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Sample records for long-term immobility presenting

  1. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Justin M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Lott, David G

    2018-05-01

    Bilateral true vocal fold paralysis is rarely attributable to inflammatory diseases. Sarcoidosis is a rare but important etiology of bilateral true vocal fold paralysis by compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We describe the first reported case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility caused by direct fixation by granulomatous infiltration severe enough to necessitate tracheostomy insertion. In addition, we discuss the presentation, the pathophysiology, and the treatment of this disease with a review of the literature of previously reported cases of sarcoidosis-related vocal fold immobility. Sarcoidosis should therefore be an important consideration for the otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis of true vocal fold immobility. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Etiology and long-term functional swallow outcomes in pediatric unilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Wu, Derek; Hsu, Jeffrey V; Burton, William B; Nassar, Michel; Tan, Melin

    2016-09-01

    Unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) results in deficits in phonatory, respiratory, and swallow function of the pediatric patient. Little is known about long-term functional swallow outcomes. Medical records of children diagnosed with UVFI between 2005 and 2014 at a tertiary children's hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Etiology, laryngoscopy findings, and swallow status at diagnosis and follow-up were recorded. Swallow outcomes were compared by etiology using Fisher's exact test. McNemar's test was used to identify correlations between return of mobility and swallow recovery. Rates of pneumonia were compared with initial swallow evaluation results using a two-tailed t-test. Eighty-eight patients with UVFI were identified and 73 patients (47% female, mean age 14.4 months, standard deviation (SD) 26.7 months) had complete medical records. Mean follow up time was 52.7 months (SD 36.8 months). Etiologies included cardiothoracic surgery (68.5%), idiopathic (12.3%), prolonged intubation (11.0%), central nervous system (CNS) abnormality (5.5%), and non-cardiac iatrogenic injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (2.7%). Forty-seven patients underwent a follow up laryngoscopy, and recovery of vocal fold (VF) mobility was documented in 42.6% (20/47). At diagnosis, 31.5% fed orally, compared with 79.5% at follow-up. Direct correlation between recovery of VF mobility and swallow recovery was not demonstrated. Cardiac etiologies demonstrated higher rates of swallow recovery than CNS abnormalities (p = 0.0393). Twenty-five children aspirated on initial modified barium swallow (MBS) and 10 children developed pneumonias at some point during the follow up period. There was no significant difference in rates of pneumonia in patients with and without aspiration on MBS. Recovery of swallow in children with UVFI does not directly parallel return of VF mobility. Long-term swallow outcome is favorable in this population. Initial MBS does not indicate ultimate swallow outcome

  3. Pediatric vocal fold immobility: natural history and the need for long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Jad; Martin, Timothy; Beste, David; Robey, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    IMPORTANCE The clinical course and outcomes of pediatric vocal fold immobility (VFI) vary widely in the literature, and follow-up in these patients varies accordingly. A better understanding of the natural history of pediatric VFI is crucial to improved management. OBJECTIVE To characterize the natural history of pediatric VFI, including symptoms and rates of resolution and surgical intervention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective review at an academically affiliated private pediatric otolaryngology practice in a metropolitan area of all patients seen between July 15, 2001, and September 1, 2012, with a diagnosis of complete or partial VFI. After elimination of 92 incomplete or duplicate files, 404 patient records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, etiologies, symptoms, follow-up, resolution, and interventions. Follow-up records were available for 362 patients (89.6%). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Resolution of VFI confirmed by repeated laryngoscopy, length of follow-up, and surgical intervention rates. RESULTS Among the 404 patients, left VFI was present in 66.8%, right VFI in 7.9%, and bilateral VFI in 25.3%. Median (range) age at presentation was 2.9 (0-528.1) months. Major etiological categories included cardiac surgery in 68.8%, idiopathic immobility in 21.0%, and neurologic disease in 7.4%. At presentation, 61.4%experienced dysphonia, 54.0%respiratory symptoms, and 49.5%dysphagia. Tracheotomy was performed in 25.7%and gastrostomy in 40.8%. Median (range) duration of follow-up among the 89.6%of patients with follow-up was 17.2 (0.2-173.5) months. Resolution evidenced by laryngoscopy was found in 28.0%, with a median (range) time to resolution of 4.3 (0.4-38.7) months. In patients without laryngoscopic resolution, median follow-up was 26.0 months, and 28.9% reported symptomatic resolution. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The natural history of pediatric VFI involves substantial morbidity, with lasting symptoms and considerable rates of surgical

  4. Selegiline prevents long-term changes in dopamine efflux and stress immobility during the second and third weeks of abstinence following opiate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasing, K; Ghosh, S

    1998-08-01

    Selegiline is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B with trophic and neuroprotective effects. Because of evidence for decreased dopaminergic function during the withdrawal syndromes associated with opiates and other medications with potential for abuse, we investigated effects of treatment with selegiline on in vitro measures of dopamine efflux following opiate withdrawal. Treatment with 2.0 mg/kg/day of selegiline did not modify the severity of opiate withdrawal, as assessed by weight loss over the first 3 days of abstinence. Opiate withdrawal increased immobility in response to a forced warm water swim test performed during the second and third weeks of abstinence following the onset of withdrawal. Brain slices obtained from the nucleus accumbens of opiate-withdrawn animals immediately following swim stress testing displayed diminished efflux of tritiated dopamine after two in vitro exposures to cocaine or amphetamine. Cocaine increases neurotransmitter efflux through blockade of dopamine reuptake, while amphetamine augments efflux by stimulating release of dopamine from intracellular storage vesicles. Although slices from opiate withdrawal subjects showed decreases in efflux after in vitro treatment with these agents, no differences were observed after exposure to 4-aminopyridine, which increases neurotransmitter release by prolonging action potential duration. These findings indicate mechanisms of action that are specific for catecholamine neurotransmitter systems are important for demonstrating long-term changes in dopaminergic function following opiate withdrawal. Selegiline prevented decreases in the efflux of tritiated dopamine in slices obtained from opiate-withdrawn subjects. In addition, selegiline decreased withdrawal-induced immobility during warm water swim testing. In conclusion, treatment with selegiline can prevent long-term changes in stress-induced immobility and deficits in presynaptic dopaminergic function that occur following the

  5. Subacute Thyroiditis: Clinical Presentation and Long Term Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A.; Sallam, Reem M.; Elawad, Ghadi E.; AlDhukair, Hisham; Alyahya, Mossaed M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) to describe the clinical presentation and long term outcomes of subacute thyroiditis (SAT). Our aim was to review the demographic, anthropometric, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatment, and disease outcome in Riyadh region and to compare those with results from different regions of the Kingdom and different parts of the world. We reviewed the medical files of patients who underwent thyroid uptake scan during an 8-year period in King Khalid University Hospital. Only 25 patients had confirmed diagnosis of thyroiditis. Age and gender distribution were similar to other studies. Most patients presented with palpitation, goiter, and weight change. Elevated thyroid hormones, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and elevated ESR were reported. Among those, 7 cases of SAT were recorded. β-Blockers were prescribed to 57% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to 29% of SAT. Long follow-up demonstrated that 85.7% of SAT cases recovered, while 14.3% developed permanent hypothyroidism. In conclusion, SAT is uncommon in the central region of SA. Compared to the western region, corticosteroid is not commonly prescribed, and permanent hypothyroidism is not uncommon. A nation-wide epidemiological study to explain these interprovincial differences is warranted. PMID:24803929

  6. Acute mastoiditis in children: presentation and long term consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, F

    2008-03-01

    Acute mastoiditis, a destructive bacterial infection of the mastoid bone and air cell system, is relatively uncommon today but remains a potentially serious condition. There is a lack of information in the literature regarding the long term otological problems that children may face following an episode of this condition.

  7. When past is present: Substitutions of long-term memory for sensory evidence in perceptual judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Judith E.; Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    When perception is underdetermined by current sensory inputs, memories for related experiences in the past might fill in missing detail. To evaluate this possibility, we measured the likelihood of relying on long-term memory versus sensory evidence when judging the appearance of an object near the threshold of awareness. Specifically, we associated colors with shapes in long-term memory and then presented the shapes again later in unrelated colors and had observers judge the appearance of the...

  8. Acute Contained Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as Left Vocal Fold Immobility

    OpenAIRE

    Gnagi, Sharon H.; Howard, Brittany E.; Hoxworth, Joseph M.; Lott, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To recognize intrathoracic abnormalities, including expansion or rupture of aortic aneurysms, as a source of acute onset vocal fold immobility. Methods. A case report and review of the literature. Results. An 85-year-old female with prior history of an aortic aneurysm presented to a tertiary care facility with sudden onset hoarseness. On laryngoscopy, the left vocal fold was immobile in the paramedian position. A CT scan obtained that day revealed a new, large hematoma surrounding ...

  9. Political Youth Education in Germany. Presenting a Qualitative Study on Its Biographically Long-Term Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzter, Nadine; Ristau, Yan; Schröder, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: There is an impact analysis presented, which explores the long-term effect of extra-curricular political youth education from the perspective of participants. Methods: The former participants retell their own education and life stories about five years later. Life stories were then interpreted in the course of research workshops and…

  10. Acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm presenting as left vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnagi, Sharon H; Howard, Brittany E; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Lott, David G

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To recognize intrathoracic abnormalities, including expansion or rupture of aortic aneurysms, as a source of acute onset vocal fold immobility. Methods. A case report and review of the literature. Results. An 85-year-old female with prior history of an aortic aneurysm presented to a tertiary care facility with sudden onset hoarseness. On laryngoscopy, the left vocal fold was immobile in the paramedian position. A CT scan obtained that day revealed a new, large hematoma surrounding the upper descending aortic stent graft consistent with an acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm. She was referred to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment by vascular surgery. She was counseled regarding surgical options and ultimately decided not to pursue further treatment. Her vocal fold immobility was subsequently treated via office-based injection medialization two weeks after presentation and again 5 months after the initial injection which dramatically improved her voice. Follow-up CT scan at 8 months demonstrated a reduction of the hematoma. The left vocal cord remains immobile to date. Conclusion. Ortner's syndrome, or cardiovocal syndrome, is hoarseness secondary to left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by cardiovascular pathology. It is a rare condition and, while typically presenting gradually, may also present with acute symptomatology.

  11. Acute Contained Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as Left Vocal Fold Immobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon H. Gnagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To recognize intrathoracic abnormalities, including expansion or rupture of aortic aneurysms, as a source of acute onset vocal fold immobility. Methods. A case report and review of the literature. Results. An 85-year-old female with prior history of an aortic aneurysm presented to a tertiary care facility with sudden onset hoarseness. On laryngoscopy, the left vocal fold was immobile in the paramedian position. A CT scan obtained that day revealed a new, large hematoma surrounding the upper descending aortic stent graft consistent with an acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm. She was referred to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment by vascular surgery. She was counseled regarding surgical options and ultimately decided not to pursue further treatment. Her vocal fold immobility was subsequently treated via office-based injection medialization two weeks after presentation and again 5 months after the initial injection which dramatically improved her voice. Follow-up CT scan at 8 months demonstrated a reduction of the hematoma. The left vocal cord remains immobile to date. Conclusion. Ortner’s syndrome, or cardiovocal syndrome, is hoarseness secondary to left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by cardiovascular pathology. It is a rare condition and, while typically presenting gradually, may also present with acute symptomatology.

  12. New onset of constipation during long-term physical inactivity: a proof-of-concept study on the immobility-induced bowel changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Iovino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlining constipation are incompletely understood, but prolonged bed rest is commonly considered a relevant determinant. AIMS: Our primary aim was to study the effect of long-term physical inactivity on determining a new onset of constipation. Secondary aim were the evaluation of changes in stool frequency, bowel function and symptoms induced by this prolonged physical inactivity. METHODS: Ten healthy men underwent a 7-day run-in followed by 35-day study of experimentally-controlled bed rest. The study was sponsored by the Italian Space Agency. The onset of constipation was evaluated according to Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency were assessed by a 100mm Visual Analog Scales and bowel function by adjectival scales (Bristol Stool Form Scale, ease of passage of stool and sense of incomplete evacuation. Daily measurements of bowel movements was summarized on a weekly score. Pre and post bed rest Quality of Life (SF-36, general health (Goldberg's General Health and depression mood (Zung scale questionnaires were administered. RESULTS: New onset of functional constipation fulfilling Rome III criteria was found in 60% (6/10 of participants (p=0.03. The score of flatulence significantly increased whilst the stool frequency significantly decreased during the week-by-week comparisons period (repeated-measures ANOVA, p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively. Stool consistency and bowel symptoms were not influenced by prolonged physical inactivity. In addition, no significant changes were observed in general health, in mood state and in quality of life at the end of bed rest. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that prolonged physical inactivity is relevant etiology in functional constipation in healthy individuals. The common clinical suggestion of early mobilization in bedridden patients is supported as well.

  13. Long-term follow-up of cognitive outcome after breech presentation at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Studies of long-term consequences of birth in breech presentation are sparse. Therefore, we conducted a cohort study linking birth registry data with data collected during evaluation for military service in 4,298 conscripts born between 1973 and 1976. The cognitive functions were measured...... with the Boerge Prien IQ test. A total of 164 conscripts were born in breech presentation and 70 (42.7%) of these were delivered after Caesarean section. The mean Boerge Prien test score was 43.2 among men born in cephalic presentation and 39.9 among those born in breech presentation for a difference of 3.3 (95......% confidence interval = 1.8-4.7). The negative association between breech presentation and cognitive outcome persisted after stratifying by Caesarean section and after adjustment for confounders. It also persisted when we restricted the analyses to term singleton pregnancies....

  14. Short and long-term mortality of patients presenting with bleeding events to the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alberto; Renzi, Noemi; Molesti, Daniele; Bianchi, Simone; Bogazzi, Irene; Bongini, Giada; Pepe, Giuseppe; Frosini, Fabiana; Bertini, Alessio; Santini, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    Death of patients presenting with bleeding events to the Emergency Department still represent a major problem. We sought to analyze clinical characteristics associated with worse outcomes including short- and long-term death, beyond antithombotic treatment strategy. Patients presenting with any bleeding events during 2016-2017years were enrolled. Clinical parameters, site of bleeding, major bleeding, ongoing anti-thrombotic treatment strategy and death were collected. Hard 5:1 propensity score matching was performed to adjust dead patients in baseline characteristics. Endpoints were one-month and one-year death. Out of 166,000 visits to the Emergency Department, 3.050 patients (1.8%) were enrolled and eventually 429 were analyzed after propensity. Overall, anticoagulants or antiplatelets were given to 234(54%). Major bleeding account for 111(26%) patients, without differences between those taking anticoagulants or antiplatelets versus others. Death at one-month and one-year was 26(6%) and 72(17%), respectively. Independent predictors of one-month death were major bleeding (Odds Ratio, OR 26, pbleeding (OR 7, pbleeding where higher than others (pbleeding and age (0.75 and 0.72, respectively) over others; pbleeding events, death rate was driven by major bleeding on short-term and older age on long-term. Among dead patients mortality was approximately 40% on one-month; 60% in older patients, and 80% in female gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. When past is present: Substitutions of long-term memory for sensory evidence in perceptual judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-06-01

    When perception is underdetermined by current sensory inputs, memories for related experiences in the past might fill in missing detail. To evaluate this possibility, we measured the likelihood of relying on long-term memory versus sensory evidence when judging the appearance of an object near the threshold of awareness. Specifically, we associated colors with shapes in long-term memory and then presented the shapes again later in unrelated colors and had observers judge the appearance of the new colors. We found that responses were well characterized as a bimodal mixture of original and current-color representations (vs. an integrated unimodal representation). That is, although irrelevant to judgments of the current color, observers occasionally anchored their responses on the original colors in memory. Moreover, the likelihood of such memory substitutions increased when sensory input was degraded. In fact, they occurred even in the absence of sensory input when observers falsely reported having seen something. Thus, although perceptual judgments intuitively seem to reflect the current state of the environment, they can also unknowingly be dictated by past experiences.

  16. Acromegaly Presenting With Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Timothy; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Singh, Praby; Seemann, Robert

    2016-11-01

    To present a case of bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVCI) in a patient with acromegaly and review the current literature describing this presentation. Case report and literature review. Academic tertiary care center. English language literature search of online journal databases. A 56-year-old man presented with 3 months of progressive stridor and shortness of breath. Transnasal flexible endoscopy revealed BVCI. A tracheostomy was performed to secure his airway. Further history was suggestive of acromegaly and imaging demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma. The diagnosis of acromegaly was made. The patient was treated with octreotide followed by an endoscopic trans sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Sixteen months after his initial presentation, a right laser arytenoidectomy was performed and the patient was subsequently decannulated. In the literature to date, 11 cases of BVCI in acromegaly have been reported. These patients often present with stridor and require a tracheostomy. With treatment of their acromegaly, these patients may regain vocal fold mobility and may be decannulated. Acromegaly with BVCI is a rare presentation. Acute management of the airway of patients with acromegaly presenting with BVCI typically requires a tracheostomy. A period of 15 months should be allowed for restoration of vocal fold mobility before airway opening procedures are considered. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long term needs for nuclear data development. Texts of papers presented at the advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2001-08-01

    This report contains the texts of the invited presentations delivered at the Advisory Group Meeting on Long Term Needs for Nuclear Data Development. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 28 November - 1 December 2000. The texts are reproduced here, directly from the author's manuscripts with little or no editing, in the order in which the presentations were made at the meeting. For the main conclusions refer to the Summary Report, published as INDC(NDS)-423. The contributed papers deal with cross section data needed for production of radionuclides; for internal radiation dosimetry; for ion beam analysis; neutron data needs in astrophysics; nuclear data for advanced fast reactors; lead cooled reactors; accelerator driven subcritical assemblies

  18. Surface ozone in China: present-day distribution and long-term changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Lin, W.; Xu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable knowledge of spatio-temporal variations of surface ozone is highly needed to assess the impacts of ozone on human health, ecosystem and climate. Although regional distributions and trends of surface ozone in European and North American countries have been well characterized, little is known about the variability of surface ozone in many other countries, including China, where emissions of ozone precursors have been changing rapidly in recent decades. Here we present the first comprehensive description of present-day (2013-2017) distribution and long-term changes of surface ozone in mainland China. Recent ozone measurements from China's air quality monitoring network (AQMN) are analyzed to show present-day distributions of a few ozone exposure metrics for urban environment. Long-term measurements of ozone at six background sites, a rural site and an urban are used to study the trends of ozone in background, rural and urban air, respectively. The average levels of ozone at the AQMN sites (mainly urban) are close to those found at many European and North American sites. However, ozone at most of the sites shows very large diurnal and seasonal variations so that ozone nonattainment can occur in many cities, particularly those in the North China Plain (NCP), the south of Northeast China (NEC), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the Sichuan Basin-Chongqing region (SCB). In all these regions, particularly in the NCP, the maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentration can significantly exceed the national limit (75 ppb). High annual sum of ozone means over 35 ppb (SOMO35) exist mainly in the NCP, NEC and YRD, with regional averages over 4000 ppb·d. Surface ozone has significantly increased at Waliguan (a baseline site in western China) and Shangdianzi (a background site in the NCP), and decreased in winter and spring at Longfengshan (a background site in Northeast China). No clear trend can be derived from long-term measurements

  19. Persistent muscle fiber regeneration in long term denervation. Past, present, future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ravages of long term denervation there is structural and ultrastructural evidence for survival of muscle fibers in mammals, with some fibers surviving at least ten months in rodents and 3-6 years in humans. Further, in rodents there is evidence that muscle fibers may regenerate even after repeated damage in the absence of the nerve, and that this potential is maintained for several months after denervation. While in animal models permanently denervated muscle sooner or later loses the ability to contract, the muscles may maintain their size and ability to function if electrically stimulated soon after denervation. Whether in mammals, humans included, this is a result of persistent de novo formation of muscle fibers is an open issue we would like to explore in this review. During the past decade, we have studied muscle biopsies from the quadriceps muscle of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI patients suffering with Conus and Cauda Equina syndrome, a condition that fully and irreversibly disconnects skeletal muscle fibers from their damaged innervating motor neurons. We have demonstrated that human denervated muscle fibers survive years of denervation and can be rescued from severe atrophy by home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-bFES. Using immunohistochemistry with both non-stimulated and the h-bFES stimulated human muscle biopsies, we have observed the persistent presence of muscle fibers which are positive to labeling by an antibody which specifically recognizes the embryonic myosin heavy chain (MHCemb. Relative to the total number of fibers present, only a small percentage of these MHCemb positive fibers are detected, suggesting that they are regenerating muscle fibers and not pre-existing myofibers re-expressing embryonic isoforms. Although embryonic isoforms of acetylcholine receptors are known to be re-expressed and to spread from the end-plate to the sarcolemma of muscle fibers in early phases of muscle denervation, we suggest

  20. Long-term European temperature variations between 1525 and the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term European temperature records are analyzed between 1525 and the present. It is found that the warmest periods occurred around the middle of this century, whereas the coldest periods generally occurred around the middle and the end of the last century. Urban warming may have occurred in the 19th century, causing urban areas to warm relative to rural areas and smaller towns between 1800 and 1900. The magnitude of natural climatic variability was determined. Trends were calculated for various time intervals. There was general warming between late 19th century and the present, but general cooling between the late 18th century and late 19th century. In some longer-term records, there was cooling between the 16th and the late 19th century. The largest warming occurred in the 1900s and in the 1930s. There has been a pronounced seasonal variation in trends of the last 200 years, with warming being centered in late fall to early spring, whereas the summer half of the year either did not warm or even cooled. European temperatures in the last decades are significantly above longer-term averages. However, they are much below estimates of modeled greenhouse warming which might have occurred in the last decades. Those differences cannot plausibly be explained by natural climatic variability. 43 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Present state and long term planning on nuclear power plants in principal countries in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Junichi

    1978-01-01

    The situation of nuclear power stations and the long term planning in each major country in the world were summarized, but the situation is changing from time to time, therefore it is difficult to make the long term prediction. The advanced countries in terms of nuclear power established the long term plans to adopt nuclear power generation largely owing to the oil crisis, but thereafter the revision was carried out again and again in respective countries. The developing countries already started the operation of nuclear power generation occupy only 2 to 3% of the total installed capacity in the world, but the countries constructing or planning nuclear power generation are many, and if the operation will be started as scheduled, their capacity will reach 30 million kW by 1985, and occupy about 10% of the total installed capacity of nuclear power generation in the world. As for the range of investigation of this report, the countries where the long term plans are unknown or the number of construction is small, Japan, Great Britain, USA and communist countries are excluded. As a rule, the light water reactors with power output of more than 200,000 kW are listed. The number of nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and in planning stage, national situation, long term plan, and others in each country are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Characteristics and Long-Term Prognosis of Holocaust Survivors Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyovich, Arthur; Plakht, Ygal; Belinski, Katya; Gilutz, Harel

    2016-05-01

    Catastrophic life events are associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular incidents and worsening of the clinical course followirg-such events. To evaluate the characteristics and long-term prognosis of Holocaust survivors presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to non-Holocaust survivors. Israeli Jews who were born before 1941 and had been admitted to a tertiary medical center due to AMI during the period 2002-2012 were studied. Holocaust survivors were compared with non-Holocaust survivor controls using individual age matching. Overall 305 age-matched pairs were followed for up to 10 years after AMI. We found a higher prevalence of depression (5.9% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.045) yet a similar rate of cardiovascular risk factors, non-cardiovascular co-morbidity, severity of coronary artery disease, and in-hospital complications in survivors compared to controls. Throughout the follow-up period, similar mortality rates (62.95% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.801) and reduced cumulative mortality (0.9 vs. 0.96, HR = 0.780, 95% CI 0.636-0.956, P = 0.016) were found among survivors compared to age-matched controls, respectively. However, in a multivariate analysis survival was not found to be an independent predictor of mortality, although some tendency towards reduced mortality was seen (AdjHR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.68-1.03, P = 0.094). Depression disorder was associated with a 77.9% increase in the risk for mortality. Holocaust survivors presenting with AMI were older and had a higher prevalence of depression than controls. No. excessive, and possibly even mildly improved, risk of mortality.was observed in survivors compared with controls presenting with AMI. Possibly, specific traits that are associated with surviving catastrophic events counter the excess risk of such events following AMI.

  3. Idiopathic membranous nephropathy in pediatric patients: presentation, response to therapy, and long-term outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderrama Elsa

    2007-08-01

    had Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3, all of whom were also hypertensive. Conclusion IMN is a rare but serious glomerulopathy in pediatrics. We estimate that it accounts for approximately 3% of renal biopsies. Long-term prognosis is guarded because approximately 50% of patients may have evidence of progressive kidney disease.

  4. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma of the arytenoid cartilage presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Xu, Wen; Liu, Honggang; Chen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    To describe an atypical case of laryngeal chondrosarcoma of arytenoid cartilage presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility and to avoid potential missed diagnosis. Our case study included a detail history, physical and radiological examination, laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), and surgical treatment and pathology analysis. We compared it with the previously discussed cases of chondrosarcoma of arytenoid cartilage in the literature. Chondrosarcomas of the arytenoid cartilage is rare, and to date only approximately 10 cases have been reported. We reported a case of a 51-year-old man with 1 month of persistent dyspnea presenting with bilateral vocal fold immobility without neoplasms in larynx. The LEMG showed no obvious abnormality. The cervical-enhanced computed tomography (CT) found no significant signs of a mass except for localized high-density areas in arytenoid cartilage. Right arytenoidectomy and biopsy were performed under general anesthesia with CO2 laser with the pathological diagnosis of chondroma. A total laryngectomy was performed 2 years later, and low-grade chondrosarcoma was the final diagnosis. Laryngeal chondrosarcomas of the arytenoid cartilage are rare. It is easily neglected, especially in those cases presenting with idiopathic vocal fold immobility without any obvious signs of neoplasms. The LEMG and laryngeal CT are necessary. Sometimes, a biopsy of the arytenoid cartilage is essential. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    The major potential environmental impacts related to landfill leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can be categorized into four groups (dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xenobiotic organic compounds...... are observed. In contrast, the concentration of ammonia does not decrease, and often constitutes a major long-term pollutant in leachate. A broad range of xenobiotic organic compounds is observed in landfill leachate. The long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status...... is discussed based on theory and model simulations. It seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years. This is supported by a few laboratory investigations. The existing data and model evaluations indicate...

  6. How to reduce long-term drift in present-day and deep-time simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Maura; Vérard, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Climate models are often affected by long-term drift that is revealed by the evolution of global variables such as the ocean temperature or the surface air temperature. This spurious trend reduces the fidelity to initial conditions and has a great influence on the equilibrium climate after long simulation times. Useful insight on the nature of the climate drift can be obtained using two global metrics, i.e. the energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere and at the ocean surface. The former is an indicator of the limitations within a given climate model, at the level of both numerical implementation and physical parameterisations, while the latter is an indicator of the goodness of the tuning procedure. Using the MIT general circulation model, we construct different configurations with various degree of complexity (i.e. different parameterisations for the bulk cloud albedo, inclusion or not of friction heating, different bathymetry configurations) to which we apply the same tuning procedure in order to obtain control runs for fixed external forcing where the climate drift is minimised. We find that the interplay between tuning procedure and different configurations of the same climate model provides crucial information on the stability of the control runs and on the goodness of a given parameterisation. This approach is particularly relevant for constructing good-quality control runs of the geological past where huge uncertainties are found in both initial and boundary conditions. We will focus on robust results that can be generally applied to other climate models.

  7. Long-term survival of patients with multiple myeloma and acute renal failure at presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, H M; Adelstein, D J; Herzig, R H; Smith, M C

    1983-03-01

    Eight patients presented with simultaneous multiple myeloma and acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Patients had no known pre-existing renal disease nor exposure to nephrotoxic agents or x-ray contrast dye. Renal failure was attributed to light chain nephropathy in all cases. In 4 of these patients the diagnosis of myeloma was initially unsuspected. Renal biopsies in 3 of these patients, and post-mortem material in a fourth revealed the changes of "myeloma kidney." No patient regained renal function and all required chronic hemodialysis. Among these eight patients, three survived for periods greater than 21 months.

  8. Tenon’s Cyst Presenting as a Long-Term Complication following Incision Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Srinivasapuram Krishnacharya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Tenon’s cyst or conjunctival cyst formation is not uncommon late complication of traditional extracapsular cataract surgery; however, few reports are available in the literature. Aims. Large cystic swellings were clinically diagnosed as filtering blebs at the cataract incision site in two patients. The purpose of the case presentation is to discuss the factors leading to cyst formation, visual loss and cyst recurrence after its excision. Patients and Methods. Case 1. Sixty-one-year-old male patient presented with a bleb at superior limbal region in the right eye, two years after cataract surgery. Case 2. A giant bleb was found at the same region in the right eye of a 65-year-old male patient, eight years after cataract surgery. Results. Complete excision of the cyst was performed with conjunctival autograft in the first patient and followed up for two years. No recurrence of the cyst was observed. Internal wound gaping was seen on gonioscopy in the second patient. Conclusions. Unstable scleral tunnel could explain bleb formation in both the patients. Complete bleb excision with conjunctival auto-graft resulted in closure of the defect with no bleb recurrence during two-year follow-up. Over-filtration causing hypotonic maculopathy was the reason for decreased vision in the second case.

  9. Nuclear electric energy in Romania - present status and long term prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulga, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the option for nuclear power in view of the decreasing energy demand in Romania, following industrial restructuring and abandonment of highly consuming industrial capacities. The costs of Cernavoda NPP based on CANDU type reactors amounted up to USD 2.2 billions, 160 % higher than the real price. Even though this reactor type is positioned among the highest as the safety is concerned, it could be assumed that even small incidents (predictable as well as repairable) would result in a decay of the tourism on Romanian sea shore or Danube delta. The paper raises also five questions and asks for updating the data necessary for a renewal of governmental decision concerning the Romanian nuclear power program

  10. Long-term treatment outcomes of acromegaly patients presenting biochemically-uncontrolled at a tertiary pituitary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, John D; Broder, Michael S; Cherepanov, Dasha; Chang, Eunice; Mamelak, Adam; Said, Qayyim; Neary, Maureen P; Bonert, Vivien

    2017-08-04

    Acromegaly is a rare, slowly progressive disorder resulting from excessive growth hormone (GH) production by a pituitary somatotroph tumor. The objective of this study was to examine acromegaly treatment outcomes during long-term care at a specialized pituitary center in patients presenting with lack of biochemical control. Data came from an acromegaly registry at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Pituitary Center (center). Acromegaly patients included in this study were those who presented biochemically-uncontrolled for care at the center. Biochemical control status, based on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 values, was determined at presentation and at study end. Patient characteristics and acromegaly treatments were reported before and after presentation by presenting treatment status and final biochemical control status. Data on long-term follow-up were recorded from 1985 through June 2013. Seventy-four patients presented uncontrolled: 40 untreated (54.1%) and 34 (45.9%) previously-treated. Mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 43.2 (14.7); 32 (43.2%) were female patients. Of 65 patients with tumor size information, 59 (90.8%) had macroadenomas. Prior treatments among the 34 previously-treated patients were pituitary surgery alone (47.1%), surgery and medication (41.2%), and medication alone (11.8%). Of the 40 patients without prior treatment, 82.5% achieved control by study end. Of the 34 with prior treatment, 50% achieved control by study end. This observational study shows that treatment outcomes of biochemically-uncontrolled acromegaly patients improve with directed care, particularly for those that initially present untreated. Patients often require multiple modalities of treatment, many of which are offered with the highest quality at specialized pituitary centers. Despite specialized care, some patients were not able to achieve biochemical control with methods of treatment that were available at the time of their treatment, showing the need for additional

  11. Determinants and Long-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions vs. Surgery for Multivessel Disease According to Clinical Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jin; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Shin, Sanghoon; Suh, Yongsung; Kim, Seunghwan; Ahn, Chul-Min; Kim, Jung-Sun; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo

    2018-03-23

    The long-term outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) vs. coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), particularly for patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), remains controversial.Methods and Results:We retrospectively analyzed 2,827 patients (stable coronary artery disease [SCAD], n=1,601; NSTE-ACS, n=1,226) who underwent either PCI (n=1,732) or CABG (n=1,095). The 8-year composite of cardiac death and myocardial infarction (MI) was compared between PCI and CABG before and after propensity matching. For patients with NSTE-ACS, PCI was performed more frequently for those with higher Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score and 3-vessel disease, and PCI led to significantly higher 8-year composite of cardiac death and MI than CABG (14.1% vs. 5.9%, hazard ratio [HR]=2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.37-3.58, P=0.001). There was a significant interaction between clinical presentation and revascularization strategy (P-interaction=0.001). However, after matching, the benefit of CABG vs. PCI was attenuated in patients with NSTE-ACS, whereas it was pronounced in those with SCAD. Interactions between clinical presentation and revascularization strategy were not observed (P-interaction=0.574). Although the determinants of PCI vs. CABG in real-world clinical practice differ according to the clinical presentation, a significant interaction between clinical presentation and revascularization strategy was not noted for long-term outcomes. The revascularization strategy for patients with NSTE-ACS can be based on the criteria applied to patients with SCAD.

  12. Long-term entrenchment and consequences in present flood hazard in Garona River (Val d'Aran, central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Flood risk is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in mountainous areas. Risk management and mitigation have to be based on exhaustive risk evaluation. Moreover, hazard analysis requires a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a complete understanding of the dynamics of the phenomena. The Val d'Aran valley is located in the axial part of the Pyrenees and is drained by the Garona River. Flooding events are relatively frequent there. The last extraordinary episode occurred in June 2013. Considering both the main effects of this flooding and the geomorphology, the long-term dynamics of the Garona River was studied in two different areas (Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les), which are representative of the whole length along the Val d'Aran. In fact, present short-term processes can be partly explained as a result of the long-term fluvial tendency. During the analysis of the 2013 flood effects, several entrenchment and incision indicators were found. Under the hypothesis that the fluvial network tends to incise, an entrenchment indicator analysis was carried out. Firstly, we considered the geomorphologic features, such as two generations of alluvial fans, two generations of alluvial terraces and, incisions on geomorphologic features and in Paleozoic bedrock. Secondly, we found out that erosion dominated over overflow and deposition during the 2013 flooding. Finally, great erosion was identified in engineering structures, for instance, in bridges, channelization dikes, gauging stations and dams. The geomorphologic analysis and the entrenchment indicators are essential to perform a post-glacial evolution interpretation. During the last Pleistocene glacial retreat, a fluvio-torrential network was developed at the bottom of the ancient glacial valley. An early post-glacial phase with a high sediment transport lead to the formation of first generation alluvial fans and alluvial terraces (nowadays located ≈15m above the channel). As sediment transport decreased

  13. Long-term prognosis of patients presenting first-ever vestibular symptoms in a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgueiras, Rui; Magalhães, Rui; Correia, Manuel; Silva, Maria Carolina

    2014-09-01

    Vestibular symptoms (VSs) are frequent complaints in patients attending ambulatory care and the emergency room. They may represent a peripheral vestibular disorder or a stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), yet many patients have VSs that cannot be clearly classified at presentation. This study aims to characterize and determine the long-term prognosis of these patients. In a prospective community-based study involving 104,700 individuals registered at 4 health centers of Northern Portugal, patients with a first-ever-in-lifetime focal neurologic symptom (FNS) were ascertained using comprehensive methods, including referrals from physicians working in the study area and data retrieved from emergency/discharge records. Physicians were encouraged to report/notify any patient who might have experienced an FNS, including those with vertigo or vertigo-like symptoms, imbalance, presyncope, or nonspecific dizziness. After neurologic assessment patients were classified as having a peripheral vestibular symptom (pVS), a stroke/TIA, or an unclassified vestibular symptom (uVS). They were followed up 7 years after the index event at the outpatient clinic; predictors of survival free from stroke or vascular events were determined using Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 1163 patients with an FNS, 360 (31.0%) were included, 16.7% had a stroke/TIA, 57.8% had pVS, and 25.6% had uVS. Most patients presented only isolated VSs (62.8%); 63% were women and mean age was 60.1 years (standard deviation = 16); hypertension (47.8%), hypercholesterolemia (41.9%), and diabetes (19.2%) were the most prevalent vascular risk factors (VRFs). Cranial computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in 63.3%. Adjusting for age, sex, VRFs, and diagnosis (TIA, pVS and uVS), the long-term risk of stroke was higher when CT showed silent infarctions (hazard rate [HR] = 3.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-9.60) and the risk of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) was

  14. A Patient on Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitors Develops Sudden Seizures and Encephalopathy: An Unusual Presentation of Hypomagnesaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Y. Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present an unusual but known cause of hypomagnesaemia induced-hypocalcaemia in a chronic GORD patient with severe symptoms with a review of the current literature. Methods. Analysis of the clinical and laboratory findings of the patient and discussion of the multi-factorial nature of his disease and the underlying mechanisms. Results. Our patient described features of magnesium deficiency such as weakness, muscle twitches, and fits with clinical signs of hypocalcaemia: a carpal pedal spasm and paraesthesia. Preadmission blood results revealed low calcium and magnesium levels. He was admitted to ITU, when he presented with seizures and developed encephalopathy. The total vitamin D level was 52.4 nmol/L (>49.9. His U&Es and LFTs were within the normal range with the exception of potassium. He was on Omeprazole for his GORD. With omission of the PPI 1 day after admission and replacement therapy, his ion levels normalised. Conclusion. Hypomagnesaemia is often undiagnosed and is associated with multiple biochemical abnormalities. Treatment focus should be aimed at stopping the PPI and replacing the magnesium. Over use of PPIs is a problem in practice, with the FDA issuing a warning over long-term use. Continued monitoring and decision making on dose reduction/withdrawal is essential to avoid complications.

  15. Effects of varying presentation time on long-term recognition memory for scenes: Verbatim and gist representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Moscovitch, Morris; Hockley, William E

    2017-04-01

    Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e.g., an "old" beach scene and a similar "new" beach scene; exemplar condition) or vice versa (e.g., a beach scene and a new scene from a novel category; novel condition). In Experiment 1, half of the list of scenes was presented for 1 s, whereas the other half was presented for 4 s. We found lower performance for shorter study presentation time in the exemplar test condition and similar performance for both study presentation times in the novel test condition. In Experiment 2, participants showed similar performance in an exemplar test for which the lure was of a different category but a category that was used at study. In Experiment 3, when presentation time was lowered to 500 ms, recognition accuracy was reduced in both novel and exemplar test conditions. A less detailed memorial representation of the studied scene containing more gist (i.e., meaning) than verbatim (i.e., surface or perceptual details) information is retrieved from LTM after a short compared to a long study presentation time. We conclude that our findings support fuzzy-trace theory.

  16. [The long-term results of the application of the combined rehabilitative treatment in the patients presenting with knee osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, A N; Purigа, A O; Yurova, O V

    2015-01-01

    The rehabilitative treatment of the patients suffering from knee osteoarthrosis (OA) up-to-date remains one of the most important medical and social problems of modern medicine due to the high prevalence of this disease, heavy morbidity, and the significant deterioration of the quality of the patients' life. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long-term results of the combined application of radon and extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for the rehabilitation of the patients presenting with knee OA. The study involved 75 patients at the age from 35 to 62 years with the confirmed diagnosis of stage II and III knee osteoarthrosis. They were divided into 3 groups. Those comprising the main group received extracorporeal shock-wave therapy in combination with the treatment based on the use of radon baths. The patients included in the group of comparison were given a course of radon therapy alone while the patients of the control group received the standard treatment including physiotherapy, magnetic therapy, and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The study has demonstrated the high effectiveness of the combined application of the radon baths and extracorporeal shock-wave therapy that was manifested as the substantial decrease of pain intensity, the increased range of motion in the knee joints, and the improvement of the general quality of life. These beneficial effects persisted during a period of up to 12 months. The stable remission was documented in 82% of the patients comprising the main group. The data obtained give reason to recommend the method employed in the present study for the extensive practical application at different stages of medical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with knee osteoarthrosis.

  17. Atypical clinical presentation and long-term survival in a patient with optic nerve medulloepithelioma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastora-Salvador Natalia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medulloepithelioma is a rare congenital tumor of the primitive medullary neuroepithelium. A significant proportion of patients with medulloepithelioma arising from the optic nerve die from intracranial spread or cerebral metastasis. Because it has no known distinct clinical features and because of its low frequency, this tumor presents within the first two to six years of life and is usually misdiagnosed clinically as a different type of optic nerve tumor. Here, we describe a new and atypical case of medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve in a 12-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, he is the oldest reported patient to present with this disease and, now as an adult, has the longest documented period of disease-free survival. Case presentation A 12-year-old Caucasian boy with headache and unilateral amaurosis was referred for a presumed optic nerve glioma to our hospital. A computed tomography scan showed optic nerve enlargement, and fundoscopy showed a whitish mass at the optic disc. Our patient had been followed at his local hospital for four years for an 'optic disc cyst' with no change or progression. He experienced mild progressive visual impairment during that period. He was admitted for resection, and a histopathological analysis revealed a medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve. Supplemental orbital radiotherapy was performed. He remained disease-free for 25 years. Conclusions Medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve can clinically mimic more common pediatric tumors, such as optic glioma, meningioma, or retinoblastoma. Thus, medulloepithelioma should be included in the differential diagnoses of pediatric optic nerve lesions. Fundoscopy in these patients may provide relevant information for diagnosis. Anterior optic nerve medulloepitheliomas may behave differently from and have a better prognosis than medulloepitheliomas that have a more posterior location. Our case report illustrates that long-term survival can be

  18. Hypersensitivity pneumonia-nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis histopathologic presentation: a study in diagnosis and long-term management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robert L; Andrews, Charles P

    2003-02-01

    improvement, but may convert a patient from an acute to an insidious presenter. The environmental challenge obviates a need for specific challenges to determine specific causation. Remediation of or moving from an environmental contamination to achieve reversibility or prevent progression was the treatment of choice to avoid use of long-term immunosuppressive agents.

  19. An assessment of the long term suitability of present and proposed methods for the management of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Proposals for safe, long-term containment of conventional tailings include 1) storage under water, 2) storage in active, abandoned or specially created underground mines and, 3) storage in open pits, with subsequent flooding or covering with overburden. The underwater proposal can meet most of the requirements of long term containment; however, extensive study of existing tailings deposits in deep water locations will be needed. Underground mines cannot provide sufficient storage capacity, since the tailings bulk during mill operation can occupy twice the volume of the original ore. It is possible to reduce the hazard by reducing the radium and thorium content of the tailings. Proposals for such an undertaking include ore beneficiation with rejection of the relatively innocuous fraction, radium-thorium removal in the mill, and significant changes in both ore processing and treatment of tailings. It is concluded that surface-stored tailings are vulnerable over the long term to dispersion by leaching and water erosion, and that access to a tailings site cannot be prevented, while only a major climatic or seismic event could disturb tailings stored in suitable underwater or underground mine sites. The criteria for determining suitability for each method, however, will need to be identified, tested, and accepted through the normal process of modeling, pilot plant evaluation, monitoring and evaluation. (author)

  20. The effect of post-learning presentation of music on long-term word-list retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judde, Sarah; Rickard, Nikki

    2010-07-01

    Memory consolidation processes occur slowly over time, allowing recently formed memories to be altered soon after acquisition. Although post-learning arousal treatments have been found to modulate memory consolidation, examination of the temporal parameters of these effects in humans has been limited. In the current study, 127 participants learned a neutral word list and were exposed to either a positively or negatively arousing musical piece following delays of 0, 20 or 45min. One-week later, participants completed a long-term memory recognition test, followed by Carver and White's (1994) approach/avoidance personality scales. Retention was significantly enhanced, regardless of valence, when the emotion manipulation occurred at 20min, but not immediately or 45min, post-learning. Further, the 20min interval effect was found to be moderated by high 'drive' approach sensitivity. The selective facilitatory conditions of music identified in the current study (timing and personality) offer valuable insights for future development of more specified memory intervention strategies.

  1. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Long-term degradation of resin-based cements in substances present in the oral environment: influence of activation mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreira da SILVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indirect restorations in contact with free gingival margins or principally within the gingival sulcus, where the presence of organic acids produced by oral biofilm is higher, may present faster degradation of the resin-based cement pellicle. Objectives To investigate the degradation of four resin-based cements: Rely X ARC (R, Variolink II (V, Enforce (E and All Cem (A, after immersion in distilled water (DW, lactic acid (LA and artificial saliva (AS and to analyze the influence of the activation mode on this response. Material and Methods Two activation modes were evaluated: chemical (Ch and dual (D. In the dual activation, a two-millimeter thick ceramic disk (IPS Empress System was interposed between the specimen and light-curing unit tip. Specimens were desiccated, immersed in distilled water, artificial saliva and lactic acid 0.1 M at 37°C for 180 days, weighed daily for the first 7 days, and after 14, 21, 28, 90 and 180 days and were desiccated again. Sorption and solubility (µg/mm 3 were calculated based on ISO 4049. The data were submitted to multifactor analysis of variance (MANOVA and Tukey's HSD test for media comparisons (α=0.05. Results Sorption was higher after immersion in LA (pD (p<0.05. The lowest solubility was presented by R (p<0.05. Conclusions Lactic acid increased the degradation of resin-based cements. Moreover, the physical component of activation, i.e., light-activation, contributed to a low degradation of resin-based cements.

  3. Longitudinal changes in seizure outcomes after resection of cerebral cavernous malformations in patients presenting with seizures: a long-term follow-up of 46 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiha; Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee

    2014-08-01

    Seizure is the most common presentation in patients with cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Although many articles have documented seizure outcomes after resection of CCM, few have conducted long-term follow-ups; thus, the fluctuating seizure outcomes have been neglected. The purpose of this study is to describe long-term postoperative seizure outcomes in patients with CCM and to compare seizure outcomes between patients with sporadic seizures and those with chronic seizures. Forty-six patients with CCM presenting with seizures underwent surgery. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1, and the average age at initial seizure onset was 27.6 years. The mean preoperative seizure duration was 42.7 months. Patients were divided into two groups: a chronic group (N = 20) and a sporadic group (N = 26) according to seizure frequency and duration. The mean postoperative follow-up duration was 96.3 months, and the postoperative seizure outcomes were checked annually based upon Engel's classification. After the first year of follow-up, 80.8 % of the sporadic group and 75.0 % of the chronic group were evaluated as Engel class I. These rates increased to 100.0 % and 90.0 %, respectively, at the eighth year of follow-up. Overall, 29 (63.0 %) of the 46 patients experienced changes in seizure outcomes over the follow-up period. Despite their delayed improvements, the chronic group showed less favorable outcomes throughout follow-up (p = 0.025). Long-term follow-up is indispensable for accurately assessing postoperative seizure outcomes because these outcomes change continuously. We recommend earlier surgery to achieve seizure-free status in patients with CCM. However, even in the chronic group, surgery is recommended, considering the overall delayed improvement.

  4. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  5. The effects of short-term and long-term learning on the responses of lateral intraparietal neurons to visually presented objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Heida M; Sheinberg, David L

    2015-07-01

    The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) is thought to play an important role in the guidance of where to look and pay attention. LIP can also respond selectively to differently shaped objects. We sought to understand to what extent short-term and long-term experience with visual orienting determines the responses of LIP to objects of different shapes. We taught monkeys to arbitrarily associate centrally presented objects of various shapes with orienting either toward or away from a preferred spatial location of a neuron. The training could last for less than a single day or for several months. We found that neural responses to objects are affected by such experience, but that the length of the learning period determines how this neural plasticity manifests. Short-term learning affects neural responses to objects, but these effects are only seen relatively late after visual onset; at this time, the responses to newly learned objects resemble those of familiar objects that share their meaning or arbitrary association. Long-term learning affects the earliest bottom-up responses to visual objects. These responses tend to be greater for objects that have been associated with looking toward, rather than away from, LIP neurons' preferred spatial locations. Responses to objects can nonetheless be distinct, although they have been similarly acted on in the past and will lead to the same orienting behavior in the future. Our results therefore indicate that a complete experience-driven override of LIP object responses may be difficult or impossible. We relate these results to behavioral work on visual attention.

  6. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  7. Effect of stage development of mining operations on maximization the net present value in long-term planning of open pits

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Rajković, Radmilo; Mikić, Miomir; Ljubojev, Milenko

    2014-01-01

    Long-term planning in the mining industry has one main goal: maximizing the value that is realized by excavation and processing of mineral resources. When designing the open pits, determining the stages of development the mining operations, (eng. Pushback) is one of the important factors in the process of long-term production planning. Using the different scientific methods and mathematical algorithms underlying the operation of modern software for strategic planning of production, it is poss...

  8. Long-term follow-up in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals differences in clinical presentation between female and male patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez Sepúlveda, Jorge I; Kvarnström, Marika; Eriksson, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate differences in the clinical presentation of primary Sjögren's syndrome (p......SS) between the sexes and establish whether male sex is associated with a more severe form of long-term pSS. METHODS: Our study population included 967 patients with pSS (899 females and 68 males) from Scandinavian clinical centers. The mean follow-up time (years) was 8.8 ± 7.6 for women and 8.5 ± 6.2 for men...... (ns). Clinical data including serological and hematological parameters and glandular and extraglandular manifestations were compared between men and women. RESULTS: Male patient serology was characterized by more frequent positivity for anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB (p = 0.02), and ANA (p = 0...

  9. Management and Long-Term Outcome of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Presenting with Heart Failure in a Contemporary New Zealand Cohort (ANZACS-QI 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Shaw Hua Anthony; Devlin, Gerry; Lee, Mildred; Doughty, Rob N; Kerr, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Acute heart failure (HF) associated with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) predicts adverse outcome. There have been important recent improvements in ACS management. Our aim was to describe the management and outcomes in those with and without HF in a contemporary ACS cohort. Consecutive patients presenting with ACS between 2007 and 2011 were enrolled in the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry. Outcomes and medication dispensing were obtained using anonymised linkage to national data sets. A summary pharmacotherapy measure of "quadruple therapy" was defined as dispensing of at least one agent from each of the four evidence-based classes - anti-platelet, statin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and beta blocker. Of 3743 ACS patients 14% had acute HF. Acute heart failure patients were older (69.2±12.6 vs 62.3±12.8 years, pcoronary angiography (66% vs 86%, pAcute heart failure complicating ACS is associated with heightened risk of short-term and long-term mortality. One in three ACS patients with HF did not have coronary angiography and less than half received quadruple therapy a year after presentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. "I Always Vet Things": Navigating Privacy and the Presentation of Self on Health Discussion Boards Among Individuals with Long-Term Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Ellen; Segar, Julia; Sanders, Caroline

    2016-10-13

    The ethics of research into online communities is a long-debated issue, with many researchers arguing that open-access discussion groups are publically accessible data and do not require informed consent from participants for their use for research purposes. However, it has been suggested that there is a discrepancy between the perceived and actual privacy of user-generated online content by community members. There has been very little research regarding how privacy is experienced and enacted online. The objective of this study is to address this gap by qualitatively exploring the expectations of privacy on Internet forums among individuals with long-term conditions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 participants with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and 21 participants with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants were recruited via online and offline routes, namely forums, email lists, newsletters, and face-to-face support groups. The findings indicate that privacy online is a nebulous concept. Rather than individuals drawing a clear-cut distinction between what they would and would not be comfortable sharing online, it was evident that these situations were contextually dependent and related to a number of unique and individual factors. Interviewees were seen to carefully manage how they presented themselves on forums, filtering and selecting the information that they shared about themselves in order to develop and maintain a particular online persona, while maintaining and preserving an acceptable level of privacy.

  11. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  12. Evaluating long term forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, George M. [Department of Economics, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), and its predecessor organizations, has published projections of U.S. energy production, consumption, distribution and prices annually for over 30 years. A natural issue to raise in evaluating the projections is an assessment of their accuracy compared to eventual outcomes. A related issue is the determination of the sources of 'error' in the projections that are due to differences between the actual versus realized values of the associated assumptions. One way to do this would be to run the computer-based model from which the projections are derived at the time the projected values are realized, using actual rather than assumed values for model assumptions; and, compare these results to the original projections. For long term forecasts, this approach would require that the model's software and hardware configuration be archived and available for many years, possibly decades, into the future. Such archival creates many practical problems; and, in general, it is not being done. This paper reports on an alternative approach for evaluating the projections. In the alternative approach, the model is run many times for cases in which important assumptions are changed individually and in combinations. A database is assembled from the solutions and a regression analysis is conducted for each important projected variable with the associated assumptions chosen as exogenous variables. When actual data are eventually available, the regression results are then used to estimate the sources of the differences in the projections of the endogenous variables compared to their eventual outcomes. The results presented here are for residential and commercial sector natural gas and electricity consumption. (author)

  13. Prevalence, presentation and prognosis of delirium in older people in the population, at home and in long term care : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, E.; Verhaak, P. F. M.; van der Meer, K.

    Objective The aim of this study is to provide an overview of prevalence, symptoms, risk factors and prognosis of delirium in primary care and institutionalized long-term care. Design The method used in this study is a systematic PubMed search and literature review. Results The prevalence of delirium

  14. Prevalence, presentation and prognosis of delirium in older people in the population, at home and in long term care: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, E. de; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Meer, K. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of prevalence, symptoms, risk factors and prognosis of delirium in primary care and institutionalized long-term care. Design: The method used in this study is a systematic PubMed search and literature review. Results: The prevalence of

  15. “I Always Vet Things”: Navigating Privacy and the Presentation of Self on Health Discussion Boards Among Individuals with Long-Term Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Julia; Sanders, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background The ethics of research into online communities is a long-debated issue, with many researchers arguing that open-access discussion groups are publically accessible data and do not require informed consent from participants for their use for research purposes. However, it has been suggested that there is a discrepancy between the perceived and actual privacy of user-generated online content by community members. Objective There has been very little research regarding how privacy is experienced and enacted online. The objective of this study is to address this gap by qualitatively exploring the expectations of privacy on Internet forums among individuals with long-term conditions. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 participants with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and 21 participants with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants were recruited via online and offline routes, namely forums, email lists, newsletters, and face-to-face support groups. Results The findings indicate that privacy online is a nebulous concept. Rather than individuals drawing a clear-cut distinction between what they would and would not be comfortable sharing online, it was evident that these situations were contextually dependent and related to a number of unique and individual factors. Conclusions Interviewees were seen to carefully manage how they presented themselves on forums, filtering and selecting the information that they shared about themselves in order to develop and maintain a particular online persona, while maintaining and preserving an acceptable level of privacy. PMID:27737819

  16. The Role of Long-Term Tectonic Deformation on the Distribution of Present-Day Seismic Activity in the Caribbean and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobelock, J.; Stamps, D. S.; Pagani, M.; Garcia, J.; Styron, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean and Central America region (CCAR) undergoes the entire spectrum of earthquake types due to its complex tectonic setting comprised of transform zones, young oceanic spreading ridges, and subductions along its eastern and western boundaries. CCAR is, therefore, an ideal setting in which to study the impacts of long-term tectonic deformation on the distribution of present-day seismic activity. In this work, we develop a continuous tectonic strain rate model based on inter-seismic geodetic data and compare it with known active faults and earthquake focal mechanism data. We first create a 0.25o x 0.25o finite element mesh that is comprised of block geometries defined in previously studies. Second, we isolate and remove transient signals from the latest open access community velocity solution from UNAVCO, which includes 339 velocities from COCONet and TLALOCNet GNSS data for the Caribbean and Central America, respectively. In a third step we define zones of deformation and rigidity by creating a buffer around the boundary of each block that varies depending on the size of the block and the expected deformation zone based on locations of GNSS data that are consistent with rigid block motion. We then assign each node within the buffer a 0 for the deforming areas and a plate index outside the buffer for the rigid. Finally, we calculate a tectonic strain rate model for CCAR using the Haines and Holt finite element approach to fit bi-cubic Bessel splines to the the GNSS/GPS data assuming block rotation for zones of rigidity. Our model of the CCAR is consistent with compression along subduction zones, extension across the mid-Pacific Rise, and a combination of compression and extension across the North America - Caribbean plate boundary. The majority of CCAR strain rate magnitudes range from -60 to 60 nanostrains/yr. Modeling results are then used to calculate expected faulting behaviors that we compare with mapped geologic faults and seismic activity.

  17. The Long-term deformation of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China), a key to understand the present structure of the eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, Laura; de Sigoyer, Julia; Guillot, Stéphane; Lanari, Pierre; Warren, Clare J.; Robert, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The Longmen Shan thrust belt, at the eastern border of Tibetan plateau, is a tectonically active region as demonstrated by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (2008) and Mw 6.6 Lushan (2013) earthquakes. The Moho discontinuity deepens across the Longmen Shan (below the along-strike Wenchuan fault) from ˜40 km beneath the Sichuan basin to more than 60 km beneath the Songpan-Ganze block. Such a thickness is not compatible with the only ˜35 km of shortening estimated at the front of the belt during the Cenozoic-Quaternary compressive reactivation. The geological inheritance may thus play a key role in the present structure of the Longmen Shan. However the long-term history of the belt is still poorly documented. The major Wenchuan fault separates medium-grade metamorphic rocks to the West (internal domain of the Longmen Shan) to the greenschist metamorphic rocks to the East (external domain). In the hanging and footwall of the fault the South China basement also crops out. Metamorphic rocks, exhumed from depth, offer the opportunity to investigate the deep processes occurred in the Longmen Shan. We have characterized and dated the metamorphism in the central part of the belt by combining structural and microstructural observations with high-resolution X-ray mapping and chemical analyses of metamorphic minerals related to the different stages of deformation. In situ 40Ar/39Ar dating on mica and in situ U-Pb/Th dating on allanite (REE-rich epidote) allowed the different phases of metamorphism and deformation to be dated. Our results show that the Longmen Shan underwent a complex Mesozoic tectono-metamorphic history, articulated in a succession of pulses of deformation (burial or uplifting) and periods of quiescence. A first phase of rapid thin-skinned deformation occurred about 200 Ma ago. Internal sedimentary units were strongly deformed and buried down to 11±1 kbar, 550±30˚ C. This phase was followed by a period of slow exhumation between 200 and 170 Ma. A second pulse of

  18. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  19. Estimation of excess mortality due to long-term exposure to PM2.5 in Japan using a high-resolution model for present and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Daisuke; Ueda, Kayo; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Takami, Akinori; Ariga, Toshinori; Matsuhashi, Keisuke; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm, known as PM2.5, can affect human health, especially in elderly people. Because of the imminent aging of society in the near future in most developed countries, the human health impacts of PM2.5 must be evaluated. In this study, we used a global-to-regional atmospheric transport model to simulate PM2.5 in Japan with a high-resolution stretched grid system (∼10 km for the high-resolution model, HRM) for the present (the 2000) and the future (the 2030, as proposed by the Representative Concentrations Pathway 4.5, RCP4.5). We also used the same model with a low-resolution uniform grid system (∼100 km for the low-resolution model, LRM). These calculations were conducted by nudging meteorological fields obtained from an atmosphere-ocean coupled model and providing emission inventories used in the coupled model. After correcting for bias, we calculated the excess mortality due to long-term exposure to PM2.5 among the elderly (over 65 years old) based on different minimum PM2.5 concentration (MINPM) levels to account for uncertainty using the simulated PM2.5 distributions to express the health effect as a concentration-response function. As a result, we estimated the excess mortality for all of Japan to be 31,300 (95% confidence intervals: 20,700 to 42,600) people in 2000 and 28,600 (95% confidence intervals: 19,000 to 38,700) people in 2030 using the HRM with a MINPM of 5.8 μg/m3. In contrast, the LRM resulted in underestimates of approximately 30% (for PM2.5 concentrations in the 2000 and 2030), approximately 60% (excess mortality in the 2000) and approximately 90% (excess mortality in 2030) compared to the HRM results. We also found that the uncertainty in the MINPM value, especially for low PM2.5 concentrations in the future (2030) can cause large variability in the estimates, ranging from 0 (MINPM of 15 μg/m3 in both HRM and LRM) to 95,000 (MINPM of 0 μg/m3 in HRM) people.

  20. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  1. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  2. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  3. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  4. Carnitine deficiency presenting with a decreased mental state in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis receiving long-term tube feeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isse, Naohi; Miura, Yoh; Obata, Toshiyuki; Takahara, Noriko

    2013-12-30

    L-carnitine is an important metabolic mediator involved in fatty acid transport. It is obtained from the diet, particularly from animal products, such as red meat. Previous reports have revealed that long-term tube feeding with a commercial product containing no or low levels of carnitine can lead to an altered mental state caused by hyperammonemia. A 72-year-old Japanese man had a 12-year history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He was bedridden and had required mechanical ventilation and enteral tube feeding for 10 years at home. His main enteral solution was a commercial product that contained low carnitine levels, and he sometimes received coffee and homemade products such as miso soup. Our patient's ability to communicate gradually deteriorated over a period of one year. His serum total carnitine level was abnormally low, at 26.7μmol/L (normal range, 45 to 91μmol/L), but his ammonium level was normal. His mental state improved dramatically after starting L-carnitine supplementation (600mg twice daily). This case highlights the importance of avoiding carnitine deficiency in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis undergoing long-term tube feeding. These patients experience progressive muscle atrophy that might cause impaired carnitine storage and might manifest as communication difficulties. Carnitine deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a progression of systemic muscle atrophy. Clinicians should be aware of this disorder and should consider periodically measuring carnitine levels, regardless of the patient's serum ammonium levels.

  5. Incidence of vocal fold immobility in patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Ross, Douglas A

    2005-01-01

    This study prospectively investigated the incidence of vocal fold immobility, unilateral and bilateral, and its influence on aspiration status in a referred population of 1452 patients for a dysphagia evaluation from a large, urban, tertiary-care, teaching hospital. Main outcome measures included overall incidence of vocal fold immobility and aspiration status, with specific emphasis on age, etiology, and side of vocal fold immobility, i.e., right, left, or bilateral. Overall incidence of vocal fold immobility was 5.6% (81 of 1452 patients), including 47 males (mean age 55.7 yr) and 34 females (mean age 59.7 yr). In the subgroup of patients with vocal fold immobility, 31% (25 of 81) exhibited unilateral right, 60% (49 of 81) unilateral left, and 9% (7 of 81) bilateral impairment. Overall incidence of aspiration was found to be 29% (426 of 1452) of all patients referred for a swallow evaluation. Aspiration was observed in 44% (36 of 81) of patients presenting with vocal fold immobility, i.e., 44% (11 of 25) unilateral right, 43% (21 of 49) unilateral left, and 57% (4 of 7) bilateral vocal fold immobility. Left vocal fold immobility occurred most frequently due to surgical trauma. A liquid bolus was aspirated more often than a puree bolus. Side of vocal fold immobility and age were not factors that increased incidence of aspiration. In conclusion, vocal fold immobility, with an incidence of 5.6%, is not an uncommon finding in patients referred for a dysphagia evaluation in the acute-care setting, and vocal fold immobility, when present, was associated with a 15% increased incidence of aspiration when compared with a population already being evaluated for dysphagia.

  6. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  7. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  8. Effect of an Education Presentation On the Knowledge and Awareness of Urinary Tract Infection among Non-Licensed and Licensed Health Care Workers in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman-Jobson, Jennifer H; Rogers, Jamie L; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a pre-test, post-test quality improvement project that describes the change in knowledge from prior to and following an evidence-based education presentation. The presentation addressed the clinical symptoms, diagnostic processes, interventions, and responsibilities of licensed and unlicensed health care workers employed in long-term care facilities related to prevention and detection of non-catheter-related urinary tract infections. Results indicate that the education presentation improved knowledge in specific.

  9. 3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (PLiM) for Long Term Operations (LTO). Keynotes, papers, presentations, posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The world's fleet of nuclear power plants is, on average, more than 20 years old. Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically 30-40 years, many plants will operate in excess of their design lives, provided that nuclear power plant engineers demonstrate by analysis, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing and ageing management that the plant will operate safely. In the operation of nuclear power plants, safety should always be the prime consideration. Plant operators and regulators must always ensure that plant safety is maintained and, where possible, enhanced during its operating lifetime. Nuclear power plant life management (PLiM) has gained increased attention over the past decade, and effective ageing management of systems, structures and components (SSCs) is a key element in PLiM for the safe and reliable long term operation of nuclear power plants. A PLiM programme is an effective tool that allows an operator to safely and cost effectively manage ageing effects in SSCs for long term operation (LTO). A PLiM programme helps facilitate decisions concerning when and how to repair, replace or modify SSCs in an economically optimized way, while assuring that a high level of safety is maintained. The option for extended nuclear power plant operation has been recognized by operators and regulators alike, as evidenced in the number of licence renewal programmes that are being developed by Member States. After the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the safe operation of nuclear power plants has become even more important; not only in terms of technical or ageing issues, but also in terms of management system and qualified workforce related issues. Application of an integrated management system and structured workforce planning are needed throughout the plant life in order to ensure effective plant organization and management. The IAEA organized the first and second International Conference on Nuclear

  10. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  11. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  12. Prefrontal blood flow and oxygenation measured by NIRS during long-term memory tasks are impaired by acute hyperglycemia (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Luke; Bell, Lindsay; Reimer, Andrea; Pettersen, Jacqueline A.; Siakaluk, Paul; Duffels, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Our goal was to use 2-channel frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the hemodynamic and metabolic mechanisms underlying hyperglycemia-associated long-term memory impairment. We hypothesized that prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygen saturation (%Sat) and perfusion (tHb, i.e. total hemoglobin) would decrease due to hyperglycemia during learning, and then increase during recall. During learning, participants' blood glucose was manipulated with beverages containing either 47.4 mg saccharine control (CON, n = 10), or 50 g dextrose + 23.7 mg saccharine (GLC, n = 10). In the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SMDT) participants matched nine symbols to corresponding digits (1-9 inclusive), completing 105 learning and 15 testing trials on day 1 and 15 testing trials on day 2. From learning to recall, CON SMDT performance was unchanged, but GLC SMDT performance was decreased 11% (P = 0.0173). There were significant interactions (2-way ANOVA) between the CON-GLC treatment effects and the learning-recall effects for both PFC perfusion and oxygen saturation. Specifically, comparing learning to recall, CON exhibited no tHb differences but for GLC there was a large tHb decrease during learning with a partial recovery toward CON values during recall (P = 0.0012); and, comparing learning to recall, CON exhibited a large %Sat decrease but GLC exhibited a large %Sat increase (P = 0.021). We speculate that, during learning, after overnight fasting (CON) the PFC demands more hemodynamic and metabolic resources and "works" harder, but with readily available sugar (GLC) the PFC exhibits decreased "effort."

  13. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  14. Impact of Clinical Presentation (Stable Angina Pectoris vs Unstable Angina Pectoris or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction vs ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) on Long-Term Outcomes in Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Baber, Usman; Stefanini, Giulio Giuseppe; Aquino, Melissa; Stone, Gregg W; Sartori, Samantha; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Wijns, William; Smits, Pieter C; Jeger, Raban V; Leon, Martin B; Windecker, Stephan; Serruys, Patrick W; Morice, Marie-Claude; Camenzind, Edoardo; Weisz, Giora; Kandzari, David; Dangas, George D; Mastoris, Ioannis; Von Birgelen, Clemens; Galatius, Soren; Kimura, Takeshi; Mikhail, Ghada; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Mehta, Laxmi; Ortega, Rebecca; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Valgimigli, Marco; Kastrati, Adnan; Chieffo, Alaide; Mehran, Roxana

    2015-09-15

    The long-term risk associated with different coronary artery disease (CAD) presentations in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) is poorly characterized. We pooled patient-level data for women enrolled in 26 randomized clinical trials. Of 11,577 women included in the pooled database, 10,133 with known clinical presentation received a DES. Of them, 5,760 (57%) had stable angina pectoris (SAP), 3,594 (35%) had unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 779 (8%) had ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as clinical presentation. A stepwise increase in 3-year crude cumulative mortality was observed in the transition from SAP to STEMI (4.9% vs 6.1% vs 9.4%; p clinical presentations. After multivariable adjustment, STEMI was independently associated with greater risk of 3-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99 to 5.98; p clinical spectrum of CAD, STEMI was associated with a greater risk of long-term mortality. Conversely, the adjusted risk of mortality between UAP or NSTEMI and SAP was similar. New-generation DESs provide improved long-term clinical outcomes irrespective of the clinical presentation in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  16. Long-term outcome in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsch, J; Galldiks, N; Bender, A; Kollmar, R; Bösel, J; Hobohm, C; Günther, A; Schirotzek, I; Fuchs, K; Jüttler, E

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to determine long-term disability and quality of life in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) who required mechanical ventilation (MV) in the acute phase. Our retrospective cohort study included 110 GBS patients admitted to an intensive care unit and requiring MV (01/1999-08/2010) in nine German tertiary academic medical centers. Outcome was determined 1 year or longer after hospital admission using the GBS disability scale, Barthel index (BI), EuroQuol-5D (EQ-5D) and Fatigue Severity Scale. Linear/multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze predicting factors for outcome. Mean time to follow up was 52.6 months. Hospital mortality was 5.5 % and long-term mortality 13.6 %. Overall 53.8 % had a favorable outcome (GBS disability score 0-1) and 73.7 % of survivors had no or mild disability (BI 90-100). In the five dimensions of the EQ-5D "mobility", "self-care", "usual activities", "pain" and "anxiety/depression" no impairments were stated by 50.6, 58.4, 36.4, 36.4 and 50.6 % of patients, respectively. A severe fatigue syndrome was present in 30.4 % of patients. Outcome was statistically significantly correlated with age, type of therapy and number of immunoglobulin courses. In GBS-patients requiring MV in the acute phase in-hospital, and long-term mortality are lower than that in previous studies, while long-term quality of life is compromised in a large fraction of patients, foremost by immobility and chronic pain. Efforts towards improved treatment approaches should address autonomic dysfunction to further reduce hospital mortality while improved rehabilitation concepts might ameliorate long-term disability.

  17. Financing long term liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    In the '80 even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluri-annual plan has been defined. Cumulated funds transferred to the Sogin at the date of its constitution amount to about 1500 MLD ITL (750 M Euro). This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy. Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON). A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry, issued on 26 January 2000, states that the above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the national body which defines tariff policy) shall re-evaluate the global amount to be granted to Sogin and the levy on the price of the kWh due to Sogin for next three years. The re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria. For the period 2002- 2004 the Authority has defined a global amount of about 362 M euros to be granted to Sogin, corresponding to ∼0,04 cents of Euro per kWh. The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance Sogin for additional costs related to the dismantling of nuclear installations now property of ENEA. In this context, a Consortium between ENEA and Sogin has been established. The Authority for the period 2002-2004 has defined a global amount of about 106 M euros to be granted to the Consortium, corresponding to ∼0,015 cents of Euro per kWh. (author)

  18. Vocal Fold Immobility due to Birth Trauma: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Jad; North, Lauren M; Bougie, David; Robey, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives To describe the present understanding of birth trauma-related vocal fold immobility and quantitatively compare it with idiopathic congenital vocal fold immobility to explore whether it is a discrete entity. Data Sources PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane databases. Review Methods English-language, observational, or experimental studies involving infants with idiopathic congenital or birth trauma-related vocal fold immobility were included. Data from these studies were pooled with our institution's vocal fold immobility database, with the resultant idiopathic congenital and birth trauma cohorts compared regarding patterns and outcomes of immobility. Results The search returned 288 articles, with 24 meeting inclusion criteria. Of studies reviewing all-cause immobility, 8 of 9 (88.9%) identified birth trauma as an etiology, although birth trauma definitions and proposed mechanisms of immobility varied. The study subjects, combined with our institution's database, yielded 188 idiopathic congenital and 113 birth trauma cases. Compared with idiopathic congenital cases, birth trauma cases had a higher proportion of unilateral immobility (72 of 113 [63.7%] vs 52 of 188 [27.7%], P vocal fold immobility warrant further investigation, these findings suggest that it is distinct from idiopathic congenital vocal fold immobility, with a unique presentation and potentially more favorable outcomes. This can inform counseling and management for infants with otherwise unexplained immobility but known birth trauma.

  19. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  20. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  1. Only visual impressions are almost always present in long-term memories, and reported completeness, accuracy, and verbalizability of recollections increase with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S; Orellana, C

    1996-10-01

    In two studies, students answered questions about their earliest memories from childhood and either elementary school and high school or college and yesterday. Visual sensory impressions were present in all childhood and almost all later memories. Sound aspects were more frequent in memories from high school and college than in those from childhood. Earliest memories from yesterday almost always included internal sensations. Recollections were rated as more accurate, complete, and verbalizable as events occurred later in life. Memories from childhood, elementary, and high school were thought about, found useful, or shared equally frequently. Yesterday's events were less likely shared, but, if shared, enhanced social relationships.

  2. Long-term trajectories of patients with neck pain and low back pain presenting to chiropractic care: A latent class growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailliet, L; Rubinstein, S M; Hoekstra, T; van Tulder, M W; de Vet, H C W

    2018-01-01

    Information on the course of neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) typically relies on data collected at few time intervals during a period of up to 1 year. In this prospective, multicentre practice-based cohort study, patients consulting a chiropractor responded weekly for 52 weeks to text messages on their cell phones. Data from 448 patients (153 NP, 295 LBP) who had returned at least one set of answers in the first 26 weeks were used. Outcome measures were pain intensity (VAS) and functional outcome, assessed using four different questions: pain intensity, limitation in activities of daily living (ADL), number of days with pain in the previous week and number of days limited in ADL. Distinct patterns of pain were analysed with quadratic latent class growth analysis. The final model was a 4-class model for NP and LBP. The 'recovering from mild baseline pain' is most common (76.3% of NP patients/58.3% of LBP patients) followed by the 'recovering from severe baseline pain' class (16.3% NP/29.8% LBP). They follow similar trajectories when considered over a period of 6 months. Pain at baseline, duration of complaints, functional status, limitations in ADL and the score on psychosocial scales were the variables that most contributed to distinguish between groups. Most patients with NP or LBP presenting in chiropractic care show a trajectory of symptoms characterized by persistent or fluctuating pain of low or medium intensity. Only a minority either experience a rapid complete recovery or develop chronic severe pain. Ninety percentage of patients with neck pain or low back pain presenting to chiropractors have a 30% improvement within 6 weeks and then show a trajectory of symptoms characterized by persistent or fluctuating pain of low or medium intensity. Only a minority either experience a rapid complete recovery or develop chronic severe pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  3. Analysis of long-term (median 10.5 years) outcomes in children presenting with traumatic brain injury and an initial Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 or 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Daniel H; White, Ian K; Rees, Jacqueline M; Baumanis, Maraya M; Smith, Jodi L; Ackerman, Laurie L; Boaz, Joel C; Luerssen, Thomas G

    2015-10-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with low presenting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores have very high morbidity and mortality rates. Neurosurgeons may be faced with difficult decisions in managing the most severely injured (GCS scores of 3 or 4) patients. The situation may be considered hopeless, with little chance of a functional recovery. Long-term data are limited regarding the clinical outcome of children with severe head injury. The authors evaluate predictor variables and the clinical outcomes at discharge, 1 year, and long term (median 10.5 years) in a cohort of children with TBI presenting with postresuscitation GCS scores of 3 and 4. A review of a prospectively collected trauma database was performed. Patients treated at Riley Hospital for Children (Indianapolis, Indiana) from 1988 to 2004 were reviewed. All children with initial GCS (modified for pediatric patients) scores of 3 or 4 were identified. Patients with a GCS score of 3 were compared with those with a GCS score of 4. The outcomes of all patients at the time of death or discharge and at 1-year and long-term follow-up were measured with a modified Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) that included a "normal" outcome. Long-term outcomes were evaluated by contacting surviving patients. Statistical "classification trees" were formed for survival and outcome, based on predictor variables. Sixty-seven patients with a GCS score of 3 or 4 were identified in a database of 1636 patients (4.1%). Three of the presenting factors differed between the GCS 3 patients (n = 44) and the GCS 4 patients (n = 23): presence of hypoxia, single seizure, and open basilar cisterns on CT scan. The clinical outcomes were statistically similar between the 2 groups. In total, 48 (71.6%) of 67 patients died, remained vegetative, or were severely disabled by 1 year. Eight patients (11.9%) were normal at 1 year. Ten of the 22 patients with long-term follow-up were either normal or had a GOS score of 5. Multiple clinical

  4. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  5. Uranium ... long-term confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Half way through 1983 the outlook for the world's uranium producers was far from bright if one takes a short term view. The readily accessible facts present a gloomy picture. The spot prices of uranium over the past few years decreased from a high of $42-$43/lb to a low of $17 in 1982. It now hovers between $23 and $24. the contract prices negotiated between producers and consumers are not so accessible but they do not reflect the spot price. The reasons why contractual uranium prices do not follow the usual dictates of supply and demand are related to the position in which uranium and associated power industries find themselves. There is public reaction with strong emotional overtones as well as much reduced expectations about the electric power needs of the world. Furthermore the supply of uranium is not guaranteed despite present over production. However the people in the industry, taking the medium- and long-term view, are not despondent

  6. [Stabilization and long-term effect of chromium contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Qi-Shi; Zhang, Chang-Bo; Tan, Liang; Li, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Short-term (3 d and 28 d) and long-term (1 a) stabilization effects of Cr contaminated soil were investigated through nature curing, using four amendments including ferrous sulfide, ferrous sulfate, zero-valent iron and sodium dithionite. The results indicated that ferrous sulfide and zero-valent iron were not helpful for the stabilization of Cr(VI) when directly used because of their poor solubility and immobility. Ferrous sulfate could effectively and rapidly decrease total leaching Cr and Cr(VI) content. The stabilization effect was further promoted by the generation of iron hydroxides after long-term curing. Sodium dithionite also had positive effect on soil stabilization. Appropriate addition ratio of the two chemicals could help maintain the soil pH in range of 6-8.

  7. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  8. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  9. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, I; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.; Jongedijk, R.A.; Hagenaars, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a

  10. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  11. Clinical and social characteristics associated with reduced visual acuity at presentation in Australian patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from a long-term observational data set. The Fight Retinal Blindness! Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vuong; Daien, Vincent; Guymer, Robyn H; McAllister, Ian L; Morlet, Nigel; Barthelmes, Daniel; Gillies, Mark C

    2018-04-01

    Identifying variables that influence presenting visual acuity (VA) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is important because it is a strong predictor of long-term outcomes. To assess the clinical and social characteristics associated with low presenting VA in nAMD patients. The present study is a cross-sectional analysis from a prospective, observational database. We identified 3242 treatment-naïve patients from 54 Australian practices in the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry. Age, gender, ethnicity and VA were recorded at the baseline visit. Socio-economic status was determined using the Australian Bureau of Statistics socio-economic indexes for areas. Association between clinical and socio-economic characteristics with presenting VA was identified. Poor VA (≤35 letters) in the presenting eye was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.33 for patients aged ≥80 years vs. <80 years [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.04, 1.71]), treatment at a public practice (AOR: 1.91 for public vs. private practices [95% CI: 1.46, 2.50]) and intermediate (36-69 letters) VA in the fellow eye (AOR: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.47, 0.95] and 0.64 [95% CI: 0.48, 0.85] for poor [≤35 letters] and good [≥70 letters] VA vs. intermediate VA in the fellow eye). Gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status were not independently associated with VA at presentation. Poor presenting vision is detrimental to the long-term outcomes of nAMD. Poor presentation of nAMD in Australia may not be related to socio-economic circumstances, but due to systems of care. Further research is warranted to determine why patients at public practices present with worse vision compared with private practices in Australia. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  13. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  14. Impact of Clinical Presentation (Stable Angina Pectoris vs Unstable Angina Pectoris or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction vs ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) on Long-Term Outcomes in Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Baber, Usman; Stefanini, Giulio Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The long-term risk associated with different coronary artery disease (CAD) presentations in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) is poorly characterized. We pooled patient-level data for women enrolled in 26 randomized clinical trials. Of 11......,577 women included in the pooled database, 10,133 with known clinical presentation received a DES. Of them, 5,760 (57%) had stable angina pectoris (SAP), 3,594 (35%) had unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 779 (8%) had ST......-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as clinical presentation. A stepwise increase in 3-year crude cumulative mortality was observed in the transition from SAP to STEMI (4.9% vs 6.1% vs 9.4%; p clinical...

  15. Sequential Use of Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Treatment and Intensive Chemotherapy Induced Long-Term Complete Molecular Response in Imatinib-Resistant CML Patient Presenting as a Myeloid Blast Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Tsuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-MBC is rarely seen at presentation and has a poor prognosis. There is no standard therapy for CML-MBC. It is often difficult to distinguish CML-MBC from acute myeloid leukemia expressing the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph+ AML. We present a case in which CML-MBC was seen at the initial presentation in a 75-year-old male. He was treated with conventional AML-directed chemotherapy followed by imatinib mesylate monotherapy, which failed to induce response. However, he achieved long-term complete molecular response after combination therapy involving dasatinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and conventional chemotherapy.

  16. Long-Term Orientation in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trust does not work in the same way across cultures. This paper presents an agent model of behavior in trade across Hofstedes cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term orientation. The situation is based on a gaming simulation, the Trust and Tracing game. The paper investigates the

  17. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast has a better long-term survival than invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast in spite of its aggressive clinical presentations: a comparison based on large population database and case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongliang; Wu, Kejin; Wang, Maoli; Wang, Fuwen; Zhang, Mingdi; Zhang, Peng

    2017-12-01

    There are controversies in the comparison of overall survival between invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast (IMPC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The objective of this study was to compare the long-term survival outcome between non-metastatic IMPC and IDC. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was searched to identify women with non-metastatic IMPC and IDC diagnosed between 2001 and 2013. Comparisons of patient and tumor characteristics were performed using Pearson's chi-square. The propensity score matching method was applied with each IMPC matched to one IDC. Breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and compared across groups using the log-rank statistic. Multivariate analysis was performed through Cox models. IMPC was presented with aggressive clinical presentations such as larger tumor, more positive lymph nodes, and more advanced stage compared with IDC. A higher rate of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) positivity was also observed in IMPC. With a median follow-up of 64 months, IMPC had a better BCSS (P = 0.031) and OS (P = 0.012) compared with IDC. In a case-control analysis IMPC was still an independent favorable prognostic factor for BCSS (HR = 0.410, P analysis, IMPC always showed a better survival outcome compared with IDC except in AJCC stage I and histologic grade I disease. IMPC has a better long-term survival outcome compared with IDC in spite of its highly aggressive clinical presentation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Swallowing function in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Wu, Derek; Nassar, Michel; Tan, Melin

    2017-02-01

    Infants with bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) often have poor swallow function in addition to potential airway compromise. While there are several reports on BVFI and its effect on patients' airway status, little is known about long term swallow function. We aim to characterize the swallowing function over time in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility. A retrospective review of medical records of infants diagnosed with BVFI at a tertiary care children's hospital between 2005 and 2014 was conducted. Patient demographics, nature and etiology of immobility, laryngoscopy findings, comorbidities, and swallow outcomes at diagnosis and follow-up were recorded. Swallowing outcomes as measured by presence or absence of a gastrostomy tube were compared by etiology, vocal fold status, and normal or developmentally delay using the Fisher's exact test. 110 patients with a diagnosis of vocal fold immobility were identified. Twenty-nine (26%) had BVFI and twenty-three had complete medical records. Etiologies of vocal fold immobility include cardiac related in 13% (3/23), idiopathic in 30% (7/23) prolonged intubation in 26% (6/23) central neurologic in 22% (5/23), trauma in 4% (1/23), and infection in 4% (1/23). Average follow-up time was 44 months (range 5-94 months). Ten patients (56.5%) required a gastrostomy tube at time of diagnosis. Of this cohort who received gastrostomy tubes, three (30%) ultimately transitioned to complete oral feeds. Return of vocal fold mobility did not correlate with swallow function. In those with non-neurologic etiologies, the need for gastrostomy tube at end of follow up was unlikely. There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage of gastrostomy tube-free children at most recent follow up in patients who were normally developed (86%) versus those who were developmentally delayed (33%) (p = 0.02). We characterized the swallowing function of 23 pediatric patients with BVFI. Comorbidities are significant

  19. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations......What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...

  20. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  1. The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M.; Eggert, R.

    2013-09-01

    For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.

  2. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimori, Keiko; Endo, Naoto; Uchiyama, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism. This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH) vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years. Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients.

  3. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Eimori

    Full Text Available Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism.This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged <30 years at baseline.The bone mineral density was reduced (0.58±0.19 g/cm3, and the osteocalcin (13.9±12.4 ng/mL and urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX levels (146.9±134.0 mM BCE/mM creatinine were greater than the cutoff value for predicting fracture. Among the bone metabolism markers studied, osteocalcin and NTX were negatively associated with the bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years.Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients.

  4. Long-term effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that sources of long-term damage from radiation are two-fold. People who have been exposed to doses of radiation from initial early fallout but have recovered from the acute effects may still suffer long-term damage from their exposure. Those who have not been exposed to early fallout may be exposed to delayed fallout, the hazards from which are almost exclusively from ingesting strontium, caesium and carbon isotopes present in food; the damage caused is relatively unimportant compared with that caused by the brief doses from initial radiation and early fallout. A brief discussion is presented of the distribution of delayed long-lived isotope fallout, and an outline is sketched of late biological effects, such as malignant disease, cataracts, retarded development, infertility and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  5. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  6. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  7. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  8. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  9. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  10. Long-term effects of childbirth in MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M.B.; Nagels, G.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The uncertainty about long-term effects of childbirth presents MS patients with dilemmas. Methods: Based on clinical data of 330 female MS patients, the long-term effects of childbirth were analysed, using a cross-sectional study design. Four groups of patients were distinguished: (1)

  11. Long-Term Memory Performance in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodzik, Timo; Holling, Heinz; Pedersen, Anya

    2017-02-01

    Memory problems are a frequently reported symptom in adult ADHD, and it is well-documented that adults with ADHD perform poorly on long-term memory tests. However, the cause of this effect is still controversial. The present meta-analysis examined underlying mechanisms that may lead to long-term memory impairments in adult ADHD. We performed separate meta-analyses of measures of memory acquisition and long-term memory using both verbal and visual memory tests. In addition, the influence of potential moderator variables was examined. Adults with ADHD performed significantly worse than controls on verbal but not on visual long-term memory and memory acquisition subtests. The long-term memory deficit was strongly statistically related to the memory acquisition deficit. In contrast, no retrieval problems were observable. Our results suggest that memory deficits in adult ADHD reflect a learning deficit induced at the stage of encoding. Implications for clinical and research settings are presented.

  12. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  13. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  14. Vocal fold immobility: a longitudinal analysis of etiology over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Laura H Swibel; Benninger, Michael S; Deeb, Robert H

    2007-10-01

    To determine the current etiology of vocal fold immobility, identify changing trends over the last 20 years, and compare results to historical reports. The present study is a retrospective analysis of all patients seen within a tertiary care institution between 1996 and 2005 with vocal fold immobility. The results were combined with a previous study of patients within the same institution from 1985 through 1995. Results were compared to the literature. The medical records of all patients assigned a primary or additional diagnostic code for vocal cord paralysis were obtained from the electronic database. Eight hundred twenty-seven patients were available for analysis (435 from the most recent cohort), which is substantially larger than any reported series to date. Vocal fold immobility was most commonly associated with a surgical procedure (37%). Nonthyroid surgeries (66%), such as anterior cervical approaches to the spine and carotid endarterectomies, have surpassed thyroid surgery (33%) as the most common iatrogenic causes. These data represent a change from historical figures in which extralaryngeal malignancies were considered the major cause of unilateral immobility. Thyroidectomy continues to cause the majority (80%) of iatrogenic bilateral vocal fold immobility and 30% of all bilateral immobility. This 20-year longitudinal assessment revealed that the etiology of unilateral vocal fold immobility has changed such that there has been a shift from extralaryngeal malignancies to nonthyroid surgical procedures as the major cause. Thyroid surgery remains the most common cause of bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  15. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  16. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  17. Evaluation of long term leaching of borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.; Parnisari, E.

    1978-01-01

    For the evaluation of long term hazard of glass, data on long term glass leaching are needed. Moreover for long term leaching a model of homogeneous dissolution seems reasonable and ask for confirmation. Tests were performed at 30 0 , 80 0 , 100 0 , using an apparatus of the Soxhlet type, to 3.600 hours. Results were obtained as a weight loss and analysed following a relation with time composed by a parabolic and a linear part. Analysis of the surface layer using energy dispersion X ray spectrometry were performed. A critical analysis of the results and of the apparatus is presented

  18. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  19. Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEINBOK, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood craniopharyngioma has been improving, with more long-term survivors. Unfortunately it is rare for the patient to be normal, either from the disease itself or from the effects of treatment. Long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma suffer a number of impairments, which include visual loss, endocrinopathy, hypothalamic dysfunction, cerebrovascular problems, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction. Pituitary insufficiency is present in almost 100%. Visual and hypothalamic dysfunction is common. There is a high risk of metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and Moyamoya syndrome. Cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional problems are prevalent. Finally, there is a higher risk of premature death among survivors of craniopharyngioma, and often this is not from tumor recurrence. It is important to consider craniopharyngioma as a chronic disease. There is no perfect treatment. The treatment has to be tailored to the individual patient to minimize dysfunction caused by tumor and treatments. So “cure” of the tumor does not mean a normal patient. The management of the patient and family needs multidisciplinary evaluation and should involve ophthalmology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, oncology, and psychology. Furthermore, it is also important to address emotional issues and social integration. PMID:26345668

  20. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  1. Long term creep behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an experimental investigation to evaluate the long term creep behavior of concrete subjected to sustained uniaxial loads for an extended period of time at 75 0 F. The factors investigated were (1) curing time (90, 183, and 365 days); (2) curing history (as-cast and air-dried); and (3) uniaxial stress (600 and 2400 psi). The experimental investigation applied uniaxial compressive loads to cylindrical concrete specimens and measured strains with vibrating wire strain gages that were cast in the concrete specimen along the axial and radial axes. Specimens cured for 90 days prior to loading were subjected to a sustained load for a period of one year, at which time the loads were removed; the specimens which were cured for 183 or 365 days, however, were not unloaded and have been under load for 5 and 4.5 years, respectively. The effect of each of the above factors on the instantaneous and creep behavior is discussed and the long term creep behavior of the specimens cured for 183 or 365 days is evaluated. The findings of these evaluations are summarized. (17 figures, 10 tables) (U.S.)

  2. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  3. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  4. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  5. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  6. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  7. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

  8. Advancing an ethical framework for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary Whelan

    2002-02-01

    This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced.

  9. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study.

  10. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...

  11. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  12. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva......The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...

  13. Long term performance session summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanauer, S.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents brief summaries of reports given on plutonium disposal. Topics include: performance of waste forms; glass leaching; ceramic leaching; safeguards and security issues; safeguards of vitrification; and proliferation risks of geologic disposal.

  14. Predictors of tonic immobility during traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bados

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tonic immobility (TI is a possible reaction to danger that is facilitated by intense fear, physical restraint and perceived inability to escape. Other variables that could affect TI, such as the type and characteristics of traumatic events and personal characteristics have been little or no studied. The present study evaluated the power of these variables to predict TI in a sample of 273 college students who had experienced at least one traumatic event. Of the sample, 7.7% and 13.2% responded with TI according to the two stricter definitions adopted. Most of the variables were significantly associated with TI in univariate analyses. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only certain features of the events (occurrence of physical/sexual abuse, number of different types of events experienced and certain reactions to them (perception of how traumatic were the events, severe fear response were significant predictors of TI. Since these predictors explained only 25% of the variance, the influence of other variables -such as neuroticism, negative affectivity and perceived lack of personal control or resources to cope with traumatic events- should be investigated.

  15. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  16. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  17. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  18. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  19. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a job, a volunteer commitment, or even a hobby can take a toll on long-term survivors ... people find solace in meditation, faith, humor, writing, hobbies and more. Find an outlet that you enjoy ...

  20. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  1. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  2. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  3. Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy.

  4. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  5. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  6. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  7. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  8. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  9. Investigación sobre manejo forestal a largo plazo en Patagonia Sur -Argentina: Lecciones del pasado, desafíos del presente Long-term forest management research in South Patagonia - Argentina: Lessons from the past, challenges from the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO J MARTÍNEZ-PASTUR

    2010-03-01

    ón de tratamientos intermedios, (iii determinar líneas base y definir los impactos de distintos sistemas silvícolas, (iv proponer metodologías de monitoreo de amplio espectro y establecer áreas demostrativas de manejo, y (v proveer áreas y conocimientos para entrenar profesionales en prácticas de manejo forestal y conservación de la biodiversidad. Las parcelas permanentes ya establecidas en los bosques de Nothofagus de Patagonia Sur y las bases de datos obtenidas podrían servir como punto de partida para definir un núcleo regional que pueda participar en el International Long Term Ecological Research para asegurar el uso sustentable de los bosques nativos.Argentina has based its economy in agriculture and cattle production seeing forests as one of the main obstacles for future development. Forest harvesting in South Patagonia has been an activity based on colonization and exploitation of new areas. Harvesting is mainly carried out in old-growth forests without silviculture management after the first cuts. Beyond this mismanagement, scientific research defined the basis to conserve, protect and improve the present forest management for the South Patagonia native forests. The first long-term study permanent plots (1965-1966 monitored only economic and forest structure parameters, and near twenty plots were established in public forested lands of Tierra del Fuego. Most of these plots were destroyed or discontinued due to a lack of land use planning, scarce social interest for long-term researches, absence of commitment of institutions, and few contributions of forest companies. After this, a second group of nine long-term study permanent plots were established in South Patagonia (1993-2004 based in the collaboration between private companies and national research institutions. The objectives included economic as well as ecological parameters. The new plots were established on private lands based on several agreements and joint venture projects between national

  10. Long term prospects for world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a world gas trade model used to forecast long term gas markets. Assumptions that went into the model are described, including the extent of current proven gas reserves, production ratios, total energy and gas demand, gas supply cost curves for each producing country, available gas liquefaction and transportation facilities, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping costs. The results indicate that even with generally very low supply costs for most gas producing basins, gas trade will continue to be restricted by the relatively high cost of transportation, whether by pipeline or tanker. As a consequence, future gas trade will tend to be regionally oriented. United States gas imports will come mostly from Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico; Western Europe will largely be supplied by the Soviet Union and Africa, and Japan's requirements will generally be met by Pacific Rim producers. Although the Middle East has vast quantities of gas reserves, its export growth will continue to be hampered by its remote location from major markets. 16 figs

  11. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  12. Long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2017-10-01

    Surgical congenital malformations often represent years of treatment, large number of hospital stays, treatment procedures, and long-term functional sequels affecting patients' psychosocial functioning. Both functional defects and psychosocial difficulties that occur commonly in childhood may pass through adolescence on to adulthood. This overview presents reports published over the past 3 decades to elucidate the long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations. Literature searches conducted on PubMed database revealed that less than 1% of all the records of surgical congenital malformations described long-term psychosocial consequences, but with diverse findings. This inconsistency may be due to methodological differences or deficiencies; especially in study design, patient sampling, and methods. Most of the studies revealed that the functional deficits may have great impact on patients' mental health, psychosocial functioning, and QoL; both short- and long-term negative consequences. Factors other than functional problems, e.g., repeated anesthesia, multiple hospitalization, traumatic treatment procedures, and parental dysfunctioning, may also predict long-term mental health and psychosocial functioning. Through multidisciplinary approach, pediatric surgeons should also be aware of deficits in emotional and psychosocial functioning. To achieve overall optimal psychosocial functioning, the challenge is to find a compromise between physically optimal treatment procedures and procedures that are not psychologically detrimental. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Transfer of Information from Short- to Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modigliani, Vito; Seamon, John G.

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined current hypotheses concerning information transfer from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM) using a Peterson STM task with word triplets presented over retention intervals of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 18 sec. (Editor)

  14. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  15. The long-term benefits of director stock ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Bolton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2009, the United States Treasury Department and Congress considered new regulations requiring executives and directors to receive much of their compensation in the form of long-term stock. One concern with this is that it may have negative consequences by entrenching managers and directors over the long term. This study compares the potential benefits of long-term director ownership with the potential costs of entrenchment. Using the dollar amount of stock owned by independent directors, the results suggest that the incentive effect dominates any costs related to entrenchment: firms with greater stock ownership outperform other firms, regardless of the degree of managerial entrenchment that may be present. The implication for policy-makers is that providing directors with incentives through stock ownership can be a very effective corporate governance mechanism.

  16. Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N L

    2011-06-01

    When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a grayscale version of a known traffic sign. On each trial, a distractor sign was drawn in full color. This color could either be related or unrelated to the target sign. Distractors interfered more with search when their color was related (e.g. red when the target was a stop sign), implying that long-term color associations resulted in inadvertent attentional guidance, even though color was irrelevant to the task. The results add to the growing body of evidence that long-term memory representations automatically affect attentional orienting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethics and Intimate Sexual Activity in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Eran

    2017-07-01

    A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-01-01

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield

  19. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P heel...... regardless of symptoms and had no impact on prognosis, and neither did the presence of a heel spur. Only 24% of asymptomatic patients had a normal fascia on US at long-term follow-up. A US-guided corticosteroid injection did not cause atrophy of the heel fat pad. Our observational study did not allow us...

  20. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  1. Long-term creep test with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods for long-term creep behaviour is given. In addition, a survey on the methods of the inner state variables is given which, on the one hand, gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computable calculation method. Two examples on long-term creep behaviour illustrate the application field of the calculation method. (orig./LH) [de

  2. On the long-term analysis with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods on long-term behaviour is given. This is followed by a survey of the method of the inner state variables, which on the one hand gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computer-ready calculation process. Two examples on long-term behaviour illustrate the regions of application of the computer methods. (orig./LH) [de

  3. The long-term outlook for nuclear capacity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-04-01

    This report derives three estimates of long-term nuclear growth in Ontario for use in strategy studies of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. The low and high estimates encompass the full range of possible long-term nuclear growth rates. The middle, or base growth, estimate represents the nuclear growth pattern which seems at the present time most likely to occur. For the base growth estimate, nuclear capacity in Ontario reaches 31 GWe in 2000, grows to 175 GWe by 2060, and then remains constant. For the high growth estimate, the capacity in 2000 is 33 GWe, and climbs continuously to 833 GWe by the year 2100. (auth)

  4. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Hagenaars, Muriel A

    2016-11-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress. Eye closure was selected as a PTSD-relevant stress induction procedure. Body sway and heart rate (HR) were measured in 12 PTSD patients and 12 healthy controls in four conditions: (1) maintaining a stable stance with eyes open, (2) with eyes closed, (3) during a mental arithmetic task with eyes open, and (4) with eyes closed. As predicted, PTSD patients showed increased body sway from eyes open to eyes closed compared to controls and this effect was eliminated by executing the arithmetic task. Most importantly, retrospective self-reported TI was associated with lower body sway increases in PTSD and higher body sway decreases in controls from eyes-open to eyes-closed conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that eye closure has a different effect on PTSD patients than controls and that high self-reported TI might indicate a distinct stress response pattern, i.e., a proneness for immobility. It may be relevant to take such individual differences in stress-response into account in PTSD treatment.

  5. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  6. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  7. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  8. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  9. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2010-02-01

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  10. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  11. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used

  12. Methodology of long term behaviour study of containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Godon, N.

    1994-01-01

    Here is the presentation of the papers shown in the colloquium on environment and ceramics; the Atomic Energy Commissariat (Cea) have been working for fifteen years on the long term behaviour of fission products glasses on very long periods, about several millions years. The method of studies is detailed. 2 refs

  13. Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

  14. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, M; Thorvaldsen, P

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death...

  15. Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was an attempt to compare the impact of teaching through memory strategies, where students were taught the meaning of new vocabulary items by giving them synonyms, antonyms, definitions and mini-contexts. The results were reflected in the students' short-term and long-term memory retention.

  16. Long-term equilibrium effects of constraints in energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction; the economic role of energy; the economics of energy price; a first attempt to model long term effects (energy consumption and economic activity); what is a price hike (energy supply and demand functions before and after price hike); modelling energy price hikes; implications and lessons for nuclear energy; the present reality. (U.K.)

  17. Long-Term Forest Hydrologic Monitoring in Coastal Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2003-01-01

    Long-term hydrologic data are essential for understanding the hydrologic processes, as base line data for assessment of impacts and conservation of regional ecosystems, and for developing and testing eco-hydrological models. This study presents 6-year (1996-2001) of rainfall, water table and outflow data from a USDA Forest Service coastal experimental watershed on a...

  18. Long term nitrogen and phosphorus application to veld. | Donaldson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long term effects of a 5N x 3P factorial fertiliser application trial on hay yield, botanical composition and soil properties of veld are presented. Significant increases in hay yields were recorded during most years. There was a strong correlation (r = 0,757) between mean (over all 15 treatment combinations) annual hay ...

  19. Long term assurance of supply of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The answer of Switzerland and Great Britain to a number of questions concerning the long-term assurance of the supply of heavy water are presented. The original problems are seen in the wider context of raw materials supply and its assurance in general. Non-proliferation aspects are touched

  20. Species richness inside and outside long-term exclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Laycock; D. L. Bartos; K. D. Klement

    2004-01-01

    Recent environmental literature contains claims that livestock grazing has caused reduction in species diversity on Western rangelands. Data of species richness (number of species) is presented from inside and outside 24 long-term exclosures in Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. For the average of all exclosures there was no difference between species richness inside and...

  1. Long term assurance of supply of raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The working group discussed the long-term assurance of uranium supply. A number of key questions is presented along with the answers given by representatives of 10 countries and by EC commission. Emphasis is laid on market stability and on the difficulties in adopting to sudden changes in the supply and demand situation

  2. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain sli...

  3. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    , the psychodynamic perspective is integrated within a multi-dimensional model that considers biological, cognitive, identity, gender and social learning factors. The analysis reveals the possibility of achieving a detailed understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the development of long-term tranquillizer...

  4. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been publishe...... to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment....

  5. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsey, B.H.; Hoddinott, J; Alderman, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify

  6. Financial Incentives in Long-Term Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.H. Bakx (Pieter)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Long-term care (ltc) aims to help individuals to cope with their impairments. In my thesis, I describe ltc financing alternatives and their consequences for the allocation of ltc. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, I investigate how alternative ways

  7. Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Werkman, D.M.; Barnaart, L.F.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the long-term survival of patellofemoral arthroplasty with primary diagnosis, age, sex, and body mass index. One hundred eighty-five consecutive Richards type II patellofemoral arthroplasties were performed in 161 patients with isolated patellofemoral

  8. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  9. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  10. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  11. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  12. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  13. Rebalancing for Long-Term Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; Kuiper, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this study we show that the rebalance frequency of a multi-asset portfolio has only limited impact on the utility of a long-term passive investor. Although continuous rebalancing is optimal, the loss of a suboptimal strategy corresponds to up to only 30 basis points of the initial wealth of the

  14. Long term results of pyeloplasty in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayib, Abdul Malik

    2004-01-01

    To determine the presenting systems, complications, stone coincidence in adult patients with primary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We are also reporting the success rate and long term results of adult pyeloplasty. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent 37 pyeloplasty operations during the period January 1992 through to June 2002. The preoperative radiological diagnosis made by intravenous urogram or renal isotopes scan. We excluded from our study patients with previous history of passage of stones, renal or ureteral surgeries, large renal pelvis stone that may cause UPJ obstruction or abnormalities that may lead to secondry UPJ obstruction such as vesicoureteral reflux. There were 28 male patients and 8 females, their age varied between 16 and 51-years, the mean age was 36.1 years, and 18 (52.9%) patients had concomitant renal stones. Ispsilateral split renal function improved by 3-7% post pyeloplasty in 23 patients, while in one patient the function stayed the same, and in another patient the split function reduced by 4%. T1/2 renal isotopes washout time became less than 15 minutes in 19 patients and less than 20 minutes in 6 patients. Intravenous urogram revealed disappearence of the obstruction at UPJ in 7 patients while in 2 patients it became poorly functioning. Anderson Hynes pyeloplasty is an excellent procedure for treating UPJ obstruction in adults. Our success rate is comparable to the international repoted rates, while our study revealed a higher incidence of concomitant renal stones than the international studies. (author)

  15. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  16. Are long-term bisphosphonate users a reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of long-term bisphosphonate use may be low due to low refill compliance and gaps in treatment. An analysis of the prescription history of 58,674 bisphosphonate users in Denmark found that only 2.8 % had received ten dose years of treatment or above. INTRODUCTION: This study aims...... to describe the demographics of present bisphosphonate (BP) users, to determine the prevalence of long-term BP use, and to establish if long-term use (a 10-year history of osteoporosis treatment) translated to ten dose years of bisphosphonate prescriptions filled, given the propensity for treatment gaps...... more than ten dose years of a BP. For any osteoporosis drug, 3.0 % had received ten dose years or more, while 23.2 % had received between 5 and 10 years of treatment. CONCLUSION: Long-term users with ten dose years or more of a BP are rare due to periods of low compliance and gaps, with a discrepancy...

  17. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  18. Modeling Wettability Variation during Long-Term Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface property of rock affects oil recovery during water flooding. Oil-wet polar substances adsorbed on the surface of the rock will gradually be desorbed during water flooding, and original reservoir wettability will change towards water-wet, and the change will reduce the residual oil saturation and improve the oil displacement efficiency. However there is a lack of an accurate description of wettability alternation model during long-term water flooding and it will lead to difficulties in history match and unreliable forecasts using reservoir simulators. This paper summarizes the mechanism of wettability variation and characterizes the adsorption of polar substance during long-term water flooding from injecting water or aquifer and relates the residual oil saturation and relative permeability to the polar substance adsorbed on clay and pore volumes of flooding water. A mathematical model is presented to simulate the long-term water flooding and the model is validated with experimental results. The simulation results of long-term water flooding are also discussed.

  19. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  20. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  1. Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

  2. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E.; Brown, Lucy L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding. PMID:21208991

  3. Long-term complications in Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Barista, Ibrahim; Ulger, Sukran; Celik, Ismail; Selek, Ugur; Güllü, Ibrahim; Yildiz, Ferah; Kars, Ayse; Ozisik, Yavuz; Tekuzman, Gülten

    2012-01-01

    Background. Although patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) achieve prolonged survival, long-term complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among long-term survivors of HL. Methods. We retrospectively evaluated long-term complications in 336 HL survivors treated between January 1990 and January 2006 at the Department of Medical Oncology of the Hacettepe University Institute of Oncology who were >16 years old at presentation. All patients were regularly followed up every 3 months for the first 2 years after complete response, biannually for 3 years, and annually after 5 years. Results. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. The mean age (±SD) of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 35.7 ± 13.1 years. The male to female ratio was 61%/39%. During follow-up, 29 second malignancies (8.6%) were diagnosed in 28 patients with HL; 22 were solid tumors and 7 were hematological malignancies. Forty-seven (14.0%) of all patients with HL were found to have thyroid abnormalities. During follow-up, 54 (16.1%) patients developed cardiovascular complications. Overall, 29 (8.6%) patients developed late pulmonary toxicities. The cumulative number of chronic viral infections was 13 (3.9%). Conclusions. Long-term survivors of HL need to be properly followed up not only for disease control but also for evaluation of possible late morbidities to minimize the consequences.

  4. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  5. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  6. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  7. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  9. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  10. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  11. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  12. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  13. Long-term economic outlook. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This review provides economic growth forecast tables for Ontario, Canada, the US, Western Europe, and Japan. Economic growth, government policy, the long-term prospects for inflation, interest rates and foreign exchange rates, trends in the Canadian dollar, and energy markets and prices are also reviewed. Data generally cover 1965-2025. Appendices give a summary of historical and forecast data. 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  15. Accounting of Long-Term Biological Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Mossakovskyy; Vasyl Korytnyy

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to generalization of experience in valuation of long-term biological assets of plant-growing and animal-breeding, and preparation of suggestions concerning improvement of accounting in this field. Recommendations concerning accounting of such assets are given based on the study of accounting practice at specific agricultural company during long period of time. Authors believe that fair value is applicable only if price level for agricultural products is fixed by the gov...

  16. Optimal long-term contracting with learning

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhiguo; Wei, Bin; Yu, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We introduce uncertainty into Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) to study optimal long-term contracting with learning. In a dynamic relationship, the agent's shirking not only reduces current performance but also increases the agent's information rent due to the persistent belief manipulation effect. We characterize the optimal contract using the dynamic programming technique in which information rent is the unique state variable. In the optimal contract, the optimal effort is front-loaded and decr...

  17. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  18. Inflation Hedging for Long-Term Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun K. Roache; Alexander P. Attie

    2009-01-01

    Long-term investors face a common problem-how to maintain the purchasing power of their assets over time and achieve a level of real returns consistent with their investment objectives. While inflation-linked bonds and derivatives have been developed to hedge the effects of inflation, their limited supply and liquidity lead many investors to continue to rely on the indirect hedging properties of traditional asset classes. In this paper, we assess these properties over different time horizons,...

  19. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  20. Long-Term Care Services for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    includes but is not limited to home physical , occupational, or speech therapy ; wound care; and intravenous (IV) care. A VA physician determines that a...restoring/rehabilitating the veteran’s health, such as skilled nursing care, physical therapy , occupational therapy , and IV therapy Same as HBPC... geriatric evaluation,  palliative care,  adult day health care,  homemaker/home health aide care,  respite care, Long-Term Care Services for

  1. Long term adequacy of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the adequacy of world economic uranium resources to meet requirements in the very long term, that is until at least 2025 and beyond. It does so by analysing current requirements forecasts, existing and potential production centre supply capability schedules and national resource estimates. It takes into account lead times from resource discovery to production and production rate limitations. The institutional and political issues surrounding the question of adequacy are reviewed. (author)

  2. Serotonergic-postsynaptic receptors modulate gripping-induced immobility episodes in male taiep rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguibar, José R; Cortés, M C; Ita, M L

    2009-09-01

    The Taiep rat is a myelin mutant with a motor syndrome characterized by tremor, ataxia, immobility, epilepsy, and paralysis. The rat shows a hypomyelination followed by a progressive demyelination. During immobilities taiep rats show a REM-like sleep pattern and a disorganized sleep-wake pattern suggesting taiep rats as a model of narcolepsy-cataplexy. Our study analyzed the role of postsynaptic serotonin receptors in the expression of gripping-induced immobility episodes (IEs) in 8-month-old male taiep rats. The specific postsynaptic serotonin agonist +/-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (+/-DOI) decreased the frequency of gripping-induced IEs, but that was not the case with alpha-methyl-serotonin maleate (alpha-methyl-5HT), a nonspecific postsynaptic agonist. Although the serotonin antagonists, ketanserine and metergoline, produced a biphasic effect, first a decrease followed by an increase with higher doses, similar effects were obtained with a mean duration of gripping-induced IEs. These findings correlate with the pharmacological observations in narcoleptic dogs and humans in which serotonin-reuptake inhibitors improve cataplexy, particularly in long-term treatment that could change the serotonin receptor levels. Polysomnographic recordings showed an increase in the awakening time and a decrease in the slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep concomitant with a decrease in immobilities after use of +/-DOI, this being stronger with the highest dose. Taken together, our results show that postsynaptic serotonin receptors are involved in the modulation in gripping-induced IEs caused by the changes in the organization of the sleep-wake cycle in taiep rats. It is possible that specific agonists, without side effects, could be a useful treatment in human narcoleptic patients. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents' Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents' daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents' self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adolescents' positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents' social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  4. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adolescents’ positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents’ social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:29187827

  5. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adole...

  6. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J.; Marcinsky, M.; Martykan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  7. [Evaluation of the primary caregiver syndrome when caring for elderly adults with immobility syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cariño, Elizabeth María; Jiménez-Herrera, Blanca L; Serrano-Miranda, Tirzo A

    2012-01-01

    Caregiver syndrome may develop in caregivers of elderly adults. To evaluate the repercussions of the immobility syndrome present in elderly adults on their primary caregivers as well as to determine the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of the elderly adult and caregiver. The study population included patients over 65 recruited in the Geriatric Rehabilitation Department, with the diagnosis of immobility syndrome and that required a primary caregiver. A questionnaire including socio-demographic variables was applied to all patients and caregivers, and the Zarit scale was also applied to caregivers in order to determine the presence of caregiver syndrome. Analysis was performed with descriptive statistical methods; Student's t test and Fisher's test were used for comparisons between strata. 75 patients and their caregivers were evaluated; patient average age was 75.9 years and 85.3% were female. 50.7% (38 cases) had mild immobility. The average caregiver's age was 50.6%, 70.7% were female and 57.3% were the patient's daughter. Caregiver syndrome was detected in 60% of them: 57.7% had mild symptoms and in 42.2%, symptoms were moderate to severe. No statistically significant association was established between the development of caregiver syndrome and the degree of patient immobility. Caregivers of patients with immobility syndrome are at high risk of developing caregiver syndrome, thus underscoring the need to include primary caregiver support programs.

  8. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2002-03-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays a essential role for their long-term behavior. For elucidating long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) observation of joint surfaces of granite and Fourier analysis, 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, 3) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by LSM under uniaxial compression, and 4) a viscoelastic homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. Rock image processing and analysis become a fundamental procedure to determine rock surface discontinuities. But the complexity of rock surface discontinuities seems beyond the manual image processing method. In Chapter 2 a Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope that can acquire three-dimensional images is introduced to observe the rock roughness of a discontinuity. Then, scanning three-dimensional images are changed its data form in order to adapt various image analysis programs, and granitic rock roughness of discontinuities are displayed by graphic images. For example, these datas are analyzed by Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) program and Inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation (IDFT) program. Microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock. In Chapter 3 a progressive development of cracking in granite is revealed by using stereoscopic microscope under triaxial compression condition and by using LSM under uniaxial compression condition. With a viscoelastic theory applied in homogenization method, we can calculate macro behavior of medium influenced by its micro structure by analyse the long-term time-dependent behavior of granite under the same condition to the relaxation experiment. (author)

  9. The Long-Term Cost to the UK NHS and Social Services of Different Durations of IV Thiamine (Vitamin B1) for Chronic Alcohol Misusers with Symptoms of Wernicke's Encephalopathy Presenting at the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward C F; Stanley, George; Mirza, Zulfiquar

    2016-04-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neuropsychiatric condition caused by depleted intracellular thiamine, most commonly arising in chronic alcohol misusers, who may present to emergency departments (EDs) for a variety of reasons. Guidelines recommend a minimum 5-day course of intravenous (IV) thiamine in at-risk patients unless WE can be excluded. To estimate the cost impact on the UK public sector (NHS and social services) of a 5-day course of IV thiamine, vs a 2- and 10-day course, in harmful or dependent drinkers presenting to EDs. A Markov chain model compared expected prognosis of patients under alternative admission strategies over 35 years. Model inputs were derived from a prospective cohort study, expert opinion via structured elicitation and NHS costing databases. Costs (2012/2013 price year) were discounted at 3.5 %. Increasing treatment from 2 to 5 days increased acute care costs but reduced the probability of disease progression and thus reduced the expected net costs by GBP87,000 per patient (95 % confidence interval GBP19,300 to GBP172,300) over 35 years. Increasing length of stay to optimize IV thiamine replacement will place additional strain on acute care but has potential UK public sector cost savings. Social services and the NHS should explore collaborations to realise both the health benefits to patients and savings to the public purse.

  10. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Metzler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a positive self-presentation, (b number of friends, and (c the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years in two waves. Adolescents’ positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents’ social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  11. Characteristics of asthma attack with long-term management for bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Noriko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Hashimoto, Kunio; Matsubara, Tomoyo; Ichiyama, Takashi; Furukawa, Susumu

    2009-10-01

    There have been no reports on the evaluation of the usefulness of long-term asthma management based on the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Bronchial Asthma 2005 (JPGL 2005). The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the records of 350 patients admitted to Yamaguchi University Hospital who had asthma attacks from January 2006 to June 2008. There were 149 patients who were treated for more than 3 months in accordance with the guideline (long-term management group) and 201 who were not (non-long-term management group). The patients were divided into three age groups: 100 infants, 159 toddlers, and 91 schoolchildren. The onset age of asthma in the long-term management group was earlier than that in the non-long-term management group in toddlers and schoolchildren. The white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were higher in the non-long-term management group in schoolchildren, suggesting the complication of some infections. The severity of asthma in the long-term management group was greater than that in the non-long-term management group among all three age groups. There were no significant differences, however, in the severity of asthma attack at admission between the long-term and non-long-term management groups in the three age groups. Patients who had severe asthma tended to be treated with long-term management, which suggests that long-term asthma management according to JPGL 2005 may reduce the severity of asthma attack at that admission, because the severity of asthma in patients undergoing long-term management correlates with the severity of asthma attack.

  12. A new mathematical programming model for long-term production scheduling considering geological uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamnejad, J.; Moosavi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the optimum production schedules over the life of a mine is a critical mechanism in open pit mine planning procedures. Long-term production scheduling is used to maximize the net present value of the project under technical, financial, and environmental constraints. Mathematical programming models are well suited for optimizing long-term production schedules of open pit mines. There are two approaches to solving long-term production problems: deterministic- and uncertainty- b...

  13. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Long-term EEG in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  16. Long term contracts in portfolios of gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper promotes the idea of long-term contracting for natural gas local distributors and utilities. It presents a brief history of how the spot-market developed and the effects spot-marketing can have in times of supply shortages. This has also resulted in a drastic decrease in exploration and development in the gas industry as gas supplies have exceeding demand, driving the prices down. The paper proposes several methods to restabilize the long-term contracting of gas by considering volume and pricing flexibility. Some brief discussions of industry-wide statistics are presented to show reserve replacement costs which would be needed to preserve the industry in a profit-making situation

  17. Long term aspects of uranium tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    1980-05-01

    This paper sets out the background issues which lead to the development of interim close-out criteria for uranium mill tailings. It places the current state-of-the-art for tailings management into both a national and international perspective and shows why such interim criteria are needed now. There are seven specific criteria proposed dealing with the need to have: passive barriers, limits on surface water recharge, durable systems, long term performance guarantees, limits to access, controls on water and airborne releases and finally to have a knowledge of exposure pathways. This paper is intended to serve as a focus for subsequent discussions with all concerned parties. (auth)

  18. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  19. Optimal Long-Term Financial Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. DeMarzo; Michael J. Fishman

    2007-01-01

    We develop an agency model of financial contracting. We derive long-term debt, a line of credit, and equity as optimal securities, capturing the debt coupon and maturity; the interest rate and limits on the credit line; inside versus outside equity; dividend policy; and capital structure dynamics. The optimal debt-equity ratio is history dependent, but debt and credit line terms are independent of the amount financed and, in some cases, the severity of the agency problem. In our model, the ag...

  20. Subliminal messages exert long-term effects on decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Ruch, Simon; Züst, Marc; Henke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Subliminal manipulation is often considered harmless because its effects typically decay within a second. So far, subliminal long-term effects on behavior were only observed in studies which repeatedly presented highly familiar information such as single words. These studies suggest that subliminal messages are only slowly stored and might not be stored at all if they provide novel, unfamiliar information. We speculated that subliminal messages might affect delayed decision making especially ...

  1. Long-term photometric behaviour of outbursting AM CVn systems

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, David; Groot, Paul J.; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Laher, Russ; Ofek, Eran O.; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The AM CVn systems are a class of He-rich, post-period minimum, semidetached, ultracompact binaries. Their long-term light curves have been poorly understood due to the few systems known and the long (hundreds of days) recurrence times between outbursts. We present combined photometric light curves from the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research, Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, and Palomar Transient Factory synoptic surveys to study the photometric variability of these systems over an almo...

  2. Long-term predictive capability of erosion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadra, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief overview of long-term cavitation and liquid impingement erosion and modeling methods proposed by different investigators, including the curve-fit approach is presented. A table was prepared to highlight the number of variables necessary for each model in order to compute the erosion-versus-time curves. A power law relation based on the average erosion rate is suggested which may solve several modeling problems.

  3. Designing indicators of long-term energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van Arkel, W.G.; Boots, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, so far amazingly little research work has been undertaken to construct meaningful indicators of long-run energy supply security for a particular nation or region. Currently, in addressing energy supply security, policy makers tend to emphasise short-term supply disruptions. In contrast, this pre-study accords with the broader Sustainability Outlook in considering the long-term perspective. This report starts with taking stock, in a concise way, of the official EU energy outlook and issues related to the opportunities to administer changes in the energy mix at the level of major energy use categories. Then a brief survey of relevant literature is made on long-term strategies to ensure survival of systems - be it biological, social, etc. - in an environment largely characterised by high uncertainty and a lot of unchartered territory. We found the work of Andrew Stirling very inspiring in this context. Based on his work and considering the limitations of the present research activity, we retained the Shannon index as the best 'simple' indicator of diversity. In the core of the report, the Shannon index is elaborated into four indicators of long-term energy supply security. Stepwise, additional aspects of long-term energy supply security are introduced. These aspects are: Diversification of energy sources in energy supply; Diversification of imports with respect to imported energy sources; Long-term political stability in regions of origin; The resource base in regions of origin, including the home region/country itself. After small adjustments to allow for data availability, these indicators were applied to the reference year 2030 of four long-term scenarios with data of base year 1995 and projections for underlying variables provided by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). Preliminary interpretation of the results suggests the usefulness of the indicators presented in this report. A second activity undertaken in this report was

  4. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  5. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  7. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  8. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass.

  10. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Martin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad history

  11. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  12. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  13. Long-term variability of precipitation in Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, Nikola; Marinova, Tania; Ristevski, Pece

    2004-01-01

    During the last century a great attention has been spared to the water resources of the territories of different countries in the world. In the last decades investigations were directed towards the long-term variability of precipitation in the basic regions of agricultural production. Among these investigations the results that indicate decreasing of precipitation amounts during the potential crop-growing season are of especially great interest because precipitation decreasing affects harmfully crop production and population feeding. The purpose of the present work is to study the long-term variability of monthly precipitation sums for 5 representative meteorological stations in Republic of Macedonia: Skopje, Bitola, Prilep, Stip and Demir Kapija for the period 1925-2000. The duration and periodicity of precipitation variations are analyzed on the base of 5-years smooth values for different seasons, warm and cold half-year and for year. The tendencies of trend for the period 1925-2000 are found out.(Author)

  14. Long-term monitoring for closed special sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed special radioactive waste disposal sites. The steps in the method involve collection of the available background information on the site history, site and area characteristics, waste inventory, pathway analysis, prior monitoring programs, applicable standards, and the legal/regulatory requirements. This information is coupled with factors such as experience, half-life, radionuclide migration rates, and potential hazard to develop a monitoring program. As an example, a site-specific long-term monitoring program is described for the AMAX site using the available information. Sampling techniques and practices for the monitoring program are discussed and techniques and practices expected to be available in the future are considered. 7 references, 2 tables

  15. DRIVERS OF LONG-TERM CONVERGENCE. FOCUS ON ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA UNGURU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With initial low levels of income per capita, a declining population and relatively modest economic growth rates, there are little prospects of diminishing the gap between Romania and the EU countries. Nevertheless, in the long term, convergence is expected. The question then arises, “What are the drivers and their likely potential to boost economic growth and the catching-up process?”. This paper presents shortly the theoretical background of economic convergence and then focuses on the assessment of possible paths of Romania’s convergence towards the EU. Based on the existing long-term macroeconomic projections and the assessment of the possible future developments of the drivers of economic growth, we have built three scenarios of economic convergence, highlighting the possible timespan of convergence. We have employed growth accounting methods to decompose output growth rate into production factors’ contributions (capital and labour and total factor productivity.

  16. Defining a communication system for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitropoulou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Prof. Eleni Mitropoulou presented an ongoing study, undertaken on behalf of Andra, on long-term communication. The speaker highlighted that it is not so much the marking that needs to be sustainable, but above all what the marking communicates. She highlighted the importance of sustainable human action to produce memory and, thus, the need to reconcile the passive character of geological disposal and the active character of memory keeping. Focusing on semiotics, the interaction between the short, medium and long term was pointed out, highlighting the need to create a relay system. A multidimensional message was proposed, for the purposes of information ('storage site here'), interpellation (to warn, prevent or alert) and integration (with regard to the surrounding environment). This corresponds to the systemic approach of the RK and M initiative, which is based on a variety of RK and M transmission mechanisms that are integrated with and/or complement one another

  17. Relationship between short and long term radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Ramirez, D.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this work the radon group of the Faculty of Chemistry at the National University of Mexico presents the results obtained in the establishment of a relation between the short and long term radon measures made with passive electret detectors E-PERM type LLT and HST. The measures were carried out inside single family dwellings (open house condition) located in the southeast of Mexico City (in Xochimilco) during the four seasons of the year 1997. A correlation was established between the short term measures (five days) and those of a long term for every season as well as an annual average, with an equation that relates them. The objective and advantage of this correlation are that with a short term measure it is possible to predict the annual mean radon concentration, that represents a saving of human and economic resources. (author)

  18. Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James A; Teplitsky, Céline; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter H; Birkhead, Tim R; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Côté, Steeve D; Coulson, John C; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H M; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W; Furness, Robert W; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J; Lens, Luc; Linnell, John D C; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merilä, Juha; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nisbet, Ian C T; van Noordwijk, Arie J; Oro, Daniel; Pärt, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Réale, Denis; Rockwell, Robert F; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S; Swenson, Jon E; Thébaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F; Wilson, Alastair J; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, open access to primary data while 63% expressed serious concern. We present here their viewpoint on an issue that can have non-trivial scientific consequences. We discuss potential costs of public data archiving and provide possible solutions to meet the needs of journals and researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term high temperature strength of 316FR steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    As low-carbon medium-nitrogen type 316 stainless steel (316FR) was selected as a primary candidate for main structural material of a next fast reactor plant in Japan, its long-term high-temperature strength gains much interest from many organizations involved in design activities of the plant. Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), as a research organization for electric power industry in Japan, has been conducting a multi-year project under the sponsorship of Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) for studying the long-term high temperature strength of this steel. Data obtained by various strength tests, including short-time tensile, fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue tests for this steel are given in this paper. The results of study on creep-fatigue life prediction methods are also presented. It was found that modified ductility exhaustion method previously proposed by the author has satisfactory accuracy in creep-fatigue life estimation

  20. Safety of Long-term Interim Storage Facilities - Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to discuss and review current national activities, plans and regulatory approaches for the safety of long term interim storage facilities dedicated to spent nuclear fuel (SF), high level waste (HLW) and other radioactive materials with prolonged storage regimes. It was also intended to discuss results of experiments and to identify necessary R and D to confirm safety of fuel and cask during the long-term storage. Safety authorities and their Technical Support Organisation (TSO), Fuel Cycle Facilities (FCF) operating organisations and international organisations were invited to share information on their approaches, practices and current developments. The workshop was organised in an opening session, three technical sessions, and a conclusion session. The technical sessions were focused on: - National approaches for long term interim storage facilities; - Safety requirements, regulatory framework and implementation issues; - Technical issues and operational experience, needs for R and D. Each session consisted of a number of presentations followed by a panel discussion moderated by the session Chairs. A summary of each session and subsequent discussion that ensued are provided as well as a summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  1. Solar cycle and long term variations of mesospheric ice layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, Franz-Josef; Berger, Uwe; Kiliani, Johannes; Baumgarten, Gerd; Fiedler, Jens; Gerding, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Ice layers in the summer mesosphere at middle and polar latitudes, frequently called `noctilucent clouds' (NLC) or `polar mesosphere clouds'(PMC), are considered to be sensitive indicators of long term changes in the middle atmosphere. We present a summary of long term observations from the ground and from satellites and compare with results from the LIMA model (Leibniz Institute Middle Atmosphere Model). LIMA nicely reproduces mean conditions of the summer mesopause region and also mean characteristics of ice layers. LIMA nudges to ECMWF data in the troposphere and lower stratosphere which influences the background conditions in the mesosphere and thereby the morphology of ice clouds. A strong correlation between temperatures and PMC altitudes is observed. Applied to historical measurements this give s negligible temperature trends at PMC altitudes (approximately 0.01-0.02 K/y). Trace gas concentrations are kept constant in LIMA except for water vapor which is modified by variable solar radiation. Still, long term trends in temperatures and ice layer parameters are observed, consistent with observations. As will be shown, these trends originate in the stratosphere. Solar cycle effects are expected in ice layers due to variations in background temperatures and water paper. We will present results from LIMA regarding solar cycle variations and compare with NLC observations at our lidar stations in Kühlungsborn (54°N) and ALOMAR (69°N), and also with satellite measurements.

  2. Incidental biasing of attention from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-06-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past but is no longer present or relevant to the task also guides attention. We examined this by associating multiple unique features with novel shapes in visual long-term memory (VLTM), and subsequently testing how memories for these objects biased the deployment of attention. In Experiment 1, VLTM for associated features guided visual search for the shapes, even when these features had never been task-relevant. In Experiment 2, associated features captured attention when presented in isolation during a secondary task that was completely unrelated to the shapes. These findings suggest that long-term memory enables a durable and automatic type of memory-based attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Long-term cryogenic space storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. A.; Chronic, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the design, fabrication and testing of a 225-cu ft spherical cryogenic storage system for long-term subcritical applications under zero-g conditions in storing subcritical cryogens for space vehicle propulsion systems. The insulation system design, the analytical methods used, and the correlation between the performance test results and analytical predictions are described. The best available multilayer insulation materials and state-of-the-art thermal protection concepts were applied in the design, providing a boiloff rate of 0.152 lb/hr, or 0.032% per day, and an overall heat flux of 0.066 Btu/sq ft hr based on a 200 sq ft surface area. A six to eighteen month cryogenic storage is provided by this system for space applications.

  4. Long-term control of root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  5. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  6. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  7. Prediction of long-term creep curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Kouichi

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing how to predict long-term irradiation enhanced creep properties from short-term tests. The predictive method based on the θ concept was examined by using creep data of ferritic steels. The method was successful in predicting creep curves including the tertiary creep stage as well as rupture lifetimes. Some material constants involved in the method are insensitive to the irradiation environment, and their values obtained in thermal creep are applicable to irradiation enhanced creep. The creep mechanisms of most engineering materials definitely change at the athermal yield stress in the non-creep regime. One should be aware that short-term tests must be carried out at stresses lower than the athermal yield stress in order to predict the creep behavior of structural components correctly. (orig.)

  8. Hanford grout: predicting long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewart, G.H.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Grouted disposal is being planned for the low-level portion of liquid radioactive wastes at the Hanford site in Washington state. The performance of the disposal system must be such that it will protect people and the environment for thousands of years after disposal. To predict whether a specific grout disposal system will comply with existing and foreseen regulations, a performance assessment (PA) is performed. Long-term PAs are conducted for a range of performance conditions. Performance assessment is an inexact science. Quantifying projected impacts is especially difficult when only scant data exist on the behavior of certain components of the disposal system over thousands of years. To develop defensible results, we are honing the models and obtaining experimental data. The combination of engineered features and PA refinements is being used to ensure that Hanford grout will meet its principal goal: to protect people and the environment in the future

  9. The discovery of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2003-04-29

    This paper describes circumstances around the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP). In 1966, I had just begun independent work for the degree of Dr medicinae (PhD) in Per Andersen's laboratory in Oslo after an eighteen-month apprenticeship with him. Studying the effects of activating the perforant path to dentate granule cells in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rabbits, I observed that brief trains of stimuli resulted in increased efficiency of transmission at the perforant path-granule cell synapses that could last for hours. In 1968, Tim Bliss came to Per Andersen's laboratory to learn about the hippocampus and field potential recording for studies of possible memory mechanisms. The two of us then followed up my preliminary results from 1966 and did the experiments that resulted in a paper that is now properly considered to be the basic reference for the discovery of LTP.

  10. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    significantly associated with initiation of L-TOT in individuals with CNCP at baseline. During follow-up, L-TOT in CNCP patients increased the likelihood of negative changes in pain interference with work (OR 9.2; 95% CI 1.9-43.6) and in moderate activities (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.6). The analysis of all......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...... individuals indicated a dose-response relationship between longer treatment duration and the risk of experiencing negative changes. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals on L-TOT seemed not to achieve the key goals of opioid therapy: pain relief, improved quality of life and functional capacity. SIGNIFICANCE: Long...

  11. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... a stake in 2007 in the company which at that time was named Braendstrup Maskinfabrik. He furthermore expalins how he has developed the company based on a strategic plan focusing on professionalization and outsourcing. Next, the video shows how to type Bo Fischer Larsen's replies to the questions...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  12. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  13. Fourteen-Year Long-Term Results after Gastric Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stroh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric banding (GB is a common bariatric procedure that is performed worldwide. Weight loss can be substantial after this procedure, but it is not sufficient in a significant portion of patients. Long-term rates for associated complications increase with every year of follow up, and only a few long-term studies have been published that examine these rates. We present our results after 14 years of postoperative follow up. Methods. Two hundred patients were operated upon form 01.02.1995 to 31.01.2009. Data collection was performed prospectively. In retrospective analysis, we analyzed weight loss, short- and long-term complications, amelioration of comorbidities and long-term outcome. Results. The mean postoperative follow up time was 94.4 months (range 2–144. The follow up rate was 83.5%. The incidence of postoperative complications for slippage was 2.5%, for pouch dilatation was 9.5%, for band migration was 5.5% and 12.0% for overall band removal. After 14 years, the reoperation rate was 30.5% with a reoperation rate of 2.2% for every year of follow up. Excess weight loss was 40.2% after 1 year, 46.3% after 2 years, 45.9% after 3 years, 41.9% after five years, 33.3% after 8 years, 30.8% after 10 years, 33.3% after 12 years and 15.6% after 14 years of follow up. Conclusion. The complication and reoperation rate after GB is high. Nevertheless, GB is still a therapeutic option in morbid obese patients, but the criteria for patient selection should be carefully evaluated.

  14. Long-term outcomes of unilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad H; Hariri, Sanaz

    2009-06-01

    the long-term outcomes of wartime transtibial amputations have not been well documented. The purpose of this case series is to present the long-term functional, social, and psychological outcomes of modern-day military unilateral transtibial amputees. the Iranian Veterans Administration of the Khorasan province invited their Iranian military amputees from the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) to its medical center for evaluation. The patients filled out a detailed questionnaire and were interviewed and examined by each team member. two hundred (77%) of the 260 invited amputees were willing and able to come back for follow-up. Ninety-six of these patients (48%) were unilateral transtibial amputation. The average follow-up was 17.4 years (range 15-22 years). Land mines were the leading cause of war injury necessitating a transtibial amputation (68%). The most common symptoms about their amputated limbs were phantom sensations (54%), phantom pain (17%), and stump pain (42%). Lower back pain, contralateral (nonamputated limb) knee pain, and ipsilateral (amputated limb) knee pain were reported by 44%, 38%, and 13% of subjects, respectively. Sixty-five percent of patients were employed or had been employed for multiple years after their war injury. All patients were married, and 97% had children. Fifty-four percent of amputees reported psychological problems; 26% were currently utilizing psychological support services. at long-term follow-up, most military transtibial amputees experienced phantom sensation or some type of stump pain. More than half had persistent psychiatric problems, but only about half of these patients were receiving psychological treatment. Although this case series reports the status of these amputees, the next step would be to prospectively follow modern wartime amputees using standardized, validated outcome measures. With the goal of optimizing long-term amputee outcomes, researchers should correlate outcomes with demographics, injury characteristics, and

  15. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2004-02-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays an essential role for their long-term behavior. For understanding long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) under uniaxial compression (before loading and at each loading stage), 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, and 3) a study of strong discontinuity analysis included in the homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. First, CLSM was used to acquire clearly focused three-dimensional images of granite specimens, and observed the change of microscale structure including the mineral configuration under applying uniaxial compression stress. Then though microcracks have ever thought to be initiated and propagated on intergranular boundaries, we understand through the CLSM observation that new microcracks are generated from the ends of pre-existing cracks which are distributed in quartz and biotite. Second, we showed the results of stress-relaxation test of granite specimens observed by an optical microscope under water-saturated triaxial compression condition. Since microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock, we managed the experiments with careful attention of 1) keeping constant edge-displacement and constant strain in the whole specimen accurately, and 2) measuring the relaxed stress exactly. Next, in order to simulate the experimental results which indicate that initiation and propagation of microcracks control the stress-relaxation phenomenon, we introduce a homogenization analysis procedure together with the strong discontinuity analysis which has recently established the mechanical implication and mathematical foundation. The numerical results show that we can

  16. Long-term uranium supply-demand analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    It is the intention of this study to investigate the long-term uranium supply demand situation using a number of supply and demand related assumptions. For supply, these assumptions as used in the Resources and Production Projection (RAPP) model include country economic development status, and consequent lead times for exploration and development, uranium development status, country infrastructure, and uranium resources including the Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional, Categories I and II, (EAR-I and II) and Speculative Resource categories. The demand assumptions were based on the ''pure'' reactor strategies developed by the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Requirements for the 1986 OECD (NEA)/IAEA reports ''Nuclear Energy and its Fuel Cycle: Prospects to 2025''. In addition for this study, a mixed strategy case was computed using the averages of the Plutonium (Pu) burning LWR high, and the improved LWR low cases. It is understandable that such a long-term analysis cannot present hard facts, but it can show which variables may in fact influence the long-term supply-demand situation. It is hoped that results of this study will provide valuable information for planners in the uranium supply and demand fields. Periodical re-analyses with updated data bases will be needed from time to time

  17. Frozen shoulder : long-term outcome following arthrographic distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Rhys G E; Ray, Andrew G; Davidson, Colin; Robinson, C Mike; Perks, Fergus J

    2013-08-01

    Arthrographic distension of the glenohumeral joint was adopted as a mainstream treatment for frozen shoulder before any randomised controlled trials were performed. Interpretation of the effectiveness of this procedure rests mostly on data from cohort studies of which there are few of high quality. Papers reporting long-term results have either excluded diabetic patients or failed to report patient orientated outcomes. The authors present a long-term prospective cohort study of 51 patients (12 diabetics and 39 non-diabetics), with 53 frozen shoulders, who had an arthrographic distension performed by a single radiologist as a primary intervention. Oxford shoulder score (OSS), visual analogue pain score (VAS), and range of movement (ROM) were recorded pre-distension, at 2 days and 1 month post-distension. OSS and VAS were recorded again at a mean of 14 months post distension (range : 8-26 months). OSS improved from a pre-distension mean of 22.3 by 16.9 points at final follow-up (p diabetic patients was the same as in non-diabetic patients. Arthrographic distension is a safe and effective treatment for frozen shoulder; it is also effective in diabetic patients. It gives long-term improvement. The authors believe that the low number of patients requiring a secondary procedure makes arthrographic distension preferable to manipulation under anaesthesia.

  18. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  19. Long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.; Thorne, M.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the storage of spent nuclear fuel, with particular reference to the options which would be available for long-term storage. Two reference programmes of nuclear power generation in the UK are defined and these are used as a basis for the projection of arisings of spent fuel and the storage capacity which might be needed. The characteristics of spent fuel which are relevant to long-term storage include the dimensions, materials and physical construction of the elements, their radioactive inventory and the associated decay heating as a function of time after removal from the reactor. Information on the behaviour of spent fuel in storage ponds is reviewed with particular reference to the corrosion of the cladding. The review indicates that, for long-term storage, both Magnox and AGR fuel would need to be packaged because of the high rate of cladding corrosion and the resulting radiological problems. The position on PWR fuel is less certain. Experience of dry storage is less extensive but it appears that the rate of corrosion of cladding is much lower than in water. Unit costs are discussed. Consideration is given to the radiological impact of fuel storage. (author)

  20. Birds choose long-term partners years before breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Pair bonds can provide social benefits to long-term monogamous species alongside their benefits for reproduction. However, little is known about when these bonds form, in particular how long they are present before breeding. Previous studies of pair formation in long-term monogamous birds have been rather data-limited, but for many migratory birds they report pair formation on the wintering grounds. We provide the first systematic investigation of prebreeding association patterns of long-term monogamous pairs by examining entire life histories based on tracking data of migratory whooping cranes, Grus americana. We found that a substantial portion (62%) of breeding pairs started associating at least 12 months before first breeding, with 16 of 58 breeding pairs beginning to associate over 2 years before first breeding. For most pairs, these associations with future breeding partners also became unique and distinguishable from association patterns with nonpartner individuals 12 months before first breeding. In addition, 60% of pair associations began before at least one partner had reached nominal sexual maturity. Most pairs began associating in the late spring upon arrival at the summer grounds, while associations beginning at other times of the year were rare. Patterns in the associations of pairs prior to breeding can point to the potential benefits of prebreeding relationships, for instance providing support in competitive interactions or increasing partner familiarity.

  1. Long-term allocation of power from the Snettisham Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Alaska Power Administration (APA) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0839) evaluating the Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project that establishes long-term allocation and sales of power. The proposed long-term sales contract will replace a 20-year sales agreement that expires at the end of December, 1993. The EA evaluates the proposed alternative and the no action alternative. The proposed alternative replaces the expiring contract with a new 20-year contract with the same terms, conditions and allocation as the previous long-term contract. No other alternatives were developed, as there is only one utility in the Juneau area. The divestiture of this Federal project is expected to be approved by Congress; the present contractor would then assume the ownership and operation of the Snettisham Project. The EA identified no actions associated with the proposal that will cause significant environmental or socioeconomic impacts. The Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project deals with the replacement of an expiring contract. The Final Marketing Plan does not include the addition of any major new resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters. No changes in rates are proposed in the Final Marketing Plan

  2. Long-term complications of splenectomy in adult immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Lan-Huong; Mahévas, Matthieu; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Limal, Nicolas; Languille, Laetitia; Dumas, Guillaume; Khellaf, Mehdi; Bierling, Philippe; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    The recent large decrease in splenectomy use for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is partly due to still-unsolved questions about long-term safety. We performed the first single-center exposed/unexposed cohort study evaluating the long-term incidence of splenectomy complications in patients with primary ITP. Overall, 83 patients who underwent splenectomy more than 10 years ago (exposed) were matched with 83 nonsplenectomized patients (unexposed) on the date of ITP diagnosis ±5 years, age and gender. After a median follow-up of 192 months (range 0.5-528), 43 patients (52%) achieved overall response after splenectomy. Splenectomized patients experienced more venous thromboembolism (VTE) than controls (n = 13 vs n = 2, P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, splenectomy was an independent risk factor of VTE (hazard ratio = 4.006, P = 0.032 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-14.21]). Splenectomized patients presented more severe infections on long-term follow-up: all required hospitalization, and 5/26 (19%) infections led to severe sepsis or septic shock and to death for 3 cases (none in controls). However, the incidence of malignancy was similar in both groups, as was cardiovascular risk, which appeared to be related more to ITP than splenectomy. Finally, splenectomy did not significantly decrease overall survival. Despite the risk of thrombosis and severe sepsis, splenectomy remains an effective and curative treatment for ITP.

  3. Esophageal replacement in children: Challenges and long-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Soccorso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of a nonexistent or damaged esophagus continues to pose a significant challenge to pediatric surgeons. Various esophageal replacement grafts and techniques have not produced consistently good outcomes to emulate normal esophagus. Therefore, many techniques are still being practiced and recommended with no clear consensus. We present a concise literature review of the currently used techniques and with discussions on the advantages and anticipated morbidity. There are no randomized controlled pediatric studies to compare different types of esophageal replacements. Management and graft choice are based on geographical and personal predilections rather than on any discernible objective data. The biggest series with long-term outcome are reported for gastric transposition and colonic replacement. Comparison of different studies shows no significant difference in early (graft necrosis and anastomotic leaks or late complications (strictures, poor feeding, gastro-esophageal reflux, tortuosity of the graft, and Barrett′s esophagus. The biggest series seem to have lower complications than small series reflecting the decennials experience in their respective centers. Long-term follow-up is recommended following esophageal replacement for the development of late strictures, excessive tortuosity, and Barrett′s changes within the graft. Once child overcomes initial morbidity and establishes oral feeding, long-term consequences and complications of pediatric esophageal replacement should be monitored and managed in adult life.

  4. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the

  5. Long term adverse drug reaction to Efavirenz in a HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is only one published case of serious adverse reaction to Efavirenz in an adolescent after long-term use. The case of a male HIV Positive Nigerian patient aged 13 years. He presented with five-day history of Difficulty sleeping, abnormal dreams, inability to concentrate, restlessness, irrational behavior and long-term ...

  6. Computer Simulations of Developmental Change: The Contributions of Working Memory Capacity and Long-Term Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing working memory (WM) capacity is often cited as a major influence on children's development and yet WM capacity is difficult to examine independently of long-term knowledge. A computational model of children's nonword repetition (NWR) performance is presented that independently manipulates long-term knowledge and WM capacity to determine…

  7. Sensor System for Long-term Recording of Photovoltaic (PV) IV-curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    The purpose of this paper is to present a recording system for long-term investigation of PV panel dynamics under partial shading conditions. The system is intended to be a low-cost system deployable for stand-alone field use and long-term data recording at PV-plants. Passing clouds will affect...

  8. Conceptual Distinctiveness Supports Detailed Visual Long-Term Memory for Real-World Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-01

    Humans have a massive capacity to store detailed information in visual long-term memory. The present studies explored the fidelity of these visual long-term memory representations and examined how conceptual and perceptual features of object categories support this capacity. Observers viewed 2,800 object images with a different number of exemplars…

  9. The Lack of a Long-Term Growth Effect of Annosus Control in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. H. Tainter; J. G. Williams; N. J. Hess; S. W. Oak; D. A. Starkey

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of basal area increment was made in 1988 of six pine plantations located across the southeastern United States. These plantations had been thinned in 1969-1970 and stumps treated with borax to measure long-term efficacy of annosus root rot control. In the present study, no long-term growth effects were identified. There were neither negative growth...

  10. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  11. NUMO's approach for long-term safety assessment - 59404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Takeshi; Kaku, Kenichi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    One of NUMO's policies for ensuring safety is staged and flexible project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents NUMO's basic strategies for long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. NUMO's approach considering Japanese boundary conditions is demonstrated as a starting-point for evaluating the long-term safety of an actual site. In Japan, the Act on Final Disposal of Specified Radioactive Waste states that the siting process shall consist of three stages. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) is responsible for geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste and some types of TRU waste. NUMO has chosen to implement a volunteer approach to siting. NUMO decided to prepare the so-called 2010 technical report, which sets out three safety policies, one of which is staged project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. Based on this policy, NUMO will gradually integrate relevant interdisciplinary knowledge to build a safety case when a formal volunteer application is received that would allow site investigations to be initiated. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; one of a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents the basic strategies for NUMO's long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. In concrete terms, the common procedures involved in safety assessment are applied in a stepwise manner, based on integration of knowledge obtained from site investigations/evaluations and engineered measures. The results of the safety assessment are then reflected in the planning of site investigations and engineered

  12. OK-432 sclerotherapy in head and neck lymphangiomas: long-term follow-up result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Chul; Ahn, Youngjin; Lim, Yune Syung; Hah, J Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Nonsurgical treatments, such as sclerotherapy have been attempted for head and neck lymphagiomas. Of the available sclerosing agents, picibanil has shown satisfactory short-term treatment results in many studies, but no study has presented long-term treatment results. Accordingly, in the present study, the authors retrospectively reviewed the long-term treatment results of picibanil sclerotherapy. Fifty-five lymphangioma patients who underwent picibanil sclerotherapy were enrolled. Data about initial and long-term response, recurrence, and excision rate were collected. Initial response rates were 83.5 percent and long-term response rates were 76.3 percent. Initial and the long-term response rate were equally good for lymphangioma.

  13. Improvement of Regulatory Framework for Long-Term Operation and Ageing Management of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenko, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework for long-term operation and ageing management of NPP units in Ukraine was reviewed and deficiencies were identified. The procedure for improving regulatory framework for long-term operation and ageing management is presented. It takes into consideration IAEA recommendations and international practices, as well as experience obtained in long-term operation efforts for Rivne NPP-1, 2 and South Ukraine NPP-1. The paper demonstrates interrelations between standards and technical documents on long-term operation and ageing management. The information is presented regarding the current state of regulatory and legal documentation development and industry-specific standards on long-term operation and ageing management of NPP units in Ukraine

  14. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-01-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up after Treatment of Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jorgen; Cortes, Dina

    2016-01-01

    -known knowledge on the field is presented.To some extent a smaller testis in a higher scrotal position than normal must be accepted as a fair cosmetic result after orchidopexy in childhood. The smaller testis size is related to the impaired fertility potential of the testis. In cases with atrophy, testicular......When considering long-term prognosis and results in adult age following treatment of cryptorchidism in childhood there are three main issues to be discussed: cosmetics, fertility, and malignancy. In the present review, the most recent research on the topics related to summaries of well...

  16. A retrieval account of the long-term modality effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenberg, A M

    1984-01-01

    When to-be-remembered (TBR) word pairs are separated by distractor activity, recall of the last few audibly presented pairs is greater than recall of the last few visually presented pairs. The effect is found even after a considerably long distractor-filled retention interval. Five experiments disconfirm echoic storage, short-term storage and long-term storage accounts of these effects, as well as demonstrating that the effect is not an artifact of differential use of a recency-first output strategy. The data are generally consistent with the proposition that retrieval is disrupted by modality-specific similarity between to-be-remembered items and distractor information.

  17. Long-Term Clock Behavior of GPS IIR Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Marvin; Dass, Todd; Rajan, John; Gilmour, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Rubidium clocks, as opposed to cesium clocks, have significant long-term drift. The current literature describes an initial model of drift aging for rubidium atomic clocks followed by a long-term characteristic...

  18. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  19. Immobility reaction at birth in newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Pierre Victor; Francotte, Jacques; Fabbricatore, Maria; Frischen, Caroline; Duchateau, Delphine; Perin, Marie; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Lahaye, Willy

    2014-08-01

    To describe an immobility reaction (IR) that was not previously reported at or immediately after birth in human newborns. We analyzed 31 videos of normal term vaginal deliveries recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant. We searched for perinatal factors associated with newborn's IR. IR at birth was observed in 8 of the 31 newborns. The main features of their behavior were immobilization, frozen face, shallow breathing and bradycardia. One of the 8 newborns had sudden collapse 2h after birth. We found significant relationships between maternal prenatal stress (PS) and IR (p=.037), and a close to significant one between infants' lividness at Time 0 and IR (p=.053). The first breath of the 31 newborns occurred before and was not associated with the first cry (psyndrome. This first report of an IR reaction at birth in human infants could open up new paths for improving early neonatal care. Further research is needed for maternal PS, stress hormones, umbilical cord blood pH measurements in IR newborns. The challenge of education and support for parents of IR newborns is outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  1. [Perioperative management of long-term medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel Kahmann, I; Ruppen, W; Lurati Buse, G; Tsakiris, D A; Bruggisser, M

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesiologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with patients who are under long-term medication. Some of these drugs can interact with anaesthetics or anaesthesia and/or surgical interventions. As a result, patients may experience complications such as bleeding, ischemia, infection or severe circulatory reactions. On the other hand, perioperative discontinuation of medication is often more dangerous. The proportion of outpatient operations has increased dramatically in recent years and will probably continue to increase. Since the implementation of DRGs (pending in Switzerland, introduced in Germany for some time), the patient enters the hospital the day before operation. This means that the referring physician as well as anesthesiologists and surgeons at an early stage must deal with issues of perioperative pharmacotherapy. This review article is about the management of the major drug classes during the perioperative period. In addition to cardiac and centrally acting drugs and drugs that act on hemostasis and the endocrine system, special cases such as immunosuppressants and herbal remedies are mentioned.

  2. Long term agreements energy efficiency. Progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Long Term Agreements (LTAs) on energy efficiency have been contracted with various business sectors since 1992, as part of energy conservation policy: industrial sectors, commercial services, agrarian sectors and non-profit services. LTAs are voluntary agreements between a specific sector and the Minister of Economic Affairs. In some cases, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries is also involved. The sector commits to an effort to improve energy efficiency by a particular percentage within an agreed period. As at 31 December 1999, a total of 29 LTAs had been contracted with industrial sectors and 14 with non-industrial ones. This report describes the progress of the LTAs in 1999. It reviews the energy efficiency improvements realised through the LTAs, both overall and in each individual sector. The aim is to make the efforts and results in the various sectors accessible to the general public. Appendix 1 describes the positioning of the LTA instrument. This Appendix provides and insight into the position of the LTAs within the overall set of policy instruments. It also covers the subsidy schemes and fiscal instruments that support the LTAs, the relationships between LTAs and environmental policy and new developments relating to the LTAs in the years ahead. Appendices 2 to 6 contain the reports on the LTAs and a list of abbreviations (Appendix 7)

  3. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  4. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 -10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., open-quotes natural analoguesclose quotes) provide perhaps the only means of partial open-quotes validation,close quotes as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10 3 -10 8 years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the open-quotes validationclose quotes of performance assessments

  6. Long-term effects of islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Walker, D Jane; Kay, Thomas W H

    2016-10-01

    Islet transplantation has made great progress in recent years. This is a remarkable technical feat but raises the question of what the long-term benefits and risks are for type I diabetes recipients. Graft survival continues to improve, and recent multicenter studies show that islet transplantation is particularly effective to prevent hypoglycemic events even in those who do not become insulin-independent and to achieve excellent glycemic control. Concerns include histocompatability leucocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization and other risks including from immunosuppression that islet transplantation shares with other forms of allotransplantation. Reversal of hypoglycemia unawareness and protection from severe hypoglycemia events are two of the main benefits of islet transplantation and they persist for the duration of graft function. Islet transplantation compares favorably with other therapies for those with hypoglycemia unawareness, although new technologies have not been tested head-to-head with transplantation. HLA sensitization increases with time after transplantation especially if immunosuppression is ceased and is a risk for those who may require future transplantation as well as being associated with loss of graft function.

  7. Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J

    2003-01-01

    To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).

  8. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  9. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  10. Essays on long-term mortality and interest rate risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation comprises a study of long-term risks which play a major role in actuarial science. In Part I we analyse long-term mortality risk and its impact on consumption and investment decisions of economic agents, while Part II focuses on the mathematical modelling of long-term interest

  11. Inpatient injection laryngoplasty for vocal fold immobility: When is it really necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Steven; Ebersole, Barbara; Jamal, Nausheen

    To compare pulmonary and swallow outcomes of injection laryngoplasty when performed in the acute versus subacute setting in head & neck and thoracic cancer patients presenting with new onset unilateral vocal fold immobility. Case series with chart review at an academic cancer center over a 2year period. Based on swallow evaluation, patients diagnosed with vocal fold immobility were grouped into an unsafe swallow group, injected as inpatients, and a safe swallow group, for whom injection laryngoplasty was delayed to the outpatient setting or not performed. Rates of pneumonia, diet recommendations, and swallow outcomes were compared between groups. 24 patients with new-onset vocal fold immobility were evaluated. 7 underwent injection in the inpatient setting, 12 in the outpatient setting, and 5 did not undergo injection. There was no perceived difference in speech and swallow outcomes between the inpatient and outpatient injection groups. Injection laryngoplasty shows promise as an effective intervention for reducing aspiration risk and improving diet normalcy in patients with dysphagia as a result of unilateral vocal fold immobility. In patients determined to have a safe swallow, delay of injection laryngoplasty is not detrimental to swallow outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluoxetine Inhibits Natural Decay of Long-Term Memory via Akt/GSK-3β Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jee Hyun; Zhang, JiaBao; Ko, Sang Yoon; Kwon, Huiyoung; Jeon, Se Jin; Park, Se Jin; Jung, Jiwook; Kim, Byung C; Lee, Young Choon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2018-02-09

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the natural decay of long-term memory can help us find means of extending the duration of long-term memory. However, the neurobiological processes involved in the decay of long-term memory are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of acute and chronic treatment of fluoxetine on natural decay of long-term memory and the possible mechanism. Late administration of fluoxetine prolonged the persistence of long-term memory in mice, as demonstrated by object location recognition and Barnes maze tests. Fluoxetine altered Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling in the hippocampus. Late short- and long-term pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β mimicked the effect of fluoxetine on memory persistence. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt blocked the effect of fluoxetine on memory persistence. Finally, late infusion of fluoxetine increased hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β blocked the natural decline in LTP. These results demonstrate that GSK-3β might be a key molecule in memory decay process, and fluoxetine extends the period of long-term memory maintenance via Akt/GSK-3β signaling.

  13. Long-term operating experience for the ATLAS superconducting resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.; Zinkann, G.

    1999-01-01

    Portions of the ATLAS accelerator have been operating now for over 21 years. The facility has accumulated several million resonator-hours of operation at this point and has demonstrated the long-term reliability of RF superconductivity. The overall operating performance of the ATLAS facility has established a level of beam quality, flexibility, and reliability not previously achieved with heavy-ion accelerator facilities. The actual operating experience and maintenance history of ATLAS are presented for ATLAS resonators and associated electronics systems. Solutions to problems that appeared in early operation as well as current problems needing further development are discussed

  14. Long term reliability analysis of standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The long term reliability of 11 diesel generators of 125 to 250 kV A size has been analysed from 26 years of data base information on individual diesel service as standby power supplies for the Chalk River research reactor facilities. Failure to start on demand and failure to run data is presented and failure by diesel subsystem and multiple failures are also analysed. A brief comparison is made with reliability studies of larger diesel generator units used for standby power service in nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Long term estimates for sorting strategies of the LHC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Todesco, Ezio

    1998-01-01

    Sorting strategies are investigated in view of improving the dynamic aperture of the CERN-LHC. Local and quasi-local compensation of the random field shape imperfections are discussed and applied to simplified model of the LHC lattice. The most promising strategies are further investigated on a realistic LHC model with particular emphasis on the analysis of the robustness of the dynamic aperture improvements including long term effects. First results on the application of the recently developed extrapolation law for the prediction of the dynamic aperture to the sorting problem are presented.

  16. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  17. Modeling flood events for long-term stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schruben, T.; Portillo, R.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective for the disposal of uranium mill tailings in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is isolation and stabilization to prevent their misuse by man and dispersal by natural forces such as wind, rain, and flood waters (40 CFR-192). Stabilization of sites that are located in or near flood plains presents unique problems in design for long-term performance. This paper discusses the process involved with the selection and hydrologic modeling of the design flood event; and hydraulic modeling with geomorphic considerations of the design flood event. The Gunnison, Colorado, and Riverton, Wyoming, sites will be used as examples in describing the process

  18. Towards The Long-Term Preservation of Building Information Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jacob; Dietze, Stefan; Berndt, René

    2013-01-01

    , no existing approach is able to provide a secure and efficient long-term preservation solution covering the broad spectrum of 3D architectural data, while at the same time taking into account the demands of institutional collectors like architecture libraries and archives as well as those of the private...... ICT-2011-9 project “DURAARK - Durable Architectural Knowledge” is presented. Initial preliminary results of the interdisciplinary working groups within this project ranging from the ingest and storage of voluminous sets of low-level point-cloud data from laser scans to semantically consistent...

  19. Monitoring long-term oral corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Lewis; Lindemann, Roberta; Douglas, James

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are synthetic analogues of human hormones normally produced by the adrenal cortex. They have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. The glucocortoid components are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and vasoconstrictive. They influence the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, in addition to playing a key role in the body's stress response. Mineralocorticoid's main significance is in the balance of salt and water concentrations. Due to the combination of these effects, corticosteroids can cause many adverse effects. Oral corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and are therefore more likely to cause adverse effects than topical or inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, it is assumed that greater duration of treatment will lead to a greater number of adverse effects, and therefore the most at risk group are those taking high dose, long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC). High dose is defined as a prescription of >5 mg oral prednisolone and long term as duration of treatment >1 month (based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for patient's 'at risk' of systemic side effects). Parameters to be monitored in primary care include weight, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and urea and electrolytes. From clinical experience within the general practice setting, the authors propose that these patients do not receive adequate baseline monitoring before starting corticosteroids nor are these markers monitored consistently thereafter. This project intended to evidence this claim, evaluate the adverse effect profile and improve monitoring in this patient group. The initial audit of 22 patients, within a single general practice, detected at least one documented adverse effect in 64% of patients, while 41% reported more than one adverse effect. 45% had recorded weight gain, 18% had recorded osteoporosis, 18% had at least one recorded cataract, 14% had recorded Hypertension, 14% had recorded

  20. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, J.

    1992-01-01

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  1. Glucocorticoid treatment, immobility, and constipation are associated with nutritional risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre; Aschwanden, Josef; Iff, Samuel; Leuenberger, Michèle; Perrig, Martin; Stanga, Zeno

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis of this clinical study was to determine whether glucocorticoid use and immobility were associated with in-hospital nutritional risk. One hundred and one patients consecutively admitted to the medical wards were enrolled. Current medical conditions, symptoms, medical history, eating and drinking habits, diagnosis, laboratory findings, medications, and anthropometrics were recorded. The Nutrition Risk Score 2002 (NRS-2002) was used as a screening instrument to identify nutritional risk. The results confirmed that glucocorticoid use and immobility are independently associated with nutritional risk determined by the NRS-2002. Constipation could be determined as an additional cofactor independently associated with nutritional risk. Glucocorticoid treatment, immobility, and constipation are associated with nutritional risk in a mixed hospitalized population. The presence of long-time glucocorticoid use, immobility, or constipation should alert the clinician to check for nutritional status, which is an important factor in mortality and morbidity.

  2. Binaural auditory beats affect long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Argibay, Miguel; Santed, Miguel A; Reales, José M

    2017-12-08

    The presentation of two pure tones to each ear separately with a slight difference in their frequency results in the perception of a single tone that fluctuates in amplitude at a frequency that equals the difference of interaural frequencies. This perceptual phenomenon is known as binaural auditory beats, and it is thought to entrain electrocortical activity and enhance cognition functions such as attention and memory. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of binaural auditory beats on long-term memory. Participants (n = 32) were kept blind to the goal of the study and performed both the free recall and recognition tasks after being exposed to binaural auditory beats, either in the beta (20 Hz) or theta (5 Hz) frequency bands and white noise as a control condition. Exposure to beta-frequency binaural beats yielded a greater proportion of correctly recalled words and a higher sensitivity index d' in recognition tasks, while theta-frequency binaural-beat presentation lessened the number of correctly remembered words and the sensitivity index. On the other hand, we could not find differences in the conditional probability for recall given recognition between beta and theta frequencies and white noise, suggesting that the observed changes in recognition were due to the recollection component. These findings indicate that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect long-term memory both positively and negatively, depending on the frequency used.

  3. Merging of long-term memories in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathryn L; Chittka, Lars

    2015-03-16

    Research on comparative cognition has largely focused on successes and failures of animals to solve certain cognitive tasks, but in humans, memory errors can be more complex than simple failures to retrieve information [1, 2]. The existence of various types of "false memories," in which individuals remember events that they have never actually encountered, are now well established in humans [3, 4]. We hypothesize that such systematic memory errors may be widespread in animals whose natural lifestyle involves the processing and recollection of memories for multiple stimuli [5]. We predict that memory traces for various stimuli may "merge," such that features acquired in distinct bouts of training are combined in an animal's mind, so that stimuli that have never been viewed before, but are a combination of the features presented in training, may be chosen during recall. We tested this using bumblebees, Bombus terrestris. When individuals were first trained to a solid single-colored stimulus followed by a black and white (b/w)-patterned stimulus, a subsequent preference for the last entrained stimulus was found in both short-term- and long-term-memory tests. However, when bees were first trained to b/w-patterned stimuli followed by solid single-colored stimuli and were tested in long-term-memory tests 1 or 3 days later, they only initially preferred the most recently rewarded stimulus, and then switched their preference to stimuli that combined features from the previous color and pattern stimuli. The observed merging of long-term memories is thus similar to the memory conjunction error found in humans [6]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term funding and faithfulness to the original goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoegren, G.

    1999-02-01

    The study describes long-term funding in terms of faithfulness to the original goals of the foundations. After having examined 20 different Swedish foundations three main categories of problems have appeared. The main threats to the original goals of the foundations are juridical problems, economic problems and a changing society. Fraud and embezzlement are covered by the Act (1994:1220) Concerning Foundations, but the law does not prevent unfaithfulness to the original goal of the foundation in terms of permutation. If the foundation is a private-established foundation the board has to apply for a change of the original goal to the Swedish Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds. If the State, a municipality or a community establishes the foundation the Government can change the goal without permission of any other authority. Economic problems often strike smaller funds established by private persons, but State-established funds can also be hit by economical problems. The economic problems presented in the text are high tax levels, bad investments and problems getting donations. Both small private and large State-established foundations sometimes have to change their original goals as a result of a changing society. The goal of the foundation can be out-of-date, be against the ideology of the government party or the demography might have changed. Examples from each category are given in the text. The study is made to facilitate a description in general terms of the prospects for the Swedish nuclear funds if a final decision can not be made in the time span of 100 or 200 years. Looking back on the changes in the judicial, economical and political arenas during the last 200 years, one realizes the impossibility to foresee the changes that will occur within the next 200 years. The author's conclusion, after examined 20 foundation, is that it is impossible to establish a perfect long-term fund as we can not foresee the long-term future

  5. Long-term funding and faithfulness to the original goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, G

    1999-02-01

    The study describes long-term funding in terms of faithfulness to the original goals of the foundations. After having examined 20 different Swedish foundations three main categories of problems have appeared. The main threats to the original goals of the foundations are juridical problems, economic problems and a changing society. Fraud and embezzlement are covered by the Act (1994:1220) Concerning Foundations, but the law does not prevent unfaithfulness to the original goal of the foundation in terms of permutation. If the foundation is a private-established foundation the board has to apply for a change of the original goal to the Swedish Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds. If the State, a municipality or a community establishes the foundation the Government can change the goal without permission of any other authority. Economic problems often strike smaller funds established by private persons, but State-established funds can also be hit by economical problems. The economic problems presented in the text are high tax levels, bad investments and problems getting donations. Both small private and large State-established foundations sometimes have to change their original goals as a result of a changing society. The goal of the foundation can be out-of-date, be against the ideology of the government party or the demography might have changed. Examples from each category are given in the text. The study is made to facilitate a description in general terms of the prospects for the Swedish nuclear funds if a final decision can not be made in the time span of 100 or 200 years. Looking back on the changes in the judicial, economical and political arenas during the last 200 years, one realizes the impossibility to foresee the changes that will occur within the next 200 years. The author`s conclusion, after examined 20 foundation, is that it is impossible to establish a perfect long-term fund as we can not foresee the long-term future

  6. Long-term surgical-orthodontic management of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samuel C; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2016-05-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH), also known as hemimandibular hypertrophy, is characterised by excessive unilateral three-dimensional growth of the mandible after birth. Vertical unilateral elongation of the mandible becomes clinically evident as a rare form of vertical facial asymmetry. Aberrant growth of the facial skeleton affects the developing dentition and the dental compensatory mechanism is usually unable to maintain optimal occlusal relationships. The resulting malocclusion is effectively managed by combined surgical-orthodontic care to address the facial, skeletal and dental problems that confront clinicians. Orthodontists are advised to assess patients with HH during the post-treatment retention stage for continuing mandibular growth and assess the stability of treatment outcomes with long-term follow-up and records as required. To present a case of hemimandibular hyperplasia treated successfully by combined surgical-orthodontic care and evaluated for stability over a seven-year follow-up period. Surgical-orthodontic management was accomplished in four stages: 1) pre-surgical orthodontic; 21 surgical; 3) post-surgical orthodontic; and 4) post-treatment orthodontic retention. Complete orthodontic records, including extra- and intra-oral photographs, study models, and cephalograms plus panoramic radiographs were taken at the pretreatment, post-treatment, and seven-year orthodontic retention time-points. Facial, skeletal and dental goals were achieved in the three planes of space and the long-term stability of the treatment results was shown during a post-treatment orthodontic retention period of seven years. Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a true growth anomaly which may be managed effectively. Clinicians may expect successful long-term correction and stability by utilising a comprehensive surgical-orthodontic treatment approach.

  7. Long-term survivorship of stemless anatomical shoulder replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sascha; Beck, Verena; Wegner, Alexander; Dudda, Marcel; Patsalis, Theodor; Jäger, Marcus

    2018-01-24

    Like in many other joints, current shoulder replacement designs aim at bone preservation. According to the literature available, stemless total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) compares favourably with stemmed designs in terms of function and survivorship of the implant. However, long-term results of stemless shoulder arthroplasty are still missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term results of stemless anatomical TSA. Between 2006 and 2009, 51 shoulders in 46 patients were resurfaced using the Biomet Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS). Thirty-one shoulders in 26 patients who were aged 66.7 ± 10.0 (range 34-82) years were available for review at a mean follow-up of 94.7 ± 11.3 (76-124) months. The implant survival rate was 93.5% at eight years. The overall revision rate of the TESS implant was 9.7%. Radiolucent lines were found on the glenoid side of the TESS arthroplasty in 90.9% of the cases. All stemless humeral corolla implants showed solid fixation at follow-up. Clinical scores significantly improved at long-term follow-up (VAS from 8.1 ± 0.9 to 1.0 ± 1.2, p < 0.001; Quick-DASH from 67.9 ± 13.5 to 18.7 ± 16.5, p < 0.001 and Constant score from 14.7 ± 6.1 to 68.8 ± 13.2, p < 0.001). Stemless TSA has stood the test of time at eight years in terms of clinical scores, radiographic loosening, complication rates and implant survivorship.

  8. Long term results of trabeculectomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Evliyaoğlu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of long-term results of primary trabeculectomy operation Methods: The cases that are followed up with diagnosis of glaucoma in Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital Eye Clinic between January 2000 and December 2001 were evaluated retrospectively. All of the cases, despite maximum therapy, have high intraocular pressure (IOP, undergone primary trabeculectomy operation, are followed at least 6 months and regularly followed through 10 years were included in this study. IOP with or without medical treatment 18mmg or less than 18 mmHg accepted as successful. IOL pressure measured with applanation tonometry. Results: 89 eyes of 70 cases were included in this study. The cases included in the study, 42 male (60%, and 28 (40% were female. The mean age was 63.65±12.18 years. Preoperative intraocular pressure determined as 30.36 ± 3.2 mmHg. In the follow up examination mean intra ocular pressure was 15.31 ± 1.2 mmHg at 1st month, 15.47± 1.1mmHg at 3rd month, 15.02±1.8 mmHg at 6th month, 15.34± 2.1 mmHg at 1st year, 15.82 ± 2.1mmHg at 2nd year, 17.06 ± 2.3mmHg at 5th year and 18.02 ± 2.2 mmHg at 10th year. Statistical analysis of these data showed significant decreased of intra ocular pressure in the post operative period in compare to the preoperative period, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month, 1st year, 2nd year, 5th year an 10th year (p < 0.01. The follow-up period in the study was 91.10 ± 40.15 months (6-120 months. Conclusion: Primary trabeculectomy can be considered as an alternative treatment procedure especially in patients who does not use drugs regularly and unable to attend regular medical examination. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 263-268

  9. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE's responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation's nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE's legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM-50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities

  10. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE’s responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation’s nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE’s legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM–50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities.

  11. Long-term corticosterone exposure decreases insulin sensitivity and induces depressive-like behaviour in the C57BL/6NCrl mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L van Donkelaar

    Full Text Available Chronic stress or long-term administration of glucocorticoids disrupts the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system leading to continuous high levels of glucocorticoids and insulin resistance (IR. This pre-diabetic state can eventually develop into type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been associated with a higher risk to develop depressive disorders. The mechanisms underlying the link between chronic stress, IR and depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to establish a stress-depression model in mice to further study the effects of stress-induced changes upon insulin sensitivity and behavioural consequences. A pilot study was conducted to establish the optimal administration route and a pragmatic measurement of IR. Subsequently, 6-month-old C57BL/6NCrl mice were exposed to long-term oral corticosterone treatment via the drinking water. To evaluate insulin sensitivity changes, blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured at different time-points throughout treatment and mice were behaviourally assessed in the elevated zero maze (EZM, forced swimming test (FST and open field test to reveal behavioural changes. Long-term corticosterone treatment increased body weight and decreased insulin sensitivity. The latter was revealed by a higher IR index and increased insulin in the plasma, whereas blood glucose levels remained unchanged. Corticosterone treatment induced longer immobility times in the FST, reflecting depressive-like behaviour. No effects were observed upon anxiety as measured in the EZM. The effect of the higher body weight of the CORT treated animals at time of testing did not influence behaviour in the EZM or FST, as no differences were found in general locomotor activity. Long-term corticosterone treatment via the drinking water reduces insulin sensitivity and induces depressive-like behaviour in the C57BL/6 mouse. This mouse model could thus be used to further explore the underlying mechanisms of chronic stress-induced T2

  12. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole-PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  13. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole—PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions. PMID:26483930

  14. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welinton Alessandro Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL and drug (Pramipexole—PPX groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  15. Tonic immobility during sexual assault - a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Anna; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2017-08-01

    Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault. Information about the assault and the victim characteristics were taken from the structured clinical data files. After 6 months, 189 women were assessed regarding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Of the 298 women, 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility during the assault. Tonic immobility was associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.50-5.03, p = 0.001) and severe depression (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.51-7.72, p = 0.003) at 6 months. Further, previous trauma history (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.48-3.77, p stress disorder and severe depression. Knowledge of this reaction in sexual assault victims is important in legal matters and for healthcare follow up. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Intrathoracic Anastomotic Leakage after Gastroesophageal Cancer Resection Is Associated with Reduced Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Steen Christian; Calatayud, Dan; Jensen, Lone Susanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most likely because of low statistical power, no previous studies have shown any significant association between long-term survival and anastomotic leakage in patients who have undergone gastroesophageal cancer resection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study included, prospectively...

  17. Short and long term maintenance strategy for reactor vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, A.; Heuze, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents elements based on : surveys, operating inspection, theoretical studies, safety analysis, laboratory results, that enabled to determine maintenance options and short and long term strategies for processing on reactor vessel head leaks. (TEC). 1 tab

  18. The importance of left ventricular function for long-term outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Rasoul, Saman; Huurnink, Willem; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Reiffers, Stoffer; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Tio, Rene A.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; De Boer, Menko-Jan; Zijlstra, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Background: In the present study we sought to determine the long-term prognostic value of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), assessed by planar radionuclide ventriculography (PRV), after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

  19. Long term adverse drug reaction to Efavirenz in a HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2015-08-31

    Aug 31, 2015 ... presented with five-day history of Difficulty sleeping, abnormal dreams, inability to ... He regained his memory, no longer had bad dreams or demonstrated any irrational .... concentration of Efavirenz on long term. Efavirenz ...

  20. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: Application to the late Pliocene and future

    KAUST Repository

    Lord, Natalie S.

    2017-04-26

    Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs), long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term

  1. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: application to the late Pliocene and future

    KAUST Repository

    Lord, Natalie S.

    2017-11-16

    Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs), long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term

  2. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: application to the late Pliocene and future

    KAUST Repository

    Lord, Natalie S.; Crucifix, Michel; Lunt, Dan J.; Thorne, Mike C.; Bounceur, Nabila; Dowsett, Harry; O& apos; Brien, Charlotte L.; Ridgwell, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs), long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term

  3. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: Application to the late Pliocene and future

    KAUST Repository

    Lord, Natalie S.; Crucifix, Michel; Lunt, Dan J.; Thorne, Mike C.; Bounceur, Nabila; Dowsett, Harry; O& apos; Brien, Charlotte L.; Ridgwell, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs), long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term

  4. Spent Fuel Long Term Interim Storage: The Spanish Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    ENRESA is the Spanish organization responsible for long-term management of all categories of radioactive waste and nuclear spent fuel and for decommissioning nuclear installations. It is also in charge of the management of the funds collected from waste producers and electricity consumers. The national policy about radioactive waste management is established at the General Radioactive Waste Plan by the Government upon proposal of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. Now the Plan in force is the Sixth Plan approved in 2006. The policy on spent nuclear fuel, after description of the current available options, is set up as a long term interim storage at a Centralized Temporary Storage facility (CTS, or ATC in Spanish acronym) followed by geologic disposal, pending technological development on other options being eligible in the future. After a site selection process launched in 2009, the site for the ATC has been chosen at the end of 2011. The first steps for the implementation of the facility are described in the present paper. (authors)

  5. Blood status in the long-term radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: to reveal regularities of change of peripheral blood indicators in the long-term acute radiation syndrome (ARS depending on its initial severity and existence of various somatic diseases. Material and methods. Clinical he-matologic materials from 114 patients in the long-term ARS (from 1,5 to more than 20 years after radiation accident, developed as a result of gamma beta exposure are presented. Results. In the period of the late radiation effect average values of peripheral blood are in physiological norm limits. However at some patients there are temporary superficial cytopenic conditions (thrombocytopenia — 22,7%, a leukopenia — 12,2%, a neutropenia — 13,1%, a lymphocytope-nia — 10,5%. Conclusion. As a result of a dynamic research it is revealed that in the remote terms of ARS (from 1,5 to more than 20 years after radiation average group levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes in blood are in limits of physiological norm. However in the individual analysis of a functional state of blood at a part of patients are noted not stable cytopenic states.

  6. Long-term reliability of the visual EEG Poffenberger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan

    2017-07-14

    The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Considerations for the long term: perpetual is not forever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Smith, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Shallow land burial is intended to provide a waste emplacement with low probability for the release of radionuclides to the environment, and to provide a barrier against encroachment on the waste by man or his activities. Additionally, the emplacement conditions are designed to insure that a potential release cannot result in unacceptable radionuclide concentrations in man's environment. Site-control requirements are intended to prevent unacceptable use or accidental excavation of the waste disposal site. Evaluation procedures generally provide definition of the containment capability of the site under present environmental conditions. Long-term care requirements can continue site control measures, and provide a continuing check on the containment capability. However, significant changes in climate, hydrology, plant cover, and land use that might alter the containment potential can occur in a time frame of tens to hundreds of years, and true ''perpetual'' care cannot be guaranteed. This paper considers the possible long-term consequences of radionuclide uptake by plants and burrowing animals, of changes in site hydrology, and of inadvertent excavation of the buried waste by man at some distant future date

  8. The Electrification of Energy: Long-Term Trends and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fouquet, Roger [London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Schubert, E. Fred [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Here, we present and analyze three powerful long-term historical trends in energy, particularly electrical energy, as well as the opportunities and challenges associated with these trends. The first trend is from a world containing a diversity of energy currencies to one whose predominant currency is electricity, driven by electricity’s transportability, exchangeability, and steadily decreasing cost. The second trend is from electricity generated from a diversity of sources to electricity generated predominantly by free-fuel sources, driven by their steadily decreasing cost and long-term abundance. These trends necessitate a just-emerging third trend: from a grid in which electricity is transported uni-directionally, traded at near-static prices, and consumed under direct human control; to a grid in which electricity is transported bi-directionally, traded at dynamic prices, and consumed under human-tailored agential control. Early acceptance and appreciation of these trends will accelerate their remaking of humanity’s energy landscape into one in which energy is much more affordable, abundant and efficiently deployed than it is today; with major economic, geo-political, and environmental benefits to human society.

  9. A Framework for Estimating Long Term Driver Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gadepally

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for estimation of long term driver behavior for autonomous vehicles and vehicle safety systems. The Hybrid State System and Hidden Markov Model (HSS+HMM system discussed in this article is capable of describing the hybrid characteristics of driver and vehicle coupling. In our model, driving observations follow a continuous trajectory that can be measured to create continuous state estimates. These continuous state estimates can then be used to estimate the most likely driver state using decision-behavior coupling inherent to the HSS+HMM system. The HSS+HMM system is encompassed in a HSS structure and intersystem connectivity is determined by using signal processing and pattern recognition techniques. The proposed method is suitable for a number of autonomous and vehicle safety scenarios such as estimating intent of other vehicles near intersections or avoiding hazardous driving events such as unexpected lane changes. The long term driver behavior estimation system involves an extended HSS+HMM structure that is capable of including external information in the estimation process. Through the grafting and pruning of metastates, the HSS+HMM system can be dynamically updated to best represent driver choices given external information. Three application examples are also provided to elucidate the theoretical system.

  10. Neurologic long term outcome after drowning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suominen Pertti K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drowning is a major source of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. Neurocognitive outcome of children after drowning incidents cannot be accurately predicted in the early course of treatment. Therefore, aggressive out-of-hospital and in-hospital treatment is emphasized. There are "miracle" cases after long submersion times that have been reported in the medical literature, which mostly concern small children. However, many of the survivors will remain severely neurologically compromised after remarkably shorter submersion times and will consequently be a great burden to their family and society for the rest of their lives. The duration of submersion, the need of advanced life support at the site of the accident, the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whether spontaneous breathing and circulation are present on arrival at the emergency room are important factors related to survival with mild neurological deficits or intact function in drowned children. Data on long-term outcome are scarce. The used outcome measurement methods and the duration of follow-up have not been optimal in most of the existing studies. Proper neurological and neurophysiological examinations for drowned children are superior to outcome scales based chart reviews. There is evidence that gross neurological examination at the time of discharge from the hospital in young children does not reveal all the possible sequelae related to hypoxic brain injury and thus long-term follow-up of drowned resuscitated children is strongly recommended.

  11. Visual long-term memory for spatial frequency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Martin; Paul, Aileen

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that a visual long-term memory based on a sensory representation of the stimulus accounts for discrimination performance when the reference and the test stimuli are separated in time. Decision processes involved in setting response criteria, however, may also contribute to discrimination performance. In the present study, it is shown that under proper control, spatial frequency discrimination thresholds from a group of observers, each performing on a single trial, are significantly higher for a 2-h than for a 5-sec retention interval, whereas thresholds from individual observers performing in repeated trials with a 2-h retention interval are considerably lower. The results suggest that discrimination performance may depend on the retention of task-relevant information, such as a response criterion, rather than on visual memory of the stimulus. It is concluded that it is risky to postulate a high-fidelity long-term visual memory for spatial frequency on the basis of psychophysical group discrimination thresholds.

  12. Long Term Storage of cytogenetic changes in liquidators of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V. B.

    2004-01-01

    At present chromosome aberration analysis in lymphocytes as well as micronucleus assay are most reliable methods of bio indication of radiation effects. The problem of persistent of cytogenetic changes during the long term after exposure is very important. The cytogenetic studies of liquidators residents of St. Petersburg and region revealed that the average chromosome aberration rate 4-5 years after the accident constitutes 4.94±0.38, number of aberrant cells was 4.82±0.36, dicentrics -0.23±0.10 per 100 cells, micronucleus number -46.1±2.1 per 100 cells that is significantly higher than in control group. dispersion analysis confirms the reported level of external exposure effects on chromosome aberration rate (?=0.04) in this group of liquidators. In 73 persons from the group of high risk participants of nuclear tests, nuclear submarine personnel 8-45 years after average number of chromosome aberrations was 6.5±0.32; dicentrics - 0.64±0.10, centric rings- 0.04±0.02 per 100 cells, for micronuclei -51.4±2.82 per thousand cells, that is significantly higher than in control group (p<0.01). In 45.2% cases the aberration markers (disentrics and centric rings) were found. The late cytogenetic effects were observed after decades and possibility to use these indicators for long term diagnosis is now under consideration. (Author)

  13. Long-term performance potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-07-17

    Owing to the diverse photovoltaic (PV) systems’ design and technology, as well as the dynamic nature of insolation data received on the aperture surfaces, the instantaneous output from a PV system fluctuates greatly. For accurate performance estimation of a large PV field, the long term performance as electrical output is a more rational approach over the conventional testing methods, such as at Standard Testing Conditions (STC) and at the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT) available hitherto. In this paper, the long-term performances of concentrated PVs (Cassegrain reflectors and Fresnel lens) with 2-axes tracking and a variety of PV systems, namely the stationary flat-plate PV (mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline and thin-films CIS types), is presented over a period of one year for the merit comparison of system design, under the tropical weather conditions of Singapore. From the measured field performances, the total energy output of 240.2 kW h/m/year is recorded for CPV operation in Singapore, which is nearly two folds higher than the stationary PV panels.

  14. Long-term Nash equilibria in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo, David; Contreras, Javier; Caballero, Angel; de Andres, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In competitive electricity markets, companies simultaneously offer their productions to obtain the maximum profits on a daily basis. In the long run, the strategies utilized by the electric companies lead to various long-term equilibria that can be analyzed with the appropriate tools. We present a methodology to find plausible long-term Nash equilibria in pool-based electricity markets. The methodology is based on an iterative market Nash equilibrium model in which the companies can decide upon their offer strategies. An exponential smoothing of the bids submitted by the companies is applied to facilitate the convergence of the iterative procedure. In each iteration of the model the companies face residual demand curves that are accurately modeled by Hermite interpolating polynomials. We introduce the concept of meta-game equilibrium strategies to allow companies to have a range of offer strategies where several pure and mixed meta-game Nash equilibria are possible. With our model it is also possible to model uncertainty or to generate price scenarios for financial models that assess the value of a generating unit by real options analysis. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated with several realistic case studies. (author)

  15. Long-term energy planning with uncertain environmental performance metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, Simon C.; Djilali, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental performance uncertainty considered in a long-term energy planning model. • Application to electricity generation planning in British Columbia. • Interactions with climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy are assessed. • Performance risk-hedging impacts the technology investment strategy. • Sensitivity of results to model formulation is discussed. - Abstract: Environmental performance (EP) uncertainties span a number of energy technology options, and pose planning risk when the energy system is subject to environmental constraints. This paper presents two approaches to integrating EP uncertainty into the long-term energy planning framework. The methodologies consider stochastic EP metrics across multiple energy technology options, and produce a development strategy that hedges against the risk of exceeding environmental targets. Both methods are compared within a case study of emission-constrained electricity generation planning in British Columbia, Canada. The analysis provides important insight into model formulation and the interactions with concurrent environmental policy uncertainties. EP risk is found to be particularly important in situations where environmental constraints become increasingly stringent. Model results indicate allocation of a modest risk premium in these situations can provide valuable hedging against EP risk

  16. Effects of short term and long term Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on depressive disorder in mice: Involvement of nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid Ansari, Alireza; Farzampour, Shahrokh; Sadr, Ali; Shekarchi, Babak; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports on the possible effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF MF) on mood have been paradoxical in different settings while no study has yet been conducted on animal behavior. In addition, it was shown that ELF MF exposure makes an increase in brain nitric oxide level. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to assess the possible effect(s) of ELF MF exposure on mice Forced Swimming Test (FST) and evaluate the probable role of the increased level of nitric oxide in the observed behavior. Male adult mice NMRI were recruited to investigate the short term and long term ELF MF exposure (0.5 mT and 50 Hz, single 2h and 2 weeks 2h a day). Locomotor behavior was assessed by using open-field test (OFT) followed by FST to evaluate the immobility time. Accordingly, NΩ-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester 30 mg/kg was used to exert anti-depressant like effect. According to the results, short term exposure did not alter the immobility time, whereas long term exposure significantly reduces immobility time (pmice, whereas short term exposure has no significant effect. Also, reversing the anti-depressant activity of L-NAME indicates a probable increase in the brain nitric oxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Patency of Lymphovenous Anastomoses: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    With advancements in technology and microsurgical techniques, lymphovenous anastomosis has become a popular reconstructive procedure in the treatment of chronic lymphedema. However, the long-term patency of these anastomoses is not clear in the literature. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to assess the reported long-term patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. A total of eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooled data from four similar experiments in normal dogs showed an average long-term (≥5 months) patency of 52 percent. The only experiment in dogs with chronic lymphedema failed to show any long-term patency. The creation of peripheral lymphovenous anastomoses with a moderate long-term patency rate has become technically possible. However, the long-term results in chronic lymphedema are limited.

  18. Reforming Long-Term Care Funding in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, R Trafford; Repin, Nadya; Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Like many provinces across Canada, Alberta is facing growing demand for long-term care. Issues with the mixed funding model used to pay long-term care providers had Alberta Health Services concerned that it was not efficiently meeting the demand for long-term care. Consequently, in 2010, Alberta Health Services introduced the patient/care-based funding (PCBF) model. PCBF is similar to activity-based funding in that it directly ties the complexity and care needs of long-term care residents to the payment received by long-term care providers. This review describes PCBF and discusses some of its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, this review is intended to inform other provinces faced with similar long-term care challenges and contemplating their own funding reforms.

  19. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  20. Private long-term care insurance and state tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Frank, Richard G; Tau, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    To increase the role of private insurance in financing long-term care, tax incentives for long-term care insurance have been implemented at both the federal and state levels. To date, there has been surprisingly little study of these initiatives. Using a panel of national data, we find that market take-up for long-term care insurance increased over the last decade, but state tax incentives were responsible for only a small portion of this growth. Ultimately, the modest ability of state tax incentives to lower premiums implies that they should be viewed as a small piece of the long-term care financing puzzle.

  1. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  2. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  3. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the

  4. Strategic alliance: adapting to the business environment in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Cynthia Massie; Ziegenfuss, James T

    2002-01-01

    This article is addressed to long-term-care administrators and planners as well as purchasers of long-term care. Believing the current and future business environment will force continued adaptation in long-term-care organizations, the authors utilize nine categories to map pressures for change: cultural, technological, educational, political, legal, natural resource, demographic, sociologic, and economic. Long-term-care organizations, especially those that are not-for-profit, are becoming members of alliances as one way of addressing these pressures. This article describes and presents a case example of a composite alliance to demonstrate the advantages of membership in a strategic alliance. We also present examples of ways in which alliance members use strategic partnerships to improve their ability to manage these forces.

  5. Prediction on long-term mean and mean square pollutant concentrations in an urban atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Lamb, R G; Seinfeld, J H

    1976-01-01

    The general problem of predicting long-term average (say yearly) pollutant concentrations in an urban atmosphere is formulated. The pollutant concentration can be viewed as a random process, the complete description of which requires knowledge of its probability density function, which is unknown. The mean concentration is the first moment of the concentration distribution, and at present there exist a number of models for predicting the long-term mean concentration of an inert pollutant. The second moment, or mean square concentration, indicates additional features of the distribution, such as the level of fluctuations about the mean. In the paper a model proposed by Lamb for the long-term mean concentration is reviewed, and a new model for prediction of the long-term mean square concentration of an inert air pollutant is derived. The properties and uses of the model are discussed, and the equations defining the model are presented in a form for direct application to an urban area.

  6. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine impairs long-term food aversion memory in edible snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, O I; Anokhin, K V

    2012-09-01

    We studied the involvement of DNA synthesis into molecular mechanisms of long-term memory. Nucleoside analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is known to incorporate into synthesizing DNA and prevent subsequent DNA replication from this region. To investigate the effect of BrdU administration on long-term memory, terrestrial gastropods edible snails Helix lucorum were trained in the food aversion paradigm. Single-session training (carrot presentation combined with application of 10% quinine solution, three carrot presentations with 10-min intervals) resulted in the formation of long-term memory that persisted for at least 45° days. BrdU administration (250 mg/kg) 30 min before training impaired long-term memory tested 24 h later. Immunohistochemical study revealed BrdU incorporation in the nuclei of identified neurons of defensive behavior.

  7. Seminar on long term research into liquid effluent treatment,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.W.

    1987-02-01

    A one-day Seminar on Long Term Research into Liquid Waste Treatment was held at Harwell on 30th January 1986. The Seminar was sponsored by the Department of the Environment and was attended by ninety-five delegates representing industry, universities, DoE, CEGB and the AEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity for people working in the field of liquid effluent treatment to obtain up-to-date information on the nature and status of research being carried out in the United Kingdom. Nine presentations on research activity described work being undertaken on ultrafiltration and associated techniques, electrical processes and ion exchange. The presenters were from BNF plc, CEGB, Imperial College, University of Salford, University of Reading and from Harwell. (author)

  8. Long-term wave climate at DanWEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetu, Amélie; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    andthe current network of sensors are also presented. The numerical model used toobtain the 35 years hindcast data is introduced together with its validation againstbuoy-measured data and with the description of the dataset utilised for thelong-term climate definition. The recommendations from [IEC 62600...... buoys are continuously recorded and the data is analysed on a quarterly basis. The directional wave measuring buoys were first installed in March 2015. As two years is not sufficient for long-term wave climate definition, modelled data was more appropriate for the task. Thelong-term wave climate around...... Hanstholm is defined in the present report using the hindcast data from the MIKE 21 Spectral Wave model provided by DHI, one of the partners of the project. Before the actual wave climate definition, a description of the site includinglocation and bathymetry is included. The historical wave data of the area...

  9. A Rare Case Report of Immobility-Induced Hypercalcemia in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Neha; Kaminski, Beth; MacLeish, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Immobility-induced hypercalcemia is a rare cause of hypercalcemia in children, and to our knowledge it has never been reported in an infant. Infants and children are in a state of high bone turnover. Therefore, they are prone to the imbalance of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity that occurs with prolonged immobilization, leading to hypercalcemia. Here we present the case of an infant with hypercalcemia who presented with fatigue, irritability, and failure to thrive after prolonged immobilization. Therapeutic interventions were conservative and included hydration and increased mobility leading to complete resolution. This case highlights the importance of including this rare entity in a differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia as well as screening postsurgical patients with prolonged immobility for hypercalcemia. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Long-term visual outcomes of craniopharyngioma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Michael J; Zapotocky, Michal; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Drake, James M

    2018-05-01

    Visual function is a critical factor in the diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis of craniopharyngiomas in children. The aim of this study was to report the long-term visual outcomes in a cohort of pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma. The study design is a retrospective chart review of craniopharyngioma patients from a single tertiary-care pediatric hospital. 59 patients were included in the study. Mean age at presentation was 9.4 years old (range 0.7-18.0 years old). The most common presenting features were headache (76%), nausea/vomiting (32%), and vision loss (31%). Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range 1.0-17.2 years). During follow-up, visual decline occurred in 17 patients (29%). On Kaplan Meier survival analysis, 47% of the cases of visual decline occurred within 4 months of diagnosis, with the remaining cases occurring sporadically during follow-up (up to 8 years after diagnosis). In terms of risk factors, younger age at diagnosis, optic nerve edema at presentation, and tumor recurrence were found to have statistically significant associations with visual decline. At final follow-up, 58% of the patients had visual impairment in at least one eye but only 10% were legally blind in both eyes (visual acuity 20/200 or worse or < 20° of visual field). Vision loss is a common presenting symptom of craniopharyngiomas in children. After diagnosis, monitoring vision is important as about 30% of patients will experience significant visual decline. Long-term vision loss occurs in the majority of patients, but severe binocular visual impairment is uncommon.

  11. Effective Moment Of Inertia And Deflections Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Under Long-Term Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Khalid M.; Ashour, Samir A.; Al-Noury, Soliman I.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a method for estimating long-term deflections of reinforced concrete beams by considering creep and shrinkage effects separately. Based on equilibrium and compatibility conditions a method is developed for investigating the properties of a cracked transformed section under sustained load. The concept of effective moment of inertia is extended to predict initial-plus-creep deflections. Long-term deflections computed by the proposed method are compared with the experimental r...

  12. Unemployment and Long-Term Unemployment of Immigrants in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2016-04-01

    workers, and plant and machine operators are connected with increased probability of being unemployed for the immigrant population. This clearly shows that it is important to identify the activities of future increased labour demand and supplement this information with skills and competencies in order to support active immigration policy. Furthermore, the higher probability of unemployment for the young and the old suggests that it is important to design specific measures to target the more active inclusion of this population in the labour market activities. Relying on prime-age population will not yield sufficient efforts to revive the labour market. The results in the paper show that there are important differences in the predictors of labour market status of immigrants that have evolved in the course of the profound effects the latest economic crisis has had in Croatia. The identified predictors of unemployment or long-term unemployment for immigrants seem to be mostly similar to those of the domicile population. These results imply that the crisis has affected both population subgroups similarly, and that no additional segmentation of the labour market has occurred in that respect. However, the analysis has also pointed to the specific subgroups of both immigrant and native population (like the old, the young, persons without prior working experience, that seem to be adversely affected by the crisis. The results presented strongly suggest that active immigration policy should also incorporate labour market policy measures and that these should be developed in parallel.

  13. Long-term stability of bentonite. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, H.; Karttunen, P.

    2010-07-01

    The long-term thermodynamic stability of the bentonite buffer in the evolving chemical, thermal and hydrological conditions at Olkiluoto has been evaluated by reviewing the relevant experimental data and natural occurrences of bentonite that could serve as analogues for the long-term bentonite stability in the expected repository conditions, especially focussing on mineral transformations due, among others, to thermal effects including cementation. Natural occurrences with stable smectite have been reviewed and compared with Olkiluoto groundwater compositions at present and during the expected hydrogeochemical evolution of the repository. Alteration of the bentonite buffer is expected to be insignificant for natural groundwater conditions at present and for the evolving groundwater conditions at the expected thermal boundary conditions caused by the heat induced from the fuel canisters ( + and SiO 2 and elevated pH due to degradation and dissolution processes. These may alter the conditions in the repository that may favour alteration and cementation processes. The amounts of foreign materials to be used in the repository will be updated along with the progress of the construction. Also the information on their impact on the barriers needs to be evaluated in more detail, including the degradation rate, mobility or dilution of the foreign materials in the repository environment. The exchangeable cation composition of the buffer bentonite is expected to equilibrate with the surrounding groundwater during and after saturation. This process is expected to lead towards Ca-dominant exchangeable cation composition within the montmorillonite interlayer spaces in the buffer. In general it seems that the transformation towards Ca-dominated composition would favour the long-term stability of the buffer as Ca-dominated smectite (compared to Na-dominated type) has larger water retention capacity and anion incorporation to the interlayer space of montmorillonite is more

  14. Long term warranty and after sales service concept, policies and cost models

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents concepts, policies and cost models for various long-term warranty and maintenance contracts. It offers several numerical examples for estimating costs to both the manufacturer and consumer. Long-term warranties and maintenance contracts are becoming increasingly popular, as these types of aftersales services provide assurance to consumers that they can enjoy long, reliable service, and protect them from defects and the potentially high costs of repairs. Studying long-term warranty and service contracts is important to manufacturers and consumers alike, as offering long-term warranty and maintenance contracts produce additional costs for manufacturers / service providers over the product’s service life. These costs must be factored into the price, or the manufacturer / dealer will incur losses instead of making a profit. On the other hand, the buyer / consumer needs to weigh the cost of maintaining it over its service life and to decide whether or not these policies are worth purchasing....

  15. A new image for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Richard; Creelman, William

    2004-04-01

    To counter widely held negative images of long-term care, managers in the industry should implement quality-improvement initiatives that include six key strategies: Manage the expectations of residents and their families. Address customers' concerns early. Build long-term customer satisfaction. Allocate resources to achieve exceptional outcomes in key areas. Respond to adverse events with compassion. Reinforce the facility's credibility.

  16. Setting the stage for long-term reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Craig A; Vander Ley, Brian; Poock, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses some of the aspects of heifer development that contribute to long-term health and productivity, such as disease prevention and control. Nutrition is also an important component of long-term health, and body condition score is discussed as a way to determine whether the nutrient demands of heifers are being met. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  18. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  19. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi Montazeri, Nahid|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290575; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term

  20. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes...

  1. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose : The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods : Between January 1990 and ...

  2. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  3. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  4. Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance. Working Paper 174

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Özek, Umut; Sapienza, Paola

    2017-01-01

    We use remarkable population-level administrative education and birth records from Florida to study the role of Long-Term Orientation on the educational attainment of immigrant students living in the US. Controlling for the quality of schools and individual characteristics, students from countries with long-term oriented attitudes perform better…

  5. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used...... for hydrological and meteorological applications. We adapted methods of gap filling for NEE (net ecosystem exchange of carbon) to energy fluxes and applied them to data sets available from the EUROFLUX and AmeriFlux eddy covariance databases. The average data coverage for the sites selected was 69% and 75......% for latent heat (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H). The methods were based on mean diurnal variations (half-hourly binned means of fluxes based on previous and subsequent days, MDV) and look-up tables for fluxes during assorted meteorological conditions (LookUp), and the impact of different gap filling methods...

  6. Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

  7. Structuring spot, short and long term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gretener, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the core clauses of the modern natural gas purchase and sales contracts, was presented. There exists a wide variety of terms which can be used by a seller and a buyer to customize such a contract to suit particular circumstances. On the basis of length of term, gas contracts may classified as spot contracts having a term of 30 days or less, short term contracts having a term of 30 days to one to two years, and long term contracts having terms greater than two years. The three key elements which are applicable to all gas sales contracts are the contract price, the seller's obligation to deliver, and the buyer's obligation to accept. Other provisions that may be included in any gas sales contract in addition to the basic three were reviewed, including market pricing, load factor incentive pricing, seasonal pricing, pipeline demand charges, market shares, and the seller's right to decontract

  8. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette; Krag, Christen

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant...... of malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has...... survived 26 years without recurrence, thus representing an uplifting case of long-term survival of childhood melanoma....

  9. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  10. A portable chemotaxis platform for short and long term analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Xu

    Full Text Available Flow-based microfluidic systems have been widely utilized for cell migration studies given their ability to generate versatile and precisely defined chemical gradients and to permit direct visualization of migrating cells. Nonetheless, the general need for bulky peripherals such as mechanical pumps and tubing and the complicated setup procedures significantly limit the widespread use of these microfluidic systems for cell migration studies. Here we present a simple method to power microfluidic devices for chemotaxis assays using the commercially available ALZET® osmotic pumps. Specifically, we developed a standalone chemotaxis platform that has the same footprint as a multiwell plate and can generate well-defined, stable chemical gradients continuously for up to 7 days. Using this platform, we validated the short-term (24 hours and long-term (72 hours concentration dependent PDGF-BB chemotaxis response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  11. Vaccination for the expatriate and long-term traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Suzanne M; Shoff, William H

    2014-06-01

    Duration of travel is an important factor in addressing travel health safety due to cumulative risk of exposure to illness and injury. The diverse group of expatriate and long-term business and leisure travelers present a different spectrum of issues for the travel medicine practitioner to address during consultation than does the short-term traveler, due to changes in travel patterns and activities, lifestyle alterations, and increased interaction with local populations. Immunization provides one safe and reliable method of preventing infectious illness in this group. We review travel patterns and available data on illnesses that they may be exposed to, including the increased risk of certain vaccine-preventable illnesses. We review the pre-travel management of these travelers, particularly the increased risk of certain vaccine-preventable illnesses as it applies to routine vaccines, recommended travel vaccines and required travel vaccines.

  12. Long-term bird study records Arctic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    Alaska's summer of 2005 was the second warmest on record there, with a record retreat of arctic pack ice. As Alaskan temperatures gradually increase, artic birds, such as the black guillemots of Cooper Island, near Barrow, Alaska, are experiencing drastic habitat changes. Though these small black and white birds—the subjects of a long-term study of climate change—fared better this year than they have in the recent past (due to local cool conditions), they are nonetheless struggling to adapt as their artic island summer home becomes subarctic.George Divokyan ornithologist at the Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, discovered the Cooper Island colony of guillemots in the early 1970s and has spent every summer since 1975 there studying these birds. He presented his latest research during a 3 November talk in Washington, D.C.

  13. Long-term repetition priming with symmetrical polygons and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersteen-Tucker, Z

    1991-01-01

    In two different tasks, subjects were asked to make lexical decisions (word or nonword) and symmetry judgments (symmetrical or nonsymmetrical) about two-dimensional polygons. In both tasks, every stimulus was repeated at one of four lags (0, 1, 4, or 8 items interposed between the first and second stimulus presentations). This paradigm, known as repetition priming, revealed comparable short-term priming (Lag 0) and long-term priming (Lags 1, 4, and 8) both for symmetrical polygons and for words. A shorter term component (Lags 0 and 1) of priming was observed for nonwords, and only very short-term priming (Lag 0) was observed for nonsymmetrical polygons. These results indicate that response facilitation accruing from repeated exposure can be observed for stimuli that have no preexisting memory representations and suggest that perceptual factors contribute to repetition-priming effects.

  14. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  15. Experimental Researches on Long-Term Strength of Granite Gneiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to confirm the long-term strength of rock materials for the purpose of evaluating the long-term stability of rock engineering. In this study, a series of triaxial creep tests were conducted on granite gneiss under different pore pressures. Based on the test data, we proposed two new quantitative methods, tangent method and intersection method, to confirm the long-term strength of rock. Meanwhile, the isochronous stress-strain curve method was adopted to make sure of the accuracy and operability of the two new methods. It is concluded that the new methods are suitable for the study of the long-term strength of rock. The effect of pore pressure on the long-term strength of rock in triaxial creep tests is also discussed.

  16. Long-term warranties on highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the state of the art and practice of warranty contracting in the United States. Background information, key elements, benefits and concerns, and lesson learned in other states regarding warranty contracting are presented in the ...

  17. Altered visual perception in long-term ecstasy (MDMA) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Claire; Brown, John; Edwards, Mark

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the long-term consequences of ecstasy use on visual processes thought to reflect serotonergic functions in the occipital lobe. Evidence indicates that the main psychoactive ingredient in ecstasy (methylendioxymethamphetamine) causes long-term changes to the serotonin system in human users. Previous research has found that amphetamine-abstinent ecstasy users have disrupted visual processing in the occipital lobe which relies on serotonin, with researchers concluding that ecstasy broadens orientation tuning bandwidths. However, other processes may have accounted for these results. The aim of the present research was to determine if amphetamine-abstinent ecstasy users have changes in occipital lobe functioning, as revealed by two studies: a masking study that directly measured the width of orientation tuning bandwidths and a contour integration task that measured the strength of long-range connections in the visual cortex of drug users compared to controls. Participants were compared on the width of orientation tuning bandwidths (26 controls, 12 ecstasy users, 10 ecstasy + amphetamine users) and the strength of long-range connections (38 controls, 15 ecstasy user, 12 ecstasy + amphetamine users) in the occipital lobe. Amphetamine-abstinent ecstasy users had significantly broader orientation tuning bandwidths than controls and significantly lower contour detection thresholds (CDTs), indicating worse performance on the task, than both controls and ecstasy + amphetamine users. These results extend on previous research, which is consistent with the proposal that ecstasy may damage the serotonin system, resulting in behavioral changes on tests of visual perception processes which are thought to reflect serotonergic functions in the occipital lobe.

  18. Desensitization to Oxcarbazepine: Long-Term Efficacy and Tolerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Park, Eu Gene; Lee, Munhyang

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Antiepileptic drug (AED)-associated cutaneous adverse drug reactions can lead to the discontinuation of medications. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of performing desensitization to oxcarbazepine. Methods This study involved 20 patients who exhibited cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with oxcarbazepine use between July 2009 and March 2016 at Samsung Medical Center. All of the participants had to discontinue oxcarbazepine despite presenting initially positive responses. Human leukocyte antigen genotyping was performed to detect the genetic predisposition to Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The desensitization to oxcarbazepine was performed with a starting dosage of 0.1 mg/day. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing the frequency of seizures before and at 1 and 3 years after desensitization. Adverse events occurring during desensitization and the retention rate after desensitization were also investigated. Results Nineteen patients (95%) safely completed the desensitization protocol. One withdrew owing to emotional problems that appeared to be associated with oxcarbazepine. The follow-up period was 4.6±1.2 years (mean±SD), and oxcarbazepine was maintained for more than 3 years after desensitization in 15 patients (83.3%). The response rates were 84.2% and 77.8% at 1 and 3 years after desensitization, respectively. Eight patients remained seizure-free for 3 years, and two discontinued all AEDs. Transient adverse reactions such as mild rash and itching were reported by five patients during desensitization. Conclusions This study has demonstrated the long-term efficacy and safety of desensitization to oxcarbazepine in patients exhibiting cutaneous adverse drug reactions. This favorable outcome should encourage the implementation of desensitization in patients presenting with hypersensitivity to oxcarbazepine as an alternative strategy in clinical practice. PMID:27730770

  19. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  20. Safety Aspects of Long Term Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, Wolfgang; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.; Drotleff, H.; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Kasparek, E.

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the lack of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high level waste (HLW), long term interim storage of SF and HLW will be necessary. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the long term storage of SF and HLW must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects such as safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, sub-criticality and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the complete storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more obvious. In Germany, dry storage of SF in casks fulfils both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground; one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. In all these facilities the safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks is achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat is ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility, which also secures to reduce the radiation exposure to acceptable levels. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, inform about spent fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields. All relevant safety issues such as safe enclosure, shielding, removal of decay heat and sub-criticality are checked and validated with state-of-the-art methods and computer codes before the license approval. In our presentation we discuss which of these aspects need to be examined closer for a long term interim storage. It is shown

  1. Long-term availability of global uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    From a global perspective, a low-carbon path to development driven by a growth of nuclear power production raises issues about the availability of uranium resources. Future technologies allowing nuclear reactors to overcome the need for natural uranium will take time to fully deploy. To address these issues, we analyze the conditions of availability of uranium in the 21. century. The first two conditions are technical accessibility and economic interest, both related to the cost of production. We study them using a model that estimates the ultimate uranium resources (amounts of both discovered and undiscovered resources) and their costs. This model splits the world into regions and the resource estimate for each region derives from the present knowledge of the deposits and economic filtering. The output is a long-term supply curve that illustrates the quantities of uranium that are technically accessible as a function of their cost of production. We identify the main uncertainties of these estimates and we show that with no regional breakdown, the ultimate resources are underestimated. The other conditions of availability of uranium covered in our study are related to the market dynamics, i.e. they derive from the supply and demand clearing mechanism. To assess their influence, they are introduced as dynamic constraints in a partial equilibrium model. This model of the uranium market is deterministic, and market players are represented by regions. For instance, it takes into account the short-term correlation between price and exploration expenditures, which is the subject of a dedicate econometric study. In the longer term, constraints include anticipation of demand by consumers and a gradual depletion of the cheapest ultimate resources. Through a series of prospective simulations, we demonstrate the strong influence on long-term price trends of both the growth rate of demand during the 21. century and its anticipation. Conversely, the uncertainties related to the

  2. Evaluation of long term creep-fatigue life for type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Hirotsugu; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Aoto, Kazumi; Ichimiya, Masakazu; Wada, Yusaku

    1992-01-01

    The long term creep-fatigue life of type 304 stainless steel was evaluated by the creep-fatigue life prediction method based on a linear damage fraction rule. The displacement controlled creep-fatigue tests were carried out, and the time to failure of longer than 10000 hours was obtained. The creep damage of long term creep-fatigue was evaluated by taking into account the stress relaxation behavior with elastic follow-up during the hold period. The relationship between life reduction of creep-fatigue and fracture mode was provided by the creep cavity growth. The results of this study are summarized as follows; (1) The long term creep-fatigue data can be reasonably evaluated by the present method. The predicted lives were within a factor of 3 of the observed ones. (2) The present method provides the capability to predict the long term creep-fatigue life at lower temperatures as well as that at the creep dominant temperature. (3) The value of creep damage for the long term creep-fatigue data increased by elastic follow-up. The creep-fatigue damage diagram intercepted between 0.3 and 1 can represent the observed creep-fatigue damages. (4) The cavity growth depends on the hold time. The fracture of long term creep-fatigue is caused by the intergranular cavity growth. The intergranular fracture of creep-fatigue is initiated by the cavity growth and followed by the microcrack propagation along grain boundaries starting from creep cavities. (author)

  3. Tonic immobility and factors influencing its duration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1991-01-01

    The author developed a method for inducing tonic immobility (paroxysmal inhibition) in rats and mice. By means of a plexiglass plate and plexiglass box the rat is immobilised, rotated at 180 degrees and subjected to constant pressure corresponding to the weight of the plexiglass plate. This way it is possible to prolong substantially tonic immobility in rats without using foregoing time consuming and interfering, so called sensitizing procedures. The duration of TI can be influenced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacological interventions. A longer duration of TI appeared to be typical for rats tending to react in other situations with anxiety, motor inhibition and submission.

  4. Challenges in long-term operation of nuclear power plants - Implications for regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa; Van Wonterghem, Frederik; Khouaja, Hatem; Vilpas, Martti; Osouf, Nicolas; Harikumar, S.; Ishigaki, Hiroki; Osaki, Toru; Yamada, Tomoho; Carlsson, Lennart; Shepherd, David; Galloway, Melanie; Liszka, Ervin; Svab, Miroslav; Pereira, Ken; Huerta, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors have become a major source of electricity supply in many countries in the past half a century. Based on this experience, many operators have sought and have received authorisation for long-term operation, whereby plant operation continues beyond the period considered in the design of the plant. Acceptance of a nuclear power plant for extended service should be based on assurance of the fitness of the plant and the operator for safe and reliable operation over the entire period considered for long-term operation. This assurance may be obtained by establishment of appropriate regulatory requirements, specification of goals and safety levels and regulatory assessment and oversight of the operator's programme for long-term operation. The operators and regulators should ensure that operating experience continues to be evaluated during long-term operation to ensure that any relevant lessons are effectively applied. Other considerations for assurance of safe operation are effective management of ageing, possible need for safety improvements, application of lessons learnt from operating experience, evaluation of environmental impacts, adequate staff resources and performance, review of security at the plant, action in response to emerging issues, and openness and transparency in the transition to long-term operation. Even though most of these considerations are addressed under the regulatory framework that applies to the initial operating period, additional regulatory activities in these areas may be necessary for long-term operation. Although there can be significant differences in regulatory approaches used by different countries for evaluating acceptability of long-term operation, there is general agreement on the purposes and goals of the regulatory reviews. An authorisation of long-term operation could involve a licence renewal or a periodic safety review or an approach that melds elements of both. This report presents guidance that is intended

  5. Investigation of long-term hurricane activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, B.M.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of applying numerical methods to model storm processes. A storm empirical track technique is utilized to simulate the full tracks of hurricanes, starting with their initial points over the sea and ending with their landfall locations or final dissipations. The

  6. Long-term forecast 2010; Laangsiktsprognos 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the energy forecast to the year 2030, and two different sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that the report's findings should not be considered a proper forecast of the future energy use, but as an impact assessment of existing policy instruments, given different circumstances such as economic growth and fuel prices

  7. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  8. Intermediate and long-term health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the health effects caused by immune suppression, infectious diseases, and food supplies and starvation in the aftermath of a nuclear war. It has been concluded that starvation will be essentially global - a consequence of a major nuclear war that at present seems likely to cause more deaths than all the direct effects of nuclear war combined. 68 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Long-Term Results of Mitral Valve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Current guidelines state that patients with severe mitral regurgitation should be treated in reference centers with a high reparability rate, low mortality rate, and durable results. Objective: To analyze our global experience with the treatment of organic mitral regurgitation from various etiologies operated in a single center. Methods: We evaluated all surgically treated patients with organic mitral regurgitation from 2004-2017. Patients were evaluated clinically and by echocardiography every year. We determined early and late survival rates, valve related events and freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation. Valve failure was defined as any mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate degree or the need for reoperation for any reason. Results: Out of 133 patients with organic mitral regurgitation, 125 (93.9% were submitted to valve repair. Mean age was 57±15 years and 52 patients were males. The most common etiologies were degenerative disease (73 patients and rheumatic disease (34 patients. Early mortality was 2.4% and late survival was 84.3% at 10 years, which are similar to the age- and gender-matched general population. Only two patients developed severe mitral regurgitation, and both were reoperated (95.6% at 10 years. Freedom from mitral valve failure was 84.5% at 10 years, with no difference between degenerative and rheumatic valves. Overall, late ≥ moderate tricuspid regurgitation was present in 34% of the patients, being more common in the rheumatic ones. The use of tricuspid annuloplasty abolished this complication. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that mitral regurgitation due to organic mitral valve disease from various etiologies can be surgically treated with a high repair rate, low early mortality and long-term survival that are comparable to the matched general population. Concomitant treatment of atrial fibrillation and tricuspid valve may be important adjuncts to optimize long-term

  10. Long-term variability of dust-storms in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Ólafur

    2013-04-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland are volcanic sandy deserts. Natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect not only regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze") but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean > 1000 km at times. The study places Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long term frequency of dust storm events in NE Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in NE Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the NE erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the NE deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust is not only a substantial source for regional air pollution, but may be considered to contribute to the Arctic haze phenomena and Arctic air pollution.

  11. Who owns the long term? Perspectives from global business leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Maurice; Eskew, Mike; Bernotat, Wulf H; Barner, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Day-to-day management is challenging enough for CEOs. How do they manage for the long term as well? We posed that question to four top executives of global companies. According to Maurice Levy, chairman and CEO of Publicis Groupe, building the future is really about building the present and keeping close to the front line--those who deal with your customers and markets. He also attributes his company's success in large part to knowing when to take action: In a market where clients' needs steer your long-term future, timing is everything. UPS Chairman and CEO Mike Eskew emphasizes staying true to your vision and values over the long run, despite meeting obstacles along the way. It took more than 20 years, and many lessons learned, to produce consistent profits in what is today the company's fastest-growing and most profitable business: international small packages. Wulf H. Bernotat, CEO of E.ON, examines the challenges facing business leaders and politicians as they try to balance energy needs against potential environmental damage. He calls for educating people about consumption and waste, and he maintains that a diverse and reliable mix of energy sources is the only way to ensure a secure supply while protecting our environment. Finally, Marianne Barner, the director of corporate communications and ombudsman for children's issues at IKEA, discusses how the company is taking steps to improve the environment and be otherwise socially responsible. For example, it's partnering with NGOs to address child labor issues and, on its own, is working to help mitigate climate change. IKEA's goals include using renewable sources for 100% of its energy needs and cutting its overall energy consumption by 25%.

  12. Long Term Management of Spent Fuel from NEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegel, L.; Zeleznik, N.; Lokner, V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 Slovenian national agency for radioactive waste management ARAO started together with Croatian sister organization APO elaboration of a new revision of Decommissioning, Radioactive waste and Spent fuel management program for NPP Krsko. In scope of this work also new studies for spent fuel storage and disposal were prepared in which technical solutions were analyzed and proposed for specific spent fuel (SF) from NPP Krsko. Time schedules for main activities of SF disposal development were elaborated for two alternative scenarios which correspond to normal NPP Krsko operation and 20 - year lifetime extension. All technical activities were financially assessed and costs estimates of SF storage and geological disposal development provided. The prepared studies were verified by international experts in order to confirm the correctness of technical inputs, proposed solutions, time schedules of activities and costs evaluations. The calculated nominal and discounted costs of spent fuel management served for the recalculation of annuities in the integral scenarios of interrelated activities on NPP Krsko decommissioning, LILW and SF management. Besides new first proposal of long-term management of spent fuel from NPP Krsko the joint work also opened additional questions. One of this is time schedule of proposed activities for long term SF management - what were the criteria used in the determination of actions and are they optimal for both countries. How the process of site selection for SF storage or disposal should be prepared having in mind that it will bring many questions in both countries? Is direct disposal of SF still the best solution in current development of nuclear prospects? The paper will present the current development and solutions for SF management from NPP Krsko and will try to answer questions which need to be solved and future development in the SF management.(author).

  13. Changes of the eye during long-term spaceflight. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Makarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes the publications of the scientific literature on the eye change during long-term spaceflight. The any eye changes such as visual impairment, hyperopic shift in refraction, changes in the intraocular pressure, increased the intracranial pressure, globe flattening, choroidal folding, optic disc edema, and optic nerve kinking and other changes were reported. The main cause of eye disorders, in all probability, is the increase of the intracranial pressure during long-term spaceflight. The reasons of the increased intracranial pressure are a collection of various factors of adaptation mechanisms in the body to weightless conditions. The leading role in the development of intracranial hypertension takes a redistribution of the body fluids (blood and lymph in the direction of the head, but the opportunities and the effect of other factors are present. Also the displacement and increase of the internal organs volume of the chest can cause external compression of the jugular veins, increasing the pressure of the blood in them, and as the result to lead to the increase of the intracranial pressure. The role of trigger such mechanisms in the development of the intracranial hypertension in the microgravity environment as anatomical predisposition of the body, race, metabolic changes under the influence of high carbon dioxide content in the different compartments of the station, high sodium intake, the enzyme dysfunction, weight exercises of the astronauts was discussed. However, the pathogenic mechanisms is currently still under investigation. An important role in the study of the adaptation mechanisms is given to research not only before and after the flight, but also during the space flight. The accumulated knowledge and experience about the changes in organs and systems in the conditions of human adaptation to microgravity will help answer many questions related to the implementation of the long spaceflights.

  14. 20 year long term air quality trends in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Israeli air monitoring network was established in the mid 1990's with dozens of measuring sites near most populated areas. During these past 20 years the Israel economy has increased significantly. The population grew by 30%, energy consumption and power generation by more than 40% and the number of motor vehicles increased by nearly 50%. Most of the fossil energy is consumed by the electric power industry that has changed immensely during this period. Until the early 2000's the vast majority of the electricity was generated from coal and heavy oil. However, during the last ten years natural gas has gradually becomes the major source for power generation and for most of the heavy industry. In the present study we examined the impact of these economic trends on the major criteria air pollution parameters; O3, NOx, SO2 and PM10. The analyses was based on the long term trend of median value (50th percentile) and the 90th percentile. The results revealed that SO2 levels throughout the country decreased to very low levels, with the 90th percentile near the detection limit. The levels of PM10, that are relatively high compare with other global regions, did not show any trend during the 20 year period. This is consistent with the fact that most particulate matter results from long range transport of dust from the surrounding deserts. The long term trend of NOx indicates a gradual and steady increase at most measuring sites, which is consistent with the increase of fossil fuel consumption. The increase in NOx levels is most likely the cause for the significant increase in O3 levels found at most sites in a few of them to levels that are considered as an environmental hazard.

  15. Long-term atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, D. de la; Diaz, I.; Simancas, J.; Chico, B.; Morcillo, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Atmospheric corrosion rate stabilises after the first 4-6 years of exposure. → Great compaction of the rust layers in rural and urban atmospheres. → Corrosion (in rural and urban) deviates from common behaviour of bilogarithmic law. → Typical structures of lepidocrocite, goethite and akaganeite are identified. → Formation of hematite (industrial atmosphere) and ferrihydrite (marine atmosphere). - Abstract: A great deal of information is available on the atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in the short, mid and even long term, but studies of the structure and morphology of corrosion layers are less abundant and generally deal with those formed in just a few years. The present study assesses the structure and morphology of corrosion product layers formed on mild steel after 13 years of exposure in five Spanish atmospheres of different types: rural, urban, industrial and marine (mild and severe). The corrosion layers have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Long-term corrosion is seen to be more severe in the industrial and marine atmospheres, and less so in the rural and urban atmospheres. In all cases the corrosion rate is seen to decrease with exposure time, stabilising after the first 4-6 years of exposure. The most relevant aspects to be noted are (a) the great compaction of the rust layers formed in the rural and urban atmospheres, (b) the formation of hematite and ferrihydrite phases (not commonly found) in the industrial and marine atmospheres, respectively and (c) identification of the typical morphological structures of lepidocrocite (sandy crystals and flowery plates), goethite (cotton balls structures) and akaganeite (cotton balls structures and cigar-shaped crystals).

  16. Symptom burden in long-term germ cell tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsle, Karin; Hartmann, Michael; Mehnert, Anja; Oing, Christoph; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Vehling, Sigrun

    2016-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) and its treatment may cause distressing long-term symptoms. We aimed to examine self-reported symptom frequency and distress as well as the impact of demographic and medical characteristics in GCT survivors. A total of 164 GCT survivors receiving follow-up care at the University Cancer Center Hamburg and a specialized private practice facility were interviewed at a median time of 11.6 years after first diagnosis. Metastatic disease was present in 48 % of the patients and relapse had occurred in 17 %. The patients completed the short form of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS-SF) assessing 28 physical and 4 psychological symptoms. The mean number of physical symptoms was 4.5 (SD = 4.3) (psychological symptoms M = 1.4, SD = 1.4; total M = 5.9, SD = 5.2). The most frequent physical symptoms were lack of energy (49 %), feeling drowsy (42 %), sleeping problems (36 %), and difficulty in concentration (32 %). Lack of energy was experienced as highly distressing by 21 % of the patients. The most frequent psychological symptoms were irritability (47 %) and being worried (42 %). The number of physical symptoms was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status, and shorter time since diagnosis in multivariate regression analyses controlling for metastatic vs. localized disease, relapse, extent of surgery, number of chemotherapy cycles, and radiotherapy. GCT survivors suffered from a significant number of long-term symptoms. Fatigue-related symptoms were most frequent and perceived as highly distressing. Continuous attention toward fatigue is necessary throughout follow-up care to offer support in time, particularly in more vulnerable patients of higher age and lower socioeconomic status.

  17. Long-term deflection and flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with recycled aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won-Chang; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term deformation of recycled aggregate concrete beams was examined. • Three beams were monitored for over 380 days. • Influence of recycled aggregate on the long-term performance. • Comparison of that between normal and recycled aggregate concrete beams. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the long-term deformations of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams for over 1 year (380 days) and flexural behavior of RAC beams after exposure to sustained loading. Three reinforced concrete (RC) beam specimens were fabricated with replacement percentage of aggregate (100% natural aggregate, 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and 50% recycled fine aggregate) and subjected to sustained loading that is 50% of the nominal flexural capacity. During the sustained loading period (380 days), the long-term deflection due to creep and shrinkage was recorded and compared with predicted behavior that was determined based on current specifications (ACI 318 Code). After measuring the long-term deflection for 380 days, four-point bending tests were conducted to investigate the flexural behavior of RC beams after exposure to sustained loading and determine any reduction in flexural capacity. A modified equation to predict the long-term deflection values for RC beams with recycled aggregate is proposed, and the experimental results are compared with the predictions calculated using the ACI 318 Code provisions

  18. Long-term athletic development- part 1: a pathway for all youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Howard, Rick; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Williams, Craig A; Best, Thomas M; Alvar, Brent A; Micheli, Lyle J; Thomas, D Phillip; Hatfield, Disa L; Cronin, John B; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-05-01

    The concept of developing talent and athleticism in youth is the goal of many coaches and sports systems. Consequently, an increasing number of sporting organizations have adopted long-term athletic development models in an attempt to provide a structured approach to the training of youth. It is clear that maximizing sporting talent is an important goal of long-term athletic development models. However, ensuring that youth of all ages and abilities are provided with a strategic plan for the development of their health and physical fitness is also important to maximize physical activity participation rates, reduce the risk of sport- and activity-related injury, and to ensure long-term health and well-being. Critical reviews of independent models of long-term athletic development are already present within the literature; however, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive examination and review of the most prominent models does not exist. Additionally, considerations of modern day issues that may impact on the success of any long-term athletic development model are lacking, as are proposed solutions to address such issues. Therefore, within this 2-part commentary, Part 1 provides a critical review of existing models of practice for long-term athletic development and introduces a composite youth development model that includes the integration of talent, psychosocial and physical development across maturation. Part 2 identifies limiting factors that may restrict the success of such models and offers potential solutions.

  19. The long term means coal market improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical data for the US coal industry in 1987 are presented - coal production, energy consumption, inventories, exports, operating rate, employment, hours worked, wages, electric power output, raw steel production, new orders for blast furnaces and steel mills, and fuel oil prices - and contrasted with the situation a year before. The US economy and trade figures are discussed. It is believed that the coal industry stands to benefit from the changing mix of economic activity but must strive to keep competitive. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  20. Polymers in nuclear environment - long term behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouin, Laurent; Colin, Xavier; Fayolle, Bruno; Richaud, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book which addresses original theoretical tools which are required for the prediction of polymer life time in a nuclear environment, and notably the kinetic modelling of low dose rate radiation-induced oxidation and the consequences of irradiation on thermo-mechanical properties. The authors discuss the anaerobic radiochemical ageing, the general aspects of radio-oxidation, the radio-thermo-oxidation, and the effects of radiochemical ageing on mechanical properties of industrial polymers. They identify research fields for the radiochemical ageing of polymers

  1. Projecting long term medical spending growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borger, Christine; Rutherford, Thomas F; Won, Gregory Y

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamic general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy and the medical sector in which the adoption of new medical treatments is endogenous and the demand for medical services is conditional on the state of technology. We use this model to prepare 75-year medical spending forecasts and a projection of the Medicare actuarial balance, and we compare our results to those obtained from a method that has been used by government actuaries. Our baseline forecast predicts slower health spending growth in the long run and a lower Medicare actuarial deficit relative to the previous projection methodology.

  2. Long-term constraints on human activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, A. B.

    1976-04-01

    Biophysical and other ''outer limits'' of food, land, water, climatic change, stratospheric chemistry, energy, hazardous substances, non-fuel minerals, human stress, and social and ecological stability raise fundamental questions about present trends in management methods and in global organization. The diverse outer limits reflect complex, poorly perceived, and often unsuspected, interconnections between numerous biological and geophysical processes, many of which are obscure or still unknown. Our lack of predictive power, let alone of quantitative understanding, implies a need to treat essential life-support systems with great caution and forbearance, lest we erode safety margins whose importance we do not yet appreciate. Even those outer limits which now seem remote are relevant to present policy, as their timely avoidance may require us to discard otherwise attractive short-term policies in favor of others that offer less immediate advantage but that retain options which may be needed later. Such alternative policies may have to rely more on social than on technical innovation in order to address underlying disequilibria rather than merely palliating their symptoms. Moreover, some outer limits are sufficiently imminent, or require such long lead-times to avoid, that fundamental changes in policy, in institutions, and in the degree of global interdependence, seem necessary if we are to live to enjoy some of the later and more interesting limits to human activity.

  3. Vocal fold immobility from a primary minor salivary gland small-cell carcinoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert L; Wilson, Patrick A

    2009-02-01

    Small-cell carcinoma of a minor salivary gland is a rare and to the best of our knowledge previously unreported cause of vocal fold immobility. We describe the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia, and weight loss. Examination revealed left vocal fold immobility. She had no other obvious abnormality of the upper airway, neck, or skin. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 4-cm submucosal oropharyngeal mass with extension to the parapharyngeal space and involvement of the carotid sheath and the foramen ovale at the skull base; imaging also revealed cervical adenopathy. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy identified the mass as a small-cell carcinoma, a finding that was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Extensive tumor invasion and multiple comorbidities precluded an aggressive management strategy, and the patient was treated palliatively. She died of her disease shortly after her diagnosis. Vocal fold immobility of unknown etiology mandates imaging from the skull base to the upper mediastinum.

  4. Speech Remediation of Long-Term Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty L. McMicken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research article describes the remediation of moderate stuttering in an adult client who experienced speech dysfluency for more than 40 years. Treatment took place at an urban residential rehabilitation mission where the client was court sentenced for a history of felonies and current narcotic sales and use. In conjunction with the operant conditioning instruction of the rehabilitation mission, the Ryan Fluency Program was implemented along with the initial use of pause time in response to the complex needs of the client. The article provides an overview of the assessment (Fluency Interviews, Criterion Tests and treatment program. At present, 2.5 years post-initiation of treatment, the client has reported and been observed to have achieved smooth, forward-flowing, natural sounding speech throughout his work environment, family interaction, and daily life.

  5. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  6. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  7. Long term electromagnetic monitoring at Parkfield, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, Karl Neil

    Electric and magnetic fields in the (10-4-1.0) Hz band were monitored at two sites adjacent to the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield and Hollister, California. Observed fields typically comprise natural magnetotelluric fields, with cultural and instrument noise. A data window [2002-2005], enclosing the September 28, 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake, was analyzed to determine if anomalous electric or magnetic fields, or changes in ground conductivity, occurred before the earthquake. The data were edited, removing intervals of instrument malfunction, leaving 875 days left in the four-year period. Frequent, local spike-like disturbances were removed. The distribution of these spikes was not biased around the time of the earthquake. Signal to noise ratios, estimated via magnetotelluric processing techniques, provided an index of data quality. Plots of signal and noise amplitude spectra, showed the behavior of the ULF fields to be remarkably constant over the period of analysis. From these first-order plots, it is clear that most of the recorded energy is coherent over the spatial extent of the array. Three main statistical techniques were employed to separate local anomalous electrical or magnetic fields from the dominant coherent natural fields: transfer function estimates between components at each site were employed to subtract the dominant field, and look deeper at the 'residual' fields; the data were decomposed into principal components to identify linear combinations of array channels, which are maximally uncorrelated; the technique of canonical coherences was employed to distinguish anomalous fields which are spatially broad from anomalies which occur at a single site only, and furthermore to distinguish anomalies which are present in both the electric and magnetic fields form those which are present in only one field type. Standard remote reference apparent resistivity estimates were generated daily at Parkfield. Most of the variation was observed to be seasonal

  8. Long term panorama of the nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, C.

    2009-01-01

    The concern for the security of the hydrocarbons supply, essentials for the transport and every time more important in the electricity production, it is one of the rebirth causes of interest for the nuclear energy. On the other hand, it is the increase of the hydrocarbons price. In some countries, included Mexico, the price of gas is subject to strong seasonal fluctuations, aggravating by the congestion of the ducts. It is certain that great part of the prices rise of petroleum that we are experiencing is due to speculation, for what it is necessary to look for objective elements that allow to venture in the difficult topic of the future price of crude. One finishes reason of the resurgence of interest for the nuclear energy, is the growing perception that with the gases emission of greenhouse effect we are exposing our planet to an uncontrollable experiment with consequences potentially catastrophic. This perception is translated in a pressure of the public opinion for to use renewable energy sources that do not contribute to the greenhouse effect. In this work a general panorama is exposed on the advances that exist at the present time, like nuclear reactors with the purpose of solving the current problem that the world is crossing. (Author)

  9. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  10. Long-term care financing through Federal tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D W; Weingart, J M

    1988-12-01

    Congress and the Administration are currently exploring various methods of promoting access to long-term care. In this article, an inventory of recent legislative proposals for using the Federal tax code to expand access to long-term care services is provided. Proposals are arrayed along a functional typology that includes tax mechanisms to encourage accumulation of funds, promote purchase of long-term care insurance, or induce the diversion of funds accumulated for another purpose (such as individual retirement accounts). The proposals are evaluated against the public policy objective of encouraging risk pooling to minimize social cost.

  11. Long-term management USDOE transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Gilbert, K.V.; Lowrey, R.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Activities for permanent disposal of US DOE TRU waste are presently focused on newly generated and stored waste. The buried waste and contaminated soils pose no near term problem. Decisions on any possible actions for these wastes will be deferred until the newly generated and stored wastes are being placed into disposal on a routine basis. Several elements must be in place before such disposal can become routine. These elements consist of: a disposal facility; waste acceptance criteria; waste certification mechanisms; waste processing facilities; and a waste transportation system. Each of these elements has been the subject of considerable activity in the recent past. Progress and plans for each element are summarized. As of January 1981, DOE has 60,500 m 3 of waste classified as Transuranic waste (TRU) in retrievable storage, and projects that additional TRU waste will be generated at an average rate of 4500 m 3 per year for the next 10 years. Over 99% of this waste is contact handled, with the remainder being remote handled, i.e., surface radiation dose levels exceeding 200 mrem/h. An estimated 273,000 m 3 of TRU waste were placed in shallow land burial prior to establishment of the 1970 policy. In addition, large quantities of soil at DOE sites are contaminated with TRU elements due to disposal of liquid wastes and by contact of soil with solid, buried waste whose original containers are now badly degraded. Possibly as much as 10,000,000 m 3 of soil are contaminated above 10 nCi/gm. Less than 1,000,000 m 3 are estimated to be contaminated above 100 nCi/gm

  12. Glucocorticoids facilitate the retention of acquired immobility during forced swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; De Korte, C C; De Kloet, E R

    1985-01-01

    The adrenalectomy-induced decrease in the level of immobility during a 5 min retest period in the Porsolt swimming test could be reversed by glucocorticoids administered s.c. 15 min after the initial forced swimming exposure. The synthetic glucocorticoids dexamethasone and RU 28362 were active in

  13. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    2003-01-01

    accepting the long-term extrapolations of spent fuel behavior. In recent years ''natural analogues'' for both the repository environment (e.g., the Oklo natural reactors) and nuclear waste form behavior (e.g., corrosion and alteration of uraninite, UO 2+x ) have been cited as a fundamental means of achieving confirmation of long-term extrapolations. In particular, considerable effort has already been made to establish that uraninite, UO 2+x , with its impurities, is a good structural and chemical analogue for the analysis of the long-term behavior of the UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel. This proposal is based on the study of uraninite and the naturally occurring alteration products of UO 2+x under oxidizing and reducing conditions. The UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel is not stable under oxidizing conditions. In oxic solutions, uranium has a strong tendency to exist as U 6+ in the uranyl molecule, UO 2 2+ . Uranyl ions react with a wide variety of inorganic and organic anions to form complexes. Throughout most of the natural range of pH, U 6+ forms strong complexes with oxygen-bearing ions like CO 3 2- , HCO 3- , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- , and AsO 4 3- , which are present in most oxidized stream and subsurface waters. In arid environments, the U 6+ ion can precipitate as a wide variety of uranyl oxide hydrates, uranyl silicates and uranyl phosphates. This is well demonstrated in experimental work, e.g., in long term drip tests on UO 2 and is confirmed by natural occurrences of UO 2 in which a wide variety of uranyl phases form as alteration products. The most striking feature of these studies is the very close parallel in the paragenetic sequences (i.e. phase formation sequence) between the very long term (10 year tests) and the young (therefore, low-Pb uraninites) of the Nopal I deposit in Mexico

  14. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    2003-09-14

    public that there is a reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations of spent fuel behavior. In recent years ''natural analogues'' for both the repository environment (e.g., the Oklo natural reactors) and nuclear waste form behavior (e.g., corrosion and alteration of uraninite, UO{sub 2+x}) have been cited as a fundamental means of achieving confirmation of long-term extrapolations. In particular, considerable effort has already been made to establish that uraninite, UO{sub 2+x}, with its impurities, is a good structural and chemical analogue for the analysis of the long-term behavior of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel. This proposal is based on the study of uraninite and the naturally occurring alteration products of UO{sub 2+x} under oxidizing and reducing conditions. The UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel is not stable under oxidizing conditions. In oxic solutions, uranium has a strong tendency to exist as U{sup 6+} in the uranyl molecule, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Uranyl ions react with a wide variety of inorganic and organic anions to form complexes. Throughout most of the natural range of pH, U{sup 6+} forms strong complexes with oxygen-bearing ions like CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, which are present in most oxidized stream and subsurface waters. In arid environments, the U{sup 6+} ion can precipitate as a wide variety of uranyl oxide hydrates, uranyl silicates and uranyl phosphates. This is well demonstrated in experimental work, e.g., in long term drip tests on UO{sub 2} and is confirmed by natural occurrences of UO{sub 2} in which a wide variety of uranyl phases form as alteration products. The most striking feature of these studies is the very close parallel in the paragenetic sequences (i.e. phase formation sequence) between the very long term (10 year tests) and the young (therefore, low-Pb uraninites) of the Nopal I deposit in Mexico.

  15. Long Term Perspective On Interstellar Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The process and interim findings of a broad interstellar flight assessment is presented. In contrast to precursor mission studies, this assessment takes a longer view and also considers factors that have been underrepresented in prior studies. The goal is to chart a conceptual roadmap for interstellar flight development that takes all the factors into account and ultimately identifies which research options, today, might have the greatest overall impact on future progress. Three envisioned flight eras are examined, the "era of precursors," the "era of infrastructure," and the "unforeseeable future." Several influential factors have typically been missing from prior studies that will now be assessed; a) the impact of different, often implicit, motivations, b) the interdependency of infrastructure with vehicle design, c) the pace of different developments, and d) the enormous energy required for any interstellar mission. Regarding motivations for example, if the driving motivation is to launch soon, then the emphasis is on existing technologies. In contrast, if the motivation is the survival of humanity, then the emphasis would be on 'world ships.' Infrastructure considerations are included in a broader system-level context. Future infrastructure will support multiple in-space activities, not just one mission-vehicle development. Though it may be too difficult to successfully assess, the study will attempt to compare the rates of different developments, such as the pace of Earth-based astronomy, miniaturization, artificial intelligence, infrastructure development, transhumanism, and others. For example, what new information could be acquired after 30 years of further advances in astronomy compared to a space probe with current technology and a 30 year flight time? The final factor of the study is to assess the pace and risks of the enormous energy levels required for interstellar flight. To compare disparate methods, a set of 'meta measures' will be defined and

  16. Immobility, inheritance and plasticity of shape of the yeast nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrulis Erik D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since S. cerevisiae undergoes closed mitosis, the nuclear envelope of the daughter nucleus is continuous with that of the maternal nucleus at anaphase. Nevertheless, several constitutents of the maternal nucleus are not present in the daughter nucleus. The present study aims to identify proteins which impact the shape of the yeast nucleus and to learn whether modifications of shape are passed on to the next mitotic generation. The Esc1p protein of S. cerevisiae localizes to the periphery of the nucleoplasm, can anchor chromatin, and has been implicated in targeted silencing both at telomeres and at HMR. Results Upon increased Esc1p expression, cell division continues and dramatic elaborations of the nuclear envelope extend into the cytoplasm. These "escapades" include nuclear pores and associate with the nucleolus, but exclude chromatin. Escapades are not inherited by daughter nuclei. This exclusion reflects their relative immobility, which we document in studies of prezygotes. Moreover, excess Esc1p affects the levels of multiple transcripts, not all of which originate at telomere-proximal loci. Unlike Esc1p and the colocalizing protein, Mlp1p, overexpression of selected proteins of the inner nuclear membrane is toxic. Conclusion Esc1p is the first non-membrane protein of the nuclear periphery which – like proteins of the nuclear lamina of higher eukaryotes – can modify the shape of the yeast nucleus. The elaborations of the nuclear envelope ("escapades" which appear upon induction of excess Esc1p are not inherited during mitotic growth. The lack of inheritance of such components could help sustain cell growth when parental nuclei have acquired potentially deleterious characteristics.

  17. Long-term high-level exercise promotes muscle reinnervation with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosole, Simone; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Loefler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Vogelauer, Michael; Burggraf, Samantha; Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Hamar, Dusan; Cvecka, Jan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sarabon, Nejc; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Protasi, Feliciano; Nori, Alessandra; Pond, Amber; Zampieri, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    The histologic features of aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to atrophy, that immobility accelerates the process, and that routine exercise may protect against loss of motor units and muscle tissue. Here, we compared muscle biopsies from sedentary and physically active seniors and found that seniors with a long history of high-level recreational activity up to the time of muscle biopsy had 1) lower loss of muscle strength versus young men (32% loss in physically active vs 51% loss in sedentary seniors); 2) fewer small angulated (denervated) myofibers; 3) a higher percentage of fiber-type groups (reinnervated muscle fibers) that were almost exclusive of the slow type; and 4) sparse normal-size muscle fibers coexpressing fast and slow myosin heavy chains, which is not compatible with exercise-driven muscle-type transformation. The biopsies from the old physically active seniors varied from sparse fiber-type groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, suggesting that coexpressing fibers appear to fill gaps. Altogether, the data show that long-term physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers and suggest that decades of high-level exercise allow the body to adapt to age-related denervation by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through selective recruitment to slow motor units. These effects on size and structure of myofibers may delay functional decline in late aging.

  18. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  19. Long-Term Visual Prognosis of Peripheral Multifocal Chorioretinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde-van Norel, J; ten Dam-van Loon, NH; de Boer, JH; Rothova, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report on the clinical manifestations, complications, and long-term visual prognosis of patients with peripheral multifocal chorioretinitis and to search for predictors for a lower visual outcome. Design Retrospective consecutive observational case series. Methods setting: Institutional.

  20. In search of the elusive long-term price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.; Combs, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Institute, WNFM, and past USCEA sessions described and compared existing price reporting systems. The McGraw-Hill conference led to a rather heated discussion as to the propriety of spot prices having the influence they do on amounts paid in long-term contracts. The Ux representative proposed a future's market as a way that producers could hedge against some of the uncertainty of volatile spot market. In discussing the search for the elusive long-term price, there are two interrelated issues. The first is obvious-the search for a starting or initializing price that is representative of recently-signed or pending long-term contracts. The second is less obvious, but perhaps more important-the search for a successful mechanism for determining later delivery values in long-term contracts. This paper addresses the question of pricing mechanisms first

  1. Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.K.; Nickelson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified

  2. Vulnerable long-term psychiatric in- patients need screening for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as prominent medical issues in long-term care and provide guidelines for their ..... described in the literature.7,28 These patients might benefit from a renewed emphasis on ..... costs associated with marijuana comorbidity. Drug & Alcohol.

  3. Long-term performance potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    estimation of a large PV field, the long term performance as electrical output is a more rational approach over the conventional testing methods, such as at Standard Testing Conditions (STC) and at the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT) available

  4. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  5. Long-term memory, sleep, and the spacing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Kawadri, Nader; Simone, Patricia M; Wiseheart, Melody

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that memory is enhanced when study sessions are spaced apart rather than massed. This spacing effect has been shown to have a lasting benefit to long-term memory when the study phase session follows the encoding session by 24 hours. Using a spacing paradigm we examined the impact of sleep and spacing gaps on long-term declarative memory for Swahili-English word pairs by including four spacing delay gaps (massed, 12 hours same-day, 12 hours overnight, and 24 hours). Results showed that a 12-hour spacing gap that includes sleep promotes long-term memory retention similar to the 24-hour gap. The findings support the importance of sleep to the long-term benefit of the spacing effect.

  6. The Long-Term Retention of Knowledge and Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healy, Alice

    1998-01-01

    .... The second class of guidelines concerned ways to optimize the strategies used. We found that in tasks that require deliberate retrieval from memory, training that promotes efficient encoding strategies maximizes long-term retention...

  7. Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of temperature ... CGCM3; HadCM3; modified Mann–Kendall test; statistical analysis; Sutlej basin. ... Water Resources Systems Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247 ...

  8. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available timescale seeks to provide a spatially comprehensive view of trends while also creating a baseline for comparisons with future projections of air quality through the forcing of air quality models with modelled predicted long term meteorology. Previous...

  9. Long-term risks of kidney living donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science...... and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information...... to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors...

  10. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  11. Long-Term Effects of Primary Schools on Educational Positions of Students 2 and 4 Years after the Start of Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwynsberghe, Griet; Vanlaar, Gudrun; Van Damme, Jan; De Fraine, Bieke

    2017-01-01

    Although the importance of primary schools in the long term is of interest in educational effectiveness research, few studies have examined the long-term effects of schools over the past decades. In the present study, long-term effects of primary schools on the educational positions of students 2 and 4 years after starting secondary education are…

  12. Long-term Consequences of Childhood ADHD on Criminal Activities*

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason; Wolfe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether childhood mental illness has long term consequences in terms of criminal behavior has been little studied, yet it could have major consequences for both the individual and society more generally. In this paper, we focus on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent mental conditions in school-age children, to examine the long-term effects of childhood mental illness on criminal activities, controlling for a rich set of individual, family...

  13. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flossmann, Oliver; Berden, Annelies; de Groot, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain.......Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain....

  14. Aspects of long-term variability in sun and stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skumanich, A.; Eddy, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence of long-term solar variability is reviewed, including historical data and the tree-ring record of radiocarbon. Epochs of suppressed activity like the Maunder Minimum are shown to be frequent occurences of the last several thousand years, but without no obvious period of recurrence. Weak evidence exists for the 11-year cycle as early as Medieval times, although with insufficient accuracy to establish long-term phase stability. (orig.)

  15. Rapid internationalization and long-term performance: The knowledge link

    OpenAIRE

    García-García, Raquel; García-Canal, Esteban; Guillén, Mauro F.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the knowledge-based view and organizational learning theory, we develop and test a set of hypotheses to provide a first attempt at analyzing the effect of speed of internationalization on long-term performance. Using a panel-data sample of Spanish listed firms (1986-2010), we find that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between speed of internationalization and long-term performance. We also find that whereas technological knowledge steepens this relationship, the diversity...

  16. Preclinical rodent toxicity studies for long term use of ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ratti

    2015-01-01

    Ceftriaxone showed rapid absorption with half-life values ranging between 1 and 1.5 h. Additionally, there was no evidence of accumulation and a virtually complete elimination by 16 h after the last dose. Overall there were no toxicologically meaningful drug-related animal findings associated with the long-term administration (6 months of ceftriaxone. These results support safety of long-term use of ceftriaxone in human clinical trials.

  17. Long-term outcome of craniopharyngioma in children. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, Takashi; Okada, Masaki; Miyake, Keisuke; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The treatment for pediatric craniopharyngioma remains challenging and controversial. Although this tumor is histologically benign, the treatments include radical surgery, conservative surgery, radiotherapy, intracystic chemotherapy and multimodality approaches. In addition, the long-term functional outcomes including visual function, endocrine function, cognitive function, hypothalamic function, and quality of life are complex and major problems among survivors. In this paper, we reviewed the recent treatments for pediatric craniopharyngioma and the long-term outcomes after treatment in literatures. (author)

  18. Long-term care: a substantive factor in financial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D A

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 percent of women will enter a nursing home at some point in their lives. About one-third of men living to age 65 will also need nursing home care. Planning for long-term care is even more important since Medicare covers very little of the cost of such care. The Indiana Partnership Plan is one program designed to help fund the long-term care costs while allowing individuals protect other financial assets.

  19. The Myth That Insulating Boards Serves Long-Term Value

    OpenAIRE

    Bebchuk, Lucian Arye

    2013-01-01

    According to an influential view in corporate law writings and debates, pressure from shareholders leads companies to take myopic actions that are costly in the long term, and insulating boards from such pressure serves the long-term interests of companies as well as their shareholders. This board insulation claim has been regularly invoked in a wide range of contexts to support existing or tighter limits on shareholder rights and involvement. This paper subjects this view to a comprehensive ...

  20. Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Varona, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...

  1. Long-term stability of sodium caseinate-stabilized nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Manispuritha; Ghosh, Supratim

    2017-01-01

    Oil-in-water (5 wt%) nanoemulsions were prepared with different concentration (2.5-10 wt%) of sodium caseinate as a sole emulsifier and their long-term storage stability was investigated for 6 months. Previous studies associated with sodium caseinate looked only into nanoemulsion formation; hence the challenges with long-term stability were not addressed. All nanoemulsions displayed an average droplet size sodium caseinate-stabilized nanoemulsions.

  2. Introduction of long term cycle of reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyati, M.; Tanaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction of long term cycle of LWR reactor operation at NPP in Japan is considered, and problems of technical, legislative and economical character, increase of power coefficient are discussed. More long term operation period provides decreasing frequency of periodic inspections and reduction of personnel radiation doses. Reliability of fuel, energetic equipment, mechanisms and devices must be taken into account for the decision of technical problems. Consumptions for electric power generation are studied [ru

  3. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  4. Adverse event reporting in Czech long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hěib, Zdenřk; Vychytil, Pavel; Marx, David

    2013-04-01

    To describe adverse event reporting processes in long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic. Prospective cohort study involving a written questionnaire followed by in-person structured interviews with selected respondents. Long-term care facilities located in the Czech Republic. Staff of 111 long-term care facilities (87% of long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic). None. Sixty-three percent of long-term health-care facilities in the Czech Republic have adverse event-reporting processes already established, but these were frequently very immature programs sometimes consisting only of paper recording of incidents. Compared to questionnaire responses, in-person interview responses only partially tended to confirm the results of the written survey. Twenty-one facilities (33%) had at most 1 unconfirmed response, 31 facilities (49%) had 2 or 3 unconfirmed responses and the remaining 11 facilities (17%) had 4 or more unconfirmed responses. In-person interviews suggest that use of a written questionnaire to assess the adverse event-reporting process may have limited validity. Staff of the facilities we studied expressed an understanding of the importance of adverse event reporting and prevention, but interviews also suggested a lack of knowledge necessary for establishing a good institutional reporting system in long-term care.

  5. Changing incentives for long-term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    There is much concern about the absence of long-term gas contracts with fixed price and quantity conditions, which until recent years was the standard way of doing business in the gas industry. These types of contracts performed a valuable service in the development of the gas industry, and there comparative absence today is sometimes thought to be one reason for the current malaise in the industry. One hears the argument that there must be some kind of 'market failure' that prevents buyers and sellers from entering into these long term arrangements, and recent changes in state and federal regulations are often cited as the cause of the problem. The purpose of the author's remarks is to argue that what is taken as a breakdown in the market may be simply a reaction to a decline in economic incentives to enter into long-term contracts with rigid price and quantity terms. This is, in other words, simply one more aspect of change in the gas business that Frank Heintz referred to in his opening remarks this morning. The author starts by giving a brief description of the motives for engaging in long-term contracts, and then describes how incentives to use long-term contracts have declined for both gas buyers and gas sellers. He concludes that the decline in the use of long-term contracts is not cause for regulatory concern, but a result of the continuing transformation of the gas business to one that more closely resembles other commodity markets

  6. Long-term passive distance-bounded relative motion in the presence of TeX perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, J.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the problem of long-term satellite relative motion in the presence of J2 perturbations, and introduces a design methodology for long-term passive distance-bounded relative motion. There are two key ingredients of closed-form solutions.One is the model of

  7. Long-term stabilization considerations for decommissioned and reclaimed uranium sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.; Johnson, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term stabilization of decommissioned uranium mill sites and of reclaimed uranium mill tailings sites encompass a broad spectrum of design capabilities. This paper presents a few of the quantitative methodologies recently developed or refined to evaluate physical factors (i.e. precipitation, fluvial geomorphology, stable slope, slope stabilization with riprap and riprap selection) that influence long-term stabilization of uranium mill and mill tailings sites. It is acknowledged that the degree of refinement of these methodologies are in their infancy and that extensive research and development are warranted to increase the level of assurance. However, these methodologies provide an initial guideline for evaluating long-term stabilization that has not been previously existed. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of currently available state-of-the-art engineering techniques and methodologies for the evaluation of reclamation plans designed to provide long-term stability against potential failure modes. In some cases, evaluative techniques have been developed for long-term stabilization where methodologies have not previously existed. Each methodology to be presented represents a starting point upon which additional research and/or development may be warranted

  8. Implicit short- and long-term memory direct our gaze in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-04-01

    Visual attention is strongly affected by the past: both by recent experience and by long-term regularities in the environment that are encoded in and retrieved from memory. In visual search, intertrial repetition of targets causes speeded response times (short-term priming). Similarly, targets that are presented more often than others may facilitate search, even long after it is no longer present (long-term priming). In this study, we investigate whether such short-term priming and long-term priming depend on dissociable mechanisms. By recording eye movements while participants searched for one of two conjunction targets, we explored at what stages of visual search different forms of priming manifest. We found both long- and short- term priming effects. Long-term priming persisted long after the bias was present, and was again found even in participants who were unaware of a color bias. Short- and long-term priming affected the same stage of the task; both biased eye movements towards targets with the primed color, already starting with the first eye movement. Neither form of priming affected the response phase of a trial, but response repetition did. The results strongly suggest that both long- and short-term memory can implicitly modulate feedforward visual processing.

  9. Vocal fold immobility and aspiration status: a direct replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M; Duffey, Dianne; Judson, Benjamin L

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this direct replication study was to confirm the incidence of vocal fold immobility (VFI) and its relationship to pharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration. Using a single-group consecutively referred case series, a total of 2,650 participants underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing between August 2003 and December 2007. Main outcome measures included overall incidence of VFI and aspiration status, with specific emphasis on age, gender, etiology and pharyngeal phase bolus flow characteristics, and side of VFI (right, left, or bilateral). These data were compared to and then combined with the original study (n = 1,452) for a total of 4,102 participants. Results indicated that the incidence of VFI was 4.3% (112/2,650), i.e., 27% (31/112) unilateral right, 58% (65/112) unilateral left, and 14% (16/112) bilateral. Incidence of aspiration was 22% (580/2,650). Of those with VFI, 40% (45/112) aspirated, i.e., 42% (13/31) unilateral right, 37% (24/65) unilateral left, and 50% (8/16) bilateral. An individual with VFI had 2.50 times the odds of aspirating as someone without VFI (95% CI = 1.86-3.37). For liquid aspiration, the odds ratio (OR) = 2.41 (95% CI = 1.77-3.28), and for puree aspiration, OR = 2.08 (95% CI = 1.47-2.93). Left VFI occurred most frequently due to surgical trauma. Liquid was aspirated more often than a puree. Males exhibited VFI more often than females. Side of VFI and age were not factors that increased the incidence of aspiration significantly. It was confirmed that VFI is not an uncommon finding during dysphagia testing and, when present, increased the odds of aspiration compared to a population already being evaluated for dysphagia.

  10. Communication on energy: who pays for the long-term costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The question in the title arises in making a fair comparison between a coal-fired station, which has no long-term costs, and a nuclear station, whose large long-term costs are discounted into insignificance by the present method of calculation. This problem was raised by the present author in his evidence to the Sizewell Inquiry, and has recently been discussed by the House of Commons Select Committee on Energy, who expressed grave disquiet that 'the costs of decommissioning become almost irrelevant to the current economics of nuclear power'. The present article analyses the bizarre effects of long-term discounting, and suggests a method of making a fair and symmetrical comparison between coal-fired and nuclear stations. (author)

  11. Esophageal atresia: long-term interdisciplinary follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia B. Giúdici

    2016-07-01

    -hospitalization for clinical causes: 0; surgical reinterventions: 7%.Conclusions: Patients with EA are at risk for long-term morbidity and impairments. Long-term follow-up should be warranted for them.

  12. Long-Term Recovery of Life in the Chicxulub Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, C.; Jones, H.; Bralower, T. J.; Smit, J.; Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J.; Whalen, M. T.; Owens, J. D.; Expedition 364 Science Party, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub Crater on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico was formed by the impact of an asteroid 66 Ma that caused the extinction of 75% of genera on Earth. Immediately following the impact, the decimated ecosystem began the long process of recovery, both in terms of primary productivity and species diversity. This well-documented process was heterogeneous across the world ocean, but until the present time it has been inaccessible at ground zero of the impact. IODP/ICDP Exp. 364 recovered 9.5 m of pelagic limestone spanning the entire Paleocene, including a continuous section spanning the first 5 myr following the impact. The Chicxulub Crater is the largest known marine impact crater on Earth, and the recovery of the ecosystem presented here is the first such record of long-term primary succession in the sterile zone of a large impact crater. Planktic and benthic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, calcispheres, bioturbation, and geochemical proxies all indicate that export productivity in the Chicxulub Crater recovered rapidly (within 30 kyr) following the impact. Recovery in terms of diversity and species abundance took much longer, and varied between groups. Planktic foraminifera quickly diversified, with all common Paleocene tropical/subtropical species appearing roughly when expected. Trace fossils appear rapidly after the event, with a progressive recovery through the lowermost Paleocene. Calcareous nannoplankton took much longer to recover, and disaster taxa like Braarudosphaera dominated the assemblage well into the late Paleocene. Paleoecology and geochemistry relate these trends to oceanographic conditions within the Chicxulub Crater. Planktic foraminifera from known depth habitats, including Morozovellids, Acarininids, Chiloguembelinids, and Subbotinids, track changes in the water column structure and paleoredox conditions within the crater. Diverse and abundant macro- and microbenthic organisms indicate food availability and good oxygen conditions

  13. Cost considerations for long-term ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlan, L.; Oakley, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    For an ecological monitoring program to be successful over the long-term, the perceived benefits of the information must justify the cost. Financial limitations will always restrict the scope of a monitoring program, hence the program’s focus must be carefully prioritized. Clearly identifying the costs and benefits of a program will assist in this prioritization process, but this is easier said than done. Frequently, the true costs of monitoring are not recognized and are, therefore, underestimated. Benefits are rarely evaluated, because they are difficult to quantify. The intent of this review is to assist the designers and managers of long-term ecological monitoring programs by providing a general framework for building and operating a cost-effective program. Previous considerations of monitoring costs have focused on sampling design optimization. We present cost considerations of monitoring in a broader context. We explore monitoring costs, including both budgetary costs, what dollars are spent on, and economic costs, which include opportunity costs. Often, the largest portion of a monitoring program budget is spent on data collection, and other, critical aspects of the program, such as scientific oversight, training, data management, quality assurance, and reporting, are neglected. Recognizing and budgeting for all program costs is therefore a key factor in a program’s longevity. The close relationship between statistical issues and cost is discussed, highlighting the importance of sampling design, replication and power, and comparing the costs of alternative designs through pilot studies and simulation modeling. A monitoring program development process that includes explicit checkpoints for considering costs is presented. The first checkpoint occurs during the setting of objectives and during sampling design optimization. The last checkpoint occurs once the basic shape of the program is known, and the costs and benefits, or alternatively the cost

  14. Update Knowledge Base for Long-term Core Cooling Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, Maria; Sandervag, Oddbjoern; Amri, Abdallah; ); Bang, Young S.; Blomart, Philippe; Broecker, Annette; Pointner, Winfried; Ganzmann, Ingo; Lenogue, Bruno; Guzonas, David; Herer, Christophe; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Tricottet, Matthieu; Masaoka, Hideaki; Soltesz, Vojtech; Tarkiainen, Seppo; Ui, Atsushi; Villalba, Cristina; Zigler, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    at that time. Subsequent to the publication of NEA/CSNI/R(95)11, a number of new issues (e.g., chemical effects, downstream effects and long-term effects) have been identified that have reopened the topic of strainer performance. This revised knowledge-base document has been developed to update the knowledge base by incorporating the considerable quantity of research completed, and the lessons learned, since 1996. It was recognized from the beginning that differences in the issue status and the methods (regulatory aspects, resolution of issues and research and development actions) used to address the strainer clogging remained a challenge, and the NEA Sump Clogging Task Team chose to focus on generic issues. The present report includes not only an update of the previous information, but also two new topics on chemical effects and downstream effects. In addition, while NEA/CSNI/R(95)11 focused on BWRs, the present update includes a significant amount of new information related to PWRs, leading in particular to a very much expanded Appendix on 'Experimental Investigations and Test Facilities'. This document was prepared by the NEA Sump Clogging Task Team

  15. Intergenerational equity and long-term stewardship plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    For an untold number of contaminated sites throughout the world, stewardship will be inevitable. For many such sites, stewardship will be a reasonable approach because of the uncertainties associated with present and future site conditions and site contaminants, the limited performance of available technologies, the nonavailability of technologies, and the risk and cost associated with complete cleanup. Regardless of whether stewardship is a realistic approach to site situations or simply a convenient default, it could be required at most contaminated sites for multiple generations. Because the stewardship plan is required to protect the release of hazardous contaminants to the environment, some use restrictions will be put in place to provide that protection. These use restrictions will limit access to resources for as long as the protection is required. The intergenerational quality of long-term stewardship plans and their inherent limitations on resource use require that they be designed to achieve equity among the affected generations. Intergenerational equity, defined here as the fairness of access to resources across generations, could be achieved through a well-developed stewardship plan that provides future generations with the information they need to make wise decisions about resource use. Developing and implementing such a plan would take into account the failure mechanisms of the plan's components, feature short stewardship time blocks that would allow for periodic reassessments of the site and of the stewardship program's performance, and provide present and future generations with necessary site information

  16. Long-term integrity of buildings and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, P.

    1985-01-01

    The present study relates to the conditions of holding nuclear power stations in a safe state after their final shutdown. To assess the reasonable duration of the waiting period before complete dismantling of the installations, it was deemed necessary: to investigate the causes and consequences of the ageing of a nuclear power station, with particular regard to the safety-relevant constituents such as the barriers against the dispersion of contamination, and to evaluate the possible problems of safety, maintenance and decommissioning cost. In the present document, the methodology is developed that is to apply in the particular case of a power station finally shut down which is to be decommissioned and dismantled later. For a detailed exercise of this methodology, the Framatome 900 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor station has been taken as a reference plant. The plan which has been elaborated for this study and for the examination of the technical problems has been conceived so as to suggest to the author of a similar study for a particular power station, all the points he has to consider. One chapter of this document has been devoted to showing the basic differences between the 900 MWe PWR reference plant and the other types of nuclear power station existing in the European Community (e.g., BWR, GCR, FBR) and to identify the consequences concerning the decommissioning and the long-term integrity of the installations. 84 refs [fr

  17. Long-term monitoring of blazars - the DWARF network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Michael; Biland, Adrian; Boller, Andrea; Braun, Isabel; Bretz, Thomas; Commichau, Sebastian; Commichau, Volker; Dorner, Daniela; von Gunten, Hanspeter; Gendotti, Adamo; Grimm, Oliver; Hildebrand, Dorothée; Horisberger, Urs; Krähenbühl, Thomas; Kranich, Daniel; Lustermann, Werner; Mannheim, Karl; Neise, Dominik; Pauss, Felicitas; Renker, Dieter; Rhode, Wolfgang; Rissi, Michael; Rollke, Sebastian; Röser, Ulf; Stark, Luisa Sabrina; Stucki, Jean-Pierre; Viertel, Gert; Vogler, Patrick; Weitzel, Quirin

    The variability of the very high energy (VHE) emission from blazars seems to be connected with the feeding and propagation of relativistic jets and with their origin in supermassive black hole binaries. The key to understanding their properties is measuring well-sampled gamma-ray lightcurves, revealing the typical source behavior unbiased by prior knowledge from other wavebands. Using ground-based gamma-ray observatories with exposures limited by dark-time, a global network of several telescopes is needed to carry out fulltime measurements. Obviously, such observations are time-consuming and, therefore, cannot be carried out with the present state of the art instruments. The DWARF telescope on the Canary Island of La Palma is dedicated to monitoring observations. It is currently being set up, employing a costefficient and robotic design. Part of this project is the future construction of a distributed network of small telescopes. The physical motivation of VHE long-term monitoring will be outlined in detail and the perspective for a network for 24/7 observations will be presented.

  18. Multiresolution with Hierarchical Modulations for Long Term Evolution of UMTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Armando

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Long Term Evolution (LTE of UMTS the Interactive Mobile TV scenario is expected to be a popular service. By using multiresolution with hierarchical modulations this service is expected to be broadcasted to larger groups achieving significant reduction in power transmission or increasing the average throughput. Interactivity in the uplink direction will not be affected by multiresolution in the downlink channels, since it will be supported by dedicated uplink channels. The presence of interactivity will allow for a certain amount of link quality feedback for groups or individuals. As a result, an optimization of the achieved throughput will be possible. In this paper system level simulations of multi-cellular networks considering broadcast/multicast transmissions using the OFDM/OFDMA based LTE technology are presented to evaluate the capacity, in terms of number of TV channels with given bit rates or total spectral efficiency and coverage. multiresolution with hierarchical modulations is presented to evaluate the achievable throughput gain compared to single resolution systems of Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS standardised in Release 6.

  19. Comparison of two humidification systems for long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Cirio, S; Fanfulla, F; Carlucci, A; Navarra, A; Negri, A; Ceriana, P

    2008-08-01

    There is no consensus concerning the best system of humidification during long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). In a technical pilot randomised crossover 12-month study, 16 patients with stable chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure received either heated humidification or heat and moisture exchanger. Compliance with long-term NIMV, airway symptoms, side-effects and number of severe acute pulmonary exacerbations requiring hospitalisation were recorded. Two patients died. Intention-to-treat statistical analysis was performed on 14 patients. No significant differences were observed in compliance with long-term NIMV, but 10 out of 14 patients decided to continue long-term NIMV with heated humidification at the end of the trial. The incidence of side-effects, except for dry throat (significantly more often present using heat and moisture exchanger), hospitalisations and pneumonia were not significantly different. In the present pilot study, the use heated humidification and heat and moisture exchanger showed similar tolerance and side-effects, but a higher number of patients decided to continue long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation with heated humidification. Further larger studies are required in order to confirm these findings.

  20. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  1. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part I: theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun – either now or in the past, the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  2. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  3. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part I: theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun – either now or in the past, the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  4. Long-term oceanographic observations in Massachusetts Bay, 1989-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.; Borden, Jonathan; Casso, Michael A.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Hastings, Mary E.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Rendigs, Richard R.; Strahle, William S.

    2009-01-01

    This data report presents long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at long-term site A (LT-A) (42 deg 22.6' N., 70 deg 47.0' W.; nominal water depth 32 meters) from December 1989 through February 2006 and long-term site B (LT-B) (42 deg 9.8' N., 70 deg 38.4' W.; nominal water depth 22 meters) from October 1997 through February 2004 (fig. 1). The observations were collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study designed to understand the transport and long-term fate of sediments and associated contaminants in Massachusetts Bay. The observations include time-series measurements of current, temperature, salinity, light transmission, pressure, oxygen, fluorescence, and sediment-trapping rate. About 160 separate mooring or tripod deployments were made on about 90 research cruises to collect these long-term observations. This report presents a description of the 16-year field program and the instrumentation used to make the measurements, an overview of the data set, more than 2,500 pages of statistics and plots that summarize the data, and the digital data in Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. This research was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority and the U.S. Coast Guard.

  5. Global prospects for nuclear power development in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Boris A.

    1994-01-01

    supply, in the world and by region. In the long term, up to 2100, the broad range of uncertainties with regard to population, economic growth and technology evolution prevent from any sound forecast in the field of energy and in particular of nuclear power. The scenario presented in the paper has been prepared for the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in order to illustrate the potential role of nuclear power in alleviating greenhouse gas emissions. The global energy demand projections established by IPCC, which serve as a basis for the nuclear power scenario, assume high economic growth, drastic energy efficiency improvement and the implementation of voluntary policies for greenhouse gas reduction. Under these assumptions, it is estimated that the total primary energy consumption in the world will reach some 660 EJ per annum in 2100 as compared to 330 EJ per annum in 1985. Since the world population is expected to more than double during this time frame, it means that the average energy consumption per capita will a sustained deployment of nuclear power worldwide as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. Although this scenario would require strong commitment to the development of nuclear energy, technical and industrial capabilities would enable its implementation. In view of the potential role of nuclear power in sustainable energy supply strategies, there is a need for continued research and development aiming towards the design and implementation of advanced reactors with enhanced safety, technical and economic performance. Natural nuclear fuel resources could support a broad deployment of nuclear energy production as a major part of the mix of options for sustainable supply in the long term. The challenge for the nuclear industry is to restore the confidence in nuclear energy and enhance its social acceptability through the design and implementation of sound technical solutions for nuclear power plants, fuel cycle

  6. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-12-15

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  7. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  8. Is there an upward long term trend in Danish real house prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, like in other countries, there is no agreement on the fundamental long term path of real house prices and the sustainability of the present price level. The paper presents Danish house price indices and discusses the question of quality correction of the indices. Subsequently, factors...... behind the long term trend in real house prices and its sustainability are discussed. The paper finds an annual real growth trend around 1.5 per cent for Danish single family house prices likely for the coming ten years....

  9. Price-signals and long term equilibrium. Reconsidering the organisation of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique; Defeuilley, Christophe; Marty, Frederic

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that the reform of the electricity sector, based on a framework of interpretation in which the short-term/long-term articulation is made by the market price, does not result in an efficient result in terms of investment. After a presentation of a bibliographical review on investment in an uncertain context, the authors present a model of decentralised electricity markets which backs reforms. They highlight issues related to production investment which remain unresolved, and which may result in socially inefficient choices on the long term. They report an analysis of two solutions of industrial organisations, long term contracts and vertical and horizontal integration, which could solve these problems

  10. Emergency Response and Long Term Planning: Two sides of the Coin for Managing Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metchis, K.; Beller-Simms, N.

    2014-12-01

    As projected by the US National Climate Assessment and the IPCC, extreme climate and weather events are occurring more frequently and with more intensity across the nation. Communities - and the water resource managers that serve them - are facing difficult choices to increase emergency preparedness, recover from costly impacts, and increase long term resilience. The presentation is based on a recent set of case studies about what happened in six communities that experienced one or more extreme events, focusing on water resource management. Two of the case studies will be presented, revealing that building climate resilience is not just about long term planning - it is also about taking the steps to be prepared for - and to be able to recover from - emergency events. The results of this study have implications for educating local officials on ways to think about resilience to balance both long-term and short-term preparedness.

  11. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-01-01

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg o ) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg o -not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p o could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress

  12. Analysis of long-term behaviour of nuclear reactor containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, Z. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: Zbynek.Hora@fsv.cvut.cz; Patzak, B. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2007-02-15

    For assessment of safety and durability of a nuclear power plant (NPP), knowledge of the containment behaviour under various service and extreme conditions is crucial. To perform reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure, a sufficiently realistic but still feasible numerical model must be used, in which the relevant physical phenomena are reflected. Therefore, a constitutive model for concrete including effects of moisture and heat transfer, cement hydration, creep, shrinkage and optionally microcracking of concrete should be chosen. The present paper focuses on the simulation of the service life of NPP containment, aiming to determine the material and model parameters to enable reliable prediction of structural behaviour under various conditions. The purpose of the work is to provide a numerical model calibrated using existing measurements to predict the long-term behaviour reliably. Extensive in situ measurements are used to calibrate the model and to check the validity of the model hypotheses. Moreover, the material model parameters are systematically re-calibrated based on the continuous monitoring of the structure. The structural integrity test is reanalysed numerically to show the model capability of predicting behaviour of the structure under given loading and climate conditions.

  13. Long-term carbon loss in fragmented Neotropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Sandro; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Henle, Klaus; Knogge, Christoph; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo; Metz, Markus; Metzger, Jean Paul; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; de Paula, Mateus Dantas; Huth, Andreas

    2014-10-07

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they store a large amount of carbon (C). Tropical forest deforestation has been identified as a major source of CO2 emissions, though biomass loss due to fragmentation--the creation of additional forest edges--has been largely overlooked as an additional CO2 source. Here, through the combination of remote sensing and knowledge on ecological processes, we present long-term carbon loss estimates due to fragmentation of Neotropical forests: within 10 years the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has lost 69 (±14) Tg C, and the Amazon 599 (±120) Tg C due to fragmentation alone. For all tropical forests, we estimate emissions up to 0.2 Pg C y(-1) or 9 to 24% of the annual global C loss due to deforestation. In conclusion, tropical forest fragmentation increases carbon loss and should be accounted for when attempting to understand the role of vegetation in the global carbon balance.

  14. Cell response to long term mechanical interaction with nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Singhal, Riju; Vitol, Elina; Bouchard, Michael; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Layton, Bradley; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2009-03-01

    Traditional microinjection into cells is performed over a relatively short term. Pipettes are typically withdrawn following any kind of injection. On the other hand, there is growing interest in using nanopipettes for cellular and subcellular probing. This interest is partly due to new developments in nanopipette technology which employ carbon nanotubes and provide robustness, flexibility, and biocompatibility. However, as far as we know, no systematic study of physiological, biochemical, and biophysical processes associated with cell response to lengthy mechanical stimulations by nanopipette probing have been performed so far. We present a detailed investigation of a wide range of effects of long term pipette insertion into a cell. Both traditional glass micropipettes and the novel carbon nanotube-tipped probes were involved in this study. The mechanism of Ca2+ response to the mechanical stimuli introduced by the nanopipette, and the role of different organelles in this mechanism were studied. We hypothesize that the calcium response is a function of cytoskeleton integrity and the mode of coupling between the cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane domains.

  15. Development of a Long Term Cooling Analysis Methodology Using Rappel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. I.; Jeong, J. H.; Ban, C. H.; Oh, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the revision of the 10CFR50.46 in 1988, which allowed BE (Best-Estimate) method in analyzing the safety performance of a nuclear power plant, safety analysis methodologies have been changed continuously from conservative EM (Evaluation Model) approaches to BE ones. In this context, LSC (Long-Term core Cooling) methodologies have been reviewed by the regulatory bodies of USA and Korea. Some non-conservatism and improperness of the old methodology have been identified, and as a result, USNRC suspended the approval of CENPD-254-P-A which is the old LSC methodology for CE-designed NPPs. Regulatory bodies requested to remove the non-conservatisms and to reflect system transient behaviors in all the LSC methodologies used. In the present study, a new LSC methodology using RELAP5 is developed. RELAP5 and a newly developed code, BACON (Boric Acid Concentration Of Nuclear power plant) are used to calculate the transient behavior of the system and the boric acid concentration, respectively. Full range of break spectrum is considered and the applicability is confirmed through plant demonstration calculations. The result shows a good comparison with the old-fashioned ones, therefore, the methodology could be applied with no significant changes of current LSC plans

  16. The dangers of long-term catheter drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowthian, P

    There are many dangers associated with long-term urinary bladder drainage by catheter. For various reasons, the choice of catheter is important, and its initial insertion can be particularly hazardous. All catheterizations should, however, be safer when there is some urine (or other fluid) in the bladder. The appropriate choice of drainage system attached to the catheter can delay bacterial invasion of the bladder. Great care is needed to prevent blockage of the system, particularly when bacteriuria is present. Recent evidence indicates that some bacteria encourage the development of encrustations, so that, in some circumstances, catheters may become blocked within 24 hours. This, together with other considerations, strongly suggests that indwelling catheters should be changed at intervals of not more than 5 days. The practical implications of this are considered, as are the benefits that may accrue. Accidental catheter traction is another danger, and some possible methods of avoiding this are discussed. Finally, the need for a new kind of drainage-bag support is highlighted.

  17. Long-term storage of compressed radioactive krypton in cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, D.; Nommensen, O.; Bruecher, H.

    1982-01-01

    The recommendations of the German Radiation Protection Commission necessitate the separation of the radioactive noble gas krypton-85 (Kr-85) produced in large LWR reprocessing plants from the dissolver off-gas. A possible method of removal is a long-term storage of the compressed noble gas above ground in cylinders. The aim of the present study is to develop such a storage concept and evaluate its feasibility under the aspects of safety and cost. After having been filled, the gas cylinders are placed separately into transport racks serving to protect the cylinders. Following this, the cylinders are transferred out of the filling station in a transport cask, conveyed to the storage building and stored there. The storage building protects the gas cylinders against external impacts. The storage cells constitute a second barrier against the release of Kr-85. The heat produced during decay of the Kr-85 in the gas cylinders is carried off by natural convection of the air circulating in the storage cells. To study possible corrosion attack on special steels due to rubidium, experiments were conducted at 200 0 C during test periods up to 3500h. In order to compare properties at elevated temperatures, corrosion experiments were conducted at 500 0 C, which is far above the maximum licensed storage temperature of 200 0 C. Experiments were conducted concerning the adsorption of krypton on various adsorbents, thus reducing the pressure inside the gas cylinder during storage. A cost estimate based on 1980 prices

  18. Foresight of nuclear generation at long term in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guadarrama L, R.; Sanchez R, O. E.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the nuclear generation expansion for the period 2008-2030. The main objective is to plan the expansion of electrical generation system at long term taking into account four decision criteria. These are, the total cost of generation, the risk associated whit changes in fuel prices, the diversity of the generation park and polluting emissions of global impact (greenhouse effect gases) and local effects (acid rain and suspended particles). The analyzed expansion plans were developed using a model of uni nodal planning called WASP-IV. The analysis methodology was based on four steps. The first consisted in developing, with model WASP-IV, different expansion plans of the electrical generation system that fulfill the energy demand and certain conditions of the study in which was optimized the additions program of generator units searching the minimal cost of electrical generation. The second step was to calculate the generation costs of each plan for two scenarios of fuel prices, also with model WASP-IV. Later was calculated the diversity index and the accumulated emissions during the expansion and the avoided emission of CO 2 when units of combined cycle that burn natural gas are replaced by nuclear power units. (Author)

  19. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program procedures: fish monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Eric N.; Glittinger, Eric J.; O'Hara, T. Matt; Ickes, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    This manual constitutes the second revision of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) element Fish Procedures Manual. The original (1988) manual merged and expanded on ideas and recommendations related to Upper Mississippi River fish sampling presented in several early documents. The first revision to the manual was made in 1995 reflecting important protocol changes, such as the adoption of a stratified random sampling design. The 1995 procedures manual has been an important document through the years and has been cited in many reports and scientific manuscripts. The resulting data collected by the LTRMP fish component represent the largest dataset on fish within the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) with more than 44,000 collections of approximately 5.7 million fish. The goal of this revision of the procedures manual is to document changes in LTRMP fish sampling procedures since 1995. Refinements to sampling methods become necessary as monitoring programs mature. Possible refinements are identified through field experiences (e.g., sampling techniques and safety protocols), data analysis (e.g., planned and studied gear efficiencies and reallocations of effort), and technological advances (e.g., electronic data entry). Other changes may be required because of financial necessity (i.e., unplanned effort reductions). This version of the LTRMP fish monitoring manual describes the most current (2014) procedures of the LTRMP fish component.

  20. [Outsourcing in long-term care: a risk management approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Cristina Machado; Carvalho, José Crespo de

    2012-05-01

    This article seeks to investigate outsourcing decisions in supply chain management of healthcare organizations, namely the motives and constraints behind the decision, the selection criteria for activities to be outsourced to third parties, the type of possible agreements, and the impact of this decision on the organization per se. A case study of the start-up phase of a Long-term Care unit with an innovative approach and high levels of customization was conducted to understand the outsourcing process in a start-up context (not in the standard context of organizational change) and a risk evaluation matrix was created for outsourcing activities in order to define and implement a performance monitoring process. This study seeks to understand how to evaluate and assess the risks of an outsourcing strategy and proposes a monitoring model using risk management tools. It was shown that the risk management approach can be a solution for monitoring outsourcing in the organizational start-up phase. Conclusions concerning dissatisfaction with the results of outsourcing strategies adopted are also presented.