular identified a dense phase enriched in titanium and neodymium that probably influences deeply the kinetics. (author)

  3. Viability for controlling long-term leaching of radionuclides from HLW glass by amorphous silica additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Y.; Uehara, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution and deterioration experiments in coexistence system of amorphous silica and vitrified wastes have been executed in order to evaluating the effects of amorphous silica addition to high level radioactive vitrified waste (HLW glass) on suppression of nuclide leaching. Geo-chemical reaction mechanism among the vitrified waste, the amorphous silica and water was also evaluated. Dissolution of the silica network was suppressed by addition of the amorphous silica. However, the leaching of soluble nuclides like B proceeded depending on the hydration deterioration reaction. (A. Hishinuma)

  4. Study of archaeological analogs for the validation of nuclear glass long-term behavior models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verney-Carron, A.

    2008-10-01

    Fractured archaeological glass blocks collected from a shipwreck discovered in the Mediterranean Sea near Embiez Island (Var) were investigated because of their morphological analogy with vitrified nuclear waste and of a known and stable environment. These glasses are fractured due to a fast cooling after they were melted (like nuclear glass) and have been altered for 1800 years in seawater. This work results in the development and the validation of a geochemical model able to simulate the alteration of a fractured archaeological glass block over 1800 years. The kinetics associated with the different mechanisms (interdiffusion and dissolution) and the thermodynamic parameters of the model were determined by leaching experiments. The model implemented in HYTEC software was used to simulate crack alteration over 1800 years. The consistency between simulated alteration thicknesses and measured data on glass blocks validate the capacity of the model to predict long-term alteration. This model is able to account for the results from the characterization of crack network and its state of alteration. The cracks in the border zone are the most altered due to a fast renewal of the leaching solution, whereas internal cracks are thin because of complex interactions between glass alteration and transport of elements in solution (influence of initial crack aperture and of the crack sealing). The lowest alteration thicknesses, as well as their variability, can be explained. The analog behavior of archaeological and nuclear glasses from leaching experiments makes possible the transposition of the model to nuclear glass in geological repository. (author)

  5. Long-term Behavior of Hydrocarbon Production Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A.; Karra, S.; O'Malley, D.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recovering hydrocarbons (such as natural gas) from naturally-occurring formations with low permeability has had a huge impact on the energy sector, however, recovery rates are low due to poor understanding of recovery and transport mechanisms [1]. The physical mechanisms that control the production of hydrocarbon are only partially understood. Calculations have shown that the short-term behavior in the peak of the production curve is understood to come from the free hydrocarbons in the fracture networks, but the long-term behavior of these curves is often underpredicted [2]. This behavior is thought to be due to small scale processes - such as matrix diffusion, desorption, and connectivity in the damage region around the large fracture network. In this work, we explore some of these small-scale processes using discrete fracture networks (DFN) and the toolkit dfnWorks [3], the matrix diffusion, size of the damage region, and distribution of free gas between the fracture networks and rock matrix. Individual and combined parameter spaces are explored, and comparisons of the resulting production curves are made to experimental site data from the Haynesville formation [4]. We find that matrix diffusion significantly controls the shape of the tail of the production curve, while the distribution of free gas impacts the relative magnitude of the peak to the tail. The height of the damage region has no effect on the shape of the tail. Understanding the constrains of the parameter space based on site data is the first step in rigorously quantifying the uncertainties coming from these types of systems, which can in turn optimize and improve hydrocarbon recovery. [1] C. McGlade, et. al., (2013) Methods of estimating shale gas resources - comparison, evaluation, and implications, Energy, 59, 116-125 [2] S. Karra, et. al., (2015) Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production, Water Resources Research, 51(10), 8646-8657 [3] J.D. Hyman, et

  6. Long-term behaviour of bituminized waste: modelling self-irradiation and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simondi-Teisseire, B.; Vistoli, P.P.; Libert, M.; Gilardi, T.; Chaix, P.; Blanc, V.

    2001-01-01

    During interim storage, the main evolution factor of bituminized wastes is radiolysis, due to self-irradiation. In deep disposal conditions, after site re-saturation and corrosion of the containers, the main evolution will be due to leaching. This paper deals with two models designed to describe respectively radiolytic gas evacuation (JACOB- 2) and bituminized waste leaching (COLONBO), and some of the typical results obtained from these two models. The first model describes radiolytic gas production, diffusive transport of gas, bubble nucleation and ripening and movement under buoyancy. The second one is based on descriptions of water sorption, solubilization, and diffusion into the matrix, water uptake by the most soluble salts leading to alteration of the matrix and finally to diffusive transport of the salts outside the bitumenisate. (author)

  7. Long-term nitrogen addition decreases carbon leaching in a nitrogen-rich forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC plays a critical role in the carbon (C cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine how long-term N addition affects DOC dynamics below the primary rooting zones (the upper 20 cm soils in typically N-rich lowland tropical forests. We have a primary assumption that long-term continuous N addition minimally affects DOC concentrations and effluxes in N-rich tropical forests. Experimental N addition was administered at the following levels: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results showed that seven years of N addition significantly decreased DOC concentrations in soil solution, and chemo-physical controls (solution acidity change and soil sorption rather than biological controls may mainly account for the decreases, in contrast to other forests. We further found that N addition greatly decreased annual DOC effluxes from the primary rooting zone and increased water-extractable DOC in soils. Our results suggest that long-term N deposition could increase soil C sequestration in the upper soils by decreasing DOC efflux from that layer in N-rich ecosystems, a novel mechanism for continued accumulation of soil C in old-growth forests.

  8. Multimethod Behavioral Treatment of Long-Term Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T. Steuart; Kramer, Jack J.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted single-subject, experimental research to examine efficacy of treating severe, long-term selective mutism in nine-year-old male using shaping, multiple reinforcers, natural consequences, stimulus fading, and mild aversives. Implemented different treatment regimens in home and school environments. Home intervention resulted in increase in…

  9. Rainfall leaching is critical for long-term use of recycled water in the Salinas Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda E. Platts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, Monterey County Water Recycling Projects began delivering water to 12,000 acres in the northern Salinas Valley. Two years later, an ongoing study began assessing the effects of the recycled water on soil salinity. Eight sites are receiving recycled water and a control site is receiving only well water. In data collected from 2000 to 2012, soil salinity of the 36-inch-deep profile was on average approximately double that of the applied water, suggesting significant leaching from applied water (irrigation or rainfall. In this study, we investigated some of the soil water hydrology factors possibly controlling the soil salinity results. Using soil water balance modeling, we found that rainfall had more effect on soil salinity than did leaching from irrigation. Increasing applied water usually only correlated significantly with soil salinity parameters in the shallow soil profile (1 to 12 inches depth and at 24 to 36 inches at sites receiving fairly undiluted recycled water. Winter rains, though, had a critical effect. Increasing rainfall depths were significantly correlated with decreasing soil salinity of the shallow soil at all test sites, though this effect also diminished with increased soil depth. When applied water had high salinity levels, winter rainfall in this area was inadequate to prevent soil salinity from increasing.

  10. Long term strain behavior of PMMA based polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Nielsen, Kristian; Woyessa, Getinet

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting on the viscoelasticity of PMMA based Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensors when exposed to repeated sequences of long term strain and relaxation with various duty-cycles. In terms of the FBG wavelength and how it follows the strain cycle, we have shown that in the small strain...... regime (up to 1%) an elastic-dominated fast relaxing range, which is followed by a mainly viscous relaxation, depends both on the strain level and on the strain duration. For a small ratio of the strain-relax durations, this fast relaxation range stays almost the same. However, with increasing strain...... duration, for the same relaxation time, this range will be shortened, which might influence the sensing capabilities of the fiber sensor....

  11. Study on long-term behavior of weak rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke

    2003-03-01

    Using the boring core obtained in the Horonobe region, the beta in triaxial compression stress state was acquired, and the examination was carried out on the effect of the confirming pressure on long-term deformation or stability of the sample rock. At first, triaxial compression tests were carried out. In the test, loading rate (strain rate) was changed several times to obtain viscoelastic properties of the sample rock. Multi-stage creep tests were also performed in triaxial compression stress. The parameter set of a constitutive equation of variable compliance type was obtained based on the testing results. In this study, a transparent triaxial cell recently developed by this author was used. The external cylinder of this vessel was made of the transparent acrylic resin. Therefore, gradual deformation of the sample under testing was easily and clearly observed. (author)

  12. Long-term behavior of domestic waste slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombel, Pascale

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification is one of the envisaged solutions to face French legal requirements related to the solidification/stabilisation of some wastes. It results in glassy or crystallized aluminosilicate and calcium-rich materials which trap heavy metals notably contained by the ashes of purification residues from incineration smokes of domestic wastes. This research thesis addresses the study of the long term behaviour of such materials in order to check that toxic compounds they contain will not be released in the environment so that these materials can become common and even valorised. Four vitrified products have been studied. It appeared that their alteration mechanisms in aqueous phase are close to that of already known natural and artificial silicate materials. Alteration rates depend on material composition and structure on the one hand, and on solution temperature, pH, composition and renewal rate on the other hand. The influence of surrounding materials is also taken into account within the frame of a scenario of use in road construction. Modelling studies are also performed and it appears that the containment of toxic elements contained in vitrified products obtained from domestic waste is sustainable [fr

  13. The MDS challenging behavior profile for long-term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D. L.; Achterberg, W. P.; Steverink, N.; Frijters, D. H. M.; Ribbe, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to construct a reliable and valid challenging behavior scale with items from the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Exploratory factor analyses of a sample of 656 nursing home residents yielded a 16-item Behavior Profile containing four internally consistent and valid subscales measuring

  14. Long-term behavior of refractory thorium-plutonium dioxide solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claparede, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.claparede@umontpellier.fr [ICSM, UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/Univ. Montpellier/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, Bât. 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Guigue, Mireille [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Jouan, Gauthier [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, DTEC Department, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Nadah, Nassima [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Dacheux, Nicolas [ICSM, UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/Univ. Montpellier/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, Bât. 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France); Moisy, Philippe [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Cèze (France)

    2017-01-15

    The long-term behavior of Th{sub 0.87}Pu{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} was examined in nitric acid concentrations. The normalized dissolution rates after 3380 days, range from (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} in 5 M HNO{sub 3} down to (3.2 ± 0.4) × 10{sup −8} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} in 10{sup −3} M HNO{sub 3}, which confirms the high chemical durability of this solid solution. The amounts of plutonium measured in solution lead to 0.9% and 2.1% of dissolved solid in 1 M and 5 M HNO{sub 3}, respectively. In such conditions, the time required to reach the full dissolution of the material varies from 430 years (5 M HNO{sub 3}) to 18,000 years (10{sup −3} M HNO{sub 3}). Moreover, the partial order related to the proton activity (n = 0.45 ± 0.03) suggests that the dissolution is mainly driven by surface reactions occurring at the solid/liquid interface. The characterization of the leached samples by SEM shows small microstructural modifications (i.e. detachment of crystallites) and the absence of neoformed phase while from PXRD, the unit cell parameter and crystallite size are not significantly affected. - Highlights: • Leaching tests of Th{sub 0.87}Pu{sub 0.13}O{sub 2} were performed for 9 years in several nitric acid solutions. • The high chemical durability of thorium-plutonium oxide solid solutions was confirmed. • The solubility of plutonium(IV) was not controlled by the precipitation of plutonium tetrahydroxide in these experiments.

  15. Mechanical behavior of fluoroelastomer considering long term ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Mukhopadhyay, R., E-mail: rm@ktp.jkmail.com [Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer and Tyre Research Institute (HASETRI), J. K. Tyre and Industries Ltd., Kankroli, Rajasthan 313342 (India); Raj, Baldev, E-mail: dr.baldev@psg.org.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tensile stress-strain of aged (32 weeks; 140/170/200 Degree-Sign C) Viton A-401C specimens at RT, 110 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress-softening negligible at 50/500 mm/min and RT/110 Degree-Sign C because of low black filler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RT relaxation at lower strain rate; 110 Degree-Sign C curve stiffening from Joule-Gough effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two zone stress-elongation behavior (cross-link, ionic domains) proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extendable to peroxide cured fluoroelastomers with Iodine at mid and end of chains. - Abstract: Stress-elongation behavior of a Viton A-401C based compound established for backup seals of 500 MW(e), Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor is depicted. Stress-softening effects are negligible during room temperature (RT) or 110 Degree-Sign C measurements on unaged samples at strain rates of 50 mm/min and 500 mm/min because of low filler content. Relaxation is observed during RT property determination at lower strain rate. Stiffening of behavior at 50 mm/min and 110 Degree-Sign C is attributed to Joule-Gough effect and absence of relaxation because of increased molecular chain mobility. The two zone stress-elongation behavior (determined by chemical cross-links up to {approx}85% strain and by ionic interactions beyond) propounded in the article by combining air-aged specimen data (32 weeks at 140/170/200 Degree-Sign C) provides a behavior map of bisphenol cured, low filler, fluoroelastomers made of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene. This could be extended to peroxide cured fluorocarbon rubbers for verifications and providing qualified compounds of better grades for critical nuclear elastomeric sealing applications.

  16. Retrosplenial Cortex and Long-Term Memory: Molecules to Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis P. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrosplenial cortex (RSC is reciprocally connected with the hippocampus and various parahippocampal cortical regions, suggesting that RSC is well-positioned to contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory. Consistent with this, substantial behavioral evidence indicates that RSC is essential for consolidating and/or retrieving contextual and spatial memories. In addition, there is growing evidence that RSC neurons undergo activity-dependent plastic changes during memory formation and retrieval. In this paper we review both the behavioral and cellular/molecular data and posit that the RSC has a particularly important role in the storage and retrieval of spatial and contextual memories perhaps due its involvement in binding together multiple cues in the environment. We identify remaining questions and avenues for future research that take advantage of emerging methods to selectively manipulate RSC neurons both spatially and temporally and to image the RSC in awake, behaving animals.

  17. A study on shear behavior of R/C beams subjected to long-term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many structural members are subjected to long term heating. There are few experimental data available on the behavior especially in shear of reinforced concrete (R/C) members subjected to long term heating. This paper describes a study aimed at experimentally determining the shear behavior of R/C members in nuclear power plant facilities following sustained heating at high temperatures

  18. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  19. Investigation of the leaching behavior of lead in stabilized/solidified waste using a two-year semi-dynamic leaching test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Li, Jiang-Shan; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Shan-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Long-term leaching behavior of contaminant from stabilization/solidification (S/S) treated waste stays unclear. For the purpose of studying long-term leaching behavior and leaching mechanism of lead from cement stabilized soil under different pH environment, semi-dynamic leaching test was extended to two years to investigate leaching behaviors of S/S treated lead contaminated soil. Effectiveness of S/S treatment in different scenarios was evaluated by leachability index (LX) and effective diffusion coefficient (D e ). In addition, the long-term leaching mechanism was investigated at different leaching periods. Results showed that no significant difference was observed among the values of the cumulative release of Pb, D e and LX in weakly alkaline and weakly acidic environment (pH value varied from 5.00 to 10.00), and all the controlling leaching mechanisms of the samples immersed in weakly alkaline and weakly acidic environments turned out to be diffusion. Strong acid environment would significantly affect the leaching behavior and leaching mechanism of lead from S/S monolith. The two-year variation of D e appeared to be time dependent, and D e values increased after the 210 th day in weakly alkaline and weakly acidic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Radioactive analysis of samples from spent fuel leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geckeis, H.; Degering, D.; Goertzen, A.; Geyer, F.W.; Dressler, P.

    1995-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term performance of spent fuel during direct disposal, high burnup fuel (50 MWd/kg U) has been exposed to non-buffered brine solutions and to deionized water under static anaerobic conditions at 25 C. The leaching behaviour of several radionuclides has been observed over periods of approximately 500 d. Currently used radiometric methods (α-, β-, γ-spectrometry) were applied to the analysis of sample solutions. Due to its low specific activity, uranium was determined using ICP-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) or laser induced fluorescence spectrometry (LFS). In order to determine radionuclide concentrations without interferences a preceeding radiochemical separation by ion-exchange, solvent-extraction or extraction chromatography was necessary in most cases. The Sc-isotopes 134/137, which are present in a high excess over other γ-emitting nuclides, were separated using the inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdato phosphate (AMP). This step allowed the subsequent γ-spectrometric determination of Am-241, Ag-110m, Ru-106, Sb-125 and Eu-154/155. Activity concentrations of pure β-emitters like Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129 and Pu-241 were determined by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after selective separation using extraction chromatography or solvent extraction. The actinides Am-241, Cm-242/244, Pu-238/239/240 and Np-237 were analysed by α-spectrometry again after selective separation. The direct analysis of uranium by LFS or ICP-MS was hampered by high salt concentrations. Therefore a separation by extraction chromatography turned out to be necessary, too. The analytical procedures used throughout this work are described in detail. (orig.) [de

  1. Chaos in long-term behavior of some Bianchi-type VIII models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, P

    1987-01-01

    The long-term behavior of Bianchi-type VIII models with three different types of stress-energy tensors are examined and compared. The vacuum model, a matter-filled model, and a model with an electromagnetic field are considered. In each case the existence of chaotic behavior and transitions to chaotic behavior are discussed.

  2. Long-term deflection and flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with recycled aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won-Chang; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term deformation of recycled aggregate concrete beams was examined. • Three beams were monitored for over 380 days. • Influence of recycled aggregate on the long-term performance. • Comparison of that between normal and recycled aggregate concrete beams. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the long-term deformations of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams for over 1 year (380 days) and flexural behavior of RAC beams after exposure to sustained loading. Three reinforced concrete (RC) beam specimens were fabricated with replacement percentage of aggregate (100% natural aggregate, 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and 50% recycled fine aggregate) and subjected to sustained loading that is 50% of the nominal flexural capacity. During the sustained loading period (380 days), the long-term deflection due to creep and shrinkage was recorded and compared with predicted behavior that was determined based on current specifications (ACI 318 Code). After measuring the long-term deflection for 380 days, four-point bending tests were conducted to investigate the flexural behavior of RC beams after exposure to sustained loading and determine any reduction in flexural capacity. A modified equation to predict the long-term deflection values for RC beams with recycled aggregate is proposed, and the experimental results are compared with the predictions calculated using the ACI 318 Code provisions

  3. Quantifying long-term responses of crop yield and nitrate leaching in an intensive farmland using agro-eco-environmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Huo, Zailin; Zheng, Yanxia; Dai, Xiaoqin; Feng, Shaoyuan; Mao, Xiaomin

    2018-02-01

    Quantitatively ascertaining and analyzing long-term responses of crop yield and nitrate leaching on varying irrigation and fertilization treatments are focal points for guaranteeing crop yield and reducing nitrogen loss. The calibrated agricultural-hydrological RZWQM2 model was used to explore the long-term (2003-2013) transport processes of water and nitrogen and the nitrate leaching amount into groundwater in summer maize and winter wheat rotation field in typical intensive plant area in the North China Plain, Daxing district of Beijing. Simulation results showed that application rates of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer have couple effects on crop yields and nitrogen leaching of root zone. When both the irrigation and fertilizer for summer maize and winter wheat were 400mm and 400kgNha -1 , respectively, nitrate leaching into groundwater accounted for 47.9% of application amount of nitrogen fertilizer. When application amount of irrigation is 200mm and fertilization is 200kgNha -1 , NUPE (nitrogen uptake efficiency), NUE (nitrogen use efficiency), NPFP (nitrogen partial factor productivity), and W pi (irrigation water productive efficiency) were in general higher than that under other irrigation and fertilization condition (irrigation from 104-400mm, fertilizer 104-400kgNha -1 ). Irrigation bigger than 200mm could shorten the response time of nitrate leaching in deeper soil layer in different irrigation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal and physicochemical properties important for the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Matzke, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    High level nuclear waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has to be solidified in a stable matrix for safe long-time storage. Vitrification in borosilicate glasses is the technique accepted worldwide. A number of different glasses was developed in different national programs. The criteria and the reasons for selecting the final compositions are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the French product R7T7 and on thermal and physicochemical properties though glasses developed in other national projects (e.g. the German product GP 98/12 etc.) are also treated. The basic physical and mechanical properties and the chemical durability of the glass in contact with water or other aqueous solutions are described. The basic mechanisms of aqueous corrosion are discussed and the evolving modelling of the leaching process is dealt with, as well as effects of container material, backfill, etc. The thermal behavior has also been studied and extensive data exist on diffusion of glass constituents (Na) and of interesting elements of the waste such as the alkalis Rb and Cs or the actinides U and Pu, as well as on crystallization processes in the glass during storage at elevated temperatures. Emphasis is placed on the radiation stability of the glasses, based on extensive studies using short-lived actinides (e.g. Cm-244) or ion-implantation to produce the damage expected during long storage at an accelerated rate. The radiation stability is shown to be very good, if realistic damage conditions are used. The knowledge accumulated in the past years is used to evaluate and predict the long-term evolution of the glass under storage conditions

  5. Modeling of cumulative release on long term leaching behaviour of selected oil sludge from crude oil terminal and petroleum refining plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fadzil, S.; Khoo, K.S.; Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.Ab.; Hamzah, A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of oil sludge containing environmentally toxic elements is a major problem in crude oil processing industry. Oil sludge samples from the petroleum refinery plant in Melaka and crude oil terminal in Sarawak were analysed. The aim of present work is to study long term leaching behaviour of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) from oil sludge. Tank leaching test was carried out and the samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were studied using LeachXS software to plot the graphs of elements concentration in order to study the leaching behaviour of toxic elements in oil sludge. The long term leaching (100 years) modeling was calculated using equations referred to National Institute of Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven (RIVM) and the results were plotted for cumulative release in different areas of oil sludge. Tank leaching test of the oil sludge samples from petroleum refinery plant in Melaka showed concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn ranging from 0.205 to 1.102, 0.031-0.454, 0.016-0.086 and 0.409-8.238 mg/l, respectively while the concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn in oil sludge samples from crude oil terminal in Sarawak were in the range of 0.002-0.089, 0.001-0.033, 0.006-1.016 and 0.100-2.744 mg/l, respectively. On the other hand, results on cumulative release from the modeling of long term leaching (100 years) showed that As, Co, Cr and Zn concentrations were proportional to the quantity of oil sludge. In conclusion, during extrapolation of release of toxic elements using the data in the laboratory, several other factors were taken into account to suit environmental conditions such as soil moisture, the negative logarithm of the effective diffusion coefficient (pD e ) and temperature, while the long-term behaviour of As, Co, Cr and Zn was proportional to the quantity of oil sludge to be disposed off. (author)

  6. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  7. Long-term performance and behavior of sows fed high levels of non-starch polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the long-term effects of feeding sows high levels of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides CNSP) (i.e., NSP from sugar beet pulp) restrictedly or ad libitum during gestation or ad libitum during lactation on behavior, reproductive

  8. Social Stairs : taking the Piano Staircase towards long-term behavioral change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.M.R.; Megens, C.J.P.G.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Brombacher, A.C.; Berkovsky, S.; Freyne, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of Social Stairs, an intelligent musical staircase to change people’s behavior in the long-term to take the stairs in favor of the elevator. Through designing with the Experiential Design Landscape (EDL) method, a design opportunity was found that social

  9. How Do You Motivate Long-Term Behavior Change to Prevent Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Pierce PhD, a professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California, San Diego and Director of Population Science at Moores Cancer Center, presented "How Do You Motivate Long-Term Behavior Change to Prevent Cancer?" 

  10. Behavioral Specifications of Reward-Associated Long-Term Memory Enhancement in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Duzel, Emrah

    2011-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies link reward-related activation of the midbrain substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), the site of origin of ascending dopaminergic projections, with improved long-term episodic memory. Here, we investigated in two behavioral experiments how (1) the contingency between item properties and reward, (2) the…

  11. Nonverbal behavior observation : collaborative gaming method for prediction of conflicts during long-term missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voynarovskaya, N.; Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for monitoring mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc). It combines the records of negotiation game with monitoring of the nonverbal behavior of the

  12. Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shanping; Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Sun, Philip Y-W; Roberts, Adam C; Glanzman, David L

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Cells called neurons allow information to travel quickly around the body so that we can rapidly respond to any changes that we sense in our environment. This includes non-conscious reactions, such as the knee-jerk reflex in humans. Reflexes and other behaviors can be influenced by long-term memory, and it is thought that long-term memory is stored by changes in the synapses that connect neurons to each other. The reflexes of a sea slug known as Aplysia are often used to study mem...

  13. Creep deformation behavior at long-term in P23/T23 steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, K.; Tabuchi, M.; Kimura, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Creep behavior of ASME P23/T23 steels was investigated and analyzed, focusing on creep strength degradation at long-term. Creep rupture strength at 625 C and 650 C dropped at long-term in both P23 and T23 steels. The stress exponent of minimum creep rate at 625 C and 650 C was 7.8-13 for higher stresses and 3.9-5.3 for lower stresses in the P23/T23 steels. The change of stress exponent with stress levels was consistent with the drop in creep rupture strength at long-term. The Monkman-Grant rule was confirmed in the range examined in P23 steel, while the data points deviated from the rule at long-term in the case of T23 steel. The creep ductility of P23 steel was high over a wide stress and temperature range. On the other hand, in T23 steel, creep ductility at 625 C and 650 C decreased as time to rupture increased. The change in ductility may cause the deviation from the Monkman-Grant rule. Fracture mode changed from transgranular to intergranular fracture in the long-term at 625 C and 650 C. (orig.)

  14. Impact of a long-term fire retardant (Fire Trol 931) on the leaching of Ca, Mg, and K from a Mediterranean forest loamy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Koufopoulou, Sofia; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Pappa, Athina

    2016-03-01

    The present laboratory study was conducted in pot soil taken from forest. The leaching of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) (plant macronutrients) due to the application of a nitrogen phosphate-based long-term fire retardant (LTFR) (Fire Trol 931) was investigated. The concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) were measured in the resulting leachates from pots with forest soil and pine tree alone and in combination with fire. Magnesium is a minor component of Fire Trol 931. The leaching of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) from treated soils with the retardant pots was significantly greater than that from control pots. The leaching of Mg(2+) was found to be of small percentage of the initially applied Mg quantities. Fire Trol 931 application resulted in the leaching of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) from a typical Mediterranean forest soil in pots, following the application of simulated annual precipitation probably due to ammonium (one of the major retardant components) soil deposition that mobilizes base cations from the soil. It seems that LTFR application may result in chemical leaching from the soil to the drainage water.

  15. Synthesis on the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Toulhoat, P.; Grouiller, J.P.; Pavageau, J.; Piron, J.P.; Pelletier, M.; Dehaudt, Ph.; Cappelaere, Ch.; Limon, R.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, Ch.; Corbel, C.; Maillard, S.; Faure, M.H.; Cicariello, J.C.; Masson, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the major objectives, the key scientific issues, and the preliminary results of the research conducted in France in the framework of the third line of the 1991 Law, on the topic of the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel in view of long term storage or geological disposal. Indeed, CEA launched in 1998 the Research Program on the Long Term Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel (abbreviated and referred to as PRECCI in French; Poinssot, 1998) the aim of which is to study and assess the ability of spent nuclear fuel packages to keep their initially allocated functions in interim storage and geological disposal: total containment and recovery functions for duration up to hundreds of years (long term or short-term interim storage and/or first reversible stages of geological disposal) and partial confinement function (controlled fluxes of RN) for thousands of years in geological disposal. This program has to allow to obtain relevant and reliable data concerning the long term behavior of the spent fuel packages so that feasibility of interim storage and/or geological disposal can be assessed and demonstrated as well as optimized. Within this framework, this report presents for every possible scenario of evolution (closed system, in Presence of water in presence of gases) what are estimated to be the most relevant evolution mechanism. For the most relevant scientific issues hence defined, a complete scientific review of the best state of knowledge is subsequently here given thus allowing to draw a clear guideline of the major R and D issues for the next years. (authors)

  16. 3D Holographic Observatory for Long-term Monitoring of Complex Behaviors in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Santosh; Sun, Yaning; Zou, Sige; Hong, Jiarong

    2016-09-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model organism towards understanding the cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration in humans. The effects of aging and other long-term dynamics on the behavior serve as important biomarkers in identifying such changes to the brain. In this regard, we are presenting a new imaging technique for lifetime monitoring of Drosophila in 3D at spatial and temporal resolutions capable of resolving the motion of limbs and wings using holographic principles. The developed system is capable of monitoring and extracting various behavioral parameters, such as ethograms and spatial distributions, from a group of flies simultaneously. This technique can image complicated leg and wing motions of flies at a resolution, which allows capturing specific landing responses from the same data set. Overall, this system provides a unique opportunity for high throughput screenings of behavioral changes in 3D over a long term in Drosophila.

  17. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2003-02-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays an essential role for their long-term behavior. For elucidating long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) Conformal Lase Scanning Microscope (LSM) observation of configuration of a joint in granite, its Fourier analysis and the change under uniaxial stress condition, 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, 3) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by LSM under uniaxial compression, and 4) a study of strong discontinuity analysis included in the homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. Rock image processing and analysis become a fundamental procedure to determine rock surface discontinuities. In Chapter 2 LSM that can acquire three-dimensional images is introduced to observe the roughness of discontinuity in a rock specimen. Then, discontinuities appeared on circular sections are identified by LSM and characterized by a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) analysis. The change of discontinuities is observed under applying stress. Microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock. In Chapter 3 a progressive development of cracking in granite is revealed by using stereoscopic microscope under water-saturated triaxial compression condition. Next by using LSM observe the procedure of micro-cracking under uniaxial compression condition. Obviously the micro-crack initiation and propagation controls the time-dependent behavior of granite. We have analysed the behavior by a viscoelastic theory applied in homogenization method. However since it is difficult to determine the inter-granular properties of constituent crystals and to represent the stress-dependent nonlinear characteristics by this method, we study a strong discontinuity analysis included in the

  18. Study on crystalline rock for evaluating method of long-term behavior. FY2012 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Katsunori; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Tanno, Takeo; Hikima, Ryoichi; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toshinori

    2013-12-01

    Rock shows time-dependent behavior such as creep/relaxation. With respect to high-level radioactive waste disposal, knowledge of the long-term mechanical stability of shafts and galleries excavated in rock are required, over a period of thousands of years after closure as well as during construction and operation. Therefore, it is very important to understand the time-dependent behavior of rock for evaluating long-term mechanical stability. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanisms of time-dependent behavior of rock by the precise test (e.g. laboratory creep test), observation and measurement and to develop methods for evaluating long-term mechanical stability. In previous works, testing techniques were established and basic evaluation methods were developed. Recently, some parameters, which required for simulation of time-dependent behavior, were determined for the modeling of biotite granite (Toki granite) distributed around the Mizunami underground research laboratory. However, we were not able to obtain enough data to assess the reliability of the method to evaluate these parameters. This report describes the results of the research activities carried out in fiscal year 2012. In Chapter 1, we provide background and an overview of this study. In Chapter 2, the results of a long-term creep test on Tage tuff, started in fiscal year 1997, are described. In Chapter 3, the experimental results concerning the loading-rate dependency of rock strength were examined to understand the time-dependent behavior of rock. In Chapter 4, the stability of tunnels, under conditions which rock stress is larger than that around a circular tunnel, were examined to obtain useful information on the future plan for in-situ tests in the underground research laboratory. (author)

  19. Modeling long-term leaching experiments of full scale cemented wastes: effect of solution composition on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkel, C.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    The code PHREECQ V3.1 has been used to simulate leaching experiments performed with cemented simulated waste products in tap water for more than 30 years. In this work the main focus is related with the leaching of Cs explained by diffusion processes. A simplifying model using the code PHREECQ V3.1 was used to investigate the influence of different parameters on the release of Cs from the cement solid to the leaching solution. The model setup bases on four main assumptions: a) the solid as well as the distribution of Cs is homogeneous and of isotropic texture, b) there is no preferential direction regarding cement degradation or water intrusion into the solid, c) the pore space is entirely connected and d) Cs adsorption to the cement or container is negligible. In the modeling the constraint of charge balance was stressed. Effective diffusion coefficients (D e ) were obtained analytically and from modeling the diffusive release of Cs from cemented waste simulates. The obtained values D e for Cs leaching are in perfect agreement with the values published in literature. Contradictory results to diffusive release were obtained from XRD analysis of the solids, suggesting that water may not have penetrated the cement monoliths entirely, but only to some centimeters depth. XRD analysis have been done to determine the solid phases present in cement and are used to help outlining strength and weaknesses of the different models

  20. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Hirotaka; Munesue, Toshio; Ishitobi, Makoto; Asano, Mizuki; Omori, Masao; Sato, Makoto; Tomoda, Akemi; Wada, Yuji

    2012-08-13

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl's social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  1. The long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation: results from leach experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Fays, J.; Iseghem, P. van

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has carried out a number of studies to evaluate the long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation. Static leach experiments in synthetic clay water were performed on active samples of cemented research reactor waste. The leach experiments were carried out under anaerobic conditions at two testing temperatures (23 and 85 o C). Leach rates of seven radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 154 Eu and 241 Am) were measured. Most investigated radionuclides are well retained within the cement matrix over a 280 days testing period. Results on the source term of radionuclides were complemented with data on the leaching behaviour of cement matrix constituents as Ca, Si, Al, Na, K, Mg and SO 4 as well as with data from performance assessment calculations and in situ tests. Despite limitations inherent to short-term experiments, combined results from these investigations indicate only limited interactions of disposed research reactor waste with the near field of a geological repository in clay. (author)

  2. Dopamine Modulation of Reunion Behavior in Short and Long Term Marmoset Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B. Carp

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One major neurobiological substrate regulating social processes is dopamine (DA. DA is implicated in social behavior in species as diverse as fish and birds, and has an established role in regulating relationships between mates in socially monogamous rodents. Marmoset monkeys display traits associated with social monogamy including high rates of affiliation, biparental care, distress upon separation, and aggression toward strangers; several of these behavioral patterns change throughout the development of relationships. This temporal change may represent changing demands, as pairs are likely to jointly face new experiences (e.g., parenthood throughout pairing. We investigated the role of DA and pairing length on social behavior during reunion after separation from the mate. Marmosets were removed from their home environment and treated with agonists and antagonists for the D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. They were exposed to a novel environment containing an opposite-sex stranger and their pair mate, and then reunited with their mate in the home enclosure. Marmosets in long term pairs exhibited higher levels of food sharing during reunion than marmosets in short term pairs, with females in long term pairs sharing food more than males; no sex difference was observed in short term pairs. Subjects in short term pairs spent more time grooming their mate than receiving grooming during reunion, while marmosets in long term pairs displayed similar amounts of both initiated and received grooming. DA treatment altered pair-level behavior. When females received either a D2 agonist or antagonist, short term pairs spent less time in proximity, compared to when males received the same treatments. In long term pairs, treatment of females with either a D1 agonist or antagonist resulted in pairs spending less time in social proximity than when males were treated. These findings suggest that the function of the DA system in mate behavior may be similar between

  3. Communication Behaviors as Predictors of Long-Term Dyadic Adjustment: Personality as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Lazaridès; Claude Bélanger; Stéphane Sabourin

    2010-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the moderating role of personality in the relationship between communication behaviors and long-term dyadic adjustment. A sample of 82 couples completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. These couples were also videotaped during a 15-minute problem-solving discussion. Approximately 2.5 years later, these couples completed again the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results show that personality of both men and women moderates the rel...

  4. SPIN90 Modulates Long-Term Depression and Behavioral Flexibility in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hwan Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of actin-binding proteins (ABPs in the regulation of synapse morphology and plasticity has been well established. SH3 protein interacting with Nck, 90 kDa (SPIN90, an Nck-interacting protein highly expressed in synapses, is essential for actin remodeling and dendritic spine morphology. Synaptic targeting of SPIN90 to spine heads or dendritic shafts depends on its phosphorylation state, leading to blockage of cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization and spine shrinkage. However, the physiological role of SPIN90 in long-term plasticity, learning and memory are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Spin90-knockout (KO mice exhibit substantial deficits in synaptic plasticity and behavioral flexibility. We found that loss of SPIN90 disrupted dendritic spine density in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus and significantly impaired long-term depression (LTD, leaving basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP intact. These impairments were due in part to deficits in AMPA receptor endocytosis and its pre-requisites, GluA1 dephosphorylation and postsynaptic density (PSD 95 phosphorylation, but also by an intrinsic activation of Akt-GSK3β signaling as a result of Spin90-KO. In accordance with these defects, mice lacking SPIN90 were found to carry significant deficits in object-recognition and behavioral flexibility, while learning ability was largely unaffected. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a novel modulatory role for SPIN90 in hippocampal LTD and behavioral flexibility.

  5. A prediction method for long-term behavior of prestressed concrete containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, M.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kato, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamamoto, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results of studies on the long-term behavior of PCCVs at Taruga Unit No 2 and Ohi Unit No 3/4 power stations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the measured strain in the concrete and reduction force in the tendons, and to establish the prediction methods for long-term PCCVs behavior. Comparing the measured strains with those calculated due to creep and shrinkage of the concrete, those in contrast were investigated. Furthermore, the reduced tendon forces are calculated considering losses in elasticity, relaxation, creep and shrinkage. The measured reduction in the tendon forces is compared with the calculated. Considering changes in temperature and humidity, the measured strains and tendon forces were in good agreement with those calculated. From the above results, it was confirmed that the residual pre stresses in the PCCVs maintain the predicted values at the design stage, and that the prediction method of long-term behaviors has sufficient reliability. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Long term bending behavior of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Alexandru BARBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike normal concrete (NC the behavior of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC is different under long-term efforts, if we refer to creep, shrinkage or long-term deflections. It is well known that UHPC has special properties, like compressive strength higher than 150 MPa and tensile strength higher than 20 MPa - in case of UHPC reinforced with steel-fibers. Nevertheless, UHPC behavior is not completely elucidated in what concerns creep straining or serviceability behavior in case of structural elements. Some studies made on UHPC samples shown that creep is significantly reduced if the concrete is subjected to heat treatment and if it contains steel-fiber reinforcement. Relating thereto, it is important to know how does structural elements made of this type of concrete works in service life under long-term loadings. The results obtained on UHPC samples, regarding creep straining from tension or compression efforts may not be generalized in case of structural elements (e.g. beams, slabs, columns subjected to bending. By performing this study, it was aimed to understand the influence of heat treatment and steel-fiber addition on the rheological phenomena of UHPC bended beams.

  7. Long-term Effects of Organic Waste Fertilizers on Soil Structure, Tracer Transport, and Leaching of Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Magid, Jakob

    2017-07-01

    Organic waste fertilizers have previously been observed to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil structure. However, the effect of organic waste fertilizers on colloid dispersibility and leaching of colloids from topsoil has not yet been studied extensively. We investigated how the repeated application of different types of agricultural (liquid cattle slurry and solid cattle manure) and urban waste fertilizers (sewage sludge and composted organic household waste) affected soil physical properties, colloid dispersion from aggregates, tracer transport, and colloid leaching from intact soil cores. Total porosity was positively correlated with SOC content. Yearly applications of sewage sludge increased absolute microporosity (pores 30 μm) compared with the unfertilized control, whereas organic household waste compost fertilization increased both total porosity and the absolute porosity in all pore size classes (though not significant for 100-600 μm). Treatments receiving large amounts of organic fertilizers exhibited significantly lower levels of dispersible colloids compared with an unfertilized control and a treatment that had received moderate applications of cattle slurry. The content of water-dispersible colloids could not be explained by a single factor, but differences in SOC content, electrical conductivity, and sodium adsorption ratio were important factors. Moreover, we found that the fertilizer treatments did not significantly affect the solute transport properties of the topsoil. Finally, we found that the leaching of soil colloids was significantly decreased in treatments that had received large amounts of organic waste fertilizers, and we ascribe this primarily to treatment-induced differences in effluent electrical conductivity during leaching. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Phenomenological study on crystalline rock for evaluating of long-term behavior (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke; Fukui, Katsunori; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Hikima, Ryoichi; Tanno, Takeo; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hiroya; Sato, Toshinori

    2012-02-01

    Rock, under in situ conditions, shows time-dependent behavior such as creep/relaxation. With respect to high-level radioactive waste disposal, knowledge of the long-term mechanical stability of shafts and galleries excavated in rock is required, not only during construction and operation but also over a period of thousands of years after closure. Therefore, it is very important to understand the time-dependent behavior of rock for evaluating long-term mechanical stability. The purpose of this study is determining the mechanisms of time-dependent behavior of rock by precise testing, observation and measurement in order to develop methods for evaluating long-term mechanical stability of a rock mass. In the previous work, testing techniques have been established and basic evaluation methods were developed. Recently, some parameters needed for simulation of time-dependent behavior were determined at the Mizunami underground research facilities. However, sufficient data to check the reliability of the evaluation method for these parameters were not available. This report describes the results of the activities in fiscal year 2010. In Chapter 1, we provide an overview and the background to this study. In Chapter 2, the results of a long-term creep test on Tage tuff, started in fiscal year 1997 are described. In Chapter 3, the relation of loading-rate dependency of strength and stress dependency of creep life, the relation of time dependency, probability distribution and size effects are discussed to indicate more clearly the meaning of the value of 'n' to express the degree of time dependency of the rock. Furthermore, past studies concerning the value of 'n' are reviewed and the tests that could be carried out in future studies of mechanical properties and time dependency of Toki granite are considered in this Chapter. In Chapter 4, failure criterions of a rock mass considering time dependency are discussed. In Chapter 5, the FEM analysis implemented with a generalized

  9. Magnetic Behavior of Sintered NdFeB Magnets on a Long-Term Timescale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Haavisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable polarization of permanent magnets over the lifetime of the application is an important aspect in electrical machine design. Specification of the long-term stability of magnet material is difficult, since knowledge of the phenomenon is incomplete. To be able to optimize magnet material selection, the long-term magnetic behavior of the material must also be understood. This study shows that material with a very square JH curve is stable until a certain critical operating temperature is reached. Major losses are detected as the critical temperature is exceeded. Material with a rounder JH curve does not show a well-defined critical temperature, but increasing losses over a large temperature range. The critical temperature of a material is also dependent on the field conditions. Results differ whether the tests are performed in an open or closed magnetic circuit. In open-circuit tests, the opposing field is not homogeneously distributed throughout the volume of the magnet and thus the long-term behavior is different than that in closed-circuit conditions. Open-circuit tests seem to give bigger losses than closed-circuit tests in cases where the permeance coefficient of the open-circuit sample is considered to be the average permeance coefficient, calculated according to the dimensions of the magnet.

  10. An expectancy-value theory approach to the long-term modification of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R W; Deckner, C W; Mewborn, C R

    1978-04-01

    Despite the research interest in modifying smoking behavior, therapeutic treatments that can produce long-term cessation have not been demonstrated rigorously. A follow-up study of two attitude change experiments (N = 173) examined the effects of a fear appeal, that is, increasing smokers' awareness and appreciation of the highly noxious consequences of smoking. Although this familiar type of information may be an integral component of many smoking treatment programs, its long-term suppressive effect has not been demonstrated in well-controlled experiments. The results disclosed that 3 months and also 1 year after treatment, a high-fear manipulation had increased significantly the percentage of smokers who were able to stop smoking completely.

  11. Long-term effect of September 11 on the political behavior of victims' families and neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Eitan D

    2013-12-24

    This article investigates the long-term effect of September 11, 2001 on the political behaviors of victims' families and neighbors. Relative to comparable individuals, family members and residential neighbors of victims have become--and have stayed--significantly more active in politics in the last 12 years, and they have become more Republican on account of the terrorist attacks. The method used to demonstrate these findings leverages the random nature of the terrorist attack to estimate a causal effect and exploits new techniques to link multiple, individual-level, governmental databases to measure behavioral change without relying on surveys or aggregate analysis.

  12. Decoupling the short- and long-term behavior of stochastic volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko

    behavior) from long memory and persistence (long-term behavior) in a simple and parsimonious way, which allows us to successfully model volatility at all intraday time scales. Our prime model is based on the so-called Brownian semistationary process and we derive a number of theoretical properties...... measures of close to two thousand individual US equities, we find that both roughness and persistence appear to be universal properties of volatility. Inspired by the empirical findings, we introduce a new class of continuous-time stochastic volatility models, capable of decoupling roughness (short-term...

  13. Long-term effect of September 11 on the political behavior of victims’ families and neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Eitan D.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the long-term effect of September 11, 2001 on the political behaviors of victims’ families and neighbors. Relative to comparable individuals, family members and residential neighbors of victims have become—and have stayed—significantly more active in politics in the last 12 years, and they have become more Republican on account of the terrorist attacks. The method used to demonstrate these findings leverages the random nature of the terrorist attack to estimate a causal effect and exploits new techniques to link multiple, individual-level, governmental databases to measure behavioral change without relying on surveys or aggregate analysis. PMID:24324145

  14. Development of thermal conditioning technology for alpha-contaminated wastes: a study on leaching characteristics and long-term safety assessment of simulated waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yong Chil [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Choi, Yong Cheol [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Radioactive wastes should be stabilized for safe management during several hundred years. To assess stability of solidified waste forms, mechanical properties and chemical durability of the waste forms should be analyzed. Chemical durability is one of the most important factors in the assessment of waste forms, which could be examined by leaching tests. Various methods in leaching test are suggested by different organizations, but a formal test method in Korea is not ready yet. Therefore, the leaching test method applicable to various constituents is necessary for the safe management of radioactive wastes In this study, leaching behavior and characteristics of components such as solidification materials, heavy metals and radioactive nuclids were analyzed for cement waste form and glassy waste form. 58 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  15. Cadmium telluride leaching behavior: Discussion of Zeng et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parikhit

    2015-11-01

    Zeng et al. (2015) evaluate the leaching behavior and surface chemistry of II-VI semiconductor materials, CdTe and CdSe, in response to pH and O2. Under agitation in acidic and aerobic conditions, the authors found approximately 3.6%-6.4% (w/w) solubility of Cd content in CdTe in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), Waste Extraction Test (WET), and dissolution test, with lower solubility (0.56-0.58%) under agitation in acidic and anoxic conditions. This range is comparable with prior long-term transformation and dissolution testing and bio-elution testing of CdTe (2.3%-4.1% w/w solubility of Cd content in CdTe). The implications for potential leaching behavior of CdTe-containing devices require further data. Since CdTe PV modules contain approximately 0.05% Cd content by mass, the starting Cd content in the evaluation of CdTe-containing devices would be lower by three orders of magnitude than the starting Cd content in the authors' study, and leaching potential would be further limited by the monolithic glass-adhesive laminate-glass structure of the device that encapsulates the semiconductor material. Experimental evaluation of leaching potential of CdTe PV modules crushed by landfill compactor has been conducted, with results of TCLP and WET tests on the crushed material below regulatory limits for Cd. CdTe PV recycling technology has been in commercial operation since 2005 with high yields for semiconductor (95%) and glass (90%) recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term leaching from recycled concrete aggregates applied as sub-base material in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsen, Christian J; van der Sloot, Hans A; Petkovic, Gordana

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, the metal leaching from recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) used in road sub-base is presented after >10years of exposure. The released levels of inorganic constituents, the effect of small variation of pH and the use of de-icing salt during winter season were studied. In addition, speciation modelling for the major elements has been provided. The pH varied from 7.5 to 8.5 for the sub-base constructed with RCA whereas the pH of around 8 was obtained for the test section not affected by the traffic and de-icing salts. Despite a small variation in pH, the leachability of Al, Ca and Mg was found to be strongly dependent on pH and fair agreement between the measured and predicted concentrations was obtained. The speciation modelling indicated that gibbsite, calcite and magnesite controlled the solubility of Al, Ca and Mg, respectively, which was in agreement with the expected carbonation products. Due to the larger pH fluctuations in the test sections exposed to the road traffic, increased concentrations were observed for the oxyanions. The same effect was not seen for the trace metal cations Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The distinct pH dependent leaching profile (solubility maximum in the mildly basic pH region) for vanadium could be seen after 10years of exposure. The simplified risk assessment showed that the released quantities did not exceed the chosen acceptance criteria for groundwater and fresh water. The results obtained for the test section not influenced by road dust and de-icing salts, complied with these criteria even without considering any dilution effects caused by the mixing of pore water with groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes following Resolution of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Biggs

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35 and non-snoring controls (N = 25, underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35 of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20. 43% (15/35 were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15 had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype.

  18. Long-term behavior of aortic intramural hematomas and penetrating ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Alan S; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Charilaou, Paris; Tranquilli, Maryann; Rizzo, John A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-02-01

    For intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, long-term behavior and treatment are controversial. This study evaluates the long-term behavior of intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, including radiologic follow-up and survival analysis. Between 1995 and 2014, 108 patients (mean age, 70.8 ± 10 years; 56% female) presented with intramural hematoma or penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer to Yale-New Haven Hospital (New Haven, Conn). We reviewed the medical records, radiology, and online mortality databases. Ten of 55 patients (18%) with intramural hematoma and 17 of 53 patients (32%) with penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer had rupture state symptoms on admission, both greater than type A (8%) or type B dissection (4%) (P hematoma with follow-up imaging, 8 of 14 (57%) worsened (mean follow-up, 9.4 months) and 6 (43%) underwent late surgery. For patients with penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer with follow-up imaging, 6 of 20 (30%) worsened and underwent late surgery, and 11 (55%) showed no change (mean follow-up, 34.3 months). Overall survivals were 77%, 70%, 58%, and 33% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. No operative deaths occurred for patients with nonrupture state. Patients with penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer with initial surgical treatment had better long-term survival than patients treated medically (P = .037). In the intramural hematoma group, no such difference was observed (P = .10). At presentation, the incidence of early rupture of intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer was higher than for typical dissection. For branch vessels, intramural hematoma never occludes branch arteries. On imaging follow-up, patients with intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer rarely improved, with late surgery commonly needed. Better survival was observed for the initial surgical management of patients with penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer compared with initial medical management. Copyright © 2016

  19. Long-term reactive transport modelling of stabilized/solidified waste: from dynamic leaching tests to disposal scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windt, Laurent de [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CG-Hydrodynamics and Reaction Group, 35 R. St-Honore, 77300 Fontainebleau (France)]. E-mail: laurent.dewindt@ensmp.fr; Badreddine, Rabia [INERIS, Direction des Risques Chroniques, Unite Dechets et Sites Pollues, Parc Technologique Alata BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Lagneau, Vincent [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CG-Hydrodynamics and Reaction Group, 35 R. St-Honore, 77300 Fontainebleau (France)

    2007-01-31

    Environmental impact assessment of hazardous waste disposal relies, among others, on standardized leaching tests characterized by a strong coupling between diffusion and chemical processes. In that respect, this study shows that reactive transport modelling is a useful tool to extrapolate laboratory results to site conditions characterized by lower solution/solid (L/S) ratios, site specific geometry, infiltration, etc. A cement solidified/stabilized (S/S) waste containing lead is investigated as a typical example. The reactive transport model developed in a previous study to simulate the initial state of the waste as well as laboratory batch and dynamic tests is first summarized. Using the same numerical code (HYTEC), this model is then integrated to a simplified waste disposal scenario assuming a defective cover and rain water infiltration. The coupled evolution of the S/S waste chemistry and the pollutant plume migration are modelled assessing the importance of the cracking state of the monolithic waste. The studied configurations correspond to an undamaged and fully sealed system, a few main fractures between undamaged monoliths and, finally, a dense crack-network in the monoliths. The model considers the potential effects of cracking, first the increase of rain water and carbon dioxide infiltration and, secondly, the increase of L/S ratio and reactive surfaces, using either explicit fracture representation or dual porosity approaches.

  20. Long-Term Bending Creep Behavior of Thin-Walled CFRP Tendon Pretensioned Spun Concrete Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni P. Terrasi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the long-term behavior of a series of highly-loaded, spun concrete pole specimens prestressed with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP tendons, which were subjected to outdoor four-point bending creep tests since 1996 in the frame of collaboration with the Swiss precast concrete producer, SACAC (Società Anonima Cementi Armati Centrifugati. The 2 m span cylindrical beams studied are models for lighting poles produced for the last 10 years and sold on the European market. Five thin-walled pole specimens were investigated (diameter: 100 mm; wall-thickness: 25–27 mm. All specimens were produced in a pretensioning and spinning technique and were prestressed by pultruded CFRP tendons. Initially, two reference pole specimens were tested in quasi-static four-point bending to determine the short-term failure moment and to model the short-term flexural behavior. Then, three pole specimens were loaded to different bending creep moments: while the lowest loaded specimen was initially uncracked, the second specimen was loaded with 50% of the short-term bending failure moment and exhibited cracking immediately after load introduction. The highest loaded pole specimen sustained a bending moment of 72% of the short-term bending failure moment for 16.5 years before failing in July 2013, due to the bond failure of the tendons, which led to local crushing of the high-performance spun concrete (HPSC. Besides this, long-term monitoring of the creep tests has shown a limited time- and temperature-dependent increase of the deflections over the years, mainly due to the creep of the concrete. A concrete creep-based model allowed for the calculation of the long-term bending curvatures with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, the pole specimens showed crack patterns that were stable over time and minimal slippage of the tendons with respect to the pole’s end-faces for the two lower load levels. The latter proves the successful and durable

  1. Injection grout for deep repositories. Subproject 1: LowpH cementitious grout for larger fractures, leach testing of grout mixes and evaluation of the long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Lehikoinen, J.; Imoto, Harutake; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Cruz Alonso, M.

    2005-10-01

    Constructing an underground disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel deep in bedrock requires lowpH cement-based injection grout, because assured data of the extent of a possible high-pH plume in saturated bedrock conditions is lacking. In this work low-pH grout mixes of new design were subjected to leach testing. Before chosen to leach testing the grout mixes had to fulfil certain technical requirements. Leach testing was performed in order to establish that the pH requirement (≤11) set for the leachates was met. For comparison reasons also one conventionally used cement based grout material was included in the tests. Two kinds of lowpH grout cement mixes were tested; mixes with added blast furnace slag (4 mixes) or added silica (6 mixes). All the mixes were not completely tested according to the test plan, because for some mixes during leach testing factors detrimental to the long-term safety of a repository were observed, e.g. too high pH or leached sulphide, which is harmful for copper. Leach testing of the grout mixes was performed in a glove-box (N 2 atmosphere) in order to avoid the interference of atmospheric CO 2 on the alkaline leachates. Two simulated groundwater solutions, saline OL-SO and fresh ALL-MR, were used as leachates. Two leach tests were applied; equilibrium and diffusion tests. In the equilibrium test at each measuring point only a part of the leachate was exchanged, whereas in the diffusion test the entire leachate was exchanged. The pH value of each leachate sample was measured, but total alkalinity was determined only for some leachates. Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Si, SO 4 2- , S TOT , and Cl were analysed in the leach solutions collected in the diffusion test of four grout mixes chosen. Also the corresponding solid specimens were analysed (SEM, XRD, EPMA, MIP, TG) in Japan. A few grout pore fluid pH values were measured in Spain, as well. The simplified thermodynamic model calculations were successful in qualitatively reproducing the

  2. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole-PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  3. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole—PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions. PMID:26483930

  4. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welinton Alessandro Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL and drug (Pramipexole—PPX groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  5. Chronic dietary chlorpyrifos causes long-term spatial memory impairment and thigmotaxic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Ruiz-Muñoz, Ana M; Nieto-Escámez, Francisco A; Colomina, María T; Aschner, Michael; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and the role of neurotransmitter systems, other than the cholinergic system, in mediating OP neurotoxicity. In this study, rats were administered 5mg/kg/day of chlorpyrifos (CPF) for 6 months commencing at 3-months-of-age. The animals were examined 7 months later (at 16-months-of-age) for spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and locomotor activity. In addition, we assessed the chronic effects of CPF on glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) function using pharmacological challenges with dizocilpine (MK801) and diazepam. Impaired performance related to altered search patterns, including thigmotaxis and long-term spatial memory was noted in the MWM in animals exposed to CPF, pointing to dietary CPF-induced behavioral disturbances, such as anxiety. Twenty-four hours after the 31st session of repeated acquisition task, 0.1mg/kg MK801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected for 4 consecutive days. Decreased latencies in the MWM in the control group were noted after two sessions with MK801 treatment. Once the MWM assessment was completed, animals were administered 0.1 or 0.2mg/kg of MK801 and 1 or 3mg/kg of diazepam i.p., and tested for locomotor activity. Both groups, the CPF dietary and control, displayed analogous performance in motor activity. In conclusion, our data point to a connection between the long-term spatial memory, thigmotaxic response and CPF long after the exposure ended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term pollution by chlordecone of tropical volcanic soils in the French West Indies: A simple leaching model accounts for current residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Achard, R.; Cattan, P.; Clermont-Dauphin, C.; Massat, F.; Sansoulet, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlordecone was applied between 1972 and 1993 in banana fields of the French West Indies. This resulted in long-term pollution of soils and contamination of waters, aquatic biota, and crops. To assess pollution level and duration according to soil type, WISORCH, a leaching model based on first-order desorption kinetics, was developed and run. Its input parameters are soil organic carbon content (SOC) and SOC/water partitioning coefficient (K oc ). It accounts for current chlordecone soil contents and drainage water concentrations. The model was valid for andosol, which indicates that neither physico-chemical nor microbial degradation occurred. Dilution by previous deep tillages makes soil scrapping unrealistic. Lixiviation appeared the main way to reduce pollution. Besides the SOC and rainfall increases, K oc increased from nitisol to ferralsol and then andosol while lixiviation efficiency decreased. Consequently, pollution is bound to last for several decades for nitisol, centuries for ferralsol, and half a millennium for andosol. - Soil and water contamination by chlordecone will persist for several centuries in the French West Indies, because the only decontamination is through leaching by drainage water.

  7. Thermal behavior of neutron shielding material, NS-4-FR, under long term storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, N.; O-iwa, A.; Asano, R.; Horita, R.; Kusunoki, K.

    2004-01-01

    NS-4-FR, Epoxy-Resin, has been widely used as a neutron shielding material for casks. It is recognized that the resin will degrade during storage and loose weight under high temperature conditions. Most of the examinations for the resin degrading behavior were conducted with rather small bare resin specimens. However, the actual quantity of neutron shielding is quite large and is covered by the cask body. To confirm the degrading behavior of the resin under the long-term storage conditions, we performed the test on the specimen with the same cross-section as the actual design, Hitz B69. The resin test vessels were made out of stainless steel and equipped with flange

  8. Long term treadmill exercise performed to chronic social isolated rats regulate anxiety behavior without improving learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Ozge Selin; Sahin, Leyla; Tamer, Lulufer

    2018-05-01

    The type and duration of exposure to stress is an important influence on emotional and cognitive functions. Learning is the adaptive response of the central nervous system that occurs in hippocampus which affects from environmental factors like exercise. In this study, we investigated effects of long term treadmill exercise on learning and behavior on chronic social isolated rat. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) randomly assigned into four groups: control, exercised, social isolation, social isolation + exercise during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. Social isolation protocol was applied during 14 days by placing rat in a cage one by one. Rats were exercised during 5 days, days were chosen randomly for overall 4 weeks (20, 30, 50, 60 min respectively). Finally, learning performance was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM). Anxiety behavior was evaluated by Open field and elevated plus maze test. At the end of learning and behavior tests, the rats were decapitated to collect blood samples via intracardiac puncture and corticosterone analysis was performed with ELISA method. Animal weights and water consumption did not change significantly but food intake differed among groups. Corticosterone level did not change between groups. The frequency of entering to the target quadrant increased in exercised rat significantly. However, there was no difference in learning and memory in rats. Treadmill exercise reduced anxiety behavior significantly. Taken together these findings may point out that, long term treadmill exercise did not change learning and memory but reduced anxiety level of rat without changing corticosterone level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical properties and long-term behavior of french R7T7 nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.

    1990-01-01

    The French R7T7 nuclear glass composition was carefully selected to allow incorporation of some thirty different oxides found in fission product solutions. The resulting glass exhibits very low crystallization, and its physical and chemical properties are very similar to those of standard industrial glasses. Nuclear glasses have been shown to withstand α doses corresponding to several hundred thousand years under repository conditions. Predicting the long-term behavior of fission product glasses subjected to aqueous corrosion is no doubt the most difficult aspect of the problem. Predictions are necessarily based on mathematical models. A substantial research effort has been undertaken to identify all the basic corrosion mechanisms liable to control long-term alteration. These mechanisms are now relatively well understood, and provide the basis for developing the indispensable models. Realistic storage conditions exist under which glass alteration occurs at a very slow rate, and can fulfill its role as the first containment barrier for several tens of thousands of years

  10. Research of long-term mechanical displaced behavior of soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Minami, Kosuke

    2003-01-01

    When it thinks about a stratum disposition system of high-level radioactive waste, it is important to evaluate the long-term mechanical displaced behavior of the near field bedrock which is boundary condition of the engineered barrier that should be evaluated based on the reality. In this research, three following examination was carried out for reliability improvement of long-term dynamic deformation behavior estimate. 1) We evaluated the sedimentary rock of Horonobe where we used Okubo model as while changing hydraulic condition and temperature condition. 2) We carried out the model experiment that inner pressure acted on in order to grasp a movement of near field bedrock. 3) We examined model to evaluate that. As a result, the following things were provided. 1) Sedimentary rock of Horonobe is easy to cause strength degradation for being wet and dry cycles. When the rock is saturated after drying, it is broken along potential cracking. The rock reacts for a change of moisture content sensitively. In addition, a variation of the strength occurs in a little depth remainder. This diffuseness gave the strong influence on failure time. 2) Big plastic deformation may not do elasto-plasticity behavior according to theory for stress modification of rock mass. 3) We think with one of the factor that it produces remainder in prediction and real creep hour that these is as 'm = n (conatnt of Okubo model)' simply. Therefore we collect data after peak, and it is necessary to grasp 'm/n'. In addition, it is necessary to improve 'n' in the model which we can change by environment and stress state on the way. (author)

  11. Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Kazushi; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Matsui, Hiroya

    2017-11-01

    It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior such as creep and stress relaxation. On the other hand, it was revealed that chemical reaction of groundwater in rock has an influence on the long-term behavior. Therefore, an evaluation of the microcracks influencing on rock mechanical and chemical coupled phenomena is the issue to understand the past long-term behavior of rock mass. In view of above points, this study has been started as joint research with Okayama University from Fiscal Year 2016. In Fiscal Year 2016, several kinds of elastic wave velocity were measured using ultra sonic sensors and laser Doppler vibrometer to evaluate the anisotropy of different elastic wave in granite. The velocity measurements were carried out focused on transmitted wave and surface wave. The results showed that strong anisotropy was observed in transmitted P-wave velocity while weak anisotropy was observed in transmitted S-wave and group velocity estimated by surface velocity measurement. In addition, data obtained from surface velocity measurement was partitioned into transmitted and reflected waves and analyzed them in detail. It resulted that elastic wave due to mineral particles to compose granite was dispersed; however, significant dispersion was only observed at specific location. For the future study, understanding of the relationship between density and anisotropy of micro cracks also anisotropy and strong dispersion of group velocity is important subject to estimate the geometrical distribution of micro cracks in granitic rock. (author)

  12. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  13. Self-guided Change: The most common form of long-term, maintained health behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, F Michler

    2018-01-01

    Millions of people change risky, health-related behaviors and maintain those changes. However, they often take years to change, and their unhealthy behaviors may harm themselves and others and constitute a significant cost to society. A review—similar in nature to a scoping review—was done of the literature related to long-term health behavior change in six areas: alcohol, cocaine and heroin misuse, gambling, smoking, and overeating. Based on the limited research available, reasons for change and strategies for changing and for maintaining change were also reviewed. Fifty years of research clearly indicate that as people age, in the case of alcohol, heroin and cocaine misuse, smoking, and gambling, 80–90 percent moderate or stop their unhealthy behaviors. The one exception is overeating; only 20 percent maintain their weight loss. Most of these changes, when they occur, appear to be the result of self-guided change. More ways to accelerate self-guided, health-related behavior change need to be developed and disseminated. PMID:29375888

  14. Calibrating and validating a FE model for long-term behavior of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Nikola D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research carried out in finding an optimal finite element (FE model for calculating the long-term behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams. A multi-purpose finite element software DIANA was used. A benchmark test in the form of a simply supported beam loaded in four point bending was selected for model calibration. The result was the choice of 3-node beam elements, a multi-directional fixed crack model with constant stress cut-off, nonlinear tension softening and constant shear retention and a creep and shrinkage model according to CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. The model was then validated on 14 simply supported beams and 6 continuous beams. Good agreement was found with experimental results (within ±15%.

  15. Behavioral tagging is a general mechanism of long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Fabricio; Moncada, Diego; Martinez, Maria Cecilia; Alen, Nadia; Viola, Haydée

    2009-08-25

    In daily life, memories are intertwined events. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in their interactions. Using two hippocampus-dependent (spatial object recognition and contextual fear conditioning) and one hippocampus-independent (conditioned taste aversion) learning tasks, we show that in rats subjected to weak training protocols that induce solely short term memory (STM), long term memory (LTM) is promoted and formed only if training sessions took place in contingence with a novel, but not familiar, experience occurring during a critical time window around training. This process requires newly synthesized proteins induced by novelty and reveals a general mechanism of LTM formation that begins with the setting of a "learning tag" established by a weak training. These findings represent the first comprehensive set of evidences indicating the existence of a behavioral tagging process that in analogy to the synaptic tagging and capture process, need the creation of a transient, protein synthesis-independent, and input specific tag.

  16. Parental divorce: long-term effects on mental health, family relations and adult sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsson, F H; Njardvik, U; Olafsdóttir, G; Grétarsson, S J

    2000-06-01

    Specific long term effects of parental divorce were examined in a sample of 179 Icelanders, 20 to 30 years of age. The participants answered the Borromean Family Index, the Affect Balance Scale and a number of questions on sexual behavior and attitudes towards marriage and divorce. Results showed that compared to adults whose parents remained married, those of divorced parents reported more negative emotional experiences at the time of the study and had looser family ties. They also had greater number of short love affairs, had their first love affair at a younger age, had a greater number of sexual partners, and were younger at the time of their first sexual intercourse than adults whose parents remained married.

  17. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling; Etude de la stabilite thermique du verre nucleaire. Modelisation de son evolution a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlhac, X

    2000-07-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO{sub 4}, CeCO{sub 2}, ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO{sub 2}SiO{sub 2}) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  18. Leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi

    1987-03-01

    The author's work in the study on the leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were summarized. The subjects described are (1) leach rates at high temperatures, (2) effects of cracks on leach rates, (3) effects of flow rate on leach rates, and (4) an in-situ burial test in natural groundwater. In the following section, the leach rates obtained by various experiments were summarized and discussed. (author)

  19. Loners, Groupies, and Long-term Eccentricity (and Inclination) Behavior: Insights from Secular Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2015-05-01

    Considering the secular dynamics of multi-planet systems provides substantial insight into the interactions between planets in those systems. Secular interactions are those that don't involve knowing where a planet is along its orbit, and they dominate when planets are not involved in mean motion resonances. These interactions exchange angular momentum among the planets, evolving their eccentricities and inclinations. To second order in the planets' eccentricities and inclinations, the eccentricity and inclination perturbations are decoupled. Given the right variable choice, the relevant differential equations are linear and thus the eccentricity and inclination behaviors can be described as a sum of eigenmodes. Since the underlying structure of the secular eigenmodes can be calculated using only the planets' masses and semi-major axes, one can elucidate the eccentricity and inclination behavior of planets in exoplanet systems even without knowing the planets' current eccentricities and inclinations. I have calculated both the eccentricity and inclination secular eigenmodes for the population of known multi-planet systems whose planets have well determined masses and periods. Using this catalog of secular character, I will discuss the prevalence of dynamically grouped planets ('groupies') versus dynamically uncoupled planets ('loners') and how this relates to the exoplanets' long-term eccentricity and inclination behavior. I will also touch on the distribution of the secular eigenfreqiencies.

  20. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Term Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Wrought Commercial Alloys at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bingtao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation resistance of a high-temperature alloy is dependent upon sustaining the formation of a protective scale, which is strongly related to the alloying composition and the oxidation condition. The protective oxide scale only provides a finite period of oxidation resistance owing to its eventual breakdown, which is especially accelerated under thermal cycling conditions. This current study focuses on the long-term cyclic oxidation behavior of a number of commercial wrought alloys. The alloys studied were Fe- and Ni-based, containing different levels of minor elements, such as Si, Al, Mn, and Ti. Oxidation testing was conducted at 1000 and 1100 C in still air under both isothermal and thermal cycling conditions (1-day and 7-days). The specific aspects studied were the oxidation behavior of chromia-forming alloys that are used extensively in industry. The current study analyzed the effects of alloying elements, especially the effect of minor element Si, on cyclic oxidation resistance. The behavior of oxide scale growth, scale spallation, subsurface changes, and chromium interdiffusion in the alloy were analyzed in detail. A novel model was developed in the current study to predict the life-time during cyclic oxidation by simulating oxidation kinetics and chromium interdiffusion in the subsurface of chromia-forming alloys.

  2. Phenomenological study on crystalline rock for evaluating of long-term behavior (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke; Seno, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Toru; Matsui, Hiroya; Nakama, Shigeo

    2008-08-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in order to develop comprehensive geological investigation and engineering techniques for deep underground applications (e.g. repository of HLW). The purpose of this study is to contribute to the evaluation of the mechanical stability of a research drift and to plan the future studies. Rock shows time-dependent behavior such as creep/relaxation. For the shaft and gallery of the geological disposal for the radioactive waste, the mechanical stability over a period of thousands of years is demanded not only during construction and operation but also after back-filling. So, to understand the time-dependent behavior of rock is very important for evaluating the long-term mechanical stability. This study is aiming to find out the mechanism of time-dependent behavior of rock such as creep by the precision test, observation and measurement, to develop the evaluating method of long-term behavior of rock mass, and to get the information for planning the study of the Phase III (Operation Phase) at the Mizunami URL. In the previous work conducted before this fiscal year 2007, we improved the testing technique and started test of Toki granite sampled from target site. Furthermore we studied the in-situ measurement method for evaluating the scatter of rock properties. This report describes the results of the works in the fiscal year 2007. In Chapter 1, we described the overview and background of this study. In Chapter 2, the result of continuing creep test of Tage tuff which was started from the fiscal year 1997 was described. Although there was some annual variability, the precious data were obtained. In Chapter 3, the control program for the generalized relaxation test was developed. The generalized relaxation test of Toki granite was conducted in order to get basically data. In Chapter 4, the extended constitutive equation of variable compliance was analytically

  3. Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Georgina; de la Cruz, Lorena Fernández; Monzani, Benedetta; Bowyer, Laura; Anson, Martin; Cadman, Jacinda; Heyman, Isobel; Turner, Cynthia; Veale, David; Mataix-Cols, David

    2017-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for adolescent body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in the short term, but longer-term outcomes remain unknown. The current study aimed to follow up a group of adolescents who had originally participated in a randomized controlled trial of CBT for BDD to determine whether treatment gains were maintained. Twenty-six adolescents (mean age = 16.2, SD = 1.6) with a primary diagnosis of BDD received a course of developmentally tailored CBT and were followed up over 12 months. Participants were assessed at baseline, midtreatment, posttreatment, 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD. Secondary outcomes included measures of insight, depression, quality of life, and global functioning. BDD symptoms decreased significantly from pre- to posttreatment and remained stable over the 12-month follow-up. At this time point, 50% of participants were classified as responders and 23% as remitters. Participants remained significantly improved on all secondary outcomes at 12-month follow-up. Neither baseline insight nor baseline depression predicted long-term outcomes. The positive effects of CBT appear to be durable up to 12-month follow-up. However, the majority of patients remained symptomatic and vulnerable to a range of risks at 12-month follow-up, indicating that longer-term monitoring is advisable in this population. Future research should focus on enhancing the efficacy of CBT in order to improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Human Albumin Improves Long-Term Behavioral Sequelae After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Through Neurovascular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Liu, Wenhua; Zhang, Xiaohao; Wang, Liumin; Xu, Lili; Xiong, Yunyun; Yang, Lian; Sang, Hongfei; Ye, Ruidong; Liu, Xinfeng

    2015-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage results in significant long-lasting neurologic sequelae. Here, we investigated whether human albumin improves long-term outcomes in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage and whether neurovascular remodeling is involved in the protection of albumin. Laboratory investigation. Hospital research laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage by endovascular perforation. Albumin of either 0.63 or 1.25 g/kg was injected IV immediately after the surgery. Modified Garcia test, beam-walking test, novel object recognition, and Morris water maze were employed to determine the behavioral deficits. The effects of albumin on early neurovascular dysfunction and chronic synaptic plasticity were also studied. Both doses of albumin significantly improved the sensorimotor scores (F = 31.277; p = 0.001) and cognitive performance (F = 7.982; p = 0.001 in novel object recognition test; and F = 3.431; p = 0.026 in the latency analysis of Morris water maze test) for at least 40 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were remarkable microvasculature hypoperfusion, intracranial pressure rise, early vasoconstriction, neural apoptosis, and degeneration in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats, with albumin significantly attenuating such neurovascular dysfunction. Furthermore, albumin markedly prevented blood-brain barrier disruption, as indicated by less blood-brain barrier leakage, preserved blood-brain barrier-related proteins, and dampened gelatinase activities. The expressions of key synaptic elements were up-regulated with albumin supplementation in both acute and chronic phases. Accordingly, a higher dendritic spine density was observed in the prefrontal and hippocampal areas of albumin-treated subarachnoid hemorrhage animals. Albumin at low-to-moderate doses markedly improves long-term neurobehavioral sequelae after subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may involve an integrated process of neurovascular remodeling.

  5. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlhac, X.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO 4 , CeCO 2 , ZnCr 2 O 4 ). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO 2 SiO 2 ) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  6. Long-term aging behaviors in a model soft colloidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Peng, Xiaoguang; McKenna, Gregory B

    2017-02-15

    Colloidal and molecular systems share similar behaviors near to the glass transition volume fraction or temperature. Here, aging behaviors after volume fraction up-jump (induced by performing temperature down-jumps) conditions for a PS-PNIPAM/AA soft colloidal system were investigated using light scattering (diffusing wave spectroscopy, DWS). Both aging responses and equilibrium dynamics were investigated. For the aging responses, long-term experiments (100 000 s) were performed, and both equilibrium and non-equilibrium behaviors of the system were obtained. In the equilibrium state, as effective volume fraction increases (or temperature decreases), the colloidal dispersion displays a transition from the liquid to a glassy state. The equilibrium α-relaxation dynamics strongly depend on both the effective volume fraction and the initial mass concentration for the studied colloidal systems. Compared with prior results from our lab [X. Di, X. Peng and G. B. McKenna, J. Chem. Phys., 2014, 140, 054903], the effective volume fractions investigated spanned a wider range, to deeper into the glassy domain. The results show that the α-relaxation time τ α of the samples aged into equilibrium deviate from the classical Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT)-type expectations and the super-Arrhenius signature disappears above the glass transition volume fraction. The non-equilibrium aging response shows that the time for the structural evolution into equilibrium and the α-relaxation time are decoupled. The DWS investigation of the aging behavior after different volume fraction jumps reveals a different non-equilibrium or aging behavior for the considered colloidal systems compared with either molecular glasses or the macroscopic rheology of a similar colloidal dispersions.

  7. Theoretical study on crystalline rock for evaluating of long-term behavior (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Seno, Yasuhiro; Sato, Toshinori; Nakama, Shigeo

    2008-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is working on the Project of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). The project aims at developing comprehensive techniques of geological investigation and of construction of deep underground space for a repository of HLW and/or TRU. This study contributes to an estimation of long-term stability of underground spaces. Rock materials commonly show time-dependent behavior such as creep and relaxation. The underground structures for geological disposal of radioactive wastes must keep stable not only during construction and operation but also after closing, and then the long-term stability of rock structures (over thousands of years) is essentially important for designing the structures. The true mechanism of time-dependent behavior of rock materials is not yet clearly understood, though the phenomena are widely known. This study aims at elucidating the scientific truth involved in the time-dependent behavior of rock showing creep and relaxation. We used samples of Toki granite and performed precise tests under laser microscope observation, and then developed theories representing the experimental results. These experimental and theoretical results will be served for the design and construction of the Phase III (Operation Phase) of the MIU Project. This is the report worked out in the fiscal year 2006. In this work we performed the following subjects: 1) Uniaxial and stress relaxation tests under observation of a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by using granite specimens of MIU. 2) Pressure dissolution experiment by using specimens of single crystal quartz and glass beads. 3) Development of the rate of pressure dissolution of quartz and a homogenization analysis for quartz dissolution. In Chapter 2 CLSM was used to acquire clear three-dimensional images of Mizunami granite specimens for uniaxial and stress relaxation tests, and observed the change of microscale structure including the mineral configuration under

  8. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L.; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.

    2015-01-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently…

  9. Assessments of long term mechanical behavior of CANDU fuel channel by means of PFEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, S.; Pavelescu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural analysis with finite elements method is today a usual way to evaluate and predict the behavior of structural assemblies exposed to severe conditions, in order to ensure their safety end reliability. CANDU 600 fuel channel is an example in which long time irradiation with implicit consequences on material properties evolution interfere with the corrosion and thermal aggression. A high degree of uncertainty in the evolution of the material's properties must be considered. These are the reasons for developing, in association with deterministic evaluations with computer codes, the probabilistic and statistical methods, in order to predict the structural components response. In INR (Institute of Nuclear Research) in the past years, a code for thermo-mechanical analysis of the fuel channel from CANDU 600 nuclear power plant of Cernavoda was developed using finite element methods (FEM). The CANTUP code evaluate the stress and strain state of the mechanical assembly of fuel channel, considered to be divided into pressure tube, calandria tube and four spacers, supposed to be equidistantly distributed along the pressure tube. The main achievement obtained with this code was the prediction of the long-term behavior of the sag of the pressure tube, by analysis in which the creep phenomenon and the contact between the spacers and calandria tube were considered. This reason has sustained the attempt to estimate the possibility to use this code in order to perform probabilistic evaluations. (authors)

  10. Assessments of long term mechanical behavior of CANDU fuel channel by means of PFEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, S.; Pavelescu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Structural analysis with finite elements method is today a usual way to evaluate and predict the behavior of structural assemblies exposed to severe conditions, in order to ensure their safety end reliability. CANDU 600 fuel channel is an example in which long time irradiation with implicit consequences on material properties evolution interfere with the corrosion and thermal aggression. A high degree of uncertainty in the evolution of the material's properties must be considered. These are the reasons for developing, in association with deterministic evaluations with computer codes, the probabilistic and statistical methods, in order to predict the structural components response. In INR (Institute of Nuclear Research) in the past years, a code for thermo-mechanical analysis of the fuel channel from CANDU 600 nuclear power plant of Cernavoda was developed using finite element methods (FEM). The CANTUP code evaluate the stress and strain state of the mechanical assembly of fuel channel, considered to be divided into pressure tube, calandria tube and four spacers, supposed to be equidistantly distributed along the pressure tube. The main achievement obtained with this code was the prediction of the long-term behavior of the sag of the pressure tube, by analysis in which the creep phenomenon and the contact between the spacers and calandria tube were considered. This reason has sustained the attempt to estimate the possibility to use this code in order to perform probabilistic evaluations. (authors)

  11. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  12. Long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences of neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, Hanna; de Vries, Linda S.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following perinatal asphyxia (PA) is considered an important cause of later neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born at term. This review discusses long-term consequences for general cognitive functioning, educational achievement, neuropsychological functioning and behavior. In all areas reviewed, the outcome of children with mild NE is consistently positive and the outcome of children with severe NE consistently negative. However, children with moderate NE form a more heterogeneous group with respect to outcome. On average, intelligence scores are below those of children with mild NE and age-matched peers, but within the normal range. With respect to educational achievement, difficulties have been found in the domains reading, spelling and arithmetic/mathematics. So far, studies of neuropsychological functioning have yielded ambiguous results in children with moderate NE. A few studies suggest elevated rates of hyperactivity in children with moderate NE and autism in children with moderate and severe NE. Conclusion: Behavioral monitoring is required for all children with NE. In addition, systematic, detailed neuropsychological examination is needed especially for children with moderate NE. PMID:17426984

  13. Effects of long-term elevated temperature on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisheng; Zhang, Lingling; Shi, Dongtao; Wei, Jing; Chang, Yaqing

    2017-01-01

    Increases in ocean temperature due to climate change are predicted to change the behaviors of marine invertebrates. Altered behaviors of keystone ecosystem engineers such as echinoderms will have consequences for the fitness of individuals, which are expected to flow on to the local ecosystem. Relatively few studies have investigated the behavioral responses of echinoderms to long-term elevated temperature. We investigated the effects of exposure to long-term (∼31 weeks) elevated temperature (∼3 °C above the ambient water temperature) on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Long-term elevated temperature showed different effects on the three behaviors. It significantly decreased covering behavior, including both covering behavior reaction (time to first covering) and ability (number of covered sea urchins and number of shells used for covering). Conversely, exposure to long-term elevated temperature significantly increased sheltering behavior. Righting response in S. intermedius was not significantly different between temperature treatments. The results provide new information into behavioral responses of echinoderms to ocean warming. PMID:28348933

  14. Long-term behavior of glass-ceramic zirconolite; Etude du comportement a long terme des vitrocristallins a base de zirconolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch

    2003-07-01

    This work is a part of the investigation of new containment matrices considered for specific conditioning of radionuclides after separation. The aim was to demonstrate the long-term aqueous corrosion resistance of the glass-ceramic zirconolite considered for the conditioning of plutonium and the minor actinides. This material is composed of crystals of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) dispersed in a residual vitreous phase. It appears that glass-ceramic zirconolite presents a better kinetic behavior than the nuclear glass R 7T7. This is mainly due to a more important rate decrease that occurs more rapidly, that induces a quantity of glass altered at least 10 times as small as for R 7T7 glass. This high slowdown of the alteration rate is attributed to the formation of an alteration film that has been the subject of a specific study. We have demonstrated that the rate decrease was controlled as for the R7T7 glass by the amorphous phase of the alteration film forming a diffusion barrier for reactive species. It seems that the porosity is not the single parameter that explains the protective effect of the gel. The main differences compared with R7T7 glass are that silicon does not control the alteration of the material and that the gel is composed of two distinct phases. We have in particular identified a dense phase enriched in titanium and neodymium that probably influences deeply the kinetics. (author)

  15. Contributions of vitreous natural analogs to the investigation of long-term nuclear glass behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techer, I.

    1999-01-01

    This study assesses the extend of the analogy between the alteration behavior in water and in a moist clay environment of aluminosilicate volcanic glass and alumino-borosilicate nuclear containment glass. Basaltic glass alteration in water initially occurs by hydrolysis processes with an activation energy on the order of 73 kJ.mol -1 . As the reaction progresses, the alteration rate drops by over four orders of magnitude from the initial rate r 0 , The alteration kinetics are not governed by the alteration solution chemistry alone, the glass alteration film appears to have a major role as a diffusion barrier limiting the transfer of reaction species and products. All these aspects highlight the behavioral analogy between basaltic glass and nuclear borosilicate glass in aqueous media. Conversely, the alteration reaction of obsidian-type volcanic glass involves other mechanisms than those governing the dissolution of borosilicate glass. Basaltic glass alteration is also examined in the presence of a clay environmental material, in a study of the natural basaltic glass and argillaceous pelites system of the Salagou basin in southern France, in an approach combining mineralogical, chemical and isotopic data to assess the interactions between a basaltic glass and the argillaceous pelites. Laboratory leach test results with basaltic glass and measured data for the Salagou glass in its natural environment are modeled using a code implementing a kinetic law coupling diffusive transfer of dissolved silica with a reaction affinity law. (author)

  16. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  17. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  18. Behavior of high burnup fuel rod cladding during long-term dry storage in CASTOR casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaberg, A.; Spilker, H.; Goll, W.

    2000-01-01

    Short-time creep and rupture tests were performed to assess the strain potential of cladding of high burnt rods under conditions of dry storage. The tests comprised optimized Zr y-4 cladding samples from fuel rods irradiated to burnups of up to 64 MWd/kg U and were carried out at temperatures of 573 and 643 K at cladding stresses of about 400 and 600 MPa. The stresses, much higher than those occurring in a fuel rod, were chosen to reach circumferential elongations of about 2% within an envisaged testing time of 3-4 days. The creep tests were followed by a low temperature test at 423 K and 100 MPa to assess the long-term behavior of the cladding ductility especially with regard to the effect of a higher hydrogen content in the cladding due to the high burnup. The creep tests showed considerable uniform plastic elongations at these high burnups. It was demonstrated that around 600 K a uniform plastic strain of a least 2% is reached without cladding failure. The low temperature tests at 423 K for up to 5 days revealed no cladding failure under these conditions of reduced cladding ductility. It can be concluded that the increased hydrogen content has no adverse effect on cladding performance. (Authors)

  19. Modelling long term energy consumption of French residential sector - improving behavioral realism and simulating ambitious scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibe, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to integrate components of an economic model of the behaviors of households in a technological model of French residential sector energy consumption dynamics and to analyze the consequences of this integration on the results of long-term residential energy consumption simulations (2030-2050). The results of this work highlight significant differences between the actual household space heating energy consumptions and those estimated by engineering models. These differences are largely due to the elasticity of thermal comfort demand to thermal comfort price. Our improved model makes it possible to conjointly integrate the concepts of price elasticity and rebound effect (the increase in energy service level following an improvement in energy performance of the equipment providing the service) in a daily behavior model. Regarding space heating consumption, the consequences of this behavioral adaptation - combined with some technical defects - are a significant reduction of the technical and behavioral energy saving potentials (while effective daily use of energy is generally lower than predicted by engineering models) at a national level. This implies that mid and long-term national energy policy targets (a 38% drop in primary energy consumption by 2020 and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by a factor of 4 by 2050 compared to the 1990 level) will be harder to reach than previously expected for the residential sector. These results also imply that a strong reduction in carbon emissions cannot be achieved solely through the diffusion of efficient technologies and energy conservation behavior but also requires to significantly lower the average carbon content of residential space heating energy through the generalized use of wood energy. The second issue addressed in this thesis is the influence of the resolution of a techno-economic model (i.e. its ability to represent the various values that a variable can have within the modeled system) on its

  20. Long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences of neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Handel, M.; Swaab, H.; de Vries, L.S.; Jongmans, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258268743

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following perinatal asphyxia (PA) is considered an important cause of later neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born at term. This review discusses long-term consequences for general cognitive functioning, educational achievement, neuropsychological functioning and

  1. A scalable computational framework for establishing long-term behavior of stochastic reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Gupta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reaction networks are systems in which the populations of a finite number of species evolve through predefined interactions. Such networks are found as modeling tools in many biological disciplines such as biochemistry, ecology, epidemiology, immunology, systems biology and synthetic biology. It is now well-established that, for small population sizes, stochastic models for biochemical reaction networks are necessary to capture randomness in the interactions. The tools for analyzing such models, however, still lag far behind their deterministic counterparts. In this paper, we bridge this gap by developing a constructive framework for examining the long-term behavior and stability properties of the reaction dynamics in a stochastic setting. In particular, we address the problems of determining ergodicity of the reaction dynamics, which is analogous to having a globally attracting fixed point for deterministic dynamics. We also examine when the statistical moments of the underlying process remain bounded with time and when they converge to their steady state values. The framework we develop relies on a blend of ideas from probability theory, linear algebra and optimization theory. We demonstrate that the stability properties of a wide class of biological networks can be assessed from our sufficient theoretical conditions that can be recast as efficient and scalable linear programs, well-known for their tractability. It is notably shown that the computational complexity is often linear in the number of species. We illustrate the validity, the efficiency and the wide applicability of our results on several reaction networks arising in biochemistry, systems biology, epidemiology and ecology. The biological implications of the results as well as an example of a non-ergodic biological network are also discussed.

  2. Long term corrosion behavior of the WAK-HLW glass in salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckscheiter, B.; Nesovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of the HLW glass GP WAK1 containing simulated HLW oxides from the WAK reprocessing plant in Karlsruhe is investigated in long-term corrosion experiments at high S/V ratios in two reference brines at 110 and 190 C. In case of the MgCl 2 -rich solution the leachate becomes increasingly acid with reaction time up to a final pH of about 3.5 at 190 C. In the NaCl-rich solution the pH rises to about 8.5 after one year of reaction. The release of soluble elements in MgCl 2 solution, under Si-saturated conditions, is proportional to the surface area of the sample and the release increases at 190 C according to a t 1/2 rate law. This time dependence may be an indication of diffusion controlled matrix dissolution. However, at 110 C the release of the mobile elements cannot be described by a t 1/2 rate law as the time exponents are much lower than 0.5. This difference in corrosion behavior may be explained by the higher pH of about 5 at 110 C. In case of NaCl solution under alkaline conditions, the release of soluble elements is not proportional to the surface area of the sample and it increases with time exponents much lower than 0.5. After one year of reaction at 190 C a sharp increase of the release values of some elements was observed. This increase might be explained by the high pH of the solution attained after one year. The corrosion mechanism in NaCl solution, as well as in MgCl 2 solution at 110 C, has not yet been explained. By corrosion experiments in water at constant pH values between 2 and 10, it could be shown that the time exponents of the release of Li and B decrease with increasing pH of the solution. This result can explain qualitatively the differences found in the corrosion behavior of the glass under the various conditions

  3. Sustainable Change Sequence: a framework for developing behavior change interventions for patients with long-term conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn, Glyn; Marrin, Katy; Frosch, Dominick; White, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective\\ud \\ud Interactive interventions are increasingly advocated to support behavior change for patients who have long-term conditions. Such interventions are most likely to achieve behavior change when they are based on appropriate theoretical frameworks. Developers of interventions are faced with a diverse set of behavioral theories that do not specifically address intervention development. The aim of our work was to develop a framework to guide the developers of interactive healthcare...

  4. Impact of a long term fire retardant (Fire Trol 931) on the leaching of Na, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Si from a Mediterranean forest soil: a short-term, lab-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufopoulou, Sofia; Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Pappa, Athina

    2014-06-01

    Long term fire retardant (LTR) application for forest fire prevention purposes as well as wildland fires can result in chemical leaching from forest soils. Large quantities of sodium (Na), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and silicon (Si) in leachates, mainly due to ammonium (one of the major LTR components) soil deposition, could affect the groundwater quality. The leaching of Na, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Si due to nitrogen based LTR application (Fire Trol 931) was studied at laboratory scale. The concentrations of Na(+), Al(3+), Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+) and Si(4+) were measured in the resulting leachates from pots with forest soil and pine trees alone and in combination with fire. The leaching of Na, Fe and Si from treated pots was significantly greater than that from control pots. The leaching of Al, Mn and Cu was extremely low.

  5. The Sleeper Effect of Intimate Partner Violence Exposure: Long-Term Consequences on Young Children's Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience a wide variety of short-term social adjustment and emotional difficulties, including externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression. While children are affected by IPV at all ages, little is known about the long-term consequences of IPV exposure at…

  6. Long term behavior of radiocaesium in moose: conclusions from 25 years of monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, R.; Sonesten, L.; Goedkoop, W. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment (Sweden); Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden); Wikenros, C. [Department of Ecology (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) deposited after the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986, still persist in forest ecosystems in parts of Sweden at relatively high concentrations. In the forest, radiocaesium is assumed to be reversibly bound to the soil, which facilitates its uptake by plant roots and fungal mycelia thus making it available, as fodder, to wild animals. Even today this leads to contaminated meat from moose (Alces alces) and other game species. Around 100 000 moose, approximately 1/3 of the whole population, are shot each year in Sweden which makes moose the main source of consumed game meat. Hence understanding the long-term behavior of radiocaesium in forest ecosystems is important for the evaluation of future potential health risks to consumers. The two municipalities of Heby and Uppsala, in east-central Sweden, experienced relatively large deposition in 1986 (5 - 100 kBq/m{sup 2}). Monitoring of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in meat from moose hunted in these areas was initiated already in autumn 1986 and is still continuing. Muscle samples from front leg of the slaughtered moose are received from local hunters during the hunting season and more than 3500 samples have been collected during the years. The samples are adjoined with a sampling protocol containing information on estimated age, sex and weight, as well as where and when each moose was shot. Gamma spectrometry of the {sup 137}Cs- activities is performed on fresh or frozen moose muscle samples using HPGe detectors. The main part of all the samples analyzed since 1986 are from the northern part of Heby municipality. This study area covers approximately 400 km{sup 2} and received a mean ground deposition of approximately 35 kBq/m{sup 2} of {sup 137}Cs in 1986. The area is dominated by managed coniferous forests, but also includes large parts of agricultural land. A database of > 3 500 moose samples collected from hunts between 1986 and 2010 was used in this study. The results of the

  7. A New Approach to the Long-Term Activity Behavior of DM UMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taş G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term activity character of DM UMa (K0-1 IV-III, which is one of the most active members of the RS CVn type variables, is examined using the multicolor photometric observations which spread to the time interval between 1980 and 2009. In this work, we present a new approximation for the long-term light and color variation of DM UMa using data obtained by combining our own observations obtained in the Johnson broad-band U,B,V,R filters between the years 1997 and 2008 and data published in literature. Available light and color data were examined for the long-term and seasonal variations using PERIOD04 program. The period analysis of the V-band data reveals the period estimations of 51.2±2.8 years and 15.1±0.7 years superposed on it. The U-B, B-V and V-R colors do not show correlation with the longer period, but they show variations with a period similar to the shorter one, except for B-V color. The amplitude variation also does not exhibit any correlation with the V light and color curves. It is found that the movement of the spot minima phases in years also indicates the migration period of nearly 15 years, similar to the period derived from the analysis of the long-term photometric observations in V-band.

  8. Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanping; Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Sun, Philip Y-W; Roberts, Adam C; Glanzman, David L

    2014-11-17

    Long-term memory (LTM) is believed to be stored in the brain as changes in synaptic connections. Here, we show that LTM storage and synaptic change can be dissociated. Cocultures of Aplysia sensory and motor neurons were trained with spaced pulses of serotonin, which induces long-term facilitation. Serotonin (5HT) triggered growth of new presynaptic varicosities, a synaptic mechanism of long-term sensitization. Following 5HT training, two antimnemonic treatments-reconsolidation blockade and inhibition of PKM--caused the number of presynaptic varicosities to revert to the original, pretraining value. Surprisingly, the final synaptic structure was not achieved by targeted retraction of the 5HT-induced varicosities but, rather, by an apparently arbitrary retraction of both 5HT-induced and original synapses. In addition, we find evidence that the LTM for sensitization persists covertly after its apparent elimination by the same antimnemonic treatments that erase learning-related synaptic growth. These results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.

  9. In-Plant Fission Product Behavior in SGTR Accident with Long-Term SBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The off-site AC power was recovered in 9 days after the accident in the NPS. Therefore safety injection by fire pump truck with fresh water or seawater is only available in the Fukushima accident. However, safety injection by fire pump truck is not always effective due to the high pressure of RPV inside or leakages of alternative water injection flow paths. In the SBO situations in pressurized water reactor plant (PWR), turbine driven auxiliary feedwater (TD-AFW) pump can inject water to the secondary side of steam generator. However, turbine inlet steam flow control valve cannot work properly when loss of vital DC power occurs. Vital DC power is designed to be maintained during 4 or 8 hours in the SBO conditions. In this paper motor-driven and turbine driven AFW pumps are all assumed to be not working at time 0 sec as a worst case assumption. Iodine pool-scrubbing can occur in the secondary side of the faulted steam generator. However, iodine pool-scrubbing in the secondary side of the faulted steam generator is assumed not to be working, due to the assumption of the loss of DC battery for turbine inlet flow control valve. Iodine pool-scrubbing is one of the long-term research issues in safety assessment of nuclear power plant severe accident. PHEBUS FPT series and THAI experiment projects are typical projects on the resolving source term issues in severe accident of nuclear power plants. However, iodine retention by pool scrubbing is still a debating issue. In such containment bypass sequences, fission products can be released out to environment directly from RCS without retention or deposition in containment structures. SGTR is one of the hazardous accident scenarios in the typical PSA, because SGTR induces a large release amount of source term to environment directly. A key operation strategy was the isolation of the broken reactor coolant system loop from the intact loop. Typical core degradation in SGTR scenarios occurs with multiple failures of the isolation

  10. The long-term in vivo behavior of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Koji; Yamamuro, Takao; Oonishi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    The long-term success of cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been well established. Improved outcomes, both radiographically and clinically, have resulted mainly from advances in stem design and improvements in operating techniques. However, there is concern about the durability of bone cement in vivo. We evaluated the physical and chemical properties of CMW1 bone cements retrieved from patients undergoing revision THA. CMW1 cements were retrieved from 14 patients who underwent acetabular revision because of aseptic loosening. The time in vivo before revision was 7-30 years. The bending properties of the retrieved bone cement were assessed using the three-point bending method. The molecular weight and chemical structure were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The porosity of the bone cements was evaluated by 3-D microcomputer tomography. The bending strength decreased with increasing time in vivo and depended on the density of the bone cement, which we assume to be determined by the porosity. There was no correlation between molecular weight and time in vivo. The infrared spectra were similar in the retrieved cements and in the control CMW1 cements. Our results indicate that polymer chain scission and significant hydrolysis do not occur in CMW1 cement after implantation in vivo, even in the long term. CMW1 cement was stable through long-term implantation and functional loading.

  11. Long term subsidence movements and behavior of subsidence-damaged structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, J.W.; Marino, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    Surface ground movement related to sag mine subsidence has been monitored above Illinois abandoned room and pillar coal workings for periods of more than 15 years. The long term movement related to a specific mine subsidence is typically small relative to the initial displacements but have caused crack and tilt damage in both repaired and unrepaired structures. Seasonal variations in ground surface elevations are superimposed on the downward movement related to mine subsidence. Thus it is necessary to measure long term subsidence movement at about the same time each year in order to minimize environmental factors. This paper presents long term monitoring data from five subsidence sags in central and southern Illinois. The abandoned coal mine workings are located at depths of 160 to 460 ft below the ground surface. measured residual mine subsidence ranges between 1.4 and 3.6 in. 4.4 to 15 years after mine failure. The magnitude of downward displacement is greater than settlement design values (1 in.) and are at rates (0.0004 to 0.0056 ft/month) that cause damage to structures. Most of the damage in unrepaired structures occurs along existing cracks and separations. In all five cases, the ground movements are continuing at residual rates. Sag subsidence movement in Illinois takes place for a minimum of five years after the damage is manifested at the ground surface. A classification of say development is provided based on the displacement-time data

  12. Leach behavior of high-level borosilicate glasses under deep geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the activities in high-level radioactive waste glass which is considered as the most practicable form of waste, and also is intended to be used in the disposal of national high-level radioactive waste in future. Leach theory of waste glass and the leach effects of ground water, metal barrier, buffer materials and rocks on the waste glass were reviewed. The leach of waste glass was affected by various factors such as composition, pH and Eh of ground water, temperature, pressure, radiation and humic acid. The crystallization, crack, weathering and the formation of altered phases of waste glass which is expected to occur in real disposal site were reviewed. The results of leaching in laboratory and in-situ were compared. The behaviors of radioactive elements leached from waste glass and the use of basalt glass for the long-term natural analogue of waste glass were also written in this report. The appraisal of durability of borosilicate waste glass as a waste media was performed from the known results of leach test and international in-situ tests were introduced. (author). 134 refs., 15 tabs., 24 figs

  13. Sevoflurane exposure during the neonatal period induces long-term memory impairment but not autism-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woosuk; Park, Saegeun; Hong, Jiso; Park, Sangil; Lee, Soomin; Heo, Junyoung; Kim, Daesoo; Ko, Youngkwon

    2015-10-01

    To examine whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces autism-like behaviors in mice. There are continuing reports regarding the potential negative effects of anesthesia on the developing brain. Recently, several studies suggest that neurotoxicity caused by anesthesia may lead to neurodevelopmental impairments. However, unlike reports focusing on learning and memory, there are only a few animal studies focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders after general anesthesia. Therefore, we have focused on autism, a representative neurodevelopmental disorder. Neonatal mice (P6-7) were exposed to a titrated dose of sevoflurane for 6 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by assessing the expression level of cleaved (activated) caspase-3. Autism-like behaviors, general activity, anxiety level, and long-term memory were evaluated with multiple behavioral assays. Western blotting confirmed that neonatal exposure to sevoflurane increased the expression level of activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. Mice exposed to sevoflurane also showed impaired long-term memory in fear tests. However, sevoflurane-exposed mice did not exhibit autism-like features in all of the following assays: social interaction (three-chamber test, caged social interaction), social communication (ultrasonic vocalization test), or repetitive behavior (self-grooming test, digging). There were also no differences in general activity (open field test, home cage activity) and anxiety (open field test, light-dark box) after sevoflurane exposure. Our results confirm previous studies that neonatal sevoflurane exposure causes neurodegeneration and long-term memory impairment in mice. However, sevoflurane did not induce autism-like features. Our study suggests that mice are more vulnerable to long-term memory deficits than autism-like behaviors after exposure to sevoflurane. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Neural Rhythms of Change: Long-Term Improvement after Successful Treatment in Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Woltering

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG was recorded during a challenging Go/No-go task. Treatment consisted of intensive 14-week combined cognitive behavioral therapy and parent management training sessions. For the analysis, participants were divided into long-term improvers (IMPs and long-term nonimprovers (NIMPs based on changes in their externalizing problem scores. The results showed early no-go theta power (4–8 Hz, 100–250 ms decreased for long-term IMPs compared to NIMPs. When participants were divided based on changes in their comorbid internalizing symptoms, effects were stronger and reductions in theta power were found for early as well as later phases (250–650 ms. We provided preliminary evidence that theta power is a useful neural measure to trace behavioral change linked to improved self-regulation even up to a year after treatment ended. Results may have implications for the characterization of children with disruptive behavior problems and may lead to the development of novel markers of treatment success.

  15. A Simple Account of the Behavior of Long-Term Interest Rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John Y; Shiller, Robert J

    1984-01-01

    Recent empirical research on the term structure of interest rates has shown that the long-term interest rate is well described by a distributed lag on short-term interest rates, but does not conform to the expectations theory of the term structure. It has been suggested that the long rate "overreacts" to the short rate. This paper presents aunified taxonomy of risk premia, or deviations from the expectations theory. This enables the hypothesis of overreaction to be formally stated. It is show...

  16. The use of natural and archaeological analogues for understanding the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses; L'utilisation des analogues naturels et archeologiques pour la comprehension de l'evolution a long terme des verres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libourel, G.; Verney-Carron, A.; Morlok, A. [CNRS UPR2300, centre de recherches petrographiques et geochimiques (CRPG), Nancy-universite, 15, rue Notre-Dame-des-Pauvres, BP 20, 54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Libourel, G. [INPL, Ecole nationale superieure de geologie (ENSG), Nancy-universite, rue du Doyen-Marcel-Roubault, BP 20, 54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Gin, St. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/SECM/LCLT, 30 (France); Sterpenich, J. [G2R, CNRS-UMR 7566, Nancy-universite, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France); Michelin, A.; Neff, D.; Dillmann, Ph. [Laboratoire archeomateriaux et prevision de l' alteration LAPA/SIS2 M, CEA and CNRS, Bat 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette cedex (France); Michelin, A.; Dillmann, Ph. [LMC IRAMAT UMR5060 CNRS (France)

    2011-02-15

    The knowledge of the long-term behavior of nuclear waste in anticipation of ultimate disposal in a deep geological formation is of prime importance in a waste management strategy. If phenomenological models have been developed to predict the long-term behavior of these materials, validating these models remains a challenge, when considering the time scale of radioactive decay of radionuclides of environmental concern, typically 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yrs. Here we show how natural or archaeological analogues provide critical constraints not only on the phenomenology of glass alteration and the mechanisms involved, but also on the ability of experimental short-term data to predict long-term alteration in complex environments. (authors)

  17. Long-Term Evolution of Email Networks: Statistical Regularities, Predictability and Stability of Social Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Lorite, Antonia; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In social networks, individuals constantly drop ties and replace them by new ones in a highly unpredictable fashion. This highly dynamical nature of social ties has important implications for processes such as the spread of information or of epidemics. Several studies have demonstrated the influence of a number of factors on the intricate microscopic process of tie replacement, but the macroscopic long-term effects of such changes remain largely unexplored. Here we investigate whether, despite the inherent randomness at the microscopic level, there are macroscopic statistical regularities in the long-term evolution of social networks. In particular, we analyze the email network of a large organization with over 1,000 individuals throughout four consecutive years. We find that, although the evolution of individual ties is highly unpredictable, the macro-evolution of social communication networks follows well-defined statistical patterns, characterized by exponentially decaying log-variations of the weight of social ties and of individuals' social strength. At the same time, we find that individuals have social signatures and communication strategies that are remarkably stable over the scale of several years.

  18. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  19. Acid mine drainage simulated leaching behavior of goethite and cobalt substituted goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, S. B.; Kimball, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    the leaching behavior of goethite in the environment, where trace metal substitution is expected to be common. These experiments suggest that trace metals coprecipitated with Fe-oxides may not be stable in the long term. Future leach experiments with TMS precipitates from the field are planned to test this.

  20. Leaching behavior of solidified plastics radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, Chong Chul; Lee, Byung Hun; Jae, Won Mok; Kim, Kyung Eung

    1986-01-01

    It is highly needed to develope the solidification process to dispose safely the radioactive wastes increasing with the growth of the nuclear industry. The leaching mechanisms of the solidified plastic wastes were investigated and the leaching rates of the plastic wastes were also measured among the many solidification processes. In addition, the transport equation based on the diffusion or the diffusion-dissolution was compared with the empirical equation derived from the experimental data by graphical method. Consequently, leaching process of the solidified plastic wastes is quite well agreed with the mass transport theory, but it may be difficult to simulate leaching process by diffusion dissolution mechanism. But the theoretical equation could be applicable to the cumulative amount of radionuclides leached form the plastic wastes disposed into the environment. (Author)

  1. Grain Growth and Precipitation Behavior of Iridium Alloy DOP-26 During Long Term Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Dean T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, Ethan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cox, Victoria A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Geer, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The influence of long term aging on grain growth and precipitate sizes and spatial distribution in iridium alloy DOP-26 was studied. Samples of DOP-26 were fabricated using the new process, recrystallized for 1 hour (h) at 1375 C, then aged at either 1300, 1400, or 1500 C for times ranging from 50 to 10,000 h. Grain size measurements (vertical and horizontal mean linear intercept and horizontal and vertical projection) and analyses of iridium-thorium precipitates (size and spacing) were made on the longitudinal, transverse, and rolling surfaces of the as-recrystallized and aged specimens from which the two-dimensional spatial distribution and mean sizes of the precipitates were obtained. The results obtained from this study are intended to provide input to grain growth models.

  2. Reforming Management of Behavior Symptoms and Psychiatric Conditions in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Different Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Steven A; Desai, Abhilash K

    2017-04-01

    Despite much attention including national initiatives, concerns remain about the approaches to managing behavior symptoms and psychiatric conditions across all settings, including in long-term care settings such as nursing homes and assisted living facilities. One key reason why problems persist is because most efforts to "reform" and "correct" the situation have failed to explore or address root causes and instead have promoted inadequate piecemeal "solutions." Further improvement requires jumping off the bandwagon and rethinking the entire issue, including recognizing and applying key concepts of clinical reasoning and the care delivery process to every situation. The huge negative impact of cognitive biases and rote approaches on related clinical problem solving and decision making and patient outcomes also must be addressed. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated analysis of long-term grooming behavior in Drosophila using a k-nearest neighbors classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria W; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi

    2018-01-01

    Despite being pervasive, the control of programmed grooming is poorly understood. We addressed this gap by developing a high-throughput platform that allows long-term detection of grooming in Drosophila melanogaster. In our method, a k-nearest neighbors algorithm automatically classifies fly behavior and finds grooming events with over 90% accuracy in diverse genotypes. Our data show that flies spend ~13% of their waking time grooming, driven largely by two major internal programs. One of these programs regulates the timing of grooming and involves the core circadian clock components cycle, clock, and period. The second program regulates the duration of grooming and, while dependent on cycle and clock, appears to be independent of period. This emerging dual control model in which one program controls timing and another controls duration, resembles the two-process regulatory model of sleep. Together, our quantitative approach presents the opportunity for further dissection of mechanisms controlling long-term grooming in Drosophila. PMID:29485401

  4. The long-term behavior of stabilized coal ash in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Sloot, H.A.; Hockley, D.; Woodhead, P.M.J.; Roethel, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Over an eight year period blocks of stabilized coal fly-ash and FGD scrubber sludge were placed in the Atlantic Ocean where they served as substrate for an artificial fishing reef. Structural testing has shown that these blocks have maintained their physical integrity over this extended time period. The concentrations of Ca, As, Sb and Mo have declined. The concentrations of Mg, Na, Br and CO 3 have increased. The influx of mass entering the block exceeds the leaching of inorganic constituents and results in the deposition of material in the pore spaces. This pore-blocking affects the diffusion of ions from the block and could potentially result in the cessation of contaminant release to the water column

  5. Contribution and limits of geochemical calculation codes to evaluate the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, B.; Crovisier, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical models have been intensively developed by researchers since more than twenty five years in order to be able to better understand and/or predict the long term stability/instability of water-rock systems. These geochemical codes were ail built first on a thermodynamic approach deriving from the application of Mass Action Law. The resulting first generation of models allowed to detect or predict the possible mass transfers (thermodynamic models) between aqueous and mineral phases including irreversible dissolutions of primary minerals and/or precipitation near equilibrium of secondary mineral phases. The recent development of models based on combined thermodynamics and kinetics opens the field of Lime dependent reactions prediction. This is crucial if one thinks to combine geochemical and hydrological studies in the so-called coupled models for transport and reaction calculations. All these models are progressively applied to the prediction of long term behavior of mineral phases, and more specifically glasses. In order to succeed in chat specific extension of the models, but also the data bases, there is a great need for additional new data from experimental approaches and from natural analogues. The modelling approach appears than also very useful in order to interpret the results of experimental data and to relate them to long term data extracted from natural analogues. Specific functions for modelling solid solution phases mat' also be used for describing the products of glasses alterations. (authors)

  6. Hydrothermal behaviors and long-term stability of bentonitic buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin

    2007-01-01

    In hydrothermal reaction tests, smectite-to-illite conversion was identified using a domestic bentonite which is favorably considered as a buffer material, and its dependency on various hydrothermal conditions was investigated. The analysis results of the XRD and Si concentration indicated that the smectite-to- illite conversion was a major process of bentonite alteration under the hydrothermal conditions. The temperature, potassium concentration in solution, and pH were observed to significantly affect the smectite-to illite conversion. A model of conversion reaction rate was suggested evaluate the long-term stability of smectite composing a major constituent of bentonitic buffer. It was expected from the evaluation results that the smectite would keep its integrity for very long disposal time under a normal condition, while as it might be converted to illite by 50 percent after over 5 x 10 4 year of disposal time under a conservative condition and consequently lose its swelling capacity as a buffer material of a repository

  7. Exploring Long-Term Behavior Patterns in a Book Recommendation System for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tzu-Chao; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the behavior of students who used a book recommendation system, specifically the My-Bookstore system, over a five semester period. This study addressed two main research questions, the first being related to "the most frequent behaviors and behavioral patterns." The results showed that "visiting" behavior…

  8. Contribution to the study of diffusion as related to the leaching of glasses: application to the potential risk of long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, J.C.; Pacaud, F.

    Leaching of glasses made from radioactive wastes of very high activity was studied. Leaching agents used were water for temperatures below 100 0 C; molten nitrates for temperatures higher than 100 0 C; solutions of various pH or charged with either sodium chloride or cesium; and dry or wet air. From the quantities of entrained radioactive elements, overall apparent diffusion coefficients were determined for fission products with long periods such as cerium, cesium, ruthenium, and strontium. Diffusion activation energies were also determined. These results are applied to the calculation of the potential risk of storage for vitrified fission products

  9. Long-term changes in neurocognition and behavior following treatment of sleep disordered breathing in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Vlahandonis, Anna; Anderson, Vicki; Bourke, Robert; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children is associated with detrimental neurocognitive and behavioral consequences. The long term impact of treatment on these outcomes is unknown. This study examined the long-term effect of treatment of SDB on neurocognition, academic ability, and behavior in a cohort of school-aged children. Four-year longitudinal study. Children originally diagnosed with SDB and healthy non-snoring controls underwent repeat polysomnography and age-standardized neurocognitive and behavioral assessment 4y following initial testing. Melbourne Children's Sleep Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Children 12-16 years of age, originally assessed at 7-12 years, were categorized into Treated (N = 12), Untreated (N = 26), and Control (N = 18) groups. Adenotonsillectomy, Tonsillectomy, Nasal Steroids. Decision to treat was independent of this study. Changes in sleep and respiratory parameters over time were assessed. A decrease in obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) from Time 1 to Time 2 was seen in 63% and 100% of the Untreated and Treated groups, respectively. The predictive relationship between change in OAHI and standardized neurocognitive, academic, and behavioral scores over time was examined. Improvements in OAHI were predictive of improvements in Performance IQ, but not Verbal IQ or academic measures. Initial group differences in behavioral assessment on the Child Behavior Checklist did not change over time. Children with SDB at baseline continued to exhibit significantly poorer behavior than Controls at follow-up, irrespective of treatment. After four years, improvements in SDB are concomitant with improvements in some areas of neurocognition, but not academic ability or behavior in school-aged children.

  10. Synthesis on the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.1,2; Synthese sur l'evolution a long terme des colis de combustibles irradies. Tome 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Toulhoat, P.; Grouiller, J.P.; Pavageau, J.; Piron, J.P.; Pelletier, M.; Dehaudt, Ph.; Cappelaere, Ch.; Limon, R.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, Ch.; Corbel, C.; Maillard, S.; Faure, M.H.; Cicariello, J.C.; Masson, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DDIN/DPRGD, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this report is to present the major objectives, the key scientific issues, and the preliminary results of the research conducted in France in the framework of the third line of the 1991 Law, on the topic of the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel in view of long term storage or geological disposal. Indeed, CEA launched in 1998 the Research Program on the Long Term Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel (abbreviated and referred to as PRECCI in French; Poinssot, 1998) the aim of which is to study and assess the ability of spent nuclear fuel packages to keep their initially allocated functions in interim storage and geological disposal: total containment and recovery functions for duration up to hundreds of years (long term or short-term interim storage and/or first reversible stages of geological disposal) and partial confinement function (controlled fluxes of RN) for thousands of years in geological disposal. This program has to allow to obtain relevant and reliable data concerning the long term behavior of the spent fuel packages so that feasibility of interim storage and/or geological disposal can be assessed and demonstrated as well as optimized. Within this framework, this report presents for every possible scenario of evolution (closed system, in Presence of water in presence of gases) what are estimated to be the most relevant evolution mechanism. For the most relevant scientific issues hence defined, a complete scientific review of the best state of knowledge is subsequently here given thus allowing to draw a clear guideline of the major R and D issues for the next years. (authors)

  11. Maternal Behavior Modifications during Pretense and Their Long-Term Effects on Toddlers' Understanding of Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their…

  12. The more you play, the more aggressive you become: A long-term experimental study of cumulative violent video game effects on hostile expectations and aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, Y.; Bègue, L.; Scharkow, M.; Bushman, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that violent video games increase aggression. There is a stronger evidence of short-term violent video game effects than of long-term effects. The present experiment tests the cumulative long-term effects of violent video games on hostile expectations and aggressive behavior

  13. Long Term Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Gokdag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct systematic review the articles on long term effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for treatment of major depressive disorder. Articles in English and Turkish published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (January were searched in national and international databases. The articles that did not include follow-up studies were excluded. Although the main aim of this study is to evaluate permanent effect of the cognitive behavioral group therapy, 21 articles that met the criteria were examined also in terms of some other variables such as research method, therapy characteristics and post test results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is effective for major depressive disorder and post therapy gains are maintained for a long time. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 23-38

  14. The Impact of Long-Term Dental Health Education on Oral Hygiene Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Bonnie A.

    1982-01-01

    A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)

  15. Improvement in reliability of the long-term mechanical behavior of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Hirai, Takashi; Shiratake, Toshikazu

    2005-02-01

    On the R and D of the HLW repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to the buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, evaluation of mechanical behavior of the buffer is important to carry out safety assessment of EBS. In this report, the effects of mechanical behavior of the buffer to its safety performance are examined. As a result, the ability to filtrate colloids and the ability to keep diffusion-dominated environment are maintained for 100,000 years. Natural analogue of bentonite ore is also done to corroborate viscous parameter of the buffer. The results shows that the laboratory test data is reasonable compared with the analogized viscous parameters of the 15M years aged ore. Next, the mechanical parameters of the buffer under brine environment are examined. Then the mechanical behavior of the buffer is analyzed. Throughout these processes, the scheme for freshwater environment is confirmed to be valid under brine environment. At the last, the EBS field-test that is planned at Horonobe underground laboratory is analyzed. The analysis is encountered viscous behavior of the buffer and the surrounding rock under corrosion expansion of the overpack. The result offers the mechanical data to design the field test. (author)

  16. The Hidden Cost of Tourism: Detecting Long-term Effects of Tourism Using Behavioral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lusseau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, whales and dolphins are the focus of tourism activities in many coastal locations. Although these activities can affect individuals and populations of cetaceans, the biological significance and hence the cost of these impacts are as yet largely unknown. This study assessed the effects of boat interactions on the behavioral budget of two populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tersiops truncatus living in similar fjords but exposed to different levels of tourism activities. This comparison makes it possible to assess the costs of short-term avoidance strategies and the threshold at which those strategies are no longer effective. The effects of boat interactions were the same in both fjords. The resting state was the most sensitive to interactions; socializing was less sensitive. Short-term displacement was a typical response to boat exposure: dolphins were more likely to travel after an interaction with a vessel. Although the behavioral budgets of these populations were significantly altered during interactions with boats, their overall behavioral budgets were unchanged. Dolphins in Milford Sound actively avoided boat interactions, possibly to maintain their overall behavioral budget unchanged. This active avoidance led to avoidance of the area. Characteristics of dolphin-boat interactions in Milford Sound suggest that the advantages gained by short-term avoidance are lost if, on average, fewer than 68 min elapse between successive interactions with boats. If dolphin-boat interactions were more frequent than this, the dolphins switched to a longer-term response: area avoidance.

  17. Comparative Study of Leachate Characteristics of Pond Ash from Long-Term Leaching and Ash Pond Disposal Point Effluent from Chandrapura Thermal Power Station, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the leaching characteristics of coal combustion residues from chandrapura thermal power station, Jharkhand, India. The study was made under the laboratory as well as the field condition. From the laboratory study conducted so far it is hereby concluded that the leachates of coal combustion residues from chandrapura thermal power station with respect to potentiometric and trace elements analysis are within the permissible limits as per Indian Standards (IS:2490. From the study it is also found that the elements such as arsenic, boron, nickel, etc. could not be detected. The discharge point leachate also does not pose any environmental problem from the point of view of leaching of trace and/or toxic elements as per IS: 2490.

  18. Arm injury produces long-term behavioral and neural hypersensitivity in octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alupay, Jean S; Hadjisolomou, Stavros P; Crook, Robyn J

    2014-01-13

    Cephalopod molluscs are the most neurally and behaviorally complex invertebrates, with brains rivaling those of some vertebrates in size and complexity. This has fostered the opinion that cephalopods, particularly octopuses, may experience vertebrate-like pain when injured. However, it is not known whether octopuses possess nociceptors or if their somatic sensory neurons exhibit sensitization after injury. Here we show that the octopus Abdopus aculeatus expresses nocifensive behaviors including arm autotomy, and displays marked neural hyperexcitability both in injured and uninjured arms for at least 24h after injury. These findings do not demonstrate that octopuses experience pain-like states; instead they add to the minimal existing literature on how cephalopods receive, process, and integrate noxious sensory information, potentially informing and refining regulations governing use of cephalopods in scientific research. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Between Evasion and Activism: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Political Behavior of German and Swedish Long-Term Unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hobbins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This comparative article aims to understand the patterns underlying the political behavior of young German and Swedish long-term unemployed individuals. Based on almost 40 qualitative interviews, the analysis follows a grounded theory approach and shows that “unemployment” is not an objective reality that imposes uniform living conditions. Social and political activities diverge considerably, even though our respondents experience similar pressures and sanctions by public opinion, political parties, public administrations, relatives and/or acquaintances. The consequences of unemployment depend on individual mind-sets, support networks and coping strategies. This study identifies informal networks of social relations as one main factor influencing unemployed young peoples’ political behavior. Three types of political involvement are shaped by the routines and norms reproduced within their web of social relations in everyday life: evasion, civic minimalism and reluctant activism. The similarities between the German and the Swedish respondents overshadowed the national differences

  20. Comparison of the long-term behavioral effects of neonatal exposure to retigabine or phenobarbital in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Sari; Medvedeva, Natalia; Gutherz, Samuel; Kulick, Catherine; Kondratyev, Alexei; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs, when given during vulnerable periods of brain development, can have long-lasting consequences on nervous system function. In rats, the second postnatal week approximately corresponds to the late third trimester of gestation/early infancy in humans. Exposure to phenobarbital during this period has been associated with deficits in learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, and social behavior, among other domains. Phenobarbital is the most common anticonvulsant drug used in neonatology. Several other drugs, such as lamotrigine, phenytoin, and clonazepam, have also been reported to trigger behavioral changes. A new generation anticonvulsant drug, retigabine, has not previously been evaluated for long-term effects on behavior. Retigabine acts as an activator of KCNQ channels, a mechanism that is unique among anticonvulsants. Here, we examined the effects retigabine exposure from postnatal day (P)7 to P14 on behavior in adult rats. We compared these effects with those produced by phenobarbital (as a positive control) and saline (as a negative control). Motor behavior was assessed by using the open field and rotarod, anxiety-like behavior by the open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition task, and learning/memory by the passive avoidance task; social interactions were assessed in same-treatment pairs, and nociceptive sensitivity was assessed via the tail-flick assay. Motor behavior was unaltered by exposure to either drug. We found that retigabine exposure and phenobarbital exposure both induced increased anxiety-like behavior in adult animals. Phenobarbital, but not retigabine, exposure impaired learning and memory. These drugs also differed in their effects on social behavior, with retigabine-exposed animals displaying greater social interaction than phenobarbital-exposed animals. These results indicate that neonatal retigabine induces a subset of behavioral alterations previously described for other anticonvulsant drugs and extend

  1. The family environment predicts long-term academic achievement and classroom behavior following traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. An Analysis of the Long-term Photometric Behavior of epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppenborg, B. K.; Hopkins, J. L.; Stencel, R. E.

    2012-10-01

    The lure of a 50% reduction in light has brought a multitude of observers and researchers to epsilon Aur every twenty-seven years, but few have paid attention to the system outside of eclipse. As early as the late 1800s, it was clear that the system undergoes some form of quasi-periodic variation outside of totality, but few considered this effect in their research until the mid-1950s. In this work we focus exclusively on the out-of-eclipse (OOE) variations seen in this system. We have digitized twenty-seven sources of historic photometry from eighty-one different observers. Two of these sources provide twenty-seven years of inter-eclipse UBV photometry which we have analyzed using modern period finding techniques. We have discovered the F-star variations are multi-periodic with at least two periods that evolve in time at DP ≈ -1.5 day/year. These periods are detected when they manifest as near-sinusoidal variations at 3,200-day intervals. We discuss our work in an evolutionary context by comparing the behavior found in epsilon Aur with bona-fide supergiant and post-AGB stars of similar spectral type. Based upon our qualitative comparison, we find the photometric behavior of the F-star in the epsilon Aur system is more indicative of supergiant behavior. Therefore the star is more likely to be a "traditional supergiant" than a post-AGB object. We encourage continued photometric monitoring of this system to test our predictions.

  3. Corrosion behavior, mechanical properties, and long-term aging of nickel-plated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of nickel-plated uranium upon exposure to moist nitrogen was evaluated. Plating thicknesses of 0.051 mm (2 mil) were adequate to prevent corrosion. Specimens with thinner coats showed some corrosion and some reduction in mechanical properties during subsequent testing. Plated samples exposed to dry air at ambient pressure for 10 y showed no corrosion and no degradation of mechanical properties. Surface and bulk hydrogen content, as well as free hydrogen generated during the test, were measured to determine the extent of corrosion. Results support an earlier proposed mechanism for uranium corrosion at low humidities

  4. A study on shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams subjected to long-term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, M.; Yamazaki, M.; Miyashita, T.

    1995-01-01

    A study has been undertaken to determine the shear behavior of reinforced concrete members in nuclear power plant facilities following sustained heating to high temperatures. A total of nine specimens was tested. The parameters of the tests were (1) heating temperature (65, 90 and 175 C) and (2) heating period (1, 3, 6 or 12 months). Different combinations of these parameters were employed, and the shear strength deterioration rate was evaluated. The test results were confirmed by a non-linear finite element analysis. The relationship between the concrete compressive strengths, which varied from heating face to upper portion, and the shear strength in specimens was evaluated. (orig.)

  5. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term mechanical behavior of buffer. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Shiratake, Toshikazu; Tamura, Hirokuni

    2004-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, to make clear the mechanical deformation behavior of buffer against the external force is important, because of carrying out safety assessment of EBS accurately. In this report, several sets of parameters are chosen for the previously selected two constitutive models, Sekiguchi-Ohta model and Adachi-Oka model, and the element tests and mock-up tests are simulated using these parameters. Through the simulation, applicability of the constitutive models and parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters were carried out, and mechanical behavior is evaluated over a long period of time. Analysis estimated the amount of settlement of the over pack, the stress state of buffer material, the reaction force to a base rock, etc., and the result that EBS is mechanically stable over a long period of time was obtained. Next, in order to prove analyses results a side, literature survey was conducted about geological age, the dynamics history of a Smectite layer. The outline plan was drawn up about the natural analogue verification method and preliminary examination was performed about the applicability of Freezing Sampling'. (author)

  6. Psychometrics Matter in Health Behavior: A Long-term Reliability Generalization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Andrew C; Valdez, Danny; Barry, Adam E

    2017-09-01

    Despite numerous calls for increased understanding and reporting of reliability estimates, social science research, including the field of health behavior, has been slow to respond and adopt such practices. Therefore, we offer a brief overview of reliability and common reporting errors; we then perform analyses to examine and demonstrate the variability of reliability estimates by sample and over time. Using meta-analytic reliability generalization, we examined the variability of coefficient alpha scores for a well-designed, consistent, nationwide health study, covering a span of nearly 40 years. For each year and sample, reliability varied. Furthermore, reliability was predicted by a sample characteristic that differed among age groups within each administration. We demonstrated that reliability is influenced by the methods and individuals from which a given sample is drawn. Our work echoes previous calls that psychometric properties, particularly reliability of scores, are important and must be considered and reported before drawing statistical conclusions.

  7. Evaluation and summary of a study of the long-term multiaxial creep behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, T.W.

    1975-12-01

    The creep behavior of concrete subjected to triaxial compressive stresses and elevated temperature was evaluated. Strains were measured in cylindrical specimens subjected to 58 test conditions: 0--3600 psi compressions; curing times of 90, 183, and 365 days; two curing histories (air-dried and as-cast); and two temperatures (75 and 150 0 F). The 90-day-cwed specimens were loaded for 12 months, followed by 5-month recovery. The other specimens were uniaxially stressed to 600 or 2400 psi for 5.25 or 4.75 years at 75 0 F, followed by 77-day recovery. Strain measurements were made during the curing, loaded, and unloaded-recovery periods. This report describes the experiment setup and summarizes the results and recommendations

  8. Long-term relations among prosocial-media use, empathy, and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Sara; Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward; Lim, Kam Ming; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Jelic, Margareta; Krahé, Barbara; Liuqing, Wei; Liau, Albert K; Khoo, Angeline; Petrescu, Poesis Diana; Sakamoto, Akira; Tajima, Sachi; Toma, Roxana Andreea; Warburton, Wayne; Zhang, Xuemin; Lam, Ben Chun Pan

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent growth of research on the effects of prosocial media, processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Two studies explored theoretically relevant mediators and moderators of the effects of prosocial media on helping. Study 1 examined associations among prosocial- and violent-media use, empathy, and helping in samples from seven countries. Prosocial-media use was positively associated with helping. This effect was mediated by empathy and was similar across cultures. Study 2 explored longitudinal relations among prosocial-video-game use, violent-video-game use, empathy, and helping in a large sample of Singaporean children and adolescents measured three times across 2 years. Path analyses showed significant longitudinal effects of prosocial- and violent-video-game use on prosocial behavior through empathy. Latent-growth-curve modeling for the 2-year period revealed that change in video-game use significantly affected change in helping, and that this relationship was mediated by change in empathy.

  9. Long-Term Creep Behavior of the Intervertebral Disk: Comparison between Bioreactor Data and Numerical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A. P. G., E-mail: apgcastro@dem.uminho.pt [Center for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães (Portugal); INSIGNEO Institute for in silico Medicine, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Paul, C. P. L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Detiger, S. E. L.; Smit, T. H.; Royen, B. J. van [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Skeletal Tissue Engineering Group Amsterdam, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pimenta Claro, J. C. [Center for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães (Portugal); Mullender, M. G. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Research Institute MOVE, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alves, J. L. [Center for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães (Portugal)

    2014-11-20

    The loaded disk culture system is an intervertebral disk (IVD)-oriented bioreactor developed by the VU Medical Center (VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), which has the capacity of maintaining up to 12 IVDs in culture, for approximately 3 weeks after extraction. Using this system, eight goat IVDs were provided with the essential nutrients and submitted to compression tests without losing their biomechanical and physiological properties, for 22 days. Based on previous reports (Paul et al., 2012, 2013; Detiger et al., 2013), four of these IVDs were kept in physiological condition (control) and the other four were previously injected with chondroitinase ABC (CABC), in order to promote degenerative disk disease (DDD). The loading profile intercalated 16 h of activity loading with 8 h of loading recovery to express the standard circadian variations. The displacement behavior of these eight IVDs along the first 2 days of the experiment was numerically reproduced, using an IVD osmo-poro-hyper-viscoelastic and fiber-reinforced finite element (FE) model. The simulations were run on a custom FE solver (Castro et al., 2014). The analysis of the experimental results allowed concluding that the effect of the CABC injection was only significant in two of the four IVDs. The four control IVDs showed no signs of degeneration, as expected. In what concerns to the numerical simulations, the IVD FE model was able to reproduce the generic behavior of the two groups of goat IVDs (control and injected). However, some discrepancies were still noticed on the comparison between the injected IVDs and the numerical simulations, namely on the recovery periods. This may be justified by the complexity of the pathways for DDD, associated with the multiplicity of physiological responses to each direct or indirect stimulus. Nevertheless, one could conclude that ligaments, muscles, and IVD covering membranes could be added to the FE model, in order to improve its accuracy and properly describe the

  10. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including low levels of social interaction and high levels of self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in the AH group (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As they reached adulthood (Experiment 1), the same monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation from age-matched peers were also assessed. Group TE now showed few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed when they were infants. By contrast, Group AH continued to display low levels of social interaction, high levels of self-directed activity and submissive behavior, and reduced responses to separation, although they reacted normally to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those of the earlier groups and then given the AH ablation (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these adult-lesioned monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. Also, except for an increase in food and water consumption throughout this 6-month period, they showed no other socioemotional effects. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage. PMID:21133531

  11. Long-Term Creep Behavior of the Intervertebral Disc: Comparison between Bioreactor Data and Numerical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APG eCastro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Loaded Disc Culture System (LDCS is an Intervertebral Disc (IVD-oriented bioreactor developed by the VU Medical Center (VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, which has the capacity of maintaining up to 12 IVDs in culture, for approximately 3 weeks after extraction. Using this system, 8 goat IVDs were provided with the essential nutrients and submitted to compression tests without losing their biomechanical and physiological properties, for 22 days. Based on previous reports (Detiger et al., 2013; Paul et al., 2013, 2012, 4 of these IVDs were kept in physiological condition (control and the other 4 were previously injected with chondroitinase ABC (CABC, in order to promote Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD. The loading profile intercalated 16h of activity loading with 8h of loading recovery to express the standard circadian variations.The displacement behavior of these 8 IVDs along the first 2 days of the experiment was numerically reproduced, using an IVD osmo-poro-hyper-viscoelastic and fiber-reinforced Finite Element (FE model. The simulations were run on a custom FE solver (Castro et al., 2014.The analysis of the experimental results allowed concluding that the effect of the CABC injection was only significant in 2 of the 4 IVDs. The 4 control IVDs showed no signs of degeneration, as expected. In what concerns to the numerical simulations, the IVD FE model was able to reproduce the generic behavior of the two groups of goat IVDs (control and injected. However, some discrepancies were still noticed on the comparison between the injected IVDs and the numerical simulations, namely on the recovery periods. This may be justified by the complexity of the pathways for DDD, associated with the multiplicity of physiological responses to each direct or indirect stimulus. Nevertheless, one could conclude that ligaments, muscles and IVD covering membranes could be added to the FE model, in order to improve its accuracy and properly describe the recovery

  12. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, www.bioprota.org. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock. FY2015 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Kimoto, Kazushi; Matsui, Hiroya; Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Ozaki, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior such as creep and stress relaxation. On the other hand, it was revealed that the chemical reaction of groundwater in a rock had an influence on the long-term behavior. An evaluation of the microcracks to have an influence on rock mechanical and chemical coupled phenomena is the issue the past long-term behavior for rock study. In fiscal year 2015, using a laser Doppler vibrometer that extends a frequency band up to 20 MHz, and measuring the surface wave transmitted through the granite specimens were estimated group velocity. As a result, group velocity until 100 kHz ∼ 500 kHz, revealed that tends to decrease while vibrating. Estimation of the group velocity from the group delay, by using the spatially averaged waveform has improved estimated frequency band and reliability. For this reason, the estimation of the group velocity from the group delay has also been shown to be easier than estimated by the wave number - frequency spectrum. As a result obtained, in the case of the modeling by the viscoelastic theory of the granite and a microcrack nondestructiveness evaluation, it is thought that it is useful information in the future. In order to use the knowledge of this study, there is a need to clarify the correspondence between the microscopic properties of the medium such as a crack and crystal grain and the change of the group velocity. (author)

  14. Behavioral cues to expand a pain model of the cognitively impaired elderly in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burfield AH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Allison H Burfield,1 Thomas TH Wan,2 Mary Lou Sole,3 James W Cooper41School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina-Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, 2Administration, and Medical Education, Doctoral Program in Public Affairs, College of Health and Public Affairs, 3College of Nursing, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 4College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hypothesized pain behaviors in the elderly and a measurement model of pain derived from the Minimum Data Set-Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI 2.0 items.Methods: This work included a longitudinal cohort recruited from Medicare-certified long-term care facilities across the United States. MDS data were collected from 52,996 residents (mean age 83.7 years. Structural equation modeling was used to build a measurement model of pain to test correlations between indicators and the fit of the model by cognitive status. The model evaluates the theoretical constructs of pain to improve how pain is assessed and detected within cognitive levels.Results: Using pain frequency and intensity as the only indicators of pain, the overall prevalence of pain was 31.2%; however, analysis by cognitive status showed that 47.7% of the intact group was in pain, while only 18.2% of the severely, 29.4% of the moderately, and 39.6% of the mildly cognitively impaired groups were experiencing pain. This finding supports previous research indicating that pain is potentially under-reported in severely cognitively impaired elderly nursing home residents. With adjustments to the measurement model, a revised format containing affective, behavioral, and inferred pain indicates a better fit of the data to include these domains, as a more complete measure of the pain construct.Conclusion: Pain has a significant effect on quality of life and long-term health outcomes in nursing home

  15. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Smith, K.L.; Kowe, R.; Pérez-Sánchez, D.; Thorne, M.; Thiry, Y.; Read, D.; Molinero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, (www.bioprota.org). - Highlights: • Geological

  16. Long-term electrical resistivity monitoring of recharge-induced contaminant plume behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hubbard, Susan S; Watson, David B; Baker, Gregory S; Peterson, John E; Kowalsky, Michael B; Smith, Meagan; Brooks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Geophysical measurements, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data in particular, are sensitive to properties that are related (directly or indirectly) to hydrological processes. The challenge is in extracting information from geophysical data at a relevant scale that can be used to gain insight about subsurface behavior and to parameterize or validate flow and transport models. Here, we consider the use of ERT data for examining the impact of recharge on subsurface contamination at the S-3 ponds of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Tennessee. A large dataset of time-lapse cross-well and surface ERT data, collected at the site over a period of 12 months, is used to study time variations in resistivity due to changes in total dissolved solids (primarily nitrate). The electrical resistivity distributions recovered from cross-well and surface ERT data agrees well, and both of these datasets can be used to interpret spatiotemporal variations in subsurface nitrate concentrations due to rainfall, although the sensitivity of the electrical resistivity response to dilution varies with nitrate concentration. Using the time-lapse surface ERT data interpreted in terms of nitrate concentrations, we find that the subsurface nitrate concentration at this site varies as a function of spatial position, episodic heavy rainstorms (versus seasonal and annual fluctuations), and antecedent rainfall history. These results suggest that the surface ERT monitoring approach is potentially useful for examining subsurface plume responses to recharge over field-relevant scales. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of long-term thermal exposure on the hot ductility behavior of GH3535 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, F.F.; Zhou, B.M.; Huang, H.F.; Leng, B.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, Z.J.; Zhou, X.T.

    2016-01-01

    The hot ductility behavior of Ni–16Mo–7Cr alloys (named GH3535) exposed at 700 °C for different durations has been investigated by means of tensile test. It was found that the alloy exhibited a constant low ductility within the first 10 h exposure, and then showed an increasing ductility with the exposure time until 1000 h. After that, the ductility of the alloy decreased gradually with the increasing exposure time up to 10000 h. Detailed microstructural investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have shown that the change in the ductility of the alloy with the exposure time could be attributed to the precipitation of M 12 C carbide at the grain boundary. Such precipitates with size of 200 nm, which are formed during the thermal exposure within 1000 h, can significantly restrain the grain boundary sliding and crack initiation, resulting in the high ductility of the alloy. Further exposure will cause the coarsening of the carbides, making them as the source of grain boundary cracks, hence decreases the ductility of the alloy.

  18. Long-term recall of social relationships related to addiction and HIV risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, R L; Janssen, T; Braciszewski, J M; Vose-O'Neal, A

    2017-08-01

    Social relationships have been demonstrated as a key predictor of relapse among addicted persons and are likely to be important determinants of HIV risk behaviors also. However, the degree to which this population can reliably and consistently identify important people (IPs) in retrospect has been understudied. Using the modified Important People and Activities questionnaire, we investigated to what degree IPs were dropped, added, or retained, and whether data about individual IPs were reported accurately on 6- and 12-month follow up periods using a sample of 50 drug or alcohol abusing participants. We found that IPs were largely retained, and that those retained versus dropped/added differed by their reaction to participant alcohol/drug use, as well as frequency of contact. We further found that there were differences in reliability of data describing specific IPs. While both 6- and 12-month follow up periods led to reliabilities ranging from excellent to fair, we found poorer reliability on responses to recall of "frequency of contact" and "reactions to drinking", as well as "reactions to drug use". Future investigations of reliability of social relationships recalled retrospectively should attempt to examine possible systematic biases in addition to the reliability of specific IP data. More sophisticated studies are needed on factors associated with systematic variation in reporting of aspects of social relationships that are associated with addictions or HIV risk outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary Development of a Unified Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for Alloy 617 with Special Reference to Long Term Creep Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sham, Sam; Walker, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    The expected service life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is 60 years. Structural analyses of the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) will require the development of unified viscoplastic constitutive models that address the material behavior of Alloy 617, a construction material of choice, over a wide range of strain rates. Many unified constitutive models employ a yield stress state variable which is used to account for cyclic hardening and softening of the material. For low stress values below the yield stress state variable these constitutive models predict that no inelastic deformation takes place which is contrary to experimental results. The ability to model creep deformation at low stresses for the IHX application is very important as the IHX operational stresses are restricted to very small values due to the low creep strengths at elevated temperatures and long design lifetime. This paper presents some preliminary work in modeling the unified viscoplastic constitutive behavior of Alloy 617 which accounts for the long term, low stress, creep behavior and the hysteretic behavior of the material at elevated temperatures. The preliminary model is presented in one-dimensional form for ease of understanding, but the intent of the present work is to produce a three-dimensional model suitable for inclusion in the user subroutines UMAT and USERPL of the ABAQUS and ANSYS nonlinear finite element codes. Further experiments and constitutive modeling efforts are planned to model the material behavior of Alloy 617 in more detail

  20. Public Perspectives Toward the Sexual Behavior of an Individual With Dementia Residing in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Erin L; Cless, Adam W; Mallory, Allen B; Cless, Jessica D

    2018-06-01

    This study examines public perspectives toward sexual behavior within a heterosexually married couple in which one individual has dementia and resides in a long-term care facility. Respondents included 318 adults in the Southern United States. Paired sample t tests were used to understand how the diagnosis of dementia statistically influenced participants' responses, and a logistic regression model was used to understand how a vignette character's sex and respondent characteristics influenced attitudes. Fifty-eight percent of respondents believed that a sexual relationship should be permitted for an adult with dementia, and t tests revealed that dementia had a statistical effect on participants' responses. Sex of the vignette character was not a predictor of attitudes. Participant's qualitative rationales are offered for additional insight. Respondents who felt that a couple should not engage in a sexual relationship commonly cited consent-related issues as their primary concern. Implications for policy development are discussed.

  1. Long-term behavior of the population II Cepheid V1 in the globular cluster Messier 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.M.; Hogg, H.S.; Yee, A.

    1988-01-01

    Observations made over an interval of 73 yr have been used to study the period changes of the W Virginis star in M12. They show that the period has undergone a series of abrupt changes, both increasing and decreasing, instead of a smooth change as predicted by evolutionary theory. This result is compared with period changes of W Virginis and RV Tauri stars in other galactic globular clusters, and it is found that the long-term behavior of the periods of most of these stars is similar to that of the variable in M12. However, two stars, V42 in M5 and V1 in Omega Centauri, may be in their final blueward evolutionary phase. 45 references

  2. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bicanic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS, including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years. STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods: Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions: The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  3. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short- and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Iva; de Roos, Carlijn; van Wesel, Floryt; Sinnema, Gerben; van de Putte, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS), including a parallel six-session parents' group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13-18 years). STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS) and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.

  4. Numerical simulation for excavation and long-term behavior of large-scale cavern in soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste is planned to be disposed at the depth of more than 50 m in Neogene tuff or tuffaceous sandstone. Generally there are few cracks in sedimentary soft rocks, thus it is considered to be easier to determine permeability of soft rocks than that of discontinuous rocks. On the other hand, sedimentary soft rocks show strong time-dependent behavior, and they are more sensitive to heat, groundwater, and their chemical effect. Numerical method for long-term behavior of underground facilities is necessary to their design and safety assessment. Numerical simulations for excavation of test cavern in disposal site are described in this report. Our creep model was applied to these simulations. Although it is able to reproduce the behavior of soft rock observed in laboratory creep test, simulation using parameters obtained from laboratory tests predicts much larger displacement than that of measurement. Simulation using parameters modified based on in-situ elastic wave measurement and back analysis reproduces measured displacements very well. Behavior of the surrounding rock mass during resaturation after setting of the waste and the engineered barrier system is also simulated. We have a plan to investigate chemical and mechanical interaction among soft rock, tunnel supports and engineered barriers, and to make their numerical models. (author)

  5. Leaching mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sufficient data are lacking to provide a basis for adequately assessing the long term leaching behavior of solidified low level radioactive waste forms in their disposal environment. Although the release of radioactivity from a waste form to an aqueous environment is recognized to be due to one or more mechanisms such as diffusion, dissolution, corrosion or ion exchange, the leaching mechanisms and the factors which control the leaching behavior of waste forms are not fully understood. This study will determine the prevailing mechanisms for a variety of selected LLW solidification agents which are being considered for use by defense and commercial generators and which will cover the broadest possible number of mechanisms. The investigation will proceed by the postulation of mathematical models representative of the prevailing mechanism(s) and the use of statistically designed experiments to test the actual leaching behavior of laborattory samples against the postulated representations. Maximum use of existing leach data in the literature will be made by incorporating literature results into a computerized data base along with the experimental results generated in this task

  6. Contribution and limits of geochemical calculation codes to evaluate the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses; Apports et limites des modeles geochimiques pour l'evaluation du comportement a long terme des verres de confinement des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, B; Crovisier, J L [Universite Louis Pasteur, Centre de Geochimie de la Surface, CNRS ULP, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-07-01

    Geochemical models have been intensively developed by researchers since more than twenty five years in order to be able to better understand and/or predict the long term stability/instability of water-rock systems. These geochemical codes were ail built first on a thermodynamic approach deriving from the application of Mass Action Law. The resulting first generation of models allowed to detect or predict the possible mass transfers (thermodynamic models) between aqueous and mineral phases including irreversible dissolutions of primary minerals and/or precipitation near equilibrium of secondary mineral phases. The recent development of models based on combined thermodynamics and kinetics opens the field of Lime dependent reactions prediction. This is crucial if one thinks to combine geochemical and hydrological studies in the so-called coupled models for transport and reaction calculations. All these models are progressively applied to the prediction of long term behavior of mineral phases, and more specifically glasses. In order to succeed in chat specific extension of the models, but also the data bases, there is a great need for additional new data from experimental approaches and from natural analogues. The modelling approach appears than also very useful in order to interpret the results of experimental data and to relate them to long term data extracted from natural analogues. Specific functions for modelling solid solution phases mat' also be used for describing the products of glasses alterations. (authors)

  7. Long-term creep behavior of high-temperature gas turbine materials under constant and variable stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granacher, J.; Preussler, T.

    1987-01-01

    Within the framework of the documented research project, extensive creep rupture tests were carried out with characteristic, high-temperature gas turbine materials for establishment of improved design data. In the range of the main application temperatures and in stress ranges down to application-relevant values the tests extended over a period of about 40,000 hours. In addition, long-term annealing tests were carried out in the most important temperature ranges for the measurement of the density-dependent straim, which almost always manifested itself as a material contraction. Furthermore, hot tensile tests were carried out for the description of the elastoplastic short-term behavior. Several creep curves were derived from the results of the different tests with a differentiated evaluation method. On the basis of these creep curves, creep equations were set up for a series of materials which are valid in the entire examined temperature range and stress range and up to the end of the secondary creep range. Also, equations for the time-temperature-dependent description of the material contraction behavior were derived. With these equations, the high-temperature deformation behavior of the examined materials under constant creep stress can be described simply and application-oriented. (orig.) With 109 figs., 19 tabs., 77 refs [de

  8. Long-term parental methamphetamine exposure of mice influences behavior and hippocampal DNA methylation of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Y; Ergui, I; Young, J I

    2015-02-01

    The high rate of methamphetamine (METH) abuse among young adults and women of childbearing age makes it imperative to determine the long-term effects of METH exposure on the offspring. We hypothesized that parental METH exposure modulates offspring behavior by disrupting epigenetic programming of gene expression in the brain. To simulate the human pattern of drug use, male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to escalating doses of METH or saline from adolescence through adulthood; following mating, females continue to receive drug or saline through gestational day 17. F1 METH male offspring showed enhanced response to cocaine-conditioned reward and hyperlocomotion. Both F1 METH male and female offspring had reduced response to conditioned fear. Cross-fostering experiments have shown that certain behavioral phenotypes were modulated by maternal care of either METH or saline dams. Analysis of offspring hippocampal DNA methylation showed differentially methylated regions as a result of both METH in utero exposure and maternal care. Our results suggest that behavioral phenotypes and epigenotypes of offspring that were exposed to METH in utero are vulnerable to (a) METH exposure during embryonic development, a period when wide epigenetic reprogramming occurs, and (b) postnatal maternal care.

  9. Dietary and Behavioral Adjustments to Manage Bowel Dysfunction After Surgery in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S.; McMullen, Carmit K.; Bulkley, Joanna E.; Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Baldwin, Carol M.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bowel dysfunction is a known complication of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Poor bowel control has a detrimental impact on survivors’ health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This analysis describes the dietary and behavioral adjustments used by CRC survivors to manage bowel dysfunction and compares adjustments used by survivors with permanent ostomy to those with anastomosis. METHODS This mixed-methods analysis included pooled data from several studies that assessed HRQOL in CRC survivors. In all studies, CRC survivors with or without permanent ostomies (N=856) were surveyed using the City of Hope Quality of Life Colorectal Cancer tool. Dietary adjustments were compared by ostomy status and by overall HRQOL score (high versus low). Qualitative data from 13 focus groups and 30 interviews were analyzed to explore specific strategies used by survivors to manage bowel dysfunction. RESULTS CRC survivors made substantial, permanent dietary and behavioral adjustments after surgery, regardless of ostomy status. Survivors who took longer after surgery to become comfortable with their diet or regain their appetite were more likely to report worse HRQOL. Adjustments to control bowel function were divided into four major strategies: dietary adjustments, behavioral adjustments, exercise, and medication use. CONCLUSIONS CRC survivors struggled with unpredictable bowel function and may fail to find a set of management strategies to achieve regularity. Understanding the myriad adjustments used by CRC survivors may lead to evidence-based interventions to foster positive adjustments after surgery and through long-term survivorship. PMID:26159443

  10. Dietary and Behavioral Adjustments to Manage Bowel Dysfunction After Surgery in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S; McMullen, Carmit K; Bulkley, Joanna E; Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Baldwin, Carol M; Herrinton, Lisa J; Hornbrook, Mark C; Krouse, Robert S

    2015-12-01

    Bowel dysfunction is a known complication of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Poor bowel control has a detrimental impact on survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This analysis describes the dietary and behavioral adjustments used by CRC survivors to manage bowel dysfunction and compares adjustments used by survivors with permanent ostomy to those with anastomosis. This mixed-methods analysis included pooled data from several studies that assessed HRQOL in CRC survivors. In all studies, CRC survivors with or without permanent ostomies (N = 856) were surveyed using the City of Hope Quality of Life Colorectal Cancer tool. Dietary adjustments were compared by ostomy status and by overall HRQOL score (high vs. low). Qualitative data from 13 focus groups and 30 interviews were analyzed to explore specific strategies used by survivors to manage bowel dysfunction. CRC survivors made substantial, permanent dietary, and behavioral adjustments after surgery, regardless of ostomy status. Survivors who took longer after surgery to become comfortable with their diet or regain their appetite were more likely to report worse HRQOL. Adjustments to control bowel function were divided into four major strategies: dietary adjustments, behavioral adjustments, exercise, and medication use. CRC survivors struggled with unpredictable bowel function and may fail to find a set of management strategies to achieve regularity. Understanding the myriad adjustments used by CRC survivors may lead to evidence-based interventions to foster positive adjustments after surgery and through long-term survivorship.

  11. Short and Long Term Behavioral and Pathological Changes in a Novel Rodent Model of Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McAteer

    Full Text Available A history of concussion, particularly repeated injury, has been linked to an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. CTE is characterized by abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and deficits in learning and memory. As yet the mechanisms associated with the development of CTE are unknown. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to develop and characterize a novel model of repetitive mTBI that accurately reproduces the key short and long-term functional and histopathological features seen clinically. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive 0, 1 or 3x mTBI spaced five days apart using a modified version of the Marmarou impact-acceleration diffuse-TBI model to deliver 110G of linear force. Functional outcomes were assessed six and twelve weeks post-injury, with histopathology assessed twenty-four hours and twelve weeks post-injury. Repetitive mTBI resulted in mild spatial and recognition memory deficits as reflected by increased escape latency on the Barnes maze and decreased time spent in the novel arm of the Y maze. There was a trend towards increased anxiety-like behavior, with decreased time spent in the inner portion of the open field. At 24 hours and 12 weeks post injury, repetitive mTBI animals showed increased tau phosphorylation and microglial activation within the cortex. Increases in APP immunoreactivity were observed in repetitive mTBI animals at 12 weeks indicating long-term changes in axonal integrity. This novel model of repetitive mTBI with its persistent cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, axonal injury and tau hyperphosphorylation, thus represents a clinically relevant experimental approach to further explore the underlying pathogenesis of CTE.

  12. Long-Term Effects of Two Formats of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia Comorbid with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Josée; Ivers, Hans; Savard, Marie-Hélène; Morin, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial, conducted in breast cancer patients, was to assess the long-term efficacy of a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (VCBT-I), as compared to a professionally administered intervention (PCBT-I) and to a no-treatment group (CTL). An earlier report revealed that, at posttreatment, VCBT-I patients showed significantly greater sleep improvements than CTL, but that PCBT-I produced superior effects than VCBT-I on some sleep and secondary outcomes. In this report, long-term effects are compared. Two hundred forty-two women with breast cancer and with insomnia symptoms or using hypnotic medications participated to this three-arm randomized controlled trial: (1) PCBT-I (n = 81); (2) VCBT-I (n = 80); or (3) no treatment (CTL; n = 81) group. PCBT-I was composed of six weekly, individual sessions of approximately 50 min, whereas VCBT-I comprised a 60-min animated video and six booklets. Study measures (sleep and secondary variables) were administered at pretreatment and posttreatment, and at a 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Treatment gains were well sustained at follow-up in both PCBT-I and VCBT-I. As at posttreatment, the remission rate of insomnia at follow-up was greater in PCBT-I than in VCBT-I, which was greater than in CTL. Although face-to-face therapy remains the optimal format to efficaciously administer CBT for insomnia in cancer patients, a minimal intervention, such as the video-based intervention tested in this study, produces significant and sustainable treatment effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00674830. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Effect of long-term mineral fertilization with different nutrition elements norms and ratios on humic condition of the slightly leached chernozem in Dobroudja

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Djendova, R.; Kirchev, H.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    As a result from a 30 year dressing with mineral fertilizers, a considerable differences were established in the soil nitrogen and humic content both along the soil profile and according to the combination of applied nutrition elements. The fertilization variant N 180 P 180 K 180 had the highest humus content - 3.51 % in the 0-20 cm layer, and 3.35 % in the 20-40 cm layer. This consecutively lead to accumulation of highest humus reserves in soil - 168 t/ha for the root-deep layer (0-40 cm) in total. Total nitrogen content in soil varied from 0.184 to 0.220 % according to the fertilization norms and the profile depth. Highest reserves of total nitrogen were formed in the variants with N 60 P 0 K 0 , N 60 P 60 K 0 and N 120 P 60 K 0 . The degree of nitrogen concentration in humus within the limits of the trial was determined as moderate for the whole root-deep layer. In the 20-40 cm layer, however, it tended to be high in the variants with independent nitrogen fertilization, regardless of the fertilization norm. The long-term application of high nitrogen norms lead to an increase in the humus mobility. It was also established that fertilization with moderate and high nitrogen norms increased the C ha : C pa , ratio, as well as the humic acid content linked with Ca, especially in the 0-20 cm layer. The amount of non-hydrolyzable residue (humine) also increased with the increase mainly of the nitrogen fertilization norm. In the variants dressed with moderate and high nitrogen norms the humus type was markedly humatic. Refs. 9 (author)

  14. Leaching and geochemical behavior of fired bricks containing coal wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Yassine; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Edahbi, Mohamed; Mansori, Mohammed; Hakkou, Rachid

    2018-03-01

    High amounts of mine wastes are continuously produced by the mining industry all over the world. Recycling possibility of some wastes in fired brick making has been investigated and showed promising results. However, little attention is given to the leaching behavior of mine wastes based fired bricks. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the geochemical behavior of fired bricks containing different types of coal wastes. The leachates were analyzed for their concentration of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn and sulfates using different leaching tests; namely Tank Leaching tests (NEN 7375), Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and pH dependence test (EPA, 1313). The results showed that the release of constituents of potential interest was highly reduced after thermal treatment and were immobilized within the glassy matrix of the fired bricks. Moreover, it was also highlighted that the final pH of all fired samples changed and stabilized around 8-8.5 when the initial pH of leaching solution was in the range 2.5-11.5. The release of heavy metals and metalloids (As) tended to decrease with the increase of pH from acidic to alkaline solutions while Mo displayed a different trend. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  16. Study on crystalline rock aiming at evaluation method of long-term behavior of rock mass (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Katsunori; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Matsui, Hiroya

    2017-11-01

    It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior such as creep and stress relaxation. Therefore, development of methodology to evaluate the past long-term behavior of rock mass is considered to be an issue. In view of above points, this study has been started as a collaboration study with the University of Tokyo from Fiscal Year 2016. In FY 2016, creep testing on Tage tuff was continuously conducted. Existing theory of rate process and stochastic process was modified to be applied to evaluate effects of water, and then the modified theory was validated based on the results of strength and creep tests performed under dry and wet conditions. Furthermore, effects of water contents on stress-strain curves were examined by uniaxial compression testing under various water content conditions. (author)

  17. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: access to treatment, prediction of long-term outcome with neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neill J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph O'Neill,1 Jamie D Feusner,2 1Division of Child Psychiatry, 2Division of Adult Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD: improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. Keywords: follow-up, access to treatment, relapse, resting-state fMRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  18. Traumatic brain injury causes long-term behavioral changes related to region-specific increases of cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöttker, Bruno; Stöber, Franziska; Hummel, Regina; Angenstein, Frank; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Schäfer, Michael K E

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death and survivors often suffer from long-lasting motor impairment, cognitive deficits, anxiety disorders and epilepsy. Few experimental studies have investigated long-term sequelae after TBI and relations between behavioral changes and neural activity patterns remain elusive. We examined these issues in a murine model of TBI combining histology, behavioral analyses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a proxy for neural activity. Adult C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to unilateral cortical impact injury and investigated at early (15-57 days after lesion, dal) and late (184-225 dal) post-traumatic time points. TBI caused pronounced tissue loss of the parietal cortex and subcortical structures and enduring neurological deficits. Marked perilesional astro- and microgliosis was found at 57 dal and declined at 225 dal. Motor and gait pattern deficits occurred at early time points after TBI and improved over the time. In contrast, impaired performance in the Morris water maze test and decreased anxiety-like behavior persisted together with an increased susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures suggesting alterations in neural activity patterns. Accordingly, SPECT imaging of CBF indicated asymmetric hemispheric baseline neural activity patterns. In the ipsilateral hemisphere, increased baseline neural activity was found in the amygdala. In the contralateral hemisphere, homotopic to the structural brain damage, the hippocampus and distinct cortex regions displayed increased baseline neural activity. Thus, regionally elevated CBF along with behavioral alterations indicate that increased neural activity is critically involved in the long-lasting consequences of TBI.

  19. Characterization, Long-Term Behavior Evaluation and Thermomechanical Properties of Untreated and Treated Flax Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ali

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the usage of natural fiber reinforced composites in more advanced structural applications. Consequently, the need for improving their mechanical properties as well as service life and long-term behavior modeling and predictions has arisen. In a step towards further development of these materials, in this study, two newly developed biobased resins, derived from soybean oil, methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate and double methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate are combined with untreated and alkaline treated flax fiber to produce novel biocomposites. Vinyl ester reinforced with flax fiber is used as control in addition to comparing properties of biobased composites against commercial pultruded composites. Effects of alkaline treatment of flax fiber as well as addition of 1% acrylic resin to vinyl ester and the two mentioned biobased resins on mechanical properties are studied. Properties are evaluated in short-term and also, after being exposed to accelerated weathering (i.e. UV and moisture). Moreover, long-term creep of these novel biobased composites and effect of fiber and matrix treatment on viscoelastic behavior is investigated using Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle. Based on the results of this study, the TTS provides an accelerated method for evaluation of mechanical properties of biobased composites, and satisfactory master curves are achieved by use of this principle. Also, fiber and matrix treatments were effective in increasing mechanical properties of biobased composites in short-term, and treatments delayed the creep response and slowed the process of creep in composites under study in the steady state region. Overall, results of this study reveal the successful production of biocomposites having properties that meet or exceed those of conventional pultruded members while maintaining high biocontent. Composites using treated flax fiber and newly developed resins showed less

  20. Prior exposure to interpersonal violence and long-term treatment response for boys with a disruptive behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Rausch, Joseph R; Insana, Salvatore P

    2014-10-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is common in children with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and increases the risk for greater DBD symptom severity, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and neuroendocrine disruption. Thus, IPV may make it difficult to change symptom trajectories for families receiving DBD interventions given these relationships. The current study examined whether IPV prior to receiving treatment for a DBD predicted trajectories of a variety of associated outcomes, specifically DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol concentrations. Boys with a DBD diagnosis (N = 66; age range = 6-11 years; 54.5% of whom experienced IPV prior to treatment) of either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder participated in a randomized clinical trial and were assessed 3 years following treatment. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that prior IPV predicted smaller rates of change in DBD symptoms, CU traits, and cortisol trajectories, indicating less benefit from intervention. The effect size magnitudes of IPV were large for each outcome (d = 0.88-1.07). These results suggest that IPV is a predictor of the long-term treatment response for boys with a DBD. Including trauma-focused components into existing DBD interventions may be worth testing to improve treatment effectiveness for boys with a prior history of IPV. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Long-term nitrogen behavior under treated wastewater infiltration basins in a soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, Omer; Arye, Gilboa

    2018-05-01

    The long term behavior of total nitrogen and its components was investigated in a soil aquifer treatment system of the Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Use is made of the previous 40 years' secondary data for the main nitrogen components (ammonium, nitrate and organic nitrogen) in recharged effluent and observation wells located inside an infiltration basin. The wells were drilled to 106 and 67 m, both in a similar position within the basin. The transport characteristics of each nitrogen component were evaluated based on chloride travel-time, calculated by a cross-correlation between its concentration in the recharge effluent and the observation wells. Changes in the source of recharge effluent, wastewater treatment technology and recharge regime were found to be the main factors affecting turnover in total nitrogen and its components. During aerobic operation of the infiltration basins, most organic nitrogen and ammonium will be converted to nitrate. Total nitrogen removal in the upper part of the aquifer was found to be 47-63% by denitrification and absorption, and overall removal, including the lower part of the aquifer, was 49-83%. To maintain the aerobic operation of the infiltration fields, the total nitrogen load should remain below 10 mg/L. Above this limit, ammonium and organic nitrogen will be displaced into the aquifer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomat, L.

    2008-04-01

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH≥11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  3. Production of an impermeable composite of irradiated graphite and glass by hot isostatic pressing as a long term leach resistant waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachinger, Johannes; Muller, Walter [FNAG ZU Hanau, Hanau (Germany); Marsat, Eric [FNAG SAS Le Pont de Claix (France); Grosse, Karl-Heinz; Seemann, Richard [ALD Hanau (Germany); Scales, Charlie; Easton, Michael Mark [NNL, Workington (United Kingdom); Anthony Banford [NNL, Warrington (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    negligible porosity and a water impermeable structure. Structural analysis shows that the glass in the composite has replaced the pores in the graphite structure. The typical pore volume of a graphite material is in the range of 20 vol.%. Therefore no volume increase will occur in comparison with the former graphite material. This IGM material will allow the encapsulation of graphite with package densities larger than 1.5 ton per cubic meter. Therefore a huge volume saving can be achieved by such an alternative encapsulation method. Disposal performance is also enhanced since little or no leaching of radionuclides is observed due to the impermeability of the material NNL and FNAG have proved that IGM can be produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which has several advantages for radioactive materials over the HVP process. - The sealed HIP container avoids the release of any radionuclides. - The outside of the waste package is not contaminated. - The HIP process time is shorter than the HVP process time. The isostatic press avoids anisotropic density distributions. - Simple filling of the HIP container has advantages over the filling of an axial die. (authors)

  4. Production of an impermeable composite of irradiated graphite and glass by hot isostatic pressing as a long term leach resistant waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fachinger, Johannes; Muller, Walter; Marsat, Eric; Grosse, Karl-Heinz; Seemann, Richard; Scales, Charlie; Easton, Michael Mark; Anthony Banford

    2013-01-01

    negligible porosity and a water impermeable structure. Structural analysis shows that the glass in the composite has replaced the pores in the graphite structure. The typical pore volume of a graphite material is in the range of 20 vol.%. Therefore no volume increase will occur in comparison with the former graphite material. This IGM material will allow the encapsulation of graphite with package densities larger than 1.5 ton per cubic meter. Therefore a huge volume saving can be achieved by such an alternative encapsulation method. Disposal performance is also enhanced since little or no leaching of radionuclides is observed due to the impermeability of the material NNL and FNAG have proved that IGM can be produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which has several advantages for radioactive materials over the HVP process. - The sealed HIP container avoids the release of any radionuclides. - The outside of the waste package is not contaminated. - The HIP process time is shorter than the HVP process time. The isostatic press avoids anisotropic density distributions. - Simple filling of the HIP container has advantages over the filling of an axial die. (authors)

  5. Predicting long-term outcome of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using fMRI and support vector machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, K N T; Frick, A; Boraxbekk, C-J; Marquand, A F; Williams, S C R; Carlbring, P; Andersson, G; Furmark, T

    2015-03-17

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but many patients do not respond sufficiently and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Predicting an individual's long-term clinical response therefore remains an important challenge. This study aimed at assessing neural predictors of long-term treatment outcome in participants with SAD 1 year after completion of Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT). Twenty-six participants diagnosed with SAD underwent iCBT including attention bias modification for a total of 13 weeks. Support vector machines (SVMs), a supervised pattern recognition method allowing predictions at the individual level, were trained to separate long-term treatment responders from nonresponders based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to self-referential criticism. The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale was the main instrument to determine treatment response at the 1-year follow-up. Results showed that the proportion of long-term responders was 52% (12/23). From multivariate BOLD responses in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) together with the amygdala, we were able to predict long-term response rate of iCBT with an accuracy of 92% (confidence interval 95% 73.2-97.6). This activation pattern was, however, not predictive of improvement in the continuous Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-report version. Follow-up psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that lower dACC-amygdala coupling was associated with better long-term treatment response. Thus, BOLD response patterns in the fear-expressing dACC-amygdala regions were highly predictive of long-term treatment outcome of iCBT, and the initial coupling between these regions differentiated long-term responders from nonresponders. The SVM-neuroimaging approach could be of particular clinical value as it allows for accurate prediction of treatment outcome at the level of the individual.

  6. Long-term effects of a single exposure to stress in adult rats on behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responsiveness: comparison of two outbred rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Márquez, Cristina; Armario, Antonio

    2004-10-05

    We have previously observed that a single exposure to immobilization (IMO), a severe stressor, caused long-term (days to weeks) desensitization of the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to the homotypic stressor, with no changes in behavioral reactivity to novel environments. In contrast, other laboratories have reported that a single exposure to footshock induced a long-term sensitization of both HPA and behavioral responses to novel environments. To test whether these apparent discrepancies can be explained by the use of different stressors or different strains of rats, we studied in the present work the long-term effects of a single exposure to two different stressors (footshock or IMO) in two different strains of rats (Sprague-Dawley from Iffa-Credo and Wistar rats from Harlan). We found that both strains showed desensitization of the HPA response to the same (homotypic) stressor after a previous exposure to either shock or IMO. The long-term effects were higher after IMO than shock. No major changes in behavior in two novel environments (circular corridor, CC and elevated plus-maze, EPM) were observed after a single exposure to shock or IMO in neither strain, despite the fact that shocked rats showed a conditioned freezing response to the shock boxes. The present results demonstrate that long-term stress-induced desensitization of the HPA axis is a reliable phenomenon that can be observed with different stressors and strains. However, only behavioral changes related to shock-induced conditioned fear were found, which suggests that so far poorly characterized factors are determining the long-term behavioral consequences of a single exposure to stress.

  7. Long-term spatial memory in Vespula germanica social wasps: the influence of past experience on foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats: Long-term neuronal and behavioral deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, Ettie; Chapman, Shira; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Raveh, Lily; Weissman, Ben-Avi; Kadar, Tamar; Allon, Nahum

    2008-01-01

    Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2 ± 0.8 μg/l) for 10 min. Mortality at 24 h was 35% and toxic sings in the surviving rats ranged from sever (prolonged convulsions) through moderate to almost no overt signs. Some of the surviving rats developed delayed, intermittent convulsions. All rats were evaluated for long-term functional deficits in comparison to air-exposed control rats. Histological analysis revealed typical cell loss at 1 week post inhalation exposure. Neuronal inflammation was demonstrated by a 20-fold increase in prostaglandin (PGE 2 ) levels 24 h following exposure that markedly decreased 6 days later. An additional, delayed increase in PGE 2 was detected at 1 month and continued to increase for up to 6 months post exposure. Glial activation following neural damage was demonstrated by an elevated level of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) seen in the brain 4 and 6 months after exposure. At the same time muscarinic receptors were unaffected. Six weeks, four and six months post exposure behavioral evaluations were performed. In the open field, sarin-exposed rats showed a significant increase in overall activity with no habituation over days. In a working memory paradigm in the water maze, these same rats showed impaired working and reference memory processes with no recovery. Our data suggest long lasting impairment of brain functions in surviving rats following a single sarin exposure. Animals that seem to fully recover from the exposure, and even animals that initially show no toxicity signs, developed some adverse neural changes with time

  9. Application feasibility study of evaluation technology for long-term rock behavior. 2. Parameter setting of variable compliance type model and application feasibility study for rock behavior evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shin; Noda, Masaru; Niunoya, Sumio; Hata, Koji; Matsui, Hiroya; Mikake, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    Creep phenomenon is one of the long-term rock behaviors. In many of rock-creep studies, model and parameter have been verified in 2D analysis using model parameter acquired by uniaxial compression test etc considering rock types. Therefore, in this study model parameter was set by uniaxial compression test with classified rock samples which were taken from pilot boring when the main shaft was constructed. Then, comparison between measured value and 3D excavation analysis with identified parameter was made. By and large, the study showed that validity of identification methodology of parameter to identify reproduction of measured value and analysis method. (author)

  10. Preventive Intervention for Preschoolers at High Risk for Antisocial Behavior: Long-Term Effects on Child Physical Aggression and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Huang, Keng-Yen; Rosenfelt, Amanda; O'Neal, Colleen; Klein, Rachel G.; Shrout, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This article presents long-term effects of a preventive intervention for young children at high risk for antisocial behavior. Ninety-two children (M age = 4 years) were randomly assigned to an 8-month family intervention or no-intervention control condition and assessed 4 times over a 24-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant…

  11. Predicting long-term outcome of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using fMRI and support vector machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansson, K.N.T.; Frick, A.; Boraxbekk, C.J.; Marquand, A.F.; Williams, S.C.; Carlbring, P.; Andersson, G.; Furmark, T.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but many patients do not respond sufficiently and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Predicting an individual's long-term clinical response therefore remains an important challenge.

  12. Using Psychodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral, and Control Mastery Prototypes to Predict Change: A New Look at an Old Paradigm for Long-Term Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi; Ablon, J. Stuart; O'Connor, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates a method of testing models of change in individual long-term psychotherapy cases. A depressed client was treated with 208 sessions of control mastery therapy (CMT), an unmanualized approach that integrates elements of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Panels of experts developed prototypes…

  13. Developments in long-term explicit memory late in the first year of life: behavioral and electrophysiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Wiebe, Sandra A; Carver, Leslie J; Waters, Jennie M; Nelson, Charles A

    2003-11-01

    Coincident with developments in the temporal-cortical explicit memory network, long-term recall abilities are newly emergent late in the first year of human life. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 9-month-olds as an index of the integrity of the neural substrate underlying a task thought to reflect explicit memory, namely, deferred imitation. ERP measures of recognition memory 1 week after unique laboratory experiences predicted whether and how much infants recalled of the experiences 1 month later. The findings further imply that memory storage and consolidation processes are a major source of variability in long-term recall memory late in the first year of life.

  14. Dynamic leaching behavior of geogenic As in soils after cement-based stabilization/solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Beiyuan, Jingzi; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-12-01

    Cement-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is a practical treatment approach for hazardous waste with anthropogenic As sources; however, its applicability for geogenic As-containing soil and the long-term leaching potential remain uncertain. In this study, semi-dynamic leaching test was performed to investigate the influence of S/S binders (cement blended with fuel ash (FA), furnace bottom ash (FBA), or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)) on the long-term leaching characteristics of geogenic As. The results showed that mineral admixtures with higher Ca content and pozzolanic activity were more effective in reducing the leached As concentrations. Thus, cement blended with FBA was inferior to other binders in suppressing the As leaching, while 20% replacement of ordinary Portland cement by GGBS was considered most feasible for the S/S treatment of As-containing soils. The leachability of geogenic As was suppressed by the encapsulation effect of solidified matrix and interlocking network of hydration products that were supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The long-term leaching of geogenic As from the monolithic samples was diffusion-controlled. Increasing the Ca content in the samples led to a decrease in diffusion coefficient and an increase in feasibility for "controlled utilization" of the S/S-treated soils.

  15. Automatic mental heath assistant : monitoring and measuring nonverbal behavior of the crew during long-term missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voynarovskaya, N.; Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Barakova, E.I.; Ruyter, B.; Spink, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for monitoring the mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc.) The research is done as a part of Automatic Mental Health Assistant (AMHA) project which aims

  16. Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Williams, Lauren F.; Suvak, Michael K.; Monson, Candice M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a long-term follow-up (LTFU) assessment of participants from a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive processing therapy (CPT) with prolonged exposure (PE) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing hypotheses for positive outcomes (i.e., additional therapy, medication) were examined. Method:…

  17. Evaluation of the leaching behavior of incineration bottom ash using seawater: A comparison with standard leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Nguyen, Minh Quan; Ho, Jin Rui Ivan; Mohamed Noh, Omar Ahmad Bin; Zhou, Xue Dong; Liu, Alec; Ren, Fei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Batch and column tests were conducted on untreated incineration bottom ash (IBA) samples from two incineration plants in Singapore, using seawater as the leachant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the change in the leaching behavior of certain elements (i.e. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn) when IBA comes into contact with seawater. Such an investigation using seawater as leachant was not commonly carried out when investigating leaching behavior in IBA. The leaching tests were then carried out on the same IBA samples using DI water, as a comparison. Lower level of leaching was observed for Pb and Zn when seawater was used as the leachant. Cr and Sb showed significant cumulative release at Liquid-to-Solids (L/S) ratio 5 in the seawater column leaching. The influence of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) on Cu leaching seems to decrease after L/S 2 when using seawater in the column test. Although the leaching behavior of IBA was affected when seawater was used, for the column test, there was no significant difference during the initial release when compared to DI water. The initial L/S fractions collected were important as the low L/S ratios represent the pore water concentration and the maximum output in an actual application. The results from this study would be useful for the future study on using IBA in marine applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term behavior of the concentration of the minor constituents in the mesosphere – a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grygalashvyly

    2009-04-01

    of the upper atmosphere. The long-term behavior of water vapor is discussed in particular with respect to its impact on the NLC region.

  19. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Yucca Mountain Tuff and its Variability, Final Technical Report for Task ORD-FY04-021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, Jaak J.K.; Ma, Lumin; Zhao, Guohua

    2006-01-01

    The study of the long term mechanical behavior of Yucca Mountain tuffs is important for several reasons. Long term stability of excavations will affect accessibility (e.g. for inspection purposes), and retrievability. Long term instabilities may induce loading of drip shields and/or emplaced waste, thus affecting drip shield and/or waste package corrosion. Failure of excavations will affect airflow, may affect water flow, and may affect temperature distributions. The long term mechanical behavior of rocks remains an elusive topic, loaded with uncertainties. A variety of approaches have been used to improve the understanding of this complex subject, but it is doubtful that it has reached a stage where firm predictions can be considered feasible. The long term mechanical behavior of ''soft'' rocks, especially evaporites, and in particular rock salt, has been the subject of numerous investigations (e.g. Cristescu and Hunsche, 1998, Cristescu et al, 2002), and basic approaches towards engineering taking into account the long term behavior of such materials have long been well established (e.g. Dreyer, 1972, 1982). The same is certainly not true of ''hard'' rocks. While it long has been recognized that the long term strength of ''hard'' rocks almost certainly is significantly less than that measured during ''short'', i.e. standard (ASTM D 2938), ISRM suggested (Bieniawski et al, 1978) and conventionally used test procedures (e.g. Bieniawski, 1970, Wawersik, 1972, Hoek and Brown, 1980, p. 150), what limited approaches have been taken to develop strategies toward determining the long term mechanical behavior of ''hard'' rock remain in the early research and investigation stage, at best. One early model developed specifically for time dependent analysis of underground ''hard'' rock structures is the phenomenological model by Kaiser and Morgenstern (1981). Brady and Brown (1985, p. 93) state that over a wide range of strain rates, from 10 -8 to 10 2 /s the difference in

  20. Leaching behavior of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Dorf, M.

    1996-04-01

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. We have developed a magnesium phosphate ceramic to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests

  1. Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sophie; Mian, Firoz M.; Stanisz, Andrew M.; Bindels, Laure B.; Cambier, Emmanuel; Ben-Amram, Hila; Koren, Omry; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children's health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria. PMID:28375200

  2. Contributions of vitreous natural analogs to the investigation of long-term nuclear glass behavior; Apports des analogues naturels vitreux a la validation des codes de prediction du comportement a long terme des verres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techer, I

    1999-07-01

    This study assesses the extend of the analogy between the alteration behavior in water and in a moist clay environment of aluminosilicate volcanic glass and alumino-borosilicate nuclear containment glass. Basaltic glass alteration in water initially occurs by hydrolysis processes with an activation energy on the order of 73 kJ.mol{sup -1}. As the reaction progresses, the alteration rate drops by over four orders of magnitude from the initial rate r{sub 0}, The alteration kinetics are not governed by the alteration solution chemistry alone, the glass alteration film appears to have a major role as a diffusion barrier limiting the transfer of reaction species and products. All these aspects highlight the behavioral analogy between basaltic glass and nuclear borosilicate glass in aqueous media. Conversely, the alteration reaction of obsidian-type volcanic glass involves other mechanisms than those governing the dissolution of borosilicate glass. Basaltic glass alteration is also examined in the presence of a clay environmental material, in a study of the natural basaltic glass and argillaceous pelites system of the Salagou basin in southern France, in an approach combining mineralogical, chemical and isotopic data to assess the interactions between a basaltic glass and the argillaceous pelites. Laboratory leach test results with basaltic glass and measured data for the Salagou glass in its natural environment are modeled using a code implementing a kinetic law coupling diffusive transfer of dissolved silica with a reaction affinity law. (author)

  3. Simulation of ultra-long term behavior in HLW near-field by centrifugal model test. Part 1. Development of centrifugal equipment and centrifuge model test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Soshi; Okada, Tetsuji; Sawada, Masataka

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a centrifugal equipment which can continuously be run for a long time and a model test method in order to evaluate a long term behavior which is a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the high level wastes geological disposal repository and the neighborhood (called 'near-field'). The centrifugal equipment of CRIEPI, 'CENTURY5000-THM', developed in the present study is able to run continuously up to six months. Therefore, a long term behavior in the near-field can be simulated in a short term, for instance, the behavior for 5000 equivalent years can be simulated in six months by centrifugalizing 100 G using a 1/100 size model. We carried out a test using a nylon specimen in a centrifugal force field of 30 G and confirmed the operations of CENTURY5000-THM, control and measurement for 11 days. As the results, it was able to control the stress in the pressure vessel and measure the values of strain, temperature and pressure. And, as a result of scanning the small model of near-field including the metal overpack, bentonite buffer and rock by a medical X-rays CT scanner, the internal structure of the model was able to be evaluated when the metal artifact was reduced. From these results, the evaluation for a long term behavior of a disposal repository by the method of centrifugal model test became possible. (author)

  4. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  5. Long-Term Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Naturalistic Case Series of 1 to 4 Years After a Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Anson, Martin

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) after 1 to 6months but none in the long term. The aim of this study was to follow up the participants in a randomized controlled trial of CBT versus anxiety management to determine whether or not the treatment gains were maintained over time. Thirty of the original 39 participants who had CBT were followed up over 1 to 4years and assessed using a number of clinician and self-report measures, which included the primary outcome measure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD. Outcome scores generally maintained over time from end of treatment to long-term follow-up. There was a slight deterioration from n=20 (51.3%) to n=18 (46.2%) who met improvement criteria at long-term follow-up. Eleven (28.2%) were in full remission and 22 (56.4%) were in partial remission. The gains made were generally maintained at long-term follow-up. However, there were a significant number of participants who maintained chronic symptoms after treatment and may need a longer-term or more complex intervention and active medication management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Long term effects of low doses of 56Fe ions on the brain and retina of the mouse: ultrastructural and behavioral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Miquel, J.

    1986-01-01

    Eight month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed without anesthesia to whole-body irradiation in circular holders. The mice were tested for behavioral decrements after 0.5 and 50 rads of Fe particle irradiation at 6 and 12 months post irradiation to obtain long term results. A standard maze was used and the animals were timed for completion thereof. A string test also was administered to the mice, testing their ability to grasp and move along a string to safety. The results from animals exposed to 50 rads were significantly different from [correction of fron] control results to p = brain) and the retina were examined for ultrastructural changes. The ultrastructural changes were similar to those we found in our Cosmos 782, 936 and in our Argon experiments. The mouse data indicate that iron particles were able to induce long term changes in the central nervous system which lead to behavioral impairment.

  7. Geochemical modeling of leaching from MSWI air-pollution control residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrup, T.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Christensen, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an improved understanding of the leaching behavior of waste incineration air-pollution-control (APC) residues in a long-term perspective. Leaching was investigated by a series of batch experiments reflecting leaching conditions after initial washout of highly soluble salts from

  8. Long-term behaviors of phosphate-based rapid repairing material for concrete shafts in coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Feng; Zhen-Ya, Zhang; Xiao-Dong, Wen; Chao, Xin; Dong-Yuan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Concrete structures in shaft linings are apt to deteriorate prematurely and therefore prompt restoration is required. In considering this, desulphurization fly ash and machine-made tuff sand are employed to fabricate a phosphate-based rapid repairing material. The long-term efficiency of the material is evaluated based on combined factors, so drying shrinkage, interfacial bonding strength, corrosion resistance, and combustibility of the specimens are tested and researched in this paper. Experimental results showed that, under a dry circumstance, the material goes through a minor expansion at an early stage. It goes into a stage of rapid contraction after one day and a stable contraction after seven days. After 28 days, the total deformation is 67 micro-strains. On the other hand, the fabricated material manifests an excellent mechanical property. The one hour bending strength and compressive strength were 9.2 MPa and 32.6 MPa, respectively. A long-term mine water flushing simulation demonstrates that only 10% bending strength is lost and the corrosion resistance coefficient stays above 0.8, so a very good corrosion resistance is thus achieved. What is more, this repairing material retains its stability even at a high temperature of 1000°C, revealing its good thermo-stability. All these prominent properties make it a good prospective material for real restoration applications.

  9. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Yamanashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC. Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1 and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS, Kyoto University (Study 2. We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than

  10. Long-term corrosion behaviors of Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 in moisture-containing molten FLiNaK salt environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Chang, Chi-Hung; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Corrosion behaviors of Hastelloy-N and -B3 in molten FLiNaK salt at 700 °C. •The alleviated corrosion rate of alloys was observed after long-hour immersion. •Long-term corrosion rate was limited by diffusion from matrix to alloy surface. •Corrosion pattern transferred from intergranular corrosion into general corrosion. •Presence of minor H 2 O did not greatly influence the long-term corrosion behavior. -- Abstract: This study investigated long-term corrosion behaviors of Ni-based Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 under moisture-containing molten alkali fluoride salt (LiF–NaF–KF: 46.5–11.5–42%) environment at an ambient temperature of 700 °C. The Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 experienced similar weight losses for tested duration of 100–1000 h, which was caused by aggregate dissolution of Cr and Mo into FLiNaK salts. The corrosion rate of both alloys was high initially, but then reduced during the course of the test. The alleviated corrosion rate was due to the depletion of Cr and Mo near surface of the alloys and thus the long-term corrosion rate was controlled by diffusion of Cr and Mo outward to the alloy surface. The results of microstructural characterization revealed that the corrosion pattern for both alloys tended to be intergranular corrosion at early stage of corrosion test, and then transferred to general corrosion for longer immersion hours

  11. Long term integrity of reactor pressure vessel and primary containment vessel after the severe accidents in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Leaching property of spent oxide fuel segment and corrosion property of a carbon steel under artificial seawater immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    Primary containment vessel (PCV), reactor pressure vessel and pedestal in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station units 1 through 3 have been exposed to severe thermal, chemical and mechanical conditions due to core meltdown events and seawater injections for emergent core cooling. These components will be immersed in diluted seawater with dissolved fission products under irradiation until the end of debris removal. Fresh water injected into the cores contacts with debris to cool, dissolves or erodes their constituents, mixed with retained water, and becomes 'accumulated water' with radioactive nuclides. We have focused the leaching of fission products into the accumulated water under lower temperature (323 K). FUGEN spent oxide fuel segments were immersed to determine the leaching factor of fission product and actinide elements. Since PCV made from carbon steel is one of the most important boundaries to prevent from fission products release, corrosion behavior has been paid attention to evaluate their integrity. Carbon steel specimens were immersion- and electrochemical-tested in diluted seawater with simulants of the accumulated water at 323 K in order to evaluate the effect of fission products in particular cesium and radiation. (author)

  12. Thermal interaction of the core and the mantle and long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature changes at the earth's core-mantle boundary on the velocity field of the core are analyzed. It is assumed that the geomagnetic field is maintained by thermal convection in the outer core. A model for the thermal interaction of the core and the mantle is presented which is consistent with current views on the presence of heat sources in the core and the properties of the lower mantle. Significant long-term variations in the frequency of geomagnetic reversals may be the result of fluctuating temperatures at the core-mantle boundary, caused by intermittent convection in the lower mantle. The thermal structure of the lower mantle region D double prime, extending from 2700 to 2900 km in depth, constitutes an important test of this hypothesis and offers a means of deciding whether the geomagnetic dynamo is thermally driven.

  13. Long-Term Behaviors of the OPC Concrete with Fly-ash and Type V Concrete Applied on Reactor Containment Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eui Sik; Lee, Hee Taik; Paek, Yong Lak; Park, Young Soo

    2010-01-01

    The prestressed concrete has been used extensively in the construction of Reactor Containment Buildings (RCBs) in Korea in order to strengthen the RCBs and at the same time, prevent the release of radiation due to the Design Basis Accident and Design Basis Earthquake. It is well known that the prestressed concrete loses its prestressing force over the age, and the shrinkage and creep of the concrete significantly contributes to these long term prestressing losses. In this study, an evaluations of long term behaviors of the concrete such as creep and shrinkage have been performed for two types of concretes : Ordinary Portland Cement containing fly-ash used for the Shin- Kori 1 and 2 NPP and Type V cement used for the Ul- Chin 5 and 6 NPP

  14. Long-Term Behaviors of the OPC Concrete with Fly-ash and Type V Concrete Applied on Reactor Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eui Sik; Lee, Hee Taik; Paek, Yong Lak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Soo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The prestressed concrete has been used extensively in the construction of Reactor Containment Buildings (RCBs) in Korea in order to strengthen the RCBs and at the same time, prevent the release of radiation due to the Design Basis Accident and Design Basis Earthquake. It is well known that the prestressed concrete loses its prestressing force over the age, and the shrinkage and creep of the concrete significantly contributes to these long term prestressing losses. In this study, an evaluations of long term behaviors of the concrete such as creep and shrinkage have been performed for two types of concretes : Ordinary Portland Cement containing fly-ash used for the Shin- Kori 1 and 2 NPP and Type V cement used for the Ul- Chin 5 and 6 NPP

  15. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  16. Package characterization by laboratory leaching and diffusion experiments using radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The leaching of solid inorganic waste from loaded concrete or cement by incoming water can be described in terms of a steady-state outward diffusion of the saturated solution, formed inside the pores. In this paper, the derived equations permit the prediction of long-term leaching behavior. Radiotracer experiments enable the determination of the parameters involved

  17. Stress responses of adolescent male and female rats exposed repeatedly to cat odor stimuli, and long-term enhancement of adult defensive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lisa D; Muir, Katherine E; Perrot, Tara S

    2013-07-01

    In order to characterize the short- and long-term effects of repeated stressor exposure during adolescence, and to compare the effects of using two sources of cat odor as stressor stimuli, male and female adolescent rats (postnatal day (PND) ∼ 38-46) were exposed on five occasions to either a control stimulus, a cloth stimulus containing cat hair/dander, or a section of cat collar previously worn by a cat. Relative to control stimulus exposure, activity was suppressed and defensive behavior enhanced during exposure to either cat odor stimulus (most pervasively in rats exposed to the collar). Only cloth-exposed rats showed elevated levels of corticosterone (CORT), and only after repeated stressor exposure, but interestingly, rats exposed to the collar stimulus during adolescence continued to show increased behavioral indices of anxiety in adulthood. In this group, the time an individual spent in physical contact with a cagemate during the final adolescent exposure was negatively related to stress-induced CORT output in adulthood, which suggests that greater use of social support during adolescent stress may facilitate adult behavioral coping, without necessitating increased CORT release. These findings demonstrate that adolescent male and female rats respond defensively to cat odor stimuli across repeated exposures and that exposure to such stressors during adolescence can augment adult anxiety-like behavior in similar stressful conditions. These findings also suggest a potential role for social behavior during adolescent stressor exposure in mediating long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals from Cement Pastes Using a Modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minrui; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Chen, Yingqiang; Shentu, Jiali

    2016-03-01

    As the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) can not exhaust the acid neutralizing capacity of the cement rotary kiln co-processing solid wastes products which is particularly important for the assessment of the leaching concentrations of heavy metals. A modified TCLP was proposed. The extent of leaching of heavy metals is low using the TCLP and the leaching performance of the different metals can not be differentiated. Using the modified TCLP, however, Zn leaching was negligible during the first 180 h and then sharply increased (2.86 ± 0.18 to 3.54 ± 0.26 mg/L) as the acidity increased (pH leaching is enhanced using the modified TCLP. While Pb leached readily during the first 126 h and then leachate concentrations decreased to below the analytical detection limit. To conclude, this modified TCLP is a more suitable method for these cement rotary kiln co-processing products.

  19. Effects of Neighborhood Walkability on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Long-Term Post-Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ryan E R; Carver, Tamara E; Reid, Tyler G R; Picard-Turcot, Marie-Aude; Andersen, Kathleen M; Christou, Nicolas V; Andersen, Ross E

    2017-06-01

    ᅟ: Chronic inactivity and weight regain are serious health concerns following bariatric surgery. Neighborhood walkability is associated with higher physical activity and lower obesity rates in normal weight populations. Explore the influence of neighborhood walkability on physical activity and sedentarism among long-term post-bariatric surgery patients. Fifty-eight adults aged 50.5 ± 9.1 years, with a BMI of 34.6 ± 9.7 kg/m 2 having undergone surgery 9.8 ± 3.15 years earlier participated in this study. Participants were asked to wear an ActivPAL™ tri-axial accelerometer attached to their mid-thigh for 7-consecutive days, 24 hours/day. The sample was separated into those that live in Car-Dependent (n = 23), Somewhat Walkable (n = 14), Very Walkable (n = 16), and Walker's Paradise (n = 5) neighborhoods as defined using Walk Score®. ANCOVA was performed comparing Walk Score® categories on steps and sedentary time controlling for age and sex. Neighborhood walkability did not influence either daily steps (F (3, 54) = 0.921, p = 0.437) or sedentary time (F (3, 54) = 0.465, p = 0.708), Car-Dependent (6359 ± 2712 steps, 9.54 ± 2.46 hrs), Somewhat Walkable (6563 ± 2989 steps, 9.07 ± 2.70 hrs), Very Walkable (5261 ± 2255 steps, 9.97 ± 2.06 hrs), and Walker's Paradise (6901 ± 1877 steps, 10.14 ± 0.815 hrs). Walkability does not appear to affect sedentary time or physical activity long-term post-surgery. As the built-environment does not seem to influence activity, sedentarism, or obesity as it does with a normal weight population, work needs to be done to tailor physical activity programming after bariatric surgery.

  20. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frugier, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author) [fr

  1. Long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus: a model for behavioral and mechanistic studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maldonado

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A decade of studies on long-term habituation (LTH in the crab Chasmagnathus is reviewed. Upon sudden presentation of a passing object overhead, the crab reacts with an escape response that habituates promptly and for at least five days. LTH proved to be an instance of associative memory and showed context, stimulus frequency and circadian phase specificity. A strong training protocol (STP (³15 trials, intertrial interval (ITI of 171 s invariably yielded LTH, while a weak training protocol (WTP (£10 trials, ITI = 171 s invariably failed. STP was used with a presumably amnestic agent and WTP with a presumably hypermnestic agent. Remarkably, systemic administration of low doses was effective, which is likely to be due to the lack of an endothelial blood-brain barrier. LTH was blocked by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA activators and reduced by PKA inhibitors, facilitated by angiotensin II and IV and disrupted by saralasin. The presence of angiotensins and related compounds in the crab brain was demonstrated. Diverse results suggest that LTH includes two components: an initial memory produced by spaced training and mainly expressed at an initial phase of testing, and a retraining memory produced by massed training and expressed at a later phase of testing (retraining. The initial memory would be associative, context specific and sensitive to cycloheximide, while the retraining memory would be nonassociative, context independent and insensitive to cycloheximide

  2. Effects of long-term dharma-chan meditation on cardiorespiratory synchronization and heart rate variability behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Lo, Pei-Chen

    2013-04-01

    Remarkable changes in cardiorespiratory interactions are frequently experienced by Chan meditation practitioners following years of practice. This study compares the results of our study on cardiorespiratory interactions for novice (control group) and experienced (experimental group) Chan meditation practitioners. The effectual co-action between the cardiac and respiratory systems was evaluated by the degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS). In addition, an adaptive-frequency-range (AFR) scheme to reliably quantify heart rate variability (HRV) was developed for assessing the regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic activity and the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. The enhanced HRV method, named HRVAFR, can resolve the issue of overestimating HRV under the condition of slow respiration rates, which is frequently encountered in studies on Chan meditation practitioners. In the comparison of the three data sets collected from the two groups, our findings resulted in innovative hypotheses to interpret the extraordinary process of the rejuvenation of cardiorespiratory functions through long-term Dharma-Chan meditation practice. Particularly, advanced practitioners exhibit a continuously high degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization, even during rapid breathing. Based on our post-experimental interview with advanced practitioners, the activation of inner Chakra energy, during the course of Chan-detachment practice, frequently induces perceptible physiological-mental reformation, including an efficient mechanism for regulating cardiorespiratory interactions.

  3. Long-Term Placement Trajectories of Children Who Were Maltreated and Entered the Child Welfare System at an Early Age: Consequences for Physical and Behavioral Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T; Litrownik, Alan J; Newton, Rae R; Davis, Inger P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify children's long-term placement trajectories following early child welfare involvement and the association of these trajectories with subsequent physical and behavioral well-being. Participants were 330 children who entered out-of-home care following a substantiated report of child abuse or neglect during infancy/early childhood and their caregivers. Participants were interviewed at child ages 4 and 12 years to assess children's physical and behavioral well-being and every 2 years in between to determine child placements. Latent Class Analyses identified four stable placement trajectories (i.e., adopted [32%], kinship care [15%], stable reunified [27%], and stable foster care [9%]), and two unstable trajectories (i.e., disrupted reunified [12%] and unstable foster care [5%]). Logistic regressions revealed that children in the unstable trajectories had significantly poorer physical and behavioral well-being than children in stable trajectories. Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at risk for long-term placement instability and poorer physical and behavioral well-being. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium in calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Mi; Gao, Hui-yang; Liu, Jia-yi; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2018-05-01

    Calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) was conducted to elucidate the roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium. The effects of the purity of CaO, molar ratio between CaO and V2O5 ( n(CaO)/ n(V2O5)), roasting temperature, holding time, and the heating rate used in the oxidation-calcification processes were investigated. The roasting process and mechanism were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The results show that most of vanadium reacted with CaO to generate calcium vanadates and transferred into the leaching liquid, whereas almost all of the chromium remained in the leaching residue in the form of (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3. Variation trends of the vanadium and chromium leaching ratios were always opposite because of the competitive reactions of oxidation and calcification between vanadium and chromium with CaO. Moreover, CaO was more likely to combine with vanadium, as further confirmed by thermodynamic analysis. When the HCVS with CaO added in an n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratio of 0.5 was roasted in an air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min from room temperature to 950°C and maintained at this temperature for 60 min, the leaching ratios of vanadium and chromium reached 91.14% and 0.49%, respectively; thus, efficient extraction of vanadium from HCVS was achieved and the leaching residue could be used as a new raw material for the extraction of chromium. Furthermore, the oxidation and calcification reactions of the spinel phases occurred at 592 and 630°C for n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratios of 0.5 and 5, respectively.

  5. Measurement of leach rates: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A historical perspective of the techniques that can be used to measure the leach rate of radioactive waste forms is presented. The achievement of leach rates that are as low as possible has been an important goal ever since the development of solidification processes for liquid radioactive wastes began in the 1950's. Leach tests can be divided into two major categories, dynamic and static, based on whether or not the leachant in contact with the test specimen is changed during the course of the test. Both types of tests have been used extensively. The results of leach tests can be used to compare waste forms, and that has been a major purpose of leach data heretofore; increasingly, however, the data now are needed for predicting long-term leaching behavior during geologic disposal. This requirement is introducing new complexities into leach testing methodology. 3 figures, 2 tables

  6. Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive–Behavioral Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Williams, Lauren F.; Suvak, Michael K.; Monson, Candice M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We conducted a long-term follow-up (LTFU) assessment of participants from a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive processing therapy (CPT) with prolonged exposure (PE) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing hypotheses for positive outcomes (i.e., additional therapy, medication) were examined. Method Intention-to-treat (ITT) participants were assessed 5–10 years after participating in the study (M = 6.15, SD = 1.22). We attempted to locate the 171 original participants, women with PTSD who had experienced at least one rape. Of 144 participants located, 87.5% were reassessed (N = 126), which constituted 73.7% of the original ITT sample. Self-reported PTSD symptoms were the primary outcome. Clinician-rated PTSD symptoms, comorbid diagnoses, and self-reported depression were secondary outcomes. Results Substantial decreases in symptoms due to treatment (as reported in Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002) were maintained throughout the LTFU period, as evidenced by little change over time from posttreatment through follow-up (effect sizes ranging from pr = .03 to .14). No significant differences emerged during the LTFU between the treatment conditions (Cohen’s d = 0.06–0.29). The ITT examination of diagnostics indicated that 22.2% of CPT and 17.5% of PE participants met the diagnosis for PTSD according to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995) at the LTFU. Maintenance of improvements could not be attributed to further therapy or medications. Conclusions CPT and PE resulted in lasting changes in PTSD and related symptoms over an extended period of time for female rape victims with extensive histories of trauma. PMID:22182261

  7. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes Following Re-socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Crailsheim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years. The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined.

  8. Provision or Good Genes? Menstrual Cycle Shifts in Women's Preferences for Short-Term and Long-Term Mates' Altruistic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Oda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Men's altruism may have evolved, via female choice, as a signal of either their genetic quality or their willingness to allocate resources to offspring. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their genetic quality may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism across the stages of the menstrual cycle. Because women can maximize reproductive benefits by mating with men who have “good genes” on high-fertility versus low-fertility days, women should show a heightened preference for male altruism on high-fertility days compared to low-fertility days, and this heightened preference should be more apparent when women evaluate men for short-term sexual relationships than for long-term committed relationships. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their willingness to provision, as opposed to their genetic quality, may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism toward different recipients. More specifically, altruistic behavior toward family members may reflect a willingness to provide resources for kin and, hence, willingness to provision, whereas altruistic behavior toward strangers may function as an honest signal of genetic quality. In two samples of young women (TVs = 131 and 481, we found no differences between high- and low-fertility participants in preference for men's altruism, and women preferred men's altruism more in long-term than short-term relationships. The findings suggest that men's altruistic behavior functions as a signal of willingness to provide resources rather than genetic quality.

  9. Brief predator sound exposure elicits behavioral and neuronal long-term sensitization in the olfactory system of an insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, S.; Evengaard, K.; Barrozo, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    later in the same way as exposure to the sex pheromone itself. The observed behavioral modification is accompanied by an increase in the sensitivity of olfactory neurons in the antennal lobe. Our data provide thus evidence for cross-modal experience-dependent plasticity not only on the behavioral level...... at the behavioral and central nervous level. Here we show that this effect is not confined to the same sensory modality: the sensitivity of olfactory neurons can also be modulated by exposure to a different sensory stimulus, i.e., a pulsed stimulus mimicking echolocating sounds from attacking insectivorous bats. We...... tested responses of preexposed male moths in a walking bioassay and recorded from neurons in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe. We show that brief exposure to a bat call, but not to a behaviorally irrelevant tone, increases the behavioral sensitivity of male moths to sex pheromone 24 h...

  10. Effects of Chronic Vitamin D3 Hormone Administration on Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adult Female Rats after Long-Term Ovariectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present preclinical study was created to determine the therapeutic effects of vitamin D hormone treatment as an adjunctive therapy alone or in a combination with low dose of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 on anxiety-like behavior in female rats with long-term absence of estrogen. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic cholecalciferol administration (1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg subcutaneously, SC, once daily, for 14 days on the anxiety-like state after long-term ovariectomy in female rats. Twelve weeks postovariectomy, cholecalciferol was administered to ovariectomized (OVX rats and OVX rats treated with 17β-E2 (0.5 µg/rat SC, once daily, for 14 days. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM and the light/dark test (LDT, and locomotor and grooming activities were tested in the open field test (OFT. Cholecalciferol at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg alone or in combination with 17β-E2 produced anxiolytic-like effects in OVX rats as evidenced in the EPM and the LDT, as well as increased grooming activity in the OFT. Our results indicate that cholecalciferol, at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, has a profound anxiolytic-like effects in the experimental rat model of long-term estrogen deficiency.

  11. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  12. The long-term behavior of lightweight and heavyweight meshes used to repair abdominal wall defects is determined by the host tissue repair process provoked by the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Gemma; Hernández-Gascón, Belén; Rodríguez, Marta; Sotomayor, Sandra; Peña, Estefania; Calvo, Begoña; Bellón, Juan M

    2012-11-01

    Although heavyweight (HW) or lightweight (LW) polypropylene (PP) meshes are widely used for hernia repair, other alternatives have recently appeared. They have the same large-pore structure yet are composed of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This study compares the long-term (3 and 6 months) behavior of meshes of different pore size (HW compared with LW) and composition (PP compared with PTFE). Partial defects were created in the lateral wall of the abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits and then repaired by the use of a HW or LW PP mesh or a new monofilament, large-pore PTFE mesh (Infinit). At 90 and 180 days after implantation, tissue incorporation, gene and protein expression of neocollagens (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/immunofluorescence), macrophage response (immunohistochemistry), and biomechanical strength were determined. Shrinkage was measured at 90 days. All three meshes induced good host tissue ingrowth, yet the macrophage response was significantly greater in the PTFE implants (P .05). Host collagen deposition is mesh pore size dependent whereas the macrophage response induced is composition dependent with a greater response shown by PTFE. In the long term, macroporous meshes show comparable biomechanical behavior regardless of their pore size or composition. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Relationship between Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Enhanced Lateral Hypothalamic Orexin Neuronal Activation in Long-Term Fructose Bingeing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM) display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R) numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day) exposure to the IAM, rats given 8–12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx) neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF), a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day) access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p.) equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  14. A relationship between reduced nucleus accumbens shell and enhanced lateral hypothalamic orexin neuronal activation in long-term fructose bingeing behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacki M Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day exposure to the IAM, rats given 8-12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR. This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF, a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p. equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  15. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P; Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Gebhardt, Ursel; Müller, Hermann L

    2015-01-01

    As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the HIT-Endo multicenter study, and in 85 body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls using the Inventory for Eating Behavior and Weight Problems (IEG) and the Inventory for Eating Disorders (ESI). Severely obese patients (BMI>8 SD; n=9) presented with pathological eating behavior, more weight problems, and eating disorders, as compared to obese (BMI 3-8 SD; n=44) and normal or overweight patients (BMICraniopharyngioma patients with different degrees of obesity showed similar or even less pathological findings as compared to BMI-matched normal controls. Severe obesity is associated with pathological eating behavior/disorders in craniopharyngioma patients. As these disorders are not disease-specific, risk factors for hypothalamic obesity should be the focus of further craniopharyngioma research.

  16. Neural Rhythms of Change: Long-Term Improvement after Successful Treatment in Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, S.; Liao, V.; Liu, Z.X.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG) was

  17. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Gebhardt, Ursel; Mueller, Hermann L.

    Background: As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Methods: Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the

  18. CARDIAC AND BEHAVIORAL-RESPONSES OF LONG-TERM OBESE AND LEAN ZUCKER RATS TO EMOTIONAL-STRESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NYAKAS, C; BALKAN, B; STEFFENS, AB; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is known as a risk factor in stress-related cardiovascular pathology in man. The length of obesity can be an important interacting variable. Therefore, cardiac and behavioral responses to emotional stress were studied in 1-year-old, genetically obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/-) male Zucker rats,

  19. Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a client with panic disorder and agoraphobia who relapses following a full course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To frame the client's treatment, the major components of CBT for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) are reviewed. Likely reasons for the treatment's failure and strategies for improving…

  20. Modeling context-sensitive, dynamic activity travel behavior by linking short-and long-term responses to accumulated stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Liao, F.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    As existing activity-based models of travel demand simulate activity travel patterns for a typical day, dynamic models simulate behavioral response to endogenous or exogenous change along various time horizons. Prior research predominantly addressed a specific kind of change, which usually affected

  1. Long-Term Maintenance of Therapeutic Gains Associated With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia Delivered Alone or Combined With Zolpidem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Ivers, Hans; Guay, Bernard; Morin, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    To document the long-term sleep outcomes at 12 and 24 months after patients with chronic insomnia were treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), either singly or combined with zolpidem medication. Participants were 160 adults with chronic insomnia. They were first randomized for a six-week acute treatment phase involving CBT alone or CBT combined with nightly zolpidem, and randomized for a six-month extended treatment phase involving CBT, no additional treatment, CBT combined with zolpidem as needed, or CBT with zolpidem tapered. This paper reports results of the 12- and 24-month follow-ups on the main outcome measures derived from the Insomnia Severity Index and sleep diaries. Clinical improvements achieved 6 months following the end of treatment were well-maintained in all four conditions, with insomnia remission rates ranging from 48% to 74% at the 12-month follow-up, and from 44% to 63% at the 24-month follow-up. Participants receiving CBT with zolpidem taper in the extended treatment phase had significantly better results than those receiving CBT with continued zolpidem as needed. The magnitude of improvements on sleep diary parameters was similar between conditions, with a slight advantage for the CBT with zolpidem taper condition. The addition of extended CBT did not alter the long-term outcome over improvements obtained during the initial 6-week CBT. The results suggest that CBT for insomnia, when delivered alone or in combination with medication, produce durable sleep improvements up to two years after completion of treatment. These long-term results indicate that even if a combined CBT plus medication approach provide an added benefit immediately after treatment, extending CBT while tapering medication produce better sustained improvements compared to continued use of medication as needed. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  2. Long-term analysis of health status and preventive behavior in music students across an entire university program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.

  3. Long-term Behavior of Serous Borderline Tumors Subdivided Into Atypical Proliferative Tumors and Noninvasive Low-grade Carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Russell; Hannibal, Charlotte G; Junge, Jette

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) have been the subject of considerable controversy, particularly with regard to terminology and behavior. It has been proposed that they constitute a heterogenous group of tumors composed, for the most part, of typical SBTs that are benign and designated...... "atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST)" and a small subset of SBTs with micropapillary architecture that have a poor outcome and are designated "noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (niLGSC)". It also has been argued that the difference in behavior between the 2 groups is not due to the subtype...... of the primary tumor but rather the presence of extraovarian disease, specifically invasive implants. According to the terminology of the 2014 WHO Classification, typical SBTs are equivalent to APSTs and SBTs displaying micropapillary architecture are synonymous with niLGSC. In addition, "invasive implants" were...

  4. Chronic social defeat induces long-term behavioral depression of aggressive motivation in an invertebrate model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jacqueline; Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Losing a fight against a conspecific male (social defeat) induces a period of suppressed aggressiveness and general behaviour, often with symptoms common to human psychiatric disorders. Agonistic experience is also discussed as a potential cause of consistent, behavioral differences between individuals (animal "personality"). In non-mammals, however, the impact of single agonistic encounters typically last only hours, but then again studies of repeated intermittent defeat (chronic social defeat) are seldom. We report the effect of chronic social defeat in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), for which all known behavioral effects of defeat last only 3 h. Firstly, after 48 h social isolation, crickets that experienced 5 defeats at 24 h intervals against the same, weight-matched opponent exhibited suppressed aggressiveness lasting >24 h, which was still evident when the animals were matched against an unfamiliar opponent at the last trial. Secondly, this longer-term depression of aggression also occurred in 48 h isolated crickets that lost 6 fights at 1 h intervals against unfamiliar opponents at each trial. Thirdly, crickets isolated as larvae until adult maturity (>16 days) were significantly more aggressive, and less variable in their aggressiveness at their very first fight than 48 h isolates, and also significantly more resilient to the effects of chronic social defeat. We conclude that losing an aggressive encounter in crickets has a residual effect, lasting at least 24 h, that accumulates when repeated defeats are experienced, and leads to a prolonged depression of aggressive motivation in subordinates. Furthermore, our data indicate that social interactions between young adults and possibly larvae can have even longer, possibly lifelong influences on subsequent behavior. Social subjugation is thus likely to be a prime determinant of inter-individual behavioral differences in crickets. Our work also opens new avenues for investigating proximate

  5. Speciation analysis and leaching behaviors of selected trace elements in spent SCR catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zejun; Wang, Lele; Tang, Hao; Sun, Zhijun; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yi; Su, Sheng; Hu, Song; Wang, Yi; Xu, Kai; Liu, Liang; Ling, Peng; Xiang, Jun

    2018-09-01

    This study investigated heavy metal chemical speciation and leaching behavior from a board-type spent selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst containing high concentrations of vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. A three-step sequential extraction method, standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and leaching characteristic tests have been performed. It was found that the mobility of six heavy metals in the spent SCR catalyst was significantly different. The mobility of the six heavy metals exhibited the following order: Ni > Zn > V > Cr > As > Cu. Meanwhile, TCLP test results revealed relatively high Zn and Cr leaching rate of 83.20% and 10.35%, respectively. It was found that leaching rate was positively correlated with available contents (sum of acid soluble, reducible and oxidizable fractions). Leaching characteristics tests indicated that pH substantially affected the leaching of these heavy metals. In particular, the leaching of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was positively influenced by strong acid, while V and As were easily released in the presence of strong acid and strong alkali (pH 11). In terms of kinetics, the leaching of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and As within the spent catalyst was dominated by erosion and dissolution processes, which were rapid reaction processes. V was released in large amounts within 1 h, but its leaching amount sharply decreased with time due to readsorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Client interpersonal impacts as mediators of long-term outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy integrated with motivational interviewing for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Michael J; Romano, Felicia M; Coyne, Alice E; Westra, Henny A; Antony, Martin M

    2017-03-24

    A recent trial of generalized anxiety disorder treatment (Westra, H. A., Constantino, M. J., & Antony, M. M. (2016). Integrating Motivational Interviewing With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Severe Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Allegiance-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 768-782. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000098 ) revealed that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with motivational interviewing (MI) outperformed CBT alone across a 12-month follow up. The present study examined whether this treatment effect was mediated by MI-CBT clients engaging over time in during-session interpersonal behaviors reflecting more friendly dominance, or agentic actions, and less friendly submissiveness (FS), or trustingly compliant actions both theory-specific MI mechanisms. Clients received 15 sessions of MI-CBT (n = 42) or CBT alone (n = 43). Therapists rated client interpersonal behavior following five sessions, and clients rated their worry at baseline, each session, and 6- and 12-month follow up. Mediator and outcome variables were derived from multilevel models. Mediation was tested using a bootstrapping procedure. There was a significant indirect effect for FS. As expected, CBT clients evidenced greater increases in FS than MI-CBT clients, which in turn, though unexpectedly, related to lower 12-month worry. However, long-term CBT outcomes remained inferior to MI-CBT outcomes even with CBT clients'greater increase in FS. Results suggest that CBT outcomes are more positive when clients trustingly comply; however, MI-CBT remained superior, but for as yet unexplained reasons. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: The findings highlight the clinical importance of GAD clients becoming more friendly dominant in the therapy relationship irrespective of whether they received CBT or integrative MI-CBT. Moreover, it seems clinically indicated to incorporate MI spirit and techniques into CBT when

  7. Mediators and moderators of long-term effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior: practice, thinking, and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Li, Dongdong; Khoo, Angeline; Prot, Sara; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-05-01

    Although several longitudinal studies have demonstrated an effect of violent video game play on later aggressive behavior, little is known about the psychological mediators and moderators of the effect. To determine whether cognitive and/or emotional variables mediate the effect of violent video game play on aggression and whether the effect is moderated by age, sex, prior aggressiveness, or parental monitoring. Three-year longitudinal panel study. A total of 3034 children and adolescents from 6 primary and 6 secondary schools in Singapore (73% male) were surveyed annually. Children were eligible for inclusion if they attended one of the 12 selected schools, 3 of which were boys' schools. At the beginning of the study, participants were in third, fourth, seventh, and eighth grades, with a mean (SD) age of 11.2 (2.1) years (range, 8-17 years). Study participation was 99% in year 1. The final outcome measure was aggressive behavior, with aggressive cognitions (normative beliefs about aggression, hostile attribution bias, aggressive fantasizing) and empathy as potential mediators. Longitudinal latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that the effects of violent video game play are mediated primarily by aggressive cognitions. This effect is not moderated by sex, prior aggressiveness, or parental monitoring and is only slightly moderated by age, as younger children had a larger increase in initial aggressive cognition related to initial violent game play at the beginning of the study than older children. Model fit was excellent for all models. Given that more than 90% of youths play video games, understanding the psychological mechanisms by which they can influence behaviors is important for parents and pediatricians and for designing interventions to enhance or mitigate the effects.

  8. Effect of Nonlinear Hardening of Lead Rubber Bearing on Long Term Behavior of Base Isolated Containment Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Junhee; Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The rubber material used in laminated rubber bearings is the hyper elastic material whose stress-strain relationship can be defined as nonlinearly elastic. From the previous research, it was presented that the rubber hardness and stiffness was increased by the aging of LRB. The mechanical properties of LRB changed by aging can directly affect a nonlinear hardening behavior. Therefore it is needed to consider the nonlinear hardening effect for exactly evaluating the seismic safety of base isolated structure during the life time. In this study, the seismic response analysis of base isolated containment building was performed by using the bilinear model and the hardening model to identify the effect of structural response on the nonlinear hardening behavior of isolator. Moreover the floor response spectrum of base isolated structure considering the aging was analyzed by according to the analysis model of LRB.. The hardening behavior of lead rubber bearing occurs at high strain. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that the hysteretic model of LRB is the nonlinear hardening model for exactly evaluating the seismic response of base isolated structure. The nonlinear analysis of base isolated containment was performed by using the nonlinear hardening variables which was resulted from the test results and finite element analysis. From the analysis results, it was represented that the FRS was higher about 40% with nonlinear hardening model than with the bilinear model. Therefore the seismic response of base isolated structure with bilinear model can be underestimated than the real response. It is desired that the nonlinear hardening model of LRB is applied for the seismic risk evaluation requiring the ultimate state of LRB

  9. Analytical approximations for the long-term decay behavior of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbrain, C.M.; Deutch, J.M.; Lester, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Simple analytical approximations are presented that describe the radioactivity and radiogenic decay heat behavior of high-level wastes (HLWs) from various nuclear fuel cycles during the first 100,000 years of waste life. The correlations are based on detailed computations of HLW properties carried out with the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN 2. The ambiguities encountered in using simple comparisons of the hazards posed by HLWs and naturally occurring mineral deposits to establish the longevity requirements for geologic waste disposal schemes are discussed

  10. Corporal punishment and long-term behavior problems: the moderating role of positive parenting and psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Straus, Murray A; Carrobles, José Antonio; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Almendros, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the prevalence of corporal punishment (CP) of children in Spain; (b) to analyze the extent to which CP is used in combination with psychological aggression and positive parenting among Spanish parents; and (c) to investigate whether the relation between CP and behavior problems is moderated by a positive parenting context in which CP may be used, and by the co-occurrence of psychological aggression. The sample comprised 1,071 Spanish university students (74.8% female; 25.2% male). Findings indicate a high prevalence of CP of Spanish students, revealing that significantly more mothers than fathers used CP. Furthermore, more CP is related to more use of psychological aggression and less of positive parenting. Regression analyses revealed that CP was associated with an increased probability of antisocial traits and behaviors regardless of whether there was positive parenting and psychological aggression. These results highlight that, though many Spanish parents use CP as a disciplinary strategy, it appears to be related to negative outcomes for children regardless the parental context in which it is used.

  11. Multicomponent cognitive-behavioral group therapy with hypnosis for the treatment of fibromyalgia: long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Antoni; Cascón, Rosalia; Padrol, Anna; Sala, José; Rull, Maria

    2012-03-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 2 psychological treatments for fibromyalgia with each other and with standard care. Ninety-three patients with fibromyalgia (FM) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental conditions: 1) multicomponent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT); 2) multicomponent CBT with hypnosis; and 3) pharmacological treatment (standard care control group). The outcome measures of pain intensity, catastrophizing, psychological distress, functionality, and sleep disturbances were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. CBT and CBT with hypnosis participants received the standard pharmacological management plus 14 weekly, 120-minute-long sessions of psychological treatment. All but 1 session followed a group format; the remaining session was individual. The analyses indicated that: 1) patients with FM who received multicomponent CBT alone or multicomponent CBT with hypnosis showed greater improvements than patients who received only standard care; and 2) adding hypnosis enhanced the effectiveness of multicomponent CBT. This study presents new evidence about the efficacy of multicomponent CBT for FM and about the additional effects of hypnosis as a complement to CBT. The relevance and implications of the obtained results are discussed. This article highlights the beneficial effects of adding hypnosis in a multicomponent cognitive-behavioral group treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Also, this research showed that by adding hypnosis the length of treatment did not increase. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding cancer survivors' information needs and information-seeking behaviors for complementary and alternative medicine from short- to long-term survival: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Lou Ann; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Gibson, Bryan; Logan, Robert; Workman, T Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The research examined complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information-seeking behaviors and preferences from short- to long-term cancer survival, including goals, motivations, and information sources. A mixed-methods approach was used with cancer survivors from the "Assessment of Patients' Experience with Cancer Care" 2004 cohort. Data collection included a mail survey and phone interviews using the critical incident technique (CIT). Seventy survivors from the 2004 study responded to the survey, and eight participated in the CIT interviews. Quantitative results showed that CAM usage did not change significantly between 2004 and 2015. The following themes emerged from the CIT: families' and friends' provision of the initial introduction to a CAM, use of CAM to manage the emotional and psychological impact of cancer, utilization of trained CAM practitioners, and online resources as a prominent source for CAM information. The majority of participants expressed an interest in an online information-sharing portal for CAM. Patients continue to use CAM well into long-term cancer survivorship. Finding trustworthy sources for information on CAM presents many challenges such as reliability of source, conflicting information on efficacy, and unknown interactions with conventional medications. Study participants expressed interest in an online portal to meet these needs through patient testimonials and linkage of claims to the scientific literature. Such a portal could also aid medical librarians and clinicians in locating and evaluating CAM information on behalf of patients.

  13. Long-Term Weight Loss Effects of a Behavioral Weight Management Program: Does the Community Food Environment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon N. Zenk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether community food environments altered the longer-term effects of a nationwide behavioral weight management program on body mass index (BMI. The sample was comprised of 98,871 male weight management program participants and 15,385 female participants, as well as 461,302 and 37,192 inverse propensity-score weighted matched male and female controls. We measured the community food environment by counting the number of supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants within a 1-mile radius around each person’s home address. We used difference-in-difference regression models with person and calendar time fixed effects to estimate MOVE! effects over time in sub-populations defined by community food environment attributes. Among men, after an initial decrease in BMI at 6 months, the effect of the program decreased over time, with BMI increasing incrementally at 12 months (0.098 kg/m2, p < 0.001, 18 months (0.069 kg/m2, p < 0.001, and 24 months (0.067 kg/m2, p < 0.001. Among women, the initial effects of the program decreased over time as well. Women had an incremental BMI change of 0.099 kg/m2 at 12 months (p < 0.05 with non-significant incremental changes at 18 months and 24 months. We found little evidence that these longer-term effects of the weight management program differed depending on the community food environment. Physiological adaptations may overwhelm environmental influences on adherence to behavioral regimens in affecting longer-term weight loss outcomes.

  14. The impact of chronic mild stress on long-term depressive behavior in rats which have survived sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckert, Amanda V; Dominguini, Diogo; Michels, Monique; Abelaira, Helena M; Tomaz, Débora B; Sonai, Beatriz; de Moura, Airam B; Matos, Danyela; da Silva, Júlia B I; Réus, Gislaine Z; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2017-11-01

    The present study was created to investigate the effects of chronic mild stress (CMS) on the depressive behavior and neurochemical parameters of rats that were subjected to sepsis. Wistar rats were subjected to a CMS protocol, and sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). The animals were then divided into 4 separate groups; Control + Sham (n = 20), Control + CLP (n = 30), CMS + Sham (n = 20) and CMS + CLP (n = 30). Body weight, food and water intake and mortality were measured on a daily basis for a period of 10 days after the induction of sepsis. Locomotor activity, splash and forced swimming tests were performed ten days after CLP. At the end of the test period, the animals were euthanized, and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were removed to determine the levels of cytokines and oxidative damage. Our results show that there was no significant interaction between CMS and CLP in relation to locomotor activity and the forced swimming test. However, we did observe a significant decrease in total grooming time in the Control + CLP and CMS + Sham groups, with the CMS + CLP group showing behavior similar to that of the control animals. This was found to be related to a decrease in the levels of brain cytokines, and not to oxidative damage parameters. Collectively, our results suggest that a previous stress caused by CMS can protect the brain against the systemic acute and severe stress elicited by sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Leach behavior of hydrofracture grout incorporating radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Rates at which Sr, Cs, Pu, and Cm are leached from hydrofracture grout were measured. The fraction of an isotope leached varied with the square root of time if the leachant was replaced more frequently than once per day, but was inhibited or depressed if replacement was made less often. The amount of Sr or Cs leached from the grout varied directly with the degree of drying during curing and inversely with the time of curing. Of the clay additives studied for enhancing cesium retention, Grundite, while satisfactory, was the least effective. In general, the isotope leach rate followed the order: Cs greater than Sr greater than Cm greater than Pu. The amount leached as a function of the leachant varied in the order: distilled water greater than tap water greater than grout water. Concentrating the waste by a factor of up to 4 before grouting had little effect on the leach rate. Comparison with results for other products indicates that the grout can provide leach rates comparable to those for wastes incorporated into borosilicate glass. Theoretical relationships that consider diffusion and instantaneous reaction (an equilibrium or time-dependent relationship between mobile and immobile forms of a species) were in good agreement with the data for the 28-day-cured grout when the leachant was initially replaced twice per day. The credibility of laboratory results with simulated waste was substantiated by a short-term continuous leach test made on a fragment of a core sample of actual hydrofracture grout. The modified effective diffusivities (10 -11 to 10 -10 cm 2 /s, equivalent to a leach rate of the order of 10 -7 g cm -2 day -1 ) for Sr and Cs calculated from these data are comparable to laboratory values. 17 figures, 5 tables

  16. Engineering Circular Gliding of Actin Filaments Along Myosin-Patterned DNA Nanotube Rings To Study Long-Term Actin-Myosin Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Appukutty, Abhinav J; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2016-09-27

    Nature has evolved molecular motors that are critical in cellular processes occurring over broad time scales, ranging from seconds to years. Despite the importance of the long-term behavior of molecular machines, topics such as enzymatic lifetime are underexplored due to the lack of a suitable approach for monitoring motor activity over long time periods. Here, we developed an "O"-shaped Myosin Empowered Gliding Assay (OMEGA) that utilizes engineered micron-scale DNA nanotube rings with precise arrangements of myosin VI to trap gliding actin filaments. This circular gliding assay platform allows the same individual actin filament to glide over the same myosin ensemble (50-1000 motors per ring) multiple times. First, we systematically characterized the formation of DNA nanotubes rings with 4, 6, 8, and 10 helix circumferences. Individual actin filaments glide along the nanotube rings with high processivity for up to 12.8 revolutions or 11 min in run time. We then show actin gliding speed is robust to variation in motor number and independent of ring curvature within our sample space (ring diameter of 0.5-4 μm). As a model application of OMEGA, we then analyze motor-based mechanical influence on "stop-and-go" gliding behavior of actin filaments, revealing that the stop-to-go transition probability is dependent on motor flexibility. Our circular gliding assay may provide a closed-loop platform for monitoring long-term behavior of broad classes of molecular motors and enable characterization of motor robustness and long time scale nanomechanical processes.

  17. Long-term effects of psychotherapy on moderate depression: a comparative study of narrative therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rodrigo T; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Machado, Paulo P P; Sousa, Inês

    2014-01-01

    In a previous clinical controlled trial (Lopes et al., 2014), narrative therapy (NT) showed promising results in ameliorating depressive symptoms with comparable outcomes to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) when patients completed treatment. This paper aims to assess depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in this clinical sample at follow-up. Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and Outcome Questionnaire-45.2 Interpersonal Relations Scale, naturalistic prospective follow-up assessment was conducted at 21 and 31 months after the last treatment session. At follow-up, patients kept improving in terms of depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. The odds that a patient maintained recovery from depressive symptoms at follow-up were five times higher than the odds that a patient maintained recovery from interpersonal problems. In the same way, the odds of a patient never recovering from interpersonal problems were five times higher than the odds of never recovering from depressive symptoms. The study did not control for the natural course of depression or treatment continuation. For depressed patients with greater interpersonal disabilities, longer treatment plans and alternative continuation treatments should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sturrock

    Full Text Available The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith (87Sr/(86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000 and drier (2003 year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10% and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%. These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  20. Short- and long-term behavioral effects of exposure to 21%, 40% and 100% oxygen after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, K Nina; Palmateer, Julie; Swide, Joseph; Grafe, Marjorie R

    2011-10-01

    Until recently, supplementation with 100% oxygen was standard therapy for newborns who required resuscitation at birth or suffered later hypoxic-ischemic events. Exposure to high concentrations of oxygen, however, may worsen oxidative stress induced by ischemic injury. In this study we investigated the short- and long-term behavioral outcomes in rats that had undergone hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on postnatal day 7, followed by 2h exposure to 21%, 40%, or 100% oxygen, compared to normal controls. There were no differences in the development of walking, head lifting and righting reflexes from postnatal days 9 to 15. Cliff avoidance showed some abnormal responses in the H21 animals. From postnatal days 28 to 56, three tests of sensorimotor coordination were performed weekly: ledged tapered beam, cylinder, and bilateral tactile stimulation. The ledged tapered beam test without prior training of animals was sensitive to injury, but did not distinguish between treatment groups. The cylinder test showed a greater use of the unimpaired limb in female 21% and 40% oxygen groups compared to controls. Performance in both cylinder and the beam tests showed a correlation with the degree of brain injury. The bilateral tactile stimulation test showed that the male 21% oxygen groups had worse sensory asymmetry than male 40% or 100% oxygen groups, but was not statistically significantly different from controls. We thus found a minor benefit to post-hypoxia-ischemic treatment with 100% and 40% oxygen compared to 21% in one test of early motor skills. Our results for long-term sensorimotor behavior, however, showed conflicting results, however, as males treated with 40% or 100% oxygen had less sensory asymmetry (better performance) in the bilateral tactile stimulation test than males treated with 21% oxygen, while females had impaired motor performance in the cylinder test with both 21% and 40% oxygen. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term omega-3 supplementation modulates behavior, hippocampal fatty acid concentration, neuronal progenitor proliferation and central TNF-α expression in 7 month old unchallenged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Trent; Toben, Catherine; Jaehne, Emily J.; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) manipulation is being investigated as a potential therapeutic supplement to reduce the risk of developing age-related cognitive decline (ARCD). Animal studies suggest that high omega (Ω)-3 and low Ω-6 dietary content reduces cognitive decline by decreasing central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and modifying neuroimmune activity. However, no previous studies have investigated the long term effects of Ω-3 and Ω-6 dietary levels in healthy aging mice leaving the important question about the preventive effects of Ω-3 and Ω-6 on behavior and underlying molecular pathways unaddressed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of long-term Ω-3 and Ω-6 PUFA dietary supplementation in mature adult C57BL/6 mice. We measured the effect of low, medium, and high Ω-3:Ω-6 dietary ratio, given from the age of 3–7 months, on anxiety and cognition-like behavior, hippocampal tissue expression of TNF-α, markers of neuronal progenitor proliferation and gliogenesis and serum cytokine concentration. Our results show that a higher Ω-3:Ω-6 PUFA diet ratio increased hippocampal PUFA, increased anxiety, improved hippocampal dependent spatial memory and reduced hippocampal TNF-α levels compared to a low Ω-3:Ω-6 diet. Furthermore, serum TNF-α concentration was reduced in the higher Ω-3:Ω-6 PUFA ratio supplementation group while expression of the neuronal progenitor proliferation markers KI67 and doublecortin (DCX) was increased in the dentate gyrus as opposed to the low Ω-3:Ω-6 group. Conversely, Ω-3:Ω-6 dietary PUFA ratio had no significant effect on astrocyte or microglia number or cell death in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that supplementation of PUFAs may delay aging effects on cognitive function in unchallenged mature adult C57BL/6 mice. This effect is possibly induced by increasing neuronal progenitor proliferation and reducing TNF-α. PMID:25484856

  2. Long-term psychological benefits of cognitive-behavioral stress management for women with breast cancer: 11-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagl, Jamie M; Bouchard, Laura C; Lechner, Suzanne C; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Gudenkauf, Lisa M; Jutagir, Devika R; Glück, Stefan; Derhagopian, Robert P; Carver, Charles S; Antoni, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer survivors experience long-term physical and psychological sequelae after their primary treatment that negatively influence their quality of life (QOL) and increase depressive symptoms. Group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) delivered after surgery for early-stage breast cancer was previously associated with better QOL over a 12-month follow-up and with fewer depressive symptoms up to 5 years after study enrollment. This 8- to 15-year follow-up (median, 11 years) of a previously conducted trial (NCT01422551) evaluated whether women in this cohort receiving CBSM had fewer depressive symptoms and better QOL than controls at an 8- to 15-year follow-up. Women with stage 0 to IIIb breast cancer were initially recruited 2 to 10 weeks after surgery and randomized to a 10-week CBSM intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group. One hundred women (51 CBSM patients and 49 controls) were recontacted 8 to 15 years after study enrollment to participate in a follow-up assessment. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) were self-administered. Multiple regression was employed to evaluate group differences on the CES-D scale and FACT-B over and above effects of confounding variables. Participants assigned to CBSM reported significantly lower depressive symptoms (d, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.70) and better QOL (d, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.52-0.65) above the effects of the covariates. Women who received CBSM after surgery for early-stage breast cancer reported lower depressive symptoms and better QOL than the control group up to 15 years later. Early implementation of cognitive-behavioral interventions may influence long-term psychosocial functioning in breast cancer survivors. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  3. A Neuro-fuzzy-stochastic frontier analysis approach for long-term natural gas consumption forecasting and behavior analysis: The cases of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Asadzadeh, S.M.; Saberi, M.; Nadimi, V.; Tajvidi, A.; Sheikalishahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper presents a unique approach for long-term natural gas consumption estimation. → It is applied to selected Arab countries to show its superiority and applicability. → It may be used for other real cases for optimum gas consumption estimation. → It is compared with current studies to show its advantages. → It is capable of dealing with complexity, ambiguity, fuzziness, and randomness. -- Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system-stochastic frontier analysis (ANFIS-SFA) approach for long-term natural gas (NG) consumption prediction and analysis of the behavior of NG consumption. The proposed models consist of input variables of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population (POP). Six distinct models based on different inputs are defined. All of trained ANFIS are then compared with respect to mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). To meet the best performance of the intelligent based approaches, data are pre-processed (scaled) and finally the outputs are post-processed (returned to its original scale). To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated ANFIS-SFA approach, gas consumption in four Middle Eastern countries i.e. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and United Arab Emirates is forecasted and analyzed based on the data of the time period 1980-2007. With the aid of autoregressive model, GDP and population are projected for the period 2008-2015. These projected data are used as the input of ANFIS model to predict the gas consumption in the selected countries for 2008-2015. SFA is then used to examine the behavior of gas consumption in the past and also to make insights for the forthcoming years. The ANFIS-SFA approach is capable of dealing with complexity, uncertainty, and randomness as well as several other unique features discussed in this paper.

  4. Long-term programing of psychopathology-like behaviors in male rats by peripubertal stress depends on individual's glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sophie E; Sandi, Carmen

    2018-02-07

    Experience of adversity early in life and dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity are risk factors often independently associated with the development of psychopathological disorders, including depression, PTSD and pathological aggression. Additional evidence suggests that in combination these factors may interact to shape the development and expression of psychopathology differentially, though little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we studied the long-term consequences of early life stress exposure on individuals with differential constitutive glucocorticoid responsiveness to repeated stressor exposure, assessing both socio-affective behaviors and brain activity in regions sensitive to pathological alterations following stress. Two rat lines, genetically selected for either low or high glucocorticoid responsiveness to repeated stress were exposed to a series of unpredictable, fear-inducing stressors on intermittent days during the peripuberty period. Results obtained at adulthood indicated that having high glucocorticoid responses to repeated stress and having experience of peripuberty stress independently enhanced levels of psychopathology-like behaviors, as well as increasing basal activity in several prefrontal and limbic brain regions in a manner associated with enhanced behavioral inhibition. Interestingly, peripuberty stress had a differential impact on aggression in the two rat lines, enhancing aggression in the low-responsive line but not in the already high-aggressive, high-responsive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that aberrant HPA axis activity around puberty, a key period in the development of social repertoire in both rats and humans, may alter behavior such that it becomes anti-social in nature.

  5. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  6. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  7. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  8. Leaching behavior of coal combustion products and the environmental implication in road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    The use of coal fly ash in road base and sub-base applications can provide better properties and performance, and is superior to it being otherwise disposed and becoming a possible environmental liability. Understanding the metal leaching behavior fo...

  9. Leaching behavior of coal combustion products and the environmental implication in road construction : project progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The use of coal fly ash in road base and sub-base applications can provide better properties and performance, and is superior to it being otherwise disposed and becoming a possible environmental liability. Understanding the metal leaching behavior fo...

  10. Leaching behavior of various low-level waste solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the leaching of radioactive nuclides from low-level wastes solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics. Considerations are made on the effects of type of solidification matrix and waste; type, amount and exchange frequency of leachate; type and conditions of embedding soil; temperature and pressure; and secular deterioration. It is assumed that a waste composite is entirely immersed in leachate and that the amount of the leachate is large compared to the surface area of the waste. Cement solid is characterized by its high alkalinity and porosity while plastic and bitumen solids are dense and neutral. The content of waste in a composite is low for cement and high for plastics. It is generally high in bitumen solid though it should be reduced if the solid is likely to bulge. The leaching of 137 Cs from cement solid is slightly dependent on the waste-cement ratio while it increases with increasing waste content in the case of plastic or bitumen solid. For 60 Co, the leaching from cement solid depends on the alkalinity of the cement material used though it is not affected by the waste-cement ratio. In the case of plastics and bitumen, on the other hand, the pH value of the waste have some effects on the leaching of 60 Co; the leaching decreases with increasing pH. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Cognitively oriented behavioral rehabilitation in combination with Qigong for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout: REST--a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Therese; Ahlgren, Christina; Lindahl, Bernt; Burell, Gunilla; Steinholtz, Katarina; Edlund, Curt; Nilsson, Leif; Knutsson, Anders; Birgander, Lisbeth Slunga

    2009-01-01

    Despite an increase in the occurrence of burnout, there is no agreement on what kind of rehabilitation these patients should be offered. Primary aim of this study was to evaluate effects on psychological variables and sick leave rates by two different group rehabilitation programs for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout. Rehabilitation program A (Cognitively oriented Behavioral Rehabilitation (CBR) and Qigong) was compared with rehabilitation program B (Qigong only). In a randomized clinical trial, 96 women and 40 men with a mean age of 41.6 +/- 7.4 years were allocated to one of the two rehabilitation programs. A per-protocol analysis showed no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. Both groups improved significantly over time with reduced levels of burnout, self-rated stress behavior, fatigue, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and sick leave rates. In an intention-to-treat analysis, patients in program A had fewer obsessive-compulsive symptoms and larger effect sizes in self-rated stress behavior and obsessive-compulsive symptoms compared to patients in program B. This study showed no differences in effect between CBR and Qigong compared with Qigong only in a per-protocol analysis. Both rehabilitation programs showed positive effect for patients with burnout.

  12. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term behavior of buffer. Document prepared by other institute, based on the trust contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Takaji, Kazuhiko

    2002-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the external force is affected to buffer for a long period of time. So, it is necessary to make clear the mechanical deformation behavior of buffer to the external force, because of carrying out safety assessment of EBS accurately. In this report, the applicable constitutive model have been narrowed down from within many one for clay proposed up to the present, from the viewpoint of adoption possibility to the evaluation of the long-term mechanical behavior for buffer. To put it concretely, the investigation of constitutive models for clay, the applicability confirmation of the representative model by analysis using test data, and the proposal of experimental method available for simulation analysis is carried out. The results of the elemental test simulations using Adachi-Oka model and Sekiguchi-Ohta model as the representative model of ''Over stress model'' and Flow surface model'' are as follows. Both of the models are not make much difference. A limited part of the test results is expressed suitably according to the appropriate decision of viscous parameters, but the blanket behavior of each tests is not expressed suitably in either model. (author)

  13. Impact of sleep, fatigue, and systemic inflammation on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Ting; Brinkman, Tara M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Mzayek, Yasmin; Liu, Wei; Banerjee, Pia; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Srivastava, Deokumar; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Krull, Kevin R

    2017-09-01

    Long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which may be associated with fatigue, sleep problems, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. We examined these associations among survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. Survivors of childhood ALL (male, n = 35 and female, n = 35; mean age, 14.3 years [standard deviation, 4.7 years] and mean years from diagnosis, 7.4 years [standard deviation, 1.9 years]) completed neurocognitive testing, behavioral ratings, and reported sleep quality and fatigue symptoms 5 years after diagnosis. Serum was collected concurrently and assayed for interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. General linear modeling was used to assess associations among biomarkers and functional outcomes, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Survivors performed worse than population norms on executive function and processing speed and reported more behavioral problems (P fatigue was associated with poor executive function (r = 0.41; P = .02), processing speed (r = 0.56; P fatigue measures were observed. Neurocognitive function in female survivors of childhood ALL appears more susceptible to the effects of sleep disturbance and fatigue. Systemic inflammation may play a role in neurocognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms. Cancer 2017;123:3410-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  15. Leaching behavior of lanthanum, nickel and iron from spent catalyst using inorganic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, W.; Prilitasari, N. M.; Iskandar, Y.; Bratakusuma, D.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Highly technological applications of rare earth metals (REs) and scarcity of supply have become an incentive torecover the REs from various resources, which include high grade and low grade ores, as well as recycledwaste materials. Spent hydrocracking catalyst contain lanthanum and a variety of valuable metals such as nickel and iron. This study investigated the recovery of lanthanum, nickel and iron from spent hydrocracking catalyst by leaching using various inorganic acid (sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid). The effect of acid concentration, type of acid and leaching temperature was conducted to study the leaching behavior of each valuable metal from spent-catalyst. It has been shown that it is possible to recover more than 90% of lanthanum, however the leaching efficiency of nickel and iron in this process was very low. It can be concluded that the leaching process is selective for lanthanum recovery from hydrocracking spent-catalyst.

  16. Leaching behavior and chemical stability of copper butyl xanthate complex under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi Kuo; Chang, Juu En; Chiang, Li Choung

    2003-08-01

    Although xanthate addition can be used for treating copper-containing wastewater, a better understanding of the leaching toxicity and the stability characteristics of the copper xanthate complexes formed is essential. This work was undertaken to evaluate the leaching behavior of copper xanthate complex precipitates by means of toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) using 1 N acetic acid solution as the leachant. Also, the chemical stability of the copper xanthate complex during extraction has been examined with the studying of variation of chemical structure using UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). Both TCLP and SDLT results showed that a negligible amount of copper ion was leached out from the copper xanthate complex precipitate, indicating that the complex exhibited a high degree of copper leaching stability under acidic conditions. Nevertheless, chemical structure of the copper xanthate complex precipitate varied during the leaching tests. XPS data suggested that the copper xanthate complex initially contained both cupric and cuprous xanthate, but the unstable cupric xanthate change to the cuprous form after acid extraction, indicating the cuprous xanthate to be the final stabilizing structure. Despite that, the changes of chemical structure did not induce the rapid leaching of copper from the copper xanthate complex.

  17. Leaching behavior of glass ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1981-11-01

    Glass ceramic waste forms have been investigated as alternatives to borosilicate glasses for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Three glass ceramic systems were investigated, including basalt, celsian, and fresnoite, each containing 20 wt % simulated high-level waste calcine. Static leach tests were performed on seven glass ceramic materials and one parent glass (before recrystallization). Samples were leached at 90 0 C for 3 to 28 days in deionized water and silicate water. The results, expressed in normalized elemental mass loss, (g/m 2 ), show comparable releases from celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics. Basalt glass ceramics demonstrated the lowest normalized elemental losses with a nominal release less than 2 g/m 2 when leached in polypropylene containers. The releases from basalt glass ceramics when leached in silicate water were nearly identical with those in deionized water. The overall leachability of celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics was improved when silicate water was used as the leachant

  18. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  19. Leaching studies on SYNROC at 950C and 2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    Crushed samples of SYNROC containing 9%, 16% and 20% of simulated high-level nuclear waste were tested for leaching behavior in distilled water at 95 0 C and 200 0 . Leach solutions were analyzed for Cs, Ca, Ba, Sr, Ti, Zr, Nd and U. Results showed that leach rates based on these elements did not change significantly as the waste loading was increased from 9 to 20%. At both temperatures, leach rates showed a decrease as leaching progressed until a plateau level was reached. Plateau leach rates, which were between 10 and 100 times lower than initial leach rates, reflect the expected long term leaching behaviour of the samples. Plateau values of leach rates for SYNROC depend on the element being leached. Highest values are found for Cs and Ba (1 to 2 x 10 -7 g/cm 2 d at 95 0 C) and lowest values for U (5 x 10 -10 g/cm 2 d at 95 0 C). Increasing leaching temperature to 200 0 C produces higher leach rates for all elements except Nd. Comparison of SYNROC leach rate data with that for PNL 76-68 glass shows that at 200 0 C the leach rate for U from SYNROC is 3000 times less than that from glass. (Auth.)

  20. Core symptoms not meeting criteria for delirium are associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems in older long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Martin G; McCusker, Jane; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric; Vu, Minh

    2014-07-01

    The immediate clinical significance of Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium is unclear. This study proposed to determine if such symptoms are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, mood and behavior problems and increased Burden of Care (BOC) in older long-term care (LTC) residents. The study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective cohort study of delirium. Two hundred and fifty-eight LTC residents aged 65 years and older in seven LTC facilities had monthly assessments (for up to six months) of CAM - defined core symptoms of delirium (fluctuation, inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness) and five outcome measures: Mini-Mental State Exam, Barthel Index, Cornell Scale for Depression, Nursing Home Behavioral Problems Scale, and Burden of Care. Associations between core symptoms and the five outcome measures were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium among residents with and without dementia were associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems but not increased BOC. The associations appear to be intermediate between those of full delirium and no core symptoms and were greater for residents with than without dementia. CAM-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium appear to be associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems in LTC residents with or without dementia. These findings may have implications for the prevention and management of such impairments and problems in LTC settings.

  1. Meal delivery practices do not meet needs of Alzheimer patients with increased cognitive and behavioral difficulties in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K W; Binns, M A; Greenwood, C E

    2001-10-01

    Alterations in circadian rhythms and behavioral difficulties likely impact meal consumption patterns in elderly individuals with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite these known changes, the profile of meals provided in the institution parallels the needs of younger, free-living, healthy populations. This investigation examined the impact of food delivery patterns on achieved intakes in elderly individuals with probable AD in a long-term care facility and how this relationship changes depending on time of day, body weight status, behavioral function, and cognitive ability. Twenty-one consecutive days of investigator-weighed food intake and delivery collections were conducted on 25 elderly individuals with probable AD who maintained the ability to self-feed. Energy consumed was positively associated with energy delivered for the majority of subjects, although the strength of this relationship varied across subjects and throughout the day. Energy delivered had the greatest impact on energy consumed at breakfast and the least impact at dinner in those with the greatest behavioral difficulties and cognitive impairment. Although those with low body mass indexes (BMIs) were likely to be delivered more energy, the impact of delivery on intakes decreased as energy delivered increased. Delivering excess energy to patients with poor BMIs likely does not result in increased energy consumption. Behavioral and cognitive deterioration leads to a shift in the time of day that energy delivered has an impact on energy consumption, with the most progressed individuals being most impacted by foods delivered in the morning, suggesting that traditional meal practices are inappropriate for elderly individuals with AD.

  2. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  3. Hydration of dicalcium silicate and diffusion through neo-formed calcium-silicate-hydrates at weathered surfaces control the long-term leaching behaviour of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Douglas I; Bray, Andrew W; Udoma, Gideon; Hobson, Andrew J; Mayes, William M; Rogerson, Mike; Burke, Ian T

    2018-04-01

    Alkalinity generation and toxic trace metal (such as vanadium) leaching from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag particles must be properly understood and managed by pre-conditioning if beneficial reuse of slag is to be maximised. Water leaching under aerated conditions was investigated using fresh BOF slag at three different particle sizes (0.5-1.0, 2-5 and 10 × 10 × 20 mm blocks) and a 6-month pre-weathered block. There were several distinct leaching stages observed over time associated with different phases controlling the solution chemistry: (1) free-lime (CaO) dissolution (days 0-2); (2) dicalcium silicate (Ca 2 SiO 4 ) dissolution (days 2-14) and (3) Ca-Si-H and CaCO 3 formation and subsequent dissolution (days 14-73). Experiments with the smallest size fraction resulted in the highest Ca, Si and V concentrations, highlighting the role of surface area in controlling initial leaching. After ~2 weeks, the solution Ca/Si ratio (0.7-0.9) evolved to equal those found within a Ca-Si-H phase that replaced dicalcium silicate and free-lime phases in a 30- to 150-μm altered surface region. V release was a two-stage process; initially, V was released by dicalcium silicate dissolution, but V also isomorphically substituted for Si into the neo-formed Ca-Si-H in the alteration zone. Therefore, on longer timescales, the release of V to solution was primarily controlled by considerably slower Ca-Si-H dissolution rates, which decreased the rate of V release by an order of magnitude. Overall, the results indicate that the BOF slag leaching mechanism evolves from a situation initially dominated by rapid hydration and dissolution of primary dicalcium silicate/free-lime phases, to a slow diffusion limited process controlled by the solubility of secondary Ca-Si-H and CaCO 3 phases that replace and cover more reactive primary slag phases at particle surfaces.

  4. Evaluating long term forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, George M. [Department of Economics, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), and its predecessor organizations, has published projections of U.S. energy production, consumption, distribution and prices annually for over 30 years. A natural issue to raise in evaluating the projections is an assessment of their accuracy compared to eventual outcomes. A related issue is the determination of the sources of 'error' in the projections that are due to differences between the actual versus realized values of the associated assumptions. One way to do this would be to run the computer-based model from which the projections are derived at the time the projected values are realized, using actual rather than assumed values for model assumptions; and, compare these results to the original projections. For long term forecasts, this approach would require that the model's software and hardware configuration be archived and available for many years, possibly decades, into the future. Such archival creates many practical problems; and, in general, it is not being done. This paper reports on an alternative approach for evaluating the projections. In the alternative approach, the model is run many times for cases in which important assumptions are changed individually and in combinations. A database is assembled from the solutions and a regression analysis is conducted for each important projected variable with the associated assumptions chosen as exogenous variables. When actual data are eventually available, the regression results are then used to estimate the sources of the differences in the projections of the endogenous variables compared to their eventual outcomes. The results presented here are for residential and commercial sector natural gas and electricity consumption. (author)

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hallman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry, HRV (heart rate monitor, and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking. ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001, according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power, even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02. The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  6. Long term thermo-hydro-mechanical interaction behavior study of the saturated, discontinuous granitic rock mass around the radwaste repository using a steady state flow algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Bae, Dae Suk; Kang, Chul Hyung; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the long term (500 years) thermo-hydro-mechanical interaction behavior of the 500 m depth underground radwaste repository in the saturated, discontinuous granitic rock mass using a steady state flow algorithm. The numerical model includes a saturated granitic rock mass with joints around the repository and a 45 .deg. C fault passing through the tunnel roof-wall intersection, and a canister with PWR spent fuels surrounded by the compacted bentonite and mixed-bentonite. Barton-Bandis joint constitutive model from the UDEC code is used for the joints. For the hydraulic analysis, a steady state flow algorithm is used for the groundwater flow through the rock joints. For the thermal analysis, heat transfer is modeled as isotropic conduction and heat decays exponentially with time. The results show that the variations of the hydraulic aperture, hydraulic conductivity, normal stress, normal displacements, and shear displacements of the joints are high in the vicinity of the repository and stay fairly constant on the region away from the repository. 14 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  7. [Effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder in the long-term course--a 30-month-follow-up after inpatient treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder, Eva; Rudolf, Sebastian; Bussiek, Anke; Kröger, Christoph; Arnold, Rüdiger; Greggersen, Wiebke; Hüppe, Michael; Sipos, Valerija; Schweiger, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The beneficial effects of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are well established. However, it is not well known whether this type of treatment relieves symptoms and signs of BPD in the long-term course thereafter and whether the results of DBT are transferable for patients with high comorbidity. We conducted a follow-up examination of 50 consecutive inpatients with BPD as defined by DSM-IV. The patients were examined at admission, at discharge and 15 and 30 months after discharge. For the clinical diagnosis and to survey psychopathology we used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and several self-rating-instruments. Compared to admission 30 months after discharge we observed the following results: A significant number of patients did not meet the DSM-IV criteria for BPD anymore, comorbidity (particularly mood disorders, drug or alcohol abuse/dependence and eating disorders) was reduced, psychosocial functioning was improved and general and BPD-typical symptoms were relieved. Our findings support the efficacy of DBT in an inpatient setting and show that the achieved success of therapy is stable for a prolonged period of time. Patients with high comorbidity seem to profit from DBT as well.

  8. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Lyskov, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV) responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women) with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry), HRV (heart rate monitor), and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS)) were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking). ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p = .001), according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power), even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p = .02). The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain. PMID:26557711

  9. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and nerve growth factor on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lixia; Ren, Qing; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Jiwen

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of HBO (Hyperbaric oxygen) and NGF (Nerve growth factor) on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with HIBD (Neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain damage). The HIBD model was produced by ligating the right common carotid artery of 7 days old SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats followed by 8% O2 + 92% N2 for 2h. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including sham-operated group, HIBD control group, HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group. The learning and memory ability of these rats was evaluated by Morris water maze at 30 days after birth, and sensory motor function was assessed by experiments of foot error and limb placement at 42 days after birth. The escape latency of HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group was shorter than that of HIBD control group (pmemory ability and sensory motor function in neonatal rats after hypoxic ischemic brain damage.

  10. Accelerated leach testing of radionuclides from solidified low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J. III; Colombo, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes some of the work performed to develop an accelerated leach test designed to provide data that show long-term leaching behavior of solidified waste in a relatively short period of testing (1,2). The need for an accelerated leach test stems from the fact that the response of an effectively solidified waste form to the leaching process is so slow that a very long time is required to complete a test which shows the long-term leaching behavior of a waste form. Because of time limitations, as well as economic considerations, most studies have been limited to the early stages of the leaching process which is predominantly controlled by diffusion, although acknowledged to be due to also dissolution, corrosion or ion-exchange

  11. Long term performance session summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanauer, S.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents brief summaries of reports given on plutonium disposal. Topics include: performance of waste forms; glass leaching; ceramic leaching; safeguards and security issues; safeguards of vitrification; and proliferation risks of geologic disposal.

  12. Influence of ammonia on leaching behaviors of incineration fly ash and its geochemical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Guan, Zhen Zhen; Chen, De Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Incineration fly ash could be contaminated with NH3 that was slipped from the ammonia-based selective non-catalytic reduction(SNCR) process and from evaporation of municipal solid wastes' leachate involved in the wastes. This research was conducted to investigate the impacts of ammonia on leaching....... It was proved that at pH>9, the leaching of DOC increased significantly in the presence of high concentrations of ammonia (≥1357 mg·L-1), but there was little effect when the ammonia level in eluates was not higher than 537 mg·L-1. At pH12, for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, their leaching species were predominantly...... by precipitation/dissolution and surface complexation/precipitation processes; Visual MINTEQ modeling could well describe the leaching behaviors of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn from incineration fly ash....

  13. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  14. Study on uranium leaching behavior from coal fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Police, S.; Maity, S.; Chaudhary, D.K.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2017-01-01

    Leachability of trace and toxic metals from coal fly ash (FA) poses significant environmental problems especially ground and surface water contamination. In the present study, leachability of U using batch leaching tests (i.e., at various leachate pH values) and using TCLP was studied. Results of pH variation study indicate that, U has higher leachability in acidic medium as compared to slightly alkaline medium. The leachable U concentrations observed in pH variation study are well below the WHO safety limits. In TCLP leachates, the leachable U concentrations are found to be higher than that observed in pH variation study. (author)

  15. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  16. Long-term habitual physical activity is associated with lower distractibility in a Stroop interference task in aging: Behavioral and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with compromised executive control functions. Several lines of evidence point to beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition which indicate that regular physical activity may counteract the age-related decline of some executive functions. Here, we investigate the effects of lifelong physical activity (about 50 years) on interference processing in two matched groups of 20 physically high active and 20 low active healthy older men using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a low interference block of the Stroop task, participants had to indicate the meaning of color-words, while color was either compatible or incompatible with the meaning. In the high interference block, participants were asked to respond according to the ink color of the word and to ignore its meaning. Physically active seniors showed faster reaction times, lower individual variability in reaction times, and higher accuracy compared to low active seniors, particularly in the high interference block. This result was confirmed in the classic paper-and-pencil version of the Stroop task showing higher interference score in the low active than high active individuals. ERPs revealed a shorter latency of the P2 and generally more negative amplitudes of the fronto-central N2 and N450 components in the high active group compared to the low active group. The amount of interference was negatively correlated with objectively measured fitness and self-reported physical activity. The positive effect of physical fitness on interference processing in the behavioral data was related to N2 and N450 amplitudes. Taken together, this suggests that seniors reporting long-term physical activity may exhibit generally enhanced activity in the frontal cortex which enables more efficient interference resolution in the Stroop task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The incidence of experimental smoking in school children: an 8-year follow-up of the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution (CABLE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hsing-Yi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have established that most regular adult smokers become addicted in their adolescent years. We investigated the incidence of and risk factors associated with initial experimental smoking among a group of school children who were followed for 8 years. Methods We used cohort data collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE study, which selected nine elementary schools each from an urban area (Taipei City and a rural area (Hsingchu county in northern Taiwan. From 2002 to 2008, children were asked annually whether they had smoked in the previous year. An accelerated lifetime model with Weibull distribution was used to examine the factors associated with experimental smoking. Results In 2001, 2686 4th-graders participated in the study. For each year from 2002 to 2008, their incidences of trial smoking were 3.1%, 4.0%, 2.8%, 6.0%, 5.3%, 5.0% and 6.0%, respectively. There was an increase from 7th to 8th grade (6.0%. Children who were males, lived in rural areas, came from single-parent families, had parents who smoked, and had peers who smoked were more likely to try smoking earlier. The influence of parents and peers on experimental smoking demonstrated gradient effects. Conclusions This study used a cohort to examine incidence and multiple influences, including individual factors, familial factors, and community factors, on experimental smoking in adolescents. The findings fit the social ecological model, highlighting the influences of family and friends. School and community attachment were associated with experimental smoking in teenagers.

  18. Study on the leaching behavior of actinides from nuclear fuel debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirishima, Akira; Hirano, Masahiko; Akiyama, Daisuke; Sasaki, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki

    2018-04-01

    For the prediction of the leaching behavior of actinides contained in the nuclear fuel debris generated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, simulated fuel debris consisting of a UO2-ZrO2 solid solution doped with 137Cs, 237Np, 236Pu, and 241Am tracers was synthesized and investigated. The synthesis of the debris was carried out by heat treatment at 1200 °C at different oxygen partial pressures, and the samples were subsequently used for leaching tests with Milli-Q water and seawater. The results of the leaching tests indicate that the leaching of actinides depends on the redox conditions under which the debris was generated; for example, debris generated under oxidative conditions releases more actinide nuclides to water than that generated under reductive conditions. Furthermore, we found that, as Zr(IV) increasingly substituted U(IV) in the fluorite crystal structure of the debris, the actinide leaching from the debris decreased. In addition, we found that seawater leached more actinides from the debris than pure water, which seems to be caused by the complexation of actinides by carbonate ions in seawater.

  19. Antimony smelting process generating solid wastes and dust: characterization and leaching behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuejun; Wang, Kunpeng; He, Mengchang; Liu, Ziwei; Yang, Hailin; Li, Sisi

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of solid waste has been produced by the antimony smelting process in the "World Capital of Antimony", Xikuangshan area in China. This study comprehensively investigated the physical and chemical characteristics of the various solid wastes, as well as the leaching behavior of the solid wastes, which included water-quenched slag, arsenic-alkali residue, desulfurized slag and blast furnace dust. These four types of waste were enriched in a variety of heavy metals and metalloids and more specifically with As and Sb levels up to 8.6 × 10⁴ and 3.16×10⁵ mg/kg, respectively, in arsenic-alkali residue. For desulfurized slag and water-quenched slag, the leaching concentration of Sb significantly exceeded the acceptable limits during the leaching tests using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. In addition, As leaching in arsenic-alkali residue was extraordinarily hazardous, being three orders of magnitude higher than the regulatory level of As. According to the results of the extraction tests, all the tested wastes were classified as hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Leaching behavior of harmful components from cement solidities of fluidized-bed coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, T.; Fukuoka, H.; Shigemoto, N. [Fuji Clean Co., Kagawa (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    Solidifies of fluidized-bed fly ash with slag cement were prepared by hydrothermal treatment after adding gypsum, Na3PO{sub 4}, or Al2(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. XRD analysis of the solidifies was performed and leaching behavior of Pb and F from the solidities was investigated. The fly ash-cement and fly ash-cement-gypsum solidifies showed rather high leaching concentration of F and Pb. The F leaching was explained by solubility products of a Ca(OH){sub 2} CaF2 system. The Pb leaching concentrations roughly agreed with the theoretical curve for hydroxo complexes of Pb, showing a strong dependence on pH. Addition of Na3PO{sub 4} and Al2(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, to cement solidities gave katoite and aluminium phosphate, and ettringite, respectively, and these solidities showed lower leaching concentrations of F and Pb than the fly ash-cement and fly ash-cement-gypsum solidifies. Capture of F and Pb in crystalline components such as ettringite probably accounts for such leaching suppression.

  1. Leaching behavior of total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from banana peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruixue; Sun, Shujuan; Xu, Yan; Qiu, Xiudong; Yang, Jili; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-01-01

    The leaching behavior of organic carbon and nutrient compounds from banana peel (BP) was investigated in batch assays with respect to particle size, contact time, pH value, and temperature. The granularity, contact time, pH, and temperature caused no significant effects on the leaching of total phosphorus (TP) from the BP. The maximum leached total nitrogen (TN) content was found at pH 5.0 and 90 minutes, while no significant effects were caused by the granularity and temperature. The maximum leached total organic carbon (TOC) content was found by using a powder of 40 mesh, 150 minutes and at pH 6.0, while the temperature had no effect on the TOC leaching. The proportions of the TN, TP, and TOC contents leached from the dried BP ranged from 33.6% to 40.9%, 60.4% to 72.7%, and 8.2% to 9.9%, respectively, indicating that BP could be a potential pollution source for surface and ground water if discharged as domestic waste or reutilized without pretreatment.

  2. Gamma radiolysis effects on leaching behavior of ceramic materials for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Raine, D.K.; Hocking, W.H.; George, K.; Betteridge, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The leaching behavior of ceramic materials for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers, under the influence of a moderate gamma dose rate (4 Gy/h), has been investigated. Samples of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, stabilized ZrO/sub 2/, TiO/sub 2/, cermet (70% Al/sub 2/O-30% TiC), porcelain (with high Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content), and concrete (with sulfate-resisting portland cement plus silica fume) have been leached in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution (SCSSS), and SCSSS plus clay and sand (components of the disposal system), at 100 0 and 150 0 C for 231 and 987 days, respectively. Leaching solutions were analyzed and the surfaces of the leached samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Radiolysis did not appear to enhance the leaching, with or without bentonite and sand in the system. Analysis of the gas phase from sealed capsules showed O/sub 2/ depletion and production of CO/sub 2/ in all experiments containing bentonite. The decrease in O/sub 2/ is attributed to the leaching from the clay of Fe(II) species, which can participate in redox reactions with radicals generated by radiolysis. The CO/sub 2/ is produced from either the organic or inorganic fraction in the bentonite

  3. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues; Influence des variations de composition des vitrifiats de refiom - residus d'epuration des fumees d'incineration d'ordures menageres - sur leur comportement a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

  4. Sociometric and ethological approach to the assessment of individual and group behavior in extra long-term isolation during simulated interplanetary mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushin, Vadim; Tafforin, Carole; Kuznetsova, Polina; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina

    Several factors, such as hazard to life, reduced social communications, isolation, high workload, monotony, etc., can cause deconditioning of individual status and group dynamics in long-term spaceflight. New approaches to the assessment of group behavior are being developed in order to create necessary counter-measures and to keep optimal psychological climate in the crew. Psychological methods combined with ethological approach to dynamic monitoring of the isolated crew had been tested and validated in Mars-500 experiment. The experiment (duration of 520 days) was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of a piloted mission to Mars. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. We used psychological tests: sociometric questionnaire to assess group status (popularity) of the crewmembers (monthly), color choice test to assess the level of frustration and anxiety (twice a month). We performed observations from video recordings of group discussions (monthly) and during breakfast time (twice a month). The video analysis was supplied with a software based-solution: The Observer XT®. The results showed that occurrence of collateral acts may indicate psychological stress and fatigue in crewmembers under isolation and that facial expressions may indicate less anxiety. The data of psychological tests allowed to define two subgroups in the crew. The first one consisted of the subjects with high group status and lower level of frustration (not anxious), the second one consisted of less popular subjects, having respectively higher anxiety level. The video analysis showed two times more manifestations of facial expressions and interpersonal communications for the first subgroup. We also identified the subgroups on the basis of their verbal expressions in Russian and in English. Video observation of individual and group behavior, combined with other psychological tests gives opportunity to emphasize more objectively the signs

  5. Controls on the long term earthquake behavior of an intraplate fault revealed by U-Th and stable isotope analyses of syntectonic calcite veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Randolph; Goodwin, Laurel; Sharp, Warren; Mozley, Peter

    2017-04-01

    U-Th dates on calcite precipitated in coseismic extension fractures in the Loma Blanca normal fault zone, Rio Grande rift, NM, USA, constrain earthquake recurrence intervals from 150-565 ka. This is the longest direct record of seismicity documented for a fault in any tectonic environment. Combined U-Th and stable isotope analyses of these calcite veins define 13 distinct earthquake events. These data show that for more than 400 ka the Loma Blanca fault produced earthquakes with a mean recurrence interval of 40 ± 7 ka. The coefficient of variation for these events is 0.40, indicating strongly periodic seismicity consistent with a time-dependent model of earthquake recurrence. Stochastic statistical analyses further validate the inference that earthquake behavior on the Loma Blanca was time-dependent. The time-dependent nature of these earthquakes suggests that the seismic cycle was fundamentally controlled by a stress renewal process. However, this periodic cycle was punctuated by an episode of clustered seismicity at 430 ka. Recurrence intervals within the earthquake cluster were as low as 5-11 ka. Breccia veins formed during this episode exhibit carbon isotope signatures consistent with having formed through pronounced degassing of a CO2 charged brine during post-failure, fault-localized fluid migration. The 40 ka periodicity of the long-term earthquake record of the Loma Blanca fault is similar in magnitude to recurrence intervals documented through paleoseismic studies of other normal faults in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range Province. We propose that it represents a background rate of failure in intraplate extension. The short-term, clustered seismicity that occurred on the fault records an interruption of the stress renewal process, likely by elevated fluid pressure in deeper structural levels of the fault, consistent with fault-valve behavior. The relationship between recurrence interval and inferred fluid degassing suggests that pore fluid pressure

  6. Application of washed MSWI fly ash in cement composites: long-term environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Tian, Sicong; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, long-term environmental impacts of compact and ground cement composites, in which 30 wt.% of cement was replaced by washed municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash, were investigated for use in building industry. Consecutive leaching tests over a time span of 180 days were performed in acid water, deionized water, and saline water, respectively, with the accumulative concentration of different elements determined in the leachate. Different leaching behaviors are observed among different potential toxic elements (PTEs). For instance, higher concentrations of V in the leachate were observed from the compact cement composites than those from the ground ones. The concentration of Ba in the leachate increased with the decrease of particle size of the cement composites, and an initial increase in the leaching efficiency of Sn was followed by a clear decline with the leaching time. In addition, kinetic study revealed that the leaching behaviors of potential toxic elements follow a second-order model. The results demonstrated that the addition of washed MSWI fly ash into cement can contribute to the attrition resistance, indicating that the washed MSWI fly ash could be a promising alternative for cement as supplementary building materials.

  7. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  8. Early and long-term effects of low- and high-LET radiation on rat behavior and monoamine metabolism in different brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Oleg

    Space radiation is one of the factors representing a significant health risk to the astronauts during deep-space missions. A most harmful component of space radiation beyond the Earth's magnetosphere is the galactic cosmic rays which are composed of high-energy protons, α particles, and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. Recent studies performed at particle accelerators have revealed a significant impact of HZE nuclei on the central nervous system and, in particular, on the cognitive functions. However the exact molecular mechanisms behind the observed impairments remain mostly unclear. This research is focused on study of early and long-term effects of low- and high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation on the rat behavior and monoamine metabolism in the brain regions involved in behavior and motor control and form emotional and motivational states. Different groups of rats were whole-body exposed to 500 MeV/u (12) C particles (LET 10.6 keV/µm) available at the Nuclotron accelerator of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) and to gamma rays at the equivalent dose of 1 Gy. An additional group of animals was sham-irradiated and considered as a control. The isolated brain regions have included the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum where we determined the concentrations of noradrenalin, dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-doxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and 3-methoxytyramine and serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The following effects were observed in the different periods after irradiation. 1 day after exposure to (12) C particles strong changes in the concentration of monoamines and their metabolites were observed in three structures, namely, the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. However, significant changes were found in the prefrontal cortex and weaker changes were seen in the nucleus accumbens, whereas changes were insignificant in the hippocampus

  9. Nickel stabilization efficiency of aluminate and ferrite spinels and their leaching behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kaimin; White, Tim; Leckie, James O

    2006-09-01

    Stabilization efficiencies of spinel-based construction ceramics incorporating simulated nickel-laden waste sludge were evaluated and the leaching behavior of products investigated. To simulate the process of immobilization, nickel oxide was mixed alternatively with gamma-alumina, kaolinite, and hematite. These tailoring precursors are commonly used to prepare construction ceramics in the building industry. After sintering from 600 to 1480 degrees C at 3 h, the nickel aluminate spinel (NiAl204) and the nickel ferrite spinel (NiFe204) crystallized with the ferrite spinel formation commencing about 200-300 degrees C lower than for the aluminate spinel. All the precursors showed high nickel incorporation efficiencies when sintered at temperatures greater than 1250 degrees C. Prolonged leach tests (up to 26 days) of product phases were carried out using a pH 2.9 acetic acid solution, and the spinel products were invariably superior to nickel oxide for immobilization over longer leaching periods. The leaching behavior of NiAl2O4 was consistent with congruent dissolution without significant reprecipitation, but for NiFe2O4, ferric hydroxide precipitation was evident. The major leaching reaction of sintered kaolinite-based products was the dissolution of cristobalite rather than NiAl2O4. This study demonstrated the feasibility of transforming nickel-laden sludge into spinel phases with the use of readily available and inexpensive ceramic raw materials, and the successful reduction of metal mobility under acidic environments.

  10. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, Anouk; Bouziane, C.; Bron, E. E.; Klein, S.; Bottelier, M. A.; Kooij, J. J. S.; Rombouts, S. A. R. B.; Reneman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We

  11. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A. (Anouk); C. Bouziane (Cheima); E.E. Bron (Esther); S. Klein (Stefan); Bottelier, M.A.; Kooij, J.J.S.; S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); L. Reneman (Liesbeth)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the

  12. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A.; Bouziane, C.; Bron, E.E.; Klein, S.; Bottelier, M.A.; Kooij, J.J.S.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Reneman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We

  13. Changes in health risk behaviors of elementary school students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003: results from the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that children's behaviors have long-term effects on later life. Hence it is important to monitor the development of health risk behaviors in childhood. This study examined the changes in health risk behaviors in fourth- to sixth-grade students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003. Methods The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution (CABLE study collected data from 1,820 students from 2001 to 2003 (students were 9 or 10 years old in 2001. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the aggregation of health risk behaviors. A linear growth curve model was used to determine whether health risk behaviors changed over time. Results Of the 13 behaviors, staying up late and eating snacks late at night were the most prevalent (82.3% of subjects in 2001, 81.8% in 2002, 88.5% in 2003 and second most prevalent (68.7%, 67.4%, 71.6% behaviors, respectively, from 2001 to 2003. The three least prevalent health risk behaviors were chewing betel nut (1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2%, smoking (1.4%, 1.0%, 0.8%, and drinking alcohol (8.5%, 6.0%, 5.2%. The frequencies of swearing and staying up late showed the greatest significant increases with time. On the other hand, suppressing urination and drinking alcohol decreased over time. Using exploratory factor analysis, we aggregated the health risk behaviors into three categories: unhealthy habits, aggressive behaviors, and substance use. Although students did not display high levels of aggressive behavior or experimentation with substances, the development of these behaviors in a small proportion of students should not be ignored. The results of the linear growth curve model indicated that unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased over time. However, substance use slightly decreased over time. Conclusion We found that some health risk behaviors increased with time while others did not. Unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased, whereas

  14. Long-Term Orientation in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trust does not work in the same way across cultures. This paper presents an agent model of behavior in trade across Hofstedes cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term orientation. The situation is based on a gaming simulation, the Trust and Tracing game. The paper investigates the

  15. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  16. Evaluation of leaching behavior and immobilization of zinc in cement-based solidified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolo Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has examined leaching behavior of monolithic stabilized/solidified products contaminated with zinc by performing modified dynamic leaching test. The effectiveness of cement-based stabilization/solidification treatment was evaluated by determining the cumulative release of Zn and diffusion coefficients, De. The experimental results indicated that the cumulative release of Zn decreases as the addition of binder increases. The values of the Zn diffusion coefficients for all samples ranged from 1.210-8 to 1.1610-12 cm2 s-1. The samples with higher amounts of binder had lower De values. The test results showed that cement-based stabilization/solidification treatment was effective in immobilization of electroplating sludge and waste zeolite. A model developed by de Groot and van der Sloot was used to clarify the controlling mechanisms. The controlling leaching mechanism was found to be diffusion for samples with small amounts of waste material, and dissolution for higher waste contents.

  17. Long-term corrosion behavior of ODS-Eurofer in flowing Pb-15.7Li at 550°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krauss

    2016-12-01

    In this paper results from long-term corrosion testing of ODS-Eurofer will be reported for exposure times up to 1.5 years at a flow velocity of 0.1m/s. The evaluated data for ODS-Eurofer corrosion will be compared with values of ‘single’ phase ’classical‘ Eurofer. The observed corrosion attack and mechanisms will be discussed in detail considering the testing conditions and the microstructure of the RAFM-steels.

  18. Understanding cancer survivors’ information needs and information-seeking behaviors for complementary and alternative medicine from short- to long-term survival: a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ann Scarton

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients continue to use CAM well into long-term cancer survivorship. Finding trustworthy sources for information on CAM presents many challenges such as reliability of source, conflicting information on efficacy, and unknown interactions with conventional medications. Study participants expressed interest in an online portal to meet these needs through patient testimonials and linkage of claims to the scientific literature. Such a portal could also aid medical librarians and clinicians in locating and evaluating CAM information on behalf of patients.

  19. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  20. Long-term follow-up of a randomized trial of family foundations: effects on children's emotional, behavioral, and school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Roettger, Michael E; Solmeyer, Anna; Hostetler, Michelle L

    2014-12-01

    This study examines long-term effects of a transition to parenthood program, Family Foundations, designed to enhance child outcomes through a strategic focus on supporting the coparenting relationship. Roughly 5 to 7 years after baseline (pregnancy), parent and teacher reports of internalizing and externalizing problems and school adjustment were collected by mail for 98 children born to couples enrolled in the randomized trial. Teachers reported significantly lower levels of internalizing problems among children in the intervention group compared with children in the control group and, consistent with prior findings at age 3, lower levels of externalizing problems for boys in the intervention group. Baseline level of observed couple negative communication moderated intervention effects for parent and teacher report of child adjustment and teacher report of school adjustment and adaptation. Effect sizes ranged from 0.40 to 0.98. Results indicate that relatively brief preventive programs for couples at the transition to parenthood have the capacity to promote long-term positive benefits for children's adjustment. Although we attended to missing data issues in several ways, high levels of attrition in this long-term follow-up study is a cause for caution.

  1. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  2. Long term behavior of radioactive plume of TEPCO FNPP1 released 134Cs and 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean through the end of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Michio; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Hamajima, Yasunori; Kumamoto, Yuichiro

    2015-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major likely pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima NPP1 accident site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northeast of the site. High density observations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the surface water were carried out by 17 cruises of cargo ships and several research vessel cruises since March 2011 till March 2012. Thereafter we and our collaborators continue to collect seawater samples in 2013 and 2014 in the North Pacific Ocean. We also conduct to measure radiocaesium in coastal waters at Tomioka and Hasaki, Japan through the end of 2014. TEPCO and Japanese government also continue to monitor radiocaesium in seawaters close to the site. In this presentation, we present long term behavior of TEPCO FNPP1 released radiocaesium in the coastal region and the North Pacific Ocean based on the observations and model simulations during the period from just after the accident to summer in 2014. In the coastal region very close to TEPCO FNPP1 site, the data show peak ocean discharges in early April 2011, one month after the earthquake and a factor of 1000 decrease in the month following. The 137Cs activity through the end of September 2014 remain higher than expected, ca. 1000 Bq m-3, implying continued releases from the reactors. Since directly discharged radiocaesium were transported dominantly southward along the coastline of northeastern Honshu, the 137Cs activities in coastal seawater collected at Tomioka and Hasaki were still one or two order of magnitude higher, several to 100 Bq m-3, rather than pre-Fukushima level in summer 2014. In the North Pacific Ocean main body of radiocaesium surface plume of which activity exceed 10 Bq m-3 had been travelling along 40 °N, and reached International Date Line on March 2012 one year after the accident. A feature was that the radiocaesium plume was confined along 40 °N when the plume reached International

  3. Effect of various lead species on the leaching behavior of borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.L.; Kuchinski, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    A borosilicate nuclear waste glass was static leached in pure water, silicate water, and brine solution. Three different forms of lead were included in specified corrosion cells to assess the extent to which various lead species alter the leaching behavior of the glass. Weight loss data indicated that Pb/sub m/ amd PbO greatly reduce the weight loss of glass when leached in pure water, and similar effects were noted in silicate and brine. Si concentrations, which were substantial in the glass-alone leachate, were reduced to below detection limits in all pure water cells containing a lead form. Lead concentration levels in the leachate were controlled by lead form solubility and appeared to be a significant factor in influencing apparent leaching behavior. Surface analysis revealed surface crystals, which probably formed when soluble lead in the leachate reacted with dissolved or activated silica at the glass surface. The net effect was to reduce the lease of some glass constituents to the leachate, although it was not clear whether the actual corrosion of the glass surface was reduced. Significantly different corrosion inhibiting effects were noted among lead metal and two forms of lead oxide. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Leaching behavior of microtektite glass compositions in sea water and the effect of precipitation on glass leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the present study it was attempted to account for the slow corrosion rates of microtektite glass in nature by comparing the leach rates of synthetic microtektite glass samples in deionized water and in sea-water, respectively. In order to obtain systematic data about leachant composition effects, leach tests were also carried out with synthetic leachant compositions enriched with respect to silica or depleted with respect to certain major components of sea-water (Mg, Ca). 47 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. Long-term behaviour of concrete in water saturated media - Experimental and modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peycelon, H; Mazoin, C

    2004-07-01

    In the context of the nuclear long-lived radioactive waste management, cement-based materials are currently used for waste encapsulation and containers development. Such materials are also likely to be used for engineered barriers in deep repositories. Various types of cement - CEM I, CEM V - have been currently studied, mainly to evaluate materials long-term durability. Studies have been performed on the leaching behavior of hardened cement pastes based on these cements. The effect of temperature is taking into account. Leaching experiments for 25 deg C, 50 deg C and 85 deg C were carried out with a standard test developed at CEA. Experimental results were analyzed and calculations were made to estimate calcium fluxes and degraded thicknesses. Experimental and modelling results were compared. (authors)

  6. The WECHSL-Mod2 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, M.; Stiefel, S.

    1989-06-01

    The WECHSL-Mod2 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten LWR reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. The code assumes that the metallic phases of the melt pool form a layer at the bottom overlayed by the oxide melt atop. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA experiments. The test samples include a typical BETA post test calculation and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  7. Leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized radioactive waste form under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi; Akimoto, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized waste form was studied to acquire data for the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of bituminized radioactive waste. Laboratory-scale leaching tests were performed for radioactive and non-radioactive waste specimens simulating bituminized waste of a French reprocessing company, COGEMA. The simulated waste was contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.03-mol/l KOH), and a saline solution (0.5-mol/l KCl) under atmospheric and anoxic conditions. The concentrations of Na, Ba, Cs, Sr, Np, Pu, NO 3 , SO 4 and I in the leachates were determined. Swelling of the bituminized waste progressed in deionized water and KOH. The release of the soluble components, Na and Cs, was enhanced by the swelling, and considered to be diffusion-controlled in the swelled layers of the specimens. The release of sparingly soluble components such as Ba and Np was solubility-limited in addition to the progression of leaching. Neptunium, a redox-sensitive element, showed a distinct difference in release between anoxic and atmospheric conditions. The elemental release from the bituminized waste specimens leached in the KCl was very low, which is likely due to the suppression of swelling of the specimens at high ionic strength. (author)

  8. Effect of drying-wetting cycles on leaching behavior of cement solidified lead-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Xue, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Li, Zhen-Ze; Liu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Lead contaminated soil was treated by different concentration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Solidified cylindrical samples were dried at 40°C in oven for 48 h subsequent to 24h of immersing in different solution for one drying-wetting. 10 cycles were conducted on specimens. The changes in mass loss of specimens, as well as leaching concentration and pH of filtered leachates were studied after each cycle. Results indicated that drying-wetting cycles could accelerate the leaching and deterioration of solidified specimens. The cumulative leached lead with acetic acid (pH=2.88) in this study was 109, 83 and 71 mg respectively for solidified specimens of cement-to-dry soil (C/Sd) ratios 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4, compared to 37, 30, and 25mg for a semi-dynamic leaching test. With the increase of cycle times, the cumulative mass loss of specimens increased linearly, but pH of filtered leachates decreased. The leachability and deterioration of solidified specimens increased with acidity of solution. Increases of C/Sd clearly reduced the leachability and deterioration behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the electrical contact and long-term behavior of compression-type connections with conventional and high-temperature conductor ropes with low sag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of hexagonal compression connections with stranded overhead transmission line conductors was calculated with the finite element method. The compression forces and the residual contact forces were determined for all contacts between barrel and conductor as well as between the wires of the conductor. It was shown, that high compression and residual contact forces are the main cause of good electrical contact behaviour. The physical relations are discussed. The electrical long-term behaviour was furthermore investigated in experiments. The results confirm the influence of the residual contact force on the long-term behaviour qualitatively. Those compression connections, which had only small residual contact forces, were less stable in the long-term tests.

  10. The WECHSL-Mod3 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior. Model description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, J.J.; Adroguer, B.; Cenerino, G.; Stiefel, S.

    1995-02-01

    The WECHSL-Mod3 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional as well as in a one-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. It is assumed that an underlying metallic layer exists covered by an oxidic layer or that only one oxidic layer is present which can contain a homogeneously dispersed metallic phase. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The CALTHER code (developed at CEA, France) which models the radiative heat transfer from the upper surface of the corium melt to the surrounding cavity is implemented in the present WECHSL version. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA, ACE and SURC experiments. The test samples include a BETA and the SURC2 post test calculations and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  11. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  12. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okuda

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be

  13. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  14. Results from the long-term interaction and modeling of SRL-131 glass with aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Lokken, R.O.

    1985-11-01

    Leaching studies of SRL-131 simulated defense nuclear waste glass have been carried out to two years duration, in leachants that simulate groundwaters of different ionic strengths. The leachability of SRL-131 glass followed the trend: deionized water > silicate water > salt brine = simulated groundwater at 40 0 C and deionized water = simulated groundwater > silicate water > salt brine at 90 0 C. The results are in general agreement with calculations using the PHREEQE geochemical code and indicate a sometimes complex sequence temperature dependent of mineral precipitation and redissolution. The calculations done in this study have illustrated the complexity of the precipitation sequence of mineral phases as a function of reaction progress. Complex, temperature dependent, precipitation/dissolution sequences have also been observed in experiments using natural materials, such as sea water and basaltic glass. The results of this two-year study point to the need for further work in establishing the thermodynamics of the observed phases and the relationship of these phases to the thermodynamically favored suite of phases for any given waste form/host rock/groundwater system. In order to study these phases, very long-term experiments may be necessary so that the phases grow to sizes which can be studied. In addition, geochemical codes should be used to better understand the experiments, to design leach test matrices, and to help predict the long-term results of experiments. The combination of long-term experiments and geochemical codes should lead to an improved method for forecasting the long-term behavior of a nuclear waste repository. 15 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Leaching of microelement contaminants: a long-term field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, T.; Kadar, I. [Research Inst. for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    A field experiment with microelement loads was set up on loamy textured, calcareous chernozem soil formed on loess. The ploughed layer contained ca. 5% CaCO{sub 3} and 3% humus. The soil was well supplied with Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu, moderately supplied with N and K, and weakly supplied with P and Zn. The water table is at the depth of 15 m, the water balance of the area is negative, and the site is drought sensitive. Salts of the 13 examined microelements were applied at 4 doses in the spring of 1991. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design, in a total of 104 plots with two replications. Loading rates were 0, 90, 270 and 810 kg/ha per element in the form of AlCl{sub 3}, NaAsO{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2}, CdSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, CuSO{sub 4}, HgCl{sub 2}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}, NiSO{sub 4}, Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}, SrSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4}. Soil profiles of the control and the 810 kg/ha treated plots were sampled in the 3{sup rd}, 6{sup th} and 10{sup th} year of the trial. The mixed samples, consisting of 5 cores/plot were taken in 30 cm steps to 60 cm (year 1993), 90 cm (year 1996), and 290 cm (year 2000). Ammonium acetate + EDTA-soluble element content was determined. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  17. Cambio de conductas en tratamientos de larga duracion: Relacion medico-paciente Behavior changes in long-term treatment: Physician-patient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Facchini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades crónicas como la diabetes, la obesidad y la hipertensión arterial, entre otras, requieren de tratamientos prolongados. El establecimiento de un vínculo básico se constituye en la piedra fundamental de toda acción terapéutica. En el enfoque centrado en el paciente se busca entrar en su mundo para comprender la vivencia subjetiva de la enfermedad en un marco más amplio. Es relevante integrar al paciente como un participante activo, valorado y esencial para el proceso de cambio. La manera en que se prescribe es tan valiosa como el tratamiento mismo; el objetivo es enseñar al paciente a seguirlo, las recaídas no deben ser vistas como fracasos sino como una oportunidad más de aprender. Los pacientes necesitan encontrar sus propias soluciones y motivaciones, y hacerse responsables de su salud; los profesionales de la salud necesitamos darles el poder para hacerlo. Las intervenciones exitosas y más efectivas en el largo plazo requieren de un enfoque terapéutico que haga hincapié en la adherencia al mismo y en el autocuidado.Chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension, among others, need long term treatments. The constitution of a basic alliance is the cornerstone of any therapeutic action. In the patient-centered approach, the aim is to enter their world in order to understand the subjective experience of the disease in a broader frame. It is relevant to involve the patient as an active, respected and fundamental participant of the changing process. The way a treatment is prescribed is as important as the treatment itself; the aim is to teach the patient how to follow his/her own treatment, relapses must not be considered failures but opportunities for learning. Patients need to find their own solutions and motivations and be responsible for their health on a daily basis. We need to empower them to do so. Long-term, successful and effective interventions require a treatment which focuses on compliance and

  18. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations......What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...

  19. The pH-dependent leaching behavior of slags from various stages of a copper smelting process: Environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošíková, Alice; Ettler, Vojtěch; Mihaljevič, Martin; Kříbek, Bohdan; Mapani, Ben

    2017-02-01

    The leaching behaviors of primary copper (Cu) slags originating from Ausmelt, reverbatory, and converter furnaces operating under a single technological process were compared to a residual slag tailing obtained by slag re-processing via flotation and metal recovery. The EN 12457-2 leaching test, used for assessment of the hazardous properties, was followed by the CEN/TS 14997 pH-static leaching test (pH range 3-12). Both leaching experiments were coupled with a mineralogical investigation of the primary and secondary phases as well as geochemical modeling. Metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) exhibit the highest leaching at low pH. Under acidic conditions (pH 3-6), Ausmelt slag and slag tailing exhibited higher metal leaching compared to other slag types. Very low leaching of metals (far below EU limits for non-hazardous waste) was observed at natural pH (7.9-9.0) for all the studied slag samples. In contrast, relatively high leaching of As was observed over the entire pH range, especially for Ausmelt slag (exceeding the EU limit for hazardous waste by 1.7×). However, geochemical modeling and scanning electron microscopy indicated that formation of stable Ca-Cu-Pb arsenates and the binding of As to newly formed Fe (oxyhydr)oxides play an important role in efficient As immobilization at the slag-water interface. In contrast, no controls were predicted for Sb, whose leaching was almost pH-independent. Nevertheless Sb leached concentrations at natural pH were below EU limit for hazardous waste. Re-processing of primary Cu slags for metal recovery, and subsequent co-disposal of the resulting slag tailing with dolomite-rich mine tailing and local laterite is suitable for stabilizing the remaining contaminants (except Sb) and limiting their leaching into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived Work Ability in the Light of Long-Term and Stress-Related Unhealthy Behaviors-a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nevanpera, N; Seitsamo, J; Ala-Mursula, L; Remes, J; Hopsu, L; Auvinen, J; Tammelin, T; Jarvelin, M-R; Laitinen, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Most of the few studies that exist on the longitudinal associations between health behaviors and work ability target to single health behaviors. Purpose To investigate how lifetime clusters of unhealthy behaviors associate with perceived work ability in early midlife. Methods The study population consisted of 46-year-old men and women (n=3107) born in Northern Finland in 1966. Their current perceived work ability compared to lifetime best, and their unhealthy behaviors (physical in...

  1. Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR. All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM observation, forced swim test (FST, the open field test (OFT, the chromosome aberration (CA, the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA, the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR.

  2. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  3. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  4. The effects of a self-efficacy intervention on exercise behavior of fitness club members in 52 weeks and long-term relationships of transtheoretical model constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, J.; Rooijen, M. Van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    The transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) is often used to understand changes in health-related behavior, like exercise. Exercise behavior in fitness clubs is an understudied topic, but preliminary studies showed low frequencies and large numbers of drop-out. An initial 12-week

  5. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  6. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  7. Leaching behavior of mineral processing waste: Comparison of batch and column investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)], E-mail: al-abed.souhail@epa.gov; Jegadeesan, G. [Pegasus Technical Services Inc., 46 East Hollister Street, Cincinnati, OH 45219 (United States); Purandare, J. [Englandgeosystem Inc., 15375 Barranca Pkwy, Suite F-106, Irvine, CA 92618 (United States); Allen, D. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2008-05-30

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid-solid ratios (LS) to determine the mechanisms controlling metal release. Additionally, the effect of pH on metal release is also discussed. It was observed that acidic pH conditions induced dissolution of As, Zn and Cu. Negligible leaching at alkaline pH was observed. However, Se depicted amphoteric behavior with high release at low and high pH. The batch and column data showed that As and Se release increased with LS ratio, while that of Cu and Zn increased initially and tapered towards equilibrium values at high LS ratios. The results on metal release from the MPW suggested that dissolution of the metal was the controlling mechanism. Leaching profiles from the batch and column data corresponded well for most LS ratios. This is most likely due to the acidic character of the waste, minimal changes in pH during the column operation and granular structure of the waste. From a waste management perspective, low cost batch equilibrium studies in lieu of high cost column experiments can be used for decision making on its disposal only when the waste exhibits characteristics similar to the mineral processing waste.

  8. Leaching behavior of mineral processing waste: Comparison of batch and column investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abed, Souhail R.; Jegadeesan, G.; Purandare, J.; Allen, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid-solid ratios (LS) to determine the mechanisms controlling metal release. Additionally, the effect of pH on metal release is also discussed. It was observed that acidic pH conditions induced dissolution of As, Zn and Cu. Negligible leaching at alkaline pH was observed. However, Se depicted amphoteric behavior with high release at low and high pH. The batch and column data showed that As and Se release increased with LS ratio, while that of Cu and Zn increased initially and tapered towards equilibrium values at high LS ratios. The results on metal release from the MPW suggested that dissolution of the metal was the controlling mechanism. Leaching profiles from the batch and column data corresponded well for most LS ratios. This is most likely due to the acidic character of the waste, minimal changes in pH during the column operation and granular structure of the waste. From a waste management perspective, low cost batch equilibrium studies in lieu of high cost column experiments can be used for decision making on its disposal only when the waste exhibits characteristics similar to the mineral processing waste

  9. Perceived Work Ability in the Light of Long-Term and Stress-Related Unhealthy Behaviors-a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanperä, Nina; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Remes, Jouko; Hopsu, Leila; Auvinen, Juha; Tammelin, Tuija; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2016-04-01

    Most of the few studies that exist on the longitudinal associations between health behaviors and work ability target to single health behaviors. To investigate how lifetime clusters of unhealthy behaviors associate with perceived work ability in early midlife. The study population consisted of 46-year-old men and women (n = 3107) born in Northern Finland in 1966. Their current perceived work ability compared to lifetime best, and their unhealthy behaviors (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) were assessed by questionnaires. We determined clusters of unhealthy behaviors at the ages of 14, 31, and 46 and created lifetime development trajectories of health behaviors. We also assessed stress-related eating and drinking at the ages of 31 and 46. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between clusters of health behaviors, stress-related eating and drinking, and work ability at 46 years. The analyses were controlled for basic education and physical strenuousness of work, psychosocial job characteristics, perceived work ability, and BMI (kg/m(2)) at 31 years. Four health behavior trajectories emerged: always healthy, moderate (reference group), deteriorated. and always unhealthy. Among men, always unhealthy behaviors [OR (95 % confidence interval) 2.81 (1.35, 5.86)], and among women, deteriorated health behaviors [1.67 (1.07, 2.58)] associated with poor perceived work ability at 46 years. In addition, stress-related eating and drinking associated independently with poor perceived work ability at 46 years [men 2.58 (1.62, 4.12) and women 2.48 (1.70, 3.61)]. Long-lasting and stress-related unhealthy behaviors increase the risk of poor work ability in midlife.

  10. Predictors of Long-Term Risky Driving Behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jessica A; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Reed, Margot O; Bloch, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    This study examines predictors of later risky driving behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to explore baseline predictors of risky driving behavior for adolescents who completed the 8-year follow-up assessment in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA). Stepwise logistic regression analysis explained 19% of the total variance in risky driving behavior. Increased likelihood of risky driving behavior was associated with parental history of conduct disorder, low parental monitoring and supervision, and increased age. ROC analysis identified discriminative predictors for adolescents older and younger than 16 years of age at follow-up. The most discriminative predictors of later risky driving behavior were parental stress at baseline (for children 16 years or older) and increased child-rated parental protectiveness (for children less than 16 years old). Risky driving behavior was significantly predicted by baseline characteristics for the MTA cohort. Aspects of parenting behavior (or the child's perception of them), including parental stress levels, parental protectiveness, and parental levels of monitoring and supervision, were most informative in predicting these outcomes. Our results suggest that interventions to reduce high-risk behaviors in these high-risk children with ADHD might involve targeted parenting interventions.

  11. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  12. The use of barytocalcite for carbon 14 immobilization: One-year leaching behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr; Marcou, Céline; Rosen, Jérémy; Jollivet, Patrick

    2014-11-15

    The spent nuclear fuel reprocessing process is one of the anthropogenic sources of carbon-14, and since this element is highly mobile in the geosphere, its sequestration is necessary. Several phases and industrial solutions to immobilize this radionuclide have been studied, including the barytocalcite phase BaCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} at 8.08 wt.% of C, which has many advantages such as its low specific volume of carbon. Recently, different options to synthesize this phase have been reported. Here we report on the aqueous durability of barytocalcite, studied for one year with pure water at 30 °C, in order to complete the behavior studies. Unexpected leaching behavior was encountered: it had been supposed that barytocalcite would only leach slowly, but after 1 year, it was no longer present. It appears that its simple CaCO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3} constituents precipitated, though the overall carbon loss was low during the period studied. This research gives a new insight into the behavior of this phase regarding carbon-14 immobilization.

  13. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Effects of Leaching Behavior of Calcium Ions on Compression and Durability of Cement-Based Materials with Mineral Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, An; Chao, Sao-Jeng; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Leaching of calcium ions increases the porosity of cement-based materials, consequently resulting in a negative effect on durability since it provides an entry for aggressive harmful ions, causing reinforcing steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of leaching behavior of calcium ions on the compression and durability of cement-based materials. Since the parameters influencing the leaching behavior of cement-based materials are unclear and diverse, this paper focuses on the influence of added mineral admixtures (fly ash, slag and silica fume) on the leaching behavior of calcium ions regarding compression and durability of cemented-based materials. Ammonium nitrate solution was used to accelerate the leaching process in this study. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to analyze and compare the cement-based material compositions prior to and after calcium ion leaching. The experimental results show that the mineral admixtures reduce calcium hydroxide quantity and refine pore structure through pozzolanic reaction, thus enhancing the compressive strength and durability of cement-based materials. PMID:28809247

  15. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media; Comprehension de l'alteration a long terme des colis de verre R7T7: etude du couplage chimie transport dans un milieu fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L

    2008-04-15

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH{>=}11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  16. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media; Comprehension de l'alteration a long terme des colis de verre R7T7: etude du couplage chimie transport dans un milieu fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L

    2008-04-15

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH{>=}11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  17. Seasonal behavior and long-term trends of tropospheric ozone, its precursors and chemical conditions over Iran: A view from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunsoo; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-04-01

    To identify spatial and temporal variations over the Iranian region, this study analyzed tropospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), carbon monoxide (CO) columns from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), and tropospheric column O3 (TCO) from OMI/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellites from 2005 to 2012. The study discovered high levels of HCHO (∼12 × 1015 molec./cm2) from plant isoprene emissions in the air above parts of the northern forest of Iran during the summer and from the oxidation of HCHO precursors emitted from petrochemical industrial facilities and biomass burning in South West Iran. This study showed that maximum NO2 levels (∼18 × 1015 molec./cm2) were concentrated in urban cities, indicating the predominance of anthropogenic sources. The results indicate that maximum concentrations were found in the winter, mainly because of weaker local winds and higher heating fuel consumption, in addition to lower hydroxyl radicals (OH). The high CO concentrations (∼2 × 1018 molec./cm2) in the early spring were inferred to mainly originate from a strong continental air mass from anthropogenic CO "hotspots" including regions around Caspian Sea, Europe, and North America, although the external sources of CO were partly suppressed by the Arabian anticyclone and topographic barriers. Variations in the TCO were seen to peak during the summer (∼40 DU), due to intensive solar radiation and stratospheric sources. This study also examined long-term trends in TCO and its precursors over a period of eight years in five urban cities in Iran. To perform the analysis, we estimated seasonal changes and inter-seasonal variations using least-squares harmonic estimation (LS-HE), which reduced uncertainty in the trend by 5-15%. The results showed significant increases in the levels of HCHO (∼0.08 ± 0.06 × 1015 molec./cm2 yr-1), NO2 (∼0.08 ± 0.02 × 1015 molec./cm2 yr-1), and peak

  18. Optimization of the factors that accelerate leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1989-03-01

    The prediction of long-term leachability of low-level radioactive waste forms is an essential element of disposal-site performance assessment. This report describes experiments and modeling techniques used to develop an accelerated leach test that meets this need. The acceleration in leaching rates caused by the combinations of two or more factors were experimentally determined. These factors were identified earlier as being able to individually accelerate leaching. They are: elevated temperature, the size of the waste form, the ratio of the volume of leachant to the surface area of the waste form, and the frequency of replacement of the leachant. The solidification agents employed were ones that are currently used to treat low-level radioactive wastes, namely portland type I cement, bitumen, and vinyl ester-styrene. The simulated wastes, sodium sulfate, sodium tetraborate, and incinerator ash, are simplified representatives of typical low-level waste streams. Experiments determined the leaching behavior of the radionuclides of cesium (Cs-137), strontium (Sr-85), and cobalt (Co-60 or Co-57) from several different formulations of solidification agents and waste types. Leaching results were based upon radiochemical and elemental analyses of aliquots of the leachate, and on its total alkalinity and pH at various times during the experiment (up to 120 days). Solid phase analyses were carried out by Scanning/Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on the waste forms before and after some leaching experiments. 43 refs., 96 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Development of an accelerated leach test(s) for low-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1986-01-01

    An accelerated leach test(s) is being developed to predict long-term leaching behavior of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) forms in their disposal environments. As necessary background, a literature survey of reported leaching mechanisms, available mathematical models and factors that affect leaching of LLW forms has been compiled. Mechanisms which have been identified include diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, corrosion and surface effects. A computerized data base of LLW leaching data and mathematical models is being developed. The data is being used for model evaluation by curve fitting and statistical analysis according to standard procedures of statistical quality control. Long-term leach tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms. Initial results on the effect of temperature on leachability indicate that the leach rates of cement and VES waste forms increase with increasing temperature, whereas, the leach rate of bitumen is little affected

  20. Development of an accelerated leach test(s) for low-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    An accelerated leach test(s) is being developed to predict long-term leaching behavior of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) forms in their disposal environments. As necessary background, a literature survey of reported leaching mechanisms, available mathematical models and factors that affect leaching of LLW forms has been compiled. Mechanisms which have been identified include diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, corrosion and surface effects. A computerized data base of LLW leaching data and mathematical models is being developed. The data is being used for model evaluation by curve fitting and statistical analysis according to standard procedures of statistical quality control. Long-term leach tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms. Initial results on the effect of temperature on leachability indicate that the leach rates of cement and VES waste forms increase with increasing temperature, whereas, the leach rate of bitumen is little affected. 10 refs., 5 figs

  1. Acute stress worsens the deficits in appetitive behaviors for social and sexual stimuli displayed by rats after long-term withdrawal from morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunjing; Belin, David; Zheng, Xigeng; Liu, Zhengkui; Zhang, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Negative affective states, e.g., anhedonia, are suggested to be involved in the long-lasting motivational processes associated with relapse. Here, we investigated whether anhedonic behaviors could be elicited by an acute stress after protracted abstinence from morphine. The behavioral responses to natural stimuli following exposure to an acute stress were examined after 14 days of withdrawal from morphine. Male rats were pretreated with either a binge-like morphine regimen or daily saline injections for 5 days. The motivation for two natural stimuli, i.e., a social stimulus (male rat) and a sexual stimulus (estrous female rat), was measured, following exposure to an acute stress (intermittent foot shock, 0.5 mA * 0.5 s * 10 min; mean inter-shock interval 40 s), under three conditions: free approach and effort- and conflict-based approaches. Foot-shock-induced stress did not influence free-approach behavior (sniffing time) towards the social or sexual stimulus. However, in the effort-based approach task, the stressed morphine-withdrawn rats demonstrated an attenuated motivation to climb over a partition to approach the social stimulus while the stressed saline-pretreated rats showed an increased motivation to approach the social stimulus. When an aversive stimulus (pins) was introduced in order to induce an approach-avoidance conflict, both drug-withdrawn and drug-naïve groups exhibited a bimodal distribution of approach behavior towards the sexual stimulus after the stress was introduced, i.e., the majority of rats had low risky appetitive behaviors but a minority of them showed rather highly "risky" approach behavior. The acute stress induces differential motivational deficits for social and sexual rewards in protracted drug-abstinent rats.

  2. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  3. A Cognitive- Behavioral Therapeutic Program for Patients with Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short- and Long- Term Follow-Up Data of a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…

  4. Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Completion of Study Assessments, and Behavior Change in a Long-Term Dietary Intervention Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Flatt, Shirley W; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A; Nichols, Jeanne F; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-12-01

    Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms (six-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) with (1) completion of 1- and 4-year study assessments and (2) validated change in dietary behavior in the intervention group. In the comparison group (vs. intervention), depressive symptoms lowered completion of dietary recalls and clinic visits [4 years: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.0]. The behaviorally oriented intervention achieved major change in those furthest from study targets, although changes were lower in those with depressive symptoms: fruit/vegetable (+37.2 %), fiber (+49.0 %), and fat (-22.4 %). Behavioral activation in dietary change interventions can overcome the impact of depressive symptoms.

  5. Do improvements after inpatient dialectial behavioral therapy persist in the long term? A naturalistic follow-up in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Limberger, Matthias F; Schmahl, Christian; Steil, Regina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W; Bohus, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Three months of inpatient dialectical behavior therapy proved to be highly effective in patients with borderline personality disorder. This study investigates whether the effects of DBT persist after the patients returned to their usual lives. Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (DSM-IV) were prospectively followed-up for an observation period of 21 months after discharge from the DBT program, under naturalistic conditions.Improvements as observed after discharge persisted over the full follow-up period. This is reflected in a steady rate of remitted patients and in a broad range of psychopathology showing statistically and clinically significant effect-sizes ranging from 0.70 to 1.71. Analyses of courses over time revealed a high intraindividual concordance, indicating that short term treatment response predicted remission after 2 years follow-up. The effects of inpatient dialectical behavior therapy seem to persist after patients returned to their usual lives.

  6. Leaching Behavior of Selected Trace and Toxic Metals in Coal Fly Ash Samples Collected from Two Thermal Power Plants, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, P; Sahu, S K; Kothai, P; Pandit, G G

    2016-09-01

    Studies on leaching behavior of metals associated with coal fly ash (FA) are of great concern because of possible contamination of the aquatic environment. In the present study, leaching behavior of metals (As, Se, Cr, Pb, V, Zn, etc.) in two different FA samples (FA1 and FA2) was investigated at various pH (2-12), temperatures of leachate solution and using TCLP. At pH 2, the highest leaching was observed for Fe (21.6 and 32.8 µg/g), whereas at pH 12, Arsenic was found to have the highest leaching (1.5 and 2.4 µg/g) in FA1 and FA2. Leachate solution temperature showed a positive effect on the metal's leachability. In TCLP, most of the metal's leachability was observed to be higher than that of batch leaching tests. The present study suggests that, leaching of As and Se from FA samples can moderately affect ground/surface water quality at the study locations.

  7. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  8. Identifying similar and different factors effecting long-term cardiac exercise rehabilitation behavior modification between New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Stephanie; Lark, Sally; Fallows, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) programs are the most cost-effective measure for reducing morbidity associated with Coronary Vascular Disease (CVD). To be more effective there is a need to understand what influences the maintenance of healthy behaviors. This study identifies similar and different influences in CR of the United Kingdom (UK) and New Zealand (NZ). A retrospective study. Participants had previously been discharged from CR for 6 to 12+ months within the UK (n = 22) and NZ (n = 21). Participant's attended a focus group. Discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed then thematically analyzed. The CR programs were observed over 2 months to enable comment on findings relating to 'theory in practice.' Similar positive patient experiences influencing behavior between groups and countries were; support, education, positive attitude, and motivation. Companionship and exercising alongside people with similar health problems was the major determinant for positive exercise behavior. Barriers to maintaining exercise included; physical disabilities, time constraints, and weather conditions. NZ participants were more affected by external factors (eg, opportunity, access, and time). Both CR programs were successful in facilitating the maintenance of healthy lifestyles. Exercising with other cardiac patients for support in a structured environment was the strongest influence in maintaining healthy lifestyles beyond CR programs.

  9. Long-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes in children following anesthesia: A comparison of the effects of general versus regional anesthesia on term infants delivered by elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouni Alameddine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the effects of general anesthesia on the fetal and neonatal brain are limited. Animal studies demonstrated that anesthetic agents leave their consequences in the form of learning and memory deficits. The effects of propofol on the fetal neurodevelopment are not clear yet. Materials and Methods: This is a telephone-based questionnaire survey that addressed the effect of general anesthesia by propofol during cesarean section at term with no perinatal complications on the psychosocial behavior of children at 8-10 years of age compared with children having same characteristics except for delivery under neuraxial anesthesia using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a score. Results: A total of 187 children were born at term between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 with no perinatal distress under induction of general anesthesia by propofol. 66 children (35.3% were lost to follow-up and parents of two children (1.1% refused to participate. A total of 189 children were included in the study: 119 were born by cesarean section under general anesthesia and 70 were born by cesarean section under neuraxial block. The incidence of psychosocial behavior impairment at 8-10 years of age was not found to be affected by the mode of anesthesia during delivery by cesarean section nor by neonatal nor parental characteristics. Conclusion: Exposure to propofol as an induction agent for general anesthesia or cesarean section does not seem to increase the psychosocial behavior disorder development risk at 8-10 years of age.

  10. Long-term treatment with peony glycosides reverses chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior via increasing expression of neurotrophins in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Tsai, Sam-Hip; Che, Chun-Tao

    2010-07-11

    The root part of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., commonly known as peony, is a commonly used Chinese herb for the treatment of depression-like disorders. Previous studies in our laboratory have showed that total glycosides of peony (TGP) produced antidepressant-like action in various mouse models of behavioral despair. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the antidepressant-like action of TGP by measuring neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in non-stressed and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-treated rats. TGP (80 or 160 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage to the animals for 5 weeks. The results showed that CUMS caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decreases in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity (assessed by open-field test). In addition, it was found that BDNF contents in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly decreased in CUMS-treated rats. CUMS treatment also significantly decreased the level of NGF in the frontal cortex of the animals. Daily intragastric administration of TGP (80 or 160 mg/kg/day) during the five weeks of CUMS significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes induced by CUMS. Treating non-stressed animals with TGP (160 mg/kg) for 5 weeks also significantly increased BDNF contents in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and NGF contents in the frontal cortex. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like action of TGP is mediated, at least in part, by increasing the expression of BDNF and NGF in selective brain tissues. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huisheng; Kan Lili

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, surface leaching toxicity and successive leaching concentration of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were studied. And, the relationships between leaching concentrations of heavy metals and leaching time were also discussed. Experimental results showed that immobilization effect of cement on MSWI fly ash is good. Even if MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were damaged, the leaching toxicity is still in a safety range. In early leaching stage, the surface leaching rate is relatively a little high, up to 10 -5 -10 -4 cm d -1 order of magnitude, in the later time of leaching, its rate rapidly declined, down to 10 -7 . Most of leached heavy metals are produced at early ages. The leaching concentration of heavy metals and leaching time has strong positive relationships. In factual utilizing circumstances, heavy metals' leaching from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes is a very slow and gradually diluting process. The leaching toxicity of heavy metals is far lower than that of the National Standard of China, and minimum harmful matters can be contained and released in the environment. Reusing of MSWI fly ash as partial replacement for cement in concrete mixes is potentially feasible.

  12. Development of a numerical code for the prediction of the long-term behavior of the underground facilities for the high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2006-01-01

    Complicated phenomena originated by thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling behavior will occur in the near-field of geological disposal of nuclear waste. Development of a numerical evaluation method for such phenomena is important in order to make a reasonable repository design and a safety assessment. In order to achieve the objective above, a numerical model using the equations which can evaluate the swelling characteristics of buffer materials based on the diffusive double layer theory is proposed, and a numerical scheme for the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled analysis including the swelling model is constructed. The proposed swelling model can reproduce the behavior observed during both swelling pressure tests and swelling deformation tests. When the developed numerical code is applied to the laboratory heater test using a bentonite specimen, it can reproduce the thermal gradient, the distribution of saturation rate and the variation of porosity. The developed numerical code will be applied to well-controlled laboratory tests and full-scale in-situ tests in the future work. In order to apply to the various geochemical conditions around the engineered barrier, chemical component will be coupled to the present numerical code. (author)

  13. Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Products and the Environmental Implication in Road Construction : Project Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-26

    This is the third annual report for Project #043352. Project #043352 is designed to establish the leaching characteristics for several different types of ash using a relatively rigorous leaching procedure developed by Kosson et al (2002) for a wide r...

  14. Phase behavior of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon double-chain hydroxylated and galactosylated amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles. Long-term shelf-stability of their liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, L; Gadras, C; Greiner, J; Rolland, J P; Santaella, C; Vierling, P; Gulik, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the morphological characterization, by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and the thermotropic phase behavior, by differential scanning calorimetry and/or X-ray scattering, of aqueous dispersions of various hydroxylated and galactosylated double-chain amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles, several of them containing one or two hydrophobic fluorocarbon chains. Colloidal systems are observed in water with the hydroxylated hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon bolaamphiphiles only when they are dispersed with a co-amphiphile such as rac-1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or rac-1,2-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Liposomes are formed providing the relative content of bolaamphiphiles does not exceed 20% mol. Most of these liposomes can be thermally sterilized and stored at room temperature for several months without any significant modification of their size and size distribution. The hydrocarbon galactosylated bolaamphiphile HO[C24][C12]Gal forms in water a lamellar phase (the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition is complete at 45 degrees C) and a Im3m cubic phase above 47 degrees C. The fluorocarbon HO[C24][F6C5]Gal analog displays a more complex and metastable phase behavior. The fluorinated non-bolaform galactosylated [F8C7][C16]AEGal and SerGal amphiphiles form lamellar phases in water. Low amounts (10% molar ratio) of the HO[C24][F6C5]Gal or HO[C24][C12]Gal bolaamphiphiles or of the single-headed [F8C7][C16]AEGal improve substantially the shelf-stability of reference phospholipon/cholesterol 2/1 liposomes. These liposomes when co-formulated with a single-headed amphiphile from the SerGal series are by far less stable.

  15. Testing social acoustic memory in rats: effects of stimulus configuration and long-term memory on the induction of social approach behavior by appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2012-09-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals. In appetitive situations, such as rough-and-tumble-play, high-frequency 50-kHz USVs occur, whereas low-frequency 22-kHz USVs can be observed in aversive situations, such as social defeat. USVs serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While aversive 22-kHz USVs serve as alarm calls and induce behavioral inhibition, appetitive 50-kHz USVs have a pro-social communicative function and elicit social approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls to (re)establish or maintain contact among conspecifics. The aim of the present study was to use the rat's ability to communicate in the ultrasonic range via high-frequency 50-kHz USVs in order to develop a test for social acoustic memory in rats with relevance for human verbal memory. Verbal learning and memory is among the seven cognitive domains identified as commonly deficient in human schizophrenia patients, but particularly difficult to model. We therefore tested whether the induction of social approach behavior by playback of appetitive 50-kHz USVs is dependent on (1) acoustic stimulus configuration and (2) social long-term memory, and whether (3) social long-term memory effects can be blocked by the administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist producing amnesia. Results show that social approach behavior in response to playback of natural 50-kHz USVs depends on acoustic stimulus configuration and occurs only when sound energy is concentrated to a critical frequency band in the ultrasonic range. Social approach behavior was detected during the first exposure to playback of 50-kHz USVs, whereas no such response was observed during the second exposure 1week later, indicating a stable memory trace. In contrast, when memory formation was blocked by i.p. administration of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg or

  16. Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Liu, Zhao-Peng; Jin, Fei

    2014-04-30

    Cement stabilization is a practical approach to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of lead. However, the potential for leaching of lead out of these stabilized soils under variable acid rain pH conditions is a major environmental concern. This study investigates the effects of acid rain on the leaching characteristics of cement stabilized lead contaminated soil under different pH conditions. Clean kaolin clay and the same soil spiked with 2% lead contamination are stabilized with cement contents of 12 and 18% and then cured for 28 days. The soil samples are then subjected to a series of accelerated leaching tests (or semi-dynamic leaching tests) using a simulated acid rain leachant prepared at pH 2.0, 4.0 or 7.0. The results show that the strongly acidic leachant (pH ∼2.0) significantly altered the leaching behavior of lead as well as calcium present in the soil. However, the differences in the leaching behavior of the soil when the leachant was mildly acidic (pH ∼4.0) and neutral (pH ∼7.0) prove to be minor. In addition, it is observed that the lead contamination and cement content levels can have a considerable impact on the leaching behavior of the soils. Overall, the leachability of lead and calcium is attributed to the stability of the hydration products and their consequent influence on the soil buffering capacity and structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavior and reproduction of invertebrate animals during and after a long-term microgravity: space experiments using an Autonomous Biological System (ABS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, K; Mizuno, R; Narita, T; Ohmura, T; Ishikawa, Y; Yamashita, M; Anderson, G; Poynter, J; MacCallum, T

    1998-12-01

    Aquatic invertebrate animals such as Amphipods, Gastropods (pond snails), Ostracods and Daphnia (water flea) were placed in water-filled cylindrical vessels together with water plant (hornwort). The vessels were sealed completely and illuminated with a fluorescent lamp to activate the photosynthesis of the plant for providing oxygen within the vessels. Such ecosystem vessels, specially termed as Autonomous Biological System or ABS units, were exposed to microgravity conditions, and the behavior of the animals and their reproduction capacity were studied. Three space experiments were carried out. The first experiment used a Space shuttle only and it was a 10-day flight. The other two space experiments were carried out in the Space station Mir (Shuttle/Mir mission), and the flight units had been kept in microgravity for 4 months. Daphnia produced their offspring during a 10-day Shuttle flight. In the first Mir experiment, no Daphnia were detected when recovered to the ground. However, they were alive in the second Mir experiment. Daphnia were the most fragile species among the invertebrate animals employed in the present experiments. All the animals, i.e., Amphipods, pond snails, Ostracods and Daphnia had survived for 4 months in space, i.e., they had produced their offspring or repeated their life-cycles under microgravity. For the two Mir experiments, in both the flight and ground control ecosystem units, an inverse relationship was noted between the number of Amphipods and pond snails in each unit. Amphipods at 10 hours after the recovery to the ground frequently exhibited a movement of dropping straight-downward to the bottom of the units. Several Amphipods had their legs bent abnormally, which probably resulted from some physiological alterations during their embryonic development under microgravity. From the analysis of the video tape recorded in space, for Ostracods and Daphnia, a half of their population were looping under microgravity. Such looping animals

  18. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The behavior during water-mineral interaction of britholite, an analogue of an apatite structured potential long-term actinide host phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chairat, C.; Oelkers, E.H.; Schott, J.; Harouiya, N.; Lartigue, J-E.; Guy, C.; Audubert, F

    2004-07-01

    Neodymium britholite (Ca{sub 9}Nd(PO{sub 4}){sub 5}SiO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) dissolution rates have been studied because it is an analogue for potential actinide waste hosts; it is believed that the behavior of Nd is representative of that of the actinide elements. Steady-state dissolution rates of britholite were measured in closed and open system reactors as a function of aqueous solution composition at 25 to 90 deg C. Measured britholite dissolution rates based on Ca, P, and F release are found to be close to corresponding apatite dissolution rates; these rates at 25 deg C decrease from 10-8 to 10-11 mol/m{sup 2}/s with increasing pH from 4 to 12. Measured Nd release rates are far slower than those of these other elements; Nd concentrations in solution appear to be in equilibrium with NdPO{sub 4}, which limits aqueous Nd concentrations to less than 10-12 mol/kg at near neutral conditions. By analogy, it appears likely that aqueous actinide release from analogous waste hosts will be similarly limited by the precipitation of sparingly soluble AcPO{sub 4} phases. (authors)

  20. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term mechanical behavior of buffer (II). Document prepared by other organization, based on the trust contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Takaji, Kazuhiko

    2003-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, to make clear the mechanical deformation behavior of buffer against the external force is important, because of carrying out safety assessment of EBS accurately. In this report, reversal sets of parameters are chosen for the previously selected constitutive models, Sekiguchi-Ohta model and Adachi-Oka model and the element tests are simulated using these parameters. Through the simulation, applicability of the constitutive models and these parameters is examined. Using these parameters, sensitivity analysis of prototype EBS model is also done. Analysis is carried out with two cases. 1: Settlement of the over with no corrosion expansion. 2: Settlement of the over pack with corrosion expansion. The results of the analysis area as follows. Settlement by the weight is mainly affected by the viscous parameters. The whole destruction of the EBS does not occur with any set of applicable parameters. Viscous parameters are important to evaluate the effect of the over pack expansion on surrounding rocks. (author)

  1. The current status of glass leaching studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, F.

    1983-11-01

    Glass has been selected in France as the material used to confine the activity of fission product solutions, and a continuous vitrification process has been developed at the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM), the first industrial plant. Borosilicate glass was chosen in various compositions for its properties: it is a homogeneous, non-porous material that incorporates appreciable quantities of most of the fission product oxides, and is only alterable at the surface interface layer. Glass thus constitutes the primary radioactivity containment barrier, and it is essential to determine its long-term behavior. Water constitutes the principal hazard during temporary or definitive storage of the glass blocks. Two types of inherent material properties are studied from the standpoint of glass stability under leaching conditions: - chemical durability; - radioactive containability with regard to the various radionuclides, fission products and especially the actinides. Durability tests are carried out in SOXHLET devices and the alteration rates are measured by the weight loss. The containability is measured by the leach rate, i.e. by the rate of activity loss into the water. Leaching tests are conducted for several major objectives: - selection of glass compositions (leach rates); - leaching mechanism studies (hydrolyzed layer characteristics, effects of temperature, pressure, pH, etc.); - long-term behavior studies (glass specimens doped with alpha-emitters); - simulation of geological repository environments [fr

  2. Comparison of child-parent and parent-only cognitive-behavioral therapy programs for anxious children aged 5 to 7 years: short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Suneeta; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Tanha, Azadeh; Owens, Mary; Young, Arlene

    2015-02-01

    Childhood anxiety disorders (AD) are prevalent, debilitating disorders. The most effective treatment approach for children less than 8 years old requires further investigation. The study's primary objective was to compare 2 cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group programs. CBT was delivered to children 5 to 7 years old and their parents (child-parent) or only to parents (parent-only), whereas children attended group sessions but did not receive CBT. Using a prospective, repeated measures, longitudinal study design, 77 children (29 male, mean age = 6.8 years; SD = 0.8 year) with AD and their parents participated in either a 12-week child-parent or parent-only CBT group treatment after a 3-month no-treatment wait-time. Well-validated treatment outcome measures were completed at 5 assessment time points: initial assessment, pretreatment, immediately posttreatment, 6 months, and 12 months posttreatment. A mixed models analysis was used to assess change in AD severity and global functioning improvements from baseline within each treatment and between treatments. No significant changes were noted in child-parent or parent-only treatment during the 3-month no-treatment wait time. Both treatments saw significant improvements posttreatment and at longer-term follow-up with significant reductions in AD severity measured by clinician and parent report and increases in global functioning. Significantly greater improvements were observed in the child-parent compared to the parent-only treatment. This study suggests that both parent-only and child-parent group CBT improves AD severity in children 5 to 7 years old. Study results suggest that involvement of both children and parents in treatment is more efficacious than working with parents alone. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term spectral and temporal behavior of the high-frequency peaked BL LAC object 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, M.; Uellenbeck, M.; Hayashida, M.; Satalecka, K.; Tescaro, D.; Terzić, T.; MAGIC Collaboration; Fuhrmann, L.; Nestoras, I.; F-GAMMA project; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Nieppola, E.; Metsähovi; Böttcher, M.; Collmar, W.; Weidinger, M.

    2012-12-01

    The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 is well-known for an exceptional outburst, which was observed at very high energy (VHE) γ-rays by the Whipple 10m and HEGRA telescopes in 2002. Remarkably, this outburst lacked associated X-ray emission (a socalled "orphan flare") and by this cannot easily be described by standard Synchrotron Self Compton (SSC) models. Models based on hadronic emission processes have also been proposed to explain the observed behavior. Subsequent multi-wavelength observations during a low flux state at TeV energies in 2006 can, instead, be explained by a standard single-zone SSC model. In this context, 1ES 1959+650 has been regularly monitored by the MAGIC telescope since 2005. During these years, no significant variation in the VHE γ-ray flux has been observed. The low energy part of this is in very good agreement with the high-energy part of the time-integrated energy spectrum as measured by Fermi-LAT. Based on this constant flux level in VHE γ-rays, we assembled the time-integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) of 1ES 1959+650 from radio to VHE γ-rays. Despite the non-variability at very high energies, significant flux and spectral variations have been observed at optical and X-ray frequencies in the meanwhile. Furthermore, the shape of the SED at high energy γ-rays as measured by Fermi-LAT is essentially flat which cannot be explained by either conventional single-zone SSC models, or models invoking external radiation fields (EC).

  4. Long-term deficiency of circulating and hippocampal insulin-like growth factor I induces depressive behavior in adult mice: A potential model of geriatric depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschelen, Matthew; Yan, Han; Farley, Julie A.; Warrington, Junie P.; Han, Song; Hereñú, Claudia B.; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Bailey-Downs, Lora C.; Bass, Caroline E.; Sonntag, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies support the hypothesis that deficiency of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) in adults contributes to depression, but direct evidence is limited. Many psychological and pro-cognitive effects have been attributed to IGF-1, but appropriate animal models of adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency are lacking. In this study, we use a viral-mediated Cre-loxP system to knockout the Igf1 gene in either the liver, neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus, or both. Knockout of liver Igf1 reduced serum IGF-1 levels by 40% and hippocampal IGF-1 levels by 26%. Knockout of Igf1 in CA1 reduced hippocampal IGF-1 levels by 13%. The most severe reduction in hippocampal IGF-1 occurred in the group with knockouts in both liver and CA1 (36% reduction), and was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in immobility in the forced swim test. Reduction of either circulating or hippocampal IGF-1 levels did not alter anxiety measured in an open field and elevated plus maze, nor locomotion in the open field. Furthermore, local compensation for deficiencies in circulating IGF-1 did not occur in the hippocampus, nor were serum levels of IGF-1 upregulated in response to the moderate decline of hippocampal IGF-1 caused by the knockouts in CA1. We conclude that adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency alone is sufficient to induce a depressive phenotype in mice. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with low brain levels of IGF-1 are at increased risk for depression and these behavioral effects are not ameliorated by increased local IGF-1 production or transport. Our study supports the hypothesis that the natural IGF-1 decline in aging humans may contribute to geriatric depression. PMID:21524689

  5. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  6. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  7. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  8. Uranium ... long-term confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Half way through 1983 the outlook for the world's uranium producers was far from bright if one takes a short term view. The readily accessible facts present a gloomy picture. The spot prices of uranium over the past few years decreased from a high of $42-$43/lb to a low of $17 in 1982. It now hovers between $23 and $24. the contract prices negotiated between producers and consumers are not so accessible but they do not reflect the spot price. The reasons why contractual uranium prices do not follow the usual dictates of supply and demand are related to the position in which uranium and associated power industries find themselves. There is public reaction with strong emotional overtones as well as much reduced expectations about the electric power needs of the world. Furthermore the supply of uranium is not guaranteed despite present over production. However the people in the industry, taking the medium- and long-term view, are not despondent

  9. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  10. Long-term Consequences of Childhood ADHD on Criminal Activities*

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason; Wolfe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether childhood mental illness has long term consequences in terms of criminal behavior has been little studied, yet it could have major consequences for both the individual and society more generally. In this paper, we focus on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent mental conditions in school-age children, to examine the long-term effects of childhood mental illness on criminal activities, controlling for a rich set of individual, family...

  11. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Partitioning and Leaching Behavior of Actinides and Rare Earth Elements in a Zirconolite- Bearing Hydrothermal Vein System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Hart, Kaye P.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; McGlinn, Peter J.; Giere, Reto

    2007-01-01

    Chemical extraction techniques and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the distribution and behavior of actinides and rare earth elements (REE) in hydrothermal veins at Adamello (Italy). The six samples discussed in this paper were from the phlogopite zone, which is one of the major vein zones. The samples were similar in their bulk chemical composition, mineralogy, and leaching behavior of major elements (determined by extraction with 9 M HCl). However, there were major differences in the extractability of REE and actinides. The most significant influence on the leaching characteristics appears to be the amounts of U, Th and REE incorporated in resistant host phases (zirconolite and titanite) rather than readily leached phases (such as apatite). Uranium and Th are very highly enriched in zirconolite grains. Actinides were more readily leached from samples with a higher content of U and Th, relative to the amount of zirconium. The results show that REE and actinides present in chemically resistant host minerals can be retained under aggressive leaching conditions. (authors)

  13. [Stabilization and long-term effect of chromium contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Qi-Shi; Zhang, Chang-Bo; Tan, Liang; Li, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Short-term (3 d and 28 d) and long-term (1 a) stabilization effects of Cr contaminated soil were investigated through nature curing, using four amendments including ferrous sulfide, ferrous sulfate, zero-valent iron and sodium dithionite. The results indicated that ferrous sulfide and zero-valent iron were not helpful for the stabilization of Cr(VI) when directly used because of their poor solubility and immobility. Ferrous sulfate could effectively and rapidly decrease total leaching Cr and Cr(VI) content. The stabilization effect was further promoted by the generation of iron hydroxides after long-term curing. Sodium dithionite also had positive effect on soil stabilization. Appropriate addition ratio of the two chemicals could help maintain the soil pH in range of 6-8.

  14. The Barrier code for predicting long-term concrete performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.; Rogers, V.C.; Shaw, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    There are numerous features incorporated into a LLW disposal facility that deal directly with critical safety objectives required by the NRC in 10 CFR 61. Engineered barriers or structures incorporating concrete are commonly being considered for waste disposal facilities. The Barrier computer code calculates the long-term degradation of concrete structures in LLW disposal facilities. It couples this degradation with water infiltration into the facility, nuclide leaching from the waste, contaminated water release from the facility, and associated doses to members of the critical population group. The concrete degradation methodology of Barrier is described

  15. Long-term properties of TVO's bituminized resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Vuorinen, U.

    1989-06-01

    Long-term properties of bituminized spent ion-exchange resins from Olkiluoto power plant have been studied since 1981. This report summarizes the results on water uptake and leaching obtained up till now. It is observed that water uptake in excess of rewetting of the ion-exchange resins is taking place. Leach test in water equilibrated with cement have been performed for about five years. Separation of granular resin particles caused by density differences observed in former experiments was further studied and confirmed in this work. Anaerobic corrosion of a steel drum has been studied in laboratory conditions generally giving corrosion rates below l μm/a. Radiolytic gases will accumulate and be trapped in the waste product. The rate of swelling is estimated by a specially constructed device based on ultrasonic distance meter observing changes in level of the product surface in the drum

  16. Prediction of long-term creep curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Kouichi

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing how to predict long-term irradiation enhanced creep properties from short-term tests. The predictive method based on the θ concept was examined by using creep data of ferritic steels. The method was successful in predicting creep curves including the tertiary creep stage as well as rupture lifetimes. Some material constants involved in the method are insensitive to the irradiation environment, and their values obtained in thermal creep are applicable to irradiation enhanced creep. The creep mechanisms of most engineering materials definitely change at the athermal yield stress in the non-creep regime. One should be aware that short-term tests must be carried out at stresses lower than the athermal yield stress in order to predict the creep behavior of structural components correctly. (orig.)

  17. Hanford grout: predicting long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewart, G.H.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Grouted disposal is being planned for the low-level portion of liquid radioactive wastes at the Hanford site in Washington state. The performance of the disposal system must be such that it will protect people and the environment for thousands of years after disposal. To predict whether a specific grout disposal system will comply with existing and foreseen regulations, a performance assessment (PA) is performed. Long-term PAs are conducted for a range of performance conditions. Performance assessment is an inexact science. Quantifying projected impacts is especially difficult when only scant data exist on the behavior of certain components of the disposal system over thousands of years. To develop defensible results, we are honing the models and obtaining experimental data. The combination of engineered features and PA refinements is being used to ensure that Hanford grout will meet its principal goal: to protect people and the environment in the future

  18. Irradiation effect on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► No research has been done to examine effect of electron beam irradiation on leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash. ► Electron beam irradiation on fly ash had significant effect on heavy metal leaching. ► Leaching potential of heavy metals in fly ash differed among metal species tested (Pb, Zn, Cu). ► Metal forms in the ash were analyzed to explain the difference. ► The difference could be explained by metal form change. - Abstract: Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is commonly classified as hazardous waste. High-energy electron beam irradiation systems have gained popularity recently as a clean and promising technology to remove environmental pollutants. Irradiation effects on leaching behavior and form of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash have not been investigated in any significant detail. An electron beam accelerator was used in this research. Electron beam irradiation on fly ash significantly increased the leaching potential of heavy metals from fly ash. The amount of absorbed dose and the metal species affected leaching behavior. When electron beam irradiation intensity increased gradually up to 210 kGy, concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased linearly as absorbed dose increased, while that of Cu underwent no significant change. Concentration of Pb and Zn in the leachate increased up to 15.5% (10.7 mg/kg), and 35.6% (9.6 mg/kg) respectively. However, only 4.8% (0.3 mg/kg) increase was observed in the case of Cu. The results imply that irradiation has significant effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals in fly ash, and the effect is quite different among the metal species tested in this study. A commonly used sequential extraction analysis which can classify a metal species into five forms was conducted to examine any change in metal form in the irradiated fly ash. Notable change in metal form in fly ash was observed when fly ash was irradiated. Change in Pb form was much greater than that of

  19. Leaching of both calcium hydroxide and C-S-H from cement paste: Modeling the mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carde, C.; Torrenti, J.M.; Francois, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the leaching process of cement based materials on their mechanical properties. This process induces mainly a total leaching of Ca(OH) 2 and a progressive decalcification of C-S-H which leads to a gradient of C/S ratio in the leaching zone. In a previous work, the authors venture the hypothesis that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide was the essential parameter governing both decrease in strength and increase in porosity in the case of a paste sample made with an OPC cement which leads to a 20% content of calcium. In order to quantify the effect of the decrease of C/S ratio in C-S-H, the authors have performed experiments on paste samples with the admixture of silica fume to reduce the content of calcium hydroxide and thus emphasize the effect of C/S ratio decrease of the C-S-H. The leaching process was achieved by the use of a 50% concentrate solution of ammonium nitrate. Compression tests were conducted on micro-cylinder samples (10, 12, 14, 20 and 30 mm of diameter) because of the slow kinetics of degradation due to the leaching. The deterioration of the cement paste and the mortar exposed to the action of the ammonium nitrate was indicated by a peripheral zone of less resistance. The experimental results allow the modeling of the mechanical behavior of cement pastes in relation to the ratio of degraded area over total area of the sample A d /A t . The model thus defined allows separation of the effect of calcium hydroxide leaching and C-S-H leaching, and shows the importance of the first one. The current research program tries to characterize the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the concrete surrounding radioactive wastes, due to the water flow during storage

  20. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  1. Statistical comparison of leaching behavior of incineration bottom ash using seawater and deionized water: Significant findings based on several leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Dou, Xiaomin; Ren, Fei; Chan, Wei-Ping; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2018-02-15

    Bottom ashes generated from municipal solid waste incineration have gained increasing popularity as alternative construction materials, however, they contains elevated heavy metals posing a challenge for its free usage. Different leaching methods are developed to quantify leaching potential of incineration bottom ashes meanwhile guide its environmentally friendly application. Yet, there are diverse IBA applications while the in situ environment is always complicated, challenging its legislation. In this study, leaching tests were conveyed using batch and column leaching methods with seawater as opposed to deionized water, to unveil the metal leaching potential of IBA subjected to salty environment, which is commonly encountered when using IBA in land reclamation yet not well understood. Statistical analysis for different leaching methods suggested disparate performance between seawater and deionized water primarily ascribed to ionic strength. Impacts of leachant are metal-specific dependent on leaching methods and have a function of intrinsic characteristics of incineration bottom ashes. Leaching performances were further compared on additional perspectives, e.g. leaching approach and liquid to solid ratio, indicating sophisticated leaching potentials dominated by combined geochemistry. It is necessary to develop application-oriented leaching methods with corresponding leaching criteria to preclude discriminations between different applications, e.g., terrestrial applications vs. land reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the \\'learning\\' processes.

  3. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.; Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Mallik, Sandipan B.; Maì ti, Chinmay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the 'learning' processes.

  4. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  5. Evaluation on the long-term durability and leachability of cemented waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Jae Won; Ryue, Young Gerl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    The long-term durability and leachability on the cemented waste form containing boric acids produced in domestic nuclear nuclear power plants were evaluated. Compressive strength of waste form after durability test such as thermal stability and water immersion cycle was higher than before test and consistently increased with increasing of test time in range of 83 of 286 kgf/cm{sup 2}. Long-term leachability was evaluated by standard test methods, leach affecting factors, and prediction of long-term leachability with result data of short-term leach test. In all leach tests, the release of Cs-137 was controlled by diffusion, whereas release of Co-60 was not controlled by diffusion. Leach rate of Cs-137 was relatively constant at standard leach test methods such as NAS 16.1, IAEA, ISO-6961, and MCC-1, but that of Co-60 increased with leachant-renewal frequencies. The leach rate of both Cs-137 and Co-60 increased as test temperature raised. The release of Co-137 decreased in simulated seawater as leachant, but increased with increasing leachant volume. The prediciton of long-term release of Cs-137 from large-scale waste form using the results from short-term leach test of small-scale waste form were within {+-} 5% of actual release. The leachability indexes of Cs-137 were between 6.5 and 7.5 and those of Co-60 were ranged from 11.6 to 13.3, increasing as cumulative leaching time increased. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  7. Effects of a gerotranscendence educational program on gerotranscendence recognition, attitude towards aging and behavioral intention towards the elderly in long-term care facilities: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Wang, Chi-Jane; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers in long-term care (LTC) facilities have to uphold a positive attitude toward the elderly, so they will be more willing to provide the elderly with care of higher quality. Theory of Gerotranscendence is a theory which can assist the elderly in developing more mature and intellectual state of mind. It is hoped that the caregivers who receive gerotranscendence education may apply its concept to the care for the elderly. To evaluate the effects of the gerotranscendence educational program on caregivers' gerotranscendence recognition, attitude towards aging, and behavioral intention towards caring for the elderly. A quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was conducted. A total of 41 caregivers in LTC facilities participated and completed the study. Participants were invited to participate in a 2-day gerotranscendence educational program, and measurement took place at baseline, the end of the program (post-test) and three months after the program (follow-up test). The research tools included Gerotranscendence Recognition Scale-Chinese version, Aging Attitude scale, and Caregivers' Behavioral Intention Scale. This study used GLM repeated measures to perform analysis. There was a statistically significant difference in three repeated measures of participants' gerotranscendence recognition and behavior intention toward caring for the elderly (p=.002, .002, respectively) but not in the aging attitude score (p=.21). The post hoc comparison showed that the scores of these two outcomes in the post-test were significantly higher than those in the pre-test (p=.000; .024). However, the scores in the follow-up test were almost the same as those in the pre-test. The gerotranscendence educational program had timely effects on caregivers' gerotranscendence recognition and behavioral intention towards aging, and so caregivers working in LTC facilities may require ongoing training in the gerotranscendence educational program to ensure that these positive effects

  8. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Berry

    2018-03-01

    long-term consequences on metabolic and behavioral endpoints.

  9. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Bellisario, Veronica; Panetta, Pamela; Raggi, Carla; Magnifico, Maria C; Arese, Marzia; Cirulli, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS), might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy) on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery) and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother's body weight and offspring's weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females) and in the central nervous system (males). Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important long-term

  10. Simulation of long-term behavior in HLW near-field by centrifugal model test. Part 4. Model test of coupled THM processes in isotropic stress conditions using heatable overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Soshi; Okada, Tetsuji; Sawada, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated the equivalent long-term behavior in the near-field of a geological repository for high level radioactive waste disposal, using the centrifugal near-field model test under the coupled thermo-hydraulic-mechanical condition. The model consisted of a sedimentary bedrock, buffer, and heating type model overpack, and was enclosed within a pressure vessel. Tests were conducted with a centrifugal force field of 30 G under isotropic stress-constrain conditions with confining pressures and injection of pore water. The temperature condition of the overpack was constantly 95°C. As the result, the values showed similar behaviors to that of the normal temperature tests partially. However, the different behaviors were measured such as the displacement of overpack change from the settlement to the heave, the extreme drop in the soil pressure of the buffer and the strain of side wall of bedrock change from the tension to the compression after injecting pore water of hundreds hours. In addition, the flow rate of the injection pore water suddenly changed after hundreds of hours. Furthermore, the density of the buffer was lower than that of the normal temperature tests by X-ray CT imaging in the post-tests. We infer that the high temperature overpack influenced the stiffness and the pore water distribution of the buffer, and the density and the soil pressure of the buffer decreased. As a result of the change of stiffness in the disposal hole (buffer), the tendency to the strain of the surrounding bedrock and the displacement of the overpack changed. (author)

  11. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...

  12. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  13. The effects of social structure and social capital on changes in smoking status from 8th to 9th grade: results of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chi-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2014-05-01

    Social structure and social capital are important variables for public health strategies seeking to prevent smoking among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between social structure, social capital and changes in smoking status from the 8th to 9th grade in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) project. The study analyzed a final sample of 1937 students (50.7% female). Each layer of social structure was associated with a particular form of social capital. Students whose parents were married and living together had higher family social capital. After controlling for background variables, the social structure variable of friends who smoke was significantly associated with changes in smoking status. Students reporting more school attachment were less likely to start smoking. Students with higher parental supervision was associated with less chance of being a consistent smoker, whereas participation of social organization outside of school was associated with continued smoking. Attending school club was associated with higher probability of smoking cessation. Smoking prevention and intervention strategies aimed at junior high school students should be tailored to the particular form of social capital important for each type of smoking status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Value Recovery from Waste Liquid Crystal Display Glass Cullet through Leaching: Understanding the Correlation between Indium Leaching Behavior and Cullet Piece Size

    OpenAIRE

    Basudev Swain; Chan Gi Lee; Hyun Seon Hong

    2018-01-01

    For hydrometallurgical recovery of indium from glass cullet after dismantling a waste liquid crystal display (LCD), leaching is the rudimentary stage. Though size reduction of the cullet pieces adds convenience for recycling, from an efficiency and cost-effectiveness perspective regarding leaching process development, determining the proper cullet piece size is essential. Hence, in this study, leaching efficiency of indium as a function of cullet piece size was investigated, wherein the prope...

  15. Long-term follow-up effects of the HomeStyles randomized controlled trial in families with preschool children on social cognitive theory constructs associated with physical activity cognitions and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Povis, Gayle Alleman; Worobey, John; Hongu, Nobuko; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2018-05-01

    This study examined long-term follow-up effects of participation in the HomeStyles RCT, using Social Cognitive Theory constructs, on physical activity cognitions, home environment, and lifestyle behavioral practices of families with preschool children (ages 2 to 5 years). Parents were systematically randomized to experimental or attention control group at baseline. Those completing all surveys that comprised of valid, reliable measures were the analytic sample (n = 61 experimental, n = 63 control; mean age 32.8 ± 5.9SD years). Repeated measures ANCOVA, controlling for prognostic variables (e.g., parent sex) revealed that variables assessing modeling of physical activity for children increased significantly (P ≤ .01) in both groups with no significant time by group effects. Paired t-tests indicated the experimental group's self-efficacy for keeping children's weight healthy and performing health promoting behaviors increased significantly over time whereas the control group did not but with no significant time by group effects. Self-regulation paired t-test findings indicated that total screentime the experimental group allowed children decreased significantly over time with no significant time by group effect. The value parents placed on physical activity for children increased over time in both groups with a significant time effect. The experimental group over time had significantly greater increases in the availability of physical activity space and supports inside the home than the control group. Improvements noted have the potential to help protect children and parents from excess weight gain, yet findings indicate considerable opportunity for continued improvement as well as elucidation of factors affecting concomitant changes in both study groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  17. Semi-automatic long-term acoustic surveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Tórur; Surlykke, Annemarie; Hallam, John

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Acoustic monitoring is an efficient non-invasive method, which may be deployed for surveys of animals as diverse as insects, birds, and bats. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique...... to determine bat behavior and correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying....

  18. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a

  19. Long-term soil accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic adjacent to preservative-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lebow; D. Foster; J. Evans

    2004-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been used extensively in outdoor applications. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and CCA producers recently reached an agreement to limit future use of CCA for some types of applications. One area of concern is the long-term accumulation of leached CCA in soil adjacent to treated wood structures. Interpreting...

  20. Long-term risks of inadequate management practices on the sustainability of agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Murányi, A.; Curlík, J.; Sefcík, P.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bril, J.; Modin, A.K.; Sverdrup, H.U.; Alloway, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the major result of a research project funded by the INCO-Copernicus programma of European Commission under Contract number ERB-IC15-CT98-0133. The study focused on the long-term environmental risk of soil acidification on: (i) mobilisation and leaching and (ii) plant uptake of

  1. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...... behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme outperforms the other tariff schemes in terms of cost saving and network operation condition improving....

  2. Leaching behavior of some radionuclides from cement matrix incorporating exhausted polymeric resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Mesalam, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Exhausted poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid) impregnated with zirconium phosphate {P(AM-AA)-ZrP} produced from the treatment process of radioactive liquid waste was incorporated in different types of cement to prevent widespreading of radionuclides into the human environment. The rates at which 60 Co, 65 Zn and 152,154 Eu are leached from Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Blast Furnace Slag Cement (BFSC) were measured. From the leaching data the leach coefficients of 60 Co, 65 Zn and 152,154 Eu were determined and were found to vary between 1.62 x 10 -8 to 7.06 x 10 -10 cm 2 /day and 1.01 x 10 -8 to 8.93 x 10 -9 cm 2 /day in OPC and BFSC, respectively. In general, the radionuclide leaching rates followed the order: 152,154 Eu > 65 Zn > 60 Co. The leach coefficient was found to be dependent on the composition of the leachants and varied in the order: distilled water > ground water > synthetic sea water. The effect of NaNo 3 concentration in the wastes on the leach coefficient of 60 Co from OPC was also studied. (author)

  3. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  4. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  5. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a job, a volunteer commitment, or even a hobby can take a toll on long-term survivors ... people find solace in meditation, faith, humor, writing, hobbies and more. Find an outlet that you enjoy ...

  6. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  7. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  8. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  9. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  10. Mechanism for elevated temperature leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    Long-term, elevated temperature leaching and subsequent electron microprobe analysis of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials have been completed. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20-month period. It appears that the leaching of mobile ions by simple diffusional processes is modified by more complex chemical interactions. The release of immobile ions is primarily a function of their chemical interactions in the matrix which suggests that these ions may be complex species when released into solution. A mechanism is proposed which incorporates these ideas and the cyclic phenomenon observed

  11. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  12. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of

  13. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Clinton, J.C.; Milian, L.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been under way at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the radionuclide release behavior of ion exchange bead resin waste solidified in Portland cement. An important aspect of this program is to develop and evaluate testing procedures and methodologies which enable the long-term performance evaluation of waste forms under simulated field conditions. Cesium and strontium release behavior using a range of testing procedures, including intermittent leachant flow conditions, has been investigated. For cyclic wet/dry leaching tests, extended dry periods tend to enhance the release of Cs and suppress the release of Sr. Under extended wet period leaching conditions, however, both Cs and Sr exhibit suppressed releases. In contrast, radionuclide releases observed under continuously saturated leaching conditions, as represented by conventional leaching tests, are significantly different. The relevance and aplicability of these laboratory data obtained under a wide range of leaching conditions to the performance evaluation of waste forms under anticipated field conditions is discussed. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Leaching Behavior of Slags from AN Old Lead Smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico: Metals, Chlorides, Nitrates, Sulfates and Tds Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Waste materials (such as, smelter slags, waste glass, tires, plastics, rubbish, ashes, etc.), have a large potential to substitute natural materials, reducing costs, especially for the construction industry. Smelter slags are resistant and have better compression strength values in comparison to natural aggregates, and generally are far beyond of what the standard ratios need to qualify a material as a good one for construction. But this material has a big problem within it: the existence of toxic elements and compounds in high concentrations, which means that water and soil contamination can be present after water infiltrates through this material; so we perform leaching experiments to characterize and measure the possible contamination under controlled conditions. To perform the slags-leaching experiments, we used an EA-NEN-7375-2004 tank test standard from Netherlands. This test was selected because to our knowledge it is the only one which allows the use of coarse material, as the one utilized in construction. The leaching experiments sampling was performed at different times: 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours, to compare the leachate concentration at the two different pH's values (5 and 8) selected to simulate real conditions. For the leaching experiments, the slags were mixed with natural road base material (gravel-sands from volcanic rocks) at different proportions of 30% and 50%. In order to understand the slags' leaching behavior, other experiments were carried out with the pure material, for both (slags and natural aggregates). After analyses by ICP-OES , the slags from this smelter in Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%), as well such as: bicarbonates, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, Mg, K, Na, Ca and TDS. Based on the results of the leaching analyses, via atomic absorption technique, we conclude that Pb and As concentrations are provided by the slags, meanwhile, the bicarbonates, chlorides, Na and Ca are contributed by the road

  15. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  16. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  17. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P heel...... regardless of symptoms and had no impact on prognosis, and neither did the presence of a heel spur. Only 24% of asymptomatic patients had a normal fascia on US at long-term follow-up. A US-guided corticosteroid injection did not cause atrophy of the heel fat pad. Our observational study did not allow us...

  18. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  19. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  20. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  1. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  2. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  3. Long-term stability of high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Loida, A.; Malow, G.; Marples, J.A.C.; Matzke, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The long-term stability of HLW forms is reviewed with regard to temperature, irradiation and aqueous corrosion in a geological environment