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Sample records for long-term high-physiological-dose growth

  1. Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Haugaard, S B; Jensen, Frank Krieger

    2010-01-01

    , glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral...... between 1 and 3 pm for 40 weeks. Endpoints included changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), limb fat mass, percentage of limb fat, plasma lipids, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. RESULTS: VAT and trunk fat mass decreased significantly in the GH group compared...

  2. Long-term control of root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  3. Projecting long term medical spending growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borger, Christine; Rutherford, Thomas F; Won, Gregory Y

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamic general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy and the medical sector in which the adoption of new medical treatments is endogenous and the demand for medical services is conditional on the state of technology. We use this model to prepare 75-year medical spending forecasts and a projection of the Medicare actuarial balance, and we compare our results to those obtained from a method that has been used by government actuaries. Our baseline forecast predicts slower health spending growth in the long run and a lower Medicare actuarial deficit relative to the previous projection methodology.

  4. Long-term salt stress responsive growth, carbohydrate metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the long-term responses of tobacco tissues to salt stress, with a particular interest for growth parameters, proline (Pro) accumulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Exposure of 17-day-old tobacco plants to 0.2 M NaCl was followed by a higher decrease in dry matter in roots than shoots with a decrease of ...

  5. Resuming growth in Latin America: short and long term policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Lopez G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper assert that the paralysis of the state generated by the crises of the 1970s and 1980s deprived the economies of the region of an important lever to resume and sustain growth. They thus maintain that to overcome stagnation it will be necessary to reconstruct the state's capacity to implement pro-growth policies. Following Keynes and Kalecki's ideas, but also classical development economists, the authors argue, first, that short-term macroeconomic policies, to reduce unemployment and to increase the degree of capacity utilization, should be used to promote the generation of profits to firms and to wake up entrepreneurs' animal spirits. Short-term expansionary policies should be coupled with measures to improve competitiveness and avoid balance of payments problems. They also claim that alternatives to the liberal programme will fail unless a pro-growth strategy is adopted which includes both short- and long-term policies. They thus propose that long-term policies must complete the package, signaling: a sustained increases of effective demand in the future; and b investment priorities to ensure that capacities will be created in strategic sectors and branches of the economy.

  6. The Lack of a Long-Term Growth Effect of Annosus Control in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. H. Tainter; J. G. Williams; N. J. Hess; S. W. Oak; D. A. Starkey

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of basal area increment was made in 1988 of six pine plantations located across the southeastern United States. These plantations had been thinned in 1969-1970 and stumps treated with borax to measure long-term efficacy of annosus root rot control. In the present study, no long-term growth effects were identified. There were neither negative growth...

  7. Exploration of life experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors, from their perspective. Fifteen long-term survivors of childhood cancer provided descriptions of their experiences. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and the analysis was based on Giorgi's phenomenological research method. The analysis of positive growth experienced by long-term childhood cancer survivors revealed three themes: self-directed life, normalcy in life, and inner maturity. Long-term survivors defined positive growth as a successful transition to a self-satisfactory life based on motivation acquired through their cancer experience and on subjective goal-setting, as well as becoming cancer-free and living a normal life within society. They seemed to have acquired optimistic, flexible, active attitudes toward life while demonstrating profound gratefulness and consideration of people around them, as well as prudent approaches to health. The findings of this study verified that long-term survivors of childhood cancer have grown positively due to their negative past experience. We expect these findings to contribute to the development of programs that promote positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The investigation on the relationship between the problem of long-term loan and economic growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie Du

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-Since the reform and opening-up policy,the long-term problem of loans became more and more serious when China's economy maintained rapid growth.The purpose of this paper is to explore the profound causes of the medium-and long-term problem of loans and the relationship between it and economic growth.Design/methodology/approach-Using panel data for 28 provinces and cities of China during 1994-2005,this paper investigates the determinants on the maturity of bank credit using threshold panel data of Hansen.In addition,using dynamics panel data,this paper investigates the effects of the maturity structure of bank credit on economic growth.Findings-The drop of bank industry concentration tends to increase the supply of long-term loans.The raise of economic growth and the increase of industrialization degree promote the demand of long-term loans,significantly.Furthermore,the threshold effects of inflation exist.When the initial inflation is lower than 3.9 percent,the raise of inflation can increase the supply of long-term loans.When the initial inflation is higher than 3.9 percent,the raise of inflation can decrease the supply of long-term loans.The increase in the supply of long-term loans can promote the economic growth.Originality/value-The paper has two innovations:first,when studying the determinants on the maturity of bank credit,using the threshold panel approach takes account of the nonlinear adjustment of inflation;second,including the maturity of bank credit into the realm of financial development studies the relationship between this and economic growth.

  9. In vitro generation of long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells by fibroblast growth factor-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G; Weersing, E; Dontje, B; van Os, R; Bystrykh, LV; Vellenga, E; Miller, G

    The role of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors (FGFRs) in the regulation of normal hematopoietic stem cells is unknown. Here we show that, in mouse bone marrow, long-term repopulating stem cells are found exclusively in the FGFR(+) cell fraction. During differentiation toward committed

  10. Restoring old-growth southern pine ecosystems: strategic lessons from long-term silvicultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; James M. Guldin

    2008-01-01

    The successful restoration of old-growth-like loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated forests requires the integration of ecological information with long-term silvicultural research from places such as the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF). Conventional management practices such as timber harvesting or competition control have supplied...

  11. Synaptic remodeling, synaptic growth and the storage of long-term memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic remodeling and synaptic growth accompany various forms of long-term memory. Storage of the long-term memory for sensitization of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia has been extensively studied in this respect and is associated with the growth of new synapses by the sensory neurons onto their postsynaptic target neurons. Recent time-lapse imaging studies of living sensory-to-motor neuron synapses in culture have monitored both functional and structural changes simultaneously so as to follow remodeling and growth at the same specific synaptic connections continuously over time and to examine the functional contribution of these learning-related structural changes to the different time-dependent phases of memory storage. Insights provided by these studies suggest the synaptic differentiation and growth induced by learning in the mature nervous system are highly dynamic and often rapid processes that can recruit both molecules and mechanisms used for de novo synapse formation during development.

  12. The potential impact of urban growth simulation on the long-term planning of our cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waldeck, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of urban growth simulation on the long-term planning of our cities 4th Biennial Conference Presented by: Dr Louis Waldeck Date: 10 October 2012 Slide 2 of 17 Why Urban Growth Simulation? ? Reduced carbon footprint ? Reduce resource consumption... of the population concentrated in cities and the opportunities to gain efficiencies, cities are the most important arena for intervention.? Maurice Strong Unabated urbanisation Quest for sustainable development What makes a city sustainable? Slide 3 of 17...

  13. Dynamic and Long-term Linkages among Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Katsushi S. Imai; Raghav Gaiha

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Drawing upon a cross-country panel data for developing countries, the present study sheds new empirical light on dynamic and long-term linkages among growth, inequality and poverty. First, agricultural sector growth is found to be consistently the most important factor in reducing inequality and poverty not only through its direct effects but also through its indirect effects. Second, there is a significant and negative association between inequality and GDP per capita, with macro in...

  14. Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: a critical evaluation of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard L; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-05-01

    Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications for their output. Here, we critically evaluate the consistency, sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of four most widely used GDMs: conservative detrending (CD) applies mathematical functions to correct for decreasing ring widths with age; basal area correction (BAC) transforms diameter into basal area growth; regional curve standardization (RCS) detrends individual tree-ring series using average age/size trends; and size class isolation (SCI) calculates growth trends within separate size classes. First, we evaluated whether these GDMs produce consistent results applied to an empirical tree-ring data set of Melia azedarach, a tropical tree species from Thailand. Three GDMs yielded similar results - a growth decline over time - but the widely used CD method did not detect any change. Second, we assessed the sensitivity (probability of correct growth-trend detection), reliability (100% minus probability of detecting false trends) and accuracy (whether the strength of imposed trends is correctly detected) of these GDMs, by applying them to simulated growth trajectories with different imposed trends: no trend, strong trends (-6% and +6% change per decade) and weak trends (-2%, +2%). All methods except CD, showed high sensitivity, reliability and accuracy to detect strong imposed trends. However, these were considerably lower in the weak or no-trend scenarios. BAC showed good sensitivity and accuracy, but low reliability, indicating uncertainty of trend detection using this method. Our study reveals that the choice of GDM influences results of growth-trend studies. We recommend applying multiple methods when analysing trends and encourage performing sensitivity and reliability

  15. Long-term monitoring of Sacramento Shade program trees: tree survival, growth and energy-saving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekang Ko; Jun-Hak Lee; E. Gregory McPherson; Lara A. Roman

    2015-01-01

    Long-term survival and growth of urban forests are critical to achieve the targeted benefits of urban tree planting programs, such as building energy savings from tree shade. However, little is known about how trees perform in the long-term, especially in residential areas. Given this gap in the literature, we monitored 22-years of post-planting survival, growth, and...

  16. Effect of long-term growth hormone treatment on bone mass and bone metabolism in growth hormone-deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, N; Holzmann, PJ; ter Maaten, JC; Stuurman, LM; Roos, JC; Lips, P

    2005-01-01

    Long-term GH treatment in GH-deficient men resulted in a continuous increase in bone turnover as shown by histomorphometry. BMD continuously increased in all regions of interest, but more in the regions with predominantly cortical bone. Introduction: Adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency have

  17. THE EMPLOYMENT – PRODUCTIVITY – SALARY RELATION, A CONDITION FOR ACHIEVING LONG - TERM ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment-productivity-salary correlation is essential towards setting up conditions for economic growth andlasting social stability. An influence exists from technological changes, current stage of economic development,peculiarities of labour offer, employers – trade-unions interaction, etc. The analysis covers long-term and short-termcycles. In keeping with specificity of development stages, national economy witnesses an interval of productivitygrowth facilitating maximized employment and a rise in salary too. A lower growth rate indicates difficulties inassimilating new technologies; a higher growth rate generates instability in employing labour. Thus, the exercise ofstrong pressure is shown to exist on economic and technological structures. Likewise, this is what happens whenproductivity goes ahead of the separate analyses of the correlations between employment and productivity, on theone hand, and productivity and salary, on the other.

  18. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  19. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE ON LONG TERM ECONOMIC GROWTH IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strike Mbulawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate for the Botswana economy has slowed down in recent years. This has been explained by weak global demand in minerals, subdued commodity prices and persistent electricity supply problems. The government is making efforts to diversify the economy to tap from other sources of growth. The government has come with two initiatives to boast growth: increasing expenditure on roads and improved generation of electricity. Literature has failed to agree on the causal linkage between growth and infrastructure development.  Previous studies employed different measures of infrastructure development and models resulting in conflicting findings. As a point of departure this study uses a log linear model and different measures of growth and infrastructure to examine the link between the two variables in the context of Botswana. Using vector error correction model and Ordinary Least Squares the study finds that long term economic growth is explained by both measures of infrastructure (electricity distribution and maintenance of roads. The impact of the former was more pronounced than the impact of the later. Evidence supports the infrastructure led growth hypothesis.

  20. Is subfertility or fertility treatment associated with long-term growth in the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    . CONCLUSION(S): There were no differences in child anthropometrics at 5 years between children conceived after fertility treatment or by subfertile parents compared with that of children born to fertile parents. However, children born after fertility treatment may show catch-up growth during childhood.......(S): A total of 3,478 mother-child pairs were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort, and 1,773 completed the outcome measurements. A total of 69 children were born after fertility treatment, whereas 132 were born to subfertile parents conceiving spontaneously but after a time to pregnancy of more than......OBJECTIVE: To study whether fertility treatment or subfertility is associated with long-term growth in the offspring. DESIGN: A prospective follow-up study including 1,773 singletons participating in the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study at the age of 5. SETTING: Research centers. PATIENT...

  1. Grain Growth and Precipitation Behavior of Iridium Alloy DOP-26 During Long Term Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Dean T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, Ethan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cox, Victoria A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Geer, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The influence of long term aging on grain growth and precipitate sizes and spatial distribution in iridium alloy DOP-26 was studied. Samples of DOP-26 were fabricated using the new process, recrystallized for 1 hour (h) at 1375 C, then aged at either 1300, 1400, or 1500 C for times ranging from 50 to 10,000 h. Grain size measurements (vertical and horizontal mean linear intercept and horizontal and vertical projection) and analyses of iridium-thorium precipitates (size and spacing) were made on the longitudinal, transverse, and rolling surfaces of the as-recrystallized and aged specimens from which the two-dimensional spatial distribution and mean sizes of the precipitates were obtained. The results obtained from this study are intended to provide input to grain growth models.

  2. A Reaction-Diffusion Model for Synapse Growth and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Lisman, John; Hagan, Michael

    Memory storage involves strengthening of synaptic transmission known as long-term potentiation (LTP). The late phase of LTP is associated with structural processes that enlarge the synapse. Yet, synapses must be stable, despite continual subunit turnover, over the lifetime of an encoded memory. These considerations suggest that synapses are variable-size stable structure (VSSS), meaning they can switch between multiple metastable structures with different sizes. The mechanisms underlying VSSS are poorly understood. While experiments and theory have suggested that the interplay between diffusion and receptor-scaffold interactions can lead to a preferred stable size for synaptic domains, such a mechanism cannot explain how synapses adopt widely different sizes. Here we develop a minimal reaction-diffusion model of VSSS for synapse growth, incorporating the recent observation from super-resolution microscopy that neural activity can build compositional heterogeneities within synaptic domains. We find that introducing such heterogeneities can change the stable domain size in a controlled manner. We discuss a potential connection between this model and experimental data on synapse sizes, and how it provides a possible mechanism to structurally encode graded long-term memory. We acknowledge the support from NSF INSPIRE Award number IOS-1526941 (KL, MFH, JL) and the Brandeis Center for Bioinspired Soft Materials, an NSF MRSEC, DMR- 1420382 (MFH).

  3. Long-term growth rates and effects of bleaching in Acropora hyacinthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Zachary; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the response of coral growth to natural variation in the environment, as well as to acute temperature stress under current and future climate change conditions, is critical to predicting the future health of coral reef ecosystems. As such, ecological surveys are beginning to focus on corals that live in high thermal stress environments to understand how future coral populations may adapt to climate change. We investigated the relationship between coral growth, thermal microhabitat, symbionts type, and thermal acclimatization of four species of the Acropora hyacinthus complex in back-reef lagoons in American Samoa. Coral growth was measured from August 2010 to April 2016 using horizontal planar area of coral colonies derived from photographs and in situ maximum width measurements. Despite marked intraspecific variation, we found that planar colony growth rates were significantly different among cryptic species. The highly heat tolerant A. hyacinthus variant "HE" increased in area an average of 2.9% month-1 (0.03 cm average mean radial extension month-1). By contrast, the three less tolerant species averaged 6.1% (0.07 cm average mean radial extension month-1). Planar growth rates were 40% higher on average in corals harboring Clade C versus Clade D symbiont types, although marked inter-colony variation in growth rendered this difference nonsignificant. Planar growth rates for all four species dropped to near zero following a 2015 bleaching event, independent of the visually estimated percent area of bleaching. Within 1 yr, growth rates recovered to previous levels, confirming previous studies that found sublethal effects of thermal stress on coral growth. Long-term studies of individual coral colonies provide an important tool to measure impacts of environmental change and allow integration of coral physiology, genetics, symbionts, and microclimate on reef growth patterns.

  4. Globally Increased Crop Growth and Cropping Intensity from the Long-Term Satellite-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p impact on the crop growth trend.

  5. Modeling Forest Biomass and Growth: Coupling Long-Term Inventory and Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Cook, Bruce D.; Weiskittel, Andrew; Woodall, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Combining spatially-explicit long-term forest inventory and remotely sensed information from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) datasets through statistical models can be a powerful tool for predicting and mapping above-ground biomass (AGB) at a range of geographic scales. We present and examine a novel modeling approach to improve prediction of AGB and estimate AGB growth using LiDAR data. The proposed model accommodates temporal misalignment between field measurements and remotely sensed data-a problem pervasive in such settings-by including multiple time-indexed measurements at plot locations to estimate AGB growth. We pursue a Bayesian modeling framework that allows for appropriately complex parameter associations and uncertainty propagation through to prediction. Specifically, we identify a space-varying coefficients model to predict and map AGB and its associated growth simultaneously. The proposed model is assessed using LiDAR data acquired from NASA Goddard's LiDAR, Hyper-spectral & Thermal imager and field inventory data from the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Bradley, Maine. The proposed model outperformed the time-invariant counterpart models in predictive performance as indicated by a substantial reduction in root mean squared error. The proposed model adequately accounts for temporal misalignment through the estimation of forest AGB growth and accommodates residual spatial dependence. Results from this analysis suggest that future AGB models informed using remotely sensed data, such as LiDAR, may be improved by adapting traditional modeling frameworks to account for temporal misalignment and spatial dependence using random effects.

  6. Long-term growth of Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in a southern Nevada population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medica, P.A.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Saethre, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of growth rates, age at maturity, and longevity are important aspects of a species life history and are directly applicable to life table creation and population viability analyses. We measured the growth of a cohort of 17 semi-wild Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) located in Rock Valley, Nevada over a 47-yr period beginning in 1963. The tortoises were initially marked as hatchling and juvenile animals between the years 1963 and 1965 and ranged in size from 47 to 77 mm in plastron length. We assigned ages of 1-4 yr to the tortoises at initial capture based on their body size. These tortoises were recaptured, measured, and weighed approximately annually since their initial capture. Growth of male and female tortoises did not differ significantly until animals reached the age of 23-25 yr. Annual tortoise growth was correlated with the production of ephemeral vegetation, while accounting for size, sex, and repeated measurements of the animals as well as the interval between measurements. However, the production of ephemeral plants was likewise highly correlated (non-linearly) with winter rainfall. Stochastic predation events between 2003 and 2007 decimated this cohort of tortoises. The average age of the long-term surviving tortoises from this cohort was 43 yr with a range of 39-47 yr. Twelve of the tortoises survived to the age of 39 yr and 11 of the 12 reached 40 yr.

  7. GLOBALLY INCREASED CROP GROWTH AND CROPPING INTENSITY FROM THE LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p < 0.001, and as for climatic drivers, the gradual temperature and precipitation changes have had a measurable impact on the crop growth trend.

  8. Long-term Effects of Acute Malnutrition on Growth and Body Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelijveld, Natasha; Kerac, Marko; Seal, Andrew; Wells, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Moffat

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Acute malnutrition (AM) is an important cause of child mortality worldwide and is therefore the main focus of current treatment programmes. However, given emerging evidence of early nutritional exposures affecting long term adult health, it is vital that future AM treatment strategies also start looking beyond the short term alone and consider opportunities to improve long-term outcomes in survivors. To do this, an improved evidence base on the long term implications of AM is vital. Our aim in this study was thus to explore growth, body composition and early markers of chronic disease 7 years after an episode of malnutrition. Methods: We present preliminary data from a study following up 463 ex-malnourished children and comparing them to both siblings and community controls. These are the known survivors of an original cohort of 1024 children admitted to Nutrition ward, Blantyre, Malawi from July 2006 - March 2007 for treatment of SAM. Current round of follow-up is 7 years after the original episode of malnutrition. We present preliminary analysis of study progress to date. Paired t-tests were used to analyse anthropometric data entered so far. Results: Our cohort of 463 AM survivors now have a median age of 8 yrs 7 months. 138/455 (30.3%) are HIV positive. So far, 91/107 (85%) of searches have been successful. Preliminary analysis of 90 case children shows ongoing mortality: 9/90(10%) have died in the last six years. Seven of these deaths were HIV positive and two died of a further episode of malnutrition at least two years after their first admission for SAM. Analysis of available anthropometric data shows that the ex-AM children are significantly more stunted than their community controls: HAZ -2.13(95% CI -2.48 to -1.78) vs -1.56(95% CI -2.04 to -1.07) p = 0.01). Their BMI and WAZ are similar to those of both sets of controls. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and sitting height ratio are also similar to controls. Numbers per group so far are

  9. Fertility treatment: long-term growth and mental development of the children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Bjørn

    2014-10-01

    Fertility treatment has been associated with obstetrical and perinatal complications. It is, however, uncertain whether fertility treatment or parental subfertility is associated with long-term development of the children. We aimed to assess the growth and mental health of children and adolescents conceived after fertility treatment compared to spontaneously conceived controls. First, we evaluated all previous studies comparing neurodevelopmental outcomes between children conceived after fertility treatment and spontaneous conceived controls. The systematic review clarified methodological limitations in the existing literature on the long-term development of children conceived after medical assisted reproduction. Although several studies had been published, large, well-controlled studies with long-term follow-up and thorough statistical adjustments were still few. Second, we evaluated the children's mental health by assessing the risk of mental disorders. We studied a population of 555,828 children conceived after spontaneous conception and 33,139 children conceived after fertility treatment with follow-up in 2012 when the children were 8-17 years old. The absolute risk and hazard ratio of overall and specific mental disorders were estimated while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Further, we estimated the association between subtypes of procedures, hormonal treatment, gamete types and cause of infertility on the one hand and the risk of mental disorders on the other. Children conceived after ovulation induction had a low, but significantly increased risks of autism spectrum disorders, hyperkinetic disorders, conduct, emotional, or social disorders, and tic disorders. Children conceived after IVF or ICSI showed no increased risk, except for a small risk of tic disorders. There was no risk systematically related to any specific type of hormone drug treatment. Thus, the increased risks may rely on residual confounding such as unknown parental factors

  10. Final adult height in long-term growth hormone-treated achondroplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Namba, Noriyuki; Hanioka, Yuki; Ueyama, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Natsuko; Nakano, Yukako; Izui, Masafumi; Nagamatsu, Yuiko; Kashiwagi, Hiroko; Yamamuro, Miho; Ishiura, Yoshihito; Ogitani, Ayako; Seino, Yoshiki

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gain in final height of achondroplasia (ACH) patients with long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment. We analyzed medical data of 22 adult patients (8 males and 14 females) treated with GH at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day. Optionally, tibial lengthening (TL) was performed with the Ilizalov method in 15 patients and TL as well as femoral lengthening (FL) in 6 patients. Concomitant gonadal suppression therapy with buserelin acetate was applied in 13 patients. The mean treatment periods with GH were 10.7 ± 4.0 and 9.3 ± 2.5 years for males and females, respectively. GH treatment augmented the final height +0.60 ± 0.52 SD (+3.5 cm) and +0.51 ± 1.29 SD (+2.8 cm) in males and females compared to non-treated ACH patients, respectively. Final height of ACH patients that underwent GH and TL increased +1.72 ± 0.72 SD (+10.0 cm) and +1.95 ± 1.34 SD (+9.8 cm) in males and females, respectively. GH, TL, and FL increased their final height +2.97 SD (+17.2 cm) and +3.41 ± 1.63 SD (+17.3 cm) in males and females, respectively. Gonadal suppression therapy had no impact on final height. Long-term GH treatment contributes to 2.6 and 2.1% of final adult height in male and female ACH patients, respectively.

  11. Effects of climate change on long-term population growth of pronghorn in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Harris, Grant; Turnbull, Trey T.

    2015-01-01

    Climate often drives ungulate population dynamics, and as climates change, some areas may become unsuitable for species persistence. Unraveling the relationships between climate and population dynamics, and projecting them across time, advances ecological understanding that informs and steers sustainable conservation for species. Using pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) as an ecological model, we used a Bayesian approach to analyze long-term population, precipitation, and temperature data from 18 populations in the southwestern United States. We determined which long-term (12 and 24 months) or short-term (gestation trimester and lactation period) climatic conditions best predicted annual rate of population growth (λ). We used these predictions to project population trends through 2090. Projections incorporated downscaled climatic data matched to pronghorn range for each population, given a high and a lower atmospheric CO2 concentration scenario. Since the 1990s, 15 of the pronghorn populations declined in abundance. Sixteen populations demonstrated a significant relationship between precipitation and λ, and in 13 of these, temperature was also significant. Precipitation predictors of λ were highly seasonal, with lactation being the most important period, followed by early and late gestation. The influence of temperature on λ was less seasonal than precipitation, and lacked a clear temporal pattern. The climatic projections indicated that all of these pronghorn populations would experience increased temperatures, while the direction and magnitude of precipitation had high population-specific variation. Models predicted that nine populations would be extirpated or approaching extirpation by 2090. Results were consistent across both atmospheric CO2 concentration scenarios, indicating robustness of trends irrespective of climatic severity. In the southwestern United States, the climate underpinning pronghorn populations is shifting, making conditions increasingly

  12. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females. II. Growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M B; Tonascia, J

    1981-09-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low doses of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term follow-up studies of 1458 human females exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional follow-up revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947-1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correctly among exposed and control mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factor rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women.

  14. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low dosage of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term followup study of 1458 human females exposed in-utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight, and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in-utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional followup revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947 to 1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correlated among exposed and controlled mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factors rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women

  15. The exon-3 deleted growth hormone receptor polymorphism predisposes to long-term complications of acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, M. J. E.; Biermasz, N. R.; Pereira, A. M.; van der Klaauw, A. A.; Smit, J. W. A.; Roelfsema, F.; van der Straaten, T.; Cazemier, M.; Hommes, D. W.; Kroon, H. M.; Kloppenburg, M.; Guchelaar, H.-J.; Romijn, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the genomic deletion of exon 3 of the GH receptor (d3GHR) on long-term clinical outcome of acromegaly in a well-characterized cohort of patients with long-term remission of acromegaly. We conducted a cross-sectional study. The presence of the d3GHR

  16. Long-term response to recombinant human growth hormone treatment: a new predictive mathematical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaretti, G; Ditaranto, S; Guiot, C; Vannelli, S; Matarazzo, P; Cappello, N; Stura, I; Cavallo, F

    2018-07-01

    Recombinant GH has been offered to GH-deficient (GHD) subjects for more than 30 years, in order to improve height and growth velocity in children and to enhance metabolic effects in adults. The aim of our work is to describe the long-term effect of rhGH treatment in GHD pediatric patients, suggesting a growth prediction model. A homogeneous database is defined for diagnosis and treatment modalities, based on GHD patients afferent to Hospital Regina Margherita in Turin (Italy). In this study, 232 GHD patients are selected (204 idiopathic GHD and 28 organic GHD). Each measure is shown in terms of mean with relative standard deviations (SD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). To estimate the final height of each patient on the basis of few measures, a mathematical growth prediction model [based on Gompertzian function and a mixed method based on the radial basis functions (RBFs) and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) models] was performed. The results seem to highlight the benefits of an early start of treatment, further confirming what is suggested by the literature. Generally, the RBF-PSO method shows a good reliability in the prediction of the final height. Indeed, RMSE is always lower than 4, i.e., in average the forecast will differ at most of 4 cm to the real value. In conclusion, the large and accurate database of Italian GHD patients allowed us to assess the rhGH treatment efficacy and compare the results with those obtained in other Countries. Moreover, we proposed and validated a new mathematical model forecasting the expected final height after therapy which was validated on our cohort.

  17. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  18. Long-term reorganization of structural brain networks in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Illa, Miriam; Figueras, Francesc; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-10-15

    Characterization of brain changes produced by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is among the main challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. This condition affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders. Better understanding of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR opens a window of opportunity to find potential imaging biomarkers in order to identify the infants with a high risk of having neurodevelopmental problems and apply therapies to improve their outcomes. Structural brain networks obtained from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising tool to study brain reorganization and to be used as a biomarker of neurodevelopmental alterations. In the present study this technique is applied to a rabbit animal model of IUGR, which presents some advantages including a controlled environment and the possibility to obtain high quality MRI with long acquisition times. Using a Q-Ball diffusion model, and a previously published rabbit brain MRI atlas, structural brain networks of 15 IUGR and 14 control rabbits at 70 days of age (equivalent to pre-adolescence human age) were obtained. The analysis of graph theory features showed a decreased network infrastructure (degree and binary global efficiency) associated with IUGR condition and a set of generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) weighted measures associated with abnormal neurobehavior. Interestingly, when assessing the brain network organization independently of network infrastructure by means of normalized networks, IUGR showed increased global and local efficiencies. We hypothesize that this effect could reflect a compensatory response to reduced infrastructure in IUGR. These results present new evidence on the long-term persistence of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR that could underlie behavioral and developmental alterations previously described. The described changes in network organization have the potential to be used

  19. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  20. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Children: Long-Term Modality Dependent Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, R.; Eshel, R.; Leitner, Y.; Fattal-Valevski, A.; Harel, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. Methods: This long-term, prospective design study…

  1. Transforming Growth Factor ß Recruits Persistent MAPK Signaling to Regulate Long-Term Memory Consolidation in "Aplysia Californica"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Justin; Philips, Gary T.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explore the mechanistic relationship between growth factor signaling and kinase activity that supports the protein synthesis-dependent phase of long-term memory (LTM) consolidation for sensitization of "Aplysia." Specifically, we examine LTM for tail shock-induced sensitization of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal…

  2. Long-term trends in radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in Komi Republic (northwestern Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatin, E. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)); Kolstroem, T. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)); Spiecker, H. (Univ. of Freiburg (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    Komi is situated on the eastern boundary of the European part of Russia, in the boreal region where large areas of natural forest still exist. Using radial growth measurements it was possible to attain positive long-term trends of growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) in the Komi Republic. Increases in the radial growth of Siberian spruce in the forest-tundra were 134% and in the northern taiga zone 35% over successive 50-year periods from 1901 to 1950 and from 1951 to 2000. Respectively, in the middle taiga zone a 76% increase in radial growth was found (over 100 years), whilst in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The increase in radial growth of Scots pine in the northern taiga zone was 32%. In the middle taiga zone the radial growth increase in Scots pine was 55% and in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The long-term growth trends of Komi were compared with those in other parts of Europe. (orig.)

  3. Long-term forest resilience to climate change indicated by mortality, regeneration, and growth in semiarid southern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chongyang; Liu, Hongyan; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Korolyuk, Andrey Yu; Sandanov, Denis V; Balsanova, Larisa D; Naidanov, Bulat B; Wu, Xiuchen

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have documented that regional climate warming and the resulting increase in drought stress have triggered increased tree mortality in semiarid forests with unavoidable impacts on regional and global carbon sequestration. Although climate warming is projected to continue into the future, studies examining long-term resilience of semiarid forests against climate change are limited. In this study, long-term forest resilience was defined as the capacity of forest recruitment to compensate for losses from mortality. We observed an obvious change in long-term forest resilience along a local aridity gradient by reconstructing tree growth trend and disturbance history and investigating postdisturbance regeneration in semiarid forests in southern Siberia. In our study, with increased severity of local aridity, forests became vulnerable to drought stress, and regeneration first accelerated and then ceased. Radial growth of trees during 1900-2012 was also relatively stable on the moderately arid site. Furthermore, we found that smaller forest patches always have relatively weaker resilience under the same climatic conditions. Our results imply a relatively higher resilience in arid timberline forest patches than in continuous forests; however, further climate warming and increased drought could possibly cause the disappearance of small forest patches around the arid tree line. This study sheds light on climate change adaptation and provides insight into managing vulnerable semiarid forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Catch-up growth assessment in long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    To assess the catch-up growth of long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool male children who have entered foster residential care and remained 1 year after initial placement. Longitudinal study over a 7-year period (1994-2001). So that a child was eligible for the study, three selection criteria were included: (1) aged between 24 and 48 months at the time of entry into residential facility, (2) having suffered both long-term (more than 6 months) physically neglected and emotionally abused, and (3) having stayed in foster care for 1 year after initial placement. Weight, height, and head circumference were established upon entry and re-assessed 1 year after initial placement, calculating the annual growth velocity. Results were compared with normal regional longitudinal standards of reference (Z score). Student's t test was used to assess statistically significant differences. During the study period, 87 children aged between 24 and 48 months (54 male/33 female) were admitted to residential facility after having suffered both long-term physical neglect and emotional abuse. Nevertheless, only 20 children (23% of the total admissions) met the third selection criteria (having remained 1 year after initial placement). Of these children, all were males and at placement they were between the ages of 30 and 42 months, with an average age of 36 months (1.9 SD). At placement, the analyzed parameters were below the normal standards, showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = -1.29; p = .008) and weight (Z score = -.75; p = .038). The annual growth velocity for all parameters was above the normal standards showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = +1.43; p = .009). One year after initial placement, the significant differences for height (Z score = -.68; p = .102) and weight (Z score = -.31; p = .435) with respect to the normal standards disappeared, though still remained below, showing a significant

  5. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. The Dynamic Relationship between Growth and Profitability under Long-Term Recession: The Case of Korean Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkyu Yoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an empirical analysis of the dynamic relationship between growth and profitability for small- and medium-sized construction companies that faced long-term economic stagnation in Korea. The period of the analysis spanned 2000 to 2014, and the full period was divided into two halves: before the 2008 global financial crisis and after it. Our empirical model was based on the system generalized method of moments model, and 264 construction companies were used as the study sample. The results of the empirical analysis are as follows. (1 A profitability-driven management strategy limits company growth, thus prolonging the economic downturn; (2 When the macroeconomic environment is relatively stable, high growth in the previous period fosters profitability in the current period. This implies that the phenomenon of dynamic increasing returns is present in the Korean construction industry, and learning through growth enhances productivity and profitability. Consequentially, a strategy oriented towards short-term profitability (popular with small- and medium-sized Korean construction companies makes the corporate management less resilient, causing them to select “de-growth” during the long-term stagnation by decreasing their scale of operations. Accordingly, it is important for companies to maintain the balance between growth and profitability.

  7. Long-term Root Growth Response to Thinning, Fertilization, and Water Deficit in Plantation Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword-Sayer; Z. Tang

    2004-01-01

    High water deficits limit the new root growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), potentially reducing soil resource availability and stand growth. We evaluated new root growth and stand production in response to thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine over a 6-year period that consisted of 3 years of low water deficit followed by 3 years of high...

  8. Early-life exposure to fibroblast growth factor-2 facilitates context-dependent long-term memory in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2010-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a potent neurotrophic factor that is involved in brain development and the formation of long-term memory. It has recently been shown that acute FGF2, administered at the time of learning, enhances long-term memory for contextual fear conditioning as well as extinction of conditioned fear in developing rats. As other research has shown that administering FGF2 on the first day of life leads to long-term morphological changes in the hippocampus, in the present study we investigated whether early life exposure to FGF2 affects contextual fear conditioning, and renewal following extinction, later in life. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single injection of FGF2 on Postnatal Day (PND) 1 did not lead to any detectable changes in contextual fear conditioning in PND 16 or PND 23 rats. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that 5 days of injections of FGF2 (from PND 1-5) facilitated contextual fear conditioning in PND 16 and PND 23 rats. Experiment 4 demonstrated that the observed facilitation of memory was not due to FGF2 increasing rats' sensitivity to foot shock. Experiment 5 showed that early life exposure to FGF2 did not affect learning about a discrete conditioned stimulus, but did allow PND 16 rats to use contextual information in more complex ways, leading to context-dependent extinction of conditioned fear. These results further implicate FGF2 as a critical signal involved in the development of learning and memory.

  9. Long-term results of repeated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in eyes with retinal pigment epithelial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Carlos A; Arana, Luis A; Zago, Rommel J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of retinal pigment epithelium tears in eyes treated with repeated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Five patients with retinal pigment epithelial tears (without foveal center involvement) after anti-VEGF injection were studied retrospectively. Mean follow-up time was 52 months, with measurements of visual acuity and evaluation of macular findings by angiography and optical coherence tomography during this period. All eyes had a persistent submacular neovascular membrane 30 days after the tear. An anti-VEGF drug was reinjected until the membranes stopped leaking. The mean initial visual acuity immediately after the tear was 20/160, and the mean final visual acuity was 20/60. The number of anti-VEGF reinjections varied from two to eight during the follow-up period. Long-term optical coherence tomography analysis showed reduced fluid and remodeling of the torn retinal pigment epithelium. Long-term visual results with repeated anti-VEGF therapy are not as devastating as suggested previously. Visual acuity and metamorphopsia improve with time as long as the neovascular membrane is inactive. Optical coherence tomography changes in the macular area reflect the visual acuity improvement.

  10. Controlled adhesion and growth of long term glial and neuronal cultures on Parylene-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Delivopoulos

    Full Text Available This paper explores the long term development of networks of glia and neurons on patterns of Parylene-C on a SiO(2 substrate. We harvested glia and neurons from the Sprague-Dawley (P1-P7 rat hippocampus and utilized an established cell patterning technique in order to investigate cellular migration, over the course of 3 weeks. This work demonstrates that uncontrolled glial mitosis gradually disrupts cellular patterns that are established early during culture. This effect is not attributed to a loss of protein from the Parylene-C surface, as nitrogen levels on the substrate remain stable over 3 weeks. The inclusion of the anti-mitotic cytarabine (Ara-C in the culture medium moderates glial division and thus, adequately preserves initial glial and neuronal conformity to underlying patterns. Neuronal apoptosis, often associated with the use of Ara-C, is mitigated by the addition of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. We believe that with the right combination of glial inhibitors and neuronal promoters, the Parylene-C based cell patterning method can generate structured, active neural networks that can be sustained and investigated over extended periods of time. To our knowledge this is the first report on the concurrent application of Ara-C and BDNF on patterned cell cultures.

  11. Factors affecting the course of body and kidney growth in infants with urolithiasis: A critical long-term evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the possible effects of dietary, patient and stone related factors on the clinical course of the stone disease as well as the body and renal growth status of the infants. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 children with an history of stone disease during infancy period were studied. Patient (anatomical abnormalities, urinary tract infection - UTI, associated morbidities, stone (obstruction, UTI and required interventions and lastly dietary (duration of sole breast feeding, formula feeding related factors which may affect the clinical course of the disease were all evaluated for their effects on the body and renal growth during long-term follow-up. Results: Mean age of the children was 2.40 ± 2.65 years. Our findings demonstrated that infants receiving longer period of breast feeding without formula addition seemed to have a higher rate of normal growth percentile values when compared with the other children. Again, higher frequency of UTI and stone attacks affected the growth status of the infants in a remarkable manner than the other cases. Our findings also demonstrated that thorough a close follow-up and appropriately taken measures; the possible growth retardation as well as renal growth problems could be avoided in children beginning to suffer from stone disease during infancy period. Conclusions: Duration of breast feeding, frequency of UTI, number of stone attacks and stone removal procedures are crucial factors for the clinical course of stone disease in infants that may affect the body as well as kidney growth during long-term follow-up.

  12. A Method for Upper Bounding Long Term Growth of Network Access Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Phillip Knudsen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The development in home Internet access speed has shown an exponential development with growth rates averaging 25% per year. For resource management in network provisioning it becomes an urgent question how long such growth can continue. This paper presents a method for calculating an upper bound to visual content driven growth, proceeding from datarate requirements for a full virtual environment. Scenarios and approaches for reducing datarate requirements are considered and discussed. The presented figures for an upper bound on network access speed are discussed and perspectives on further research presented.

  13. A Method for Upper Bounding Long Term Growth of Network Access Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    The development in home Internet access speed has shown an exponential development with growth rates averaging 25% per year. For resource management in network provisioning it becomes an urgent question how long such growth can continue. This paper presents a method for calculating an upper bound...... to visual content driven growth, proceeding from datarate requirements for a full virtual environment. Scenarios and approaches for reducing datarate requirements are considered and discussed. The presented figures for an upper bound on network access speed are discussed and perspectives on further research...

  14. Effects of long-term salinity on the growth of the halophyte Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... randomized design in a glass-covered greenhouse with natural temperature and light. The interior of the greenhouse ceiling was draped with 30% shade ... Scientific, Great Amwell, Herts, UK) in the growth chamber. Statistical ...

  15. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  16. Growth kinetics and long-term stability of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous solution under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Luther, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquity of naturally occurring nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is now widely accepted, but a better understanding of the conditions that promote their formation and persistence is needed. Using cadmium sulfide (CdS) as a model metal sulfide species, thiolate-capped CdS nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory to evaluate how aquatic conditions influence metal sulfide nanoparticle growth and stability. This work examines CdS nanoparticle growth directly in aqueous solution at room temperature by utilizing the size-dependent spectroscopic properties of semiconductors detectable by UV/vis. CdS nanoparticle growth was governed by oriented attachment, a non-classical mechanism of crystallization in which small precursor nanoparticles coalesce to form larger nanoparticle products. Nanoparticle growth was slowed with increasing capping agent and decreasing ionic strength. In addition to examining the short-term (hours) growth of the nanoparticles, a long-term study was conducted in which cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were monitored over 3 weeks in solutions of various ionic strengths. The long-term study revealed an apparent shift from small nanoparticles to nanoparticles twice their original size, suggesting nanoparticle growth may continue through oriented attachment over longer time scales. High-ionic strength solutions resulted in salt-induced aggregation and eventual settling of nanoparticles within days, whereas low-ionic strength solutions were stable against settling over the course of the experiment. Sulfide recovery from cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles as acid volatile sulfide was nearly quantitative after 2 weeks in fully oxygenated water, demonstrating significantly slowed oxidation of sulfide when complexed to Cd(II) within CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were also shown to be resistant to oxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxide. This study illustrates that aggregation, rather than chemical oxidation, is likely more important to the

  17. Verbal short-term memory span in children: long-term modality dependent effects of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, R; Eshel, R; Leitner, Y; Fattal-Valevski, A; Harel, S

    2008-12-01

    Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. This long-term, prospective design study examined modality-dependent verbal STM functions in children who were diagnosed at birth with IUGR (n = 138) and a control group (n = 64). Their STM skills were evaluated individually at 9 years of age with four conditions of the Visual-Aural Digit Span Test (VADS; Koppitz, 1981): auditory-oral, auditory-written, visuospatial-oral and visuospatial-written. Cognitive competence was evaluated with the short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--revised (WISC-R95; Wechsler, 1998). We found IUGR-related specific auditory-oral STM deficits (p long-term relationship between prenatal aberrant head growth and auditory verbal STM deficits by the end of the first decade of life. Empirical, clinical and educational implications are presented.

  18. Long-term effects of biennial prescribed fires on the growth of longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Boyer

    2000-01-01

    The effects of several hardwood control treatments on understory succession and overstory growth have been followed for 22 years on a Coastal Plain site in southwest Alabama. The study began in 1973, with 12 treatment combinations in 14-year-old naturally established longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) thinned to about 1,236 stems per hectare (500 stems...

  19. Determinants of long-term growth : New results applying robust estimation and extreme bounds analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, J.-E.; de Haan, J.

    2005-01-01

    Two important problems exist in cross-country growth studies: outliers and model uncertainty. Employing Sala-i-Martin's (1997a,b) data set, we first use robust estimation and analyze to what extent outliers influence OLS regressions. We then use both OLS and robust estimation techniques in applying

  20. Delayed Growth Suppression and Radioresistance Induced by Long-Term Continuous Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Furukawa, Chiharu; Chang, Young-Chae; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Magae, Junji

    2017-08-01

    Biological response to ionizing radiation depends not only on the type of radiation and dose, but also on the duration and dose rate of treatment. For a given radiation dose, the biological response may differ based on duration and dose rate. We studied the properties of two human cell lines, M059K glioma and U2OS osteosarcoma, continuously exposed to γ rays for long time periods of more than five months. Growth inhibition in both cell lines was dependent on total dose when exposed to acute radiation over several minutes, whereas prolonged growth inhibition was dependent on dose rate after continuous irradiation over several months. The minimum dose rate for growth inhibition was 53.6 mGy/h. Cell cycle analysis showed G 1 phase accumulation in cell populations continuously exposed to γ rays, and G 2 phase accumulation in cells acutely exposed to high-dose-rate γ rays. Cells continuously exposed to γ rays continued to exhibit delayed growth suppression even after one month in an environment of background radiation, and maintained a high-level expression of c-Jun and its phosphorylation forms, as well as resistance to apoptosis induced by staurosporine and chemotherapeutic agents. These delayed effects were not observed in cells acutely exposed to 5 Gy of radiation. These results suggest that optimization of the irradiation schedule is crucial for risk estimation, protection and therapeutic utilization of ionizing radiation.

  1. Long-term resource limitation reduces insect detritivore growth in a headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent R. Johnson; Wyatt F. Cross; J. Bruce Wallace

    2003-01-01

    We measured larval growth rates of 2 dominant stream detritivore groups to assess the mechanism underlying declines in invertebrate production following exclusion of terrestrial litter inputs to a forested headwater stream. Larval Tallaperla spp. (P1ecoptera:Peltoperlidae) were chosen as representative shredders and non-Tanypodinae Chironomidae (...

  2. Survival and long-term growth of eucalypts on semi-arid sites in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1, which is comparable to volume obtained at more favourable aridity indices in the summer rainfall zone of South Africa and exceeds the growth rates obtained in several other arid zone studies globally. The E. grandis × E. camaldulensis ...

  3. Studies of Health and Long-Term Care Expenditure Growth in Aging Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. de Meijer (Claudine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn recent decades, elderly populations in most developed countries have increased considerably, both in absolute and relative terms. This growth of the elderly share of the population is mainly attributable to two demographic transitions: the (simultaneous) increase in longevity and

  4. Skeletal growth and long-term bone turnover after enterocystoplasty in a chronic rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerharz, E.W.; Gasser, J.A.; Mosekilde, Li.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment, colocystopl......OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment......, colocystoplasty, and controls. All animals received antibiotics for 1 week after surgery; half of each group remained on oral antibiotics. Bone-related biochemistry was measured in serum and urine. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were used to determine bone...... no differences in bone length and volume. Loss of bone mass was almost exclusively in rats with ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment (-37.5%, pQCT, P

  5. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Gianello, C. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P.I.F.; Carvalho, E.B. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1993-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Long term growth of crop plants on experimental plots created among slag heaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halecki, Wiktor; Klatka, Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    Suppression of plant growth is a common problem in post-mining reclaimed areas, as coarse texture of soils may increase nitrate leaching. Assessing feasibility of using solid waste (precipitated solid matter) produced by water and sewage treatment processes in field conditions is very important in mine soil reclamation. Our work investigated the possibility of plant growth in a degraded site covered with sewage-derived sludge material. A test area (21m × 18m) was established on a mine soil heap. Experimental plant species included Camelina sativa, Helianthus annuus, Festuca rubra, Miscanthus giganteus, Amaranthus cruentus, Brassica napus, Melilotus albus, Beta vulgaris, and Zea mays. ANOVA showed sufficient water content and acceptable physical properties of the soil in each year and layer in a multi-year period, indicating that these species were suitable for phytoremediation purposes. Results of trace elements assays indicated low degree of contamination caused by Carbocrash waste material and low potential ecological risk for all plant species. Detrended correspondence analysis revealed that total porosity and capillary porosity were the most important variables for the biosolids among all water content related properties. Overall, crop plants were found useful on heavily degraded land and the soil benefited from their presence. An addition of Carbocrash substrate to mine soil improved the initial stage of soil reclamation and accelerated plant growth. The use of this substrate in phytoremediation helped to balance the content of nutrients, promoted plant growth, and increased plant tolerance to salinity. Sewage sludge-amended biosolids may be applied directly to agricultural soil, not only in experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M J; Gianello, C [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P I.F.; Carvalho, E B [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1994-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  8. Quantifying long-term population growth rates of threatened bull trout: challenges, lessons learned, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Bowerman, Tracy; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Conner, Mary; Schaller, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Temporal symmetry models (TSM) represent advances in the analytical application of mark–recapture data to population status assessments. For a population of char, we employed 10 years of active and passive mark–recapture data to quantify population growth rates using different data sources and analytical approaches. Estimates of adult population growth rate were 1.01 (95% confidence interval = 0.84–1.20) using a temporal symmetry model (λTSM), 0.96 (0.68–1.34) based on logistic regressions of annual snorkel data (λA), and 0.92 (0.77–1.11) from redd counts (λR). Top-performing TSMs included an increasing time trend in recruitment (f) and changes in capture probability (p). There was only a 1% chance the population decreased ≥50%, and a 10% chance it decreased ≥30% (λMCMC; based on Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure). Size structure was stable; however, the adult population was dominated by small adults, and over the study period there was a decline in the contribution of large adults to total biomass. Juvenile condition decreased with increasing adult densities. Utilization of these different information sources provided a robust weight-of-evidence approach to identifying population status and potential mechanisms driving changes in population growth rates.

  9. Long-term BMI and growth profiles in offspring of women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Nurah M; Visser, Gerard H A; van Rossem, Lenie; Biesma, Douwe H; Wit, Jan M; de Valk, Harold W

    2018-05-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is reported to be associated with childhood obesity, however the magnitude of this association and relation to intrauterine growth is uncertain. We, therefore, aimed to assess whether the growth trajectories of large for gestational age (LGA) and non-LGA offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM) are different until early adolescence. We also aimed to explore whether growth trajectories of OGDM differ from those of offspring of mothers with type 1 or 2 diabetes (ODM1, ODM2). We studied height and BMI standard deviation score (SDS) of the OGDM group, up to the age of 14 years, with subgroup analysis comparing LGA with non-LGA at birth as a reflection of the intrauterine environment. All mothers with GDM who delivered at the University Medical Center Utrecht between 1990 and 2006 were contacted to participate; informed consent was received for 104 OGDM of 93 mothers. Offspring data were collected through Dutch infant welfare centres. Recorded height and weight were converted to BMI and age- and sex-specific SDS values for Dutch children. Additionally, we compared the OGDM group with ODM1 and ODM2 groups in order to identify those offspring with the highest risk of becoming overweight. Growth trajectories were compared between non-LGA and LGA OGDM and between OGDM, ODM1 and ODM2, using a random-effects model. In the longitudinal follow-up a mean of 7.4 ± 2 measurements per infant were available. Mothers had a prepregnancy BMI of 25.8 kg/m 2 and 24% of their infants were LGA at birth. Heights of OGDM were no different from those of the Dutch Growth Study. Non-LGA OGDM showed a BMI SDS comparable with that of the reference population, with a slight increase in early adolescence. LGA OGDM had a higher BMI SDS trajectory than non-LGA OGDM and the reference population, which plateaued at around 10 years of age. Comparison of growth trajectories of OGDM, ODM1 and ODM2 showed ODM2 to have the highest trajectory followed by ODM1 and OGDM

  10. Long-term growth and succession in restored and natural mangrove forests in southwestern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, C.E.; Devlin, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    We compared colonization, growth and succession from 1989 to 2000 in a restored mangrove site and in gap and closed canopy sites in a natural mangrove forest. The restored site was created in 1982 and planted with Rhizophora mangle (???2 m-2) propagules. By 1989, Laguncularia racemosa, with densities up to 12.9 tree m-2, was a dominant in all plots, although densities were greater at edge plots relative to inner plots, and near open water (west plots) relative to further inland (east plots), and in tall mangrove plots relative to scrub plots. Rhizophora mangle (1989 tree densities about 2 m-2) was a codominant in inner and scrub plots, while Avicennia germinans had the lowest densities (mangle and L. racemosa, rapid growth in height of all species (1989-1996), followed by a dieoff of L. racemosa in later years (1997-2000) as the canopy came to resemble that of tall mangrove plots. Colonization and growth rates were lower in gap and closed canopy regions of the natural forest relative to rates in the restored site. After 11 years, densities of L. racemosa were 10-20x lower and R. mangle slightly less in the gap relative to densities in tall mangrove plots in the restored site at the same age. Although the restored stand had converged with the natural forest by 2000 in terms of some factors such as species richness, vegetation cover, litterfall, and light penetration, trees were still much smaller and stem densities much higher. Full development of mature structure and ecological function will likely require decades more development. ?? Springer 2005.

  11. Skeletal growth and long-term bone turnover after enterocystoplasty in a chronic rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerharz, E.W.; Gasser, J.A.; Mosekilde, Li.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment, colocystopl......OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment...... mass ex vivo.RESULTS: Most (90%) of the rats survived the study period (8 months); six rats died from bowel obstruction at the level of the entero-anastomosis and four had to be killed because of persistent severe diarrhoea. Vital intestinal mucosa was found in all augmented bladders. There were...... no differences in bone length and volume. Loss of bone mass was almost exclusively in rats with ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment (-37.5%, pQCT, P

  12. Long-term High Fat Ketogenic Diet Promotes Renal Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D; Kasprowska, Daniela; Wojakowska, Anna; Polański, Krzysztof; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-02-19

    Nutritional imbalance underlies many disease processes but can be very beneficial in certain cases; for instance, the antiepileptic action of a high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Besides this therapeutic feature it is not clear how this abundant fat supply may affect homeostasis, leading to side effects. A ketogenic diet is used as anti-seizure therapy i.a. in tuberous sclerosis patients, but its impact on concomitant tumor growth is not known. To examine this we have evaluated the growth of renal lesions in Eker rats (Tsc2+/-) subjected to a ketogenic diet for 4, 6 and 8 months. In spite of existing opinions about the anticancer actions of a ketogenic diet, we have shown that this anti-seizure therapy, especially in its long term usage, leads to excessive tumor growth. Prolonged feeding of a ketogenic diet promotes the growth of renal tumors by recruiting ERK1/2 and mTOR which are associated with the accumulation of oleic acid and the overproduction of growth hormone. Simultaneously, we observed that Nrf2, p53 and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase α dependent antitumor mechanisms were launched by the ketogenic diet. However, the pro-cancerous mechanisms finally took the ascendency by boosting tumor growth.

  13. [Long-term outcome in context of intra uterine growth restriction and/or small for gestational age newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, G; Flamant, C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate long-term outcome after history of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and/or birth small for gestational age (SGA). This systematic evidence review is based on Pubmed search, Cochrane library and experts recommendations. Neurodevelopmental evaluation at 2 years is lower in those infants, born premature or not. SGA is associated with a high risk of minor cognitive deficiencies, hyperactivity or attention deficit disorders at 5 years or scholar difficulties at 8 years. Those infants are at high risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Most of them will catch up at 6 months for weight and 12 months for height. Even if IUGR is associated with high risk of bronchodysplasia, up to this day, the review of literature did not permit to evaluate respiratory outcome. Adults born SGA have good quality of live and normal professional insertion. One cohort study and more and more animal studies suggest potential trans generational effects. Infants born SGA and/or with history of IUGR are at high risk of minor cognitive deficiencies and scholar difficulties. They are also at high risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. However, prematurity seems to have a higher effect than IUGR and/or SGA on long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factors for choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal osteoma: Long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Lekha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal osteoma is an uncommon benign osseous intraocular tumor typically seen unilaterally in young women. Visual loss can occur due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV complicating osteoma. We report a rare case of bilateral choroidal osteoma with secondary CNV in a young male and the long-term results following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF therapy. A 30-year-old male with history of defective vision in both eyes since several years and recent worsening in the right eye (RE since 2 months was found to have bilateral macular osteoma with CNV in the RE based on clinical evaluation, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and ultrasonography. Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab at monthly intervals for three doses resulted in resolution of CNV and remained stable for 5 years. Recurrent CNV detected 6 years later responded to an injection of intravitreal bevacizumab and has remained stable till date. Anti-VEGF therapy stabilized the secondary CNV in our patient for 7 years with satisfactory structural and functional outcome, demonstrating the long-term efficacy of this modality of treatment.

  15. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E; Lin, John C; Bowling, David R; Pataki, Diane E; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E; Stephens, Britton B; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R; Ehleringer, James R

    2018-03-20

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO 2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO 2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah's metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine "excess" CO 2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO 2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO 2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO 2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO 2 , implying a nonlinear relationship with CO 2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO 2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  16. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E.; Lin, John C.; Bowling, David R.; Pataki, Diane E.; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J.; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E.; Stephens, Britton B.; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2018-03-01

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah’s metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine “excess” CO2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO2, implying a nonlinear relationship with CO2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  17. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on long-term human cord blood monocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orcel, P.; Bielakoff, J.; De Vernejoul, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates growth and differentiation in many cell types and is abundant in bone matrix. We recently showed that human cord blood monocytes cultured in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 acquire some features of osteoclast precursors. Since TGF-beta has been shown to influence bone resorption in organ culture, we have studied the effect of TGF-beta (1-1,000 pg/ml) on cord blood monocyte cultures. These cells were cultured on plastic substrate during 3 weeks in the presence of 20% horse serum and 10(-9) M 1,25(OH)2D3. TGF-beta, from a concentration of 10 pg/ml in the culture medium, decreased in a dose dependent manner the formation of multinucleated cells. At a concentration of TGF-beta of 1 ng/ml, the multinucleated cells were reduced to 2.1% +/- 0.3%, compared to 19.3% +/- 1.5% in control cultures. TGF-beta inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the proliferation of cord blood monocytes as assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation at 7 and 14 days of culture. The fusion index was also decreased by 3 weeks of treatment with TGF-beta. Indomethacin did not reverse the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. The expression of the osteoclastic phenotype was assessed using two different antibodies: 23C6, a monoclonal antibody directed against the vitronectin receptor, which is highly expressed by osteoclasts but not by adult monocytes, and an antibody to HLA-DR, which is not present on osteoclast. TGF-beta decreased the expression of HLA-DR and increased in a dose-dependent manner the proportion of 23C6-labeled cells; these results suggest that TGF-beta could modulate a differentiation effect to the osteoclastic phenotype. However, when cord blood monocytes were cultured on devitalized rat calvariae prelabeled with 45Ca, TGF-beta did not induce any 45Ca release from bone cultured with monocytes

  18. Long -term effects of optical defocus on eye growth and refractogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarutta, Elena; Khodzhabekyan, Narine; Filinova, Oksana; Milash, Sergei; Kruzhkova, Galina

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of binocular and alternating monocular myopic constant defocus prescribed in spectacle format on myopia onset and progression in children. 129 children aged 5–12 years were divided into 4 groups: 48 children aged 5–8 years (1st group) with emmetropia and risk factors of myopia development were prescribed the continuous wearing of plus lenses to induce myopia of 1.0 D. 46 children aged 7–11 years (2nd group) with low myopia from −0.75 to −2.25 D were prescribed 2 pairs of spectacles for alternating continuous wearing. One eye was corrected for distance to obtain residual myopia in spectacles of about 0.50 D, and the fellow eye was corrected to obtain residual or induced myopia of about 1.50 D. The children changed spectacles every day. Control data were obtained from 15 children aged 6–9 years (1st control group) with pseudomyopia with no correction administered, and 20 low myopic children aged 7–12 years (2nd control group) wearing conventional spectacle correction. Autorefractometry before and after cycloplegia and ultrasound biometry were performed. A hyperopic shift caused by thinning of the crystalline lens and deepening of the anterior chamber in all patients of the 1st group was observed after 1 month and persisted over the follow -up period. Horizontal diameter (HD) increased more than 3 times as much as the axial length (AL). No cases of myopia onset were observed during the 9 -year follow -up period. 36 (81.8%) children of the 2nd group had stable refraction over the 4 year follow up, an insignificant increase in the AL and a significant increase in the HD were revealed. A 3-year follow -up revealed an increase in cycloplegic refraction in both control groups; the AL increased significantly, while the HD showed an insignificant increase. Permanent low myopic defocus of the image in binocular spectacle format inhibits eye growth and refraction shift to myopia in children with low hyperopia

  19. Growth in Biofuels Markets: Long Term Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth D. Meyer; Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2010-12-02

    Over the last several years increasing energy and petroleum prices have propelled biofuels and the feedstocks used to produce them, to the forefront of alternative energy production. This growth has increased the linkages between energy and agricultural markets and these changes around the world are having a significant effect on agricultural markets as biofuels begin to play a more substantial role in meeting the world's energy needs. Biofuels are alternatively seen as a means to reduce carbon emissions, increase energy independence, support rural development and to raise farm income. However, concern has arisen that the new demand for traditional commodities or alternative commodities which compete for land can lead to higher food prices and the environmental effects from expanding crop acreage may result in uncertain changes in carbon emissions as land is converted both in the US and abroad. While a number of studies examine changes in land use and consumption from changes in biofuels policies many lack effective policy representation or complete coverage of land types which may be diverted in to energy feedstock production. Many of these biofuels and renewable energy induced land use changes are likely to occur in developing countries with at-risk consumers and on environmentally sensitive lands. Our research has improved the well known FAPRI-MU modeling system which represents US agricultural markets and policies in great detail and added a new model of land use and commodity markets for major commodity producers, consumers and trade dependent and food insecure countries as well as a rest of the world aggregate. The international modules include traditional annual crop lands and include perennial crop land, pasture land, forest land and other land uses from which land may be drawn in to biofuels or renewable energy feedstock production. Changes in calorie consumption in food insecure countries from changes in renewable energy policy can also be examined

  20. Renal content and output of epidermal growth factor in long-term adrenergic agonist-treated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the renal and urinary levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in rats under long-term treatment with alpha- or beta-adrenergic agonists. Urine samples were obtained on days 7, 14 and 21, and renal tissue samples on day 21. EGF was quantified by ELISA and tissue sections were...... material in the distal tubules. Concomitantly, reduced levels of EGF and EGF mRNA were observed, and also the urinary levels of EGF were reduced. Together, these observations indicate alpha-adrenergic treatment to affect the distal tubules. Treatment with the beta-adrenergic agonist did not change...... fractional kidney weight, but initially the urinary excretion of EGF was reduced. The data add further evidence to the suggestion that activity of the sympathetic nervous system influences renal homeostasis of EGF, either directly or indirectly through renal histopathological changes....

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors in ovarian cancer patients with long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christine Vestergaard; Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    relation to histopathological parameters and long-term overall survival. Methods. The immunohistochemical expression of PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β was investigated in tumor and stromal cells in 170 patients with histologically verified epithelial ovarian cancer. Results. Almost half of the tumor specimens showed......Introduction. The well-documented role of the PDGF system in tumor growth and angiogenesis has prompted the development of new biological agents targeting the PDGF system. The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of the PDGF-receptors in ovarian cancer and to investigate its...... high expression of PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β in tumor cells (43% and 41%) and in stromal compartments (32% and 44%). There was a significant association between high expression of PDGFR-α and high expression of PDGFR-β in both tumor and stromal cells. Coexpression of PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β in stromal cells...

  2. Intensely Exposed Oklahoma City Terrorism Survivors: Long-term Mental Health and Health Needs and Posttraumatic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Phebe; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Wendling, Tracy L; Brown, Sheryll

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we explore directly exposed terrorism survivors' mental health and health status, healthcare utilization, alcohol and tobacco use, and posttraumatic growth 18½ years postdisaster. Telephone surveys compared terrorism survivors and nonexposed community control subjects, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Breslau's PTSD screen, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and Health Status Questionnaire 12. Statistical analyses included multivariable logistic regression and linear modeling. Survivors, more than 80% injured, reported more anxiety and depression symptoms than did control subjects, with survivors' anxiety and depression associated with heavy drinking (≥5 drinks) and worse mental health and social functioning. While survivors had continued posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (32 [23.2%] met probable posttraumatic stress disorder threshold), they also reported posttraumatic growth. Survivors had more care from physical, speech, respiratory, and occupational therapists. In this unprecedented long-term assessment, survivors' psychiatric symptoms, alcohol use, and ancillary health service utilization suggest unmet mental health and health needs. Extended recovery efforts might benefit from maximizing positive growth and coping.

  3. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Moulton, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r2 = 0·29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r2 = 0·14-0·31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r2 = 0·13-0·50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels.

  4. Long-term impact of the ketogenic diet on growth and resting energy expenditure in children with intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, Christina A

    2014-09-01

    The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy. Growth, body composition, and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5 y 6 mo [SD 26 mo], range 7 mo-6 y 5 mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]). Fifteen were identified as ketogenic diet responders at 3 months and continued on the ketogenic diet until 15 months. These were compared to 75 healthy children (43 males, 32 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo [SD 21 mo] age range 2-9 y). REE was expressed as percentage predicted, growth as height (HAz) and weight (WAz) z-scores, and body composition as fat and fat free mass (FFM). HAz declined -0.2 and -0.6 from baseline to 3 months and 15 months respectively (p = 0.001), while WAz was unchanged. In ketogenic diet responders, FFM, age and CP diagnosis predicted REE (overall R(2) = 0.76, pketogenic diet, linear growth status declined while weight status and REE were unchanged. REE remained reduced in children with CP. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Long-term impact of the ketogenic diet on growth and resting energy expenditure in children with intractable epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROLEAU, VERONIQUE; SCHALL, JOAN I; STALLINGS, VIRGINIA A; BERGQVIST, CHRISTINA A

    2014-01-01

    AIM The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy. METHOD Growth, body composition and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 6mo (SD 26mo), range 7mo–6y 5mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]). Fifteen were identified as ketogenic diet responders at 3 months and continued on the ketogenic diet until 15 months. These were compared to 75 healthy children (43 males, 32 females; mean age 6y 3mo [SD 21mo] age range 2–9y). REE was expressed as percentage predicted, growth as height (HAz) and weight (WAz) z-scores, and body composition as fat and fat free mass (FFM). RESULTS HAz declined −0.2 and −0.6 from baseline to 3 and 15 months, respectively (p=0.001), while WAz was unchanged. In ketogenic diet responders, FFM, age and CP diagnosis predicted REE (overall R2=0.76, pketogenic diet, linear growth status declined while weight status and REE were unchanged. REE remained reduced in children with CP. PMID:24749520

  6. Long-term increases in young-of-the-year growth of Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis and environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, V R; Zimmerman, C E; Moulton, L L

    2011-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis young-of-year (YOY) growth was used as a proxy to examine the long-term response of a high-latitude fish population to changing climate from 1978 to 2004. YOY growth increased over time (r² = 0·29) and was correlated with monthly averages of the Arctic oscillation index, air temperature, east wind speed, sea-ice concentration and river discharge with and without time lags. Overall, the most prevalent correlates to YOY growth were sea-ice concentration lagged 1 year (significant correlations in 7 months; r² = 0·14-0·31) and Mackenzie River discharge lagged 2 years (significant correlations in 8 months; r² = 0·13-0·50). The results suggest that decreased sea-ice concentrations and increased river discharge fuel primary production and that life cycles of prey species linking increased primary production to fish growth are responsible for the time lag. Oceanographic studies also suggest that sea ice concentration and fluvial inputs from the Mackenzie River are key factors influencing productivity in the Beaufort Sea. Future research should assess the possible mechanism relating sea ice concentration and river discharge to productivity at upper trophic levels. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. No claim to original US government works.

  7. Coral reef growth in an era of rapidly rising sea level: predictions and suggestions for long-term research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R W; Smith, S V

    1988-01-01

    Coral reef growth is intimately linked to sea level. It has been postulated that over the next century, sea level will rise at a probable average rate of 15 mm/year, in response to fossil fuel emissions, heating, and melting of the Antarctic ice cap. This predicted rate of sea level rise is five times the present modal rate of vertical accretion on coral reef flats and 50% greater than the maximum vertical accretion rates apparently attained by coral reefs. We use these predictions and observations to offer the following hypothesis for reef growth over the next century. The vertical accretion rates of protected reef flats will accelerate from the present modal rate up to the maximum rate, in response to the more rapidly rising sea level. This more rapid vertical accretion rate will be insufficient to keep up with sea level rise, if present predictions prove to be correct. Less protected reef flats will slow their rate of growth as they become inundated and subjected to erosion by progressively larger waves. This projected sea level rise and postulated reef response will provide an opportunity for long- term studies of the response of coral reef systems to a predictable and measurable forcing function.

  8. Long-term Increases in Flower Production by Growth Forms in Response to Anthropogenic Change in a Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, S.; Wright, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that anthropogenic global change is altering the ecology of tropical forests. A limited number of studies have focused on long-term trends in tropical reproductive activity, yet differences in reproductive activity should have consequences for demography and ultimately forest carbon, water, and energy balance. Here we analyze a 28-year record of tropical flower production in response to anthropogenic climate change. We show that a multi-decadal increase in flower production is most strongly driven by rising atmospheric CO2, which had approximately 8x the effect of the Multivariate ENSO Index and approximately 13x the effect of rainfall or solar radiation. Interannual peaks in flower production were associated with greater solar radiation and low rainfall during El Niño years. Observed changes in solar radiation explained flower production better than rainfall (models including solar radiation accounted for 94% of cumulative AICc weight compared to 87% for rainfall). All growth forms (lianas, canopy trees, midstory trees, and shrubs) produced more flowers with increasing CO2 except for understory treelets. The increase in flower production was matched by a lengthening of flowering duration for canopy trees and midstory trees; duration was also longer for understory treelets. Given that anthropogenic CO2 emissions will continue to climb over the next century, the long-term increase in flower production may persist unless offset by increasing cloudiness in the tropics, or until rising CO2 and/or warming temperatures associated with the greenhouse effect pass critical thresholds for plant reproduction.

  9. Long-term efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in short-statured patients with Noonan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insook Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeNoonan syndrome (NS is characterized by short stature, heart anomalies, developmental delays, dysmorphic features, cryptorchidism, and coagulation defects. Several studies reported the short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH treatment on the improvement of height. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of rhGH in children with NS in Korea.MethodsThis study included 15 prepubertal NS children who received rhGH subcutaneously at a dose of 50–75 µg/kg/day for 6 days a week for at least >3 years. Preand posttreatment data, such as height, weight, bone age, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3 levels, were collected every 6 months.ResultsChronologic age and bone age at the start of treatment were 7.97±1.81 and 5.09±2.12 years, respectively. Height standard deviation score (SDS was increased from –2.64±0.64 to –1.54±1.24 years after 3 years (P<0.001. Serum IGF-1 SDS levels were elevated from –1.28±1.03 to –0.10±0.94 (P<0.001. Height SDS was more increased in subjects without PTPN11 mutations compared to those with mutations after 3 years (P=0.012. However, the other parameters, including bone age, IGF-1 SDS, and IGFBP-3 SDS, were not significantly different between patients with and without PTPN11 mutations.ConclusionAlthough this study included a relatively small number of patients, long-term rhGH therapy in NS patients was safe and effective at improving height, growth velocity, and serum IGF-1 levels, in accordance with previous studies. However, the meticulous monitoring of potential adverse events is still needed because of high dose of rhGH and preexisting hyperactivity of RAS-MAPK pathway. Patients with PTPN11 mutations demonstrated a decreased response to rhGH therapy compared to those without mutations.

  10. Taking risks with a growth mindset: long-term influence of an elementary pre-service after school science practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, T. J.; Hallar, B.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we present the long-term influence of an after school science practicum associated with an elementary science methods course. The practicum or field experience could be considered a community-based service learning programme as it is situated both within and for the community. Study participants included eight third- and fifth-grade teachers who had participated in elementary science methods courses; four of these teachers participated in the after school teaching practicum while four participants experienced a more traditional observation-based elementary science practicum. All of these teachers were in their second or third year teaching which was 3-4 years after taking the methods course. Investigation methods included questionnaires, field observations and semi-structured, individual interviews. Teachers more regularly utilised reform-based teaching strategies and cited the after school teaching practicum as preparing them to use these strategies in their own classrooms. All teachers exhibited a growth mindset to some degree, but the after school practicum participants did demonstrate a wider use of reformed-based teaching strategies and a higher growth mindset. Elementary teachers perceive risk associated with these key aspects of instruction: (1) managing instruction and classroom management, (2) teaching science through guided inquiry, and (3) overcoming adoptions in other 'mandated' curriculum like math and reading.

  11. Transforming growth factor β recruits persistent MAPK signaling to regulate long-term memory consolidation in Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Justin; Philips, Gary T; Carew, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we explore the mechanistic relationship between growth factor signaling and kinase activity that supports the protein synthesis-dependent phase of long-term memory (LTM) consolidation for sensitization ofAplysia Specifically, we examine LTM for tail shock-induced sensitization of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal (T-SW) reflex, a form of memory that requires both (i) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2; MAPK) activity within identified sensory neurons (SNs) that mediate the T-SW and (ii) the activation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. We now report that repeated tail shocks that induce intermediate-term (ITM) and LTM for sensitization, also induce a sustained post-training phase of MAPK activity in SNs (lasting at least 1 h). We identified two mechanistically distinct phases of post-training MAPK: (i) an immediate phase that does not require ongoing protein synthesis or TGFβ signaling, and (ii) a sustained phase that requires both protein synthesis and extracellular TGFβ signaling. We find that LTM consolidation requires sustained MAPK, and is disrupted by inhibitors of protein synthesis and TGFβ signaling during the consolidation window. These results provide strong evidence that TGFβ signaling sustains MAPK activity as an essential mechanistic step for LTM consolidation. © 2016 Shobe et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Long-term impacts of prescribed fire on stand structure, growth, mortality, and individual tree vigor in Pinus resinosa forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer S. Scherer; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik; Matthew B. Russell

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is increasingly being viewed as a valuable tool for mitigating the ecological consequences of long-term fire suppression within fire-adapted forest ecosystems. While the use of burning treatments in northern temperate conifer forests has at times received considerable attention, the long-term (>10 years) effects on forest structure and...

  13. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement in men with childhood-onset GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; De Boer, H; Kamp, O; Stuurman, L; Van der Veen, EA

    Short term GH replacement therapy has been shown to improve body composition and exercise capacity. It is not yet known whether GH replacement remains beneficial over the long term. We assessed the effects of long term GH replacement on body composition, bone mineral density, and cardiac function.

  14. Growth and Histological Effects to Protothaca staminea (Littleneck Clam) of Long-Term Exposure to Chlorinated Sea Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, C. I.; Hillman, A. E.; Wilkinson, P.; Woodruff, D. L.

    1980-08-01

    There has been considerable concern about the potential for long-term effects to marine organisms from chlorinated sea water. As part of a larger study to investigate the effects of materials resulting from seawater chlorination on marine organisms, groups of littleneck clams, Protothaca staminea, were exposed to sea water that had been chlorinated. Two experiments were conducted. In one test, groups of littleneck clams were exposed to dilutions of chlorinated sea water that had average chlorine produced oxidant (CPO) concentrations of 16 {micro}g/l or less. In the second test, groups of clams were exposed to chlorinated seawater-unchlorinated seawater mixtures that had target CPO concentrations of 0, 6, 12, 25, 50 and 100 {micro}g/l. In the first experiment, length measurements were made on all clams at approximately one-month intervals for three months. In the second test, length, weight, depth, width and edge etching were used to measure growth, and subsamples were harvested and measured at one-month intervals. In addition, clams were preserved for histological examination. The clams in the first experiment all had negative growth. In the second test, growth was inhibited under all conditions through the first four months of exposure. During the last four months, there was positive signs of growth at the 0, 6 and 12 {micro}g/l CPO test conditions. Histological examination indicates that P. staminea does not adapt well to being held in aquaria. Most clams, tram all test and control conditions, showed evidence of necrosis at one month. This condition seemed to improve with longer exposure at lower CPO concentrations but persisted at CPO concentrations of 25 {micro}g/l and higher. Other histological effects were apparent at the higher exposure concentrations as the length of exposure increased.

  15. Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent-offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals' cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Simulation of the long term alteration of clay minerals in engineered bentonite barriers: nucleation and growth of secondary clay particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, B.; Clement, A.; Zwingmann, H.; Noguera, C.

    2010-01-01

    with elevated temperature. Thermodynamic effects are then combined with solubility products and kinetic effects on nucleation and growth of precipitated particles. It is a real challenge for geo-chemists to be able to account for precipitation kinetics in water-rock interaction models, particularly considering systems on short to mid terms (x 1000 y) compared to geological timescales. The recently developed code NANOKIN models dissolution processes of primary minerals as well as the kinetics of precipitation of secondary minerals taking into account the first steps of nucleation and growth and the subsequent evolution of the classes of particles precipitated. With these modellings the predicted evolution of the clay phase gives information on the crystal size distribution of secondary particles precipitated as a function of time. The model also examines the state of the aqueous solution with various mineral phases and combines the classical theory of crystal nucleation with size and morphology dependent kinetic rate laws for growth and/or dissolution of particles i.e. Oswald ripening processes. Ion exchange in mineral phases, and particularly in clay minerals has to be considered as a possible geochemical process taking place in clay barriers under storage conditions. This process might control first the transfer or the fixation of the major cations present in aqueous solutions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + mainly but also H + , Fe 2+ , Al 3+ ) but also radionuclide cations if they might diffuse in the barriers after corrosion of the canisters on long term. When one considers this process from the simulation point of view, the challenge is not so easy. The same simulation has to combine kinetic processes with largely different time scales: near equilibrium cationic exchange reactions, which can be considered as quasi-instantaneous, and clay mineral precipitation which occurs on longer term in over-saturation state with respect to the solution. We have extended the code

  17. Nitrogen deposition outweighs climatic variability in driving annual growth rate of canopy beech trees: Evidence from long-term growth reconstruction across a geographic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilesca, Tiziana; Rita, Angelo; Brunetti, Michele; Giammarchi, Francesco; Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; van Noije, Twan; Tonon, Giustino; Borghetti, Marco

    2018-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of climatic variability and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in driving long-term tree growth in canopy beech trees along a geographic gradient in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula, from the Alps to the southern Apennines. We sampled dominant trees at different developmental stages (from young to mature tree cohorts, with tree ages spanning from 35 to 160 years) and used stem analysis to infer historic reconstruction of tree volume and dominant height. Annual growth volume (G V ) and height (G H ) variability were related to annual variability in model simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition and site-specific climatic variables, (i.e. mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation, mean growing period temperature, total growing period precipitation, and standard precipitation evapotranspiration index) and atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including tree cambial age among growth predictors. Generalized additive models (GAM), linear mixed-effects models (LMM), and Bayesian regression models (BRM) were independently employed to assess explanatory variables. The main results from our study were as follows: (i) tree age was the main explanatory variable for long-term growth variability; (ii) GAM, LMM, and BRM results consistently indicated climatic variables and CO 2 effects on G V and G H were weak, therefore evidence of recent climatic variability influence on beech annual growth rates was limited in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula; (iii) instead, significant positive nitrogen deposition (N dep ) effects were repeatedly observed in G V and G H ; the positive effects of N dep on canopy height growth rates, which tended to level off at N dep values greater than approximately 1.0 g m -2  y -1 , were interpreted as positive impacts on forest stand above-ground net productivity at the selected study sites. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intelligence and psychosocial functioning during long-term growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pareren, Yvonne K; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Slijper, Froukje S M; Koot, Hans M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2004-11-01

    Short stature is not the only problem faced by small for gestational age (SGA) children. Being born SGA has also been associated with lowered intelligence, poor academic performance, low social competence, and behavioral problems. Although GH treatment in short children born SGA can result in a normalization of height during childhood, the effect of GH treatment on intelligence and psychosocial functioning remains to be investigated. We show the longitudinal results of a randomized, double-blind, GH-dose response study initiated in 1991 to follow growth, intelligence quotient (IQ), and psychosocial functioning in SGA children during long-term GH treatment. Patients were assigned to one of two treatment groups (1 or 2 mg GH/m(2) body surface.d, or approximately 0.035 or 0.07 mg/kg.d). Intelligence and psychosocial functioning were evaluated at start of GH treatment (n = 74), after 2 yr of GH treatment (n = 76), and in 2001 (n = 53). IQ was assessed by a short-form Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Block-design and Vocabulary subtests). Behavioral problems were measured by the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Young Adult Behavior Checklist, and self-perception was measured by the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Mean (sem) birth length sd score was -3.6 (0.2), mean age and height at start was 7.4 (0.2) yr and -3.0 (0.1) sd score, respectively, mean duration of GH treatment was 8.0 (0.2) yr, and mean age in 2001 was 16.5 (0.3) yr. After 2 yr of GH treatment, 96% of both GH groups showed a height gain sd score of 1 sd from the start of treatment or more, resulting in a normal height (i.e. height >/= -2.0 sd for age and sex) in 70% of the children. In 2001, 48 (91%) of the 53 children participating in this study had reached a normal height. Block-design s-score and the estimated total IQ significantly increased (P growth in adolescents born SGA, IQ, behavior, and self-perception showed a significant improvement

  19. Statistical modelling and RCS detrending methods provide similar estimates of long-term trend in radial growth of common beech in north-eastern France

    OpenAIRE

    Bontemps , Jean-Daniel; Esper , Jan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Dendrochronological methods have greatly contributed to the documentation of past long-term trends in forest growth. These methods primarily focus on the high-frequency signals of tree ring chronologies. They require the removal of the ageing trend in tree growth, known as 'standardisation' or 'detrending', as a prerequisite to the estimation of such trends. Because the approach is sequential, it may however absorb part of the low-frequency historical signal. In this s...

  20. Growth hormone therapy for children born small for gestational age: height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 3% of children are born small for gestational age (SGA), and approximately 10% of SGA children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life. Among short SGA children, growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner; experience with long-term therapy is limited. To delineate the dose dependency of long-term height gain among short SGA children receiving GH therapy. We performed an epianalysis of the first adult height data for SGA children (n = 28) enrolled in 3 randomized trials comparing the growth-promoting efficacy of 2 continuous GH regimens (33 or 67 microg/kg per day for approximately 10 years, starting at approximately 5 years of age); in addition, we performed a meta-analysis of the adult height results published previously and those presented here. Epianalysis outcomes (n = 28) suggested that adult height increased more with a higher-dose regimen than with a lower-dose regimen. In the meta-analysis (n = 82), the higher-dose regimen was found to elicit a long-term height gain superior to that achieved with the lower-dose regimen by a mean of 0.4 SD (approximately 1 inch). Children who were shorter at the start of therapy experienced more long-term height gain. These findings confirm GH therapy as an effective and safe approach to reduce the adult height deficit that short SGA children otherwise face. In addition, the first meta-analysis indicated that height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term, at least within the dose range explored to date. For SGA children whose stature is not extremely short, current data support the use of a GH dose of approximately 33 microg/kg per day from start to adult height, particularly if treatment starts at a young age; shorter children (for example, height below -3 SD) might benefit from an approach in which short-term catch-up growth is achieved with a higher dose (> or =50 microg/kg per day) and long-term growth

  1. The long-term relationship between population growth and vegetation cover: an empirical analysis based on the panel data of 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhang, Chao

    2013-02-07

    It is generally believed that there is an inverse relationship between population growth and vegetation cover. However, reports about vegetation protection and reforestation around the World have been continuously increasing in recent decades, which seems to indicate that this relationship may not be true. In this paper, we have taken 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China as the study area to test the long-term relationship between population growth and vegetation cover, using an AVHRR NDVI data set and the panel cointegrated regression method. The results show that there is a long-term inverted N-shaped curve relationship between population growth and vegetation cover in the region where there are frequent human activities and the influence of climate change on vegetation cover changes is relatively small. The two turning points of the inverted N-shaped curve for the case of Guangdong Province correspond to 2,200 persons · km(-2) and 3,820 persons · km(-2), and they can provide a reference range for similar regions of the World. It also states that the population urbanization may have a negative impact on the vegetation cover at the early stage, but have a positive impact at the later stage. In addition, the Panel Error Correction Model (PECM) is used to investigate the causality direction between population growth and vegetation cover. The results show that not only will the consuming destruction effect and planting construction effect induced by the population growth have a great impact on vegetation cover changes, but vegetation cover changes in turn will also affect the population growth in the long term.

  2. The Long-Term Relationship between Population Growth and Vegetation Cover: An Empirical Analysis Based on the Panel Data of 21 Cities in Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that there is an inverse relationship between population growth and vegetation cover. However, reports about vegetation protection and reforestation around the World have been continuously increasing in recent decades, which seems to indicate that this relationship may not be true. In this paper, we have taken 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China as the study area to test the long-term relationship between population growth and vegetation cover, using an AVHRR NDVI data set and the panel cointegrated regression method. The results show that there is a long-term inverted N-shaped curve relationship between population growth and vegetation cover in the region where there are frequent human activities and the influence of climate change on vegetation cover changes is relatively small. The two turning points of the inverted N-shaped curve for the case of Guangdong Province correspond to 2,200 persons·km−2 and 3,820 persons·km−2, and they can provide a reference range for similar regions of the World. It also states that the population urbanization may have a negative impact on the vegetation cover at the early stage, but have a positive impact at the later stage. In addition, the Panel Error Correction Model (PECM is used to investigate the causality direction between population growth and vegetation cover. The results show that not only will the consuming destruction effect and planting construction effect induced by the population growth have a great impact on vegetation cover changes, but vegetation cover changes in turn will also affect the population growth in the long term.

  3. Business Organisational Structures of Global Companies: Use of the Territorial Model to Ensure Long-Term Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Stverkova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s turbulently expanding business environment, during the fourth industrial revolution, it is necessary to respond to market trends and to adapt strategy and organisational structure appropriately. The article is focused on the reorganisation and optimisation of the business organisation structure of global companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the use of the territorial business structure, within the framework of a global company, based on experimental research. Experiences with the introduction of a territorial organisational structure in a corporate enterprise have proven to be highly effective long-term, with productivity and sales volumes increasing. This territorial setting can be considered as a competitive advantage, which matches predicted market trends and is suitable for global businesses.

  4. Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, I; Sidorik, E; Kyrylenko, S; Chekhun, V

    2011-06-01

    In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure. Nevertheless, even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby. In addition, model studies in rodents unveiled a significant increase in carcinogenesis after 17-24 months of MW exposure both in tumor-prone and intact animals. To that, such metabolic changes, as overproduction of reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine formation, or ornithine decarboxylase activation under exposure to low intensity MW confirm a stress impact of this factor on living cells. We also address the issue of standards for assessment of biological effects of irradiation. It is now becoming increasingly evident that assessment of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation based on physical (thermal) approach used in recommendations of current regulatory bodies, including the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines, requires urgent reevaluation. We conclude that recent data strongly point to the need for re-elaboration of the current safety limits for non-ionizing radiation using recently obtained knowledge. We also emphasize that the everyday exposure of both occupational and general public to MW radiation should be regulated based on a precautionary principles which imply maximum restriction of excessive exposure.

  5. The effect of irradiance on long-term skeletal growth and net photosynthesis in Galaxea fascicularis under four light conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Velthoven, van B.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between irradiance, skeletal growth and net photosynthesis was studied for the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis to provide experimental evidence for mediation of light-enhanced calcification through photosynthesis. The hypothesis was tested that skeletal growth and

  6. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase of Atlantic salmon smolts in freshwater is not a predictor of long-term growth in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity is a widely used measure of osmoregulatory preparedness in salmonid smolts. The degree to which this measure may predict long term performance is uncertain. In order to assess the relationship of this enzyme to long term growth and ion homeostasis, a cohort of Atlantic salmon hatchery smolts was used in a controlled environment with no salinity perturbations. In May 2006, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity from 940 individually PIT tagged, Penobscot River smolts (USFWS, Green Lake National Fish Hatchery, Maine, United States) was measured immediately prior to isothermal transfer from freshwater to 32 ppt seawater. From the observed range of activities, individuals were classified as having “low”, “middle”, or “high” enzyme activity levels. Individual size (fork length and mass) was recorded on days 0, 1, 3, and 14 and monthly for four months. Growth rates over four time periods were calculated for individual fish maintained until the end of the experiment. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities were also measured from a subset of sampled fish. All groups effectively osmoregulated as evidenced by minor perturbations in plasma osmolyte levels. Apart from initial weight loss on transfer, fish grew throughout the experiment, however, there were no differences (fish size, growth rate, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in seawater) among groups with initially different gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities (prior to seawater entry). While gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity may be predictive of performance during the acute phase of acclimation (first few days), typical variation in this enzyme, expressed in freshwater at the peak of smolting, does not appear to be predictive of long-term growth in seawater.

  7. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Sutherland, Megan R.; Lim, Kyungjoon; Gubhaju, Lina; Zimanyi, Monika A.; Black, M. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension. PMID:22970368

  8. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislava Zohdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension.

  9. Non-Psychrophilic Methanogens Capable of Growth Following Long-Term Extreme Temperature Changes, with Application to Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Mickol

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the martian environment is currently cold and dry, geomorphological features on the surface of the planet indicate relatively recent (<4 My freeze/thaw episodes. Additionally, the recent detections of near-subsurface ice as well as hydrated salts within recurring slope lineae suggest potentially habitable micro-environments within the martian subsurface. On Earth, microbial communities are often active at sub-freezing temperatures within permafrost, especially within the active layer, which experiences large ranges in temperature. With warming global temperatures, the effect of thawing permafrost communities on the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane becomes increasingly important. Studies examining the community structure and activity of microbial permafrost communities on Earth can also be related to martian permafrost environments, should life have developed on the planet. Here, two non-psychrophilic methanogens, Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii, were tested for their ability to survive long-term (~4 year exposure to freeze/thaw cycles varying in both temperature and duration, with implications both for climate change on Earth and possible life on Mars.

  10. Non-Psychrophilic Methanogens Capable of Growth Following Long-Term Extreme Temperature Changes, with Application to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickol, Rebecca L; Laird, Sarah K; Kral, Timothy A

    2018-04-23

    Although the martian environment is currently cold and dry, geomorphological features on the surface of the planet indicate relatively recent (<4 My) freeze/thaw episodes. Additionally, the recent detections of near-subsurface ice as well as hydrated salts within recurring slope lineae suggest potentially habitable micro-environments within the martian subsurface. On Earth, microbial communities are often active at sub-freezing temperatures within permafrost, especially within the active layer, which experiences large ranges in temperature. With warming global temperatures, the effect of thawing permafrost communities on the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane becomes increasingly important. Studies examining the community structure and activity of microbial permafrost communities on Earth can also be related to martian permafrost environments, should life have developed on the planet. Here, two non-psychrophilic methanogens, Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii , were tested for their ability to survive long-term (~4 year) exposure to freeze/thaw cycles varying in both temperature and duration, with implications both for climate change on Earth and possible life on Mars.

  11. Long-term treatment with bromocriptine of a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma secreting thyrotropin, growth hormone and prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, A; Murabe, H; Nakamura, Y; Mizuta, H; Ihara, C; Nakao, K

    1999-02-01

    A 48-year-old female presented with acromegaly, amenorrhea and hyperthyroidism associated with high serum free T4 levels and measurable TSH concentrations. The administration of GHRH induced significant increases in GH, PRL and TSH. Conversely, intravenous infusion of dopamine or oral administration of bromocriptine effectively inhibited GH, PRL and TSH secretion. Serum alpha-subunit levels were neither affected by GHRH, dopamine nor bromocriptine. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and immunostaining of the tissue showed that the adenoma cells were positive for GH, PRL or TSH. The patient was treated with bromocriptine at a daily oral dose of 10 mg after surgery. Serum TSH were initially suppressed but returned within reference intervals with persistent normalized free T4 levels. Serum PRL became undetectable and GH levels were stable around 6 ng/ml except the periods of poor drug compliance, when serum TSH, GH and PRL levels rose considerably. The patient was followed-up for 10 years without any change in the residual adenoma tissues as detected by magnetic resonance imaging. These findings suggest that long-term bromocriptine therapy is effective in treating the hypersecretory state of a plurihormonal adenoma secreting TSH, GH and PRL.

  12. The challenge of the growth of the asian gas market in the long term. Opportunities and restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Asian gas market is expected to quickly resume its ground at the spectacular rate of the 90's, expanding to new purchasers and new exporters, including the countries of the Middle East and the CIS in search of outlets for their gas resources. The aim of this article is to identify the broad tendencies in the development of this market over the next 20 years. To meet potential demand (600 Mtoe in the year 2020 as opposed to 210 Mtoe at present) the base of reserves to be exploited must expand beyond South Eastern Asia. The procedures for commercialization must gradually open to include trade via land-based infrastructures, alongside conventional LNG business. If al gas projects, LNG chains or gas pipelines are faced with significant restriction (scale of capital to be mobilized, outlets to be guaranteed, price risk, country risk), the gas-pipe-line projects, the only ones which are capable of establishing a link between the richest basins and the most important potential markets would be feasible only in the long-term future. In any case, the major petroleum and gas companies are essential to the concrete realisation of the projects. (authors)

  13. No evidence for consistent long-term growth stimulation of 13 tropical tree species: results from tree-ring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, Peter; van der Sleen, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Bongers, Frans; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-10-01

    The important role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle makes it imperative to assess changes in their carbon dynamics for accurate projections of future climate-vegetation feedbacks. Forest monitoring studies conducted over the past decades have found evidence for both increasing and decreasing growth rates of tropical forest trees. The limited duration of these studies restrained analyses to decadal scales, and it is still unclear whether growth changes occurred over longer time scales, as would be expected if CO2 -fertilization stimulated tree growth. Furthermore, studies have so far dealt with changes in biomass gain at forest-stand level, but insights into species-specific growth changes - that ultimately determine community-level responses - are lacking. Here, we analyse species-specific growth changes on a centennial scale, using growth data from tree-ring analysis for 13 tree species (~1300 trees), from three sites distributed across the tropics. We used an established (regional curve standardization) and a new (size-class isolation) growth-trend detection method and explicitly assessed the influence of biases on the trend detection. In addition, we assessed whether aggregated trends were present within and across study sites. We found evidence for decreasing growth rates over time for 8-10 species, whereas increases were noted for two species and one showed no trend. Additionally, we found evidence for weak aggregated growth decreases at the site in Thailand and when analysing all sites simultaneously. The observed growth reductions suggest deteriorating growth conditions, perhaps due to warming. However, other causes cannot be excluded, such as recovery from large-scale disturbances or changing forest dynamics. Our findings contrast growth patterns that would be expected if elevated CO2 would stimulate tree growth. These results suggest that commonly assumed growth increases of tropical forests may not occur, which could lead to erroneous

  14. Acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment and nitrogen supply is basically a matter of growth rate adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocquin, P.; Ormenese, S.; Pieltain, A.; Detry, N.; Bernier, G.; Perilleux, C. [Univ. of Liege, Dept. of Life Sciences, Lab. of Plant Physiology, Liege (Belgium)

    2006-12-15

    The long-term response of Arabidopsis thaliana to increasing CO{sub 2} was evaluated in plants grown in 800 {mu}l l{sup -1} CO{sub 2} from sowing and maintained, in hydroponics, on three nitrogen supplies: 'low', 'medium' and 'high'. The global response to high CO{sub 2} and N-supply was evaluated by measuring growth parameters in parallel with photosynthetic activity, leaf carbohydrates, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) messenger RNA and protein, stomatal conductance (g-s) and density. CO{sub 2} enrichment was found to stimulate biomass production, whatever the N-supply. This stimulation was transient on low N-supply and persisted throughout the whole vegetative growth only in high N-supply. Acclimation on low N-high C0{sub 2} was not associated with carbohydrate accumulation or with a strong reduction in Rubisco amount or activity. At high N-supply, growth stimulation by high CO{sub 2} was mainly because of the acceleration of leaf production and expansion while other parameters such as specific leaf area, root/shoot ratio and g{sub s} appeared to be correlated with total leaf area. Our results thus suggest that, in strictly controlled and stable growing conditions, acclimation of A. thaliana to long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment is mostly controlled by growth rate adjustment. (au)

  15. The impact of long-term water stress on relative growth rate and morphology of needles and shoots of Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings: research toward identifying mechanistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Equiza, Maria Alejandra; Zheng, Quanshui; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-09-01

    Leaf morphology in the upper canopy of trees tends to be different from that lower down. The effect of long-term water stress on leaf growth and morphology was studied in seedlings of Metasequoia glyptostroboides to understand how tree height might affect leaf morphology in larger trees. Tree height increases water stress on growing leaves through increased hydraulic resistance to water flow and increased gravitational potential, hence we assume that water stress imposed by soil dehydration will have an effect equivalent to stress induced by height. Seedlings were subjected to well-watered and two constant levels of long-term water stress treatments. Drought treatment significantly reduced final needle count, area and mass per area (leaf mass area, LMA) and increased needle density. Needles from water-stressed plants had lower maximum volumetric elastic modulus (ε(max)), osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψ¹⁰⁰(π)) (and at zero turgor (Ψ⁰(π)) (than those from well-watered plants. Palisade and spongy mesophyll cell size and upper epidermal cell size decreased significantly in drought treatments. Needle relative growth rate, needle length and cell sizes were linear functions of the daily average water potential at the time of leaf growth (r² 0.88-0.999). We conclude that water stress alone does mimic the direction and magnitude of changes in leaf morphology observed in tall trees. The results are discussed in terms of various models for leaf growth rate. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  16. Forest Growth Responses to Drought at Short- and Long-Term Scales in Spain: Squeezing the Stress Memory from Tree Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Julio Camarero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought-triggered declines in forest productivity and associated die-off events have increased considerably due to climate warming in the last decades. There is an increasing interest in quantifying the resilience capacity of forests against climate warming and drought to uncover how different stands and tree species will resist and recover after more frequent and intense droughts. Trees form annual growth rings that represent an accurate record of how forest growth responded to past droughts. Here we use dendrochronology to quantify the radial growth of different forests subjected to contrasting climatic conditions in Spain during the last half century. Particularly, we considered four climatically contrasting areas where dominant forests showed clear signs of drought-induced dieback. Studied forests included wet sites dominated by silver fir (Abies alba in the Pyrenees and beech (Fagus sylvatica stands in northern Spain, and drought-prone sites dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris in eastern Spain and black pine (Pinus nigra in the semi-arid south-eastern Spain. We quantified the growth reduction caused by different droughts and assessed the short-and long-term resilience capacity of declining vs. non-declining trees in each forest. In all cases, drought induced a marked growth reduction regardless tree vigor. However, the capacity to recover after drought (resilience at short- and long-term scales varied greatly between declining and non-declining individuals. In the case of beech and silver fir, non-declining individuals presented greater growth rates and capacity to recover after drought than declining individuals. For Scots pine, the resilience to drought was found to be lower in recent years regardless the tree vigor, but the growth reduction caused by successive droughts was more pronounced in declining than in non-declining individuals. In the black pine forest an extreme drought induced a marked growth reduction in declining

  17. Health-related quality of life of young adults with Turner syndrome following a long-term randomized controlled trial of recombinant human growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Vliet Guy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited long-term randomized controlled trials of growth hormone (GH supplementation to adult height and few published reports of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL following treatment. The present follow-up study of young adults from a long-term controlled trial of GH treatment in patients with Turner syndrome (TS yielded data to examine whether GH supplementation resulted in a higher HRQOL (either due to taller stature or from the knowledge that active treatment and not placebo had been received or alternatively a lower HRQOL (due to medicalization from years of injections. Methods The original trial randomized 154 Canadian girls with TS aged 7-13 years from 13 centres to receive either long-term GH injections at the pharmacologic dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week or to receive no injections; estrogen prescription for induction of puberty was standardized. Patients were eligible for the follow-up study if they were at least 16 years old at the time of follow-up. The instrument used to study HRQOL was the SF-36, summarized into physical and mental component scales (PCS and MCS; higher scores indicate better HRQOL. Results Thirty-four of the 48 eligible participants (71% consented to participate; data were missing for one patient. Both groups (GH and no treatment had normal HRQOL at this post-treatment assessment. The GH group had a (mean ± SD PCS score of 56 ± 5; the untreated group 58 ± 4; mean score for 16-24 year old females in the general population 53.5 ± 6.9. The GH group had a mean MCS score of 52 ± 6; the untreated group 49 ± 13; mean score for 16-24 year old females in the general population 49.6 ± 9.8. Secondary analyses showed no relationship between HRQOL and height. Conclusions We found no benefit or adverse effect on HRQOL either from receiving or not receiving growth hormone injections in a long-term randomized controlled trial, confirming larger observational studies. We suggest that it remains

  18. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over

  19. Long-term monitoring of growth in the Eastern Elliptio, Elliptio complanata (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Rhode Island: A transplant experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, D.H.; Newton, T.J.; Green, L.

    2007-01-01

    The lengths of marked specimens of the freshwater mussel, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata [Lightfoot 1786]), were monitored annually in 3 lakes in Rhode Island, USA, from 1991 to 2005. Mussels growing in Worden Pond showed a change in mean shell length of only 4.3 mm over 14 y, whereas mussel growth in 2 nearby lakes was 3 to 8x greater than growth in Worden Pond over the same time period. L???, the length at which shell growth stops, was significantly different (p < 0.001) among lakes and ranged from 60.5 to 87.4 mm. Transplant experiments revealed that mussels moved to Worden Pond stopped growing, whereas mussels moved from Worden Pond to the 2 other lakes grew at rates similar to the rates observed for resident mussels in the 2 lakes. Standard water-quality measures did not explain the observed growth cessation and lower condition indices of mussels in Worden Pond. Our growth data are consistent with food limitation. The consistent slow growth of E. complanata in Worden Pond, without high mortality, and its ability to increase growth when placed in environments more favorable than Worden Pond, suggests both growth plasticity and longevity in these animals. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  20. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  1. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  2. Long-term effects of antibiotics, norfloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole, in a partial life-cycle study with zebrafish (Danio rerio): effects on growth, development, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenhua; Lu, Guanghua; Ye, Qiuxia; Liu, Jianchao

    2016-09-01

    A partial life-cycle study with zebrafish (Danio rerio) was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of antibiotics, norfloxacin (NOR) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). A series of bio-endpoints correlated to the growth, development, and reproduction was assessed. The results showed that the body weight and the condition factor were depressed by SMX at 200 μg/L during the growth period. Meanwhile, the activities of metabolic enzyme (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) were stimulated in all cases. The consequences of parental exposure to antibiotics for the next generation were also examined. The egg production of parents were depressed by the 200 μg/L NOR and SMX alone or in combination. Similarly, decreased hatching, survival, and enhanced development abnormality of the next generation also occurred after parental exposure to SMX at the highest concentration. The heartbeat however was not altered in all cases. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the bio-endpoints between the combined and individual treatment in most cases, with the exception of lower EROD activity and egg production in the co-treatment. The results suggest that long-term exposure to NOR and SMX at environmentally relevant concentrations, individually and in a mixture, may not significantly pose a threat to the growth, development, and reproduction of zebrafish, and an adverse effect may be expected at high concentration.

  3. Profile of mecasermin for the long-term treatment of growth failure in children and adolescents with severe primary IGF-1 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Fintini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Fintini, Claudia Brufani, Marco CappaEndocrinology Unit, “Bambino Gesù” Children’s Hospital-IRCCS, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHI or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 deficiency (IGFD is characterized by deficit of IGF-1 production due to alteration of response of growth hormone (GH receptor to GH. This syndrome is due to mutation of GH receptor or IGF-1 gene and patients affected showed no response to GH therapy. The only treatment is recombinant IGF-1 (mecasermin, which has been available since 1986, but approved in the United States by the US Food and Drug Administration only in 2005 and in Europe by the European Medicines Agency in 2007. To date, few studies are available on long-term treatment with mecasermin in IGFD patients and some of them have a very small number of subjects. In this review we discuss briefly clinical features of severe primary IGFD, laboratory findings, and indications for treatment. Results of long-term therapy with rhIGF1 (mecasermin in patients affected by severe primary IGFD and possible side effects are explained.Keywords: mecasermin, therapy, Laron syndrome, IGF-1

  4. Connective tissue growth factor is involved in structural retinal vascular changes in long-term experimental diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geest, Rob J; Leeuwis, Jan Willem; Dendooven, Amélie; Pfister, Frederick; Bosch, Klazien; Hoeben, Kees A; Vogels, Ilse M C; Van der Giezen, Dionne M; Dietrich, Nadine; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    Early retinal vascular changes in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) include capillary basal lamina (BL) thickening, pericyte loss and the development of acellular capillaries. Expression of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed) family

  5. Connective tissue growth factor is involved in structural retinal vascular changes in long-term experimental diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Rob J.; Leeuwis, Jan Willem; Dendooven, Amélie; Pfister, Frederick; Bosch, Klazien; Hoeben, Kees A.; Vogels, Ilse M. C.; van der Giezen, Dionne M.; Dietrich, Nadine; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2014-01-01

    Early retinal vascular changes in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) include capillary basal lamina (BL) thickening, pericyte loss and the development of acellular capillaries. Expression of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed) family

  6. Growth-differentiation factor 15 for long-term prognostication in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: an Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes (ICTUS) substudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Peter; Kempf, Tibor; Windhausen, Fons; van Straalen, Jan P.; Guba-Quint, Anja; Fischer, Johan; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wollert, Kai C.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Hirsch, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    No five-year long-term follow-up data is available regarding the prognostic value of GDF-15. Our aim is to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of admission growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) regarding death or myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary

  7. Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Justin M.; Karnosky, David F.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Early spring leaf out is important to the success of deciduous trees competing for light and space in dense forest plantation canopies. In this study, we investigated spring leaf flush and how long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO 2 ]) and elevated ozone concentration ([O 3 ]) altered leaf area index development in a closed Populus tremuloides (aspen) canopy. This work was done at the Aspen FACE experiment where aspen clones have been grown since 1997 in conditions simulating the [CO 2 ] and [O 3 ] predicted for ∼2050. The responses of two clones were compared during the first month of spring leaf out when CO 2 fumigation had begun, but O 3 fumigation had not. Trees in elevated [CO 2 ] plots showed a stimulation of leaf area index (36%), while trees in elevated [O 3 ] plots had lower leaf area index (-20%). While individual leaf area was not significantly affected by elevated [CO 2 ], the photosynthetic operating efficiency of aspen leaves was significantly improved (51%). There were no significant differences in the way that the two aspen clones responded to elevated [CO 2 ]; however, the two clones responded differently to long-term growth at elevated [O 3 ]. The O 3 -sensitive clone, 42E, had reduced individual leaf area when grown at elevated [O 3 ] (-32%), while the tolerant clone, 216, had larger mature leaf area at elevated [O 3 ] (46%). These results indicate a clear difference between the two clones in their long-term response to elevated [O 3 ], which could affect competition between the clones, and result in altered genotypic composition in future atmospheric conditions. - Spring leaf flush is stimulated by elevated [CO 2 ] and suppressed by elevated [O 3 ] in aspen (Populus tremuloides).

  8. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshe, Lisa R.; Coggins, Lewis; Shaver, Donna J.; Higgins, Ben; Landry, Andre M.; Bailey, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM) and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp’s ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr) and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL)) estimated using the “rapprochement” skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp’s ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends. PMID:28333937

  9. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Avens

    Full Text Available Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii, the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp's ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL estimated using the "rapprochement" skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp's ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends.

  10. Long-term effects of maternal arginine supplementation and colostrum intake on pre- and postweaning growth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Ramaekers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    /d (ARG; n = 11) or isonitrogenous amounts of alanine (CON; n = 10) from d 30 of gestation to d 28 of lactation (weaning). Colostrum intake of individual piglets was determined based on piglet birth weight, weight gain (0–24 h), and duration of suckling in the colostrum period (0–24 h). At weaning, all...... procedure of SAS was used to estimate effects of dietary treatment, sex, piglet colostrum intake, and birth weight on pre- and postweaning growth. Piglet birth weight and preweaning growth were not affected by dietary treatment (P > 0.10). Postweaning ADG of ARG pigs was increased compared with that of CON...... pigs (P = 0.01). Piglet colostrum intake was positively related to preweaning (P colostrum on growth. Piglet birth weight was not related to pre- and postweaning ADG (P > 0.10) when piglet colostrum intake was taken into account...

  11. Long-term delivery of nerve growth factor by encapsulated cell biodelivery in the Göttingen minipig basal forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, P; Tornøe, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves memory in AD animal models. In humans, the safe delivery of therapeutic doses of NGF is challenging. For clinical use, we have therefore developed an encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery device...

  12. Prospective long-term follow up of children with anorectal malformation: growth and development until 5years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hondel, Desiree; Sloots, Cornelius E J; Gischler, Saskia J; Meeussen, Conny J H M; Wijnen, Rene M H; IJsselstijn, Hanneke

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate growth and development in children with anorectal malformations and to analyze effects of type of malformation and comorbidities. Non-syndromal children with anorectal malformations were prospectively evaluated at 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 years. Biometrics were obtained at all visits. Mental and psychomotor function development was determined. 108 children (59% male) were included. 49% had a high malformation, and 46% had ≥ 1 additional major comorbidity. All growth parameters were below the norm at all ages (pChildren with ≥ 1 additional major anomaly had lower height at all ages; at 5 years, mean (95% CI) height was -1.83 (-2.7 to -1.1) and -0.70 (-1.3 to -0.1) in children with and without comorbidities, respectively (p=0.019). Mental development was normal, irrespective of the type of malformation or comorbidities. Motor development was delayed at all ages. At 5 years, motor development (n=30) was normal in 70%, borderline in 23%, and 7% had definitive motor problems (p=0.043). Non-syndromal children with anorectal malformations are at risk for growth impairment, especially those with additional major comorbidity. Mental development is normal. Motor development is slightly impaired. Supportive care should focus on growth, dietary management, and motor development besides defecation problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term effects of drought on tree-ring growth and carbon isotope variability in Scots pine in a dry environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Galina; Treydte, Kerstin; Bugmann, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Drought frequency is increasing in many parts of the world and may enhance tree decline and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms are poorly understood, however, particularly regarding chronic effects of long-term drought and the response to increasing temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). We combined analyses of radial growth and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in tree rings in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over the 20th century to elucidate causes of tree mortality in one of the driest parts of the European Alps (Pfynwald, Switzerland). We further compared trees that have recently died with living trees in a 10-year irrigation experiment, where annual precipitation was doubled. We found a sustained growth increase and immediate depletion of δ13C values for irrigated trees, indicating higher stomatal conductance and thus indeed demonstrating that water is a key limiting factor for growth. Growth of the now-dead trees started declining in the mid-1980s, when both mean temperature and VPD increased strongly. But growth of these trees was reduced to some extent already several decades earlier, while intrinsic water-use efficiency derived from δ13C values was higher. This indicates a more conservative water-use strategy compared with surviving trees, possibly at the cost of low carbon uptake and long-term reduction of the needle mass. We observed reduced climatic sensitivity of raw tree-ring δ13C for the now-dead in contrast to surviving trees, indicating impaired stomatal regulation, although this difference between the tree groups was smaller after detrending the data. Higher autocorrelation and a lower inter-annual δ13C variability of the now-dead trees further indicates a strong dependence on (low) carbon reserves. We conclude that the recent increase in atmospheric moisture demand in combination with insufficient soil water supply was the main trigger for mortality of those trees that were weakened by long-term

  14. Long-term changes in tree composition in a mesic old-growth upland forest in southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; John W. Groninger; J.W. Van Sambeek

    1999-01-01

    The Kaskaskia Woods (Lat. 37.5 N, Long. 88.3 W), an old-growth hardwood forest in southern Illinois, has one of the oldest and best documented set of permanent plots with individual tree measurements in the Central Hardwood Region. In 1935, eight 0.101-ha plots were installed in a 7.4 ha upland area consisting of xeric oak-hickory and mesic mixed hardwoods communities...

  15. RESULTS OF LONG-TERM THERAPY WITH GROWTH-HORMONE IN 2 DOSE REGIMENS IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIENHUIS, HE; RONGENWESTERLAKEN, C; WIT, JM; OTTEN, BJ; KEIZERSCHRAMA, SMPFD; DRAYER, NM; DELEMARREVANDEWAAL, HA; VULSMA, T; OOSTDIJK, W; WAELKENS, JJJ

    1993-01-01

    Girls with Turner syndrome were divided according to age (group A 6-12 years, and group B 12-19 years) and human growth hormone (GH) dose regimen (A1 and B1, three injections/week; A2 and B2, six injections/week). All groups responded to GH, 24 IU/M2/week, with an increase in height velocity, though

  16. Fetal growth and subsequent risk of breast cancer: results from long term follow up of Swedish cohort

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, V A; dos Santos Silva, I; De Stavola, B L; Mohsen, R; Leon, D A; Lithell, H O

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether size at birth and rate of fetal growth influence the risk of breast cancer in adulthood. DESIGN: Cohort identified from detailed birth records, with 97% follow up. SETTING: Uppsala Academic Hospital, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 5358 singleton females born during 1915-29, alive and traced to the 1960 census. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of breast cancer before (at age <50 years) and after (> or = 50 years) the menopause. RESULTS: Size at birth was positive...

  17. Effects of long-term treatment with growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in the GHRH knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Maria; Fintini, Danilo; Bowers, Cyril Y; Parlow, A F; Salvatori, Roberto

    2005-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretagogues (GHS) stimulate GH secretion in vivo in humans and in animals. They act on the ghrelin receptor, expressed in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. It is unknown whether GHSs act predominantly by increasing the release of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) or by acting directly on the somatotroph cells. We studied whether a potent GHS could stimulate growth in the absence of endogenous GHRH. To this end, we used GHRH knockout (GHRH-KO) mice. These animals have proportionate dwarfism due to severe GH deficiency (GHD) and pituitary hypoplasia due to reduced somatotroph cell mass. We treated male GHRH-KO mice for 6 wk (from week 1 to week 7 of age) with GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2, 10 microg s.c. twice a day). Chronic treatment with GHRP-2 failed to stimulate somatotroph cell proliferation and GH secretion and to promote longitudinal growth. GHRP-2-treated mice showed an increase in total body weight compared with placebo-treated animals, due to worsening of the body composition alterations typical of GHD animals. These data demonstrate that GHRP-2 failed to reverse the severe GHD caused by lack of GHRH.

  18. Effect of long term exposure at elevated temperature on the microstructural stability and micromechanics of fatigue crack growth of Ti-24Al-11Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswath, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium intermetallics are being developed for long term applications at elevated temperatures. Typical approaches include the design of appropriate microstructure for room and elevated temperature fatigue resistance. However, a little explored area is the stability of these microstructures at elevated temperature and its effect on fatigue crack growth. A coarse two phase α 2 +β Widmanstaetten microstructure was studied. Microstructural stability and elemental segregation were studied as a function of exposure time for up to 500 hours at 800 C using transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate that the Widmanstaetten microstructure is metastable and the β phase breaks up into particles. The absence of a continuous β phase surrounding the α 2 phase reduces the resistance of the microstructure to fatigue crack growth at room temperature

  19. Long-term functional outcomes and correlation with regional brain connectivity by MRI diffusion tractography metrics in a near-term rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Illa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR affects 5-10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI parameters and connectivity. METHODOLOGY: At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their

  20. Long-term functional outcomes and correlation with regional brain connectivity by MRI diffusion tractography metrics in a near-term rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Eixarch, Elisenda; Batalle, Dafnis; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects 5-10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation) and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters and connectivity. At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR

  1. Long-Term Functional Outcomes and Correlation with Regional Brain Connectivity by MRI Diffusion Tractography Metrics in a Near-Term Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Eixarch, Elisenda; Batalle, Dafnis; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects 5–10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation) and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters and connectivity. Methodology At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. Principal Findings The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. Conclusions The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their neurostructural

  2. South Africa's greenhouse gas emissions under business-as-usual: The technical basis of 'Growth without Constraints' in the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Hughes, Alison; Marquard, Andrew; Haw, Mary; Merven, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology for projecting business-as-usual GHG trajectory developed in technical work for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (LTMSs), in particular the 'Growth without Constraints' (GWCs) scenario. Technically rigorous projections are important as developing countries define their commitment to act on mitigation relative to business-as-usual (BAU). The key drivers for the GWC scenario include GDP (both growth rate and composition), population, discount rate and technological change. GDP emerged as an important driver in the research for LTMS and further analysis. If South Africa's economy grows without constraints over the next few decades, GHG emissions will continue to escalate, multiplying more than four-fold by mid-century. There is little gain in energy efficiency, and emissions continue to be dominated by energy use and supply, the latter remaining coal-based in GWC. We analyse the projections (not predictions) in relation to various measures. The LTMS GWC scenario is compared to other projections, nationally and internationally. A broadly comparable projection is being used at national level, for electricity planning. When compared to projections from international models, we find that the assumptions about GDP growth rates are a key factor, and suggest that comparisons of global data-sets against national analyses is important. - Highlights: → Specifies business-as-usual GHG trajectory for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios. → Provides details on methodology, drivers of emissions and key parameters. → In a scenario of Growth without Constraints, emissions would quadruple by 2050. → Analysis of resulting emission projection, not a prediction. → Compares projections from other national and international models.

  3. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Alejandra E.; Agüero, Paola R.; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans. PMID:27293747

  4. Effects of habitat type on short- and long-term growth parameters of the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Kalous, L.; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Čech, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2015), s. 13-20 ISSN 1434-2944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diel vertical migrations * RNA/DNA ratio * bathypelagic perch fry * growth rate * fish larvae * Římov Reservoir Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.459, year: 2015

  5. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  6. [Long-term follow-up study of titanium implant impact on pediatric mandibular growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Li, Wei; Chen, Qi; Song, Fumin; Tang, Wei; Wang, Hang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the impact of titanium implant on the growth and development of pediatric mandible after suffering from mandibular fracture and undergoing open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) compared with those that underwent titanium plate removal postoperatively. Fifteen pediatric patients with mandibular fracture who underwent ORIF were included in this study. Eight patients did not undergo titanium implant removal postoperatively, whereas the other seven patients underwent the routine. The postoperative data of the pediatrics were collected for comparative analysis by taking the patients' frontal and lateral photos, recording the inter-incisor distance, and measuring the height of mandibular ramus, length of the mandibular body, and combined length of the mandible in three-dimensional reconstruction image. All patients had acceptable facial contour, mouth opening, and occlusion, without obvious abnormalities. The radiography showed no significant difference between the bilateral mandibular lengths in the two groups of patients (P>0.05). The titanium plants have no significant impact on the growth and development of pediatric mandible postoperatively; hence, the question on whether the titanium plates should be removed or not may be neglected. The removal operation may lead to secondary trauma; thus, performing titanium plate removal routinely is not recommended.

  7. Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and provenance on four clones of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). I. Plant growth, allocation and ontogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centritto, M. [Inst. di Biochimica ed Ecofisiologia Vegetale, Rome (Italy); Lee, H.S.J.; Jarvis, P.G. [Univ. Edinburgh, Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on the long-term growth and carbon allocation of four clones of Sitka spruce taken from two provenances under conditions of non-limiting water and nutrient supply. The use of clones from different provenances provided a unique way of examining effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on competitiveness of saplings adapted to climates with different temperature and day length. The saplings were fertilized following the Ingestad approach to yield a supply of mineral nutrients at free access in order to maintain nutrient uptake proportional to plant growth, and rule out undefined variability in sink strength that might have been caused by water and nutrient deficiencies. There was considerable variation in growth responses among clones. Across all four clones there was a 40% increase in total dry mass of the saplings growth in elevated CO(2) concentration, but the genetic differences in the growth response to elevated CO(2) concentration were significant. The clones originated from different latitudinal provenances, and were acclimated to different temperatures and day length climates, and so had different abilities to acclimate to their new environment. Some Sitka spruce clones may grow better in lowland Scotland as climate change occurs. Genetic differences in the growth response to elevated CO(2) concentration may be exploited through the assessment of nursery stock for future forest planning. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Development and evaluation of a long-term deposit probe for on-line monitoring of deposit growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, Anders; Lauren, Tor; Yrjas, Patrik; Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20540 Turku (Finland); Friesenbichler, Joachim [Institute for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Technical University Graz Inffeldg. 21b, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    A newly designed air-cooled probe for on-line monitoring of deposition growth has been tested in a boiler firing three woody fuels. Thermocouples are mounted on both sides of the tube wall enabling measurements of the heat flux through the probe wall. Knowing the heat flux through the probe wall, it is possible to measure the additional heat transfer resistance caused by the deposit and to estimate the properties of the deposit. Calculating the deposit thickness using the collected temperature data indicated the thinnest deposit when wood was fired, followed by bark and waste wood. The calculated deposit thickness was larger than those found when analysing the deposit thickness after the probe had been removed. Nevertheless, the ranking of fuels by deposit build-up rate was the same. (author)

  9. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and

  10. Long-Term Urban Growth and Land Use Efficiency in Southern Europe: Implications for Sustainable Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zitti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study illustrates a multidimensional analysis of an indicator of urban land use efficiency (per-capita built-up area, LUE in mainland Attica, a Mediterranean urban region, along different expansion waves (1960–2010: compaction and densification in the 1960s, dispersed growth along the coasts and on Athens’ fringe in the 1970s, fringe consolidation in the 1980s, moderate re-polarization and discontinuous expansion in the 1990s and sprawl in remote areas in the 2000s. The non-linear trend in LUE (a continuous increase up to the 1980s and a moderate decrease in 1990 and 2000 preceding the rise observed over the last decade reflects Athens’ expansion waves. A total of 23 indicators were collected by decade for each municipality of the study area with the aim of identifying the drivers of land use efficiency. In 1960, municipalities with low efficiency in the use of land were concentrated on both coastal areas and Athens’ fringe, while in 2010, the lowest efficiency rate was observed in the most remote, rural areas. Typical urban functions (e.g., mixed land uses, multiple-use buildings, vertical profile are the variables most associated with high efficiency in the use of land. Policies for sustainable land management should consider local and regional factors shaping land use efficiency promoting self-contained expansion and more tightly protecting rural and remote land from dispersed urbanization. LUE is a promising indicator reflecting the increased complexity of growth patterns and may anticipate future urban trends.

  11. Effects of long-term corticosterone implants on growth and immune function in juvenile alligators, Alligator mississippiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, L A; Elsey, R M; Lance, V A

    1997-10-01

    Sixty juvenile alligators were implanted subcutaneously with slow release pellets of corticosterone or placebo. Alligators were divided into five different groups such that each group received a different dose. A blood sample was taken prior to and 4 days after the implants were in place to measure hormone levels. Additional blood samples were collected at 1 month and 3 months. At 4 days corticosterone levels ranged from 3,400 ng/ml in the group treated with the high dose to 40 ng/ml in the group implanted with the low dose. The extremely high dose caused 40% mortality within 4 weeks. It was evident that the pellets did not release the hormone for the expected 90 days. Circulating levels of corticosterone were back to baseline levels by 3 months. Hormone levels achieved at 4 days were a reliable predictor of subsequent growth. Rate of growth was negatively correlated with plasma corticosterone at 4 days (r2 = 0.711) and at 1 month (r2 = 0.544) posttreatment. Differential white blood cell counts performed after 1 month of treatment showed a clear effect of the implant. Alligators treated with corticosterone had decreased percentages of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils and had a higher heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio than the placebo group. Furthermore, histological examination of the spleen revealed a significant depletion of lymphoid cells in alligators treated with the highest dose of hormone. The results from this study demonstrate that exogenous corticosterone can mimic the effects of prolonged stress in juvenile alligators.

  12. Predicting long-term streamflow variability in moist eucalypt forests using forest growth models and a sapwood area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskierniak, D.; Kuczera, G.; Benyon, R.

    2016-04-01

    A major challenge in surface hydrology involves predicting streamflow in ungauged catchments with heterogeneous vegetation and spatiotemporally varying evapotranspiration (ET) rates. We present a top-down approach for quantifying the influence of broad-scale changes in forest structure on ET and hence streamflow. Across three catchments between 18 and 100 km2 in size and with regenerating Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis forest, we demonstrate how variation in ET can be mapped in space and over time using LiDAR data and commonly available forest inventory data. The model scales plot-level sapwood area (SA) to the catchment-level using basal area (BA) and tree stocking density (N) estimates in forest growth models. The SA estimates over a 69 year regeneration period are used in a relationship between SA and vegetation induced streamflow loss (L) to predict annual streamflow (Q) with annual rainfall (P) estimates. Without calibrating P, BA, N, SA, and L to Q data, we predict annual Q with R2 between 0.68 and 0.75 and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) between 0.44 and 0.48. To remove bias, the model was extended to allow for runoff carry-over into the following year as well as minor correction to rainfall bias, which produced R2 values between 0.72 and 0.79, and NSE between 0.70 and 0.79. The model under-predicts streamflow during drought periods as it lacks representation of ecohydrological processes that reduce L with either reduced growth rates or rainfall interception during drought. Refining the relationship between sapwood thickness and forest inventory variables is likely to further improve results.

  13. Long-Term Visual Outcomes for a Treat and Extend Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Regimen in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mrejen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF therapy, clinicians are now focused on various treatment strategies to better control neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Herein, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with treatment-naïve NVAMD initially classified based on fluorescein angiography (FA alone or with an anatomic classification utilizing both FA and optical coherence tomography (OCT and correlated long-term visual outcomes of these patients treated with an anti-VEGF Treat-and-Extend Regimen (TER with baseline characteristics including neovascular phenotype. Overall, 185 patients (210 eyes were followed over an average of 3.5 years (range 1–6.6 with a retention rate of 62.9%, and visual acuity significantly improved with a TER that required a mean number of 8.3 (±1.6 (± standard deviation intravitreal anti-VEGF injections/year (range 4–13. The number of injections and the anatomic classification were independent predictors of visual acuity at 6 months, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Patients with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes and received more injections than the other neovascular subtypes. There were no serious adverse events. A TER provided sustained long-term visual gains. Eyes with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes than those with other neovascular subtypes.

  14. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  15. Sphagnum farming on cut-over bog in NW Germany: Long-term studies on Sphagnum growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum farming allows sustainable and climate-friendly land use on bogs while producing a renewable substitute for peat in horticultural growing media. We studied Sphagnum productivity on an experimental Sphagnum culture established on a cut-over bog in Germany with strongly humified peat at the surface. Preparation of the site included levelling of the peat surface, construction of an irrigation system, spreading of Sphagnum papillosum fragments, covering them with straw, and finally rewetting. Provided there was an adequate (95 % initial cover of Sphagnum fragments, the most relevant variables for Sphagnum productivity were found to be water supply and regular mowing of vascular plants. As long as sufficient water was supplied, the dry biomass accumulation of the established Sphagnum lawn remained high, reaching 3.7 t ha-1 yr-1 between 2007 and 2011. Annual dry Sphagnum biomass productivity over the period 2010–2011 was up to 6.9 t ha-1. During periods when high water table could not be maintained, substantial decomposition of the previously accumulated biomass occurred. After nine years the net accumulated dry mass per hectare was on average 19.5 t of pure Sphagnum and 0.7 t of subsurface vascular-plant biomass. Nitrogen deposition in the study region is apparently sufficient to support fast Sphagnum growth, whereas phosphorus and potassium may be limiting.

  16. The Long-Term Effects of Prematurity and Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Metabolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Y. L. Chan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine relative influences of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preterm birth on risks of cardiovascular, renal, or metabolic dysfunction in adolescent children. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. 71 periadolescent children were classified into four groups: premature small for gestational age (SGA, premature appropriate for gestational age (AGA, term SGA, and term AGA. Outcome Measures. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, augmentation index (Al, glomerular filtration rate (GFR following protein load; plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. Results. SGA had higher SBP (average 4.6 mmHg and lower GFR following protein load (average 28.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 than AGA. There was no effect of prematurity on SBP (P=.4 or GFR (P=.9. Both prematurity and SGA were associated with higher AI (average 9.7% and higher serum insulin levels 2 hr after glucose load (average 15.5 mIU/L than all other groups. Conclusion. IUGR is a more significant risk factor than preterm birth for later systolic hypertension and renal dysfunction. Among children born preterm, those who are also SGA are at increased risk of arterial stiffness and metabolic dysfunction.

  17. Offshore Brazil: forcing the path to the future managing supply chain challenges to ensure long-term growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillegeist, Paul H.; Pickard, Matt [Quest Offshore Resources, Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Over the last 10 years, worldwide demand for energy has seen a significant increase. This accelerated growth has placed a tremendous strain on the offshore oil and gas E and P industry, as operators strive to find and develop new accumulations to help meet rising global energy demand, while overcoming many substantial challenges. Whether those challenges come from limited manufacturing and construction supply or limited human capital, these issues will need to be addressed in order for the industry to continue to push forward at a record pace. Additionally, the industry will have to rely heavily on new and emerging technologies, some of which are largely unproven. Nowhere is this dedication to technological achievement more evident than in the deep waters offshore Brazil. Recent discoveries have placed an added degree of focus on the technologies that will be needed to help develop these fields in a commercially viable manner. Given Brazil's track record for innovation and accomplishment, the region is poised to present a number of industry-wide advancements over the next 10 to 15 years as Brazil continues to be a trend setter for worldwide energy security. A thorough understanding of these issues, as well as the potential solutions to overcoming them, is critical to companies wishing to participate in the highly rewarding Brazilian offshore sector. This presentation will strive to detail the underlying factors that drive industry activity, including burgeoning commercial opportunities for service and supply companies, as well as addressing the technologies currently in progress that will help move the industry into ultra-deep water exploration and development. (author)

  18. Fetal growth and subsequent risk of breast cancer: results from long term follow up of Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, V A; dos Santos Silva, I; De Stavola, B L; Mohsen, R; Leon, D A; Lithell, H O

    2003-02-01

    To investigate whether size at birth and rate of fetal growth influence the risk of breast cancer in adulthood. Cohort identified from detailed birth records, with 97% follow up. Uppsala Academic Hospital, Sweden. 5358 singleton females born during 1915-29, alive and traced to the 1960 census. Incidence of breast cancer before (at age or = 50 years) the menopause. Size at birth was positively associated with rates of breast cancer in premenopausal women. In women who weighed > or =4000 g at birth rates of breast cancer were 3.5 times (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 9.3) those in women of similar gestational age who weighed birth. Rates in women in the top fifths of the distributions of birth length and head circumference were 3.4 (1.5 to 7.9) and 4.0 (1.6 to 10.0) times those in the lowest fifths (adjusted for gestational age). The effect of birth weight disappeared after adjustment for birth length or head circumference, whereas the effects of birth length and head circumference remained significant after adjustment for birth weight. For a given size at birth, gestational age was inversely associated with risk (P=0.03 for linear trend). Adjustment for markers of adult risk factors did not affect these findings. Birth size was not associated with rates of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Size at birth, particularly length and head circumference, is associated with risk of breast cancer in women aged rate, as measured by birth size adjusted for gestational age, rather than size at birth may be the aetiologically relevant factor in premenopausal breast cancer.

  19. Cutaneous side-effects in patients on long-term treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osio, A; Mateus, C; Soria, J-C; Massard, C; Malka, D; Boige, V; Besse, B; Robert, C

    2009-09-01

    Acute and subacute cutaneous side-effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) are very frequent and well known. Much less is known about the chronic cutaneous effects of these drugs and about their potential psychosocial impact on patients. We performed a retrospective study of patients treated with EGFRIs for more than 6 months. All patients had a detailed dermatological examination. The primary cancer, associated chemotherapies, skin treatment, evolution of skin symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL) as evaluated by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were noted. Seven men and nine women were identified. The mean length of EGFRI treatment was 10 months (range 6-27). At the time of examination, all patients (100%) had cutaneous side-effects. Grade I or II folliculitis was found in 37.5% of the patients. Additional skin manifestations were xerosis (100%), mucositis (69%), hair abnormalities (87.5%), eyelash trichomegaly (62.5%), facial hypertrichosis (56%), painful paronychia (56%) and onycholysis (44%). Dose reduction or EGFRI discontinuation for skin toxicity were needed in six patients (37.5%). DLQI evaluation showed a moderate to strong impact on QoL in four patients (25%). Cutaneous side-effects are found in 100% of patients treated with EGFRIs for more than 6 months and have a significant effect on patients' QoL. The clinical spectrum of skin manifestation varies over time. As the use of EGFRIs rapidly increases, it is critical for us to improve our knowledge in the understanding and managment of these skin manifestations.

  20. [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyeseer, Ainiwaer; Zhang, G X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Meng, X H; Liu, Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To study the effect of iodine deficiency on body weight, food consumption, and food utilization rate of second filial generation Wistar rats. Methods: According to the food pattern of a high-iodine deficient population, two types of low-iodine food have been produced using the main crops grown in this area (iodine levels of 50 and 20 μg/kg, respectively). Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal iodine group (NI group), low-iodine group one (LI group) and low-iodine group two (LII group), using the random number table method and fed diets containing 300, 50, and 20 μg/kg of iodine, respectively. Parental generation rats were fed until they reached reproductive age; first filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After 3 months of feeding, first filial generation rats gave birth to second filial generation rats; second filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After feeding for 90, 180, and 270 days, rats were sacrificed. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze body weight, food intake, and food utilization rate data collected during the time of feeding and blood iodine hormone level, which was determined after sacrifice. Results: The LI and LII groups generally demonstrated decreased activity, slow reaction, and growth retardation compared with the NI group. After 270 days, the urine iodine levels of the LI and LII groups were 1.7 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than the NI group (255.2 μg/L) ( Pfood intake of female and male rats after 270 days were (465.0±27.7), (658.4±28.6) and (423.0±13.2), (548.0±18.8) g, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the NI group ((499.5±21.8), (760.8±33.0) g) ( Pfood utilization rate of female rats in the LI and LII groups was (8.7±0.4)% and (6.0±0.58)%, which was lower than that of the NI group ((11.7±3.5)%) ( Pfood intake, and food utilization rate among second filial

  1. Towards a better understanding of long-term wood-chemistry variations in old-growth forests: A case study on ancient Pinus uncinata trees from the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, Andrea; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Camarero, J Julio; Buras, Allan; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Galván, J Diego; Gutiérrez, Emilia

    2018-06-01

    Dendrochemical studies in old forests are still underdeveloped. Old trees growing in remote high-elevation areas far from direct human influence constitute a promising biological proxy for the long-term reconstructions of environmental changes using tree-rings. Furthermore, centennial-long chronologies of multi-elemental chemistry at inter- and intra-annual resolution are scarce. Here, we use a novel non-destructive method by applying Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) to wood samples of old Pinus uncinata trees from two Pyrenean high-elevation forests growing on acidic and basic soils. To disentangle ontogenetic (changes in tree age and diameter) from environmental influences (e.g., climate warming) we compared element patterns in sapwood (SW) and heartwood (HW) during the pre-industrial (1700-1849) and industrial (1850-2008) periods. We quantified tree-ring growth, wood density and relative element concentrations at annual (TRW, tree-ring) to seasonal resolution (EW, earlywood; LW, latewood) and related them to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and volcanic eruptions in the 18th and 19th centuries. We detected differences for most studied elements between SW and HW along the stem and also between EW and LW within rings. Long-term positive and negative trends were observed for Ca and K, respectively. Cl, P and S showed positive trends during the industrial period. However, differences between sites were also notable. Higher values of Mg, Al, Si and the Ca/Mn ratio were observed at the site with acidic soil. Growing-season temperatures were positively related to growth, maximum wood density and to the concentration of most elements. Peaks in S, Fe, Cl, Zn and Ca were linked to major volcanic eruptions (e.g., Tambora in 1815). Our results reveal the potential of long-term wood-chemistry studies based on the μXRF non-destructive technique to reconstruct environmental changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of long-term salinity on the growth and biomass of two non-secretors mangrove plants Rhizophora apiculata and Ceriops tagal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Nuryawan, A.; Yunasfi; Putri, L. A. P.; Baba, S.

    2018-02-01

    The present study describes the effect of long-term salinity on morphological character and biomass content of two non-secretors mangrove plants Rhizophora apiculata and Ceriops tagal. Two mangrove seedlings were grown for six months in 0%, 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 3.0% salt concentration. The growth of R. apiculata was significantly enhanced by salt with maximal stimulus at 1.5% (equal to 50% natural seawater), and this increase appeared to be attenuated by increasing the salinity concentration above 1.5%. By contrast, the growth of C. tagal thrived up to 0.5% salt concentration. Our findings, therefore, suggested that within the range of treatments used, 1.5% and 0.5%, respectively were the optimal salinity of R. apiculata and C. tagal for growth. The highest leaf area of C. tagal was obtained at 1.5% salinity concentrations and, on the other hand, R. apiculata showed much greater extent. The wet and dry weight of the two seedlings was changed in the same manner as the height of plants upon salt treatment. Our results indicated that R. apiculata was more salt tolerant than C. tagal, which may provide valuable information for mangrove rehabilitation in North Sumatra, Indonesia.

  3. Gonadal shielding to irradiation is effective in protecting testicular growth and function in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation during childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, H; Yasuda, Y; Tomita, Y; Shinagawa, T; Shimizu, T; Morimoto, T; Hattori, K; Matsumoto, M; Inoue, H; Yabe, H; Yabe, M; Shinohara, O; Kato, S

    2007-04-01

    An increasing number of long-term surviving bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients have recovered from their primary disease but are at risk of developing failure of endocrine organs. We investigated 30 recipients who underwent allogeneic BMT during childhood or adolescence. Testicular growth and function were evaluated by serial measurement of testicular volume, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels and by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) provocative test. Puberty started spontaneously in all patients. However, all except four patients had normal testosterone levels with elevated LH, indicating partial Leydig cell dysfunction. Standard deviation scores of testicular volume at last evaluation were statistically lower in those who had received irradiation without gonadal shield compared to those with (-2.04+/-0.45 vs -0.30+/-1.17, respectively, Pgonadal irradiation. Serial measurement of testicular volume showed a tendency of growth to stop at 10 ml in those without gonadal shield. Among the 30 patients, only one patient has fathered a child after reaching spontaneous puberty. These results suggest that gonadal shield is effective to protect testicular growth and function, although the attainment of fertility is difficult to achieve.

  4. Influence of Martian regolith analogs on the activity and growth of methanogenic archaea, with special regard to long-term desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch eSchirmack

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic archaea have been studied as model organisms for possible life on Mars for several reasons: they can grow lithoautotrophically by using hydrogen and carbon dioxide as energy and carbon sources, respectively; they are anaerobes; and they evolved at a time when conditions on early Earth are believed to have looked similar to those of early Mars. As Mars is currently dry and cold and as water might be available only at certain time intervals, any organism living on this planet would need to cope with desiccation. On Earth there are several regions with low water availability as well, e.g. permafrost environments, desert soils and salt pans. Here, we present the results of a set of experiments investigating the influence of different Martian regolith analogs on the metabolic activity and growth of three methanogenic strains exposed to culture conditions as well as long-term desiccation. In most cases, concentrations below 1 %wt of regolith in the media resulted in an increase of methane production rates, whereas higher concentrations decreased the rates, thus prolonging the lag phase. Further experiments showed that methanogenic archaea are capable of producing methane when incubated on a water-saturated sedimentary matrix of regolith lacking nutrients. Survival of methanogens under these conditions was analyzed with a 400 day desiccation experiment in the presence of regolith analogs. All tested strains of methanogens survived the desiccation period as it was determined through reincubation on fresh medium and via qPCR following propidium monoazide treatment to identify viable cells. The survival of long-term desiccation and the ability of active metabolism on water-saturated MRAs strengthens the possibility of methanogenic archaea or physiologically similar organisms to exist in environmental niches on Mars. The best results were achieved in presence of a phyllosilicate, which provides insights of possible positive effects in habitats

  5. Long-term safety of growth hormone replacement therapy after childhood medulloblastoma and PNET: it is time to set aside old concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indini, Alice; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Biassoni, Veronica; Bergamaschi, Luca; Magni, Maria Chiara; Puma, Nadia; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Pallotti, Federica; Seregni, Ettore; Diletto, Barbara; Pecori, Emilia; Gandola, Lorenza; Poggi, Geraldina; Massimino, Maura

    2017-01-01

    To assess the long-term safety of administering growth hormone (GH) in patients with GH deficiency due to treatment for childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Data were retrospectively retrieved on children receiving GH supplementation, assessing their disease-free and overall survival outcomes and risk of secondary malignancies using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Overall 65 children were consecutively collected from May 1981 to April 2013. All patients had undergone craniospinal irradiation (total dose 18-39 Gy), and subsequently received GH for a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 81 (50.6-114.9) months. At a median (IQR) of 122.4 months (74.4-149.5) after the end of their adjuvant cancer treatment, two patients (3 %) experienced recurrent disease and 8 (12.3 %) developed secondary malignancies, all but one of them (an osteosarcoma) related to radiation exposure and occurring within the radiation fields. There was no apparent correlation between the administration of GH replacement therapy (or its duration) and primary tumor relapse or the onset of secondary malignancies [HR: 1.01 (95 % CI: 0.98, 1.03) for every additional 12 months of GH supplementation; p = 0.36). At univariate analysis, the large cell or anaplastic medulloblastoma subtype, metastases and myeloablative chemotherapy correlated with a higher risk of secondary malignancies (p < 0.1), but multivariate analysis failed to identify any factors independently associated with this risk. Our data supports once more the safety of long-term GH replacement therapy in children treated for medulloblastoma/PNET, previously reported in larger data sets. The neurooncology community now need to warrant large-scale meta-analyses or international prospective trials in order to consolidate our knowledge of factors other than GH, such as genetic predisposition, high-grade/metastatic disease, high-dose chemotherapy and era of treatment, in promoting the occurrence of

  6. RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL TEAR AND ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY IN EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: Clinical Course and Long-Term Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimes, Britta; Farecki, Marie-Louise; Bartels, Sina; Barrelmann, Anna; Gutfleisch, Matthias; Spital, Georg; Lommatzsch, Albrecht; Pauleikhoff, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To document the long-term outcome in cases of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tears after treatment of vascularized pigment epithelial detachments with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. A retrospective analysis of the long-term outcome of a consecutive series of eyes with RPE tear developed during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for pigment epithelial detachment associated with choroidal neovascularization or retinal angiomatous proliferation (vascularized pigment epithelial detachment) was performed. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and autofluorescence images and also fluorescein angiograms were analyzed to determine the functional and morphologic development over time. The long-term outcome of 22 eyes (21 patients, 13 women and 8 men; 65-85 years; mean: 76 years) with RPE tear was performed with minimal follow-up of 3 years (range: 3-5 years, mean: 44 months) and re-treatment with different therapeutic strategies. The eyes were differentiated in 2 groups according to the course of BCVA after the first 2 years of follow-up: Group 1 (11 eyes) demonstrated a stabilized or improved BCVA after 2 years and Group 2 (11 eyes) demonstrated a decrease in BCVA after 2 years. The initial BCVA between both groups was comparable. Also the mean initial size of the RPE tear was the same between the 2 groups, the area of the RPE tear decreased continuously during follow-up in Group 1, whereas this was the case in Group 2 only at the beginning of treatment with a further increase of the size of the RPE tear with longer follow-up. This corresponded with a different morphologic development between the two groups. In Group 1, increasing recovery of autofluorescence at the RPE-free area was visible beginning from the outer border, whereas in Group 2, further growth of the neovascular complex in the area of the RPE tear was observed resulting in larger fibrovascular scars. In addition, in both groups

  7. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  8. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  9. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  10. Hepatocyte growth factor promotes long-term survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury: comparison with CNTF and BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Kai; Cheung, Anny Wan-Suen; Yu, Sau-Wai; Sha, Ou; Cho, Eric Yu Pang

    2014-10-01

    Different trophic factors are known to promote retinal ganglion cell survival and regeneration, but each had their own limitations. We report that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) confers distinct advantages in supporting ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration, when compared to two well-established trophic factors ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Ganglion cells in adult hamster were injured by cutting the optic nerve. HGF, CNTF, or BDNF was injected at different dosages intravitreally after injury. Ganglion cell survival was quantified at 7, 14, or 28 days postinjury. Peripheral nerve (PN) grafting to the cut optic nerve of the growth factor-injected eye was performed either immediately after injury or delayed until 7 days post-injury. Expression of heat-shock protein 27 and changes in microglia numbers were quantified in different growth factor groups. The cellular distribution of c-Met in the retina was examined by anti-c-Met immunostaining. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) was equally potent as BDNF in promoting short-term survival (up to 14 days post-injury) and also supported survival at 28 days post-injury when ganglion cells treated by CNTF or BDNF failed to be sustained. When grafting was performed without delay, HGF stimulated twice the number of axons to regenerate compared with control but was less potent than CNTF. However, in PN grafting delayed for 7 days after optic nerve injury, HGF maintained a better propensity of ganglion cells to regenerate than CNTF. Unlike CNTF, HGF application did not increase HSP27 expression in ganglion cells. Microglia proliferation was prolonged in HGF-treated retinas compared with CNTF or BDNF. C-Met was localized to both ganglion cells and Muller cells, suggesting HGF could be neuroprotective via interacting with both neurons and glia. Compared with CNTF or BDNF, HGF is advantageous in sustaining long-term ganglion cell survival and their propensity to respond to

  11. Dry corrosion prediction of radioactive waste containers in long term interim storage: mechanisms of low temperature oxidation of pure iron and numerical simulation of an oxide scale growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, N.

    2006-10-01

    In the framework of research on long term behaviour of radioactive waste containers, this work consists on the one hand in the study of low temperature oxidation of iron and on the other hand in the development of a numerical model of oxide scale growth. Isothermal oxidation experiments are performed on pure iron at 300 and 400 C in dry and humid air at atmospheric pressure. Oxide scales formed in these conditions are characterized. They are composed of a duplex magnetite scale under a thin hematite scale. The inner layer of the duplex scale is thinner than the outer one. Both are composed of columnar grains, that are smaller in the inner part. The outer hematite layer is made of very small equiaxed grains. Markers and tracers experiments show that a part of the scale grows at metal/oxide interface thanks to short-circuits diffusion of oxygen. A model for iron oxide scale growth at low temperature is then deduced. Besides this experimental study, the numerical model EKINOX (Estimation Kinetics Oxidation) is developed. It allows to simulate the growth of an oxide scale controlled by mixed mechanisms, such as anionic and cationic vacancies diffusion through the scale, as well as metal transfer at metal/oxide interface. It is based on the calculation of concentration profiles of chemical species and also point defects in the oxide scale and in the substrate. This numerical model does not use the classical quasi-steady-state approximation and calculates the future of cationic vacancies at metal/oxide interface. Indeed, these point defects can either be eliminated by interface motion or injected in the substrate, where they can be annihilated, considering sinks as the climb of dislocations. Hence, the influence of substrate cold-work can be investigated. The EKINOX model is validated in the conditions of Wagner's theory and is confronted with experimental results by its application to the case of high temperature oxidation of nickel. (author)

  12. A six-month intervention with two different types of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods had distinct short- and long-term effects on linear and ponderal growth of vietnamese infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phu, Pham V.; Hoan, Nguyen V.; Salvignol, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    -scores in the C group intermediate and not significantly different from the others. This study shows that regular provision of locally produced CF fortified with micronutrients partly stopped growth faltering in Vietnamese infants, with differential effects on long-term length and ponderal growth. Providing only...

  13. Long-term CO2 rise has increased photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency but did not stimulate diameter growth of tropical trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sleen, P. V. D.; Vlam, M.; Ehlers, I.; Schleucher, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests are a crucial component of the global carbon cycle, and their responses to atmospheric changes may shift carbon cycling and climate systems. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are the major tools to simulate tropical forest responses to climate change. One of the main determinants of these simulated responses is the effect of CO2 on tropical tree physiology and growth, the 'CO2 fertilization effect'. The paucity of CO2 enrichment experiments in the tropics importantly limits insights into the CO2 fertilization effect as well as the validation of DGVMs. However, use can be made of the 40% rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The effects of the historical CO2 rise on tree physiology and growth can be obtained from stable isotopes, isotopomers and tree diameter increments obtained in tree-ring studies. We studied the physiological and growth responses of 12 tree species in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand to 150 years of CO2 enrichment. Analyses of 13C of wood cellulose revealed strong, long-term increases in leaf intercellular CO2 concentrations for all study species and a marked improvement of intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). For a subset of one species per site, we studied the Deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of glucose in wood to obtain a direct estimate of the photorespiration-to-photosynthesis ratio. We found that this ratio consistently and strongly decreased over the past century, thus increasing the effeciency and rate of photosynthesis. In spite of these strong physiological responses to increased CO2levels, we did not find evidence for increased tree diameter growth for any of the sites, or for sites combined. Possible reasons for the lack of a growth stimulation include increased (leaf) temperature, insufficient availability of nutrients or a shift in biomass investment in trees. Our results suggest that the strong CO2 fertilization of tropical tree growth often

  14. Fine structure of long-term changes in the cochlear nucleus after acoustic overstimulation: chronic degeneration and new growth of synaptic endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Gross, J; Potashner, S J; Morest, D K

    2004-09-15

    The companion study showed that acoustic overstimulation of adult chinchillas, with a noise level sufficient to damage the cochlea, led to cytological changes and degeneration of synaptic endings in the cochlear nucleus within 1-16 weeks. In the present study, the same stimulus was used to study the long-term effects on the fine structure of synaptic endings in the cochlear nucleus. For periods of 6 and 8 months after a single exposure to a damaging noise level, there ensued a chronic, continuing process of neurodegeneration involving excitatory and inhibitory synaptic endings. Electron microscopic observations demonstrated freshly occurring degeneration even as late as 8 months. Degeneration was widespread in the neuropil and included the synapses on the globular bushy cell, which forms part of the main ascending auditory pathway. Neurodegeneration was accompanied by newly formed synaptic endings, which repopulated some of the sites vacated previously by axosomatic endings on globular bushy cells. Many of these synaptic endings must arise from central interneurons. The findings suggest that overstimulation can induce a self-sustaining condition of progressive neurodegeneration accompanied by a new growth of synaptic endings. Noise-induced hearing loss thus may progress as a neurodegenerative disease with the capacity for synaptic reorganization within the cochlear nucleus.

  15. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and nerve growth factor on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lixia; Ren, Qing; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Jiwen

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of HBO (Hyperbaric oxygen) and NGF (Nerve growth factor) on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with HIBD (Neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain damage). The HIBD model was produced by ligating the right common carotid artery of 7 days old SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats followed by 8% O2 + 92% N2 for 2h. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including sham-operated group, HIBD control group, HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group. The learning and memory ability of these rats was evaluated by Morris water maze at 30 days after birth, and sensory motor function was assessed by experiments of foot error and limb placement at 42 days after birth. The escape latency of HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group was shorter than that of HIBD control group (pmemory ability and sensory motor function in neonatal rats after hypoxic ischemic brain damage.

  16. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution.

  17. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control  diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected  by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  18. Effects of long-term individual and combined water and temperature stress on the growth of rice, wheat and maize: relationship with morphological and physiological acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Juan Alejandro; Conesa, Miquel À; Medrano, Hipólito; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Galmés, Jeroni

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the long-term individual and combined effects of high temperature (HT) and water deficit (WD) stress on plant growth, leaf gas-exchange and water use efficiency in cultivars of the three most important crops worldwide, rice, wheat and maize. Total plant biomass (B t ) accumulation decreased under all treatments, being the combined HT-WD treatment the most detrimental in all three species. Although decreases in B t correlated with adjustments in biomass allocation patterns (i.e. the leaf area ratio), most of the variation observed in B t was explained by changes in leaf gas exchange parameters. Thus, integrated values of leaf carbon balance obtained from daily course measurements of photosynthesis and respiration were better predictors of plant growth than the instantaneous measurements of leaf gas exchange. Leaf water use efficiency, assessed both by gas exchange and carbon isotope measurements, was negatively correlated with B t under WD, but not under the combined WD and HT treatment. A comparative analysis of the negative effects of single and combined stresses on the main parameters showed an additive component for WD and HT in rice and maize, in contrast to wheat. Overall, the results of the specific cultivars included in the study suggest that the species native climate plays a role shaping the species acclimation potential to the applied stresses. In this regard, wheat, originated in a cold climate, was the most affected species, which foretells a higher affectation of this crop due to climate change. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Cania, Barbara; Thijs, Sofie; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-08-01

    Many endophytic bacteria exert beneficial effects on their host, but still little is known about the bacteria associated with plants growing in areas heavily polluted by hydrocarbons. The aim of the study was characterization of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading endophytic bacteria associated with Lotus corniculatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. collected in long-term petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted site using culture-dependent and molecular approaches. A total of 26 hydrocarbon-degrading endophytes from these plants were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses classified the isolates into the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The majority of strains belonged to the genera Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodococcus. More than 90% of the isolates could grow on medium with diesel oil, approximately 20% could use n-hexadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR analysis revealed that 40% of the isolates possessed the P450 gene encoding for cytochrome P450-type alkane hydroxylase (CYP153). In in vitro tests, all endophytic strains demonstrated a wide range of plant growth-promoting traits such as production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and phosphate solubilization. More than 40% of the bacteria carried the gene encoding for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (acdS). Our study shows that the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in tested plants was different. The results revealed also that the investigated plants were colonized by endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting features and a clear potential to degrade hydrocarbons. The properties of isolated endophytes indicate that they have the high potential to improve phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils.

  20. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  1. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  2. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  3. Canopy gaps affect long-term patterns of tree growth and mortality in mature and old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew N. Gray; Thomas A. Spies; Robert J. Pabst

    2012-01-01

    Canopy gaps created by tree mortality can affect the speed and trajectory of vegetation growth. Species’ population dynamics, and spatial heterogeneity in mature forests. Most studies focus on plant development within gaps, yet gaps also affect the mortality and growth of surrounding trees, which influence shading and root encroachment into gaps and determine whether,...

  4. Evaluating long term forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, George M. [Department of Economics, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), and its predecessor organizations, has published projections of U.S. energy production, consumption, distribution and prices annually for over 30 years. A natural issue to raise in evaluating the projections is an assessment of their accuracy compared to eventual outcomes. A related issue is the determination of the sources of 'error' in the projections that are due to differences between the actual versus realized values of the associated assumptions. One way to do this would be to run the computer-based model from which the projections are derived at the time the projected values are realized, using actual rather than assumed values for model assumptions; and, compare these results to the original projections. For long term forecasts, this approach would require that the model's software and hardware configuration be archived and available for many years, possibly decades, into the future. Such archival creates many practical problems; and, in general, it is not being done. This paper reports on an alternative approach for evaluating the projections. In the alternative approach, the model is run many times for cases in which important assumptions are changed individually and in combinations. A database is assembled from the solutions and a regression analysis is conducted for each important projected variable with the associated assumptions chosen as exogenous variables. When actual data are eventually available, the regression results are then used to estimate the sources of the differences in the projections of the endogenous variables compared to their eventual outcomes. The results presented here are for residential and commercial sector natural gas and electricity consumption. (author)

  5. Reduced insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels in formerly obese women subjected to laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or diet-induced long-term caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Klaver, Elise; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Zwerschke, Werner

    2011-11-01

    Life-span extension in laboratory rodents induced by long-term caloric restriction correlates with decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. Reduced activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I signaling system slows aging and increases longevity in mutant mouse models. In the present study, we show that long-term caloric restriction achieved by two different interventions for 4 years, either laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or reducing diet, leads to reduced IGF-I serum levels in formerly obese women relative to normal-weight women eating ad libitum. Moreover, we present evidence that the long-term caloric restriction interventions reduce fasting growth hormone serum levels. The present study indicates that the activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis is reduced in long-term calorically restricted formerly obese humans. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the duration and severity of the caloric restriction intervention are important for the outcome on the growth hormone/IGF-I axis in humans.

  6. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerbik, P.; Mikolajczyk, T.; Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M.; Socha, M.; Chyb, J.; Epler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g -1 of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g -1 ) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g -1 ) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g -1 did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g -1 ) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the

  7. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an

  8. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 synthesis and secretion by progestin and relaxin in long term cultures of human endometrial stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, S.C.; Jackson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.; Zhu, H.H.; Tseng, L. (Univ. of Leicester, (United Kingdom))

    1991-05-01

    The decidualized endometrium during the first trimester of pregnancy synthesizes and secretes a 32-kDa insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (termed hIGFBP-1) at high levels. IGFBP-1 is the major soluble protein product of this tissue and is principally localized to the differentiated endometrial stromal cell, the decidual cell. In the present study long term culture of stromal cells from the nonpregnant endometrium have been employed to elucidate the hormonal requirements for IGFBP-1 production. Immunoreactive IGFBP-1 was undetectable in control cultures. However, inclusion of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induced rates of 0.35 +/- 0.09 microgram/0.1 mg cell DNA.day after 20-30 days. In these cultures cells exhibited morphological changes consistent with decidual cell differentiation. In all cultures removal of MPA after exposure for 10-16 days, with or without subsequent inclusion of relaxin (RLX), increased production of IGFBP-1 450- to 4600-fold to rates of 150-710 micrograms/0.1 mg cell DNA.day or 26-131 micrograms/10(6) cells.day on days 24-26. The rates tended to be higher with the inclusion of RLX and were sustained in contrast to cultures without RLX, where rates fell by day 30. Individual cultures responded differently to RLX when added from the initiation of culture, with either a response similar to MPA alone or a cyclical change in production, achieving maximal rates of 190-290 micrograms/0.1 mg cell DNA.day. Cultures in which RLX alone induced high IGFBP-1 high production were obtained from endometrium during the progesterone-dominated luteal phase. In cultures exhibiting high rates of immunoreactive IGFBP-1 production, the protein represented their major secretory protein product. This was confirmed by ({sup 35}S)methionine incorporation and the presence of IGFBP-1 as the predominant protein in serum-free culture medium.

  9. The impact of calcineurin inhibitors on neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and fibroblast growth factor 23 in long-term kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleskestad, Inger Hjørdis; Thorsen, Inga Strand; Jonsson, Grete; Skadberg, Øyvind; Gøransson, Lasse Gunnar

    2017-08-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a protein with bacteriostatic functions rapidly excreted from stimulated or damaged epithelial cells, is elevated in acute and chronic kidney disease. A calcineurin dependent signaling pathway for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has been revealed, but the effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) on the levels of NGAL and markers of mineral metabolism in long-term kidney transplant patients has not been explored. In a cross-sectional study, 39 patients who received a first kidney transplant more than 10 years ago were split into two groups based on whether (n=28) or not (n=11) they used CNIs. Only patients with well-functioning grafts defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥45 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 were included. The median levels of NGAL, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and iFGF23 were significantly higher in CNI users vs CNI nonusers, 167.0 (134.0-235.0) ng/mL vs 105.0 (91.3-117.0) ng/mL, P<.001, 13.8 (10.0-17.3) pmol/L vs 8.4 (6.4-9.9) pmol/L, P=.003, and 81.6 (56.4-116.5) pg/mL vs 61.8 (43.3-72.1) pg/mL, P=.04 respectively. The median levels of iFGF23 were higher in CNI users compared to CNI nonusers giving support to the notion of a CNI induced FGF23 resistance in the parathyroid. The net result of CNIs side effects needs to be further explored. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Long-Term Expansion in Platelet Lysate Increases Growth of Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial-Colony Forming Cells and Their Growth Factor-Induced Sprouting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasev, Dimitar; van Wijhe, Michiel H; Weijers, Ester M; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Efficient implementation of peripheral blood-derived endothelial-colony cells (PB-ECFCs) as a therapeutical tool requires isolation and generation of a sufficient number of cells in ex vivo conditions devoid of animal-derived products. At present, little is known how the isolation and expansion procedure in xenogeneic-free conditions affects the therapeutical capacity of PB-ECFCs. The findings presented in this study indicate that human platelet lysate (PL) as a serum substitute yields twice more colonies per mL blood compared to the conventional isolation with fetal bovine serum (FBS). Isolated ECFCs displayed a higher proliferative ability in PL supplemented medium than cells in FBS medium during 30 days expansion. The cells at 18 cumulative population doubling levels (CPDL) retained their proliferative capacity, showed higher sprouting ability in fibrin matrices upon stimulation with FGF-2 and VEGF-A than the cells at 6 CPDL, and displayed low β-galactosidase activity. The increased sprouting of PB-ECFCs at 18 CPDL was accompanied by an intrinsic activation of the uPA/uPAR fibrinolytic system. Induced deficiency of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) or uPAR (uPA receptor) by siRNA technology completely abolished the angiogenic ability of PB-ECFCs in fibrin matrices. During the serial expansion, the gene induction of the markers associated with inflammatory activation such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 did not occur or only to limited extent. While further propagation up to 31 CPDL proceeded at a comparable rate, a marked upregulation of inflammatory markers occurred in all donors accompanied by a further increase of uPA/uPAR gene induction. The observed induction of inflammatory genes at later stages of long-term propagation of PB-ECFCs underpins the necessity to determine the right time-point for harvesting of sufficient number of cells with preserved therapeutical potential. The presented isolation method and subsequent cell expansion in platelet lysate

  11. Long-Term Expansion in Platelet Lysate Increases Growth of Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial-Colony Forming Cells and Their Growth Factor-Induced Sprouting Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tasev

    Full Text Available Efficient implementation of peripheral blood-derived endothelial-colony cells (PB-ECFCs as a therapeutical tool requires isolation and generation of a sufficient number of cells in ex vivo conditions devoid of animal-derived products. At present, little is known how the isolation and expansion procedure in xenogeneic-free conditions affects the therapeutical capacity of PB-ECFCs.The findings presented in this study indicate that human platelet lysate (PL as a serum substitute yields twice more colonies per mL blood compared to the conventional isolation with fetal bovine serum (FBS. Isolated ECFCs displayed a higher proliferative ability in PL supplemented medium than cells in FBS medium during 30 days expansion. The cells at 18 cumulative population doubling levels (CPDL retained their proliferative capacity, showed higher sprouting ability in fibrin matrices upon stimulation with FGF-2 and VEGF-A than the cells at 6 CPDL, and displayed low β-galactosidase activity. The increased sprouting of PB-ECFCs at 18 CPDL was accompanied by an intrinsic activation of the uPA/uPAR fibrinolytic system. Induced deficiency of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator or uPAR (uPA receptor by siRNA technology completely abolished the angiogenic ability of PB-ECFCs in fibrin matrices. During the serial expansion, the gene induction of the markers associated with inflammatory activation such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 did not occur or only to limited extent. While further propagation up to 31 CPDL proceeded at a comparable rate, a marked upregulation of inflammatory markers occurred in all donors accompanied by a further increase of uPA/uPAR gene induction. The observed induction of inflammatory genes at later stages of long-term propagation of PB-ECFCs underpins the necessity to determine the right time-point for harvesting of sufficient number of cells with preserved therapeutical potential.The presented isolation method and subsequent cell expansion in platelet

  12. Carbon isotope variation in shrub willow (Salix spp.) ring-wood as an indicator of long-term water status, growth and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schifman, Laura A.; Stella, John C.; Volk, Timothy A.; Teece, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying interannual change in water status of woody plants using stable carbon isotopes provides insight on long-term plant ecophysiology and potential success in variable environments, including under-utilized agricultural land for biomass production and highly disturbed sites for phytoremediation applications. We analyzed δ 13 C values in annual ring-wood of four shrub willow varieties used for biomass production and phytoremediation at three sites in central New York State (U.S.A). We tested a cost-effective sampling method for estimating whole-shrub water status by comparing δ 13 C values of the plant’s largest stem against a composite sample of all stems. The largest stem showed 0.3‰ 13 C enrichment (range −0.7–1.1‰) compared to the whole-plant, making it a more sensitive indicator of water status than the composite sample. Growing season precipitation exerted a strong negative influence on wood tissue chemistry, with an average 0.26‰ 13 C depletion per 100 mm increase in precipitation. An average annual 0.28‰ 13 C enrichment was also observed with increased plant age; this pattern was consistent among all four willow varieties and across sites. Finally, increased 13 C enrichment in wood tissue was positively associated with plant size at the individual plant level, and associated negatively and more variably survival at the plot scale. These results have important implications for the design and management of biomass production and phytoremediation systems. Increased sensitivity of older plants suggests that longer rotations may experience growth limitations and/or lower survival in low-precipitation years, resulting in reduced yields of biomass crops and loss of effectiveness in phytoremediation applications. -- Highlights: ► A 0.26‰ 13 C depletion in wood tissue occurred per 100 mm increase in precipitation. ► There was an average 13 C enrichment with plant age and size for all varieties. ► Greater 13 C enrichment often lead to

  13. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: defining growth potential in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; John Butnor; Chris Maier; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt Johnsen; Michael Kane

    2008-01-01

    Leaf physiology and stem growth were assessed in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in response to 10 to 11 years of treatment with weed control (W), weed control plus irrigation (WI), weed control plus irrigation and fertigation (WIF), or weed control plus irrigation, fertigation, and pest control (WIFP) to determine whether increased resource...

  14. Divergent selection for shape of the growth curve in Japanese quail. 8. Effect of long-term selection on embryonic development and growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena; Starosta, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 184-194 ISSN 0007-1668 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chick juvenile growth * egg storage * sex-differences * body-weight * hatchability * age * quality * hatch * fluid * time Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2015

  15. The long-term effect of a-ketoglutarate, given early in postnatal life, on both growth and various bone parameters in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ninette Kieme; Tatara, M.R.; Krupski, W.

    2008-01-01

    The long-term effect of a-ketoglutarate (AKG) given for 21-24 days post-partum, on the skeleton of commercial pigs, was investigated. In experiment A, 12 pigs were given AKG [0.1 g/kg of body weight (b.w.) per day per os], while 12 controls were administered vehicle. At day 169, the left and right...

  16. Long-term calcium addition increases growth release, wound closure, and health of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett A. Huggett; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher Eager

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed and wounded forest-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees in a long-term, replicated Ca manipulation study at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Plots received applications of Ca (to boost Ca availability above depleted ambient levels) or A1 (to compete with Ca uptake and further reduce Ca availability...

  17. Body proportions during long-term growth hormone treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.J. Sas (Theo); W.J. Gerver; R. de Bruin (Rob); Th. Stijnen (Theo); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); T.J. Cole (Trevor); A. van Teunenbroek (Arne); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractTo assess body proportions in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) during long term GH treatment, height, sitting height (SH), hand (Hand) and foot (Foot) lengths, and biacromial (Biac) and biiliacal (Biil) diameters were measured in 68 girls with TS

  18. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  19. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  20. Long-term auxological and pubertal outcome of patients with hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency (Laron and growth hormone-gene deletion syndrome) treated with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, M F; Arrigo, T; Valenzise, M; Ghizzoni, L; Caruso-Nicoletti, M; Zucchini, S; Chiabotto, P; Crisafulli, G; Zirilli, G; De Luca, F

    2011-04-01

    GH-IGF-I axis is mainly involved in the complex process of somatic growth but emerging evidence suggests that it also influences hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function. We report some data regarding long-term auxological and pubertal outcome of five female patients with hereditary forms of GH-IGF-I deficiency (Laron and GH-gene deletion syndrome) and a mean age of 23.4±5.3 yr (range 19-32). All the patients received recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I, Pharmacia and Upjohn, Stockholm, Sweden, and rhIGF-I, Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA) from a mean age of 8.6 yr (range 3.2-14.2) up to the final height. Final height was very disappointing (≤ -5.0 SD scores) and lower than target height in all the patients. Pubertal onset was delayed in most of them but menarche occurred spontaneously in all the patients. Median age at menarche was 15.1 yr. Menstrual cycles were regular for several years. Median duration of gynecological follow- up was 8.3 yr with the longest span of 17.2 yr. We can assert that GH-IGF-I axis has an essential role in promoting linear growth in humans and its physiological action cannot be replaced by pharmacological treatment in most patients with hereditary forms of IGF-I insufficiency as demonstrated by their subnormal final height. Our clinical observations can also support an essential role of IGF-I in genitalia growth but not in the function of HPG axis as demonstrated by the maintenance of regular menstrual cycles in the presence of subnormal levels of IGF-I after treatment discontinuation.

  1. Analysis of short- and long-term metabolic effects of growth hormone replacement therapy in adult patients with craniopharyngioma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profka, E; Giavoli, C; Bergamaschi, S; Ferrante, E; Malchiodi, E; Sala, E; Verrua, E; Rodari, G; Filopanti, M; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A

    2015-04-01

    Adult patients operated for craniopharyngioma develop more frequently GH deficiency (GHD) than patients operated for non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). The aim of the study was to compare both short- (1 year) and long-term (5 years) effects of rhGH in 38 GHD adult patients (19 operated for Craniopharyngioma (CP) and 19 for NFPA). IGF-I levels, body composition (BF%), BMI, lipid profile and glucose homeostasis were evaluated in all patients. Pituitary MRI was performed at baseline and during follow-up, as needed. At baseline no difference between the two groups was observed, apart from a higher prevalence of diabetes insipidus in CP patients (79 vs 21%). After 12 months, IGF-I SDS normalized and BF% significantly decreased only in the NFPA group. During long-term treatment, decrease in BF% and improvement in lipid profile shown by reduction in total- and LDL-cholesterol were present in NFPA group only, while increase in insulin levels and HbA1c and decrease of QUICKI were observed in CP patients only. Accordingly, after long-term therapy, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was significantly higher in CP than in NFPA group (37% in CP and in 5% in NFPA group; p < 0.05). The present data suggest that CP patients are less sensitive to the positive rhGH effects on lipid profile and BF% and more prone to insulin sensitivity worsening than NFPA patients, resulting in increased prevalence of MS in CP only.

  2. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  3. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreases bacterial diversity and favors the growth of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in agro-ecosystems across the globe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhongmin [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Su, Weiqin [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Chen, Huaihai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Barberan, Albert [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Science; Zhao, Haochun [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Yu, Mengjie [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Yu, Lu [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Brookes, Philip C. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Schadt, Christopher W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Chang, Scott X. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Xu, Jianming [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment

    2018-04-25

    Long-term Elevated nitrogen (N) input from anthropogenic sources may cause soil acidification and decrease crop yield, yet the response of the belowground microbial community to long-term N input and the input of N combined with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is still poorly understood. Here, we explored the effect of long-term N and NPK fertilization on soil bacterial diversity and community composition using meta-analysis of a global dataset. Nitrogen fertilization decreased soil pH, and increased soil organic carbon (C) and available N contents. Bacterial taxonomic diversity was decreased by N fertilization alone, but was increased by NPK fertilization. The effect of N fertilization on bacterial diversity depends on soil texture and water management, but independent of crop type or N application rate. Both soil pH and organic C content were positively related to changes in bacterial diversity under N fertilization, while soil organic C was the dominant factor determining changes in bacterial diversity under NPK fertilization. Microbial biomass C decreased with decreasing bacterial diversity under long-term N fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic bacteria (i.e. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria), but reduced the abundance of oligotrophic taxa (i.e. Acidobacteria), consistent with the general life history strategy theory for bacteria. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was also increased by NPK fertilization. The positive correlation between N application rate and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria indicates that increased N availability favored the growth of Actinobacteria. This first global analysis of long-term N and NPK fertilization effect on bacterial diversity and community composition suggests that N input decreases bacterial diversity but favors the growth of copiotrophic bacteria, providing a reference for nutrient management strategies for maintaining belowground microbial diversity in agro

  4. Survival and growth of isolated pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue during long-term 3D culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, H L; Kristensen, S G; Jiang, H

    2016-01-01

    during long-term culture has received only little attention. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Two to ten human pre-antral follicles were encapsulated together within an alginate bead and cultured with or without ovarian interstitial tissue for either 7 days or >30 days. Follicles were cultured in either 20...... interregional project ReproHigh are thanked for having funded this study; and the Key Program of Medical Science and Technology Innovation of Nanjing Military Area Command in China (14ZX06; 11Z010). They had no role in the study design, collection and analysis of data, data interpretation or in writing...

  5. Long-term economic outlook. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This review provides economic growth forecast tables for Ontario, Canada, the US, Western Europe, and Japan. Economic growth, government policy, the long-term prospects for inflation, interest rates and foreign exchange rates, trends in the Canadian dollar, and energy markets and prices are also reviewed. Data generally cover 1965-2025. Appendices give a summary of historical and forecast data. 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  7. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  8. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  9. Nerve growth factor (NGF) immunoreactive neurons in the juvenile rat hippocampus: response to acute and long-term high-light open-field (HL-OF) or forced swim (FS) stress stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowska-Szalewska, E; Spodnik, E; Ludkiewicz, B; Klejbor, I; Moryś, J

    2011-12-29

    This study aimed at examining and comparing the influence of two different stress stimuli on the density (number of cells/mm²) of nerve growth factor (NGF) containing neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers and the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell layer in juvenile rats (P28; P-postnatal day). The high-light open-field (HL-OF) test and forced swim (FS) test were employed to investigate the effects of a single, 15-min acute exposure and repeated (15 min daily for 21 days) long-term exposure to stress. In order to detect NGF-ir neurons, immunohistochemical (-ir) techniques were used. In comparison with nonstressed animals, acute and long-term HL-OF or FS stimulation resulted in a marked increase (P<0.001) in the density of NGF-ir containing cells in all the hippocampal structures. The frequency of stress application (acute vs. long-term), however, did not have a substantial impact on the studied parameter, with the exception of the CA3 sector, where a decreased density (P<0.001) of NGF-ir neurons was observed after long-term exposure to FS. It may be concluded that a rise in the density of NGF-ir neurons in the juvenile rat hippocampus after exposure to HL-OF or FS stressors could have affected the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) stress axis. Prolonged HL-OF or FS stress was probably aggravating enough not to trigger the habituation process. The type of stressor applied (HL-OF vs. FS) was not essentially a factor determining the density of NGF-ir cells in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Private long-term care insurance and state tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Frank, Richard G; Tau, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    To increase the role of private insurance in financing long-term care, tax incentives for long-term care insurance have been implemented at both the federal and state levels. To date, there has been surprisingly little study of these initiatives. Using a panel of national data, we find that market take-up for long-term care insurance increased over the last decade, but state tax incentives were responsible for only a small portion of this growth. Ultimately, the modest ability of state tax incentives to lower premiums implies that they should be viewed as a small piece of the long-term care financing puzzle.

  11. Long-Term Outcomes, Genetics, and Pituitary Morphology in Patients with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency and Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies: A Single-Centre Experience of Four Decades of Growth Hormone Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayem, Julia; Drechsel, Hendrik; Tittel, Bettina; Hahn, Gabriele; Pfaeffle, Roland; Huebner, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has been used to treat children with GH deficiency (GHD) since 1966. Using a combined retrospective and cross-sectional approach, we explored the long-term outcomes of patients with GHD, analysed factors influencing therapeutic response, determined persistence into adulthood, investigated pituitary morphology, and screened for mutations in causative genes. The files of 96 GH-deficient children were reviewed. In a subset of 50 patients, re-assessment in adulthood was performed, including GHRH-arginine testing, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and mutational screening for the growth hormone-1 gene (GH1) and the GHRH receptor gene (GHRHR) in isolated GHD (IGHD), and HESX1, PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4, and GLI2 in multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) patients. GH was started at a height SDS of -3.2 ± 1.4 in IGHD patients and of -4.1 ± 2.1 in MPHD patients. Relative height gain was 0.3 SDS/year, absolute gain 1.6 SDS, and 1.2/2.6 SDS in IGHD/MPHD, respectively. Mid-parental target height was reached in 77%. Initial height SDS, bone age retardation and duration of GH replacement were correlated with height SDS gain. GHD persisted into adulthood in 19 and 89% of subjects with IGHD and MPHD, respectively. In 1/42 IGHD patients a GH1 mutation was detected; PROP1 mutations were found in 3/7 MPHD subjects. Anterior pituitary hypoplasia, combined with posterior pituitary ectopy and pituitary stalk invisibility on MRI, was an exclusive finding in MPHD patients. GH replacement successfully corrects the growth deficit in children with GHD. While the genetic aetiology remains undefined in most cases of IGHD, PROP1 mutations constitute a major cause for MPHD. Persistence of GHD into adulthood is related to abnormal pituitary morphology. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  13. The validity of testicular catch-up growth and serum FSH levels in the long-term postoperative assessment of laparoscopic varicocele correction in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddh Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Testicular catch-up growth may not be a reliable postoperative assessment criterion by itself. Serum FSH levels may be of value in detecting suboptimal outcomes of varicocele surgery in adolescents.

  14. Long-term growth responses of ash addition and liming - Preliminary results from a pilot study; Laangtidseffekter paa skogsproduktion efter askaaterfoering och kalkning - Preliminaera resultat fraan en pilotstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Jacobson, Staffan (Skogsbrukets Forskningsinstitut (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala (Sweden)); Johansson, Ulf (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Unit for field-based forest research, Box 17, SE-310 38 Simlaangsdalen (Sweden)); Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna (Metla, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa (Finland)); Holt-Hansen, Kjersti (Norsk Institutt for skog og landskap, P.B. 115, NO-1431 Aas (Norway))

    2009-04-15

    Under this pilot study with preliminary results revealed trends in the experimental material which indicated that the addition of ashes or lime in the coniferous forest on mineral soil can lead to reduced stem growth on land with low fertility, unchanged stem growth in medium productive land, while growth may increase land with high fertility. This applied to both periods of 5-15 years and in the longer term (17-23 years; lime). Hence, the hypothesis, regarding the growth being dependent on soil fertility expressed as fertility, could not be rejected. However, previously reported indications of a similar connection with the C/N ratio in the humus was not confirmed in this first evaluation of the material

  15. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations......What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...

  16. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  17. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G. [Edinburgh Univ., Inst. of Ecology and Resource Management, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Grayston, S. J. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Plant-Soil Interaction Group, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperton, V. M.; Jackson, G.; Barton, C. V. M.; Jarvis, P. G.; Grayston, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Total biomass, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of nitrogen-fixing were measured in common alder trees, grown for three years in open-top chambers in the presence of either ambient or elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, and in two soil nitrogen regimes: i.e. full nutrient solution or no fertilizer. The objective was to clarify the relationship between elevated carbon dioxide and the rate of nitrogen fixation of nodulated trees growing under field conditions. Results showed that growth in elevated carbon dioxide stimulated net photosynthesis and total biomass accumulation. However, relative growth rate was not significantly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Leaf area and leaf phosphorus concentration were also unaffected. Nodule mass on roots of unfertilized trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide increased, compared with fertilized trees exposed to ambient carbon dioxide levels. Since neither in the fertilized, nor the unfertilized trees was there any evidence of effects on growth, biomass and photosynthesis that could be attributed to the interaction of fertilizer and elevated carbon dioxide interaction, it was concluded that both types exhibit similar carbon dioxide-induced growth and photosynthetic enhancements. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  20. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) for long-term delivery of growth factor in rotator cuff repair: review, preliminary results and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, Matthias A; Berger, Simon; Schober, Martin; Boileau, Pascal; Nyffeler, Richard W; Horn, Michael; Dahinden, Clemens A

    2012-06-01

    Surgical repair of the rotator cuff repair is one of the most common procedures in orthopedic surgery. Despite it being the focus of much research, the physiological tendon-bone insertion is not recreated following repair and there is an anatomic non-healing rate of up to 94%. During the healing phase, several growth factors are upregulated that induce cellular proliferation and matrix deposition. Subsequently, this provisional matrix is replaced by the definitive matrix. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) contain growth factors and has a stable dense fibrin matrix. Therefore, use of LPRF in rotator cuff repair is theoretically attractive. The aim of the present study was to determine 1) the optimal protocol to achieve the highest leukocyte content; 2) whether L-PRF releases growth factors in a sustained manner over 28 days; 3) whether standard/gelatinous or dry/compressed matrix preparation methods result in higher growth factor concentrations. 1) The standard L-PRF centrifugation protocol with 400 x g showed the highest concentration of platelets and leukocytes. 2) The L-PRF clots cultured in medium showed a continuous slow release with an increase in the absolute release of growth factors TGF-β1, VEGF and MPO in the first 7 days, and for IGF1, PDGF-AB and platelet activity (PF4=CXCL4) in the first 8 hours, followed by a decrease to close to zero at 28 days. Significantly higher levels of growth factor were expressed relative to the control values of normal blood at each culture time point. 3) Except for MPO and the TGFβ-1, there was always a tendency towards higher release of growth factors (i.e., CXCL4, IGF-1, PDGF-AB, and VEGF) in the standard/gelatinous- compared to the dry/compressed group. L-PRF in its optimal standard/gelatinous-type matrix can store and deliver locally specific healing growth factors for up to 28 days and may be a useful adjunct in rotator cuff repair.

  1. Time-dependent effects of climate and drought on tree growth in a Neotropical dry forest: Short-term tolerance vs. long-term sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendivelso, H.A.; Camarero, J.J.; Gutierrez, E.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of climate and drought on radial growth using dendrochronology in seven deciduous tree species coexisting in a Bolivian tropical dry forest subjected to seasonal drought. Precipitation, temperature and a multiscalar drought index were related to tree-ring width data at

  2. Long-term effects of fire and fire-return interval on population structure and growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Emily S. Minor; Gordon A. Fox

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire and fire frequency on stand structure and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) growth and population demography in an experimental research area in a southwest Florida sandhill community. Data were collected from replicated plots that had prescribed fire-return intervals of 1, 2, 5, or 7 years or were left...

  3. Management implications of long-term tree growth and mortality rates: A modeling study of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Free; R.M. Landis; J. Grogan; M.D. Schulze; M. Lentini; O. Dunisch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of tree age-size relationships is essential towards evaluating the sustainability of harvest regulations that include minimum diameter cutting limits and fixed-length cutting cycles. Although many tropical trees form annual growth rings and can be aged from discs or cores, destructive sampling is not always an option for valuable or threatened species. We...

  4. Long-Term Impact of Valid Case Criterion on Capturing Population-Level Growth under Item Response Theory Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-17-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiling; Monfils, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Using simulated data, this study examined the impact of different levels of stringency of the valid case inclusion criterion on item response theory (IRT)-based true score equating over 5 years in the context of K-12 assessment when growth in student achievement is expected. Findings indicate that the use of the most stringent inclusion criterion…

  5. Long-Term Effects of Season of Prescribed Burn on the Fine-Root Growth, Root Carbohydrates, and Foliar Dynamics of Mature Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Kuehler; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood; C. Dan Andries

    2004-01-01

    Depending on the season and intensity of fire, as well as the phenology of foliage and new root growth, fire may damage foliage, and subsequently decrease whole-crown carbon fixation and allocation to the root system. In central Louisiana the authors investigated how season of prescribed burning affects fine-root dynamics, root carbohydrate relations, and leaf area...

  6. Evidences from long-term monitoring of Italian forests. Tree radial growth as response index to disturbances and its relations with the stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertini G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the work undertaken since 1995 within the national level II network framed into the ICP-Forests ICP-IM programme. A synthesis of results from tree growth monitoring and relationships with stand structure and related parameters, are reported. Current changes in the growth medium, i.e. physics and chemistry of atmosphere and soil, (increase of average air temperature, rainfall shortage and drought, CO2 enrichment, ozone level, nitrogen fertilization, sulphate deposition drive today the soil-tree-atmosphere relationships. The overall result of these concurrent and counteracting factors is recorded along each growing seasons by radial stem growth, it providing a sensitive response. A few occurrences of disturbances to growth at regional and at case-study level, likely due to climate deviations, are discussed. Seasonal fluctuations and anomalous or extreme events are, as a matter of fact, the major evidences over the last decade. The heat wave 2003 is the main case occurred over a large part of Europe. Growth rate 2000-04 compared with 1997-2000, showed reductions up to 50% on plots located within the Southern continental border of the heat wave. These occurred more specifically at low elevations and for pre-determined early growth species (beech and oaks. Over the following time-window 2005-09, a significant growth decrease was vice versa detected within the coniferous spruce forests located at medium-high elevation in the Alps, where repeated seasonal anomalies both in air temperature and rainfall were recorded over the same time-span. The heavy effect of climate disturbance at a local scale is finally examined where two oak species with different auto-ecology grow together at the same site. Reasons why and awaited goals from protocols’ updating and the more intensive surveys applied to core-areas in 2009-10 under LIFE+FutMon, are reported. Perspectives at short to medium term of monitoring programme at national and European

  7. Long-term growth-increment chronologies reveal diverse influences of climate forcing on freshwater and forest biota in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A; Dunham, Jason B; Blundon, Brett W; Brim-Box, Jayne; Tepley, Alan J

    2015-02-01

    Analyses of how organisms are likely to respond to a changing climate have focused largely on the direct effects of warming temperatures, though changes in other variables may also be important, particularly the amount and timing of precipitation. Here, we develop a network of eight growth-increment width chronologies for freshwater mussel species in the Pacific Northwest, United States and integrate them with tree-ring data to evaluate how terrestrial and aquatic indicators respond to hydroclimatic variability, including river discharge and precipitation. Annual discharge averaged across water years (October 1-September 30) was highly synchronous among river systems and imparted a coherent pattern among mussel chronologies. The leading principal component of the five longest mussel chronologies (1982-2003; PC1(mussel)) accounted for 47% of the dataset variability and negatively correlated with the leading principal component of river discharge (PC1(discharge); r = -0.88; P < 0.0001). PC1(mussel) and PC1(discharge) were closely linked to regional wintertime precipitation patterns across the Pacific Northwest, the season in which the vast majority of annual precipitation arrives. Mussel growth was also indirectly related to tree radial growth, though the nature of the relationships varied across the landscape. Negative correlations occurred in forests where tree growth tends to be limited by drought while positive correlations occurred in forests where tree growth tends to be limited by deep or lingering snowpack. Overall, this diverse assemblage of chronologies illustrates the importance of winter precipitation to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and suggests that a complexity of climate responses must be considered when estimating the biological impacts of climate variability and change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Long-term tree growth rate, water use efficiency, and tree ring nitrogen isotope composition of Pinus massoniana L. in response to global climate change and local nitrogen deposition in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fangfang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Future Centre; Kuang, Yuanwen; Wen, Dazhi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Pearl River Delta Research Centre of Environmental Pollution and Control; Xu, Zhihong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Future Centre; Li, Jianli; Zuo, Weidong [Agriculture and Forestry Technology Extension Centre, Nanhai District, Guangdong (China); Hou, Enqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15

    We aimed to investigate long-term tree growth rates, water use efficiencies (WUE), and tree ring nitrogen (N) isotope compositions ({delta}{sup 15}N) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) in response to global climate change and local N deposition in Southern China. Tree annual growth rings of Masson pine were collected from four forest sites, viz. South China Botanical Garden (SBG), Xi Qiao Shan (XQS) Forest Park, Ding Hu Shan (DHS) Natural Reserve, and Nan Kun Shan (NKS) Natural Reserve in Southern China. The mean annual basal area increment (BAI), WUE, and {delta}{sup 15}N at every 5-year intervals of Masson pine during the last 50 years were determined. Regression analyses were used to quantify the relationships of BAI and WUE with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]), temperature, rainfall, and tree ring elemental concentrations at the four study sites. Tree BAI showed a quadratic relationship with rising [CO{sub 2}]. The tipping points of [CO{sub 2}] for BAI, the peaks of BAI when the critical [CO{sub 2}] was reached, occurred earlier at the sites of SBG, XQS, and DHS which were exposed to higher temperature, N deposition, and lower mineral nutrient availability, as compared with the tipping points of [CO{sub 2}] for BAI at the site of NKS which had higher rainfall, lower temperature, and better nutritional status. The average tipping point of [CO{sub 2}] at the four sites for the BAI response curves was 356 ppm, after which, the BAI would be expected to decrease quadratically with rising [CO{sub 2}]. The multiple regressions of BAI confirmed the relationships of long-term tree growth rate with rainfall, tree WUE, and nutrients and {delta}{sup 15}N in tree rings. Nonlinear relationships between BAI and tree ring {delta}{sup 15}N at DHS and negatively linear one at NKS reflected the fertilization effect of N deposition on tree growth rate initially, but this effect peaked or became negative once the forest approached or passed the N saturation

  9. Climate, Tree Growth, Forest Drought Stress, and Tree Mortality in Forests of Western North America: Long-Term Patterns and Recent Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. D.; Williams, P.

    2012-12-01

    Ongoing climate changes are increasingly affecting the world's forests, particularly including high latitude and high elevation coniferous forests. Although forest growth has improved in some regions due to greater growing season length and warmth (perhaps along with increased atmospheric CO2 or N), large growth declines or increased mortality from droughts or hotter temperatures also are being observed. We present and interpret information on regional variation in climate-tree growth relationships and trends, and on patterns and trends of climate-related forest disturbances, from western North America. From 235 tree-ring chronologies in the Southwest US we show that tree-ring growth records from warmer southwestern sites are more sensitive to temperature than tree-ring growth records from cooler southwestern sites. Assessment of 59 tree-ring records from 11 species in the Cascade Mountains of the Pacific Northwest shows that trees growing in cool places respond positively to increased temperature and trees in warm places respond negatively, implying that trees historically not sensitive to temperature may become sensitive as mean temperatures warm. An analysis of 59 white spruce populations in Alaska supports the hypothesis that warming has caused tree growth to lose sensitivity to cold temperatures. Comparing ring widths to temperature during just the coldest 50% of years during the 20th century, tree growth was sensitive to cold temperatures, and this effect was strongest at the coldest sites; whereas during the warmest 50% of years, trees were not at all sensitive to cold temperatures, even at the cold sites. Drought and vapor pressure deficit are among the variables that emerge as being increasingly important to these Alaska boreal forests as mean temperatures rise. Most recently, from 346 tree-ring chronologies in the Southwest US we establish a tree-ring-based Forest Drought Stress Index (FDSI) for the three most widespread conifer species (Pinus edulis

  10. Long Term Exposure to Polyphenols of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Exerts Induction of Senescence Driven Growth Arrest in the MDA-MB231 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Venere, Donato; Abbruzzese, Claudia; Miccadei, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) have been shown to be potential chemopreventive and anticancer dietary compounds. High doses of polyphenolic extracts (AEs) induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB231. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AEs antiproliferative effects is not completely understood. We demonstrate that chronic and low doses of AEs treatment at sublethal concentrations suppress human breast cancer cell growth via a caspases-independent mechanism. Furthermore, AEs exposure induces a significant increase of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining and upregulation of tumour suppressor genes, p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1/Waf1) in MDA-MB231 cells. AEs treatment leads to epigenetic alterations in cancer cells, modulating DNA hypomethylation and lysine acetylation levels in total proteins. Cell growth arrest correlates with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AEs treated breast cancer cells. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuates the antiproliferative effect. These findings demonstrate that chronic AEs treatment inhibits breast cancer cell growth via the induction of premature senescence through epigenetic and ROS-mediated mechanisms. Our results suggest that artichoke polyphenols could be a promising dietary tool either in cancer chemoprevention or/and in cancer treatment as a nonconventional, adjuvant therapy.

  11. South Africa's greenhouse gas emissions under business-as-usual: The technical basis of 'Growth without Constraints' in the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Harald, E-mail: Harald.WInkler@uct.ac.za [University of Cape Town, Energy Research Centre, Upper Campus, Rondebosch, W Cape 7701 (South Africa); Hughes, Alison; Marquard, Andrew [University of Cape Town, Energy Research Centre, Upper Campus, Rondebosch, W Cape 7701 (South Africa); Haw, Mary [PJCarew Consulting, 103 Hout Street, Cape Town 8001 (South Africa); Merven, Bruno [University of Cape Town, Energy Research Centre, Upper Campus, Rondebosch, W Cape 7701 (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the methodology for projecting business-as-usual GHG trajectory developed in technical work for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (LTMSs), in particular the 'Growth without Constraints' (GWCs) scenario. Technically rigorous projections are important as developing countries define their commitment to act on mitigation relative to business-as-usual (BAU). The key drivers for the GWC scenario include GDP (both growth rate and composition), population, discount rate and technological change. GDP emerged as an important driver in the research for LTMS and further analysis. If South Africa's economy grows without constraints over the next few decades, GHG emissions will continue to escalate, multiplying more than four-fold by mid-century. There is little gain in energy efficiency, and emissions continue to be dominated by energy use and supply, the latter remaining coal-based in GWC. We analyse the projections (not predictions) in relation to various measures. The LTMS GWC scenario is compared to other projections, nationally and internationally. A broadly comparable projection is being used at national level, for electricity planning. When compared to projections from international models, we find that the assumptions about GDP growth rates are a key factor, and suggest that comparisons of global data-sets against national analyses is important. - Highlights: > Specifies business-as-usual GHG trajectory for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios. > Provides details on methodology, drivers of emissions and key parameters. > In a scenario of Growth without Constraints, emissions would quadruple by 2050. > Analysis of resulting emission projection, not a prediction. > Compares projections from other national and international models.

  12. The long-term outlook for nuclear capacity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-04-01

    This report derives three estimates of long-term nuclear growth in Ontario for use in strategy studies of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. The low and high estimates encompass the full range of possible long-term nuclear growth rates. The middle, or base growth, estimate represents the nuclear growth pattern which seems at the present time most likely to occur. For the base growth estimate, nuclear capacity in Ontario reaches 31 GWe in 2000, grows to 175 GWe by 2060, and then remains constant. For the high growth estimate, the capacity in 2000 is 33 GWe, and climbs continuously to 833 GWe by the year 2100. (auth)

  13. Long-term hematological, visceral, and growth outcomes in children with Gaucher disease type 3 treated with imiglucerase in the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshlawy, Amal; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Vellodi, Ashok; Belmatoug, Nadia; Grabowski, Gregory A; Kolodny, Edwin H; Batista, Julie L; Cox, Gerald F; Mistry, Pramod K

    In Gaucher disease (GD), deficiency of lysosomal acid β-glucosidase results in a broad phenotypic spectrum that is classified into three types based on the absence (type 1 [GD1]) or presence and severity of primary central nervous system involvement (type 2 [GD2], the fulminant neuronopathic form, and type 3 [GD3], the milder chronic neuronopathic form). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with imiglucerase ameliorates and prevents hematological and visceral manifestations in GD1, but data in GD3 are limited to small, single-center series. The effects of imiglucerase ERT on hematological, visceral and growth outcomes (note: ERT is not expected to directly impact neurologic outcomes) were evaluated during the first 5years of treatment in 253 children and adolescents (Gaucher Group (ICGG) Gaucher Registry. The vast majority of GBA mutations in this diverse global population consisted of only 2 mutations: L444P (77%) and D409H (7%). At baseline, GD3 patients exhibited early onset of severe hematological and visceral disease and growth failure. During the first year of imiglucerase treatment, hemoglobin levels and platelet counts increased and liver and spleen volumes decreased, leading to marked decreases in the number of patients with moderate or severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. These improvements were maintained through Year 5. There was also acceleration in linear growth as evidenced by increasing height Z-scores. Despite devastating disease at baseline, the probability of surviving for at least 5years after starting imiglucerase was 92%. In this large, multinational cohort of pediatric GD3 patients, imiglucerase ERT provided a life-saving and life-prolonging benefit for patients with GD3, suggesting that, with proper treatment, many such severely affected patients can lead productive lives and contribute to society. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Drew T.; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A.; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O’Connor, Michael P.; Hearn, Gail W.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990’s. From October 1997 – September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko’s wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504

  15. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  16. Comparative Structural Dynamics of the Janj Mixed Old-Growth Mountain Forest in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Are Conifers in a Long-Term Decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Keren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regression of conifers in European mixed old-growth mountain forests has been observed for a long period and studied from different aspects. Old-growth (OG forests in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH have not experienced heavy air pollution and chronic overbrowsing that have affected many other European OG forests, while climatic and anthropogenic disturbances have been well documented. We analysed stand structure in the Janj OG forest, compared it with inventories of Lom and Perucica OG forests (BiH and with earlier inventories of the same reserves. At present, OG forest Janj is characterized by a high growing stock (1215 m3∙ha−1. This is due to good site quality, prevalence of conifers (84% and dominant endogenous processes in recent decades. In all three OG forests, indicators of structural change exhibited progression of European beech over time. Historical evidence revealed the occurrence of warm summers and droughts followed by bark beetle outbreaks in the 1920s, 1940s and early 1950s, which in turn influenced a marked conifer decline. It seems likely that repeated canopy opening released waves of European beech regeneration. These stand structural changes have delayed the rejuvenation of conifers and can help explain the early observations of conifer decline.

  17. Relationship Between Amino Acid and Energy Intake and Long-Term Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinghui; Chang, Serena Su Ying; Poon, Woei Bing

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate nutrition may contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of infants born weighing growth at 2 years. Parenteral amino acid intake in week 2 of life correlated with higher language and motor scores on the 2-year Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (Bayley III). Conversely, higher total amino acid intake during week 1 of life (≥1.5 g/kg/d) was associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization, shorter intensive care stay, fewer days receiving mechanical ventilation, fewer days receiving supplemental oxygen, and a lower incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD). Higher caloric intake in the first 4 weeks correlated strongly with shorter duration of hospitalization, shorter intensive care stay, fewer days on the ventilator, and fewer days receiving supplemental oxygen. In patients with CLD, week 1 and 2 parenteral and total amino acid intake correlated with higher cognitive and motor scores on the Bayley III at 2 years old. Weeks 1-4 amino acid and calorie intake correlated with fewer days on the ventilator, fewer days of supplemental oxygen, and fewer days of hospitalization. Amino acid intake within the first weeks of life correlated positively with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years, and patients with CLD were found to be particularly at risk. Caloric intake may affect protein accretion. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. Long-Term Follow-up of a Case with Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency: Transient Diabetes Mellitus with Intervening Diabetic Ketoacidosis During Growth Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönç, E. Nazlı; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2017-09-01

    Proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) deficiency is a very rare disease characterized by severe intractable diarrhea in the first years of life, followed by obesity and several hormonal deficiencies later. Diabetes mellitus requiring insulin treatment and diabetic ketoacidosis have not been reported in this disorder. We herein present a girl with PC1/3 deficiency who has been followed from birth to 17 years of age. She developed deficiencies of all pituitary hormones over time as well as diabetes mellitus while receiving growth hormone (GH) therapy. She was complicated with diabetic ketoacidosis during dietary management of diabetes mellitus, thus insulin treatment was initiated. Insulin requirement to regulate hyperglycemia was short-lived. Repeat oral glucose tolerance test five years later was normal. The findings of this patient show that diabetes mellitus can develop at any time during follow-up of cases with proportein convertase 1/3 deficiency especially under GH therapy.

  19. Long-term follow-up of ventilator treated low birthweight infants. I. Chest X-ray, pulmonary mechanics, clinical lung disease and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, M; Mortensson, W

    1986-09-01

    Chest X-ray, pulmonary mechanics, clinical lung disease and growth were studied in 48 low birthweight infants surviving after ventilator treatment in the neonatal period. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was present in 14 infants shortly after weaning off ventilator. At 4 to 6 years of age most patients had normal chest radiographs but 13 still showed signs of pulmonary fibrosis and hyperinflation. Most patients had low dynamic compliance and high pulmonary resistance shortly after ventilator treatment. All but 8, however, had normal findings at 1 to 1 1/2 years of age. Pneumonias and bronchitis were common during the first two years but thereafter declined in frequency. Weight and length development were retarded for BPD patients during the first two years and for non-BPD patients for the first year. Both groups had a complete catch-up.

  20. Altering young tomato plant growth by nitrate and CO2 preserves the proportionate relation linking long-term organic-nitrogen accumulation to intercepted radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    * A previously published model of crop nitrogen (N) status based on intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (R(i), mol per plant) suggested that plant organic N accumulation is related to R(i) by a constant ratio, defined hereafter as the radiation use efficiency for N (NRUE). The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of N nutrition and CO2 enrichment on NRUE and RUE (radiation use efficiency for biomass accumulation). * In three unrelated glasshouse experiments, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in hydroponics were fed for 28 d (exponential growth) with full solutions containing constant NO3(-) concentrations ([NO3(-)]) ranging from 0.05 to 15 mol m(-3), both under ambient or CO2-enriched (1000 microl l(-1)) air. * Each experiment comprised five harvests. Low [NO3(-)] (radiation efficiency for organic N acquisition (NRUE) did not depend on C or N nutrition for young plants grown under unstressed conditions.

  1. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Long-term cytokine and growth factor release from equine platelet-rich fibrin clots obtained with two different centrifugation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aristizabal, Román F; López, Catalina; Álvarez, María E; Giraldo, Carlos; Prades, Marta; Carmona, Jorge U

    2017-09-01

    To compare the temporal release (over three weeks) of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β 1 ) from two platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) preparations from equine blood obtained at either 240g/8min or 416g/10min. Whole blood from 10 horses was used to obtain PRF clots by two different centrifugation protocols. After 1h of rest, PRF clots were deposited in wells with culture medium, which was changed at 6h, 24h and then every 48h to 21days. Cytokines and GFs were measured by ELISA at 1h (serum supernatants from PRF clots) and all time points of culture medium change. A negative control (plasma) and a positive control (blood lysate) were also included. There were no relevant differences between the two protocols for the temporal release of proteins. However, a significant (p=0.01) effect of time was noted. All cytokines were detected after 6h of PRF clot culture until day 21. GF were detected at 1h until day 21. The concentrations for these proteins diminished gradually over time. A highly significant (p=0.01) correlation was noticed between all the proteins evaluated. Leukocytes enmeshed in PRF clots were able to produce cytokines, TGF-β 1 and PDGF-BB. These findings demonstrate a paramount role of leukocytes in wound healing induced or modified by PRF clots in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  4. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  5. Blood, sweat, tears and success of technology transfer long-term controlled-release of herbicides: Root-growth-inhibiting biobarrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voris, P.; Cataldo, D.A.; Burton, F.G.; Skeins, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Through the unique combination of polymers with a herbicidally active dinitroaniline, a cylinderical pellet (9mm long and 9mm in diameter) was developed that continuously releases a herbicide for a period of up to 100 years. Equilibrium concentration of the herbicide in soil adjacent to the pellet and the bioactive lifetime of the device cam be adjusted by changing the size of the pellet; the type of polymer; the type, quality, and quantity of carrier; and/or the concentration and type of dinitroaniline used. Commercial products that have been developed under a Federal Technology Transfer Program that utilize this technology include: (1) ROOT-SHIELD, a root repelling sewer gasket for concrete, clay, and PVC sewer lines, (2) BIOBARRIER, a spun-bonded polypropylene geotextile fabric developed to prevent root growth from invading septic tanks; penetrating under roadways, and along the edge of sidewalks, airport runways, and tennis courts, and for landscaped areas; and (3) ROOT-GUARD, a plastic drip irrigation emitter designed to protect buried drip irrigation systems from being plugged by roots. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Long-term effects of food supplementation and psychosocial intervention on the physical growth of Colombian infants at risk of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, C M; Herrera, M G; Mora, J O

    1990-02-01

    280 Colombian infants at risk of malnutrition were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups formed by the presence/absence of 2 interventions: (1) food supplementation for the entire family, from mid-pregnancy until the target child was 3 years old, and (2) a twice-weekly home-visiting program to promote cognitive development, from birth until age 3. All families received free medical care and were studied prospectively. At 3 years of age, children who had received food supplementation averaged 2.6 cm and 642 grams larger than controls. Home visiting and supplementation together reduced the number of children with severe growth retardation. 3 years after intervention (age 6), supplementation effects remained. Children in the home visit condition had become larger than controls, by 1.7 cm and 448 grams. The interactive effect to reduce stunting was marginally significant at this age, and the overall distribution of scores was improved. Other results suggest that changes in family functioning as well as biological mechanisms account for the observed pattern of results.

  7. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dead Pericarps of Dry Fruits Function as Long-Term Storage for Active Hydrolytic Enzymes and Other Substances That Affect Germination and Microbial Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godwin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that dead pericarps of dry indehiscent fruits have evolved to provide an additional physical layer for embryo protection and as a means for long distance dispersal. The pericarps of dry fruits undergo programmed cell death (PCD during maturation whereby most macromolecules such DNA, RNA, and proteins are thought to be degraded and their constituents remobilized to filial tissues such as embryo and endosperm. We wanted to test the hypothesis that the dead pericarp represents an elaborated layer that is capable of storing active proteins and other substances for increasing survival rate of germinating seeds. Using in gel assays we found that dead pericarps of both dehiscent and indehiscent dry fruits of various plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba release upon hydration multiple active hydrolytic enzymes that can persist in an active form for decades, including nucleases, proteases, and chitinases. Proteomic analysis of indehiscent pericarp of S. alba revealed multiple proteins released upon hydration, among them proteases and chitinases, as well as proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification and cell wall modification. Pericarps appear to function also as a nutritional element-rich storage for nitrate, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, and others. Sinapis alba dehiscent and indehiscent pericarps possess germination inhibitory substances as well as substances that promote microbial growth. Collectively, our study explored previously unknown features of the dead pericarp acting also as a reservoir of biological active proteins, and other substances capable of “engineering” the microenvironment for the benefit of the embryo.

  9. Capsicum chinensis L. growth and nutraceutical properties are enhanced by biostimulants in a long-term period: chemical and metabolomic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA eERTANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two biostimulants, one derived from alfalfa plants (AH and the other obtained from red grape (RG, were chemically characterised using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Two doses (50 and 100 mL L-1 for RG, and 25 and 50 mL L-1 for AH of biostimulants were applied to Capsicum chinensis L. plants cultivated in pots inside a tunnel. The experimental design consisted of the factorial combination of treatment (no biostimulant, plus AH, plus RG at three doses (zero, low and high and two time-course applications (at the second and fourth week after transplantation and the effects were recorded at flowering and maturity. Both biostimulants contained different amounts of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine; the AH spectra exhibited amino acid functional groups in the peptidic structure, while the RG spectra showed the presence of polyphenols, such as resveratrol. These results revealed that at flowering, RG and AH increased the weights of fresh leaves and fruits and the number of green fruits, whereas at maturity, the biostimulants most affected the fresh weight and number of red fruits. At flowering, the leaves of the treated plants contained high amounts of epicatechin, ascorbic acid, quercetin and dihydrocapsaicin. At maturity, the leaves of the treated plants exhibited elevated amounts of fructose, glucose, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. Moreover, green fruits exhibited a high content of chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and antioxidant activity, while both AH- and RG-treated red fruits were highly endowed in capsaicin. The 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra of red fruits revealed that both products induced a high amount of NADP+, whereas RG also increased glucose, fumarate, ascorbate, thymidine and high molecular weight species. Our results suggested that AH and RG promoted plant growth and the production of

  10. Long-term deficiency of circulating and hippocampal insulin-like growth factor I induces depressive behavior in adult mice: A potential model of geriatric depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschelen, Matthew; Yan, Han; Farley, Julie A.; Warrington, Junie P.; Han, Song; Hereñú, Claudia B.; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Bailey-Downs, Lora C.; Bass, Caroline E.; Sonntag, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies support the hypothesis that deficiency of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) in adults contributes to depression, but direct evidence is limited. Many psychological and pro-cognitive effects have been attributed to IGF-1, but appropriate animal models of adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency are lacking. In this study, we use a viral-mediated Cre-loxP system to knockout the Igf1 gene in either the liver, neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus, or both. Knockout of liver Igf1 reduced serum IGF-1 levels by 40% and hippocampal IGF-1 levels by 26%. Knockout of Igf1 in CA1 reduced hippocampal IGF-1 levels by 13%. The most severe reduction in hippocampal IGF-1 occurred in the group with knockouts in both liver and CA1 (36% reduction), and was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in immobility in the forced swim test. Reduction of either circulating or hippocampal IGF-1 levels did not alter anxiety measured in an open field and elevated plus maze, nor locomotion in the open field. Furthermore, local compensation for deficiencies in circulating IGF-1 did not occur in the hippocampus, nor were serum levels of IGF-1 upregulated in response to the moderate decline of hippocampal IGF-1 caused by the knockouts in CA1. We conclude that adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency alone is sufficient to induce a depressive phenotype in mice. Furthermore, our results suggest that individuals with low brain levels of IGF-1 are at increased risk for depression and these behavioral effects are not ameliorated by increased local IGF-1 production or transport. Our study supports the hypothesis that the natural IGF-1 decline in aging humans may contribute to geriatric depression. PMID:21524689

  11. Predictive value of long-term changes of growth differentiation factor-15 over a 27-year-period for heart failure and death due to coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluschnik, Nina; Ojeda, Francisco; Zeller, Tanja; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Becher, Peter Moritz; Sinning, Christoph; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), Cystatin C and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been discussed as biomarkers for prediction of cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of single and repeated measurements of GDF-15 compared to Cystatin C and CRP for incidence of heart failure (HF) and death due to coronary heart disease (CHD) in the general population. Levels of GDF-15, CRP and Cystatin C were determined in three repeated measurements collected 5 years apart in the DAN-MONICA (Danish-Multinational MONitoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease) cohort (participants at baseline n = 3785). Cox regression models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors revealed significantly increased hazard ratios (HR) for GDF-15 for incident HF 1.36 (HR per interquartile range (IQR) increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16; 1.59) and for death from CHD 1.51 (HR per IQR increase, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.75) (both with p<0.001). Joint modeling of time-to-event and longitudinal GDF-15 over a median 27-year follow-up period showed that the marker evolution was positively associated with death of CHD (HR per IQR increase 3.02 95% CI: (2.26, 4.04), p < 0.001) and HF (HR per IQR increase 2.12 95% CI: (1.54, 2.92), p<0.001). However using Cox models with follow-up time starting at the time of the third examination, serial measurement of GDF-15, modeled as changes between the measurements, did not improve prediction over that of the most recent measurement. GDF-15 is a promising biomarker for prediction of HF and death due to CHD in the general population, which may provide prognostic information to already established clinical biomarkers. Repeated measurements of GDF-15 displayed only a slight improvement in the prediction of these endpoints compared to a single measurement.

  12. Long-term trajectories of patients with neck pain and low back pain presenting to chiropractic care: A latent class growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailliet, L; Rubinstein, S M; Hoekstra, T; van Tulder, M W; de Vet, H C W

    2018-01-01

    Information on the course of neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) typically relies on data collected at few time intervals during a period of up to 1 year. In this prospective, multicentre practice-based cohort study, patients consulting a chiropractor responded weekly for 52 weeks to text messages on their cell phones. Data from 448 patients (153 NP, 295 LBP) who had returned at least one set of answers in the first 26 weeks were used. Outcome measures were pain intensity (VAS) and functional outcome, assessed using four different questions: pain intensity, limitation in activities of daily living (ADL), number of days with pain in the previous week and number of days limited in ADL. Distinct patterns of pain were analysed with quadratic latent class growth analysis. The final model was a 4-class model for NP and LBP. The 'recovering from mild baseline pain' is most common (76.3% of NP patients/58.3% of LBP patients) followed by the 'recovering from severe baseline pain' class (16.3% NP/29.8% LBP). They follow similar trajectories when considered over a period of 6 months. Pain at baseline, duration of complaints, functional status, limitations in ADL and the score on psychosocial scales were the variables that most contributed to distinguish between groups. Most patients with NP or LBP presenting in chiropractic care show a trajectory of symptoms characterized by persistent or fluctuating pain of low or medium intensity. Only a minority either experience a rapid complete recovery or develop chronic severe pain. Ninety percentage of patients with neck pain or low back pain presenting to chiropractors have a 30% improvement within 6 weeks and then show a trajectory of symptoms characterized by persistent or fluctuating pain of low or medium intensity. Only a minority either experience a rapid complete recovery or develop chronic severe pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  13. Investigation of the effects of long-term infusion of 125I-iododeoxyuridine on tumor growth in mice (solid mouse tumor sarcoma-180)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, F.

    1987-05-01

    The present experiments were designed to test the therapeutic qualification of 125 I incorporated in DNA of tumor cells. The tumor-host system used was the solid mouse tumor sarcoma-180 growing on female albino mice (NMRI). A device was built which makes it possible to intravenously infuse tumor bearing mice with solutions of 125 IUdR for several weeks. Three or, respectively, 5 days before the onset of the infusions the mice were inocculated into the right hind leg with 3x10 5 tumor cells in 0.1 ml physiological salt solution. The total activity administered per mouse was 100 μCi infused during a period of 10 days. After termination of the infusions tumor sizes and retained radioactivities were measured every 5 days until death of the animals occured. In comparison with tumors of control animals tumors of mice infused with 125 IUdR showed a mean retardation in growth of about 27% of the volumes of control tumors during the total period of post-infusion observation (25 days). Extension of life expectancy and an increase of the rate of final tumor regression did not occur. Likewise, no significant differences were observed between tumors which were 3 or 5 days old on the first day of infusion. After termination of the infusions the residual whole-body radioactivity per mouse was about 1% of the total activity infused per animal. This was in good agreement with calculations considering rates of incorporation and excretion and confirmed earlier assumptions that only about 5% of the administered IUdR is incorporated initially. The number further confirmed that, during the first 10 days after incorporation, the daily loss of activity - due to cell death - is about 30%. Control animals without tumors showed a faster decrease of incorporated activity or, respectively, loss of cells than tumor bearing mice. This difference could in part be explained by an exhaution of the short-lived cell populations of the reticulo-endothelial system of tumor bearing animals. (orig

  14. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism during long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response study. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.J. Sas (Theo); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); Th. Stijnen (Theo); H-J. Aanstoot (Henk-Jan); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTo assess possible side-effects of GH treatment with supraphysiological doses on carbohydrate (CH) metabolism in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) during long term GH treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment, the results of oral glucose tolerance

  16. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  17. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  18. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  19. Uranium ... long-term confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Half way through 1983 the outlook for the world's uranium producers was far from bright if one takes a short term view. The readily accessible facts present a gloomy picture. The spot prices of uranium over the past few years decreased from a high of $42-$43/lb to a low of $17 in 1982. It now hovers between $23 and $24. the contract prices negotiated between producers and consumers are not so accessible but they do not reflect the spot price. The reasons why contractual uranium prices do not follow the usual dictates of supply and demand are related to the position in which uranium and associated power industries find themselves. There is public reaction with strong emotional overtones as well as much reduced expectations about the electric power needs of the world. Furthermore the supply of uranium is not guaranteed despite present over production. However the people in the industry, taking the medium- and long-term view, are not despondent

  20. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  1. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  2. Effects of Long-Term Periodic Submergence on Photosynthesis and Growth of Taxodium distichum and Taxodium ascendens Saplings in the Hydro-Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Wang

    Full Text Available Responses of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum and pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens saplings in photosynthesis and growth to long-term periodic submergence in situ in the hydro-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR were studied. Water treatments of periodic deep submergence (DS and moderate submergence (MS in situ were imposed on 2-year-old bald cypress and pond cypress saplings. The effects of periodic submergence on photosynthesis and growth were investigated after 3 years (i.e. 3 cycles compared to a control (i.e. shallow submergence, abbreviated as SS. Results showed that pond cypress had no significant change in net photosynthetic rate (Pn in response to periodic moderate and deep submergence in contrast to a significant decrease in Pn of bald cypress under both submergence treatments, when compared to that of SS. Ratios of Chlorophyll a/b and Chlorophylls/Carotenoid of pond cypress were significantly increased in periodic moderate submergence and deep submergence, while bald cypress showed no significant change. Diameter at breast height (DBH and tree height of both species were significantly reduced along with submergence depth. Relative diameter and height growth rates of the two species were also reduced under deeper submergence. Moreover, bald cypress displayed higher relative diameter growth rate than pond cypress under deep submergence mainly attributed to higher productivity of the larger crown area of bald cypress. When subjected to deep subergence, both species showed significant reduction in primary branch number, while in moderate submergence, bald cypress but not pond cypress showed significant reduction in primary branch number. These results indicate that both bald cypress and pond cypress are suitbale candidates for reforestation in the TGDR region thanks to their submergence tolerance characteristics, but bald cypress can grow better than pond cypress under deep submergence overall.

  3. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  4. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

  5. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  6. The emergence of non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: a possible role of transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, K; Harada, M; Ito, O; Takenoyama, M; Mori, T; Matsuzaki, G; Nomoto, K

    1996-12-01

    The mechanism by which murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) decreased their anti-tumour activity during an in vitro culture with interleukin-2 (IL-2) was investigated. A phenotype analysis revealed that the TIL cultured for 7 days (TIL-d7) were exclusively NKI.1- CD4- CD8+ CD3+ cells and that this population was replaced by natural killer (NK)1.1+ CD4- CD8 CD3+ cells by day 27 (TIL-d27) during the culture of TIL. The TIL-d7 cells showed a cytolytic activity against B16 melanoma, whereas the TIL-d27 cells had lost this activity, suggesting that the decrease in the anti tumour effect of TIL during the culture with IL-2 was due to their populational change. Analysis on the characteristics of the TIL-d27 cells revealed that they expressed skewed T-cell receptor (TCR) V beta 5 and increased mRNA expression of V alpha 14. In addition, they expressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA. Interestingly, TGF-beta augmented the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells under the presence of IL-2, but suppressed that of TIL-d7 cells. Moreover, the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells was suppressed by anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these results suggest that, in contrast to its suppressive effect on anti-tumour effector T cells. TGF-beta could be an autocrine growth factor for NKL1.1+ T cells and thereby induce non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of TIL.

  7. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...

  8. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  9. DRIVERS OF LONG-TERM CONVERGENCE. FOCUS ON ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA UNGURU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With initial low levels of income per capita, a declining population and relatively modest economic growth rates, there are little prospects of diminishing the gap between Romania and the EU countries. Nevertheless, in the long term, convergence is expected. The question then arises, “What are the drivers and their likely potential to boost economic growth and the catching-up process?”. This paper presents shortly the theoretical background of economic convergence and then focuses on the assessment of possible paths of Romania’s convergence towards the EU. Based on the existing long-term macroeconomic projections and the assessment of the possible future developments of the drivers of economic growth, we have built three scenarios of economic convergence, highlighting the possible timespan of convergence. We have employed growth accounting methods to decompose output growth rate into production factors’ contributions (capital and labour and total factor productivity.

  10. Long-term trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) identify long-term trajectories of combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over a 20-year period from 1983 to 2002 in veterans with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) and (2) identify social predictors of these trajectories. METHOD: A latent growth...

  11. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mario Beffa

    Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle. 3. Selection applied and response in calf growth traits. L.M. Beffa. 1,2,3. , J.B. van Wyk. 1# and G.J. Erasmus. 1. 1 University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. 2 Matopos Research Station, P. Bag K5137, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe ...

  12. Human meniscal proteoglycan metabolism in long-term tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, G.; Verdonk, R.; Veys, E. M.; van Daele, P.; de Smet, P.; van den Abbeele, K.; Claus, B.; Baeten, D.

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of human meniscal allografting, menisci have been maintained viable in in vitro culture. The influence of long-term tissue culture on the extracellular matrix metabolism of the meniscus has been studied. Fetal calf serum (FCS) was used as a supplement for the growth factors necessary

  13. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  14. Long term prospects for world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a world gas trade model used to forecast long term gas markets. Assumptions that went into the model are described, including the extent of current proven gas reserves, production ratios, total energy and gas demand, gas supply cost curves for each producing country, available gas liquefaction and transportation facilities, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping costs. The results indicate that even with generally very low supply costs for most gas producing basins, gas trade will continue to be restricted by the relatively high cost of transportation, whether by pipeline or tanker. As a consequence, future gas trade will tend to be regionally oriented. United States gas imports will come mostly from Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico; Western Europe will largely be supplied by the Soviet Union and Africa, and Japan's requirements will generally be met by Pacific Rim producers. Although the Middle East has vast quantities of gas reserves, its export growth will continue to be hampered by its remote location from major markets. 16 figs

  15. Cloning and expression analysis of myostatin, fibroblast growth factor 6, insulin-like growth factor I and II in liver and muscle of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. during long-term fasting and refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saroglia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The exceptionally fast growth that fish experience after periods of fasting has been called “compensatory growth”. This phenomenon has been studied in intensive aquaculture as a means of enhancing growth rates, but the mechanisms by which food intake activates an increase in somatic growth, and especially in muscle growth, are complex and not yet fully understood. In the present paper, we describe the molecular cloning and sequencing of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax myostatin (MSTN and fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6, which have been shown to be major genetic determinants of skeletal muscle growth, together with insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI and IGF-II, which are potent mitogens known to play important roles in growth and development. We then report the pattern of expression of the four aforementioned genes, in liver and myotomal muscle in response to prolonged fasting and refeeding. Nutritional status significantly influenced the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN, whereas the muscular FGF6 expression levels were not affected by the feeding status of the animals. Taken together these data indicate that IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN are involved in the sea bass muscle compensatory growth induced by refeeding, whereas FGF6 probably has not a role in this phenomenon.

  16. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  17. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  18. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a job, a volunteer commitment, or even a hobby can take a toll on long-term survivors ... people find solace in meditation, faith, humor, writing, hobbies and more. Find an outlet that you enjoy ...

  19. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  20. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  1. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  2. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  3. Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Pareren; M. Houdijk; M. Jansen (Maarten); M. Reeser; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly

  4. Long-term efficacy of reverse pull headgear therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Andrew P; Sarver, David M; Proffit, William R

    2006-11-01

    To add to the data for long-term reverse pull headgear (RPHG) outcomes and further explore possible variables that could be predictors of long-term failure. Cephalometric radiographs of 41 Class III malocclusion children treated with RPHG (face mask) were evaluated before and immediately after treatment; at 5 years posttreatment; and, for 18 patients, at 10 years posttreatment. Patients were assigned to success or failure groups according to positive or negative overjet at the longest available recall. Seventy-five percent of the patients maintained positive overjet, whereas 25% outgrew the correction. In a stepwise discriminant analysis, a large mandible and vertical positioning of the maxilla and mandible so that mandibular growth would be projected more horizontally were the major indicators of unfavorable later mandibular growth. Patients who experienced downward-backward rotation of the mandible during RPHG treatment were more likely to be categorized in the failure group. The age at which treatment began had no effect on long-term success and failure for patients younger than 10 years, but the percentage of successful treatment decreased after that age. When RPHG treatment is used for all but the most obviously prognathic children to correct anterior cross-bite in the early mixed dentition, positive overjet is maintained long-term in 70%-75% of cases, whereas 25%-30% of cases relapse into reverse overjet mainly because of increased horizontally directed and often late mandibular growth. Up to age 10, the time at which RPHG treatment began does not appear to be a major factor in long-term success in maintaining positive overjet.

  5. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  6. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  7. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P heel...... regardless of symptoms and had no impact on prognosis, and neither did the presence of a heel spur. Only 24% of asymptomatic patients had a normal fascia on US at long-term follow-up. A US-guided corticosteroid injection did not cause atrophy of the heel fat pad. Our observational study did not allow us...

  8. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  9. Long-term effects of continuous subcutaneous infusion versus daily subcutaneous injections of growth hormone (GH) on the insulin-like growth factor system, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and bone and lipoprotein metabolism in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Heickendorff, Lene

    2001-01-01

    injections (inj) in the evening as usual, and 7 received a continuous infusion (inf) of GH by means of a portable pump. The GH dose was kept unchanged before and during the study. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tended to increase in the patients switched to constant infusion (from 175...... for 6 months are comparable with respect to the IGF-IGFBP axis, whereas intermittent exposure may be of importance for the lipolytic effect of GH. The data on insulin sensitivity and lipoproteins suggest that constant GH exposure is as safe as intermittent GH administration....

  10. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  11. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  12. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  13. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  14. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  15. Nutrition in children with long-term health conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, A

    2015-01-01

    Long-term health conditions (LTHCs) in children may affect nutrition and growth by means of multiple mechanisms. Both undernutrition and overweight/obesity are risk factors. Direct effects of the condition that may cause undernutrition include increased resting energy expenditure, excess losses through malabsorption, difficulty ingesting food, and decreased appetite. Indirect effects of LTHCs may be mediated by learnt or adaptive behaviours, secondary anorexia, inappropriate diets, or conditi...

  16. Is Long-Term Food Insecurity Inevitable in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article questions two widely accepted claims on long-term food insecurity in Asia, the world's (heterogeneous) region with the largest number of undernourished individuals. The first claim is that food production may not grow as fast as the pace of population growth in Asia, which will reach 5 billion by 2050. The second claim is that an unstoppable emergence of a middle class in Asia will dramatically change the composition of food demand. On the first claim, the region's contribution t...

  17. Long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, N; Longo, U G; Gougoulias, N; Loppini, M; Denaro, V

    2010-01-01

    Injuries can counter the beneficial effects of sports participation at a young age if a child or adolescent is unable to continue to participate because of residual effects of injury. This paper reviews current knowledge in the field of long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries to evaluate the evidence regarding children dropping out of sport due to injury, physeal injuries and growth disturbance, studies of injuries affecting the spine and knee of young and former athletes and surgical outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in children. Studies of dropping out of sport due to injury are limited primarily to gymnasts and implicate such injuries as ACL rupture and osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow joint in the early retirement of young athletes. Although most physeal injuries resolve with treatment and rest, there is evidence of disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury. Radiological findings implicate the effects of intense physical loading and injury in the development of spinal pathology and back pain during the growth of youth athletes; however, long-term effects are unclear. Follow-up studies of young athletes and adults indicate a high risk of osteoarthritis after meniscus or ACL injury. Prospective cohort studies with a follow-up into adulthood are needed to clarify the long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries. Important to this research is meticulous documentation of injuries on injury report forms that include age-appropriate designations of the type of injury and accurate determination of exposure-based injury rates.

  18. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    , the psychodynamic perspective is integrated within a multi-dimensional model that considers biological, cognitive, identity, gender and social learning factors. The analysis reveals the possibility of achieving a detailed understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the development of long-term tranquillizer...

  19. Long-Term Orientation in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trust does not work in the same way across cultures. This paper presents an agent model of behavior in trade across Hofstedes cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term orientation. The situation is based on a gaming simulation, the Trust and Tracing game. The paper investigates the

  20. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been publishe...... to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment....

  1. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsey, B.H.; Hoddinott, J; Alderman, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify

  2. Financial Incentives in Long-Term Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.H. Bakx (Pieter)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Long-term care (ltc) aims to help individuals to cope with their impairments. In my thesis, I describe ltc financing alternatives and their consequences for the allocation of ltc. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, I investigate how alternative ways

  3. Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Werkman, D.M.; Barnaart, L.F.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the long-term survival of patellofemoral arthroplasty with primary diagnosis, age, sex, and body mass index. One hundred eighty-five consecutive Richards type II patellofemoral arthroplasties were performed in 161 patients with isolated patellofemoral

  4. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  5. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  6. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  7. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  8. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  9. Rebalancing for Long-Term Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; Kuiper, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this study we show that the rebalance frequency of a multi-asset portfolio has only limited impact on the utility of a long-term passive investor. Although continuous rebalancing is optimal, the loss of a suboptimal strategy corresponds to up to only 30 basis points of the initial wealth of the

  10. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels during long-term IGF-I treatment of children and adults with primary GH resistance (Laron syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Klinger, B; Silbergeld, A

    1999-01-01

    Serum IGF-I levels were measured in 14 patients (9 children and 5 adults) with Laron syndrome (LS) during long-term treatment by IGF-I. Recombinant IGF-I (FK-780, Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Japan) was administered once daily subcutaneously before breakfast for 3-5 years to the children and for 9 months to the adults. The initial daily dose was 150 micrograms/kg for children and 120 micrograms/kg for adults. Before initiation of treatment the mean overnight fasting levels of serum IGF-I in the children was 3.2 +/- 0.8 nmol/l (mean +/- SEM), rising to 10 +/- 1.7 nmol/l during long-term treatment even on a dose of 120 micrograms/kg/day. The serum IGF-I levels 4 hours after injection rose from 31.2 +/- 3.5 to 48 +/- 2 nmol/l. In the adult patients, the initial basal IGF-I was 4.1 +/- 0.7 nmol/l, rising to 16.1 +/- 3.84 nmol/l after 8-9 months treatment. Serum IGF-I levels at 4 hours after injection rose in the adult patients from 24.1 +/- 5.8 up to 66.8 +/- 15.4 nmol/l. A progressively increasing half-life during long term exogenous administration of IGF-I to patients with Laron syndrome was demonstrated by following serum IGF-I dynamics after injection. Based on the fact that no antibodies to IGF-I were detected and on findings in previous studies, it is speculated that the increasing serum IGF-I levels during long-term IGF-I treatment are caused by an increase in serum IGFBP-3 induced by chronic IGF-I administration. It is concluded that treatment with IGF-I necessitates regular monitoring of serum IGF-I levels; in patients in whom the age adjusted maximal levels are exceeded, a reduction of the daily IGF-I dose is indicated to avoid undesirable effects.

  11. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  12. Long-Term Outcomes for the Promoting CARE Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Herting, Jerald R.; Snedker, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a long-term look at suicide risk from adolescence to young adulthood for former participants in Promoting CARE, an indicated suicide prevention program. Methods: Five hundred ninety-three suicide-vulnerable high school youth were involved in a long-term follow-up study. Latent class growth models identify patterns of change…

  13. A Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ming; Stevens, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success, a theoretical stages-of-growth model, explains long-term success in IT outsourcing relationships. Research showed the IT outsourcing relationship life cycle consists of four distinct, sequential stages: contract, transition, support, and partnership. The model was…

  14. Pathophysiology of the GH/IGF-1 axis : long-term consequences on joints and bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Kim Maria Johanna Aldegonda

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of observations are described in acromegaly patients with cured or biochemically well-controlled disease during long-term follow-up. These observations focus on the long-term consequences of the disease on joints and bone. In addition, we investigated the role of the Growth

  15. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  16. Fusion energy in context: its fitness for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term limits to growth in energy will be imposed not by inability to expand supply, but by the rising environmental and social costs of doing so. These costs will therefore be cental issues in choosing long-term options. Fusion, like solar energy, is not one possibility but many, some with very attractive environmental characteristics and others perhaps little better in these regards than fission. None of the fusion options will be cheap, and none is likely to be widely available before the year 2010. The most attractive forms of fusion may require greater investments of time and money to achieve, but they are the real reason for wanting fusion at all

  17. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  18. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  20. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  1. Long-term effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that sources of long-term damage from radiation are two-fold. People who have been exposed to doses of radiation from initial early fallout but have recovered from the acute effects may still suffer long-term damage from their exposure. Those who have not been exposed to early fallout may be exposed to delayed fallout, the hazards from which are almost exclusively from ingesting strontium, caesium and carbon isotopes present in food; the damage caused is relatively unimportant compared with that caused by the brief doses from initial radiation and early fallout. A brief discussion is presented of the distribution of delayed long-lived isotope fallout, and an outline is sketched of late biological effects, such as malignant disease, cataracts, retarded development, infertility and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  2. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  3. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  4. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  5. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  6. Accounting of Long-Term Biological Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Mossakovskyy; Vasyl Korytnyy

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to generalization of experience in valuation of long-term biological assets of plant-growing and animal-breeding, and preparation of suggestions concerning improvement of accounting in this field. Recommendations concerning accounting of such assets are given based on the study of accounting practice at specific agricultural company during long period of time. Authors believe that fair value is applicable only if price level for agricultural products is fixed by the gov...

  7. Optimal long-term contracting with learning

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhiguo; Wei, Bin; Yu, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We introduce uncertainty into Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) to study optimal long-term contracting with learning. In a dynamic relationship, the agent's shirking not only reduces current performance but also increases the agent's information rent due to the persistent belief manipulation effect. We characterize the optimal contract using the dynamic programming technique in which information rent is the unique state variable. In the optimal contract, the optimal effort is front-loaded and decr...

  8. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  9. Inflation Hedging for Long-Term Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun K. Roache; Alexander P. Attie

    2009-01-01

    Long-term investors face a common problem-how to maintain the purchasing power of their assets over time and achieve a level of real returns consistent with their investment objectives. While inflation-linked bonds and derivatives have been developed to hedge the effects of inflation, their limited supply and liquidity lead many investors to continue to rely on the indirect hedging properties of traditional asset classes. In this paper, we assess these properties over different time horizons,...

  10. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  11. Long-Term Care Services for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    includes but is not limited to home physical , occupational, or speech therapy ; wound care; and intravenous (IV) care. A VA physician determines that a...restoring/rehabilitating the veteran’s health, such as skilled nursing care, physical therapy , occupational therapy , and IV therapy Same as HBPC... geriatric evaluation,  palliative care,  adult day health care,  homemaker/home health aide care,  respite care, Long-Term Care Services for

  12. Long term adequacy of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the adequacy of world economic uranium resources to meet requirements in the very long term, that is until at least 2025 and beyond. It does so by analysing current requirements forecasts, existing and potential production centre supply capability schedules and national resource estimates. It takes into account lead times from resource discovery to production and production rate limitations. The institutional and political issues surrounding the question of adequacy are reviewed. (author)

  13. Long-term energy futures: the critical role of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the results of a 5-year study conducted by IIASA jointly with the World Energy Council (WEC) on long term-energy perspectives. After summarizing the study's main findings, the paper addresses the crucial role of technological change in the evolution of long-term energy futures and in responding to key long-term uncertainties in the domains of energy demand growth, economics, as well as environmental protection. Based on most recent empirical and methodological findings, long-term dynamics of technological change portray a number of distinct features that need to be taken account of in technology and energy policy. First, success of innovation efforts and ultimate outcomes of technological are uncertain. Second, new, improved technologies are not a free good, but require continued dedicated efforts. Third, technological knowledge (as resulting from R and D and accumulation of experience, i.e. technological learning) exhibits characteristics of (uncertain) increasing returns. Forth, due to innovation - diffusion lags, technological interdependence, and infrastructure needs (network externalities), rates of change in large-scale energy systems are necessarily slow. This implies acting sooner rather than later as a contigency policy to respond to long-term social, economic and environmental uncertainties, most notably possible climate change. Rather than picking technological 'winners' the results of the IIASA-WEC scenario studies are seen most appropriate to guide technology and R and D portfolio analysis. Nonetheless, robust persistent patterns of technological change invariably occur across all scenarios. Examples of primising groups of technologies are given. The crucial importance of meeting long-energy demand in developing countries, assuring large-scale infrastructure investments, maintaining a strong and diversified R AND D protfolio, as well as to dvise new institutional mechnisms for technology development and diffusion for instance

  14. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  15. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  16. Long-term surgical-orthodontic management of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samuel C; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2016-05-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH), also known as hemimandibular hypertrophy, is characterised by excessive unilateral three-dimensional growth of the mandible after birth. Vertical unilateral elongation of the mandible becomes clinically evident as a rare form of vertical facial asymmetry. Aberrant growth of the facial skeleton affects the developing dentition and the dental compensatory mechanism is usually unable to maintain optimal occlusal relationships. The resulting malocclusion is effectively managed by combined surgical-orthodontic care to address the facial, skeletal and dental problems that confront clinicians. Orthodontists are advised to assess patients with HH during the post-treatment retention stage for continuing mandibular growth and assess the stability of treatment outcomes with long-term follow-up and records as required. To present a case of hemimandibular hyperplasia treated successfully by combined surgical-orthodontic care and evaluated for stability over a seven-year follow-up period. Surgical-orthodontic management was accomplished in four stages: 1) pre-surgical orthodontic; 21 surgical; 3) post-surgical orthodontic; and 4) post-treatment orthodontic retention. Complete orthodontic records, including extra- and intra-oral photographs, study models, and cephalograms plus panoramic radiographs were taken at the pretreatment, post-treatment, and seven-year orthodontic retention time-points. Facial, skeletal and dental goals were achieved in the three planes of space and the long-term stability of the treatment results was shown during a post-treatment orthodontic retention period of seven years. Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a true growth anomaly which may be managed effectively. Clinicians may expect successful long-term correction and stability by utilising a comprehensive surgical-orthodontic treatment approach.

  17. Optogenetic long-term manipulation of behavior and animal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schultheis

    Full Text Available Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 is widely used for rapid photodepolarization of neurons, yet, as it requires high-intensity blue light for activation, it is not suited for long-term in vivo applications, e.g. for manipulations of behavior, or photoactivation of neurons during development. We used "slow" ChR2 variants with mutations in the C128 residue, that exhibit delayed off-kinetics and increased light sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Following a 1 s light pulse, we could photodepolarize neurons and muscles for minutes (and with repeated brief stimulation, up to days with low-intensity light. Photoactivation of ChR2(C128S in command interneurons elicited long-lasting alterations in locomotion. Finally, we could optically induce profound changes in animal development: Long-term photoactivation of ASJ neurons, which regulate larval growth, bypassed the constitutive entry into the "dauer" larval state in daf-11 mutants. These lack a guanylyl cyclase, which possibly renders ASJ neurons hyperpolarized. Furthermore, photostimulated ASJ neurons could acutely trigger dauer-exit. Thus, slow ChR2s can be employed to long-term photoactivate behavior and to trigger alternative animal development.

  18. Long-term changes in river system hydrology in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and human actives are recognized as a topical issue that change long-term water budget, flow-frequency, and storage-frequency characteristics of different river systems. Texas is characterized by extreme hydrologic variability both spatially and temporally. Meanwhile, population and economic growth and accompanying water resources development projects have greatly impacted river flows throughout Texas. The relative effects of climate change, water resources development, water use, and other factors on long-term changes in river flow, reservoir storage, evaporation, water use, and other components of the water budgets of different river basins of Texas have been simulated in this research using the monthly version of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP modelling system with input databases sets from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ and Texas Water Development Board (TWDB. The results show that long-term changes are minimal from analysis monthly precipitation depths. Evaporation rates vary greatly seasonally and for much of the state appear to have a gradually upward trend. River/reservoir system water budgets and river flow characteristics have changed significantly during the past 75 years in response to water resources development and use.

  19. Long-Term Studies of Prescribed Burning in Loblolly Pine Forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; David H. van Lear; F. Thomas Lloyd; William R. Harms

    1987-01-01

    Prescribed fire provides many benefits in southern pine A study begun in 1946 provides a unique opportunity stands. to observe long-term changes in understory vegetation, soil properties, and overstory tree growth caused by repeated burning.

  20. The environment in the Netherlands in the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieringa, K.; Maas, R.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental problem is one of the central elements in the newest long-term scenarios of the CPB (Dutch Central Planning Bureau). Will the environmental problems limit the economic growth for the next 25 years? Or can growth of production and consumption be combined with the environmental aims as formulated in the National Environmental Policy (NMP in Dutch). Being a preliminary study on the third National Environmental Outlook (to be published in 1993) the governmental institute for public health and environmental hygiene (RIVM) calculated the environmental impacts in the scenarios developed by the CPB. In particular attention is paid to the costs of the planned environmental policy. The scenarios discussed are Balanced Growth, characterized by a strong economic growth, sustainable economic development, and a dynamic technological development, the Global Shift scenario, characterized by a very dynamic technological development, and the European Renaissance scenario with a less dynamic development. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Long-term EEG in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  4. Long term aspects of uranium tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    1980-05-01

    This paper sets out the background issues which lead to the development of interim close-out criteria for uranium mill tailings. It places the current state-of-the-art for tailings management into both a national and international perspective and shows why such interim criteria are needed now. There are seven specific criteria proposed dealing with the need to have: passive barriers, limits on surface water recharge, durable systems, long term performance guarantees, limits to access, controls on water and airborne releases and finally to have a knowledge of exposure pathways. This paper is intended to serve as a focus for subsequent discussions with all concerned parties. (auth)

  5. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  6. Optimal Long-Term Financial Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. DeMarzo; Michael J. Fishman

    2007-01-01

    We develop an agency model of financial contracting. We derive long-term debt, a line of credit, and equity as optimal securities, capturing the debt coupon and maturity; the interest rate and limits on the credit line; inside versus outside equity; dividend policy; and capital structure dynamics. The optimal debt-equity ratio is history dependent, but debt and credit line terms are independent of the amount financed and, in some cases, the severity of the agency problem. In our model, the ag...

  7. Does heavy traffic have long term implications for crop yields?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Aa.; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Schjønning, Per

    Danish soils are subject to increasingly heavier traffic. Today, wheel loads of 6-12 tons are common on e.g. slurry tankers, combines and sugar beet harvesters. Field trials were started in Denmark in spring 2010 to answer the question: "does heavy traffic have long term implications for crop...... by the contractors delivering the machinery for the experimentation. Each year, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was established after the compaction treatments. s.ince 2013, investigations on biological tillage (root growth by pioneering crops) have been added to the trials. Significant yield losses up to 12.5 dt...

  8. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  9. Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEINBOK, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood craniopharyngioma has been improving, with more long-term survivors. Unfortunately it is rare for the patient to be normal, either from the disease itself or from the effects of treatment. Long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma suffer a number of impairments, which include visual loss, endocrinopathy, hypothalamic dysfunction, cerebrovascular problems, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction. Pituitary insufficiency is present in almost 100%. Visual and hypothalamic dysfunction is common. There is a high risk of metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and Moyamoya syndrome. Cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional problems are prevalent. Finally, there is a higher risk of premature death among survivors of craniopharyngioma, and often this is not from tumor recurrence. It is important to consider craniopharyngioma as a chronic disease. There is no perfect treatment. The treatment has to be tailored to the individual patient to minimize dysfunction caused by tumor and treatments. So “cure” of the tumor does not mean a normal patient. The management of the patient and family needs multidisciplinary evaluation and should involve ophthalmology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, oncology, and psychology. Furthermore, it is also important to address emotional issues and social integration. PMID:26345668

  10. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  11. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  12. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  13. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  14. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  16. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass.

  17. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Martin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad history

  18. Long term creep behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an experimental investigation to evaluate the long term creep behavior of concrete subjected to sustained uniaxial loads for an extended period of time at 75 0 F. The factors investigated were (1) curing time (90, 183, and 365 days); (2) curing history (as-cast and air-dried); and (3) uniaxial stress (600 and 2400 psi). The experimental investigation applied uniaxial compressive loads to cylindrical concrete specimens and measured strains with vibrating wire strain gages that were cast in the concrete specimen along the axial and radial axes. Specimens cured for 90 days prior to loading were subjected to a sustained load for a period of one year, at which time the loads were removed; the specimens which were cured for 183 or 365 days, however, were not unloaded and have been under load for 5 and 4.5 years, respectively. The effect of each of the above factors on the instantaneous and creep behavior is discussed and the long term creep behavior of the specimens cured for 183 or 365 days is evaluated. The findings of these evaluations are summarized. (17 figures, 10 tables) (U.S.)

  19. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  20. Long-term energy demand forecasting for the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, applying the structural decomposition model for three alternative growth sceneries of the state economy; Projecao da demanda setorial de energia do Estado de Sao Paulo no longo prazo, aplicando o modelo de desagregacao estrutural em tres cenarios alternativos de crescimento da economia do estado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: afurtado@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; apereira@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Long-term demand forecasts (up to 2025) are presented in this paper for the main energy forms consumed in the residential, trade and services, rural, transport, and industrial sectors in the State of Sao Paulo. They were obtained with the help of a flexible forecasting model based on the structural decomposition of the demand, for three alternative scenarios concerning the growth of the state economy. These three state-wise scenarios are related to initially nation-wide defined scenarios, through assumptions concerning the evolution on the ratio between the state GDP and the national GDP. (author)

  1. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study and NovoNet® ANSWER Program®: rationale, design, and methodology of two international pharmacoepidemiological registry-based studies monitoring long-term clinical and safety outcomes of growth hormone therapy (Norditropin®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höybye, Charlotte; Sävendahl, Lars; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Lee, Peter; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Schlumpf, Michael; Germak, John; Ross, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown that growth hormone (GH) therapy has effects on growth, metabolism, and body composition. GH therapy is prescribed for children with growth failure and adults with GH deficiency. Carefully conducted observational study of GH treatment affords the opportunity to assess long-term treatment outcomes and the clinical factors and variables affecting those outcomes, in patients receiving GH therapy in routine clinical practice. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) and the American Norditropin® Web Enabled Research (ANSWER Program®) are two complementary, non-interventional, observational studies that adhere to current guidelines for pharmacoepidemiological data. The studies include pediatric and adult patients receiving Norditropin®, as prescribed by their physicians. The studies gather long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of reallife treatment with the recombinant human GH, Norditropin®. We describe the origins, aims, objectives, and design methodology of the studies, as well as their governance and validity, strengths, and limitations. The NordiNet® IOS and ANSWER Program® studies will provide valid insights into the effectiveness and safety of GH treatment across a diverse and large patient population treated in accordance with real-world clinical practice and following the Good Pharmacoepidemiological Practice and STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines.

  2. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva......The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...

  3. Long-term cryogenic space storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. A.; Chronic, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the design, fabrication and testing of a 225-cu ft spherical cryogenic storage system for long-term subcritical applications under zero-g conditions in storing subcritical cryogens for space vehicle propulsion systems. The insulation system design, the analytical methods used, and the correlation between the performance test results and analytical predictions are described. The best available multilayer insulation materials and state-of-the-art thermal protection concepts were applied in the design, providing a boiloff rate of 0.152 lb/hr, or 0.032% per day, and an overall heat flux of 0.066 Btu/sq ft hr based on a 200 sq ft surface area. A six to eighteen month cryogenic storage is provided by this system for space applications.

  4. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  5. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  6. Prediction of long-term creep curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Kouichi

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing how to predict long-term irradiation enhanced creep properties from short-term tests. The predictive method based on the θ concept was examined by using creep data of ferritic steels. The method was successful in predicting creep curves including the tertiary creep stage as well as rupture lifetimes. Some material constants involved in the method are insensitive to the irradiation environment, and their values obtained in thermal creep are applicable to irradiation enhanced creep. The creep mechanisms of most engineering materials definitely change at the athermal yield stress in the non-creep regime. One should be aware that short-term tests must be carried out at stresses lower than the athermal yield stress in order to predict the creep behavior of structural components correctly. (orig.)

  7. Hanford grout: predicting long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewart, G.H.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Grouted disposal is being planned for the low-level portion of liquid radioactive wastes at the Hanford site in Washington state. The performance of the disposal system must be such that it will protect people and the environment for thousands of years after disposal. To predict whether a specific grout disposal system will comply with existing and foreseen regulations, a performance assessment (PA) is performed. Long-term PAs are conducted for a range of performance conditions. Performance assessment is an inexact science. Quantifying projected impacts is especially difficult when only scant data exist on the behavior of certain components of the disposal system over thousands of years. To develop defensible results, we are honing the models and obtaining experimental data. The combination of engineered features and PA refinements is being used to ensure that Hanford grout will meet its principal goal: to protect people and the environment in the future

  8. The discovery of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2003-04-29

    This paper describes circumstances around the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP). In 1966, I had just begun independent work for the degree of Dr medicinae (PhD) in Per Andersen's laboratory in Oslo after an eighteen-month apprenticeship with him. Studying the effects of activating the perforant path to dentate granule cells in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rabbits, I observed that brief trains of stimuli resulted in increased efficiency of transmission at the perforant path-granule cell synapses that could last for hours. In 1968, Tim Bliss came to Per Andersen's laboratory to learn about the hippocampus and field potential recording for studies of possible memory mechanisms. The two of us then followed up my preliminary results from 1966 and did the experiments that resulted in a paper that is now properly considered to be the basic reference for the discovery of LTP.

  9. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    significantly associated with initiation of L-TOT in individuals with CNCP at baseline. During follow-up, L-TOT in CNCP patients increased the likelihood of negative changes in pain interference with work (OR 9.2; 95% CI 1.9-43.6) and in moderate activities (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.6). The analysis of all......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...... individuals indicated a dose-response relationship between longer treatment duration and the risk of experiencing negative changes. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals on L-TOT seemed not to achieve the key goals of opioid therapy: pain relief, improved quality of life and functional capacity. SIGNIFICANCE: Long...

  10. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... a stake in 2007 in the company which at that time was named Braendstrup Maskinfabrik. He furthermore expalins how he has developed the company based on a strategic plan focusing on professionalization and outsourcing. Next, the video shows how to type Bo Fischer Larsen's replies to the questions...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  11. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  12. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  13. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the

  14. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  15. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, Clara; Bertrand, Nathalie; Gauvain, Danielle; Terlain, Anne [Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Materiaux dans leur Environnement, CEA/Saclay - 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel [CIRIMAT UMR 5085, ENSIACET-INPT, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2004-07-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  16. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, Clara; Bertrand, Nathalie; Gauvain, Danielle; Terlain, Anne; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  17. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Hwang, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model`s parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  18. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Hwang, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model's parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  19. Evaluation of long term creep-fatigue life for type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Hirotsugu; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Aoto, Kazumi; Ichimiya, Masakazu; Wada, Yusaku

    1992-01-01

    The long term creep-fatigue life of type 304 stainless steel was evaluated by the creep-fatigue life prediction method based on a linear damage fraction rule. The displacement controlled creep-fatigue tests were carried out, and the time to failure of longer than 10000 hours was obtained. The creep damage of long term creep-fatigue was evaluated by taking into account the stress relaxation behavior with elastic follow-up during the hold period. The relationship between life reduction of creep-fatigue and fracture mode was provided by the creep cavity growth. The results of this study are summarized as follows; (1) The long term creep-fatigue data can be reasonably evaluated by the present method. The predicted lives were within a factor of 3 of the observed ones. (2) The present method provides the capability to predict the long term creep-fatigue life at lower temperatures as well as that at the creep dominant temperature. (3) The value of creep damage for the long term creep-fatigue data increased by elastic follow-up. The creep-fatigue damage diagram intercepted between 0.3 and 1 can represent the observed creep-fatigue damages. (4) The cavity growth depends on the hold time. The fracture of long term creep-fatigue is caused by the intergranular cavity growth. The intergranular fracture of creep-fatigue is initiated by the cavity growth and followed by the microcrack propagation along grain boundaries starting from creep cavities. (author)

  20. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  1. Long-term induced agricultural intensification in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Shuqing; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of agricultural intensification has great implications for biodiversity conservation faced with increasing human population and food demand. How agricultural intensification evolves with human population growth is differently described by three theories, namely......, the Boserupian, Malthusian and induced intensification theories. The Malthusian theory suggests quick adoption of available techniques that increase human population, while the other two share one viewpoint that increased intensive level of agriculture is passively induced by population growth. Which theory has...... a prediction that matches long-term dynamics of agricultural intensification in history? Using historical land-use data spanning two thousand years, this study estimated the dynamic trajectories of four cultivation practices with different intensive levels in a part of China and assessed the three theories...

  2. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Procedure We

  3. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); J.P. Sluimer (Johanna); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group.

  4. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-01-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  5. Long-Term Clock Behavior of GPS IIR Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Marvin; Dass, Todd; Rajan, John; Gilmour, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Rubidium clocks, as opposed to cesium clocks, have significant long-term drift. The current literature describes an initial model of drift aging for rubidium atomic clocks followed by a long-term characteristic...

  6. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  7. [Perioperative management of long-term medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel Kahmann, I; Ruppen, W; Lurati Buse, G; Tsakiris, D A; Bruggisser, M

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesiologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with patients who are under long-term medication. Some of these drugs can interact with anaesthetics or anaesthesia and/or surgical interventions. As a result, patients may experience complications such as bleeding, ischemia, infection or severe circulatory reactions. On the other hand, perioperative discontinuation of medication is often more dangerous. The proportion of outpatient operations has increased dramatically in recent years and will probably continue to increase. Since the implementation of DRGs (pending in Switzerland, introduced in Germany for some time), the patient enters the hospital the day before operation. This means that the referring physician as well as anesthesiologists and surgeons at an early stage must deal with issues of perioperative pharmacotherapy. This review article is about the management of the major drug classes during the perioperative period. In addition to cardiac and centrally acting drugs and drugs that act on hemostasis and the endocrine system, special cases such as immunosuppressants and herbal remedies are mentioned.

  8. Long term agreements energy efficiency. Progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Long Term Agreements (LTAs) on energy efficiency have been contracted with various business sectors since 1992, as part of energy conservation policy: industrial sectors, commercial services, agrarian sectors and non-profit services. LTAs are voluntary agreements between a specific sector and the Minister of Economic Affairs. In some cases, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries is also involved. The sector commits to an effort to improve energy efficiency by a particular percentage within an agreed period. As at 31 December 1999, a total of 29 LTAs had been contracted with industrial sectors and 14 with non-industrial ones. This report describes the progress of the LTAs in 1999. It reviews the energy efficiency improvements realised through the LTAs, both overall and in each individual sector. The aim is to make the efforts and results in the various sectors accessible to the general public. Appendix 1 describes the positioning of the LTA instrument. This Appendix provides and insight into the position of the LTAs within the overall set of policy instruments. It also covers the subsidy schemes and fiscal instruments that support the LTAs, the relationships between LTAs and environmental policy and new developments relating to the LTAs in the years ahead. Appendices 2 to 6 contain the reports on the LTAs and a list of abbreviations (Appendix 7)

  9. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  10. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  12. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  13. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 -10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., open-quotes natural analoguesclose quotes) provide perhaps the only means of partial open-quotes validation,close quotes as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10 3 -10 8 years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the open-quotes validationclose quotes of performance assessments

  14. Long-term effects of islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Walker, D Jane; Kay, Thomas W H

    2016-10-01

    Islet transplantation has made great progress in recent years. This is a remarkable technical feat but raises the question of what the long-term benefits and risks are for type I diabetes recipients. Graft survival continues to improve, and recent multicenter studies show that islet transplantation is particularly effective to prevent hypoglycemic events even in those who do not become insulin-independent and to achieve excellent glycemic control. Concerns include histocompatability leucocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization and other risks including from immunosuppression that islet transplantation shares with other forms of allotransplantation. Reversal of hypoglycemia unawareness and protection from severe hypoglycemia events are two of the main benefits of islet transplantation and they persist for the duration of graft function. Islet transplantation compares favorably with other therapies for those with hypoglycemia unawareness, although new technologies have not been tested head-to-head with transplantation. HLA sensitization increases with time after transplantation especially if immunosuppression is ceased and is a risk for those who may require future transplantation as well as being associated with loss of graft function.

  15. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  16. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  17. Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J

    2003-01-01

    To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).

  18. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  19. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  20. Essays on long-term mortality and interest rate risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation comprises a study of long-term risks which play a major role in actuarial science. In Part I we analyse long-term mortality risk and its impact on consumption and investment decisions of economic agents, while Part II focuses on the mathematical modelling of long-term interest

  1. Long-term decline of radiocaesium in Fennoscandian reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Aahman, B.; Solatie, D.; Gaare, E.

    2009-06-01

    The NKS-B project REIN was established to synthesize the available information on contamination levels and effective half-times for 137Cs in reindeer in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Several studies of radiocaesium contamination in reindeer have been carried out in the Nordic countries over the last 50 years. However, the current slow decline in concentrations, which will maintain the consequences of the Chernobyl deposition for Swedish and Norwegian reindeer husbandry for at least another 10-20 years, have not previously been observed nor predicted. In the Chernobyl affected areas 137Cs concentrations in reindeer initially declined by effective half-times of 3-4 years, whereas the current decline appears to be mainly governed by the nuclide's physical half-life (30 years). The review of effective half-times of 137Cs in reindeer across Fennoscandia suggests that concentrations declined more rapidly in the northernmost areas. The reason(-s) remains unclear, and demonstrates the need for more long-term sampling of the various components of reindeer's diet. Such sampling should aim at covering climatically different areas, as climate may influence transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer via lichen growth and weathering rates, composition of plant communities and lichen availability, as well as soil-to-plant radiocaesium uptake. The lack of long-term data on radiocaesium in natural vegetation in the Nordic countries is one of the main limitations for the development of mechanistic models for radiocaesium in reindeer, and for further elucidation of the observed long-term trends in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer. Currently our understanding of the long-term trends observed in various areas is not good enough to predict how future radiocaesium deposition will behave. The high transfer of nuclides to reindeer, the geographical extension of reindeer herding and the special position of the Sami population in Finland, Sweden and Norway, demonstrates the need for maintaining

  2. Long-term decline of radiocaesium in Fennoscandian reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration (Norway)); AAhman, B. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Solatie, D. (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Gaare, E. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Researc (Norway))

    2009-06-15

    The NKS-B project REIN was established to synthesize the available information on contamination levels and effective half-times for 137Cs in reindeer in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Several studies of radiocaesium contamination in reindeer have been carried out in the Nordic countries over the last 50 years. However, the current slow decline in concentrations, which will maintain the consequences of the Chernobyl deposition for Swedish and Norwegian reindeer husbandry for at least another 10-20 years, have not previously been observed nor predicted. In the Chernobyl affected areas 137Cs concentrations in reindeer initially declined by effective half-times of 3-4 years, whereas the current decline appears to be mainly governed by the nuclide's physical half-life (30 years). The review of effective half-times of 137Cs in reindeer across Fennoscandia suggests that concentrations declined more rapidly in the northernmost areas. The reason(-s) remains unclear, and demonstrates the need for more long-term sampling of the various components of reindeer's diet. Such sampling should aim at covering climatically different areas, as climate may influence transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer via lichen growth and weathering rates, composition of plant communities and lichen availability, as well as soil-to-plant radiocaesium uptake. The lack of long-term data on radiocaesium in natural vegetation in the Nordic countries is one of the main limitations for the development of mechanistic models for radiocaesium in reindeer, and for further elucidation of the observed long-term trends in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer. Currently our understanding of the long-term trends observed in various areas is not good enough to predict how future radiocaesium deposition will behave. The high transfer of nuclides to reindeer, the geographical extension of reindeer herding and the special position of the Sami population in Finland, Sweden and Norway, demonstrates the need for

  3. Long-Term Follow-Up of Cardiac Function and Quality of Life for Patients in NSABP Protocol B-31/NRG Oncology: A Randomized Trial Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (AC) Followed by Paclitaxel With AC Followed by Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab in Patients With Node-Positive Breast Cancer With Tumors Overexpressing Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Patricia A; Romond, Edward H; Cecchini, Reena S; Rastogi, Priya; Geyer, Charles E; Swain, Sandra M; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Gross, Howard M; Brufsky, Adam M; Flynn, Patrick J; Wahl, Tanya A; Seay, Thomas E; Wade, James L; Biggs, David D; Atkins, James N; Polikoff, Jonathan; Zapas, John L; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Wolmark, Norman

    2017-12-10

    Purpose Early cardiac toxicity is a risk associated with adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. However, objective measures of cardiac function and health-related quality of life are lacking in long-term follow-up of patients who remain cancer free after completion of adjuvant treatment. Patients and Methods Patients in NSABP Protocol B-31 received anthracycline and taxane chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab for adjuvant treatment of node-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive early-stage breast cancer. A long-term follow-up assessment was undertaken for patients who were alive and disease free, which included measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction by multigated acquisition scan along with patient-reported outcomes using the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI), the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire, and a review of current medications and comorbid conditions. Results At a median follow-up of 8.8 years among eligible participants, five (4.5%) of 110 in the control group and 10 (3.4%) of 297 in the trastuzumab group had a > 10% decline in left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline to a value < 50%. Lower DASI scores correlated with age and use of medications for hypertension, cardiac conditions, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, but not with whether patients had received trastuzumab. Conclusion In patients without underlying cardiac disease at baseline, the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy does not result in long-term worsening of cardiac function, cardiac symptoms, or health-related quality of life. The DASI questionnaire may provide a simple and useful tool for monitoring patient-reported changes that reflect cardiac function.

  4. Effects of long-term price increases for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voehringer, F.; Mueller, A.; Boehringer, C.

    2007-03-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the effects of higher oil prices in the long-term. Scenarios examined include those with high oil prices of 80 to 140 dollars per barrel and those with drastic shortages resulting from peak extraction in the years 2010 and 2020. Long-term economic balances form the basis of the report, short-term influences and psychological effects are not addressed. The possible dangers for the earth's climate caused by the substitution of oil by coal-based products are discussed, as well as the sequestration of carbon dioxide. Ethanol and the associated conflicts of land use are examined and the decreasing cost-effectiveness of co-generation power generation is looked at. Alternatives such as atomic power, hydropower, solar energy, geothermal energy, biogas and wind power are discussed. The effect of the changing energy scene on economic growth and welfare aspects in Switzerland are examined. The authors conclude that high oil prices have considerable impacts on the economy and are not a substitute for an internationally co-ordinated climate policy

  5. Long-term effects of liming and fertilization with N, P and K on ground vegetation, forest growth and soil chemistry of a Scots pine stand (Pinus sylvestris) in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsell, E.

    1997-12-31

    The present study was performed in a pine forest liming and fertilization experiment situated in central Sweden, started in 1959. The main objective was to investigate how the floristical composition changed due to different treatments during the period 1959-1996 and in particular since the latest investigation in 1981. Treatments including nitrogen and lime had the most important impact on both the species composition as well as on mean cover while effects by treatments including only phosphorous and potassium were less pronounced. It could be concluded that the main effects on the floristical composition by different treatments recorded in 1981 and 1996 were similar. However, the additional fertilization made since the last investigation in 1981 have led to more pronounced effects on floristic cover. Calluna vulgaris and Vaccinium vitis-idaea e.g. reacted negatively on nitrogen fertilization, while they were positively affected by lime. Vaccinium myrtillus reacted in the opposite way. These reactions were because of different preferences of nitrogen availability. V. Myrtillus prefers a nutrient rich environment while C. Vulgaris and V. Vitis-idaea prefer nutrient poor environments. Liming causes increased microbial activity which immobilise nitrogen. The added nitrogen during 1982-1990 made the effects more pronounced. The changes in floristical cover were linked to changes in soil chemistry and also the treatment effects on tree growth were analysed. The soil chemistry had not changed much concerning pH or base saturation since 1981, but the continued addition of nitrogen decreased the C/N-ratio in the humus layer. Tree growth was most affected by nitrogen which resulted in an almost immediately increased growth rate, while lime, phosphorous and potassium had a negative effect during the first years and then slightly increased Examination paper 1997:3. 34 refs, 23 figs, 16 tabs

  6. Design of microdevices for long-term live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huaying; Nordon, Robert E; Rosengarten, Gary; Li, Musen

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fluorescent live cell imaging provide high-content information that relates a cell's life events to its ancestors. An important requirement to track clonal growth and development is the retention of motile cells derived from an ancestor within the same microscopic field of view for days to weeks, while recording fluorescence images and controlling the mechanical and biochemical microenvironments that regulate cell growth and differentiation. The aim of this study was to design a microwell device for long-term, time-lapse imaging of motile cells with the specific requirements of (a) inoculating devices with an average of one cell per well and (b) retaining progeny of cells within a single microscopic field of view for extended growth periods. A two-layer PDMS microwell culture device consisting of a parallel-plate flow cell bonded on top of a microwell array was developed for cell capture and clonal culture. Cell deposition statistics were related to microwell geometry (plate separation and well depth) and the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate flow in the microdevices as well as cell–fluid interactions. Analysis of the forces acting upon a cell was used to predict cell docking zones, which were confirmed by experimental observations. Cell–fluid dynamic interactions are important considerations for design of microdevices for long-term, live cell imaging. The analysis of force and torque balance provides a reasonable approximation for cell displacement forces. It is computationally less intensive compared to simulation of cell trajectories, and can be applied to a wide range of microdevice geometries to predict the cell docking behavior. (paper)

  7. Long-term availability of global uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    From a global perspective, a low-carbon path to development driven by a growth of nuclear power production raises issues about the availability of uranium resources. Future technologies allowing nuclear reactors to overcome the need for natural uranium will take time to fully deploy. To address these issues, we analyze the conditions of availability of uranium in the 21. century. The first two conditions are technical accessibility and economic interest, both related to the cost of production. We study them using a model that estimates the ultimate uranium resources (amounts of both discovered and undiscovered resources) and their costs. This model splits the world into regions and the resource estimate for each region derives from the present knowledge of the deposits and economic filtering. The output is a long-term supply curve that illustrates the quantities of uranium that are technically accessible as a function of their cost of production. We identify the main uncertainties of these estimates and we show that with no regional breakdown, the ultimate resources are underestimated. The other conditions of availability of uranium covered in our study are related to the market dynamics, i.e. they derive from the supply and demand clearing mechanism. To assess their influence, they are introduced as dynamic constraints in a partial equilibrium model. This model of the uranium market is deterministic, and market players are represented by regions. For instance, it takes into account the short-term correlation between price and exploration expenditures, which is the subject of a dedicate econometric study. In the longer term, constraints include anticipation of demand by consumers and a gradual depletion of the cheapest ultimate resources. Through a series of prospective simulations, we demonstrate the strong influence on long-term price trends of both the growth rate of demand during the 21. century and its anticipation. Conversely, the uncertainties related to the

  8. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-I as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-10-01

    The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. We analyzed retrospective data from 610 adult childhood cancer survivors, retrieved from the late effects clinic. Median age at diagnosis was 6 years (interquartile range 3-11) and follow-up time was 18 years (13-24). We assessed IGF-I standard deviation scores (SDS), anthropometrical measures, growth hormone stimulation tests in patients with clinical signs of GHD, and measures of body composition (assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, Lunar Prodigy). In 58 cranially irradiated acute leukemia survivors (25 Gy (24-25)) and 56 locally irradiated brain tumor survivors (42 Gy (35-54)) we found significantly lower IGF-I SDS (P body mass index (P = 0.01), higher waist-hip ratio (WHR; P = 0.001), higher total fat percentage SDS (P body mass SDS (P body mass (r = 0.15, P = 0.01). In patients with low IGF-I levels, IGF-I did not significantly differ between subjects with and without GHD as determined by GH-stimulation testing (P = 0.39). This study shows that IGF-I has limited value as a marker for alterations in body composition in adult childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Monitoring long-term oral corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Lewis; Lindemann, Roberta; Douglas, James

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are synthetic analogues of human hormones normally produced by the adrenal cortex. They have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. The glucocortoid components are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and vasoconstrictive. They influence the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, in addition to playing a key role in the body's stress response. Mineralocorticoid's main significance is in the balance of salt and water concentrations. Due to the combination of these effects, corticosteroids can cause many adverse effects. Oral corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and are therefore more likely to cause adverse effects than topical or inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, it is assumed that greater duration of treatment will lead to a greater number of adverse effects, and therefore the most at risk group are those taking high dose, long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC). High dose is defined as a prescription of >5 mg oral prednisolone and long term as duration of treatment >1 month (based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for patient's 'at risk' of systemic side effects). Parameters to be monitored in primary care include weight, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and urea and electrolytes. From clinical experience within the general practice setting, the authors propose that these patients do not receive adequate baseline monitoring before starting corticosteroids nor are these markers monitored consistently thereafter. This project intended to evidence this claim, evaluate the adverse effect profile and improve monitoring in this patient group. The initial audit of 22 patients, within a single general practice, detected at least one documented adverse effect in 64% of patients, while 41% reported more than one adverse effect. 45% had recorded weight gain, 18% had recorded osteoporosis, 18% had at least one recorded cataract, 14% had recorded Hypertension, 14% had recorded

  10. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  11. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2010-02-01

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  12. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, J.

    1992-01-01

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  13. Long term results of pyeloplasty in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayib, Abdul Malik

    2004-01-01

    To determine the presenting systems, complications, stone coincidence in adult patients with primary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We are also reporting the success rate and long term results of adult pyeloplasty. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent 37 pyeloplasty operations during the period January 1992 through to June 2002. The preoperative radiological diagnosis made by intravenous urogram or renal isotopes scan. We excluded from our study patients with previous history of passage of stones, renal or ureteral surgeries, large renal pelvis stone that may cause UPJ obstruction or abnormalities that may lead to secondry UPJ obstruction such as vesicoureteral reflux. There were 28 male patients and 8 females, their age varied between 16 and 51-years, the mean age was 36.1 years, and 18 (52.9%) patients had concomitant renal stones. Ispsilateral split renal function improved by 3-7% post pyeloplasty in 23 patients, while in one patient the function stayed the same, and in another patient the split function reduced by 4%. T1/2 renal isotopes washout time became less than 15 minutes in 19 patients and less than 20 minutes in 6 patients. Intravenous urogram revealed disappearence of the obstruction at UPJ in 7 patients while in 2 patients it became poorly functioning. Anderson Hynes pyeloplasty is an excellent procedure for treating UPJ obstruction in adults. Our success rate is comparable to the international repoted rates, while our study revealed a higher incidence of concomitant renal stones than the international studies. (author)

  14. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  15. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  16. Long-term results in syndromic craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. de Jong (Tim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSkull sutures are fibrous joints between the different bones of the skull. In adult life they have no function but in the foetus they allow the bones to move during the birth process and are involved in skull growth till the age of six years. After the age of six years skull growth takes

  17. CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF SERUM INTERLEUKIN-16 AND VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR LEVELS DEPENDING ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TUMORS AND LONG-TERM TREATMENT OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH BONE NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Babkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The progress in cancer treatment, including bone malignancies, is associated with advances in molecular biology. Based on the results of a  number of studies, treatment of bone sarcomas have been expanded with targeted therapy that uses drugs with targeted actions, including anti-angiogenic and bevacizumab, in particular. It inhibits the binding of a key activator of neoangiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, with its receptors type 1 and 2 (Flt-1 and KDR on the surface of endothelial cells, which results in a  decrease in vascularization and in inhibition of tumor growth. Beyond VEGF, other activators of neoangiogenesis have been identified, such as interleukin 16 (IL-16. Aim: To compare baseline serum IL-16 and VEGF in patients with malignant, borderline and benign bone tumors. Materials and methods: Serum IL-16 and VEGF levels was compared in 138 patients with primary bone tumors: benign (n=10; borderline (giant cell bone, n=22; malignant (n=106, aged 14 to 50 years, by immunoenzyme assay (Biosource, USA for IL-16 and R&D, USA for VEGF before any specific treatment. Bone malignancies were identified as osteosarcoma (n=45, among them 35  typical, 6 parosteal, and 4 periosteal, chondrosarcoma (n=24, Ewing sarcoma (n=27, and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (n=7 and chordoma (n=3. Results: The rate of IL-16 identification in the serum of bone tumors patients was 93%, with no significant differences depending on the histological structure of the tumor. No association between the size of primary tumors and IL-16 serum levels was found. Overall 3 and 5-year survival of patients with malignant bone tumors with IL-16 serum levels>33 pg/mL was significantly lower than in those IL-16 levels of≤33 pg/mL. Overall 5-year survival in osteosarcoma patients with higher IL-16 serum levels 1.6-fold lower, in Ewing sarcoma patients, 1.7-fold lower, and in chondrosarcoma patients, 1.8-fold lower than that the patients with

  18. Intrahippocampal Glutamine Administration Inhibits mTORC1 Signaling and Impairs Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Natalia S.; Redell, John B.; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; McKenna, James, III.; Moore, Anthony N.; Gambello, Michael J.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of protein synthesis and cellular growth, is also required for long-term memory formation. Stimulation of mTORC1 signaling is known to be dependent on the availability of energy and growth factors, as well as the presence of amino acids. In vitro studies using serum- and amino…

  19. R&D of MCFC matrix for long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Takashi; Fujita, Yoji; Urushibata, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Akira [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Long term operation is an essential subject in the commercialization of the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC). Material stability is important for the development of the MCFC. particularly for long term operation. In this paper, the specification and the stabilization of MCFC matrix arc investigated, with the aim of producing 40000 hours of operation. It is common knowledge that matrix thickness has a large influence on shorting time, as shorting is caused by the dissolution of the nickel oxide cathodes. Therefore, the optimum thickness of a matrix designed for 40000 hours operation without the nickel shorting was sought. The influences of different electrolytes and matrix specifications on the shorting time were measured with accelerated cell tests. The internal resistance of the matrix was also estimated. Gamma( {gamma} )-lithium aluminate (LiAlO{sub 2}) powder with a sub-micron particle diameter is commonly used for a raw material of matrix to retain molten carbonate electrolytes. This is because most researchers found that {gamma}-LiA1O{sub 2} was the most stable material in the MCFC environment among the three allotropic forms alpha ( {alpha} ), beta ( {beta} ), and {gamma}. However. two problems with the stability of {gamma} -LiAlO{sub 2} are being vigorously discussed. especially in Japan: particle growth causes decreasing electrolyte retention, and the transformation of {gamma} to {alpha}. This transformation contradicts the accepted opinion that {gamma} is the most stable form. In this paper, the particle growth and the phase transformation of LiAlO{sub 2} are examined with post-test analyses. The influence of matrix degradation on cell performance is also considered.

  20. Long term results of trabeculectomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Evliyaoğlu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of long-term results of primary trabeculectomy operation Methods: The cases that are followed up with diagnosis of glaucoma in Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital Eye Clinic between January 2000 and December 2001 were evaluated retrospectively. All of the cases, despite maximum therapy, have high intraocular pressure (IOP, undergone primary trabeculectomy operation, are followed at least 6 months and regularly followed through 10 years were included in this study. IOP with or without medical treatment 18mmg or less than 18 mmHg accepted as successful. IOL pressure measured with applanation tonometry. Results: 89 eyes of 70 cases were included in this study. The cases included in the study, 42 male (60%, and 28 (40% were female. The mean age was 63.65±12.18 years. Preoperative intraocular pressure determined as 30.36 ± 3.2 mmHg. In the follow up examination mean intra ocular pressure was 15.31 ± 1.2 mmHg at 1st month, 15.47± 1.1mmHg at 3rd month, 15.02±1.8 mmHg at 6th month, 15.34± 2.1 mmHg at 1st year, 15.82 ± 2.1mmHg at 2nd year, 17.06 ± 2.3mmHg at 5th year and 18.02 ± 2.2 mmHg at 10th year. Statistical analysis of these data showed significant decreased of intra ocular pressure in the post operative period in compare to the preoperative period, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month, 1st year, 2nd year, 5th year an 10th year (p < 0.01. The follow-up period in the study was 91.10 ± 40.15 months (6-120 months. Conclusion: Primary trabeculectomy can be considered as an alternative treatment procedure especially in patients who does not use drugs regularly and unable to attend regular medical examination. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 263-268

  1. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  2. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  3. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J.; Marcinsky, M.; Martykan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  4. Long-term dietary replacement of fishmeal and fish oil in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Effects on growth, whole body fatty acids and intestinal and hepatic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève

    2018-01-01

    The effects of replacing fishmeal and fish oil with a plant-based diet were studied in juvenile (10g) and ongrowing (250-350g) rainbow trout from first-feeding. Feed-related differences in the intestinal and hepatic transcriptome were examined in juveniles after 7 months of feeding at 7°C. Based on microarray results obtained for juveniles, the expression of selected genes related to lipid, cholesterol and energy metabolisms, was assessed by RT-qPCR in ongrowing trout after 6 additional months of feeding at 17°C. Plasma glucose and cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid profile of whole body were analyzed at both stages. After 7 months at 7°C, all juveniles reached the same body weight (10g), while at 13 months ongrowing fish fed the totally plant-based diet exhibited lower body weight (234 vs 330-337g). Body lipid content was higher in juveniles fed the totally plant-based diet (13.2 vs 9.4-9.9%), and plasma cholesterol was about 2-times lower in trout fed the plant-based diets at both stages. Fatty acid profile mirrored that of the respective diet, with low proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish fed plant-based diets. Genes involved in protein catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and trafficking were down-regulated in the intestines of juveniles fed the plant-based diets. This was not true for ongrowing fish. Genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolisms were up-regulated in the livers of fish fed plant-based diets for both stages. In this study, feeding trout a totally plant-based diet from first-feeding affect a relatively low proportion of metabolism-related genes. In the longer term, when fish were reared at a higher temperature, only some of these changes were maintained (i.e. up-regulation of lipid/cholesterol metabolism). Although the plant-based diets tested in this study had no major deficiencies, small adjustments in the feed-formula are needed to further optimize growth performance while sparing marine resources.

  5. Long-Term Planning in Restructured Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun

    2003-01-01

    model which calculates the optimal investment strategy for a profit maximising investor considering investments in new power generation capacity. The model is based on real options theory, which is an alternative to static discounted cash flow evaluations of investments projects under uncertainty. In the model we represent load growth as a stochastic variable. A stochastic dynamic programming algorithm is applied in order to solve the investment problem. Prices and profits are calculated in a separate model, whose parameters can be estimated based on historical data for load, prices and installed capacity in the power system. In Chapter 5, we extend the stochastic dynamic optimisation model from Chapter 4, so that the investor now can choose between two different power generation technologies to invest in. An alternative representation of the power market is also implemented, which makes it possible to use either a profit or a social welfare objective in the optimisation. With this model we can compare the optimal investment decisions, and the dynamics of investments, prices and reliability, which follow from centralised and decentralised decision making. The main scientific contributions in the thesis lie in the combined use of economic theory for restructured power systems and theory for optimal investments under uncertainty. With an explicit representation of the power market, the dynamic investment models can identify profit maximising investment strategies under different regulations and market designs. The use of physical state variables in the models also facilitates analyses of the long-term consequences for the power system, which result from the optimal decentralised investment decisions. Decision support models for expansion planning in the regulated power industry do not address the aspect of competition and decentralised decision making. At the same time, long-term uncertainties and their impact on optimal investment decisions are rarely represented in

  6. Adult height in Turner syndrome girls after long-term growth hormone treatment Talla adulta en pacientes con síndrome de Turner tratadas con hormona de crecimiento a largo plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Morín

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adult height (AH outcome, and factors likely to influence it, in Turner Syndrome (TS girls treated with growth hormone (GH. A total of 25 TS girls treated with GH were compared with 10 TS girls not treated with GH. The percentage of girls who achieved normal third percentile was determined. Projected AH (PAH was calculated according to height standard deviation score (HSDS at the beginning of the treatment. Gain in height was determined as: AH - pretreatment PAH. The percentage of girls who achieved target range (midparental height±2 SD was determined. Multiple linear regression models were fitted on baseline variables- chronological age (CA, midparental height (MPH and HSDS; and treatment variablesduration of oestrogen-free GH therapy and duration of GH therapy+oestrogens. As for baseline data: median CA was 13.0 years (5.6-15.8. Mean HSDS was 0.25±1.1 SDS. PAH was 139.2±5.6 cm. MPH was 160.0±5.0 cm. As for follow up data: Median CA at onset oestrogens was 15.1 years (13.2-16.6. Median duration of GH therapy was 3.8 years (2.1-10.3. Median oestrogen-free GH period was 2.0 years (0.7-7.8, and median GH+oestrogens period, 1.8 years (1.0-3.2. Adult height: Mean AH was 150.4±7.0 cm in treated patients and 140.8±7.2 cm in the group not treated with GH (p=0.001. Fourteen (56% girls achieved normal third percentile compared with an initially predicted 1 (4%. Gain in height was 11.2±3.7 cm. Thirteen (59% girls reached an AH within target range. HSDS at the beginning of the treatment was the variable most strongly related to AH and duration of oestrogen-free GH period was the variable most strongly related to gain in height.Se estudió la talla adulta (TA y los factores que pudieran influenciarla en niñas con síndrome de Turner (ST tratadas con hormona de crecimiento (HC. Se compararon 25 pacientes con ST tratadas con HC y 10 niñas no tratadas. Se determinó: el porcentaje de niñas que alcanzó el tercer percentilo de la curva

  7. Long-term forecast 2010; Laangsiktsprognos 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the energy forecast to the year 2030, and two different sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that the report's findings should not be considered a proper forecast of the future energy use, but as an impact assessment of existing policy instruments, given different circumstances such as economic growth and fuel prices

  8. Long-Term Patency of Lymphovenous Anastomoses: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    With advancements in technology and microsurgical techniques, lymphovenous anastomosis has become a popular reconstructive procedure in the treatment of chronic lymphedema. However, the long-term patency of these anastomoses is not clear in the literature. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to assess the reported long-term patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. A total of eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooled data from four similar experiments in normal dogs showed an average long-term (≥5 months) patency of 52 percent. The only experiment in dogs with chronic lymphedema failed to show any long-term patency. The creation of peripheral lymphovenous anastomoses with a moderate long-term patency rate has become technically possible. However, the long-term results in chronic lymphedema are limited.

  9. Reforming Long-Term Care Funding in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, R Trafford; Repin, Nadya; Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Like many provinces across Canada, Alberta is facing growing demand for long-term care. Issues with the mixed funding model used to pay long-term care providers had Alberta Health Services concerned that it was not efficiently meeting the demand for long-term care. Consequently, in 2010, Alberta Health Services introduced the patient/care-based funding (PCBF) model. PCBF is similar to activity-based funding in that it directly ties the complexity and care needs of long-term care residents to the payment received by long-term care providers. This review describes PCBF and discusses some of its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, this review is intended to inform other provinces faced with similar long-term care challenges and contemplating their own funding reforms.

  10. Medulloblastoma in childhood: long-term results of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, V.A.; Barnes, N.D.; Wheeler, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one children under the age of 15 years with verified medulloblastoma were treated at Addenbrookes Hospital from 1940 to 1976. In addition to surgical treatment, all received high dose irradiation to the whole neuraxis. Nine were still alive in 1979, of whom eight were examined. All these patients showed some residual problems, but five were leading active lives and had only minor physical disability. There was evidence of disturbance in growth, with shortening of the spine in relation to the limbs, in all the children. The height centile was lower than expected from parental height in four and one was severely dwarfed. Growth hormone secretion in response to exercise was, however, normal in five of six patients tested. Three children also showed failure of growth of the jaw sufficiently severe to be a cosmetic problem. Frank mental retardation was present in three children. A raised resting TSH level was found in two children, one of whom had a multinodular goiter. Of the three children with severe problems, two had been treated when under two years of age. Long-term follow-up of children who survive medulloblastoma is clearly necessary and consideration should perhaps be given to revision of current treatment regimes in very young children

  11. Esophageal atresia: long-term interdisciplinary follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia B. Giúdici

    2016-07-01

    -hospitalization for clinical causes: 0; surgical reinterventions: 7%.Conclusions: Patients with EA are at risk for long-term morbidity and impairments. Long-term follow-up should be warranted for them.

  12. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  13. Long-Term Nuclear Industry Outlook - 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.

    2004-09-30

    The nuclear industry has become increasingly efficient and global in nature, but may now be poised at a crossroads between graceful decline and profound growth as a viable provider of electrical energy. Predicted population and energy-demand growth, an increased interest in global climate change, the desire to reduce the international dependence on oil as an energy source, the potential for hydrogen co-generation using nuclear power reactors, and the improved performance in the nuclear power industry have raised the prospect of a “nuclear renaissance” in which nuclear power would play an increasingly more important role in both domestic and international energy market. This report provides an assessment of the role nuclear-generated power will plan in the global energy future and explores the impact of that role on export controls.

  14. The 2012 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    growth over a number of years or requiring massive additional federal spending, or both. For exam- ple, the country could experience more-frequent severe...floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and fires—as some models of climate change predict—or a single massive earth- quake, a nuclear meltdown that rendered...cumulative amount of surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . Debt does not reflect economic effects of the

  15. Global prospects for nuclear power development in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Boris A.

    1994-01-01

    Population growth, economic development and improvement of quality of life will lead to significant increase of electricity consumption worldwide with more rapid growth in developing and newly industrialised countries. At the same time, concerns for environmental protection and security of supply will call for the development of alternatives to fossil fuels for electricity generation. Sustain ability will be a major driving factor for the choice of electricity generation options and strategies. Costs, and macro-economic and social impacts, will also influence future strategies in the electricity sector. Since renewable sources require significant development efforts to reach competitiveness, nuclear power is the most likely non-fossil source to be deployed on a large scale for base load electricity generation. Nuclear power is already a proven technology providing a significant share of electricity supply worldwide. In several countries, including the Republic of Korea, nuclear generated electricity is a major contributor to secure and competitive electricity supply. Technological progress aiming towards enhancing safety as well as technical and economic performance of nuclear power plants will enlarge the potential market share of nuclear generated electricity. The purpose of the paper is to give an overview of the prospects for nuclear power development in the world in the medium and long term. For the short term, up to 2005, projections of nuclear power installed capacities are rather straightforward to establish. The Agency publishes such projections every years, based upon a review of nuclear programmes in Member States. For the medium term, up to 2015, two illustrative cases have been developed by the IAEA reflecting contrasted, but not extreme, assumptions on the different parameters influencing nuclear power deployment worldwide. The paper gives estimations of the installed nuclear capacity, and of the share of nuclear power in total electricity and energy

  16. Long-term factors in oil supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, F E

    1984-01-01

    The Stanford Energy Supply Forum prediction that world oil demand in 1990 will press on supply and send prices into an irreversible climb assumes that the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries will control unemployment, that Third World population growth will require more energy, and that several oil exporters will be reducing their output. The author points out disappointing exploration results, OPEC's continued strength, downward projections of reserves by geological surveys, and other economic factors to show that oil supplies are likely to last less than 40 years, with remaining reserves concentrated in fewer producing countries. This will make it harder for non-OPEC countries to influence prices, in contrast to more positive forecasts from the oil industry.

  17. A new image for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Richard; Creelman, William

    2004-04-01

    To counter widely held negative images of long-term care, managers in the industry should implement quality-improvement initiatives that include six key strategies: Manage the expectations of residents and their families. Address customers' concerns early. Build long-term customer satisfaction. Allocate resources to achieve exceptional outcomes in key areas. Respond to adverse events with compassion. Reinforce the facility's credibility.

  18. Setting the stage for long-term reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Craig A; Vander Ley, Brian; Poock, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses some of the aspects of heifer development that contribute to long-term health and productivity, such as disease prevention and control. Nutrition is also an important component of long-term health, and body condition score is discussed as a way to determine whether the nutrient demands of heifers are being met. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  20. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  1. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi Montazeri, Nahid|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290575; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term

  2. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes...

  3. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose : The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods : Between January 1990 and ...

  4. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  5. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  6. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  7. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  8. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  9. Long-term effects of childbirth in MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M.B.; Nagels, G.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The uncertainty about long-term effects of childbirth presents MS patients with dilemmas. Methods: Based on clinical data of 330 female MS patients, the long-term effects of childbirth were analysed, using a cross-sectional study design. Four groups of patients were distinguished: (1)

  10. Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance. Working Paper 174

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Özek, Umut; Sapienza, Paola

    2017-01-01

    We use remarkable population-level administrative education and birth records from Florida to study the role of Long-Term Orientation on the educational attainment of immigrant students living in the US. Controlling for the quality of schools and individual characteristics, students from countries with long-term oriented attitudes perform better…

  11. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  12. Experimental Researches on Long-Term Strength of Granite Gneiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to confirm the long-term strength of rock materials for the purpose of evaluating the long-term stability of rock engineering. In this study, a series of triaxial creep tests were conducted on granite gneiss under different pore pressures. Based on the test data, we proposed two new quantitative methods, tangent method and intersection method, to confirm the long-term strength of rock. Meanwhile, the isochronous stress-strain curve method was adopted to make sure of the accuracy and operability of the two new methods. It is concluded that the new methods are suitable for the study of the long-term strength of rock. The effect of pore pressure on the long-term strength of rock in triaxial creep tests is also discussed.

  13. Long-Term Memory Performance in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodzik, Timo; Holling, Heinz; Pedersen, Anya

    2017-02-01

    Memory problems are a frequently reported symptom in adult ADHD, and it is well-documented that adults with ADHD perform poorly on long-term memory tests. However, the cause of this effect is still controversial. The present meta-analysis examined underlying mechanisms that may lead to long-term memory impairments in adult ADHD. We performed separate meta-analyses of measures of memory acquisition and long-term memory using both verbal and visual memory tests. In addition, the influence of potential moderator variables was examined. Adults with ADHD performed significantly worse than controls on verbal but not on visual long-term memory and memory acquisition subtests. The long-term memory deficit was strongly statistically related to the memory acquisition deficit. In contrast, no retrieval problems were observable. Our results suggest that memory deficits in adult ADHD reflect a learning deficit induced at the stage of encoding. Implications for clinical and research settings are presented.

  14. Long-term cultures of testicular biopsies from boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans-Peter Ejler; Thorup, Jørgen; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A long-term culture system of testicular biopsies from boys with undescended testes was established to evaluate the effect of gonadotrophins on germ cell survival and growth. METHODS: Biopsies from 25 boys with cryptorchidism, aged 1.1-9.9 years, were obtained at the time of surgery. ...

  15. Nursing Assistants for Long-Term Care. Performance-Based Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Vocational Education Services.

    This guide is intended to assist students enrolled in programs to train nursing assistants for employment in an Indiana long-term health care facility. The first part discusses human development (growth, aging, and dying); communication with residents; sexuality; legal, ethical, and professional responsibilities of nursing assistants in long-term…

  16. Response to intervention as a predictor of long-term reading outcomes in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, S.W. van der; Segers, P.C.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how growth during a phonics-based intervention, as well as reading levels at baseline testing, predicted long-term reading outcomes of children with dyslexia. Eighty Dutch children with dyslexia who had completed a 50-week phonics-based intervention in grade

  17. Disturbance and topography shape nitrogen availability and ä15N over long-term forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven S. Perakis; Alan J. Tepley; Jana E. Compton

    2015-01-01

    Forest disturbance and long-term succession towards old-growth are thought to increase nitrogen (N) availability and N loss, which should increase soil ä15N values. We examined soil and foliar patterns in N and ä15N, and soil N mineralization, across 800 years of forest succession in a topographically complex montane...

  18. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Badea; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Diana Silaghi; Stefan Neagu; Ion Barbu; Carmen Iacoban; Corneliu Iacob; Gheorghe Guiman; Elena Preda; Ioan Seceleanu; Marian Oneata; Ion Dumitru; Viorela Huber; Horia Iuncu; Lucian Dinca; Stefan Leca; Ioan Taut

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006–2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O 3 ) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH 3 ) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to...

  19. Transcriptome profiling of liver of non-genetic low birth weight and long term health consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Bedate, Alberto; López-Cardona, Angela P; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Calle, Alexandra; López-Vidriero, Irene; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is believed that the main factors of low prenatal growth in mammals are genetic and environmental. We used isogenic mice maintained in standard conditions to analyze how natural non-genetic microsomia (low birth weight) is produced in inbred mice and its long term effect on health. To

  20. Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter sulfurreducens for Long- Term Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, R. A.; Liermann, L. J.; Brantley, S. L.; Tien, M.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous species of bacteria have been observed to exhibit a growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype, indicating that microorganisms starved of an energy source may adapt to allow for long-term survival. Understanding how Geobacter sulfurreducens persists using various metal forms as energy sources and whether a GASP phenotype develops during long-term growth are important for efficient application of this bacterium to sites requiring engineered bioremediation of soluble metals. Thus, we investigated the growth kinetics and survival of G. sulfurreducens. The growth rate of G. sulfurreducens was highest when cultured with soluble iron and generally higher on iron oxide than manganese oxide, suggesting that soluble metal forms are more readily utilized as energy sources by G. sulfurreducens. By monitoring the abundance of G. sulfurreducens in batch cultures for >6 months, distinct growth, stationary, and prolonged starvation phases were observed and a cell density of 105- 106 cells/mL persisted under long-term starvation conditions. The outgrowth of an aged G. sulfurreducens strain co-cultured with a young strain was monitored as a measure of the existence of the GASP phenotype. As the strains aged, the rpoS gene was cloned and sequenced at different stages of growth to identify mutations corresponding to a growth advantage. The results of these studies provide insight into the use of various metal forms for growth by G. sulfurreducens and its ability to persist when starved of energy sources.

  1. Long term prognosis 2008; Laangsiktsprognos 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    Sweden's total energy use has increased by nearly 12% since 1990. Much of the increase has occurred during the 2000-century as a result of the economic growth. It is primarily the use of biofuels and waste which has increased. Energy Agency forecast shows that total energy use increases from 644 TWh in 2005 to 686 TWh in 2030, representing an increase of 6.5%. The largest contributing factors behind the rise is energy use in the transport sector and in international flights and shipping. The introduction of biofuels, peat, waste etc. expected to increase from 113 TWh in 2005 to 149 TWh in 2030. Industrial and transport sector is increasing its energy use by 2030 while the sector housing, service, etc. reduce their use. Energy use in transport sector will increase by just over 14% to 104 TWh, while industry energy use increases by more than 6% to 164 TWh in 2030. Housing and service etc. expected to reduce their energy use by 2.3% to 146 TWh by 2030. The total domestic energy consumption, which consists of these three sectors is thus increasing the energy use by 396 TWh in 2005 to 414 TWh in 2030. International flights and shipping is expected to increase the energy use by 13 TWh in the forecast period. Between the years 2005 and 2030 the total energy use increases by 42 TWh, which for most part consists of an increased supply of biofuels and waste. The increase in biofuels amounts to 31 TWh compared to the year 2005, of which 10 TWh is the biofuels. Much of the increase of biofuel comprises ethanol. Ethanol use increases from 1.7 TWh in 2005 to 8.2 TWh in 2030. Combustible waste is increasing by over 7 TWh. The scenario shows that Sweden will be a major net exporter of electricity in forecast years due to the increased energy input. By 2020, the net exports of electricity to 23 TWh and in 2030 to about 25 TWh

  2. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  3. Long-term logistic analysis of FBR introduction strategy: avoiding both uranium and plutonium shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1995-01-01

    Despite comfortable predictions on short to mid-term uranium resources, there is still a concern about long-term availability of competitive uranium resources. In order to achieve substantial uranium saving, early introduction of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is desirable. But it is also known that rapid introduction of FBR could result in plutonium storage. Will there be enough plutonium on a global scale to sustain fast FBR growth? is there any other way to save uranium resource? This paper concludes that multi-option strategies to achieve flexible long-term strategy to avoid both uranium and plutonium storage are desirable. (authors)

  4. Is there an upward long term trend in Danish real house prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, like in other countries, there is no agreement on the fundamental long term path of real house prices and the sustainability of the present price level. The paper presents Danish house price indices and discusses the question of quality correction of the indices. Subsequently, factors...... behind the long term trend in real house prices and its sustainability are discussed. The paper finds an annual real growth trend around 1.5 per cent for Danish single family house prices likely for the coming ten years....

  5. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  6. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  7. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  8. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  9. Implications of long-term culture for mesenchymal stem cells: genetic defects or epigenetic regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-12-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells change dramatically during culture expansion. Long-term culture has been suspected to evoke oncogenic transformation: overall, the genome appears to be relatively stable throughout culture but transient clonal aneuploidies have been observed. Oncogenic transformation does not necessarily entail growth advantage in vitro and, therefore, the available methods - such as karyotypic analysis or genomic profiling - cannot exclude this risk. On the other hand, long-term culture is associated with specific senescence-associated DNA methylation (SA-DNAm) changes, particularly in developmental genes. SA-DNAm changes are highly reproducible and can be used to monitor the state of senescence for quality control. Notably, neither telomere attrition nor SA-DNAm changes occur in pluripotent stem cells, which can evade the 'Hayflick limit'. Long-term culture of mesenchymal stem cells seems to involve a tightly regulated epigenetic program. These epigenetic modifications may counteract dominant clones, which are more prone to transformation.

  10. Long term outcome of treatment of end stage renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, P; Tomlinson, L; Rigden, S P; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C

    1988-01-01

    The most common causes of end stage renal failure in 46 children (mean age 11 years, range 4-14) treated between January 1972 and June 1977 were: reflux nephropathy (n = 12), cystinosis (n = 7), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 6), and Schönlein-Henoch disease (n = 5). The quality of life, degree of renal function, and height attainment of the 31 survivors were assessed in June 1985, when their mean age was 22 years (range 14-27), using hospital records and a questionnaire designed to highlight social and psychological problems. Twenty six patients had a functioning transplanted kidney. Average growth during treatment for all survivors was normal, but most were disappointed with their 'final height'. Though five patients had some form of disabling bone disease, all 31 could walk and 27 could run. Sixteen (67%) were in full or part time employment and nine were living independently. A group of 32 patients with juvenile onset diabetes treated at this hospital for at least five years were also asked to complete the questionnaire and of these, 17 responded. On average, their data could usefully be compared with those of cases of end stage renal failure. More of the diabetics had jobs, but most sexually mature patients with renal disease were concerned about their physical appearance and had not achieved any stable long term sexual relationships. We suggest that a poor body image resulting in low self esteem may be responsible for the deficiency and believe that further study in this group is warranted.

  11. Long-term results of surgically-assisted maxillary protraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzatoğlu, Sirin; Küçükkeleş, Nazan

    2014-05-01

    The long-term treatment results of surgically-assisted facemask therapy were assessed by a comparison of the immediate protraction effects with those seen at five years review. Nine patients treated with a corticotomy-assisted maxillary protraction protocol were recalled five years following protraction. Cephalometric films taken before treatment (T0), immediately after maxillary protraction (T1) and five years after treatment (T2) were compared. The short-term results of surgically-assisted facemask therapy showed significant skeletal and soft tissue changes. After five years, the profile and dental relationships were well maintained and a cephalometric analysis revealed a stable vertical increase but only partially maintained soft tissue changes with loss of sagittal advancement. There was significant upper incisor proclination providing dental camouflage. Patients who are treated with corticotomy-assisted maxillary advancement should be very carefully selected. Assessment criteria include a low mandibular plane angle Class III patients who have severe maxillary retrognathism unable to be treated by conventional orthopaedic correction alone; patients who have almost completed growth and missed the chance of earlier orthopaedic correction, as well as patients who are not willing to accept bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, may be successfully treated.

  12. Morphometric analysis of long-term dentoskeletal effects induced by treatment with Balters bionator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliazzi, Renato; Franchi, Lorenzo; Bertoz, André Pinheiro de Magalhães; McNamara, James A; Faltin, Kurt; Bertoz, Francisco Antonio

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of the standard (Class II) Balters bionator in growing patients with Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion by using morphometrics (thin-plate spline [TPS] analysis). Twenty-three Class II patients (8 male, 15 female) were treated consecutively with the Balters bionator (bionator group). The sample was evaluated at T0, start of treatment; T1, end of bionator therapy; and T2, long-term observation (including fixed appliances). Mean age at the start of treatment was 10 years 2 months (T0); at posttreatment, 12 years 3 months (T1); and at long-term follow-up, 18 years 2 months (T2). The control group consisted of 22 subjects (11 male, 11 female) with untreated Class II malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the three time points for all groups. TPS analysis evaluated statistical differences (permutation tests) in the craniofacial shape and size between the bionator and control groups. TPS analysis showed that treatment with the bionator is able to produce favorable mandibular shape changes (forward and downward displacement) that contribute significantly to the correction of the Class II dentoskeletal imbalance. These results are maintained at a long-term observation after completion of growth. The control group showed no statistically significant differences in the correction of Class II malocclusion. This study suggests that bionator treatment of Class II malocclusion produces favorable results over the long term with a combination of skeletal and dentoalveolar shape changes.

  13. Long-Term Engagement in Formal Volunteering and Well-Being: An Exploratory Indian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Jereesh K; Sudhir, Paulomi; Mehrotra, Seema

    2016-09-27

    Sustained engagement in volunteering and its correlates have been examined in many studies across the globe. However, there is a dearth of research that explores the perspectives of long-term formal volunteers on the nature of changes perceived in oneself as a result of volunteering. Moreover, the linkages between psychological well-being and volunteering have been insufficiently explored. The present study was aimed at addressing these gaps. A heterogeneous sample of 20 long-term formal volunteer engaged in volunteering across different voluntary organisations in a southern metropolitan Indian city formed the primary sample for the study. In addition, a group of 21 short-term volunteers, matched on age, income and gender, was utilised for comparison with long-term volunteers on well-being indices. A semi structured interview schedule was used to explore self-perceived changes attributable to volunteering experience. In addition, a few standardised measures were used to comprehensively assess subjective well-being and psychological well-being. The interview data provided rich descriptions of perceived positive changes in self across cognitive, behavioral and emotional domains. Mirroring these patterns, the quantitative analyses indicated that long-term volunteers experienced higher levels of psychological well-being (sense of mastery and competence, self-acceptance and sense of engagement and growth) than short-term volunteers. The potential mechanisms involved in beneficial outcomes of long-term volunteering and implications for further research are highlighted.

  14. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  15. Long-term care financing through Federal tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D W; Weingart, J M

    1988-12-01

    Congress and the Administration are currently exploring various methods of promoting access to long-term care. In this article, an inventory of recent legislative proposals for using the Federal tax code to expand access to long-term care services is provided. Proposals are arrayed along a functional typology that includes tax mechanisms to encourage accumulation of funds, promote purchase of long-term care insurance, or induce the diversion of funds accumulated for another purpose (such as individual retirement accounts). The proposals are evaluated against the public policy objective of encouraging risk pooling to minimize social cost.

  16. Evaluation of long term leaching of borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.; Parnisari, E.

    1978-01-01

    For the evaluation of long term hazard of glass, data on long term glass leaching are needed. Moreover for long term leaching a model of homogeneous dissolution seems reasonable and ask for confirmation. Tests were performed at 30 0 , 80 0 , 100 0 , using an apparatus of the Soxhlet type, to 3.600 hours. Results were obtained as a weight loss and analysed following a relation with time composed by a parabolic and a linear part. Analysis of the surface layer using energy dispersion X ray spectrometry were performed. A critical analysis of the results and of the apparatus is presented

  17. Response to Intervention as a Predictor of Long-Term Reading Outcomes in Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kleij, Sanne W; Segers, Eliane; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how growth during a phonics-based intervention, as well as reading levels at baseline testing, predicted long-term reading outcomes of children with dyslexia. Eighty Dutch children with dyslexia who had completed a 50-week phonics-based intervention in grade 4 were tested in grade 5 on both word and pseudoword (following regular Dutch orthographic patterns) reading efficiency and compared to 93 typical readers. In grade 5 the children with dyslexia were still significantly slower in word and pseudoword reading than their typically developing peers. Results showed that long-term pseudoword reading in the group with dyslexia was predicted by pseudoword reading at pretest and growth in pseudoword reading during the intervention, which was itself predicted by pseudoword reading at pretest. This was not the case for word reading. We found that long-term word reading was directly predicted from pretest word reading, and indirectly via pretest pseudoword reading, via growth in pseudoword and word reading. It can be concluded that pseudoword reading is not only a good indicator of severity of reading difficulties in children with dyslexia, it is also an indicator of who will profit from intervention in the long-term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Human Endothelial Cells: Use of Heparin in Cloning and Long-Term Serial Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Susan C.; Mueller, Stephen N.; Levine, Elliot M.

    1983-11-01

    Endothelial cells from human blood vessels were cultured in vitro, with doubling times of 17 to 21 hours for 42 to 79 population doublings. Cloned human endothelial cell strains were established for the first time and had similar proliferative capacities. This vigorous cell growth was achieved by addition of heparin to culture medium containing reduced concentrations of endothelial cell growth factor. The routine cloning and long-term culture of human endothelial cells will facilitate studying the human endothelium in vitro.

  19. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  20. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  1. Long-Term Visual Prognosis of Peripheral Multifocal Chorioretinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde-van Norel, J; ten Dam-van Loon, NH; de Boer, JH; Rothova, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report on the clinical manifestations, complications, and long-term visual prognosis of patients with peripheral multifocal chorioretinitis and to search for predictors for a lower visual outcome. Design Retrospective consecutive observational case series. Methods setting: Institutional.

  2. In search of the elusive long-term price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.; Combs, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Institute, WNFM, and past USCEA sessions described and compared existing price reporting systems. The McGraw-Hill conference led to a rather heated discussion as to the propriety of spot prices having the influence they do on amounts paid in long-term contracts. The Ux representative proposed a future's market as a way that producers could hedge against some of the uncertainty of volatile spot market. In discussing the search for the elusive long-term price, there are two interrelated issues. The first is obvious-the search for a starting or initializing price that is representative of recently-signed or pending long-term contracts. The second is less obvious, but perhaps more important-the search for a successful mechanism for determining later delivery values in long-term contracts. This paper addresses the question of pricing mechanisms first

  3. Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.K.; Nickelson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified

  4. Advancing an ethical framework for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary Whelan

    2002-02-01

    This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced.

  5. Vulnerable long-term psychiatric in- patients need screening for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as prominent medical issues in long-term care and provide guidelines for their ..... described in the literature.7,28 These patients might benefit from a renewed emphasis on ..... costs associated with marijuana comorbidity. Drug & Alcohol.

  6. Long-term performance potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    estimation of a large PV field, the long term performance as electrical output is a more rational approach over the conventional testing methods, such as at Standard Testing Conditions (STC) and at the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT) available

  7. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study.

  8. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  9. Long-term memory, sleep, and the spacing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Kawadri, Nader; Simone, Patricia M; Wiseheart, Melody

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that memory is enhanced when study sessions are spaced apart rather than massed. This spacing effect has been shown to have a lasting benefit to long-term memory when the study phase session follows the encoding session by 24 hours. Using a spacing paradigm we examined the impact of sleep and spacing gaps on long-term declarative memory for Swahili-English word pairs by including four spacing delay gaps (massed, 12 hours same-day, 12 hours overnight, and 24 hours). Results showed that a 12-hour spacing gap that includes sleep promotes long-term memory retention similar to the 24-hour gap. The findings support the importance of sleep to the long-term benefit of the spacing effect.

  10. The Long-Term Retention of Knowledge and Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healy, Alice

    1998-01-01

    .... The second class of guidelines concerned ways to optimize the strategies used. We found that in tasks that require deliberate retrieval from memory, training that promotes efficient encoding strategies maximizes long-term retention...

  11. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  12. Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of temperature ... CGCM3; HadCM3; modified Mann–Kendall test; statistical analysis; Sutlej basin. ... Water Resources Systems Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247 ...

  13. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available timescale seeks to provide a spatially comprehensive view of trends while also creating a baseline for comparisons with future projections of air quality through the forcing of air quality models with modelled predicted long term meteorology. Previous...

  14. Long-term risks of kidney living donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science...... and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information...... to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors...

  15. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  16. Long-term Consequences of Childhood ADHD on Criminal Activities*

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason; Wolfe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether childhood mental illness has long term consequences in terms of criminal behavior has been little studied, yet it could have major consequences for both the individual and society more generally. In this paper, we focus on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent mental conditions in school-age children, to examine the long-term effects of childhood mental illness on criminal activities, controlling for a rich set of individual, family...

  17. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flossmann, Oliver; Berden, Annelies; de Groot, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain.......Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain....

  18. Aspects of long-term variability in sun and stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skumanich, A.; Eddy, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence of long-term solar variability is reviewed, including historical data and the tree-ring record of radiocarbon. Epochs of suppressed activity like the Maunder Minimum are shown to be frequent occurences of the last several thousand years, but without no obvious period of recurrence. Weak evidence exists for the 11-year cycle as early as Medieval times, although with insufficient accuracy to establish long-term phase stability. (orig.)

  19. Rapid internationalization and long-term performance: The knowledge link

    OpenAIRE

    García-García, Raquel; García-Canal, Esteban; Guillén, Mauro F.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the knowledge-based view and organizational learning theory, we develop and test a set of hypotheses to provide a first attempt at analyzing the effect of speed of internationalization on long-term performance. Using a panel-data sample of Spanish listed firms (1986-2010), we find that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between speed of internationalization and long-term performance. We also find that whereas technological knowledge steepens this relationship, the diversity...

  20. Preclinical rodent toxicity studies for long term use of ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ratti

    2015-01-01

    Ceftriaxone showed rapid absorption with half-life values ranging between 1 and 1.5 h. Additionally, there was no evidence of accumulation and a virtually complete elimination by 16 h after the last dose. Overall there were no toxicologically meaningful drug-related animal findings associated with the long-term administration (6 months of ceftriaxone. These results support safety of long-term use of ceftriaxone in human clinical trials.