WorldWideScience

Sample records for long-term flying experience

  1. Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, L C; Sigurdson, A J; Ward, E M; Waters, M A; Whelan, E A; Petersen, M R; Bhatti, P; Ramsey, M J; Ron, E; Tucker, J D

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionising radiation, but few flight crew studies have examined translocations in relation to flight experience. We determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects (mean age 47 and 46 years, respectively). Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between translocation frequency and exposure status and flight years, adjusting for age, diagnostic x ray procedures, and military flying. There was no significant difference in the adjusted mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects (0.37 (SE 0.04) vs 0.38 (SE 0.06) translocations/100 CE, respectively). However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years (p = 0.01) with rate ratios of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.82) for a 1- and 10-year incremental increase in flight years, respectively. The adjusted rate ratio for pilots in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of flight years was 2.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.33). Our data suggests that pilots with long-term flying experience may be exposed to biologically significant doses of ionising radiation. Epidemiological studies with longer follow-up of larger cohorts of pilots with a wide range of radiation exposure levels are needed to clarify the relationship between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk.

  2. Long Term Corrosion Experiment of Steel Rebar in Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete in NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Asmara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on an experimental investigation to identify the effects of fly ash on the electrochemical process of concrete during the curing time. A rebar was analysed using potentiostat to measure the rest potential, polarization diagram, and corrosion rate. Water-to-cement ratio and amount of fly ash were varied. After being cured for 24 hours at a temperature of 65°C, the samples were immersed in 3.5% of NaCl solution for 365 days for electrochemical measurement. Measurements of the half-cell potential and corrosion current density indicated that the fly ash has significant effects on corrosion behaviour of concrete. Although fly ash tends to create passivity on anodic current, it increases corrosion rate. The corrosion potential of this concrete mixture decreases compared to concrete without fly ash. From the result, it can be summarized that concrete mixture with 70% of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement and 30% fly ash has shown the best corrosion resistance.

  3. Long Term Corrosion Experiment of Steel Rebar in Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete in NaCl Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Nurlisa, Wan; Jamiluddin, J.

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on an experimental investigation to identify the effects of fly ash on the electrochemical process of concrete during the curing time. A rebar was analysed using potentiostat to measure the rest potential, polarization diagram, and corrosion rate. Water-to-cement ratio and amount of fly ash were varied. After being cured for 24 hours at a temperature of 65°C, the samples were immersed in 3.5% of NaCl solution for 365 days for electrochemical measurement. Measurements of ...

  4. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    , the psychodynamic perspective is integrated within a multi-dimensional model that considers biological, cognitive, identity, gender and social learning factors. The analysis reveals the possibility of achieving a detailed understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the development of long-term tranquillizer...

  5. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J.; Marcinsky, M.; Martykan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  6. The Manchester Fly Facility: Implementing an objective-driven long-term science communication initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjai; Prokop, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is increasingly important for scientists, although research, teaching and administration activities tend to eat up our time already, and budgets for science communication are usually low. It appears impossible to combine all these tasks and, in addition, to develop engagement activities to a quality and impact that would make the efforts worth their while. Here we argue that these challenges are easier addressed when centering science communication initiatives on a long-term vision with a view to eventually forming outreach networks where the load can be shared whilst being driven to higher momentum. As one example, we explain the science communication initiative of the Manchester Fly Facility. It aims to promote public awareness of research using the model organism Drosophila, which is a timely, economic and most efficient experimental strategy to drive discovery processes in the biomedical sciences and must have a firm place in the portfolios of funding organisations. Although this initiative by the Manchester Fly Facility is sustained on a low budget, its long-term vision has allowed gradual development into a multifaceted initiative: (1) targeting university students via resources and strategies for the advanced training in fly genetics; (2) targeting the general public via science fairs, educational YouTube videos, school visits, teacher seminars and the droso4schools project; (3) disseminating and marketing strategies and resources to the public as well as fellow scientists via dedicated websites, blogs, journal articles, conference presentations and workshops - with a view to gradually forming networks of drosophilists that will have a greater potential to drive the science communication objective to momentum and impact. Here we explain the rationales and implementation strategies for our various science communication activities - which are similarly applicable to other model animals and other areas of academic science - and share our

  7. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mario Beffa

    Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle. 3. Selection applied and response in calf growth traits. L.M. Beffa. 1,2,3. , J.B. van Wyk. 1# and G.J. Erasmus. 1. 1 University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. 2 Matopos Research Station, P. Bag K5137, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe ...

  8. Data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments (Winter, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-10-01

    The data were obtained in the long-term atmospheric diffusion experiments in the Tokai area, autumn, 1991 which were a part of the Evaluation Safety Demonstration Experiments of Environmental Radiation entrusted with the Science and Technology Agency. The experiments were conducted by JAERI in cooperation with the Japan Weather Association. The report includes tracer concentration data of surface sampling points and meteorological data. (author)

  9. The cessation of long-term fly-ash dumping: effects on macrobenthos and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrando Perez, S.; Frid, C.L.J. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields (United Kingdom). Dove Marine Lab., Dept. of Marine Science and Coastal Management

    1998-10-01

    Four decades of continual fly-ash disposal off Northumberland, UK, ended in December 1992. Quantitative sampling of the sediment and the macrobenthos was undertaken in the summer 1993. The offshore portion of the region surveyed bore only traces of fly-ash particles, waste being confined to the region shallower than 45 m. There, disposals have changed local sedimentary conditions increasing the spatial patchiness of sediment types and altering silt-clay dynamics. Inshore of the dumpsite, substrata affected by long-term tipping have effectively become an artificial reef due to the cementation of the waste. The seabed within the designated dumpsite was still composed of pure fly ash, resulting in macrobenthic densities and species richness markedly lower than control areas, though higher than recorded in a previous survey in 1988. Nine months after cessation of dumping recovery was essentially dependent on the decrease in the concentration of the waste.

  10. Long-term operating experience for the ATLAS superconducting resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.; Zinkann, G.

    1999-01-01

    Portions of the ATLAS accelerator have been operating now for over 21 years. The facility has accumulated several million resonator-hours of operation at this point and has demonstrated the long-term reliability of RF superconductivity. The overall operating performance of the ATLAS facility has established a level of beam quality, flexibility, and reliability not previously achieved with heavy-ion accelerator facilities. The actual operating experience and maintenance history of ATLAS are presented for ATLAS resonators and associated electronics systems. Solutions to problems that appeared in early operation as well as current problems needing further development are discussed

  11. Application of washed MSWI fly ash in cement composites: long-term environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Tian, Sicong; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, long-term environmental impacts of compact and ground cement composites, in which 30 wt.% of cement was replaced by washed municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash, were investigated for use in building industry. Consecutive leaching tests over a time span of 180 days were performed in acid water, deionized water, and saline water, respectively, with the accumulative concentration of different elements determined in the leachate. Different leaching behaviors are observed among different potential toxic elements (PTEs). For instance, higher concentrations of V in the leachate were observed from the compact cement composites than those from the ground ones. The concentration of Ba in the leachate increased with the decrease of particle size of the cement composites, and an initial increase in the leaching efficiency of Sn was followed by a clear decline with the leaching time. In addition, kinetic study revealed that the leaching behaviors of potential toxic elements follow a second-order model. The results demonstrated that the addition of washed MSWI fly ash into cement can contribute to the attrition resistance, indicating that the washed MSWI fly ash could be a promising alternative for cement as supplementary building materials.

  12. Long-term care insurance: Does experience matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Norma B; Skira, Meghan M; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2015-03-01

    We examine whether long-term care (LTC) experience helps explain the low demand for long-term care insurance (LTCI). We test if expectations about future informal care receipt, expectations about inheritance receipt, and LTCI purchase decisions vary between individuals whose parents or in-laws have used LTC versus those who have not. We find parental use of a nursing home decreases expectations that one's children will provide informal care, consistent with the demonstration effect. Nursing home use by in-laws does not have the same impact, suggesting that individuals are responding to information gained about their own aging trajectory. Nursing home use by either a parent or in-law increases LTCI purchase probability by 0.8 percentage points, with no significant difference in response between parents' and in-laws' use. The estimated increase in purchase probability from experience with LTC is about half the previously estimated increase from tax policy-induced price decreases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-Term Care Insurance: Does Experience Matter?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Norma B.; Skira, Meghan M.; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether long-term care (LTC) experience helps explain the low demand for long-term care insurance (LTCI). We test if expectations about future informal care receipt, expectations about inheritance receipt, and LTCI purchase decisions vary between individuals whose parents or in-laws have used LTC versus those who have not. We find parental use of a nursing home decreases expectations that one’s children will provide informal care, consistent with the demonstration effect. Nursing home use by in-laws does not have the same impact, suggesting that individuals are responding to information gained about their own aging trajectory. Nursing home use by either a parent or in-law increases LTCI purchase probability by 0.8 percentage points, with no significant difference in response between parents’ and in-laws’ use. The estimated increase in purchase probability from experience with LTC is about half the previously estimated increase from tax policy-induced price decreases. PMID:25647006

  14. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  15. Long-term experiences with pluvial flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritsch Kathrina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of pluvial (rain-related flood risk has grown significantly in the past few years but pluvial flooding is not handled with the same intensity throughout Europe. A variety of methods and modelling technologies are used to assess pluvial flood hazard and risk and to develop suggestions for flood mitigation measures. A brief overview of current model approaches is followed by the description of a modelling methodology that has been developed throughout the last 15 years with the focus on processing large scale areas. Experiences from several projects show that only high quality models of whole catchment areas yield results with enough accuracy to gain credibility among stakeholders, planners and the public. As a best practice example shows, the model approach also helps to plan effective decentral flood protection measures. To ensure successful flood risk management, a long-term preservation of flood risk awareness among local authorities and the public is necessary.

  16. Conditioning radium needles for long term storage : Sri Lankan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith, H.L.A.; Shantha, T.H.S.; Gunaratne, M.G.J.; De Silva, U.W.K.H.; Perera, H.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Radium the first radioisotope invented by Madame Curie was used for cancer therapy for the intracavitory treatment of cervical cancers and as oral implants etc. Radium needles and other geometries were made in standard strengths and Radium therapy enjoyed a heyday during the 1st half of the 20th century. Radium-226 is a long-lived radioactive material with a half-life of 1600 years. The use of radium was abandoned in the world in 1980s with the invention of short lived radioactive materials offering remote after loading systems which minimise radiation protection and waste disposal problems associated with long lived radioactive materials. This paper reports the conditioning procedure of the spent radium sources for long term storage (less than 20 years) and transport to national/ international stores if needed. The dose received by those involved in this exercise is also discussed in terms of radiation protection. The Ra was contained for long term storage according to international radiation safety regulations with a surface dose of less than 2 mSv per hour in a conditioned package having 17.5 GBq activity and can be transported to national/international stores if needed. The highest dose received during the exercise is well within the recommended dose limits for occupational exposures (20 and 500 mSv per year) for whole body and extremities respectively

  17. Solid waste: terminological and long-term environmental risk assessment problems exemplified in a power plant fly ash study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowska, Irena; Szczepanska, Jadwiga

    2002-02-21

    Legal definitions exert a significant impact on the waste management strategy. Waste that is technically suitable for recovery does not automatically become a raw material if there is no market for it, or its use is not commercially effective and, hence, they should be disposed of. The majority of disposed wastes, including recyclable waste, are not environmentally safe. Waste as a freshly generated anthropogenic material is not geochemically stable. Przezchlebie fly ash surface pond (Upper Silesia, Poland) in the post-closure stage was subject to field validation of the results of laboratory leaching/extraction tests and long-term column experiments on fly ash (FA) leaching behaviour under controlled conditions for environmental risk assessment. The study showed: (i) the possibility of a discontinuous non-linear time delayed increase of pollution potential of disused 'non-hazardous' large-volume waste in the dumping sites to the hazardous level; (ii) inconsistency of the laboratory leaching tests and the actual leaching behaviour of trace metals, particularly when equilibria conditions are dictated by kinetically determined reactions where the test results reflected entirely wash-out (I) and dissolution (II) phases, but did not comprise delayed release (III) phase; and (iii) necessity of life-cycle screening/monitoring of 'non-hazardous' dumping sites for contaminant release as a function of the primary (pH-Eh, ionic strength, ionic composition of solute) and secondary controlling factors (L/S-liquid to solid ratio, water flow conditions) along the vertical profile of an anthropogenic or natural vadose zone. These data are to be used to develop long-term predictive hydrogeochemical models and their field validation, and for providing an early warning and remedial actions with respect to the particular site. The formation of pH (and Eh) as a function of time-dependent (kinetically defined) processes appeared to be a key issue for a correct prediction of the

  18. Long term effects of aversive reinforcement on colour discrimination learning in free-flying bumblebees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Rodríguez-Gironés

    Full Text Available The results of behavioural experiments provide important information about the structure and information-processing abilities of the visual system. Nevertheless, if we want to infer from behavioural data how the visual system operates, it is important to know how different learning protocols affect performance and to devise protocols that minimise noise in the response of experimental subjects. The purpose of this work was to investigate how reinforcement schedule and individual variability affect the learning process in a colour discrimination task. Free-flying bumblebees were trained to discriminate between two perceptually similar colours. The target colour was associated with sucrose solution, and the distractor could be associated with water or quinine solution throughout the experiment, or with one substance during the first half of the experiment and the other during the second half. Both acquisition and final performance of the discrimination task (measured as proportion of correct choices were determined by the choice of reinforcer during the first half of the experiment: regardless of whether bees were trained with water or quinine during the second half of the experiment, bees trained with quinine during the first half learned the task faster and performed better during the whole experiment. Our results confirm that the choice of stimuli used during training affects the rate at which colour discrimination tasks are acquired and show that early contact with a strongly aversive stimulus can be sufficient to maintain high levels of attention during several hours. On the other hand, bees which took more time to decide on which flower to alight were more likely to make correct choices than bees which made fast decisions. This result supports the existence of a trade-off between foraging speed and accuracy, and highlights the importance of measuring choice latencies during behavioural experiments focusing on cognitive abilities.

  19. Long-term experience on surgical treatment of alveolar echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschoen, Klaus; Carli Buttenschoen, Daniela; Gruener, Beate; Kern, Peter; Beger, Hans G; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Reuter, Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is life-threatening and reports on surgical procedures and results are rare, but essential. Longitudinal surveillance and long-term follow-up of patients surgically treated for AE during the periods 1982-1999 (group A) and 2000-2006 (group B). University hospital within an endemic area. The median (min-max) follow-up period was 141 (5-417) months. Forty-eight surgical procedures were performed in 36 patients with AE: 63% were partial resections of the liver (additional extrahepatic resection in ten of them), 17% just extrahepatic resections, 10% biliodigestive anastomosis, and 10% exploratory laparotomies. Seventy-five percent of the operations were first-time procedures, 25% done due to a relapse. Forty-two percent of the operations were estimated to be curative (R0), whereas 58% were palliative (R1, R2). All patients had additional medical treatment and periodical follow-up. Two out of 18 (11%) patients, estimated to have had curative surgery, developed a relapse 42 and 54 months later. R0-resection rates depended on the primary, neighboring, metastasis stage of AE (S1, 100%; S2, 100%; S3a, 33%; S3b, 27%; S4, 11%). During the period 2000-2006 elective radical surgery for AE was done only if a safe distance of at least 2 cm was attainable. This concept was associated with an increased R0-resection rate of 87% for group B compared to 24% for group A. Operative procedures done to control complicated courses of AE (jaundice, cholangitis, vascular compression, bacterial superinfection) have not been curative (R2) in 82% because the disease had spread into irresectable structures. Morbidity was 19%. All patients with curative resections are alive. Fifty-six percent of the patients with palliative treatment are alive as long as 14-237 months, 28% died from AE 164-338 months after diagnosis (late lethality), and 17% died due to others diseases 96-417 months after diagnosis of AE. One out of seven (14%) patients suffering from suppurative

  20. Long-term Outcome of Chondrosarcoma: A Single Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindiganavile, Srimanth; Han, Ilkyu; Yun, Ji Yeon; Kim, Han-Soo

    2015-10-01

    The prognostic factors of chondrosarcoma remain uncertain as only a few large studies with long-term follow-up have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze oncological outcomes and prognostic factors. A retrospective review of oncological outcomes and prognostic factors was performed on 125 consecutive chondrosarcoma patients who underwent surgery at our institution. Overall survival was 91.6%±2.5%, 84.1%±3.8%, and 84.1%±3.8% at 5, 10, and 15 years respectively. Among the histological types, dedifferentiated type showed the worst survival (p chondrosarcoma, histologic grade and anatomical location predicted outcome, with high-grade with axial location having the worst outcome (p chondrosarcoma of appendicular skeleton could be treated safely by intralesional curettage. Histological type was significantly associated with the outcome of chondrosarcoma. For the conventional type, histologic grade and anatomical location predicted outcome, with high-grade with axial location having the worst outcome.

  1. Long-Term Memory for a Single Infancy Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perris, Eve Emmanuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Children's memory of single infant experience was evaluated. At 6.5 months, infants participated in study of reaching in light and dark for sounding object. Children repeated dark procedure in laboratory when they were either one year or two years older. Older children with infant experience reached and grasped the sounding object significantly…

  2. Exploration of life experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors, from their perspective. Fifteen long-term survivors of childhood cancer provided descriptions of their experiences. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and the analysis was based on Giorgi's phenomenological research method. The analysis of positive growth experienced by long-term childhood cancer survivors revealed three themes: self-directed life, normalcy in life, and inner maturity. Long-term survivors defined positive growth as a successful transition to a self-satisfactory life based on motivation acquired through their cancer experience and on subjective goal-setting, as well as becoming cancer-free and living a normal life within society. They seemed to have acquired optimistic, flexible, active attitudes toward life while demonstrating profound gratefulness and consideration of people around them, as well as prudent approaches to health. The findings of this study verified that long-term survivors of childhood cancer have grown positively due to their negative past experience. We expect these findings to contribute to the development of programs that promote positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Literature Review on the Experience of Long-Term Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth; Grant, Maria J

    2018-06-01

    To illuminate long-term experiences of mental illness from both research and autobiographical accounts. A literature review of English-language papers, 1950-2014, relating to the experience of long-term mental illness indexed in AgeInfo, AMED, ASSIA, British Nursing Index (BNI), CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycEXTRA, and PsychINFO. Twenty-five research papers and nine autobiographic accounts met the review criteria. Thematic analysis revealed nine themes: fear, explanation seeking, stigma, disability, coping strategies, control, support, change and learning, and life history. Specific gaps of note relate to age differences, acknowledgement of longevity of mental illnesses, and different cultural perspectives. Research Implications: There is an absence of longitudinal studies focused on experiences of long-term mental illness. The considerable length-of-time implicated in the experiences suggests that more individual life experience rather than illness focused studies are needed, enabling a holistic understanding. This includes studies from cultures other than the Western world. Greater transparency is needed in justifying age inclusions or passive exclusion of older peoples' perspectives. Knowledge of long-term mental illness experiences is of great importance to mental health practitioners. Evidence-based services cannot be provided if we do not have an holistic understanding of long-term mental illness. Social Implications: This review questions our ability to provide effective support for those experiencing long-term mental illness, in particular older people and different cultural perspectives. There appear to be no literature reviews that focus on the individual experience of long-term mental illness. It highlights the surprisingly small number of research studies available to inform mental health practitioners.

  4. Space Life Sciences Research: The Importance of Long-Term Space Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This report focuses on the scientific importance of long-term space experiments for the advancement of biological science and the benefit of humankind. It includes a collection of papers that explore the scientific potential provided by the capability to manipulate organisms by removing a force that has been instrumental in the evolution and development of all organisms. Further, it provides the scientific justification for why the long-term space exposure that can be provided by a space station is essential to conduct significant research.

  5. Long Term Sequelae of Pediatric Craniopharyngioma – Literature Review and 20 Years of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michal; Guger, Sharon; Hamilton, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma are rare histologically benign brain tumors that develop in the pituitary–hypothalamic area. They may invade nearby anatomical structures causing significant rates of neurological, neurocognitive, and endocrinological complications including remarkable hypothalamic damage. Information regarding long term implications of the tumors and treatment in the pediatric population is accumulating, and treatment goals appear to be changing accordingly. In this review we aim to present data regarding long term complications of craniopharyngioma in children and adolescents and our experience from a large tertiary center. Hypothalamic dysfunction was noted to be the most significant complication, adversely affecting quality of life in survivors. Obesity, fatigue, and sleep disorders are the most notable manifestations of this dysfunction, and treatment is extremely difficult. Changes in management in recent years show a potential for improved long term outcomes; we found a trend toward less aggressive surgical management and increasing use of adjuvant treatment, accompanied by a decrease in complication rates. PMID:22645511

  6. Long term sequelae of pediatric craniopharyngioma - literature review and 20 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eCohen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngioma are rare histologically benign brain tumors that develop in the pituitary- hypothalamic area. They may invade nearby anatomical structures causing significant rates of neurological, neurocognitive and endocrinological complications including remarkable hypothalamic damage. Information regarding long term implications of the tumors and treatment in the pediatric population is accumulating, and treatment goals appear to be changing accordingly. In this review we aim to present data regarding long term complications of craniopharyngioma in children and adolescents and our experience from a large tertiary center. Hypothalamic dysfunction was noted to be the most significant complication, adversely affecting quality of life in survivors. Obesity, fatigue and sleep disorders are the most notable manifestations of this dysfunction, and treatment is extremely difficult. Changes in management in recent years show a potential for improved long term outcomes; we found a trend towards less aggressive surgical management and increasing use of adjuvant treatment, accompanied by a decrease in complication rates.

  7. Long-term intended and unintended experiences after Advanced Life Support training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Berry

    2012-01-01

    Highly structured simulation-based training (SBT) on managing emergency situations can have a significant effect on immediate satisfaction and learning. However, there are some indications of problems when applying learned skills to practice. The aim of this study was to identify long-term intended...... and unintended learner reactions, experiences and reflections after attending a simulation based Advanced Life Support (ALS) course....

  8. Predictors of the long-term retention of a unique experience in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Jansen, Josephien; Lammertink, Sophie; Nanninga, Eline

    2016-01-01

    We explored the predictive value of age, language ability and rehearsal for performance on various indices of long-term (episodic) memory in early childhood. Preschoolers engaged in a unique treasure-hunt experience. One year later, we tested recall, pictorial recognition and temporal ordering of

  9. A Mathematician Learns the Basics of Writing Instruction: An Immersion Experience with Long-Term Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Lynne L.

    2012-01-01

    Initially designed to be an interdisciplinary experiment that would change attitudes about mathematics, the semester-long collaboration between a writing instructor and a mathematics instructor yielded unexpected long-term results. The collaboration served as an immersion in methods and techniques used by writing instructors. Description of…

  10. Effects of Experience and Reminding on Long-Term Recall in Infancy: Remembering Not to Forget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments examined factors of recall in one- to two-year olds. Results suggest that the strength of organization of an event representation, rather than retention interval, is a major factor in long-term recall between one and two years old. (ETB)

  11. Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Wallenstein; Steven McNulty; Ivan J. Fernandez; Johnny Boggs; William H. Schlesinger

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of N fertilization on forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass at three long-term experiments in New England (Harvard Forest, MA; Mt. Ascutney, VT; Bear Brook, ME). At Harvard Forest, chronic N fertilization has decreased organic soil microbial biomass C (MBC) by an average of 54% and substrate induced respiration (SIR) was decreased by an...

  12. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  13. Long-term durability experiments with concrete-based waste packages in simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatti, A.

    1993-03-01

    Two extensive experiments on long-term durability of waste packages in simulated repository conditions are described. The first one is a 'half-scale experiment' comprising radioactive waste product and half-scale concrete containers in site specific groundwater conditions. The second one is 'full-scale experiment' including simulated inactive waste product and full-scale concrete container stored in slowly flowing fresh water. The scope of the experiments is to demonstrate long-term behaviour of the designed waste packages in contact with moderately concrete aggressive groundwater, and to evaluate the possible interactions between the waste product, concrete container and ground water. As the waste packages are made of high-quality concrete, provisions have been made to continue the experiments for several years

  14. Employee experience of workplace supervisor contact and support during long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Nicholas J; Selander, John; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-07

    Workplace support is an important factor in promoting successful return to work. The purpose of this article is to examine relationships between supervisor contact, perceived workplace support and demographic variables among employees on long-term sickness absence. Data were collected from 204 public employees at a municipality in Sweden who had been on long term sickness absence (60 days or more) using a 23 question survey instrument that collected information on demographic variables, supervisor contact and perceived workplace support. Most injured employees (97%) reported having contact with their supervisors during their sickness absence, with a majority (56%) reporting high levels of support, including early (58.6%) and multiple (70.7%) contacts. Most were pleased with amount of contact (68.9%) and the majority had discussed workplace accommodations (68.1%). Employees who self-initiated contact, felt the amount of contact was appropriate, had a personal meeting with their supervisors and discussed workplace adjustments reported experiencing higher levels of support from supervisors. Employees on long-term sickness absence appreciate contact from their supervisors and this is associated with perceived workplace support. However, the amount and employee experience of this contact is important. It needs to be perceived by employees as supportive, which includes a focus on strategies (e.g., work adjustment) to facilitate a return to work. Supervisor training is required in this area to support the return to work process. Implications for Rehabilitation Contact and support from workplace supervisors is important to workers on long-term sickness absence. Employees appreciate frequent contact from supervisors during long-terms sickness absence. Employees appreciate a personal meeting with supervisors and the opportunity to discuss issues related to return to work such as work adjustment. Employers should provide training to supervisors on how to communicate and

  15. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Student Field Research Experiences in Special Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Amr S; Chamberlain, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Global health education and training of biomedical students in international and minority health research is expending through U.S. academic institutions. This study addresses the short- and long-term outcomes of an NCI-funded R25 short-term summer field research training program. This program is designed for MPH and Ph.D. students in cancer epidemiology and related disciplines, in international and minority settings (special populations) in a recent 7-year period. Positive short-term outcome of 73 students was measured as publishing a manuscript from the field research data and having a job in special populations. Positive long-term outcome was measured as having a post-doc position, being in a doctoral program, and/or employment in special populations at least 3 years from finishing the program. Significant factors associated with both short- and long-term success included resourcefulness of the student and compatibility of personalities and interests between the student and the on-campus and off-campus mentors. Short-term-success of students who conducted international filed research was associated with visits of the on-campus mentor to the field site. Short-term success was also associated with extent of mentorship in the field site and with long-term success. Future studies should investigate how field research sites could enhance careers of students, appropriateness of the sites for specific training competencies, and how to maximize the learning experience of students in international and minority research sites.

  16. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  17. Long-term agricultural experiments inform the development of climate-smart agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Wolf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available California's Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are a major source of U.S. fruits and vegetables, and vulnerable to future extremes of precipitation and temperature brought on by climate change, including increased drought and flooding, and more intense and longer heat waves. To develop resilience to these threats, strategies are necessary for climate-smart management of soil and water. Long-term, large-scale, replicated ecological experiments provide unique testbeds for studying such questions. At the UC Davis Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility (RRSAF, the 100-year Century Experiment, initiated in 1992, is investigating the effects of multiple farming practices in a farm-scale replicated study of 10 row crop cropping systems. It includes different fertility management systems: organic, conventional and hybrid (conventional plus winter cover crop systems; different crops: wheat, tomatoes, corn, alfalfa, cover crops and grasslands; and different irrigation systems: rainfed, flood irrigated and drip irrigated. We briefly describe and report on a selection of long-term experiments conducted at RRSAF investigating soil management and irrigation practices, which are an important focus for developing climate-smart strategies in Mediterranean systems. For example, long-term monitoring of soil carbon content revealed that most crop systems have experienced a small increase in soil carbon since 1993, and increases in organically managed plots were substantially higher. As RRSAF continues to build upon this rich dataset from one of a very few long-term row crop experiments in Mediterranean ecosystems, it provides a testbed for identifying climate-smart solutions for these agronomically important ecosystems.

  18. Measuring client experiences in long-term care in the Netherlands: a pilot study with the Consumer Quality Index Long-term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Rudolf B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to describe the development, testing and optimization of a new standard instrument, the Consumer Quality Index (CQ-index® Long-term Care, for measuring client experiences with long-term care in the Netherlands. Methods Three versions of the CQ-index questionnaires and protocols for study sampling and data collection were developed, designed for interviews with residents of nursing or residential care homes and postal surveys among representatives of psychogeriatric residents and homecare clients. From July to November 2006 a pilot study was conducted among 2,697 clients of 68 nursing or residential care homes, 2,164 representatives of clients in 57 psychogeriatric care institutions, and 1,462 clients of 19 homecare organizations. We performed psychometric analyses and descriptive analyses, and evaluated the pilot study. Results The pilot study showed the feasibility and usability of the instruments, supported the multidimensionality of the questionnaires and showed first findings on client experiences and possibilities for quality improvement. Nine scales applied to all care settings: shared decision making, attitude and courtesy, information, body care, competence and safety of care, activities, autonomy, mental well-being, and availability of personnel. The pilot resulted in three optimized questionnaires and recommendations for nationwide implementation. Conclusions The CQ-index® Long-term Care provides a good basis to investigate the quality of nursing homes, residential care homes and homecare from the clients' perspective. This standardized instrument enables a nationwide comparison of the quality of long-term care for the purpose of transparency and quality assurance.

  19. Experiences of care planning in England: interviews with patients with long term conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newbould Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and impact of long term conditions continues to rise. Care planning for people with long term conditions has been a policy priority in England for chronic disease management. However, it is not clear how care planning is currently understood, translated and implemented in primary care. This study explores experience of care planning in patients with long term conditions in three areas in England. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 predominantly elderly patients with multiple long term conditions. The interviews were designed to explore variations in and emergent experiences of care planning. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts involved reflexively coding and re-coding data into categories and themes. Results No participants reported experiencing explicit care planning discussions or receiving written documentation setting out a negotiated care plan and they were unfamiliar with the term ‘care planning’. However, most described some components of care planning which occurred over a number of contacts with health care professionals which we term”reactive” care planning. Here, key elements of care planning including goal setting and action planning were rare. Additionally, poor continuity and coordination of care, lack of time in consultations, and patient concerns about what was legitimate to discuss with the doctor were described. Conclusions Amongst this population, elements of care planning were present in their accounts, but a structured, comprehensive process and consequent written record (as outlined in English Department of Health policy was not evident. Further research needs to explore the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to care planning for different patient groups.

  20. Yield gap analysis in long-term experiments with intensive rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureles, E.V.; Correa, T. Jr.; Buresh, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term continuous cropping experiment at IRRI is cultivated with three rice crops in a year, making it the world's most intensively cropped long-term rice experiment. The availability of comprehensive rice production records, compiled weather data, and tested crop models provides a means to evaluate long-term trends in measured and potential yields and yield gaps in this rice production system. Yield trends were assessed using the highest yielding cultivar in each cropping season from 1979 to 2005. Potential yield of the highest yielding cultivar in each season was determined using three rice models (ORYZA, TERM, and CERES) run with the actual transplanting and harvest dates for the cultivar. The yield gap was determined from the difference between the simulated potential grain yield and the measured grain yield. Measured and potential yields and the yield gap varied across seasons and years. Measured yields were higher in the dry season than in the early and late wet seasons. The yield gap tended to be higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Climatic parameters, particularly solar radiation, influenced the performance of rice cultivars. The relatively larger yield gaps in the late wet season than in the dry season were associated with increased spikelet sterility. The cumulative measured yield for the three annual rice crop was near 80 percent of the annual yield potential in years with best practices for fertilizer N and crop management. The long term trends suggest that effective timing and rates of N fertilization and effective control of diseases were critical in achieving 80 percent of the annual yield potential

  1. Long term evaluation and identification of the proper testing program for ASTM Class C fly ash stabilized soils : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to further evaluate the characteristics of locally produced fly ash and to develop test procedures which would expedite the evaluation of fly ash stabilized soils. Because cement and lime stabilization techniques ...

  2. Long-Term Experience with Chinese Language Shapes the Fusiform Asymmetry of English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  3. Thick film nickel plating - the alternative. Long-term experiences; Dickschichtvernickelung - die Alternative. Langzeiterfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senff-Wollenberg, Ralf [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany). Technik; Ansey, Johann-Wilhelm [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung; Reinmoeller, Frank [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The ecologic and energetic demands on modern plants fort he thermal utilization of waste materials increase continuously. Beside low costs of investment, enhanced efficiencies, an enhanced availability, long journey times as well as low costs of operation and maintenance are important factors for the investment decision. The primary and secondary measures for the shrinkage of corrosion are decisive for achieving the factors for the decision of investment and maintenance. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on long-term experiences on the thick film nickel plating. Especially, the process of galvanic nickel plating, the fields of application as well as the operational experiences are described.

  4. Women's experiences of long term sickness absence: implications for rehabilitation practice and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockander, Marlene K; Timpka, Toomas

    2003-01-01

    In most European countries, spells of long-term absence contribute the largest number of days that are reimbursed as a result of sickness absence. This group is growing and it is constituted mainly of women. The present study seeks further knowledge about what happens then and there, i.e. how women on long-term sickness absence handle and explain, for themselves and others, this interruption in their daily life. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 82 middle-aged women with personal experience of long-term sickness absence. The women's accounts of sickness absence contained interpretations of what had happened to them, how things were at present, and what they thought the future would bring. Three different accounts could be distinguished: crisis, breakpoint, and migration. The perception of their own situation and especially what they thought about their future was associated with their feeling of power to take the initiative, and their well-being. From this study the authors have found implications for central topics of importance: time elapse, sense of coherence, reorientation/adaptation, vital goals, and gender.

  5. SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IMPROVEMENT IN LONG TERM FIELD EXPERIMENT WITH FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is studied in long-term field experiments. Researches are carried out in several agricultural research stations, out of which the following have been chosen for the present paper: Albic Luvisol* at Albota; Haplic Phaeozem at Fundulea; Chromic Luvisol at Şimnic; Calcic Chernozem at Secuieni; and Haplic Chernozem at Podu Iloaiei. Long term fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus generally improved the soil agrochemical properties. The evolution of organic matter, nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and potassium, and mobile microelements contents were studied, using the standardized method used in the ICPA laboratories. The organic matter and total nitrogen contents didn’t change significantly under the nitrogen and phosphorus long-term fertilization influence. The mobile phosphorus contents have the tendency to grow very significantly with the growth of phosphorus fertilizers. At the same time, slight depletions of these contents are registered as the high nitrogen doses from fertilizers stimulate plant growth and, obviously, nutritive elements absorption. Mobile potassium contents changes very little, with insignificant differences. Significant depletions are registered only with high fertilizers doses, due to the stimulation of the nutritive elements absorption in plants. Microelements contents don’t change almost at all. They are within the normal content limits and no excess or deficiency was registered, in any of the studied stations. For the agricultural practice, economical studies are recommended, about how high fertilizing expenses are covered by the yield growth. Not the least, production quality study in different variants of mineral fertilization could prove interesting.

  6. Long-term effects of earthquake experience of young persons on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Ji, Chunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors of stress from direct experience of an earthquake as a young person. Material and methods We selected workers born between July 1, 1958 and July 1, 1976 who were examined at Kailuan General Hospital between May and October of 2013. Data on cardiovascular events were taken during the workers’ annual health examination conducted between 2006 and 2007. All subjects were divided into three groups according to their experience of the Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976, as follows: control group; exposed group 1 and exposed group 2. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between the three groups as well as by gender and age. Results One thousand one hundred and ninety-six workers were included in the final statistical analysis. Among all subjects, resting heart rate (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p earthquake compared with unexposed controls, but were unrelated to loss of relatives. No significant difference in triglyceride levels was observed between the three groups (p = 0.900). Further refinement showed that the effects were restricted to males 40 years of age or older at the time of analysis, but were due primarily to age at the time of earthquake exposure (p = 0.002, p Earthquake experience in the early years of life has long-term effects on adult resting heart rate, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, especially among men. PMID:28144258

  7. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. A new way to increase the long-term bond strength of new-to-old concrete by the use of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gengying

    2003-01-01

    The short-term and long-term bond strengths of new-to-old concrete were experimentally investigated with an emphasis on the influence of new concretes and binders. These new concretes included ordinary Portland cement concrete, expansive concrete and high-volume fly ash concrete, while the binders included pure cement paste (C-binder), expansive binder (E-binder) and fly ash mortar (F-binder). The results showed that the short-term bond strength of all specimens with fly ash concrete was lower than that with ordinary Portland cement concrete, which in turn was lower than that with expansive concrete. The bond strength of the specimens with F-binder was the lowest at the age of 7 days. However, the long-term bond strength of all specimens with added fly ash was the highest and strength losses were observed in the specimens repaired with expansive concrete or E-binder at the age of 3 years. The microstructure of the transition zone with F-binder was also studied by using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) at the ages of 28 days and 1 year, respectively

  9. Molecular Correlates of Cortical Network Modulation by Long-Term Sensory Experience in the Adult Rat Barrel Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Granic, Ivica; De Weerd, Peter; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cortical network connectivity is crucial for an adaptive response to experience. In the rat barrel cortex, long-term sensory stimulation induces cortical network modifications and neuronal response changes of which the molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that long-term somatosensory stimulation by enriched environment…

  10. Large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiments in the United States: historical overview and contemporary examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Seymour; J. Guldin; D. Marshall; B. Palik

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of large-scale, long-term silviculture experiments in the United States. Large-scale in a silvicultural context means that experimental treatment units encompass entire stands (5 to 30 ha); long-term means that results are intended to be monitored over many cutting cycles or an entire rotation, typically for many decades. Such studies...

  11. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  12. A Long-term Forest Fertilization Experiment to Understand Ecosystem Responses to Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.; Advani, S. M.; Allen, J.; Boot, C.; Denef, K.; Denning, S.; Hall, E.; Moore, J. C.; Reuth, H.; Ryan, M. G.; Shaw, E.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term field experiments can reveal changes in ecosystem processes that may not be evident in short-term studies. Short-term measurements or experiments may have narrower objectives or unrealistic treatments in order to see a change, whereas long-term studies can reveal complex interactions that take longer to manifest. We report results from a long-term experiment (1996 to present) in subalpine forests to simulate the consequences of sustained atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Loch Vale watershed in Rocky Mountain National Park, the location of the experiment, has received an order of magnitude greater atmospheric N deposition than estimated background since mid-20th Century. Augmenting that, in 1996 we began adding 25 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 yr-1 to three 30m x 30m old-growth Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir plots. Treated stands were matched by nearby controls. N addition caused rapid leaching of nitrate and cations from soils, and increased N mineralization and nitrification rates. These observations in the fertilized plots have been sustained over time. Soluble aluminum concentrations do not differ significantly between fertilized and control plots, but treated soils are now markedly more acidic (pH of 4.7) than original soil and controls (pH of 5.1); further acidification might increase aluminum leaching. Effects on soil carbon were complex, mediated by reductions in total microbial biomass, decreases in arbuscular mychorrizal and saprotropic fungi, and increased potential rates of N enzyme degrading activities. Initial soil C:N of 24 was lower than similar soils in low N deposition stands (C:N of 36). The C:N declined to 22 with treatment. Fertilized plots lost 11% soil C, but the mechanism is unclear. We did not measure changes in C inputs from litter, microbial biomass, or plant uptake, but there was no change in summer CO2 flux, measured in 2003, 2004, and 2014. Leaching of DOC from fertilized plots was elevated throughout the experiment, providing one

  13. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frugier, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author) [fr

  14. Overview of long-term field experiments in Germany - metadata visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqit Zoarder, Md Abdul; Heinrich, Uwe; Svoboda, Nikolai; Grosse, Meike; Hierold, Wilfried

    2017-04-01

    BonaRes ("soil as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy") is conducting to collect data and metadata of agricultural long-term field experiments (LTFE) of Germany. It is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the umbrella of the National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030. BonaRes consists of ten interdisciplinary research project consortia and the 'BonaRes - Centre for Soil Research'. BonaRes Data Centre is responsible for collecting all LTFE data and regarding metadata into an enterprise database upon higher level of security and visualization of the data and metadata through data portal. In the frame of the BonaRes project, we are compiling an overview of long-term field experiments in Germany that is based on a literature review, the results of the online survey and direct contacts with LTFE operators. Information about research topic, contact person, website, experiment setup and analyzed parameters are collected. Based on the collected LTFE data, an enterprise geodatabase is developed and a GIS-based web-information system about LTFE in Germany is also settled. Various aspects of the LTFE, like experiment type, land-use type, agricultural category and duration of experiment, are presented in thematic maps. This information system is dynamically linked to the database, which means changes in the data directly affect the presentation. An easy data searching option using LTFE name, -location or -operators and the dynamic layer selection ensure a user-friendly web application. Dispersion and visualization of the overlapping LTFE points on the overview map are also challenging and we make it automatized at very zoom level which is also a consistent part of this application. The application provides both, spatial location and meta-information of LTFEs, which is backed-up by an enterprise geodatabase, GIS server for hosting map services and Java script API for web application development.

  15. Genome features of "Dark-fly", a Drosophila line reared long-term in a dark environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Izutsu

    Full Text Available Organisms are remarkably adapted to diverse environments by specialized metabolisms, morphology, or behaviors. To address the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation, we have utilized a Drosophila melanogaster line, termed "Dark-fly", which has been maintained in constant dark conditions for 57 years (1400 generations. We found that Dark-fly exhibited higher fecundity in dark than in light conditions, indicating that Dark-fly possesses some traits advantageous in darkness. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we determined the whole genome sequence of Dark-fly and identified approximately 220,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 4,700 insertions or deletions (InDels in the Dark-fly genome compared to the genome of the Oregon-R-S strain, a control strain. 1.8% of SNPs were classified as non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs: i.e., they alter the amino acid sequence of gene products. Among them, we detected 28 nonsense mutations (i.e., they produce a stop codon in the protein sequence in the Dark-fly genome. These included genes encoding an olfactory receptor and a light receptor. We also searched runs of homozygosity (ROH regions as putative regions selected during the population history, and found 21 ROH regions in the Dark-fly genome. We identified 241 genes carrying nsSNPs or InDels in the ROH regions. These include a cluster of alpha-esterase genes that are involved in detoxification processes. Furthermore, analysis of structural variants in the Dark-fly genome showed the deletion of a gene related to fatty acid metabolism. Our results revealed unique features of the Dark-fly genome and provided a list of potential candidate genes involved in environmental adaptation.

  16. Intelligent power wheelchair use in long-term care: potential users' experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Mortenson, Ben W; Viswanathan, Pooja; Wang, Rosalie H; Miller, William C; Hurd Clarke, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residents with cognitive impairments frequently experience limited mobility and participation in preferred activities. Although a power wheelchair could mitigate some of these mobility and participation challenges, this technology is often not prescribed for this population due to safety concerns. An intelligent power wheelchair (IPW) system represents a potential intervention that could help to overcome these concerns. The purpose of this study was to explore a) how residents experienced an IPW that used three different modes of control and b) what perceived effect the IPW would have on their daily lives. We interviewed 10 LTC residents with mild or moderate cognitive impairment twice, once before and once after testing the IPW. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim for thematic analyses. Our analyses identified three overarching themes: (1) the difference an IPW would make, (2) the potential impact of the IPW on others and (3) IPW-related concerns. Findings from this study confirm the need for and potential benefits of IPW use in LTC. Future studies will involve testing IPW improvements based on feedback and insights from this study. Implications for rehabilitation Intelligent power wheelchairs may enhance participation and improve safety and feelings of well-being for long-term care residents with cognitive impairments. Intelligent power wheelchairs could potentially have an equally positive impact on facility staff, other residents, and family and friends by decreasing workload and increasing safety.

  17. Long-Term Behaviors of the OPC Concrete with Fly-ash and Type V Concrete Applied on Reactor Containment Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eui Sik; Lee, Hee Taik; Paek, Yong Lak; Park, Young Soo

    2010-01-01

    The prestressed concrete has been used extensively in the construction of Reactor Containment Buildings (RCBs) in Korea in order to strengthen the RCBs and at the same time, prevent the release of radiation due to the Design Basis Accident and Design Basis Earthquake. It is well known that the prestressed concrete loses its prestressing force over the age, and the shrinkage and creep of the concrete significantly contributes to these long term prestressing losses. In this study, an evaluations of long term behaviors of the concrete such as creep and shrinkage have been performed for two types of concretes : Ordinary Portland Cement containing fly-ash used for the Shin- Kori 1 and 2 NPP and Type V cement used for the Ul- Chin 5 and 6 NPP

  18. Long-Term Behaviors of the OPC Concrete with Fly-ash and Type V Concrete Applied on Reactor Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eui Sik; Lee, Hee Taik; Paek, Yong Lak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Soo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The prestressed concrete has been used extensively in the construction of Reactor Containment Buildings (RCBs) in Korea in order to strengthen the RCBs and at the same time, prevent the release of radiation due to the Design Basis Accident and Design Basis Earthquake. It is well known that the prestressed concrete loses its prestressing force over the age, and the shrinkage and creep of the concrete significantly contributes to these long term prestressing losses. In this study, an evaluations of long term behaviors of the concrete such as creep and shrinkage have been performed for two types of concretes : Ordinary Portland Cement containing fly-ash used for the Shin- Kori 1 and 2 NPP and Type V cement used for the Ul- Chin 5 and 6 NPP

  19. Survey of weed composition befor maize sowing in long-term fertilization experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismányoky, A; Lehoczky, E

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out in a long-term fertilization field experiment of the Experimental Station of University of Pannonia, Department of Crop Science and Soil Science in 2006. The Long-term fertilization experiment was set up in 1983. In the experiment, the success of the weeds ability to grow under the influence of NPK, NPK + FYM* and NPK + straw treatments was compared, and the effect of increasing Nitrogen dosing on weediness was studied. The bifactorial test was arranged in split plot design with three replications. Treatment A: nutrient: NPK, NPK + 35 t/ha FYM* and NPK + straw manure. Treatment B: N kg/ha(-1) N0-N4 (0, 70, 140, 210, 280), and 100 kg P2O5 ha(-1) & 100 kg K20. The weed survey was made on 2nd of May 2006. There were spraying no herbicide until the survey. For the weed survey the Balázs-Ujvárosi coenological method was applied. Altogether, we have found 23 weed species in the trial. In the NPK treatment there were 20 species, in the treatment NPK+organic manure there were 17 species and in the NPK+ stalk rest treatment there were 16 weed species. The most dominant of the weeds on the NPK and NPK+straw manure treatments was Veronica hederifolia while on the fertilizer + FYM, the A. theophrasti was most dominant. The average weed covering value of the treatment NPK + FYM was 1.36 times higher (10.87%) than that of treatment NPK only (7.97%) and 3.65 times higher than on the NPK + straw manure treatment.

  20. Long-term corrosion behaviors of Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 in moisture-containing molten FLiNaK salt environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Chang, Chi-Hung; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Corrosion behaviors of Hastelloy-N and -B3 in molten FLiNaK salt at 700 °C. •The alleviated corrosion rate of alloys was observed after long-hour immersion. •Long-term corrosion rate was limited by diffusion from matrix to alloy surface. •Corrosion pattern transferred from intergranular corrosion into general corrosion. •Presence of minor H 2 O did not greatly influence the long-term corrosion behavior. -- Abstract: This study investigated long-term corrosion behaviors of Ni-based Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 under moisture-containing molten alkali fluoride salt (LiF–NaF–KF: 46.5–11.5–42%) environment at an ambient temperature of 700 °C. The Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 experienced similar weight losses for tested duration of 100–1000 h, which was caused by aggregate dissolution of Cr and Mo into FLiNaK salts. The corrosion rate of both alloys was high initially, but then reduced during the course of the test. The alleviated corrosion rate was due to the depletion of Cr and Mo near surface of the alloys and thus the long-term corrosion rate was controlled by diffusion of Cr and Mo outward to the alloy surface. The results of microstructural characterization revealed that the corrosion pattern for both alloys tended to be intergranular corrosion at early stage of corrosion test, and then transferred to general corrosion for longer immersion hours

  1. Dryland ecosystem responses to precipitation extremes and wildfire at a long-term rainfall manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. F.; Collins, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is becoming increasingly more variable due to global environmental change, which is evidenced by fewer, but more extreme precipitation events, changes in precipitation seasonality, and longer, higher severity droughts. These changes, combined with a rising incidence of wildfire, have the potential to strongly impact net primary production (NPP) and key biogeochemical cycles, particularly in dryland ecosystems where NPP is sequentially limited by water and nutrient availability. Here we utilize a ten-year dataset from an ongoing long-term field experiment established in 2007 in which we experimentally altered monsoon rainfall variability to examine how our manipulations, along with naturally occurring events, affect NPP and associated biogeochemical cycles in a semi-arid grassland in central New Mexico, USA. Using long-term regional averages, we identified extremely wet monsoon years (242.8 mm, 2013), and extremely dry monsoon years (86.0 mm, 2011; 80.0 mm, 2015) and water years (117.0 mm, 2011). We examined how changes in precipitation variability and extreme events affected ecosystem processes and function particularly in the context of ecosystem recovery following a 2009 wildfire. Response variables included above- and below-ground plant biomass (ANPP & BNPP) and abundance, soil nitrogen availability, and soil CO2 efflux. Mean ANPP ranged from 3.6 g m-2 in 2011 to 254.5 g m-2 in 2013, while BNPP ranged from 23.5 g m-2 in 2015 to 194.2 g m-2 in 2013, demonstrating NPP in our semi-arid grassland is directly linked to extremes in both seasonal and annual precipitation. We also show increased nitrogen deposition positively affects NPP in unburned grassland, but has no significant impact on NPP post-fire except during extremely wet monsoon years. While soil respiration rates reflect lower ANPP post-fire, patterns in CO2 efflux have not been shown to change significantly in that efflux is greatest following large precipitation events preceded by longer drying

  2. Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barré, P; Eglin, T; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    . We analyzed data from six bare fallow experiments of long-duration (>30 yrs), covering a range of soil types and climate conditions, and sited at Askov (Denmark), Grignon and Versailles (France), Kursk (Russia), Rothamsted (UK), and Ultuna (Sweden). A conceptual three pool model dividing soil C...... into a labile pool (turnover time of a several years), an intermediate pool (turnover time of a several decades) and a stable pool (turnover time of a several centuries or more) fits well with the long term C decline observed in the bare fallow soils. The estimate of stable C ranged from 2.7 g C kg−1...... at Rothamsted to 6.8 g C kg−1 at Grignon. The uncertainty associated with estimates of the stable pool was large due to the short duration of the fallow treatments relative to the turnover time of stable soil C. At Versailles, where there is least uncertainty associated with the determination of a stable pool...

  3. Beyond resettlement: long-term care for people who have had refugee-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Since 1945, more than 700 000 refugees and displaced persons, survivors of conflicts in over 60 countries, have resettled in Australia. Every general practitioner (GP) will have patients who have had refugee-like experiences. To describe the health needs of survivors of war and conflict in the immediate and long-term resettlement periods. In the immediate post-settlement period, refugees and asylum seekers will need assessment, catch-up primary healthcare and, in some cases, psychological support. Although refugees are generally a resilient group, enhanced support may be needed over key life periods: childbirth, rearing of young children and entering frail age. Asylum seekers (who do not have permanent visas) often face structural impediments to healthcare access and may be unable to meet basic health needs; GPs need to be aware of the enhanced need for psychological safety in addition to catch-up healthcare in this population.

  4. Long-term experiment with orchard floor management systems: influence on apple yield and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatnar, Ana; Licznar-Malanczuk, Maria; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-05-07

    The study focuses on the response of apple primary and secondary metabolism and some important quality parameters to three living mulch treatments, classical herbicide fallow, and black polypropylene strip application in two apple cultivars. Primary and secondary metabolites were analyzed after 10 years of ground cover experiments. Soluble solids, firmness, and color measurements indicate differences among orchard floor management treatments. Significantly, lower levels of individual sugars have been measured in fruit of different living mulch treatments compared with fruit harvested from trees subjected to the herbicide strip treatment. Total sugar content was higher in fruit of the herbicide strip treatment in both cultivars analyzed. Significantly higher levels of total organic acids were only detected in 'Pinova' fruit of the Festuca ovina L. treatment. Long-term response of both cultivars to living mulch treatments indicated that apples increase the accumulation of almost all analyzed individual phenolic compounds.

  5. Avoiding steroids in pediatric renal transplantation: long-term experience from a single centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bo; El-Faramawi, Mohamad; Foged, Nils

    2007-01-01

    We report our experience in pediatric renal transplantation avoiding steroids whenever possible. Immunosuppression consisted of an initial induction with antithymocyte globulin followed by maintenance therapy with a calcineurin inhibitor and MMF. Steroids were only given to selected patients......). Unfortunately PTLD occurred in three patients, but all survived with functioning grafts. Accordingly, our findings indicate that steroid avoidance in pediatric renal transplantation is possible with good results with respect to acute graft rejection as well as long-term graft survival....... because of the primary disease, recurrence, rejection, or PTLD. Thirty-four transplants grafted into 32 recipients between 1995 and 2005 were followed for a median of 3.5 yr (range 1-9.8). All patients survived. Graft rejection occurred in 10 cases during the first year post-transplantation and graft...

  6. Influence of visual experience on developmental shift from long-term depression to long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Dieni, Cristina; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2004-11-01

    The influence of visual experience deprivation on changes in synaptic plasticity during postnatal development was studied in the ventral part of the rat medial vestibular nuclei (vMVN). We analysed the differences in the occurrence, expressed as a percentage, of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents in rats reared in the light (LR) and those in the dark (DR). In LR rats, HFS only induced LTD in the early stages of development, but the occurrence of LTD progressively decreased to zero before their eyes opened, while that of LTP enhanced from zero to about 50%. Once the rats' eyes had opened, LTD was no longer inducible while LTP occurrence gradually reached the normal adult value (70%). In DR rats, a similar shift from LTD to LTP was observed before their eyes opened, showing only a slightly slower LTD decay and LTP growth, and the LTD annulment was delayed by 1 day. By contrast, the time courses of LTD and LTP development in DR and LR rats showed remarkable differences following eye opening. In fact, LTD occurrence increased to about 50% in a short period of time and remained high until the adult stage. In addition, the occurrence of LTP slowly decreased to less than 20%. The effect of light-deprivation was reversible, since the exposure of DR rats to light, 5 days after eye opening, caused a sudden disappearance of LTD and a partial recover of LTP occurrence. In addition, we observed that a week of light deprivation in LR adult rats did not affect the normal adult LTP occurrence. These results provide evidence that in a critical period of development visual input plays a crucial role in shaping synaptic plasticity of the vMVN, and suggest that the visual guided shift from LTD to LTP during development may be necessary to refine and consolidate vestibular circuitry.

  7. Long-term experiments to better understand soil-human interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, B. T.; Homann, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between soils and people may be transforming global conditions, but the interactions are poorly understood. Changes in soils have proven difficult to quantify, especially in complex ecosystems manifesting large spatiotemporal variability. Long-term ecosystem experiments that evaluate soil change and demonstrate alternative choices are important to understanding changes, discovering new controls and drivers, and influencing decisions. Inspired by agriculture studies, like Rothamsted, the US Forest Service established in 1990 a network of operational-scale experiments across the Pacific Northwest to evaluate long-term effects of different forest management and disturbance regimes. With a strong experimental design, these experiments are now helping to better understand the long-term effects of managing tree harvesting (clearcutting and thinning), woody debris, and tree and understory species composition, and-serendipitously-the effects of fire. Initial results from the Southern Oregon experimental site indicate surprisingly rapid soil changes in some regimes but not others. We've also learned that rapid change presents challenges to repeat sampling. We present our sample-archive and comparable-layer approaches that seek to accommodate changes in surface elevation, aggregation and disaggregation, and mineral-soil exports. Thinning mature forest stands (80-100 yrs old) did not significantly change soil C in 11-yrs. A small upper-layer C increase was observed after thinning, but it was similar to the control. Significant increases in upper-layer soil N were observed with most treatments, but all increases were similar to the control. Leaving woody debris had little effect. The most remarkable change occurred when mature stands were clearcut and Douglas-firs were planted and tended. Associated with rapid growth of Douglas-fir, an average of 8 Mg C ha-1 was lost from weathered soil 4-18 cm deep. This contrasts with clearcuts where early-seral hardwoods and

  8. CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a substantial decline in SOM with 90% of crop residue removal for 50 years under various rotations at Columbia, MO and Champaign, IL. An increase in SOM

  9. Long-term Disability Associated With War-related Experience Among Vietnam Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. Objectives: To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. Participants: A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Outcome Measures: Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. Results: The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20–30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32–1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%–70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9–24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4–1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7–3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2–2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent

  10. Long-term disability associated with war-related experience among Vietnam veterans: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip M; Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A

    2015-05-01

    Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20-30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%-70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9-24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4-1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7-3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2-2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent conflicts, significant additional resources will be needed to prevent and treat long-term

  11. Nurse Case Managers' Experiences on Case Management for Long-term Hospitalization in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jinjoo; Oh, Seieun

    2017-12-01

    The implementation of case management for long-term hospitalization use has been approved for controlling medical cost increases in other countries. But, introduction of the case management in Korea has created issues that hinder its effective operation. This qualitative study aimed to obtain further understanding of the issues surrounding the management of Medical Aid beneficiaries' use of long-term hospitalization from the case managers' perspectives and to provide suggestions for successful case management. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Medical Aid case managers with 3 or more years of case management experience were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural regions. Data were collected through in-depth interviews: 12 nurse case managers participated in focus group interviews and 11 participated in individual one-on-one interviews. Four major themes emerged: on-site obstacles that hinder work progress; going in an opposite direction; ambiguous position of case managers; and work-related emotions. Eleven subthemes were discovered: chasing potential candidates; becoming an enemy; discharging patients who have nowhere to go; welfare-centered national policies increasing medical costs; Medical Aid Program that encourages hospitalization; misuse of hospitalization; feeling limited; working without authority; fulfilling the expected role; fretting about social criticism; and feeling neglected and unprotected. The findings highlight the complexity and ambiguity of the issues faced by case managers. Successful management of Medical Aid resources requires the orchestrated efforts and collaboration of multiple stakeholders. More systematized support and resources for nurse case managers are essential to fully implement this nursing innovation in Korea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Nurse Case Managers' Experiences on Case Management for Long-term Hospitalization in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Oh, Ph.D., RN, GNP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The implementation of case management for long-term hospitalization use has been approved for controlling medical cost increases in other countries. But, introduction of the case management in Korea has created issues that hinder its effective operation. This qualitative study aimed to obtain further understanding of the issues surrounding the management of Medical Aid beneficiaries' use of long-term hospitalization from the case managers' perspectives and to provide suggestions for successful case management. Methods: Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Medical Aid case managers with 3 or more years of case management experience were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural regions. Data were collected through in-depth interviews: 12 nurse case managers participated in focus group interviews and 11 participated in individual one-on-one interviews. Results: Four major themes emerged: on-site obstacles that hinder work progress; going in an opposite direction; ambiguous position of case managers; and work-related emotions. Eleven subthemes were discovered: chasing potential candidates; becoming an enemy; discharging patients who have nowhere to go; welfare-centered national policies increasing medical costs; Medical Aid Program that encourages hospitalization; misuse of hospitalization; feeling limited; working without authority; fulfilling the expected role; fretting about social criticism; and feeling neglected and unprotected. Conclusion: The findings highlight the complexity and ambiguity of the issues faced by case managers. Successful management of Medical Aid resources requires the orchestrated efforts and collaboration of multiple stakeholders. More systematized support and resources for nurse case managers are essential to fully implement this nursing innovation in Korea. Keywords: case management, focus groups, hospitalization, qualitative research, vulnerable populations

  13. Long-term single-center experience of defibrillator therapy in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommeyer, Gerrit; Feder, Sebastian; Bettin, Markus; Debus, Volker; Köbe, Julia; Reinke, Florian; Uebing, Anselm; Eckardt, Lars; Kehl, Hans Gerd

    2018-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) systems are established therapy for prevention of sudden cardiac death. Long-term data on ICD systems in children and adolescents is rare. The present study displays a long-term single-center follow-up of children and adolescents with ICD systems. The present study represents a single-center experience of patients younger than 18 years who received an ICD (n = 58). Follow-up data included in-house follow-up as well as examinations of collaborating specialists. Mean age at implantation was 14.0 ± 3.3 years and 33 patients (56.9%) were male. A transvenous ICD system was implanted in 54 patients (93.1%). In 33 patients (56.9%) electrical heart disease or idiopathic ventricular fibrillation represented the underlying condition of ICD implantation. Median follow-up duration was 70 months (45; 94). 3 patients (5.2%) died during the observation period. None of these deaths was associated with ICD failure. Appropriate shocks occurred in 32 patients (55.2%). Inappropriate shock delivery was recorded in 17 patients (29.3%). Supraventricular tachycardia represented the most frequent cause of inappropriate shock delivery (9 patients, 52.9%). T-wave oversensing led to inappropriate shock delivery in 3 patients (17.6%). In 5 patients (29.4%), lead failure caused inappropriate shock delivery. Of note, during follow-up lead failure was reported in 15 patients (25.9%) leading to surgical revision. ICD therapy in children and adolescents is effective for prevention of sudden cardiac death. The rate of appropriate shock deliveries was significantly higher as compared with large ICD trials. Inappropriate therapies occurred frequently. In particular supraventricular tachycardia, T-wave oversensing and lead failures were responsible for these episodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Weed Diversity Affects Soybean and Maize Yield in a Long Term Experiment in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Davis, Adam S; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose L

    2017-01-01

    Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields. Using three types of models that considered internal and external (climate and weeds) factors, with additive or non-linear variants, we found that changes in weed diversity were associated with changes in rates of crop yield increase over time for both maize and soybeans. The intrinsic capacity for soybean yield increase in response to the environment was greater under more diverse weed communities. Soybean production risks were greatest in the least weed diverse systems, in which each weed species lost was associated with progressively greater crop yield losses. Managing for weed community diversity, while suppressing dominant, highly competitive weeds, may be a helpful strategy for supporting long term increases in soybean productivity. In maize, there was a negative and non-additive response of yields to the interaction between weed diversity and minimum air temperatures. When cold temperatures constrained potential maize productivity through limited resources, negative interactions with weed diversity became more pronounced. We suggest that: (1) maize was less competitive in cold years allowing higher weed diversity and the dominance of some weed species; or (2) that cold years resulted in increased weed richness and prevalence of competitive weeds, thus reducing crop yields. Therefore, we propose to control dominant weed species especially in the years of low yield and extreme minimum temperatures to improve maize yields

  15. Surprises and insights from long-term aquatic datasets and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter K. Dodds; Christopher T. Robinson; Evelyn E. Gaiser; Gretchen J.A. Hansen; Heather Powell; Joseph M. Smith; Nathaniel B. Morse; Sherri L. Johnson; Stanley V. Gregory; Tisza Bell; Timothy K. Kratz; William H. McDowell

    2012-01-01

    Long-term research on freshwater ecosystems provides insights that can be difficult to obtain from other approaches. Widespread monitoring of ecologically relevant water-quality parameters spanning decades can facilitate important tests of ecological principles. Unique long-term data sets and analytical tools are increasingly available, allowing for powerful and...

  16. An African grassland responds similarly to long-term fertilization to the Park Grass experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    Full Text Available We compared the results of a long-term (65 years experiment in a South African grassland with the world's longest-running ecological experiment, the Park Grass study at Rothamsted, U.K. The climate is warm and humid in South Africa and cool and temperate in England. The African grassland has been fertilized with two forms of nitrogen applied at four levels, phosphorus and lime in a crossed design in 96 plots. In 1951, about 84% of plant cover consisted of Themeda triandra, Tristachya leucothrix and Setaria nigrirostris. Currently, the dominant species are Panicum maximum, Setaria sphacelata and Eragrostis curvula, making up 71% of total biomass. As in the Park Grass experiment, we found a significant (additive interaction effect on ANPP of nitrogen and phosphorus, and a (marginally significant negative correlation between ANPP and species richness. Unlike the Park Grass experiment, there was no correlation between ANPP and species richness when pH was included as a covariate. There was also a significant negative effect of nitrogen amount and nitrogen form and a positive effect of lime on species richness and species diversity. Soil pH had an important effect on species richness. Liming was insufficient to balance the negative effects on species richness of nitrogen fertilization. There was a significant effect of pH on biomass of three abundant species. There were also significant effects of light on the biomass of four species, with only Panicum maximum having a negative response to light. In all of the abundant species, adding total species richness and ANPP to the model increased the amount of variance explained. The biomass of Eragrostis curvula and P. maximum were negatively correlated with species richness while three other abundant species increased with species richness, suggesting that competition and facilitation were active. Consistent with the results from the Park Grass and other long-term fertilization experiments of grasslands

  17. [Legitimacy and non-legitimacy of experiences of long-term suffering and illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesqui, Ana Maria

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the legitimacy and non-legitimacy of selected experiences of long-term illness and suffering, which are, or are not, considered diseases by medical diagnoses, such as pain, chronic fatigue, and "high blood pressure" using international and national sociological and anthropological research in health. It explores their implications, reflexes and ambiguities for the identity, moral and physical suffering perceived by the subjects and in their relationship with others and with the health services. This is a text about select research on the theme. It concludes that the ill persons are moved by actions and significance about their experience with the physical and moral suffering that are, or are not, legitimate for them, but that jeopardize their lives and biographies, and are expressed in their language and emotions, reflected in their social relations and also in their identity of being, or not being, ill. The legitimacy and non-legitimacy of these experiences have implications for health care, which require further ethnographic research.

  18. Study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Kismányoky, T

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out in Keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in April of 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. The weed survey was made on the 20th of April at the end of tillering. For the weed survey used the Balázs-Ujvárosi method. After that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. We counted, measured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial parts. Winter wheat sampels were taken also from all plots (1 running meter per plot). In the experiment 10 weed species were found, 9 annual: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Consolida regalis, Galium aparine, Lamiunt amplexicaule, Matricaria inodora, Papaver rhoeas, Stellaria media, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica triphyllos, and 1 perennial: Cirsium arvense. Veronica hederifolia was the dominant species in both fertilized plots, Stellaria media has the second highest weed coverage. The manuring treatments, and the N-dosis has important and significantly effect to the weedeness and the biomass production of winter wheat. On the control plots was the relation of biomass weight of weeds the highest. This relation reduced to the effect of N treatments, wich had an favorable effect on the winter wheat.

  19. Neuroplasticity beyond Sounds: Neural Adaptations Following Long-Term Musical Aesthetic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Reybrouck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active “agent” coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having a predominant auditory component, which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the “agent”. In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played.

  20. Evaluating the soil physical quality under long-term field experiments in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Mirko; Stellacci, Anna Maria; Iovino, Massimo; Rinaldi, Michele; Ventrella, Domenico

    2017-04-01

    Long-term field experiments performed in experimental farms are important research tools to assess the soil physical quality (SPQ) given that relatively stable conditions can be expected in these soils. However, different SPQ indicators may sometimes provide redundant or conflicting results, making difficult an SPQ evaluation (Castellini et al., 2014). As a consequence, it is necessary to apply appropriate statistical procedures to obtain a minimum set of key indicators. The study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of CREA-SCA (Foggia) in two long-term field experiments performed on durum wheat. The first long-term experiment is aiming at evaluating the effects of two residue management systems (burning, B or soil incorporation of crop residues, I) while the second at comparing the effect of tillage (conventional tillage, CT) and sod-seeding (direct drilling, DD). In order to take into account both optimal and non-optimal soil conditions, five SPQ indicators were monitored at 5-6 sampling dates during the crop season (i.e., between November and June): soil bulk density (BD), macroporosity (PMAC), air capacity (AC), plant available water capacity (PAWC) and relative field capacity (RFC). Two additional data sets, collected on DD plot in different cropping seasons and in Sicilian soils differing for texture, depth and land use (N=140), were also used with the aim to check the correlation among indicators. Impact of soil management was assessed by comparing SPQ evaluated under different management systems with optimal reference values reported in literature. Two techniques of multivariate analysis (principal component analysis, PCA and stepwise discriminant analysis, SDA) were applied to select the most suitable indicator to facilitate the judgment on SPQ. Regardless of the considered management system, sampling date or auxiliary data set, correlation matrices always showed significant negative relationships between RFC and AC. Decreasing RFC at increasing AC is

  1. A Facility for Long-Term Mars Simulation Experiments: The Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber (MESCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars Liengaard; Merrison, Jonathan; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Mikkelsen, Karina Aarup; Kristoffersen, Tommy; Nørnberg, Per; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Finster, Kai

    2008-06-01

    We describe the design, construction, and pilot operation of a Mars simulation facility comprised of a cryogenic environmental chamber, an atmospheric gas analyzer, and a xenon/mercury discharge source for UV generation. The Mars Environmental Simulation Chamber (MESCH) consists of a double-walled cylindrical chamber. The double wall provides a cooling mantle through which liquid N2 can be circulated. A load-lock system that consists of a small pressure-exchange chamber, which can be evacuated, allows for the exchange of samples without changing the chamber environment. Fitted within the MESCH is a carousel, which holds up to 10 steel sample tubes. Rotation of the carousel is controlled by an external motor. Each sample in the carousel can be placed at any desired position. Environmental data, such as temperature, pressure, and UV exposure time, are computer logged and used in automated feedback mechanisms, enabling a wide variety of experiments that include time series. Tests of the simulation facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to produce temperature cycles and maintain low temperature (down to -140°C), low atmospheric pressure (5 10 mbar), and a gas composition like that of Mars during long-term experiments.

  2. Between unemployment and employment: experience of unemployed long-term pain sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavare, Maria; Löfgren, Monika; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study explored and analysed how patients experienced possibilities for, and barriers to, work return after participation in a multi-professional pain-rehabilitation program followed by a coached work-training program (CWT). Eleven informants (8 women/3 men) with long-term musculoskeletal pain who had participated in the CWT program for 4-21 months (mean=11) comprised the study. A qualitative emergent design was used. Data collected with interviews were analysed using the constant comparison method of grounded theory. Triangulation in researchers were used. The analyses of the interviews resulted in the development of a three-category theoretical model, which was named "a way back to work". The main category "Experience of a way back to work" consisted of the informants' experience during the process between unemployment and employment. The category "Support" describes the help the informants received from various actors, and the category "Negative response" describes negative responses from the actors involved, which was an important barrier in the process between unemployment and employment. Professional individualised support, participants feeling involved in their rehabilitation process, coaching at real workplaces and multi-professional team including health care personnel, were valuable during the process towards work.

  3. Lagrangian current measurements and large-scale long-term dispersion rates (Sofar float experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbutt, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Activity entering the water from a deep-sea disposal of radioactive waste package will be dispersed through the ocean both by the long-term circulation pattern and the eddy (mixing) motions. Sofar floats are thought to be the most cost-effective way of obtaining direct information on the circulation over a few years and the only way to obtain information, in the Lagrangian framework, on the statistics of the eddy movements. The Sofar float experiment seeks to answer questions including: (a) What is the magnitude of space and time variability of the horizontal eddy kinetic energy in the eastern bassin and is it consistent with that found in the western basin of the North Atlantic. (b) Is the deep flow inferred from incoherent arrays of moored current meters correct. The report covers the preparation stage for the Sofar float experiment whick takes place from autumn 1984 to 1986. It describes the recent results from the western North Atlantic, the design of the new deep Sofar float, the testing of the float including the range at which these new floats can be heard, the experimental design and expected results

  4. Verification of atmospheric diffusion models using data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Junji; Kido, Hiroko; Hato, Shinji; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-03-01

    Straight-line or segmented plume models as atmospheric diffusion models are commonly used in probabilistic accident consequence assessment (PCA) codes due to cost and time savings. The PCA code, OSCAAR developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Present; Japan Atomic Energy Agency) uses the variable puff trajectory model to calculate atmospheric transport and dispersion of released radionuclides. In order to investigate uncertainties involved with the structure of the atmospheric dispersion/deposition model in OSCAAR, we have introduced the more sophisticated computer codes that included regional meteorological models RAMS and atmospheric transport model HYPACT, which were developed by Colorado State University, and comparative analyses between OSCAAR and RAMS/HYPACT have been performed. In this study, model verification of OSCAAR and RAMS/HYPACT was conducted using data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments, which were carried out in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken. The predictions by models and the results of the atmospheric diffusion experiments indicated relatively good agreements. And it was shown that model performance of OSCAAR was the same degree as it of RAMS/HYPACT. (author)

  5. Experiences of occupational physicians with the implementation of indicated prevention for long term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Carin P M; Verdonk, Petra; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, IJmert; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2017-01-01

    Functioning including work participation, is an emerging challenge in occupational health. The prevention of long term sickness absence (LTSA) through a strategy involving screening and structured early consultation (preventive strategy) was proven effective and can address participation issues. Implementation of this strategy has proven difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of occupational physicians (OPs) delivering a structured early consultation to office workers, in order to enhance implementation of the strategy. In this case study, a mixed method design was used. Interviews and surveys were conducted to obtain an in-depth picture of OPs experiences. Factors hindering implementation in relation to the OPs were difficulties in communicating the risk of future sick leave, prioritization of other tasks, maintaining a reactive approach due to work pressure, preference for prevention on the level of the work environment, privacy issues related to labeling workers to have mental or psychosocial issues, and the biomedical model being the mental model in use. Implementation of the preventive strategy seems to require a more profound focus on the biopsychosocial approach. Training of relevant skills is important to achieve a focus on prevention and fostering health over the lifespan.

  6. Histopathology Image Analysis in Two Long-Term Animal Experiments with Helical Flow Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotke, Jiri; Homolka, Pavel; Vasku, Jaromír; Dobsak, Petr; Palanova, Petra; Mrkvicova, Veronika; Konecny, Petr; Soska, Vladimir; Pohanka, Michal; Novakova, Marie; Yurimoto, Terumi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    Histopathological analysis can provide important information in long-term experiments with total artificial heart (TAH). Recently, a new type of blood pump, the helical flow total artificial heart (HF-TAH) was developed. This study aimed to investigate the changes in selected vital organs in animal experiments with implanted HF-TAH. Samples from lung, liver, and kidneys from two female goats (No. 1301 and No. 1304) with implanted HF-TAH were analyzed. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and 4 µm thick transverse sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Additional staining was done for detection of connective tissue (Masson-Goldner stain) and for detection of iron (hemosiderin) deposits (Perls stain). Sections were scanned at 100× and 500× magnification with a light microscope. Experiment no. 1301 survived 100 days (cause of termination was heavy damage of the right pump); experimental goat no.1304 survived 68 days and was sacrificed due to severe right hydrodynamic bearing malfunction. Histopathological analysis of liver samples proved signs of chronic venostasis with limited focal necrotic zones. Dilated tubules, proteinaceous material in tubular lumen, and hemosiderin deposits were detected in kidney samples. Contamination of the organs by embolized micro-particles was suspected at the autopsy after discovery of visible damage (scratches) of the pump impeller surface (made from titanium alloy) in both experiments. Sporadic deposits of foreign micro-particles (presumably titanium) were observed in most of the analyzed parenchymal organs. However, the described deposits were not in direct connection with inflammatory reactions in the analyzed tissues. Histopathological analysis showed the presence of minimal contamination of the lung, kidney, and liver tissue samples by foreign material (titanium very likely). The analysis showed only limited pathological changes, especially in liver and kidneys, which might be attributed to the influence of

  7. The Irish epilepsy surgery experience: Long-term follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunlea, Orla

    2010-05-01

    To assess the long-term seizure outcome of Irish patients who underwent resective surgery for refractory epilepsy since 1975. We also wished to determine the impact of pathology and surgical technique (with particular reference to neocorticectomy) on seizure outcome.

  8. Nurse Case Managers' Experiences on Case Management for Long-term Hospitalization in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jinjoo Oh, Ph.D., RN, GNP; Seieun Oh, Ph.D., RN

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of case management for long-term hospitalization use has been approved for controlling medical cost increases in other countries. But, introduction of the case management in Korea has created issues that hinder its effective operation. This qualitative study aimed to obtain further understanding of the issues surrounding the management of Medical Aid beneficiaries' use of long-term hospitalization from the case managers' perspectives and to provide suggestions for ...

  9. The effect of cognitive reappraisal on long-term emotional experience and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Kim, Shin Ah; Hwang, In Jae; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Hamann, Stephan; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-03-01

    One's ability to properly regulate emotion is critical to psychological and physical well-being. Among various strategies to regulate emotion, cognitive reappraisal has been shown to modulate both emotional experience and emotional memory. However, most studies of reappraisal have focused on reappraisal of negative situations, with reappraisal of positive emotion receiving considerably less attention. In addition, the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions to stimuli are typically only assessed either immediately or after a short delay, and it remains unclear whether reappraisal effects persist over longer time periods. We investigated the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional reactions and long-term episodic memory for positive and negative stimuli. Men and women viewed emotionally negative, positive, and neutral pictures while they were instructed to either increase, decrease, or maintain the initial emotional reactions elicited by the pictures. Subjective ratings of emotional valence and arousal were assessed during the regulation task and again after 1 week. Memory for the pictures was assessed with free recall. Results indicated that pictures accompanied by instructions to increase emotion were better recalled than pictures reappraised to decrease emotion. Modulation of emotional arousal elicited by stimuli persisted over a week, but this effect was observed only for men. These findings suggest that cognitive reappraisal can have long-lasting effects on emotional reactions to stimuli. However, the sex differences observed for the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions highlight the importance of considering individual differences in the effects of regulation. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Our experience, technique and long-term outcomes in the management of posterior urethral strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Jana, Manisha; Baidya, Dalim Kumar

    2014-02-01

    To share our experience, technique and long-term outcomes in posterior urethral stricture management. Thirty-seven boys with post-traumatic posterior urethral stricture underwent resection and end-to-end anastomosis through pre-anal coronal approach or in combination with trans-pubic approach from January 2000 to December 2011. Follow up included symptomatic evaluation by micturating cystourethrogram and retrograde urethrogram in all patients, and urethroscopy in patients with voiding symptoms. Pre-anal coronal approach was used in 29 (78%) cases and in 8 (21%) cases it was combined with trans-pubic approach. In 33 (89.1%) patients it was first attempt, while in 4 (10.9%) it was redo surgery. Two patients required buccal mucosal graft to bridge the deficient urethra. Patient age was 5-17 years (mean 10.8 years). Mean follow up was 48.5 months (range 6-132 months). Thirty-two (86%) patients were symptom free. Failed repairs were successfully managed by urethral dilation in 3 and by redo urethroplasty in the remaining 2. All patients were continent. There was no chordee, penile shortening or urethral diverticula. Resection and end-to-end anastomosis of posterior urethral stricture is possible through pre-anal coronal incision; however, if slightest difficulty is envisaged in creating a satisfactory end-to-end anastomosis, extension to trans-pubic approach should be done. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellulose Degradation at Alkaline Conditions: Long-Term Experiments at Elevated Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaus, M.A.; Van Loon, L.R.

    2004-04-01

    temperatures tested here. It may be hypothesised that the alkaline hydrolysis has even not been observed in the experiments. However, if this is true, cellulose degradation proceeded via another unknown type of reaction. Mass balances for carbon show that the large majority of reaction products found in solution can be explained by formation of isosaccharinic acids and other low-molecular weight carboxylic acids. With respect to long-term predictions for cellulose degradation at room temperature it can be concluded that the kinetic parameters for alkaline hydrolysis as proposed in the work of PAVASARS (Linkoping Studies in Arts and Science, 196, Linkoping University, Sweden, 1999) are too large and that complete cellulose degradation at these temperatures occurs only within time scales larger than hundreds of years. However, it is not possible from the experimental evidences, to corroborate the validity of a linear extrapolation (Arrhenius equation) of the reaction rates measured at temperatures between 140 and 190 o C to room temperature, from which it was previously concluded that complete cellulose degradation would take time spans of the order of millions of years. An interesting observation in the present experiments is the chemical instability of aisosaccharinic acid at 90 o C, which has been hypothetically interpreted as a fragmentation induced by the sorption of α-isosaccharinic acid on Ca(OH) 2 . Carbon mass balances show that α-isosaccharinic acid is thereby transformed to other lowmolecular weight carboxylic acids. Such a reaction would be an interesting long-term perspective for performance assessment of the disposal of cellulose-containing radioactive waste, in that it may reduce the concentration of organic compounds strongly complexing radionuclides. (author)

  12. Cellulose Degradation at Alkaline Conditions: Long-Term Experiments at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M.A.; Van Loon, L.R

    2004-04-01

    hydrolysis at the temperatures tested here. It may be hypothesised that the alkaline hydrolysis has even not been observed in the experiments. However, if this is true, cellulose degradation proceeded via another unknown type of reaction. Mass balances for carbon show that the large majority of reaction products found in solution can be explained by formation of isosaccharinic acids and other low-molecular weight carboxylic acids. With respect to long-term predictions for cellulose degradation at room temperature it can be concluded that the kinetic parameters for alkaline hydrolysis as proposed in the work of PAVASARS (Linkoping Studies in Arts and Science, 196, Linkoping University, Sweden, 1999) are too large and that complete cellulose degradation at these temperatures occurs only within time scales larger than hundreds of years. However, it is not possible from the experimental evidences, to corroborate the validity of a linear extrapolation (Arrhenius equation) of the reaction rates measured at temperatures between 140 and 190{sup o}C to room temperature, from which it was previously concluded that complete cellulose degradation would take time spans of the order of millions of years. An interesting observation in the present experiments is the chemical instability of aisosaccharinic acid at 90{sup o}C, which has been hypothetically interpreted as a fragmentation induced by the sorption of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid on Ca(OH){sub 2}. Carbon mass balances show that {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid is thereby transformed to other lowmolecular weight carboxylic acids. Such a reaction would be an interesting long-term perspective for performance assessment of the disposal of cellulose-containing radioactive waste, in that it may reduce the concentration of organic compounds strongly complexing radionuclides. (author)

  13. Remaining uncertainties in predicting long-term performance of nuclear waste glass from experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1994-01-01

    The current knowledge on the glass dissolution mechanism and the representation of glass dissolution concepts within overall repository performance assessment models are briefly summarized and uncertainties related to mechanism, radionuclide chemistry and parameters are discussed. Understanding of the major glass dissolution processes has been significantly increased in recent years. Long-term glass stability is related to the long-term maintenance of silica saturated conditions. The behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass has not been sufficiently and results do no yet allow meaningful predictions. Conserving long-term predictions of glass matrix dissolution as upper limit for radionuclide release can be made with sufficient confidence, however these estimations generally result in a situation where the barrier function of the glass is masked by the efficiency of the geologic barrier. Realistic long-term predictions may show that the borosilicate waste glass contributes to overall repository safety to a much larger extent than indicated by overconservatism. Today realistic predictions remain highly uncertain and much more research work is necessary. In particular, the long-term rate under silica saturated conditions needs to be understood and the behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass deserves more systematic investigations

  14. Long-Term CO2 Exposure Experiments - Geochemical Effects on Brine-Saturated Reservoir Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Wandrey, Maren

    2010-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is the most promising strategy for the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere via long-term geological storage. The study is part of the CO2SINK project conducted at Ketzin, situated 40 km west of Berlin. There, food grade CO2 has been pumped into the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation since June 2008. The main objective of the experimental program is to investigate the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on the physico-chemical properties of the reservoir rock. To achieve this goal, core samples from observation well Ktzi 202 have been saturated with synthetic brine and exposed to CO2 in high quality steel autoclaves at simulated reservoir P-T-conditions of 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C. The synthetic brine had a composition representative of the formation fluid (Förster et al., 2006) of 172.8 g/l NaCl, 8.0 g/l MgCl2×2H2O, 4.8 g/l CaCl2×2H2O and 0.6 g/l KCl. After 15 months, the first set of CO2-exposed samples was removed from the pressure vessels. Thin sections, XRD, SEM as well as EMP data were used to determine the mineralogical features of the reservoir rocks before and after the experiments. Additionally, NMR relaxation and MP was performed to measure poroperm and pore size distribution values of the twin samples. The analyzed samples are fine- to medium grained, moderately well- to well sorted and weakly consolidated sandstones. Quartz and plagioclase are the major components, while K-feldspar, hematite, white & dark mica, chlorite and illite are present in minor and varying amounts. Cements are composed of analcime, dolomite and anhydrite. Some samples show mm- to cm-scale cross-beddings. The laminae comprise lighter, quartz- and feldspar-dominated layers and dark-brownish layers with notably less quartz and feldspars. The results are consistent with those of Blaschke et al. (2008). The plagioclase composition indicates preferred dissolution of the Ca-component and a trend toward albite-rich phases or even pure

  15. Vital correspondence: Exploring tactile experience with resident-focused mandalas in long-term care (Innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Megan E; Fabricius, Andréa

    2018-01-01

    The materiality of long-term care and its relationship to a resident's identity is often overlooked. In response to the call for more attention to the meaningful aspects of doing art, the tactile experience of residents with dementia is considered in the context of a mandala project at a Canadian seniors' long-term care facility. The significance of making mandalas for residents is explored through three key themes: identity integration through gesture, the importance of artistic discernment and decision-making, and the value of corresponding with recalcitrant materials. Residents' experiences are analysed through a phenomenological lens.

  16. Microbiological parameters of aggregates in typical chernozems of long-term field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelezova, A. D.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Garbuz, S. A.; Lazarev, V. I.; Kogut, B. M.; Kutovaya, O. V.; Kholodov, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    The changes in microbiological parameters of aggregates (1-2 mm) in typical chernozems under different land uses as dependent on the intensity and character of anthropogenic loads were studied with the help of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples from the following long-term field experiments were examined: permanent black fallow, continuous cultivation of potato, 17-year-old unmanaged fallow after permanent black fallow, and annually mown reserved steppe. The soil samples were treated in two ways. In the first case, the samples were air-dried, sieved through the screens to separate aggregate fraction of 1-2 mm, and microbiological parameters were determined in this fraction. In the second case, the samples were frozen immediately after the sampling, and the aggregates of 1-2 mm were manually separated from the samples before the PCR analysis. It was shown that air-dry aggregates of chernozems could be used for the quantitative analysis of DNA of microbial community in comparative studies. According to the quantitative estimate of the content of DNA fragments from different phylogenetic groups, the bacterial community was most sensitive to the type of the soil use, and its restoration after the removal of extreme anthropogenic loads proceeded faster than that of other microorganisms. The content of archaeal DNA in the chernozem under the 17-year-old unmanaged fallow did not differ significantly from its content in the annually plowed chernozems. The changes in the content of micromycetal DNA related to anthropogenic load decrease were intermediate between changes in the contents of archaeal and bacterial DNA.

  17. Opening the Door: The Experience of Chronic Critical Illness in a Long-Term Acute Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Daniela J; Owens, Robert L; Nace, R Nicholas; Massaro, Anthony F; Pertsch, Nathan J; Gass, Jonathon; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-04-01

    Chronically critically ill patients have recurrent infections, organ dysfunction, and at least half die within 1 year. They are frequently cared for in long-term acute care hospitals, yet little is known about their experience in this setting. Our objective was to explore the understanding and expectations and goals of these patients and surrogates. We conducted semi-structured interviews with chronically critically ill long-term acute care hospital patients or surrogates. Conversations were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. One long-term acute care hospital. Chronically critically ill patients, defined by tracheotomy for prolonged mechanical ventilation, or surrogates. Semi-structured conversation about quality of life, expectations, and planning for setbacks. A total of 50 subjects (30 patients and 20 surrogates) were enrolled. Thematic analyses demonstrated: 1) poor quality of life for patients; 2) surrogate stress and anxiety; 3) optimistic health expectations; 4) poor planning for medical setbacks; and 5) disruptive care transitions. Nearly 80% of patient and their surrogate decision makers identified going home as a goal; 38% were at home at 1 year. Our study describes the experience of chronically critically ill patients and surrogates in an long-term acute care hospital and the feasibility of patient-focused research in this setting. Our findings indicate overly optimistic expectations about return home and unmet palliative care needs, suggesting the need for integration of palliative care within the long-term acute care hospital. Further research is also needed to more fully understand the challenges of this growing population of ICU survivors.

  18. Experience of long-term belimumab use in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gennadyevna Klyukvina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years considerable progress has been made in the treatment of systemic lupus erythe-matosus; however, not all questions have been answered. The range of medications has substan-tially increased. The paper describes a case of the long-term use of the new genetically engineered agent belimumab in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  19. The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: findings from the first decade of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; D. Andrew Scott; Felipe g. Sanchez; Richard A. Voldseth; Deborah Page-Dumroese; John D. Elioff; Douglas M. Stone

    2005-01-01

    First decade findings on the impacts of organic matter removal and soil compaction are reported for the 26 oldest installations in the nation-wide network of long-term soil productivity sites. Complete removal of surface organic matter led to declines in soil C concentration to 20 cm depth and to reduced nutrient availability. The effect is attributed mainly to the...

  20. Seabed gallery intakes: Investigation of the water pretreatment effectiveness of the active layer using a long-term column experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    ) in improving raw water quality was conducted by using a long-term bench-scale columns experiment. Two different media types, silica and carbonate sand, were tested in 1 m columns to evaluate the effectiveness of media type in terms of algae, bacteria, Natural

  1. Long-Term Chinese Students' Transitional Experiences in UK Higher Education: A Particular Focus on Their Academic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Isobel Kai-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The global population of students pursuing studies abroad continues to grow, and consequently their intercultural experiences are receiving greater research attention. However, research into long-term student sojourners' academic development and personal growth is still in its infancy. A parallel mixed method study was designed to investigate the…

  2. The Experiences of Long-Term Unemployed Young Adults in the South West of England: Some New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawy, Robert; Wheeler, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the experiences of three long-term unemployed young adults from different backgrounds in the 18-24 age range. The data comprise three interviews conducted over an 18-month period with seven of the original 19 participants in the research. At the time of first interview none of the young adults had been in education,…

  3. Parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition: a rapid structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanna; Cheater, Francine; Bekker, Hilary

    2015-08-01

    Living with a child with a long-term condition can result in challenges above usual parenting because of illness-specific demands. A critical evaluation of research exploring parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition is timely because international health policy advocates that patients with long-term conditions become active collaborators in care decisions. A rapid structured review was undertaken (January 1999-December 2009) in accordance with the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Three data bases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYCINFO) were searched and also hand searching of the Journal of Advanced Nursing and Child: Care, Health and Development. Primary research studies written in English language describing parents' experiences of living with a child with a long-term condition were included. Thematic analysis underpinned data synthesis. Quality appraisal involved assessing each study against predetermined criteria. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. The impact of living with a child with a long-term condition related to dealing with immediate concerns following the child's diagnosis and responding to the challenges of integrating the child's needs into family life. Parents' perceived they are not always supported in their quest for information and forming effective relationships with health-care professionals can be stressful. Although having ultimate responsibility for their child's health can be overwhelming, parents developed considerable expertise in managing their child's condition. Parents' accounts suggest they not always supported in their role as manager for their child's long-term condition and their expertise, and contribution to care is not always valued. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Freedom Solo pericardial stentless valve: Single-center experience, outcomes, and long-term durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Olaf; Bleuel, Irina; Gisler, Fabian; Göber, Volkhard; Reineke, Sylvia; Gahl, Brigitta; Aymard, Thierry; Englberger, Lars; Carrel, Thierry; Tevaearai, Hendrik

    2015-07-01

    To report our institutional experience and long-term results with the Freedom Solo bovine pericardial stentless bioprosthesis (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy). Between January 2005 and November 2009, 149 patients (mean age, 73.6 ± 8.7 years; 68 [45.6%] female) underwent isolated (n = 75) or combined (n = 74) aortic valve replacement (AVR) using the Solo in our institution. Follow-up was 100% complete with an average follow-up time of 5.9 ± 2.6 years (maximum, 9.6 years) and a total of 885.3 patient years. Operative (30-day) mortality was 2.7% (1.3% for isolated AVR [n = 1] and 4.0% for combined procedures [n = 3]). All causes of death were not valve-related. Preoperative peak (mean) gradients of 74.2 ± 23.0 mm Hg (48.6 ± 16.3 mm Hg) decreased to 15.6 ± 5.4 mm Hg (8.8 ± 3.0 mm Hg) after AVR, and remained low for up to 9 years. The postoperative effective orifice area was 1.6 ± 0.57 cm(2), 1.90 ± 0.45 cm(2), 2.12 ± 0.48 cm(2), and 2.20 ± 0.66 cm(2) for the valve sizes 21, 23, 25, and 27, respectively, with absence of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch and 0.7% (n = 1) experienced moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch. During follow-up, 26 patients experienced structural valve deterioration (SVD) and 14 patients underwent explantation. Kaplan-Meier estimates for freedom from death, explantation, and SVD at 9 years averaged 0.57 (range, 0.47-0.66), 0.82 (range, 0.69-0.90), and 0.70 (range, 0.57-0.79), respectively. The Freedom Solo stentless aortic valve is safe to implant and shows excellent early and midterm hemodynamic performance. However, SVD was observed in a substantial number of patients after only 5-6 years and the need for explantation increased markedly, suggesting low durability. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment experience of surgical repair for long-term skull defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-cheng FAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective analysis was performed on 30 patients of skull defect who underwent surgical repair. Intraoperative and postoperative curative effect was evaluated on those patients, and the results showed that the incidence rate of intraoperative dura mater defect (P = 0.001, early postoperative complications [new epilepsy (P = 0.035 and effusion (P = 0.021] and late postoperative complications [foreign body sensation (P = 0.035 and dizziness and headache (P = 0.050] in long-term skull defect group were all higher than those in control group. In conclusion, surgical repair of long-term skull defect incurring high risk and various complications will not be an ideal management. Therefore, early surgical treatment for skull defect is suggested. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.12.016

  6. Parents' experiences of pediatric palliative care and the impact on long-term parental grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Streng, Isabelle C; Michiels, Erna M C; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2014-06-01

    Approximately 25% of children diagnosed with cancer eventually die. Losing a child puts parents at increased risk for developing psychological problems. To explore parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement) and symptom management during the pediatric palliative phase, and to investigate the influence on long-term grief in parents who lost a child to cancer. A total of 89 parents of 57 children who died of cancer between 2000 and 2004 participated in this retrospective cross-sectional study by completing a set of questionnaires measuring grief (Inventory of Traumatic Grief), parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement), and symptom management during the palliative phase. Care was assessed on a five point Likert scale (1=disagree and 5=agree). Parents highly rated communication (4.6±0.6), continuity of care (4.3±0.6), and parental involvement (4.6±0.7) during the palliative phase. Parents' most often reported physical and psychological symptoms of their child during the palliative phase were fatigue (75%), pain (74%), anxiety to be alone (52%), and anger (48%). Higher ratings of parents on communication (β=-9.08, P=0.03) and continuity of care (β=-11.74, P=0.01) were associated with lower levels of long-term parental grief. The severity of the child's dyspnea (β=2.96, P=0.05), anxiety to be alone (β=4.52, Pparental grief. Multivariate models combining the interaction with health care professionals and symptom management showed a significant influence of both aspects on long-term parental grief. Both interaction with health care professionals, especially communication and continuity of care, and symptom management in children dying of cancer are associated with long-term parental grief levels. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Long-term experience of plasmapheresis in antibody-mediated rejection in renal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, C M

    2009-11-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) continues to pose a serious challenge in renal transplantation with potentially devastating consequences. Treatment options for this condition include plasmapheresis, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis with low-dose IVIG, and the use of rituximab (anti-CD20 chimeric antibody). We previously reported on the short-term outcome of plasmapheresis as a rescue therapy for AMR in our centre. We now report on the long-term follow up.

  8. Research priorities for grassland science: the need of long term integrated experiments networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lemaire

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands have to be considered not only as a mean for providing foods for domestic herbivore but also as an important biome of terrestrial biosphere. This function of grasslands as an active component of our environment requires specific studies on the role and impact of this ecosystem on soil erosion and soil quality, quality and quantity of water resources, atmosphere composition and greenhouse gas emission or sequestration, biodiversity dynamics at different scales from field plot to landscape. All these functions have to be evaluated in conjunction with the function of providing animal products for increasing human population. So multifunctionality of grasslands become a new paradigm for grassland science. Environmental and biodiversity outputs require long term studies, being the long term retro-active processes within soil, vegetation and micro-organism communities in relation to changes in management programme. So grassland science needs to carry on long term integrated experimentation for studying all the environmental outputs and ecological services associated to grassland management systems.

  9. Long-Term Experience with First-Generation Implantable Neurostimulation Device in Central Sleep Apnea Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Henrik; Bitter, Thomas; Horstkotte, Dieter; Oldenburg, Olaf; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) are associated with shorter survival in patients with heart failure. A novel treatment method for this patient group is unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation by the remedē® system (Respicardia Inc., Minnetonka, MN, USA), a transvenously implantable neurostimulation device, which has recently been studied in a large randomized, controlled trial. Previous literature has shown efficacy and safety of the treatment with this first-generation device, but hardly any data are available on long-term clinical parameters, the remedē® device's battery lifetime, device exchangeability, lead position stability, surgical accessibility, and manageability. We performed remedē® device replacements in consecutive patients for battery depletion, and documented clinical parameters, longevity, operation procedure, complications, and difficulties. All patients were on neurostimulation treatment by phrenic nerve neurostimulation when device replacement became necessary. Apnea-hypopnea index (from 45 ± 4/h to 9 ± 4/h), oxygen-desaturation index (from 35 ± 7/h to 7 ± 6/h), and time spent with oxygen saturation of ray documentation of stable lead positions in a long-term setting, no radiation or contrast dye usage was needed and no major complications occurred. In addition, clinical exercise capacity and sleepiness symptoms improved. Novel remedē® device shows sustained therapy efficacy and safety in terms of stable lead positions over 4 years. Long-term phrenic nerve neurostimulation therapy for central SDB/CSR appears feasible in a clinical routine setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Modeling long-term aspects of nuclear waste disposal: the AEGIS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    Modeling the long-term aspects of nuclear waste disposal has its roots in risk analysis of man-made systems like nuclear reactors. Analytical problems can be introduced into the performance assessment of a site-specific repository if an appreciation for the behavior of a natural earth system is not maintained. However, this should not preclude the application of historically useful analytical techniques like bounding strategies in favor of emerging, data-intensive techniques. The technical challenge is to apply existing technology and available data to a complex problem and produce a useful result

  11. Immersion-scanning-tunneling-microscope for long-term variable-temperature experiments at liquid-solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Oliver; Heckl, Wolfgang M.; Lackinger, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Fundamental insights into the kinetics and thermodynamics of supramolecular self-assembly on surfaces are uniquely gained by variable-temperature high-resolution Scanning-Tunneling-Microscopy (STM). Conventionally, these experiments are performed with standard ambient microscopes extended with heatable sample stages for local heating. However, unavoidable solvent evaporation sets a technical limit on the duration of these experiments, hence prohibiting long-term experiments. These, however, would be highly desirable to provide enough time for temperature stabilization and settling of drift but also to study processes with inherently slow kinetics. To overcome this dilemma, we propose a STM that can operate fully immersed in solution. The instrument is mounted onto the lid of a hermetically sealed heatable container that is filled with the respective solution. By closing the container, both the sample and microscope are immersed in solution. Thereby solvent evaporation is eliminated and an environment for long-term experiments with utmost stable and controllable temperatures between room-temperature and 100 °C is provided. Important experimental requirements for the immersion-STM and resulting design criteria are discussed, the strategy for protection against corrosive media is described, the temperature stability and drift behavior are thoroughly characterized, and first long-term high resolution experiments at liquid-solid interfaces are presented.

  12. Long-Term Clinical Practice Experience with Cinacalcet for Treatment of Hypercalcemic Hyperparathyroidism after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessl, Alois; Borchhardt, Kyra

    2015-01-01

    Within this prospective, open-label, self-controlled study, we evaluated the long-term effects of the calcimimetic cinacalcet on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in 44 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism by comparing biochemical parameters of mineral metabolism between pre- and posttreatment periods. Results are described as mean differences (95% CIs) between pre- and posttreatment medians that summarize all repeated measurements of a parameter of interest between the date of initial hypercalcemia and cinacalcet initiation (median of 1.6 (IQR: 0.6–3.8) years) and up to four years after treatment start, respectively. Cinacalcet was initiated after 1.8 (0.8–4.7) years posttransplant and maintained for 6.2 (3.9–7.6) years. It significantly decreased total serum calcium (−0.30 (−0.34 to −0.26) mmol/L, P hyperparathyroidism in KTRs in the long-term and increased low Pi levels without causing hyperphosphatemia, pointing towards a novel indication for the use of cinacalcet in KTRs. PMID:25861621

  13. Steroid-free immunosuppression after renal transplantation-long-term experience from a single centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Faramawi, Mohamad; Rohr, Nils; Jespersen, Bente

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol may improve the general well-being of patients, but long-term renal graft survival has been a concern. METHODS: In a retrospective clinical study, 329 consecutive transplantations with renal grafts at our centre during the period 1995-2004, were......, for instance because of primary kidney disease or when calcineurin inhibitor toxicity was suspected. RESULTS: About 71% of the patients did not take steroids at all. Nevertheless, graft survival rates at 1, 5 and 7 years were 95, 77 and 72% for all grafts, including 27% living donor transplants and 27% second...... or subsequent grafts. Ten patients (3.2%) died with functioning grafts. Within the first year of transplantation there were 69 acute rejections in 63 patients (19%). Four cases (1.3%) of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurred with one graft loss and no deaths. Owing to a high PTLD rate...

  14. Long-term sequelae after lung abscess in children - Two tertiary centers' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojsyk-Banaszak, I; Krenke, K; Jończyk-Potoczna, K; Ksepko, K; Wielebska, A; Mikoś, M; Bręborowicz, A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristic of children hospitalized with pneumonia complicated by lung abscess, as well as to evaluate the long-term sequelae of the disease. A retrospective review of medical records of all patients treated for pulmonary abscess in two tertiary centers was undertaken. Pulmonary function tests and lung ultrasound were performed at a follow-up. During the study period, 5151 children with pneumonia were admitted, and 49 (0.95%) cases were complicated with lung abscess. In 38 (77.5%) patients, lung abscess was treated solely with antibiotics, and in nine cases (16.3%) surgically. In 21 (51.21%) children complete radiological regression was documented. The mean time for radiological abnormalities regression was 84.14 ± 51.57 days, regardless of the treatment mode. Fifteen patients were followed up at 61.6 ± 28.3 months after discharge. Lung ultrasound revealed minor residual abnormalities: pleural thickening, subpleural consolidations and line B artefacts in 11 (73.3%) children. Pulmonary function tests results were abnormal in eight (53.3%) patients, the most frequent abnormality being hyperinflation. We did not find a restrictive disorder in any of the children. There were no deaths in our study. Lung abscess is a rare but severe complication of pneumonia in children. Most children recover uneventfully with no significant long-term pulmonary sequelae. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate effects and feedback structure determining weed population dynamics in a long-term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio; Navarrete, Luis; González-Andujar, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Pest control is one of the areas in which population dynamic theory has been successfully applied to solve practical problems. However, the links between population dynamic theory and model construction have been less emphasized in the management and control of weed populations. Most management models of weed population dynamics have emphasized the role of the endogenous process, but the role of exogenous variables such as climate have been ignored in the study of weed populations and their management. Here, we use long-term data (22 years) on two annual weed species from a locality in Central Spain to determine the importance of endogenous and exogenous processes (local and large-scale climate factors). Our modeling study determined two different feedback structures and climate effects in the two weed species analyzed. While Descurainia sophia exhibited a second-order feedback and low climate influence, Veronica hederifolia was characterized by a first-order feedback structure and important effects from temperature and rainfall. Our results strongly suggest the importance of theoretical population dynamics in understanding plant population systems. Moreover, the use of this approach, discerning between the effect of exogenous and endogenous factors, can be fundamental to applying weed management practices in agricultural systems and to controlling invasive weedy species. This is a radical change from most approaches currently used to guide weed and invasive weedy species managements.

  16. Climate Effects and Feedback Structure Determining Weed Population Dynamics in a Long-Term Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio; Navarrete, Luis; González-Andujar, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Pest control is one of the areas in which population dynamic theory has been successfully applied to solve practical problems. However, the links between population dynamic theory and model construction have been less emphasized in the management and control of weed populations. Most management models of weed population dynamics have emphasized the role of the endogenous process, but the role of exogenous variables such as climate have been ignored in the study of weed populations and their management. Here, we use long-term data (22 years) on two annual weed species from a locality in Central Spain to determine the importance of endogenous and exogenous processes (local and large-scale climate factors). Our modeling study determined two different feedback structures and climate effects in the two weed species analyzed. While Descurainia sophia exhibited a second-order feedback and low climate influence, Veronica hederifolia was characterized by a first-order feedback structure and important effects from temperature and rainfall. Our results strongly suggest the importance of theoretical population dynamics in understanding plant population systems. Moreover, the use of this approach, discerning between the effect of exogenous and endogenous factors, can be fundamental to applying weed management practices in agricultural systems and to controlling invasive weedy species. This is a radical change from most approaches currently used to guide weed and invasive weedy species managements. PMID:22272362

  17. Construction and performance of a long-term earthen liner experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Keros; Krapac, Ivan G.; Bonaparte, Rudolph

    1990-01-01

    In land burial schemes, compacted soil barriers with low hydraulic conductivity are commonly used in cover and liner systems to control the movement of liquids and prevent groundwater contamination. An experimental liner measuring 8 x 15 x 0.9 m was constructed with design criteria and equipment to simulate construction of soil liners built at waste disposal facilities. The surface of the liner was flooded with a 29.5 cm deep pond on April 12, 1988. Infiltration of water into the liner has been monitored for two years using 4 large-ring (1.5 m OD) and 32 small-ring (0.28 m OD) infiltrometers, and a water-balance that accounts for total infiltration and evaporation. Average long-term infiltration fluxes based on two years of monitoring are 5.8 x 10-9 cm/s, 6.0 x 10-8 cm/s and 5.6 x 10-8 for the large-ring, small-ring, and water-balance data, respectively. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the liner based on small-ring data, estimated using Darcy's Law and the Green-Ampt Approximation, is 3 x 10-8 and 4 x 10-8 cm/s, respectively. All sets of data indicate that the liner's performance exceed that which is required by the U.S. EPA.

  18. Long-Term Experiences of Men with Spinal Cord Injuries in Japan: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakuni Tagaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the current study was to examine how Japanese men with long-term spinal cord injuries constructed their post-injury life. To do this, I conducted semi-structured interviews with ten participants who had sustained spinal cord injuries. The interview data was transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using the KJ method, which is widely employed in Japan and has been developed by and named after the founder of the method, the anthropologist Jiro KAWAKITA (1967. The participants led lives similar to able-bodied individuals and tried to find specific positive aspects of their lives that they owed to their disabilities. They also developed collective identities as people with acquired disabilities through their relationships with others having disabilities. To alleviate their sense of loss, the participants also emphasized the unchanged aspects of their pre-injury lives. They understood that their lives were greatly influenced by a socially supportive environment that was regarded as being contingent. They recognized their inability to control the environment and valued the contingencies. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150210

  19. Climate effects and feedback structure determining weed population dynamics in a long-term experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Lima

    Full Text Available Pest control is one of the areas in which population dynamic theory has been successfully applied to solve practical problems. However, the links between population dynamic theory and model construction have been less emphasized in the management and control of weed populations. Most management models of weed population dynamics have emphasized the role of the endogenous process, but the role of exogenous variables such as climate have been ignored in the study of weed populations and their management. Here, we use long-term data (22 years on two annual weed species from a locality in Central Spain to determine the importance of endogenous and exogenous processes (local and large-scale climate factors. Our modeling study determined two different feedback structures and climate effects in the two weed species analyzed. While Descurainia sophia exhibited a second-order feedback and low climate influence, Veronica hederifolia was characterized by a first-order feedback structure and important effects from temperature and rainfall. Our results strongly suggest the importance of theoretical population dynamics in understanding plant population systems. Moreover, the use of this approach, discerning between the effect of exogenous and endogenous factors, can be fundamental to applying weed management practices in agricultural systems and to controlling invasive weedy species. This is a radical change from most approaches currently used to guide weed and invasive weedy species managements.

  20. Long-term experience with sodium chondroitin sulfate in patients with painful bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, J I; Olarte, H; Escudero, F; Gómez, G

    2013-09-01

    To assess the response of patients diagnosed with painful bladder syndrome to treatment with instillations of sodium chondroitin sulfate. We present a series of cases of patients with painful bladder syndrome who followed a bladder instillation protocol with sodium chondroitin sulfate, according to our centre's regimen. The response to treatment was assessed with respect to pain, according to the Downie scale; urinary frequency, according to the voiding diary; and subjective improvement, according to the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) scale. A total of 28 patients with a median age of 59 years (range 22-90) followed this protocol. From the medical histories, 19.4% had suffered an infection of the urinary tract, 3.8% had suffered urinary tuberculosis, 7.6% received pelvic radiation therapy and 26.9% had taken anticholinergic drugs for overactive bladder syndrome. We evaluated the response to treatment at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months and found that at the end of treatment 72.3% of the patients had improved bladder pain and 75% were significantly better. Treatment with sodium chondroitin sulfate through endovesical instillation in painful bladder syndrome improves pain, voiding frequency and quality of life in the long term. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. A Single Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Experience with a Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel L; Borris-Hale, Cathy; Falconio-West, Margaret; Chakravarthy, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of pressure ulcers (PrUs) challenges care facilities. Few studies report PrU reduction efforts in long-term acute care (LTAC). This study described the PrU reduction efforts of a single, LTAC facility using the Medline Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program (mPUPP). This study was a quasi-experimental, quality improvement project, with pre- and postmeasurement design. Outcomes were tracked for 24 months. The mPUPP was implemented in month 11. Education for caregivers was provided through an interactive web-based suite. In addition, all Patient Care Technicians attended a 4-week 1-hour inservice. New skin care products were implemented. The facility also implemented an algorithm for treatment of wounds. There was a significant reduction in the mean monthly hospital-acquired PrU (nPrU) rate when preprogram is compared to postprogram. Sustainable nPrU reduction can be achieved with mPUPP. LTAC hospitals could expect to reduce nPrU with education and incentive of caregivers. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  2. Grain yield and crop N offtake in response to residual fertilizer N in long-term field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Mattsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    in four long-term (>35 yr) field experiments, we measured the response of barley (grain yield and N offtake at crop maturity) to six rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) of mineral fertilizer N (Nnew) applied in subplots replacing the customary long-term plot treatments of fertilizer inputs (Nprev......). Rates of Nprev above 50-100 kg N/ha had no consistent effect on the soil N content, but this was up to 20% greater than that in unfertilized treatments. Long-term unfertilized plots should not be used as control to test the residual value of N in modern agriculture with large production potentials....... Although the effect of mineral Nprev on grain yield and N offtake could be substituted by Nnew within a range of previous inputs, the value of Nprev was not eliminated irrespective of Nnew rate. Provided a sufficient supply of plant nutrients other than N, the use-efficiency of Nnew did not change...

  3. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C., E-mail: andrealo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Howard, A. Fuchsia [School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hasan, Haroon [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Goddard, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Vestibular Schwannomas Treated With Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy: An Institutional Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, Sumit; Batra, Sachin; Carson, Kathryn; Shuck, John; Kharkar, Siddharth; Gandhi, Rahul; Jackson, Juan; Wemmer, Jan; Terezakis, Stephanie; Shokek, Ori; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed clinical outcome and long-term tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for unilateral schwannoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2007, 496 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD); 385 patients had radiologic follow-up that met the inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was treatment failure. Secondary endpoints were radiologic progression and clinical outcome. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association of age, race, tumor side, sex, and pretreatment symptoms. Results: In 11 patients (3%) treatment failed, and they required salvage (microsurgical) treatment. Radiologic progression was observed in 116 patients (30.0%), including 35 patients (9%) in whom the treatment volume more than doubled during the follow-up period, although none required surgical resection. Tumors with baseline volumes of less than 1 cm 3 were 18.02 times more likely to progress than those with tumor volumes of 1 cm 3 or greater (odds ratio, 18.02; 95% confidence interval, 4.25-76.32). Treatment-induced neurologic morbidity included 8 patients (1.6%) with new facial weakness, 12 patients (2.8%) with new trigeminal paresthesias, 4 patients (0.9%) with hydrocephalus (1 communicating and 3 obstructive), and 2 patients (0.5%) with possibly radiation-induced neoplasia. Conclusions: Although the rate of treatment failure is low (3%), careful follow-up shows that radiologic progression occurs frequently. When reporting outcome, the 'no salvage surgery needed' and 'no additional treatment needed' criteria for treatment success need to be complemented by the radiologic data.

  5. Partial repair in irreparable rotator cuff tear: our experience in long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, E D; Di Benedetto, Paolo; Fiocchi, Andrea; Beltrame, Alessandro; Causero, Araldo

    2017-10-18

    Massive rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain and dysfunction, especially in middle age patient; these lesions represent about 20% of all rotator cuff tears and 80% of recurrent tears. Some lesions are not repairable or should not be repaired: in this case, a rotator cuff partial repair should be recommended. The aim of the study is to evaluate the outcome of rotator cuff partial repair in irreparable rotator cuff massive tear at medium and long-term follow-up. We have evaluated 74 consecutive patients treated with functional repair of rotator cuff by the same surgeon between 2006 and 2014. We divided patients into 2 groups, obtaining 2 average follow-up: at about 6,5 (group A) and 3 years (group B). In December 2015, we evaluated in every patient ROM and Constant Score. We analyzed difference between pre-operatory data and the 2 groups.  Results: We found statistical significant difference in ROM and in Constant Score between pre-operatory data and group A and group B. Between group A and group B there is relevant difference in Constant Score but not in ROM. Partial repair can give good results in a medium follow-up, in terms of pain relief and improvement of ROM, as well as in quality of life. Difference in ROM and Constant Score between group A and group B may indicate the begin of partial repair failure; according to our data, 6-7 years may be the time limit for this surgery technique.

  6. Long-term outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy: A real-world experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenbo; Shang, Shuyi; Li, Chuanhui; Wu, Longfei; Wu, Chuanjie; Chen, Jian; Song, Haiqing; Zhang, Hongqi; Zhang, Yunzhou; Duan, Jiangang; Feng, Wuwei; Ji, Xunming

    2018-07-15

    Long-term follow-up of large trials have confirmed the superiority of endovascular thrombectomy (ET) for treating acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, it is still unknown whether these results can be generalized to clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-term outcomes of AIS post-ET in the real-world clinical practice. This observational study is based on a single-center prospective registry study. AIS patients were treated with second-generation stent retrievers from December 2012 to April 2016. The primary outcome was modified Ranks scale (mRS) at the time of the latest assessment. Favorable outcome was defined as mRS scores 0-2, and the unfavorable outcome was defined as mRS scores 3-6. Eighty-nine AIS subjects with large artery occlusion in anterior circulation undergoing ET were eligible for analysis. Median follow-up duration was 20 months (interquartile range 6-32), and 47 subjects (53%) achieved favorable outcome whereas 17 subjects (19%) were functional dependence and 25 subjects (28%) died. Independent predicators for long-term unfavorable outcome were higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (odd ratio:1.21;95% confidence interval 1.09-1.35; p < 0.001) and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) (odd ratio:16.45;95% confidence interval 1.34-193.44; p = 0.026). More subjects of large-artery-atherosclerosis underwent permanent intracranial stenting (22%vs.10%) as compared with those of cardioembolism, while subjects of cardioembolism were more likely to experience sICH (13%vs.8%) and died (32%vs.16%). Over half of AIS patients can achieve favorable long-term outcomes post-ET. Higher baseline NIHSS scores and sICH are independently associated with unfavorable outcome. Overall, clinical practice in this single canter can replicate the long-term outcomes from the published endovascular clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik; Kronberg, Magnus

    2010-12-01

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for ∼6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO 2 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that radionuclide

  8. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Kronberg, Magnus (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for approx6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO{sub 2} 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that

  9. User experience of digital news : two semi-long term field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesonen, E.; Jumisko-Pyykkö, S.H.; Väätäjä, H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reading of digital news on personal devices has dramatically increased. Parallel to new devices, novel services and content types are created forming new habits and experiences for readers. Previous research is limited in understanding temporal aspects of such users’ experiences (UX). This

  10. Chernozem aggregate waterstability loss investigation in a long-term bare fallow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, N. A.; Milanovskiy, E. Y.

    2009-04-01

    POM (0.5%). In analytical aspect of the research possibility to describe soil components as a whole through parameters of soil particles and SOM characteristics can be realized: a) profile distribution of the average Corg content over soil layer mass is closely fitted by the sum (exp1+exp2+C), indicating particular OM pools; b) Corg content (~2%) of stable to long-term degradation sorbed SOM is set in the power parameter of experimental curve SSA (Corg) for chernozem under grassland. c) fractal dimension discontinuities correspond to classification boundaries of colloidal, clay, silt and sand particles (0.5; 2; 20 mkm); d) qualitative change of hydrophobic properties is described by one parameter presumably related to structure of high molecular HS.

  11. Using client experiences for quality improvement in long-term care organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidgeest, M.; Strating, M.; Luijkx, K.; Westert, G.P.; Delnoij, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether client experiences measured with the Consumer Quality Index (CQ-index or CQI) questionnaires are used in Dutch nursing homes and homes for the elderly for quality improvement. DESIGN: Information was gathered through face-to-face interviews with day-to-day workers,

  12. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  13. The Long-Term Effects of War Experiences on Children's Depression in the Republic of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajsa-Zganec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The aim of the study was to investigate whether different levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys and girls could be predicted on the basis of war experiences, perceived available social support (instrumental support, support to self-esteem, belonging and acceptance) and extraversion. Methods:: The sample consisted of…

  14. Productivity of organic and conventional arable cropping systems in long-term experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ambreen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2017-01-01

    manure there was a tendency for increased DM yield over time at all sites, whereas little response was seen in N yield. In the O4 rotation DM and N yields tended to increase at Foulum over time, but there was little change at Flakkebjerg. The DM yield gap between organic and conventional systems in the 3......A field experiment comparing different arable crop rotations was conducted in Denmark during 1997–2008 on three sites varying in climatic conditions and soil types, i.e. coarse sand (Jyndevand), loamy sand (Foulum), and sandy loam (Flakkebjerg). The crop rotations followed organic farm management......, and from 2005 also conventional management was included for comparison. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) crop rotation (organic crop rotations varying in use of whole-year green manure (O1 and O2 with a whole-year green manure, and O4 without...

  15. Long-term memory for the emotional gist and the emotional essence of an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Martin A; Breslin, Carolyn W; Boesch, Richard P; Cerqueira, Renata

    2007-11-01

    We investigated accuracy in recalling past emotional behaviours and emotionality. Male couples discussed the history of their relationship, and coders rated the extent to which each partner engaged in behaviours such as complimenting or criticising. These ratings were combined into dimensions representing the deeper, emotional essence of that partner's discussion (expressions of We-ness, Fondness, Negativity, and Disappointment). Four years later, participants accurately recalled some of their own and some of their partner's emotional gist-level behaviours, but their answers indicated that they also remembered the emotional essence of the conversation. We conclude that individuals can retain the emotional essence of an experience for a long time, and that they may use this memory to infer, in part, gist-level details of the experience.

  16. Implications and Benefits of a Long-Term Peer Debriefing Experience on Teacher Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Schneider; Christy Youker; Joanne Heilman; Melanie Wenrick; Candace Figg

    2010-01-01

    Peer debriefing ensures the trustworthiness of a qualitative research study. Through peer debriefing, the researcher explores the research design, data collection process, and data analysis while colleagues, serving as critical friends, encourage the researcher to examine the research process from multiple perspectives. This paper examines experiences in a peer debriefing group formed by five female teacher researchers as a part of their graduate requirements for doctoral work, and their cont...

  17. Ocean acidification effects on mesozooplankton community development: Results from a long-term mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algueró-Muñiz, María; Alvarez-Fernandez, Santiago; Thor, Peter; Bach, Lennart T.; Esposito, Mario; Horn, Henriette G.; Ecker, Ursula; Langer, Julia A. F.; Taucher, Jan; Malzahn, Arne M.; Riebesell, Ulf; Boersma, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification may affect zooplankton directly by decreasing in pH, as well as indirectly via trophic pathways, where changes in carbon availability or pH effects on primary producers may cascade up the food web thereby altering ecosystem functioning and community composition. Here, we present results from a mesocosm experiment carried out during 113 days in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak coast of Sweden, studying plankton responses to predicted end-of-century pCO2 levels. We did not observe any pCO2 effect on the diversity of the mesozooplankton community, but a positive pCO2 effect on the total mesozooplankton abundance. Furthermore, we observed species-specific sensitivities to pCO2 in the two major groups in this experiment, copepods and hydromedusae. Also stage-specific pCO2 sensitivities were detected in copepods, with copepodites being the most responsive stage. Focusing on the most abundant species, Pseudocalanus acuspes, we observed that copepodites were significantly more abundant in the high-pCO2 treatment during most of the experiment, probably fuelled by phytoplankton community responses to high-pCO2 conditions. Physiological and reproductive output was analysed on P. acuspes females through two additional laboratory experiments, showing no pCO2 effect on females’ condition nor on egg hatching. Overall, our results suggest that the Gullmar Fjord mesozooplankton community structure is not expected to change much under realistic end-of-century OA scenarios as used here. However, the positive pCO2 effect detected on mesozooplankton abundance could potentially affect biomass transfer to higher trophic levels in the future. PMID:28410436

  18. Effect of fertilization on soil phosphorus in a long-term field experiment in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JAAKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was established in 1978 on a loam soil (pH in CaCl 2 7.1 to monitor gradual changes in the soil P status as response to different P fertilization regimes. For 18 years, cereals or grass were cultivated without P fertilization (P 0 or with annual P application of 35 kg ha -1 (P 1 or 70- 79 kg P ha -1 and 71-83 kg K ha -1 (P 2 K. The effects of the treatments on the crop yield varied yearly. The Chang and Jackson fractionation analysis revealed that fertilizer P not taken up by the plant crops was mostly in the NH 4 F extract and to a lesser extent in the NaOH extract. The NH 4 F-extractable P proved also to be the main P source for plants. However, the changes in the reserves of inorganic and organic P did not agree very well with the calculated P balance in soil (applied P minus plant P uptake. This disproportion was partly explained by the soil movement from plots to the neighbouring ones during the experiment. Phosphorus extractable in acid ammonium acetate or water decreased gradually when no P was applied and increased with increasing P accumulation. The changes in the inorganic P reserves due to different P fertilization history were reflected a little more sensitively in the water extraction test than in the acid acetate test.;

  19. Long-term effects of the Moving to Opportunity residential mobility experiment on crime and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciandra, Matthew; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Ludwig, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Using data from a randomized experiment, to examine whether moving youth out of areas of concentrated poverty, where a disproportionate amount of crime occurs, prevents involvement in crime. We draw on new administrative data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment. MTO families were randomized into an experimental group offered a housing voucher that could only be used to move to a low-poverty neighborhood, a Section 8 housing group offered a standard housing voucher, and a control group . This paper focuses on MTO youth ages 15-25 in 2001 ( n = 4,643) and analyzes intention to treat effects on neighborhood characteristics and criminal behavior (number of violent- and property-crime arrests) through 10 years after randomization. We find the offer of a housing voucher generates large improvements in neighborhood conditions that attenuate over time and initially generates substantial reductions in violent-crime arrests and sizable increases in property-crime arrests for experimental group males. The crime effects attenuate over time along with differences in neighborhood conditions. Our findings suggest that criminal behavior is more strongly related to current neighborhood conditions (situational neighborhood effects) than to past neighborhood conditions (developmental neighborhood effects). The MTO design makes it difficult to determine which specific neighborhood characteristics are most important for criminal behavior. Our administrative data analyses could be affected by differences across areas in the likelihood that a crime results in an arrest.

  20. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: reproductive experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cohort of singleton black human females exposed to diagnostic x-ray in utero and controls matched by parity, hospital of birth and birthdate have been followed to ages 25 to 30 years in Baltimore, Maryland. The search for possible effects of prenatal irradiation has focused on health, growth, development, and reproductive experience of exposed and control women. This paper reports findings related to reproductive experience. From an original data set of 1458 matched exposed-control pairs of women, questionnaire responses were received from 1109 exposed and 1124 control women including 852 each from pairs in which both the exposed and control woman responded. After careful search for alternative explanations of the findings, the authors concluded that females exposed in utero to low doses of x-ray (probably 1 to 5 rads) had significant increases in their rates of early onset of menses, births at age 15 years or less, numbers of living children, stillbirths, and sterilizing operations by their mid-twenties. These findings are compatible with animal studies in which prenatal irradiation kills many oocytes, but accelerates the development of remaining cells to stages more closely correlated with fertility. Although these animals subsequently became sterile, this cannot be tested in the current study because significantly more of the irradiated women have had surgical sterilizations

  1. The experience of facilitators and participants of long term condition self-management group programmes: A qualitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Lewis, Sophie; Willis, Karen; Rogers, Anne; Wyke, Sally; Smith, Lorraine

    2017-12-01

    Our aim was to systematically review the qualitative literature about the experiences of both facilitators and participants in a range of group-based programmes to support the self-management of long-term conditions. We searched 7 databases using the terms 'self-management', 'group' and 'qualitative'. Full text articles meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved for review. A thematic synthesis approach was used to analyse the studies. 2126 articles were identified and 24 were included for review. Group participants valued being with similar others and perceived peer support benefits. Facilitators (HCP and lay) had limited group specific training, were uncertain of purpose and prioritised education and medical conformity over supportive group processes and the promotion of self-management agency and engagement. Overall, studies prioritised positive descriptions. Group programmes' medical self-management focus may reduce their ability to contribute to patient-valued outcomes. Further research is needed to explore this disconnect. This review supports broadening the scope of group-based programmes to foreground shared learning, social support and development of agency. It is of relevance to developers and facilitators of group self-management programmes and their ability to address the burden of long-term conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. What to Do with a Second Chance in Life? Long-Term Experiences of Non-carriers of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnberg, Elisabeth; Winnberg, Ulrika; Pohlkamp, Lilian; Hagberg, Anette

    2018-04-07

    Little is known about how people's lives are influenced when going from a 50% risk status of Huntington's disease (HD) to no risk after performing predictive testing. In this study, 20 interviews were conducted to explore the long-term (> 5 years) experiences after receiving predictive test results as a non-carrier of HD. The results showed a broad variety of both positive and negative reactions. The most prominent positive reaction reported was feelings of relief and gratitude, of not carrying the HD mutation for themselves and for their children. Also, the non-carrier status promoted in some individuals' significant life changes such as a wishing to have (more) children, pursuing a career or breaking up from an unhappy relationship. However, negative reactions on their psychological well-being were also described. Some had experienced psychological pressure of needing to do something extraordinary in their lives; others expressed feelings of guilt towards affected or untested siblings, resulting in sadness or clinical depression. The new genetic risk status could generate a need of re-orientation, a process that for some persons took several years to accomplish. The results of the present study show the importance of offering long-term post-result counselling for non-carriers in order to deal with the psychological consequences that may follow predictive testing.

  3. LONG TERM SEED PRESERVATION IN PERMAFROST OF ARCTIC; THE HISTORY OF EXPERIMENT AND NEW CHALENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Pivovarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiverse genetic resources of crops and cultured plants live is the important state task. Plant seeds are suitable object regarded as genetic material to be long termstored, since the each accession is a small package, not demanding a special care. There is a large plant collection over 322 accessions in N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Recourses (VIR, Russia. Genetically determined longevity of seeds can be prolonged by organization of optimized condition of storage. The necessary condition should be created to extend the germination power of seed for long time. There are the seed banks in the world with modern highly technological maintenance, but in case highly extremely situation, the natural seed repository can be more preferable. This sort of seed repository has been launched in the Taymyr Peninsula. Since 1974 the experiment on study of preservation qualities of different products in different packaging has been performed in many research institutes. All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Breeding and Seed Production is a partner in the whole experiment. Researchers of breeding laboratories have proved seeds of 27 accessions of main vegetable group, which have been placed in three replications with account of taking the accessions out in 2025, 2035 and 2050.

  4. Long-term operation experience with 2 ECR ion sources and planned extensions at HIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-01-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first treatment facility at a hospital in Europe where patients can be treated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. The operating time is 330 days per year, our experience after three years of continuous operation will be presented. In the future a helium beam for patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line will be installed at a test-bench to commission and validate this section. Different test settings are foreseen to study helium operation as well as enhanced parameter sets for proton and carbon beams in combination with a modified beam transport line for higher transmission efficiency. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  5. Implications and Benefits of a Long-Term Peer Debriefing Experience on Teacher Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schneider

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer debriefing ensures the trustworthiness of a qualitative research study. Through peer debriefing, the researcher explores the research design, data collection process, and data analysis while colleagues, serving as critical friends, encourage the researcher to examine the research process from multiple perspectives. This paper examines experiences in a peer debriefing group formed by five female teacher researchers as a part of their graduate requirements for doctoral work, and their continued association as they pursued their professional goals. Three themes emerged based on the analysis of team meeting minutes, reflective journal logs, and case reports constructed reflectively by the five participants. These were: (a essential elements of a successful peer debriefing group are commitment, continuity, and individual expectations being met; (b participation can serve as an important development step in preparation as a professional researcher and educator; and (c academic and emotional support provided by a peer debriefing group is a motivating factor leading to researcher’s perceptions of success. These themes highlight the benefits of including peer debriefing as a part of the action research process of teacher researchers as a means of dealing with the ‘messiness’ that novice teachers researchers encounter when conducting action or self-study research.

  6. Increase of the spontaneous mutation rate in a long-term experiment with Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Victoria; Chavarrías, David; Sánchez, Enrique; Manrique, Antonio; López-Fanjul, Carlos; García-Dorado, Aurora

    2006-05-01

    In a previous experiment, the effect of 255 generations of mutation accumulation (MA) on the second chromosome viability of Drosophila melanogaster was studied using 200 full-sib MA1 lines and a large C1 control, both derived from a genetically homogeneous base population. At generation 265, one of those MA1 lines was expanded to start 150 new full-sib MA2 lines and a new C2 large control. After 46 generations, the rate of decline in mean viability in MA2 was approximately 2.5 times that estimated in MA1, while the average degree of dominance of mutations was small and nonsignificant by generation 40 and moderate by generation 80. In parallel, the inbreeding depression rate for viability and the amount of additive variance for two bristle traits in C2 were 2-3 times larger than those in C1. The results are consistent with a mutation rate in the line from which MA2 and C2 were derived about 2.5 times larger than that in MA1. The mean viability of C2 remained roughly similar to that of C1, but the rate of MA2 line extinction increased progressively, leading to mutational collapse, which can be ascribed to accelerated mutation and/or synergy after important deleterious accumulation.

  7. Integration of Long term experiments on terrestrial ecosystem in AnaEE-France Research Infrastructure : concept and adding value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanzy, André; Chabbi, Abad; Houot, Sabine; Lafolie, François; Pichot, Christian; Raynal, Hélène; Saint-André, Laurent; Clobert, Jean; Greiveldinger, Lucile

    2015-04-01

    Continental ecosystems represent a critical zone that provide key ecological services to human populations like biomass production, that participate to the regulation of the global biogeochemical cycles and contribute and contribute to the maintenance of air and water quality. Global changes effects on continental ecosystems are likely to impact the fate of humanity, which is thus facing numerous challenges, such as an increasing demand for food and energy, competition for land and water use, or rapid climate warming. Hence, scientific progress in our understanding of the continental critical zone will come from studies that address how biotic and abiotic processes react to global changes. Long term experiments are required to take into account ecosystem inertia and feedback loops and to characterize trends and threshold in ecosystem dynamics. In France, 20 long-term experiments on terrestrial ecosystems are gathered within a single Research Infrastructure: ANAEE-France (http://www.anaee-s.fr), which is a part of AnaEE-Europe (http://www.anaee.com/). Each experiment consist in applying differentiated pressures on different plot over a long period (>20 years) representative of a range of management options. The originality of such infrastructure is a combination of experimental set up and long-term monitoring of simultaneous measurements of key ecosystem variables and parameters through a multi-disciplinary approach and replications of each treatment that improve the statistical strength of the results. The sites encompass gradients of climate conditions, ecosystem complexity and/or management, and can be used for calibration/validation of ecosystem functioning models as well as for the design of ecosystem management strategies. Gathering those experiments in a single research infrastructure is an important issue to enhance their visibility and increase the number of hosting scientific team by offering a range of services. These are: • Access to the ongoing long

  8. Effect of composition variations on the long-term wasteform behavior of vitrified domestic waste incineration fly-ash purification residues; Influence des variations de composition des vitrifiats de refiom - residus d'epuration des fumees d'incineration d'ordures menageres - sur leur comportement a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of variations in the composition of fly-ash purification residue from incinerated domestic waste on the quality of the containment achieved by vitrification was investigated. Three main factors determine the long-term containment quality: the production of a vitrified wasteform, the occurrence of possible crystallization, and the key parameters of long-term alteration in aqueous media. Each of these aspects is described within a composition range defined by variations in the three major elements. (silicon, calcium and aluminum) and two groups of constituents (alkali metals and toxic elements). The silicon fraction in the fly-ash residue was found to be decisive: it is impossible to obtain a satisfactory vitrified wasteform below a given silicon concentration. Compounds with the lowest silica content also exhibited the greatest tendency to crystallize under the cooling conditions prevailing in industrial processes (the dominant crystallized phase is a melilite that occupies a significant fraction of the material and considerably modifies the alteration mechanisms). The initial alteration rate in pure water and the altered glass thickness measured in a closed system at an advanced stage of the dissolution reaction are both inversely related to the silicon concentration in the glass. Several types of long-term behavior were identified according to the composition range, the process conditions and the vitrified waste disposal scenario. Four distinct 'classes' of vitrified wasteform were defined for direct application in industrial processes. (author)

  9. EARLY-ESLI study: Long-term experience with eslicarbazepine acetate after first monotherapy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, V; Bermejo, P; Montoya, J; Toledo, M; Gómez-Ibáñez, A; Garcés, M; Vilella, L; López-González, F J; Rodriguez-Osorio, X; Campos, D; Martínez, P; Giner, P; Zurita, J; Rodríguez-Uranga, J; Ojeda, J; Mauri, J A; Camacho, J L; Ruiz-Giménez, J; Poza, J J; Massot-Tarrús, A; Galiano, M L; Bonet, M

    2017-09-01

    Evaluate real-life experience with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) after first monotherapy failure in a large series of patients with focal epilepsy. Multicentre, retrospective, 1-year, observational study in patients older than 18 years, with focal epilepsy, who had failed first antiepileptic drug monotherapy and who received ESL. Data from clinical records were analysed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess effectiveness and tolerability. Eslicarbazepine acetate was initiated in 253 patients. The 1-year retention rate was 92.9%, and the final median dose of ESL was 800 mg. At 12 months, 62.3% of patients had been seizure free for 6 months; 37.3% had been seizure free for 1 year. During follow-up, 31.6% of the patients reported ESL-related adverse events (AEs), most commonly somnolence (8.7%) and dizziness (5.1%), and 3.6% discontinued due to AEs. Hyponatraemia was observed in seven patients (2.8%). After starting ESL, 137 patients (54.2%) withdrew the prior monotherapy and converted to ESL monotherapy; 75.9% were seizure free, 87.6% were responders, 4.4% worsened, and 23.4% reported ESL-related AEs. Use of ESL after first monotherapy failure was associated with an optimal seizure control and tolerability profile. Over half of patients were converted to ESL monotherapy during follow-up. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Long-term animal experiments with an intraventricular axial flow blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Kormos, R L; Litwak, P; Tagusari, O; Mori, T; Antaki, J F; Kameneva, M; Watach, M; Gordon, L; Mukuo, H; Umezu, M; Tomioka, J; Outa, E; Griffith, B P; Koyanagai, H

    1997-01-01

    A miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump (IVAP) is undergoing in vivo evaluation in calves. The IVAP system consists of a miniature (phi 13.9 mm) axial flow pump that resides within the left ventricular (LV) chamber and a brushless DC motor. The pump is fabricated from titanium alloy, and the pump weight is 170 g. It produces a flow rate of over 5 L/min against 100 mmHg pressure at 9,000 rpm with an 8 W total power consumption. The maximum total efficiency exceeds 17%. A purged lip seal system is used in prototype no. 8, and a newly developed "Cool-Seal" (a low temperature mechanical seal) is used in prototype no. 9. In the Cool-Seal system, a large amount of purge flow is introduced behind the seal faces to augment convective heat transfer, keeping the seal face temperature at a low level for prevention of heat denaturation of blood proteins. The Cool-Seal system consumes < 10 cc purge fluid per day and has greatly extended seal life. The pumps were implanted in three calves (26, 30, and 168 days of support). The pump was inserted through a left thoracotomy at the fifth intercostal space. Two pursestring sutures were placed on the LV apex, and the apex was cored with a myocardial punch. The pump was inserted into the LV with the outlet cannula smoothly passing through the aortic valve without any difficulty. Only 5 min elapsed between the time of chest opening and initiation of pumping. Pump function remained stable throughout in all experiments. No cardiac arrhythmias were detected, even at treadmill exercise tests. The plasma free hemoglobin level remained in the acceptable range. Post mortem examination did not reveal any interference between the pump and the mitral apparatus. No major thromboembolism was detected in the vital organs in Cases 1 or 2, but a few small renal infarcts were detected in Case 3.

  11. A preliminary experiment for the long-term regional reanalysis over Japan assimilating conventional observations with NHM-LETKF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shin; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Kunii, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Several long-term global reanalyses have been produced by major operational centres and have contributed to the advance of weather and climate researches considerably. Although the horizontal resolutions of these global reanalyses are getting higher partly due to the development of computing technology, they are still too coarse to reproduce local circulations and precipitation realistically. To solve this problem, dynamical downscaling is often employed. However, the forcing from lateral boundaries only cannot necessarily control the inner fields especially in long-term dynamical downscaling. Regional reanalysis is expected to overcome the difficulty. To maintain the long-term consistency of the analysis quality, it is better to assimilate only the conventional observations that are available in long period. To confirm the effectiveness of the regional reanalysis, some assimilation experiments are performed. In the experiments, only conventional observations (SYNOP, SHIP, BUOY, TEMP, PILOT, TC-Bogus) are assimilated with the NHM-LETKF system, which consists of the nonhydrostatic model (NHM) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). The horizontal resolution is 25 km and the domain covers Japan and its surroundings. Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) is adopted as the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the NHM-LETKF forecast-analysis cycles. The ensemble size is 10. The experimental period is August 2014 as a representative of warm season for the region. The results are verified against the JMA's operational Meso-scale Analysis, which is produced with assimilating observation data including various remote sensing observations using a 4D-Var scheme, and compared with those of the simple dynamical downscaling experiment without data assimilation. Effects of implementation of lateral boundary perturbations derived from an EOF analysis of JRA-55 over the targeted domain are also examined. The comparison

  12. Treatment of early breast cancer, a long-term follow-up study: the GOCS experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Julián; Zwenger, Ariel; Leone, José Pablo; Verdera, Palmira Perez; Vallejo, Carlos; Romero, Alberto; Perez, Juán; Machiavelli, Mario; Leone, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    experience are similar to those reported in international literature. The DFI and OS showed a statistically significant difference among the three groups. This group of pts continues to have a good prognosis as shown by the OS rate at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years, although a high percentage of pts still to have recurrence and die from breast cancer after 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years of follow-up. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Long-term spatial memory in Vespula germanica social wasps: the influence of past experience on foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. The long-term impact of war experiences and evacuation on people who were children during World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Melinda J; Robbins, Ian; Davies, Stephen; Feigenbaum, Janet

    2007-03-01

    During World War Two 1.9 million people were evacuated from British cities where the risk of bombing was perceived to be highest. 1.5 million of these were children who, often unaccompanied, were sent to live with strangers. Two hundred and forty-five people who were evacuated as children were compared with 96 of similar age who did not experience evacuation. Within this self-selected sample, significant numbers of the evacuees were found to have experienced abuse and neglect. Pre-evacuation abuse made continued abuse likely during evacuation, while abuse during evacuation led to children being more likely to continue to be abused on their return home. Abuse during evacuation led to increased scores on the Impact of Event Scale and General Health Questionnaire, and to insecure attachment patterns. The role of evacuation and abuse in the maintenance of long-term psychological problems is discussed.

  15. Evaluation of long-term patient satisfaction and experience with the Baha(®) bone conduction implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate long-term patient satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (the Baha(R), now referred to by Cochlear as a 'bone conduction implant') in our hospital clinic spanning the eighteen-year period from the inception of our Baha program. The researchers further wished to analyse...... the various factors leading to patient satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their Baha. We developed a new questionnaire to obtain a comprehensive impression of individual patient practices, general satisfaction, and experiences with their Baha in respect to time spent using Baha, sound quality, annoyance from...... noise disturbance, ease of communication, cosmetic appearance, and satisfaction with the Baha amongst patient relatives, an aspect not previously investigated. Design: The study design was retrospective and executed as a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by the authors of this paper...

  16. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  17. Patients' experiences of the quality of long-term care among the elderly: comparing scores over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuidgeest Marloes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every two years, long-term care organizations for the elderly are obliged to evaluate and publish the experiences of residents, representatives of psychogeriatric patients, and/or assisted-living clients with regard to quality of care. Our hypotheses are that publication of this quality information leads to improved performance, and that organizations with substandard performance will improve more than those whose performance is relatively good. Methods The analyses included organizational units that measured experiences twice between 2007 (t0 and 2009 (t1. Experiences with quality of care were measured with Consumer Quality Index (CQI questionnaires. Besides descriptive analyses (i.e. mean, 5th and 95th percentile, and 90% central range of the 19 CQI indicators and change scores of these indicators were calculated. Differences across five performance groups (ranging from 'worst' to 'best' were tested using an ANOVA test and effect sizes were measured with omega squared (ω2. Results At t0 experiences of residents, representatives, and assisted-living clients were positive on all indicators. Nevertheless, most CQI indicators had improved scores (up to 0.37 change score at t1. Only three indicators showed a minor decline (up to -0.08 change score. Change scores varied between indicators and questionnaires, e.g. they were more profound for the face-to-face interview questionnaire for residents in nursing homes than for the other two mail questionnaires (0.15 vs. 0.05 and 0.04, respectively, possibly due to more variation between nursing homes on the first measurement, perhaps indicating more potential for improvement. A negative relationship was found between prior performance and change, particularly with respect to the experiences of residents (ω2 = 0.16 and assisted-living clients (ω2 = 0.15. However, the relation between prior performance and improvement could also be demonstrated with respect to the experiences reported

  18. Preferences for home- and community-based long-term care services in Germany: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, T; Günther, O H; Hajek, A; Riedel-Heller, S G; König, H H

    2018-04-06

    Most people prefer to "age in place" and to remain in their homes for as long as possible even in case they require long-term care. While informal care is projected to decrease in Germany, the use of home- and community-based services (HCBS) can be expected to increase in the future. Preference-based data on aspects of HCBS is needed to optimize person-centered care. To investigate preferences for home- and community-based long-term care services packages. Discrete choice experiment conducted in mailed survey. Randomly selected sample of the general population aged 45-64 years in Germany (n = 1.209). Preferences and marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for HCBS were assessed with respect to five HCBS attributes (with 2-4 levels): care time per day, service level of the HCBS provider, quality of care, number of different caregivers per month, co-payment. Quality of care was the most important attribute to respondents and small teams of regular caregivers (1-2) were preferred over larger teams. Yet, an extended range of services of the HCBS provider was not preferred over a more narrow range. WTP per hour of HCBS was €8.98. Our findings on preferences for HCBS in the general population in Germany add to the growing international evidence of preferences for LTC. In light of the great importance of high care quality to respondents, reimbursement for services by HCBS providers could be more strongly linked to the quality of services.

  19. Personal characteristics and experiences of long-term allied health professionals in rural and northern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Candice M; Hardy, Cindy L; MacLeod, Martha L P

    2009-01-01

    Health sciences programs are being designed to attract students who are likely to stay and practice in rural and northern Canada. Consequently, student recruitment and screening are increasingly including assessment of suitability for rural practice. Although retention factors among rural physicians and nurses have been investigated, little is known about factors that contribute to the retention of other healthcare professionals who work in rural areas. The primary objective of this project was to identify the personal characteristics and experiences of allied health professionals who have worked long term in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Six speech language pathologists, four psychologists, four occupational therapists, eight social workers, and four physiotherapists practicing long term in northern BC were recruited, using a convenience sample and the snowball technique, to participate in semi-structured telephone interviews. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis identified the motivations for their decision to begin or stay working in northern communities, the reasons for choosing rural or northern education and key themes concerning personal characteristics and experiences. A process of member checking and an external audit validated the analysis and findings. There were two major themes for choosing rural and northern education. For some, selection of rural or northern training was based on accessibility to health education programs; all participants who chose rural and northern education had already decided that they were going to practice rurally. Generally, participants identified past positive experiences and rural background as influencing their practice location decision. Participants named the community's need for healthcare professionals, career advancement opportunities, welcoming employers, peer support, as well as promises of continuing

  20. Stepwise approach to decision making for long-term radioactive waste management. Experience, issues and guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste exists as a result of both past and current practices. One of the most challenging tasks is the management of long-lived waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of years. Although significant technical progress has been made in developing management schemes that, according to technical experts, would ensure long-term safety (e.g. engineered geologic disposal), the rate of progress towards implementing such solutions has been slower than expected. The contrast between expected and observed rates may be partly attributable to an earlier technical optimism. More significant, however, are the setbacks, which have arisen mainly from an underestimation of the societal and political dimensions. In long-term radioactive waste management, consideration is increasingly being given to concepts such as stepwise decision making and adaptive staging in which the public, and especially the local public, are to be meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability. This is designed to provide reassurance that decisions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. A stepwise approach to decision making has thus come to the fore as being of value in advancing long-term radioactive waste management solutions in a societally acceptable manner. Despite its early identification within the radioactive waste management community as an important means for reaching solutions and decisions in which there is broad-based confidence, the bases for and application of stepwise decision making has not been widely reviewed. Guiding principles of any such process are still being formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. The report reviews current

  1. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  2. [Long-term effects of traumatic experiences on somatic and psychic complaints of German World War Two refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C J; Struwe, J; Lemke, M R

    2006-01-01

    The effects of expulsion from German territories following World War Two have not been studied systematically, and little is known about long-term effects of this potentially traumatic experience. Via mail, 600 refugees from former German territories due to World War Two were asked to complete questionnaires about biographic data, somatic and psychic health (SCL-90-R questionnaire), and specific aspects related to traumatic experiences (post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire). Of those contacted, 25% participated in the investigation. Of them, 9.8% fulfilled diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder according to DSM IV. Only 1.8% of an age-matched control group met these criteria. Analysis of the SCL-90-R questionnaire showed higher scores for former refugees in somatic and psychic complaints than the control group. We show that expulsion following war may lead to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and somatic and psychic complaints after more than 50 years. Our investigation supports the necessity of adequate care for subjects expelled from their home countries and the psychologically traumatised.

  3. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  4. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Long term microparticle impact fluxes on LDEF determined from optical survey of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C. G.; Oliver, J. P.; Cooke, W. J.; Downey, K. I.; Kassel, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    leading side during LDEF's first year in orbit.) The overall east/west ratio was 44, but during LDEF's first year in orbit the ratio was 8.5, and during years 2-6 the ratio was 114. Long term microparticle impact fluxes on the space end decreased from 1.12 to 0.55 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s from the first year in orbit compared to years 2-6. The earth end showed the opposite trend with an increase from 0.16 to 0.38 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s. Fluxes on rows 6 and 12 decreased from 6.1 to 3.4 and 6.7 to 3.7 x 10(exp -4) m(exp -2)/s, respectively, over the same time periods. This resulted in space/earth microparticle impact flux ratios of 7.1 during the first year and 1.5 during years 2-6, while the south/north, space/north and space/south ratios remained constant at 1.1, 0.16 and 0.17, respectively, during the entire mission. This information indicates the possible identification of long term changes in discrete microparticle orbital debris component contributions to the total impact flux experienced by LDEF. A dramatic decrease in the debris population capable of striking the trailing side was detected that could possibly be attributed to the hiatus of western launch activity experienced from 1986-1989. A significant increase in the debris population that preferentially struck the leading side was also observed and could possibly be attributed to a single breakup event that occurred in September of 1986. A substantial increase in the microparticle debris population that struck the earth end of LDEF, but not the space end, was also detected and could possibly be the result of a single breakup event at low altitude. These results point to the importance of including discrete orbital debris component contribution changes in flux models in order to achieve accurate predictions of the microparticle environment that a particular spacecraft will experience in earth orbit. The only reliable, verified empirical measurements of these changes are reported in this paper. Further time

  6. Bacteria and virus removal effectiveness of ceramic pot filters with different silver applications in a long term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, H; van Halem, D; Smeets, P W M H; Soppe, A I A; Kroesbergen, J; Wubbels, G; Nederstigt, J; Gensburger, I; Heijman, S G J

    2014-03-15

    In 2012 more than 4 million people used a ceramic pot filter (CPF) as household water treatment system for their daily drinking water needs. In the normal production protocol most low cost filters are impregnated with a silver solution to enhance the microbial removal efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the role of silver during the filtration and subsequent storage. Twenty-two CPFs with three different silver applications (non, only outside and both sides) were compared in a long-term loading experiment with Escherichia coli (K12 and WR1) and MS2 bacteriophages in natural challenge water under highly controlled laboratory circumstances. No significant difference in Log Removal Values were found between the filters with different silver applications. The results show that the storage time in the receptacle is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation by silver, and not the contact time during the filtration phase. The hypothesis that the absence of silver would enhance the virus removal, due to biofilm formation on the ceramic filter element, could not be confirmed. The removal effectiveness for viruses is still of major concern for the CPF. This study suggests that the ceramic pot filter characteristics, such as burnt material content, do not determine E. coli removal efficacies, but rather the contact time with silver during storage is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hope and connection: the experience of family caregivers of persons with dementia living in a long term care facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hope is a psychosocial resource that is essential for the psychological, spiritual, and physical well-being of family members caring for persons with dementia. A significant positive relationship has been found between hope and well-being in family caregivers of persons with dementia living in the community. However, the hope experience of family caregivers of persons living with dementia in long-term care (LTC) facilities has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the hope experience of family caregivers of persons with dementia living in a LTC facility. Methods Twenty-three open-ended face to face interviews were conducted with 13 family caregivers of residents with dementia in a LTC facility. Family was broadly defined to include relatives and friends. Seven of these participants also reflected on their hope in diaries over a two week period. Interview transcripts and journal texts were analyzed using Thorne’s interpretive description approach. Results The over-arching theme was “hope and connection”. Participants lost hope and felt despair when they perceived they were unable to connect with their family member in the LTC facility. They regained their hope when a connection could be made. Several sub-themes were identified including: accepting where we are, living life in the moment, believing in something, standing together, and balancing dual worlds. Conclusions Hope was important and essential for family caregivers of persons with dementia residing in a LTC facility. The overarching theme of “hope and connection” underscores the importance of maintaining relationships and connection between family members and the person in LTC. Given the paucity of hope research conducted within this population, the study findings provide a foundation for future research. PMID:24138640

  8. Comparison of long-term outcomes between spousal transplants and other living unrelated donor transplants: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Song, Joon Chang; Hyoung, Bok Jin; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Lee, So Young; Jeon, Youn Joo; Park, Sun Cheol; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Yong Soo; Moon, In Sung; Yang, Chul Woo

    2009-01-01

    The greater use of living unrelated donors (LUDs) as kidney donors is a worldwide trend in the current era of organ shortage, and spouses are an important source of LUDs. This study was to compare the long-term outcomes of spousal donor grafts with other LUD grafts. Among 445 LUD grafts, 77 were spouses and 368 were other LUDs. The clinical characteristics and long-term survival rates for spousal transplants were compared with those for other LUD transplants, and risk factors affecting graft survival were assessed. Spousal donors had a significantly higher average number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (4.2 vs. 3.4, p HLA mismatching, the spousal donor type or donor age did not affect the graft survival. Renal transplants from spousal donors show similar long-term outcomes to those from better HLA-matched and younger LUDs. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The COMET-L3 experiment on long-term melt. Concrete interaction and cooling by surface flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Cron, T.; Fluhrer, B.; Messemer, G.; Miassoedov, A.; Schmidt-Stiefel, S.; Wenz, T.

    2007-02-01

    The COMET-L3 experiment considers the long-term situation of corium/concrete interaction in an anticipated core melt accident of a light-water-reactor, after the metal melt is layered beneath the oxide melt. The experimental focus is on cavity formation in the basemat and the risk of long term basemat penetration. The experiment investigates the two-dimensional concrete erosion in a cylindrical crucible fabricated from siliceous concrete in the first phase of the test, and the influence of surface flooding in the second phase. Decay heating in the two-component metal and oxide melt is simulated by sustained induction heating of the metal phase that is overlaid by the oxide melt. The inner diameter of the concrete crucible was 60 cm, the initial mass of the melt was 425 kg steel and 211 kg oxide at 1665 C, resulting in a melt height of 450 mm. The net power to the metal melt was about 220 kW from 0 s to 1880 s, when the maximum erosion limit of the crucible was reached and heating was terminated. In the initial phase of the test (less than 100 s), the overheated, highly agitated metal melt causes intense interaction with the concrete, which leads to fast decrease of the initial melt overheat and reduction of the initially high concrete erosion rate. Thereafter, under quasistationary conditions until about 800 s, the erosion by the metal melt slows down to some 0.07 mm/s into the axial direction. Lateral erosion is a factor 3 smaller. Video observation of the melt surface shows an agitated melt with ongoing gas release from the decomposing concrete. Several periods of more intense gas release, gas driven splashing, and release of crusts from the concrete interface indicate the existence and iterative break-up of crusts that probably form at the steel/concrete interface. Surface flooding of the melt is initiated at 800 s by a shower from the crucible head with 0.375 litre water/s. Flooding does not lead to strong melt/water interactions, and no entrapment reactions or

  10. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, Adilson Luis; Silva, Thiago Rech da; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio; Pinto, Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima, Ana Claudia Rodrigues de; Timm, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  11. The role of triple pelvic osteotomy in therapy of residual hip dysplasia and sequel of AVN: long-term experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungl, P; Rejholec, M; Chomiak, J; Grill, F

    2007-01-01

    Triple pelvic osteotomy was performed for sequel of DDH including AVN between 1981 and 2002 for 329 patients (351 hips, 280 females, 49 males, average age at surgery 16.5 years, range 9-41 years, follow-up 4-25 years). A small modification of Steel's technique consisting of strictly subperiostal resection of segment from both pubic and ischial bone was used. Average gain of lengthening extremity was 1.8 cm. The average CE angle was improved from 7.8 to 35.5 degrees. Clinical results were evaluated according to Merle d'Aubigne and reflected to the preoperative clinical and radiological findings. There were 146 hip joints in 128 patients (76%) with excellent results in the group of congruent hips without arthrosis. In 182 hips in 178 patients with hip joints with some deformity, limited ROM and decentration, 40% were excellent, 32% good, 23% fair and 5% unsatisfactory results were achieved. The group of decentrated hip joints in young adults in incongruency, limited ROM and sometimes severe arthrosis consisted of 23 monolateral surgeries with 39% unsatisfactory, 39% fair and 22% good results, respectively. No major neurovascular complications were seen. Non-unions were recorded in 19 patients (5.4%), including 2 triple and 2 double non-unions. Based on our long-term experience, we can conclude that triple pelvic osteotomy according to Steel in our modification is a safe method and gives regularly excellent or good results for correction of clinical and radiographic appearance of acetabular dysplasia when there is a proper indication.

  12. Plant diversity induces a shift of DOC concentration over time - results from long term and large scale experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Markus; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Plant diversity has been demonstrated as a crucial factor for soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. The horizontal SOC formation in turn is strongly impacted by the relative small but consistent flow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils. In this process, pore water leaches plant material and already stored SOC while simultaneously these leachates are transported downwards. However, there is a big uncertainty about the drivers of DOC flux; in particular about the importance of biological processes. We investigated the impact of plant diversity and other biotic drivers on DOC concentrations and total DOC fluxes (concentration × sampled water amount). In addition, we considered abiotic factors such as weather and soil conditions to assess the relative importance of biotic and abiotic drivers and how their importance changes over time. We used a comprehensive data set, gathered in the frame of the long-term biodiversity experiment "The Jena Experiment". Permanent monitoring started directly after establishment of the field site in 2002 and is still running. This enabled us to trace the impact of plant communities with their increasing establishment over the time on DOC concentration. We found the amount of sampled pore water best explained by rainfall, while it was not related to plant associated variables. Directly after establishing the experimental site, DOC concentrations were highest and then decreasing with time. In the first period of the experiment plant diversity had no or even a slightly negative impact on DOC concentrations. The direction of the plant diversity effect on DOC concentrations changed over time; namely in later phases we observed highest DOC concentrations on plots with high plant diversity. Moreover, DOC concentrations were negatively affected by increased amounts of sampled pore water indicating a dilution effect. Even though this impact was highly significant; its effect size was even less pronounced at later time points. In summary

  13. IGSC Experience: Links Between RD and D and Stakeholder Confidence: The Aspect of Long-Term Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemberg, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Bo Stroemberg from the IGSC Core Group (SKI, Sweden) reported on the International Symposium on the Safety Case organised in 2007 by IGSC. Participants of a session focusing on the role of the safety case in societal dialogue pointed out that in the technical community there is a shared understanding of the issues of long-term safety, which the SC should address. They observed, however, that public concerns may be quite different from these issues. For example, the extremely long timescales are not easily understood by the broader public. Also, technical experts' focus on quantitative indicators is incompatible with the perceptions of non-experts, who tend to give heavier weight to qualitative characteristics of risks. Therefore, conducting a dialogue with the public in which their safety concerns are explored is of key importance. It is not only the technical content but also the presentation of the SC which should be adapted to stakeholders' concerns. At the same time, stakeholder input can improve both the technical basis and the presentation of the SC. Mr Stroemberg went on to present IGSC Core Group answers to questions addressed to them by the FSC: 1. What are the questions about safety and the safety case you feel the public is asking? What kind of reply? Or approach to replying? Do they require? What weight should they be given? 2. How has dialogue with stakeholders improved your safety case? What lessons may be drawn for the technical community to improve on its capability to respond to questions from the general public and other stakeholders? 3. What is the role of RD and D when arguing safety or confidence in safety? Anecdotal experience was received from Europe, Japan and the United States. Common concerns expressed by the public focus on how scientists can 'know they are right' when making safety predictions for the long term, and whether unexpected events can be addressed. Because some concerns fall beyond the topics typically covered by a safety case

  14. Evaluation of long-term patient satisfaction and experience with the Baha(®) bone conduction implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate long-term patient satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (the Baha(R), now referred to by Cochlear as a 'bone conduction implant') in our hospital clinic spanning the eighteen-year period from the inception of our Baha program. The researchers further wished to analyse t...

  15. Seabed gallery intakes: Investigation of the water pretreatment effectiveness of the active layer using a long-term column experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-05-11

    Seabed gallery intake systems used for seawater reverse osmosis facilities employ the same principle of water treatment as slow sand filtration in freshwater systems. An investigation concerning the effectiveness of the active layer (top layer) in improving raw water quality was conducted by using a long-term bench-scale columns experiment. Two different media types, silica and carbonate sand, were tested in 1 m columns to evaluate the effectiveness of media type in terms of algae, bacteria, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) removal over a period of 620 days. Nearly all algae in the silica sand column, 87% (σ = 0.04) of the bacteria, 59% (σ = 0.11) of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, 59% (σ = 0.16) of particulate and 32% (σ = 0.25) of colloidal TEP were removed during the last 330 days of the experiment. Total removal was observed in the carbonate sand column for algal concentration, while the bacterial removal was lower at 74% (σ = 0.08). Removal of biopolymers, particulate and colloidal TEP were higher in the carbonate column during the last 330 days with 72% (σ = 0.15), 66% (σ = 0.08) and 36% (σ = 0.12) removed for these organics respectively. Removal of these key organics through the 1 m thick column, representing the active layer, will likely reduce the rate of biofouling, reduce chemical usage and minimize operating cost in SWRO systems. The data show that the media will require several months at the beginning of operation to reach equilibrium so that high organic removal rates can be achieved. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred. The experimental results suggest that unlike freshwater slow sand filtration wherein most water treatment occurs in the upper 10 cm, in seawater systems treatment occurs throughout the full active layer depth of 1 m. The results of this study will help in designing and operating seabed gallery intake systems in varied geological conditions.

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Intervention in Long-Term Aphasia Post-Stroke: The Experience from CHANT (Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Katharyn; Whitworth, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite recognition of the need for increased long-term support for people with aphasia following stroke, there remains limited evidence for effective service-level interventions. Aims: To evaluate the outcomes and experiences of people participating in the Communication Hub for Aphasia in North Tyneside (CHANT), a 2-year partnership…

  17. Quantification of compositional changes of petroleum hydrocarbons by GC/FID and GC/MS during a long-term bioremediation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine S.; Arvin, Erik; Svensmark, Bo

    2000-01-01

    Samples from a long-term bioremediation experiment contaminated with two crude oils, Arabian Heavy and Gullfax, was used to analyze the compositional change of petroleum hydrocarbons. A time course of five different homologous series of petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed by GC/FID and GC...

  18. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma: Long-term experience and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie; Zabel, Angelika; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze our long-term experience and prognostic factors after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma. Methods and materials: Between January 1985 and December 2001, 317 patients with a median age of 55.7 years were treated with FSRT for intracranial meningioma. The tumor distribution was World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1 in 48.3%, WHO Grade 2 in 8.2%, and unknown in 43.5%. Of the 317 patients, 97 underwent RT as their primary treatment, 79 underwent postoperative RT (subtotal resection in 38 and biopsy only in 41), and 141 were treated for recurrent disease. The median target volume was 33.6 cm 3 (range, 1.0-412.6 cm 3 ). The median total dose was 57.6 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction five times weekly. Results: The median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 1.2-14.3 years). The overall local tumor control rate was 93.1% (295 of 317). Of the 317 patients, 72 had a partial response on CT/MRI and 223 (70.4%) remained stable. At a median of 4.5 years after FSRT, 22 patients (6.9%) had local tumor progression on MRI. Local tumor failure was significantly greater in patients with WHO Grade 2 meningioma (p 60 cm 3 had a recurrence rate of 15.5% vs. 4.3% for those with a tumor volume of ≤60 cm 3 (p < 0.001). In 42.9% of the patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. Worsening of preexisting neurologic symptoms occurred in 8.2%. Eight patients developed new clinical symptoms, such as reduced vision, trigeminal neuralgia, and intermittent tinnitus located at the side of the irradiated meningioma after FSRT. Conclusion: These data have demonstrated that FSRT is an effective and safe treatment modality for local control of meningioma with a low risk of significant late toxicity. We identified the tumor volume, indication for FSRT, and histologic features of the meningioma as statistically significant prognostic factors

  19. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma: Long-term experience and prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie [Clinical Radiology, Radiation Therapy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany) and Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Zabel, Angelika [Clinical Radiology, Radiation Therapy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz-Ertner, Daniela [Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Schlegel, Wolfgang [Department of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Wannenmacher, Michael [Clinical Radiology, Radiation Therapy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Clinical Radiology, Radiation Therapy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg a (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze our long-term experience and prognostic factors after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma. Methods and materials: Between January 1985 and December 2001, 317 patients with a median age of 55.7 years were treated with FSRT for intracranial meningioma. The tumor distribution was World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1 in 48.3%, WHO Grade 2 in 8.2%, and unknown in 43.5%. Of the 317 patients, 97 underwent RT as their primary treatment, 79 underwent postoperative RT (subtotal resection in 38 and biopsy only in 41), and 141 were treated for recurrent disease. The median target volume was 33.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.0-412.6 cm{sup 3}). The median total dose was 57.6 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction five times weekly. Results: The median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 1.2-14.3 years). The overall local tumor control rate was 93.1% (295 of 317). Of the 317 patients, 72 had a partial response on CT/MRI and 223 (70.4%) remained stable. At a median of 4.5 years after FSRT, 22 patients (6.9%) had local tumor progression on MRI. Local tumor failure was significantly greater in patients with WHO Grade 2 meningioma (p < 0.002) than in patients with WHO Grade 1 or unknown histologic features. Patients treated for recurrent meningioma showed a trend toward decreased progression-free survival compared with patients treated with primary therapy, after biopsy, or after subtotal resection (p < 0.06). Patients with a tumor volume >60 cm{sup 3} had a recurrence rate of 15.5% vs. 4.3% for those with a tumor volume of {<=}60 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.001). In 42.9% of the patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. Worsening of preexisting neurologic symptoms occurred in 8.2%. Eight patients developed new clinical symptoms, such as reduced vision, trigeminal neuralgia, and intermittent tinnitus located at the side of the irradiated meningioma after FSRT. Conclusion: These data have demonstrated that FSRT is an

  20. Long-term Field Experiments as Important Source of Knowledge - Aims of the BonaRes Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Meike; Hierold, Wilfried

    2017-04-01

    BonaRes is short for "soil as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy". It is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the umbrella of the National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030. BonaRes consists of ten interdisciplinary research project consortia and the 'BonaRes - Centre for Soil Research' (see also Wollschläger et al 2016). It is one task of the BonaRes Data Centre as part of the 'BonaRes - Centre for Soil Research', to collect data and meta-data of agricultural long-term field experiments (LTFE) in Germany. The definition of LTFE in the context of BonaRes is a minimum duration of twenty years and a static design. LTFE are essential research infrastructures for agricultural sciences and soil sciences amongst other disciplines. Some LTFE run since a very long time; the start of the oldest one in Germany was 1878. Therefore, in many cases valuable time series exist. Data sets of LTFE shall be compiled and made publicly available by the BonaRes Data Centre. The public availability together with an easy access will lead to an enhanced usability of the data. This probably makes the LTFE itself more valuable through an improved visibility and may also help to maintain the LTFE. Beyond the data compilation there is the possibility for every data owner to make a data publication, which offers an additional value for the data owner after his first right of use. A first step towards a joint database is a compilation of all existing LTFE in Germany with meta information to each trial. This information is shown in an interactive web map, what is completely new in that context. Besides the exact position of the LTFE the following metadata are shown: name of the LTFE, website (if available), institution, land use category, participation in existing networks, research theme, start (and maybe end) of the trial, and research parameters. Details on the meta information will be presented in the speech. Literature Wollschläger, U; Helming

  1. Long-Term Vibration Monitoring of the Effects of Temperature and Humidity on PC Girders with and without Fly Ash considering ASR Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Minh Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural responses have been used as inputs in the evaluation procedures of civil structures for years. Apart from the degradation of a structure itself, changes in the environmental conditions affect its characteristics. For adequate maintenance, it is necessary to quantify the environment-induced changes and discriminate them from the effects due to damage. This study investigates the variation in the vibration responses of prestressed concrete (PC girders, which were deteriorated because of the alkali–silica reaction (ASR, concerning ambient temperature and humidity. Three PC girders were exposed to outdoor weather conditions outside the laboratory, one of which had a selected amount of fly ash in its mixture to mitigate the ASR. The girders were periodically vibration tested for one and a half years. It was found that when the temperature and humidity increased, the frequencies and damping ratios decreased in proportion. No apparent variation in the mode shapes could be identified. A finite element model was proposed for numerical verification, the results of which were in good agreement with the measured changes in the natural frequencies. Moreover, the different dynamic performances of the three specimens indicated that the fly ash significantly affected the vibrations of the PC girders under ASR deterioration.

  2. The North American Long-Term Soil Productivity Experiment: Coast-to-coast findings from the first decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; Felipe G. Sanchez; D. Andrew Scott; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2004-01-01

    The National Forest Management Act of 1976 mandates that a site’s productive capacity must be protected on federally managed lands. Monitoring the effects of management on a site’s productive capacity is not easy, and in 1989 a national program of Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) research was established to assist National Forests toward this end. The LTSP program...

  3. Long-term Dose Stability of OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: A 19-Year Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Paddle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesAdductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD is a focal dystonia predominantly involving the laryngeal adductor muscles. AdSD is reported to be a largely non-progressive neurological disorder, though fluctuations in symptom severity do occur. Repeated laryngeal onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX-A injections are the primary management for AdSD. A number of studies have demonstrated long-term dose stability as evidence of this long-term disease stability.MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all patients undergoing BTX-A injections for AdSD from April 1994 to September 2013 by a single laryngologist at a tertiary referral laryngology center. Patient demographics, injection doses, use of diazepam and/or lidocaine, and self-reported vocal function were recorded. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed.Results83 patients underwent a total of 1,168 injections over 19 years. The mean starting dose was 2.35 MU (0.79 SD. The mean long-term dose was 2.36 MU (0.79 SD. After adjusting for confounders, the change in the relative dose of BTX-A, with every year elapsed since initial dose was 0.13% (95% confidence interval −0.31 to 0.57%, p = 0.568.ConclusionBTX-A dose is stable over time in our large cohort of patients treated with bilateral thyroarytenoid injections for AdSD.

  4. Assessment of chemical and biochemical stabilization of organic C in soils from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nobili, M; Contin, M; Mahieu, N; Randall, E W; Brookes, P C

    2008-01-01

    Biological and chemical stabilization of organic C was assessed in soils sampled from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK), representing a wide range of carbon inputs and managements by extracting labile, non-humified organic matter (NH) and humic substances (HS). Four sequentially extracted humic substances fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) were extracted and characterized before and after a 215-day laboratory incubation at 25 degrees C from two arable soils, a woodland soil and an occasionally stubbed soil. The fractions corresponded to biochemically stabilised SOM extracted in 0.5M NaOH (free fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA)) and chemically plus biochemically stabilised SOM extracted from the residue with 0.1M Na4P2O7 plus 0.1M NaOH (bound FA and HA). Our aim was to investigate the effects of chemical and biochemical stabilization on carbon sequestration. The non-humic to humic (NH/H) C ratio separated the soils into two distinct groups: arable soils (unless fertilised with farmyard manure) had an NH/H C ratio between 1.05 and 0.71, about twice that of the other soils (0.51-0.26). During incubation a slow, but detectable, decrease in the NH/H C ratio occurred in soils of C input equivalent or lower to 4Mgha(-1)y(-1), whereas the ratio remained practically constant in the other soils. Before incubation the free to bound humic C ratio increased linearly (R2=0.91) with C inputs in the soils from the Broadbalk experiment and decreased during incubation, showing that biochemical stabilization is less effective than chemical stabilization in preserving humic C. Changes in delta13C and delta15N after incubation were confined to the free FA fractions. The delta13C of free FA increased by 1.48 and 0.80 per thousand, respectively, in the stubbed and woodland soils, indicating a progressive biological transformation. On the contrary, a decrease was observed for the bound FA of both soils. Concomitantly, a Deltadelta15N of up to +3.52 per thousand was

  5. Experiences with late effects-related care and preferences for long-term follow-up care among adult survivors of childhood lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Hanne C; Mellblom, Anneli V; Brekke, Mette; Finset, Arnstein; Fosså, Sophie D; Kiserud, Cecilie E; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon H

    2017-08-01

    Given childhood cancer survivors' risk of treatment-induced late effects, long-term follow-up care is recommended. We explored experiences with late effects-related care and preferences for long-term follow-up care among adult survivors of childhood malignant lymphoma in Norway. We conducted five focus group interviews with 34 survivors (19 females; 21 Hodgkin/13 non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors; mean age 39 years; mean time from diagnosis 26 years). Data was analyzed using principles of thematic analysis. Two main themes were identified: (1) the survivors' experiences with late effects-related care and (2) their preferences for long-term follow-up care. Most of the survivors were dissatisfied with their late effects-related care due to perceptions of poor coordination of healthcare needs in a fragmented system, combined with a perceived lack of knowledge of late effects among themselves and general practitioners (GPs). All survivors valued long-term follow-up care. Oncologists were the preferred care providers, but GPs were considered acceptable providers if they had sufficient knowledge of late effects and routine examinations, short waiting times, and improved GP-oncologist collaboration. Our results suggest that a shared care model of long-term follow-up care involving specialists, GPs, and the survivors themselves is likely to fulfill several of the currently unmet needs among adult survivors of childhood cancers. Improved patient education about late effects and follow-up care would aid self-management. The survivors' concerns regarding lack of sufficient knowledge of late effects among GPs suggest a need for improving access to, and dissemination of, information of late effects.

  6. Long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: a European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lencioni, R.; Pinto, F.; Armillotta, N.; Bassi, A.M.; Moretti, M.; Di Giulio, M.; Marchi, S.; Uliana, M.; Della Capanna, S.; Lencioni, M.; Bartolozzi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our work was to evaluate the long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 184 cirrhotic patients with HCC underwent PEI as the only anticancer treatment over an 8-year period. Patients were followed after therapy by means of clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and US and CT studies performed at regular time intervals. Survival rates were determined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The overall survival was 67% at 3 years, 41% at 5 years, and 19% at 7 years. The 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates of patients with single HCC≤3 cm (78, 54, and 28%, respectively) were significantly higher (p<0.01) than those of patients with single HCC of 3.1-5 cm (61, 32, and 16, respectively) or multiple HCCs (51, 21, and 0%, respectively). Survival of Child-Pugh A patients (79% at 3 years, 53% at 5 years, and 32% at 7 years) was significantly longer (p<0.01) than that of Child-Pugh B patients (50% at 3 years, 28% at 5 years, and 8% at 7 years). A selected group of 70 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and single HCC≤3 cm had a 7-year survival of 42%. Long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with HCC treated with PEI is comparable to that reported in published series of matched patients submitted to surgical resection. (orig.)

  7. Long-term follow-up of children with high-risk neuroblastoma: the ENSG5 trial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lucas; Vaidya, Sucheta J; Pinkerton, C Ross; Lewis, Ian J; Imeson, John; Machin, David; Pearson, Andrew D J

    2013-07-01

    Therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma is intensive and multimodal, and significant long-term adverse effects have been described. The aim of this study was to identify the nature and severity of late complications of metastatic neuroblastoma survivors included in the ENSG5 clinical trial. The trial protocol included induction chemotherapy (randomized "Standard" OPEC/OJEC vs. "Rapid" COJEC), surgery of primary tumor and high-dose melphalan with stem cell rescue. Two hundred and sixty-two children were randomized, 69 survived >5 years, and 57 were analyzed. Data were obtained from the ENSG5 trial database and verified with questionnaires sent to participating centers. Median follow-up was 12.9 (6.9-16.5) years. No differences were found in late toxicities between treatment arms. Twenty-eight children (49.1%) developed hearing loss. Nine patients (15.8%) developed glomerular filtration rate <80 ml/min/1.73 m(2), but no cases of chronic renal failure were documented. Endocrine complications (28.1% of children) included mainly hypogonadism and delayed growth. Four children developed second malignancies, three of them 5 years after diagnosis: one osteosarcoma, one carcinoma of the parotid gland and one ependymoma. There were no hematological malignancies or deaths in remission. This study analyzed a wide cohort of high-risk neuroblastoma survivors from a multi-institutional randomized trial and established the profile of long-term toxicity within the setting of an international clinical trial. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  9. Analysis of long term options in the management of closed uranium mining sites in France: a pluralistic expertise experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Yves; Barbey, Pierre; Catelinois, Olivier; Crochon, Philippe; Petitfrere, Michael; Guillaumont, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Palaiseau Public demand and new regulations call for a growing stakeholder involvement in the protection of the public and the environment. On complex technical subjects prone to controversy, a useful advise to decision making processes can be provided by the pluralistic examination of the issues by a group of institutional and non-institutional experts. The French ministers for the environment, health, and industry created in 2005 a pluralistic expert group (GEP), started in mid-2006, to focus on the remediated uranium mines in the Limousin region of France. This group, which receives public funding, brings together experts with varied skills and backgrounds (from institutions, associations and industry, including independent and foreign experts). AREVA NC (COGEMA) the mine owner for the Haute Vienne sites has provided, on request of the administration, documents to assess the situation of the sites, and the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been commissioned to produce a global expertise of this assessment. The GEP has been given the task of contributing this critical analysis and participating in the direction of the global expertise, with the aim to provide the authorities and the operator with recommendations on long-term management and monitoring options for the facilities. The group has also the duty to report to local stakeholders and to inform the general public. Work has been developed in three complementary areas: Improving the assessment of the source term and releases of transfer to the natural environment, including hydrogeological and geochemical studies as well as the characterisation of exhalations of radon; Developing a more thorough assessment of health and environmental impacts, including radiological and chemical risks. This includes, in addition to traditional methods, the first-of-a-kind application of an innovative methodology to assess radio-ecological impacts; - strengthening the

  10. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahu Mati

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT, originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may

  11. Glass implanted 210Po as a method of determination of long term exposure to radon: First experiments in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Lang, B.; Even, O.; Asael, Y.; Shamai, Y.; Margaliot, M.; Shirav, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas ( 222 Rn) is known to be the major contributor of the total exposure of the population to ionizing radiation. Retrospective assessment techniques have been developed to estimate long term exposures to ( 222 Rn and its progeny in epidemiological studies. Measurements of implanted 210 Po on glass panes surfaces characterize room radon concentration or habitant characterization.Various methods for retrospective radon measurement are described in the literature. The surface trap method is based on the 210 Po implanted on glass or other vitreous objects, measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The volume trap method is based on measurements of 210 Po in spongy, porous materials ( 210 Po volume traps). Other approach is in-vivo measurements of 210 Pb in the human skeleton. The present study uses the surface trap retrospective technique for the first time in Israel, coupled with an approach to estimate the 210 Po concentration in glasses exposed to 222 Rn using alpha spectrometry

  12. Long-Term Results of Aortic Root Surgery in Marfan Syndrome Patients: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolo, Francesco; Romeo, Francesco; Lio, Antonio; Bovio, Emanuele; Scafuri, Antonio; Bassano, Carlo; Polisca, Patrizio; Pellegrino, Antonio; Nardi, Paolo; Chiariello, Luigi; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    The study aim was to compare long-term results of Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients affected by aortic root disease undergoing aortic root replacement with the Bentall or David operation. Since 1994, a total of 59 patients has been followed at the authors' Marfan Center, having undergone either a Bentall operation (Bentall group, n = 30) or a David operation (David group, n = 29). No operative mortality was recorded. After 20 years (mean follow up 97 ± 82 months; range 1 to 369 months) no prosthesis-related major bleeding or thromboembolic events had been observed; the 20-year survival was 94 ± 6% in the Bentall group, and 100% in the David group (p = 0.32). Freedom from reintervention for aortic valve dysfunction was 100% in the Bentall group, and 75 ± 13% in the David group (p = 0.04). This inter-group difference became relevant after the first eight-year period of follow-up, and was mainly associated with a particular familiar genetic phenotype involving three out of four reoperated patients. Freedom from all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, prosthetic valve-related complications, and reintervention on any aortic segment was 69 ± 12% in the Bentall group, and 67 ± 14% in the David group (p = 0.33). The Bentall and David operations are both associated with satisfactory long-term results in MFS patients. The low rate of valve prosthesis-related complications suggested that the Bentall operation would continue to be a standard surgical treatment. The reimplantation technique, adopted for less-dilated aortas, provides satisfactory freedom from reoperation. Careful attention should be paid to the reimplantation technique in patients affected by a serious familiar genetic phenotype.

  13. Immediate Flow Disruption as a Prognostic Factor After Flow Diverter Treatment: Long-Term Experience with the Pipeline Embolization Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodier, Philippe; Frischer, Josa M; Wang, Wei-Te; Auzinger, Thomas; Mallouhi, Ammar; Serles, Wolfgang; Gruber, Andreas; Knosp, Engelbert; Bavinzski, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    To report long-term results after Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) implantation, characterize complex and standard aneurysms comprehensively, and introduce a modified flow disruption scale. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 40 patients harboring 59 aneurysms treated with 54 PEDs. Aneurysm complexity was assessed using our proposed classification. Immediate angiographic results were analyzed using previously published grading scales and our novel flow disruption scale. According to our new definition, 46 (78%) aneurysms were classified as complex. Most PED interventions were performed in the paraophthalmic and cavernous internal carotid artery segments. Excellent neurologic outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0 and 1) was observed in 94% of patients. Our data showed low permanent procedure-related mortality (0%) and morbidity (3%) rates. Long-term angiographic follow-up showed complete occlusion in 81% and near-total obliteration in a further 14%. Complete obliteration after deployment of a single PED was achieved in all standard aneurysms with 1-year follow-up. Our new scale was an independent predictor of aneurysm occlusion in a multivariable analysis. All aneurysms with a high flow disruption grade showed complete occlusion at follow-up regardless of PED number or aneurysm complexity. Treatment with the PED should be recognized as a primary management strategy for a highly selected cohort with predominantly complex intracranial aneurysms. We further show that a priori assessment of aneurysm complexity and our new postinterventional angiographic flow disruption scale predict occlusion probability and may help to determine the adequate number of per-aneurysm devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-cultural comparison of long-term care in the United States and Finland: Research done through a short-term study-abroad experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Gilland, Sarah; Frank, Jacquelyn B; Murphy, Bridget C; English, Courtney; Meade, Jana; Morrow, Kaylee; Rush, Evan

    2017-01-01

    In May 2014, a short-term study-abroad experience was conducted in Finland through a course offered at Indiana State University (ISU). Students and faculty from ISU and Eastern Illinois University participated in the experience, which was created to facilitate a cross-cultural comparison of long-term-care settings in the United States and Finland. With its outstanding system of caring for the health and social needs of its aging populace, Finland is a logical model to examine when considering ways to improve the quality of life for older adults who require care in the United States . Those participating in the course visited a series of long-term-care facilities in the region surrounding Terre Haute, Indiana, then travelled to Lappeenranta, Finland to visit parallel sites. Through limited-participation observation and semistructured interviews, similarities and differences in experiences, educations, and policies affecting long-term care workers in the United States and Finland were identified and are described here.

  15. Part 3. Assessment of adaptation reactions in the participants of the long-term medical & ecological investigations during the experiment Mars-500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M. Baevsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the long-term medical & ecological investigations conducted during the experiment Mars-500. Methodology of conducting the long-term medical & ecological investigations and the applied methods are considered. The results are presented in the materials of the research conducted in Russian Federation and Republic of Belarus (Moscow, Syktyvkar, Yekaterinburg, Izhevsk, Magadan and Minsk. For comparative evaluation of the functional state of different reference groups the notion of “ecological stress” was introduced. It depends upon the degree of dominance of the activity of the sympathetic member of the regulatory system over the parasympathetic member. Application of probabilistic approach to the assessment of the functional state and adaptation level with the FR (functional reserve and the DT (the degree of tension of the regulatory mechanisms proved the detected peculiarities of the heart rhythm vegetative regulation. Clear dependency of the functional state of the volunteers on geographic location of regions and climatic parameters is observed. Almost every HRV indicator is characterized by seasonal dynamics. Seasonal dynamics data is exemplified by the research conducted in Yekaterinburg and Syktyvkar. During the earth-bound experiment Mars-500 flight conditions to Mars were simulated. Results of the long-term medical & ecological investigations conducted simultaneously with the experiment Mars-500 showed that health changes in practically healthy people do not usually exceed the limits of the prenosological state.

  16. CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in Battelle model containment long-term heat-up phase. Results for phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Schall, M.; Wolf, L.

    1991-01-01

    The major objective of the F2 experiment was to investigate the thermal-hydraulic long-term phenomena with special emphasis on natural convection phenomena in a loop-type geometry affected by variations of steam and air injections at different locations as well as dry energy supply into various compartments. The open post-test exercise is being performed in two consecutive phases, with Phase I covering the initial long-term heat-up phase. The exercise received widespread international attention with nine organizations from six European countries participating with seven different computer codes (FUMO, Jericho2, Fiploc, Wavco, Contain, Melcor, Cobra/Fathoms). These codes cover a broad spectrum of presently known European computational tools in severe accident containment analyses. The participants used either the specified mass flow or pressure control boundary conditions. Some exercised their codes for both. In total, 14 different computations were officially provided by the participants indicating strong interests and cooperative efforts by various institutions

  17. Long-term results of maxillary distraction osteogenesis in nongrowing cleft: 5-years experience using internal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirjak, D; Reyneke, J P; Janec, J; Beno, M; Kupcova, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) related deformities frequently have maxillary hypoplasia in all dimensions. These patients usually present with class III malocclusions, retruded midfaces and narrow hard palates. The skeletal problems can be treated by means of Le Fort I maxillary procedures. Surgical and orthodontic correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia, as often seen in CLP patients, has however proved to be challenging. The magnitude of the advancement is often hampered and the post operative stability significantly affected by palatal soft tissue scarring. The slow distraction of bone and the histogenic abilities of distraction osteogenesis (DO) have made it an atractive alternative treatment option for the management of maxillary hypoplasia in these patients. This paper presents the treatment results of 15 nongrowing CLP patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia treated by means of intra oral distraction. The mean anterior distraction of the maxillas was 12.7 mm (9-15.0 mm). The long-term cephalometric and clinical evaluation after a minimum of 60 months (mean follow-up 71 months) proved to be stable. The treatment results revealed, that distraction osteogenesis in nongrowing CLP patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia proved to be a predictable and stable option (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 26).

  18. Embolization of renal arteries before transplantation in patients with polycystic kidney disease: a single institution long-term experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitpierre, F.; Cornelis, F.; Lasserre, A.S.; Tricaud, E.; Le Bras, Y.; Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Couzi, L.; Merville, P. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Nephrology, Bordeaux (France); Combe, C.; Ferriere, J.M. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Urology, Bordeaux (France)

    2015-11-15

    We aimed to retrospectively assess the long-term safety and efficacy of embolization of renal arteries (ERA) in patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) before renal transplantation. Between January 2008 and November 2013, 82 ERA procedures were performed on 76 kidneys in 73 patients (mean age 53 years, range: 34-72). All patients had terminal-stage PKD and were under dialysis and on the renal transplant waiting list with a temporary contraindication due to excessive renal volume. ERA was considered successful in 89.5 % (68/76) of embolized kidneys, meaning that the temporary contraindication for transplantation could be withdrawn for 65 patients (on average 5.6 months, range: 2.8-24.3, after ERA). Mean volume reduction was 40 (range: 2-69) at 3 months and 59 % (35-86) thereafter (both p < 0.001). Post-embolization syndrome occurred after 15 of 82 procedures (18.3 %). The severe complication rate was 4.9 %. Forty-three (67.7 %) transplantations were successfully conducted after ERA, with a mean follow-up of 26.2 months (range: 1.8-59.5), and the estimated 5-year graft survival rate was 95.3 % [95 % CI: 82.7-98.8]. ERA is a safe and effective alternative to nephrectomy before renal transplantation in patients with PKD. (orig.)

  19. An in situ Raman spectroscopy system for long-term corrosion experiments in high temperature water up to 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Tani, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    A Raman spectroscopy system has been developed, in order to identify oxides formed on the surfaces of metals and steels in high temperature water up to 673 K. A supercritical water loop system including a Raman cell was installed. The design of the loop system is up to 673 K and 40 MPa. The Raman cell has a diamond window without window-to-metal packing. Raman spectrum of alumina plate was measured at room temperature, at 523 and at 673 K under pressure of 25 MPa. A long-term measurement was also performed at 523 K and 25 MPa for 117.5 h. In all cases intense Raman peaks attributed to alumina were observed. Raman spectrum of anatase particles in suspension was measured at 673 K and 25 MPa. The results show that the Raman spectroscopy system developed in the present study works well not only for plate sample but also for suspension. Raman spectra observed for titanium plate in high temperature water of 673 K and 25 MPa show growth of several Raman peaks with time up to 257 h. The peaks disappeared after cooled down to room temperature. The experimental results have demonstrated importance of in situ Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Hydrocephalus: an underrated long-term complication of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. A single institute experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratorio, Francesco; Tringali, G; Levi, V; Ligarotti, G K I; Nazzi, V; Franzini, A A

    2016-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery, but its real incidence after microvascular decompression (MVD) for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to focus on the potential association between MVD and hydrocephalus as a surgery-related complication. All patients who underwent MVD procedure for idiopathic TN at our institute between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed to search for early or late postoperative hydrocephalus. There were 259 consecutive patients affected by idiopathic TN who underwent MVD procedure at our institution between 2009 and 2014 (113 men, 146 women; mean age 59 years, range 30-87 years; mean follow-up 40.92 months, range 8-48 months). Nine patients (3.47 %) developed communicating hydrocephalus after hospital discharge and underwent standard ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. No cases of acute hydrocephalus were noticed. Our study suggests that late communicating hydrocephalus may be an underrated potential long-term complication of MVD surgery.

  1. Long-term experiment on digestibility, accumulation and metabolisation of low-level dietary polychlorinated biphenyls in laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, S. De; Schrijver, R. De [Catholic Univ., Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    With regard to their bioaccumulation and toxicity, scientifically based standards concerning acceptable concentrations of PCBs in animal feeds and products should be determined. Therefore, insight in the accumulation of PCBs in the food chain is required. Until now, the maximally admitted PCB content in Belgian animal feeds and products, based on the sum of 7 reference PCB congeners, amounts to 200 ng/g fat. The present study with laying hens was designed to examine the long-term effects of low level dietary PCB contents on animal performance, egg quality, apparent PCB digestibility, PCB retention and PCB incorporation in egg yolk, abdominal adipose tissue, thigh and breast muscle tissues. Moreover, the effect of low dietary amounts of added fat, varying between 1.5% and 4.5%, on PCB digestibility and incorporation in laying hens was investigated. Also we addressed the question whether PCB incorporation in egg yolk as well as in adipose and muscle tissue would meet the current standard of 200 ng/g fat.

  2. Embolization of renal arteries before transplantation in patients with polycystic kidney disease: a single institution long-term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitpierre, F.; Cornelis, F.; Lasserre, A.S.; Tricaud, E.; Le Bras, Y.; Grenier, N.; Couzi, L.; Merville, P.; Combe, C.; Ferriere, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to retrospectively assess the long-term safety and efficacy of embolization of renal arteries (ERA) in patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) before renal transplantation. Between January 2008 and November 2013, 82 ERA procedures were performed on 76 kidneys in 73 patients (mean age 53 years, range: 34-72). All patients had terminal-stage PKD and were under dialysis and on the renal transplant waiting list with a temporary contraindication due to excessive renal volume. ERA was considered successful in 89.5 % (68/76) of embolized kidneys, meaning that the temporary contraindication for transplantation could be withdrawn for 65 patients (on average 5.6 months, range: 2.8-24.3, after ERA). Mean volume reduction was 40 (range: 2-69) at 3 months and 59 % (35-86) thereafter (both p < 0.001). Post-embolization syndrome occurred after 15 of 82 procedures (18.3 %). The severe complication rate was 4.9 %. Forty-three (67.7 %) transplantations were successfully conducted after ERA, with a mean follow-up of 26.2 months (range: 1.8-59.5), and the estimated 5-year graft survival rate was 95.3 % [95 % CI: 82.7-98.8]. ERA is a safe and effective alternative to nephrectomy before renal transplantation in patients with PKD. (orig.)

  3. Long-term experience with ventilated plates for more than ten years. An overview; Langfristerfahrung mit hinterluefteten Platten ueber mehr als zehn Jahre. Ein Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Manfred [Juenger+Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany). Sparte Umwelt; Horn, Markus [Juenger+Graeter GmbH, Schwetzingen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The authors of this contribution report on long-term experiences on ventilated plates under consideration of the following aspects: operation of ventilated plates; documentation of the use of ventilated plates since 1999; pointing out of the different operating conditions; documentation of exchange rates by means of the ascertained data. Finally, the possible influence of the exhaust gas conditions or operation conditions, respectively, on the expected service life of the protection of the pipe wall are discussed on the basis of actual operational experiences.

  4. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  5. Long-term self-reported treatment effects and experience of radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the inferior turbinates performed under local anesthesia: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiruddin, F; Vroegop, A V M T; Ravesloot, M J L; de Vries, N

    2013-05-01

    Nasal obstruction due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy is a common complaint. Radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the inferior turbinates (RFITT) under local anesthesia is now a widely used treatment, however reports of assessment of the long-term self-reported benefits and patient satisfaction of the treatment are scarce. This study focuses on the self-reported long-term effects of treatment and experience of RFITT. A questionnaire was sent to 441 patients who underwent RFITT in our clinic to treat symptoms of impaired nasal passage due to enlarged inferior turbinates. All patients had enlarged inferior turbinates on nasal examination. Patients were included if RFITT was done under local anaesthesia, was performed more than a year before the questionnaire was forwarded and on the indication-significant nasal obstruction because of enlarged inferior turbinates. Improvement of nasal breathing (by means of a Visual Analog Scale, VAS), changes in use of nasal spray (VAS), usage of pain medication, patient friendliness of the treatment, complaints reported after treatment, permanent effect of treatment during day and night time and willingness to recommend treatment to others were analyzed. No significant post-operative complications were observed. There was a significant reduction in use of nasal spray and the majority of patients interviewed reported long-term positive effects of RFITT during the daytime. This study shows that RFITT performed under local anesthesia is a valuable, minimally invasive, patient-friendly and well-tolerated treatment in patients with impaired nasal passage due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy.

  6. Experience With a Long-term Pulsatile Ventricular Assist Device as a Bridge to Heart Transplant in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Bueno, Manuel; Segovia Cubero, Javier; Serrano Fiz, Santiago; Ugarte Basterrechea, Juan; Hernández Pérez, Francisco José; Goirigolzarri Artaza, Josebe; Castedo Mejuto, Evaristo; Burgos Lázaro, Raúl; García Montero, Carlos; Moñivas Palomero, Vanessa; Mingo Santos, Susana; González Román, Ana Isabel; Álvarez Avelló, José Manuel; Vidal Fernández, Mercedes; Forteza Gil, Alberto; Alonso-Pulpón, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Most long-term ventricular assist devices (VADs) that are currently implanted are intracorporeal continuous-flow devices. Their main limitations include their high cost and inability to provide biventricular support. The aim of this study was to describe the results of using paracorporeal pulsatile-flow VADs as a bridge to transplant (BTT) in adult patients. Retrospective analysis of the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of a single-center case series of consecutive patients treated with the EXCOR VAD as BTT between 2009 and 2015. During the study period, 25 VADs were implanted, 6 of them biventricular. Ventricular assist devices were indicated directly as a BTT in 12 patients and as a bridge to decision in 13 due to the presence of potentially reversible contraindications or chance of heart function recovery. Twenty patients (80%) were successfully bridged to heart transplant after a median of 112 days (range, 8-239). The main complications included infectious (52% of patients), neurological events (32%, half of them fatal), bleeding (28%), and VAD malfunction requiring component replacement (28%). Eighty percent of patients with the EXCOR VAD as BTT achieved the goal after an average of almost 4 months of support. The most frequent complications were infectious, and the most severe were neurological. In our enivonment, the use of these pulsatile-flow VAD as BTT is a feasible strategy that obtains similar outcomes to those of intracorporeal continuous-flow devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Radioactive analysis of samples from spent fuel leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geckeis, H.; Degering, D.; Goertzen, A.; Geyer, F.W.; Dressler, P.

    1995-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term performance of spent fuel during direct disposal, high burnup fuel (50 MWd/kg U) has been exposed to non-buffered brine solutions and to deionized water under static anaerobic conditions at 25 C. The leaching behaviour of several radionuclides has been observed over periods of approximately 500 d. Currently used radiometric methods (α-, β-, γ-spectrometry) were applied to the analysis of sample solutions. Due to its low specific activity, uranium was determined using ICP-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) or laser induced fluorescence spectrometry (LFS). In order to determine radionuclide concentrations without interferences a preceeding radiochemical separation by ion-exchange, solvent-extraction or extraction chromatography was necessary in most cases. The Sc-isotopes 134/137, which are present in a high excess over other γ-emitting nuclides, were separated using the inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdato phosphate (AMP). This step allowed the subsequent γ-spectrometric determination of Am-241, Ag-110m, Ru-106, Sb-125 and Eu-154/155. Activity concentrations of pure β-emitters like Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129 and Pu-241 were determined by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after selective separation using extraction chromatography or solvent extraction. The actinides Am-241, Cm-242/244, Pu-238/239/240 and Np-237 were analysed by α-spectrometry again after selective separation. The direct analysis of uranium by LFS or ICP-MS was hampered by high salt concentrations. Therefore a separation by extraction chromatography turned out to be necessary, too. The analytical procedures used throughout this work are described in detail. (orig.) [de

  8. Intraventricular Neurocysticercosis: Experience and Long-Term Outcome from a Tertiary Referral Center in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Theodore E; Ware, JeanAnne M; Mahanty, Siddhartha

    2018-04-23

    Ventricular involvement in neurocysticercosis (NCC), a common serious manifestation of NCC, has distinct clinical presentations, complications, and treatments primarily because of partial or complete obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow by Taenia solium cysts. We review the clinical course, treatments, and long-term outcomes in 23 of 121 (19.0%) total NCC patients with ventricular cysts referred to the National Institutes of Health from 1985 to the October 2017. Patients had a median age of 31.8 (range: 22.4-52.6 years), were 60.9% male, diagnosed a median of 6.5 years (range: 0.17-16 years) after immigration, and were followed for a median of 3.6 years (range: 0.1-30.5 years). Other forms and manifestations of NCC were present in 73.9% (17/23). The fourth ventricle was involved in a majority (15/23, 65.2%) resulting in hydrocephalus (73.9%), ventriculitis, and periventricular edema (7/23, 30.4%). Cystectomy was accomplished in 60.9%, usually by removal of a fourth ventricular cyst through a suboccipital craniotomy. Nonresectable cysts were treated medically. Ventriculoperitoneal shunts were inserted in 43.5% (10/23) and failed in four, three from infection. Other complications included surgically induced injuries (4/23, 17.4%) and entrapment of a lateral ventricle (2/23, 8.7%). Despite a common severe early course, 90.9% (20/22) stabilized without recurrence, 15% (3/20) complained of mild-to-moderate neurological complaints, and 15% (3/20) were significantly disabled. Four patients who underwent removal of ventricular cysts without significant other NCC and who received with no cysticidal treatment became CSF cestode antigen negative without recurrence indicating that after successful extraction of cysts, additional cysticidal treatment may not be needed.

  9. Long-Term Outcomes of Homografts in the Aortic Valve and Root Position: A 20-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Yeon Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The advantages of using a homograft in valve replacement surgery are the excellent hemodynamic profile, low risk of thromboembolism, and low risk of prosthetic valve infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of homograft implantation in the aortic valve position. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 33 patients (>20 years old who underwent aortic valve replacement or root replacement with homografts between April 1995 and May 2015. Valves were collected within 24 hours from explanted hearts of heart transplant recipients (<60 years and organ donors who were not suitable for heart transplantation. The median follow-up duration was 35.6 months (range, 0 to 168 months. Results: Aortic homografts were used in all patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 9.1%. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 80.0%±7.3% and 60.8%±10.1%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from reoperation rates were 92.3%±5.2%, 68.9%±10.2%, and 50.3%±13.6%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from significant aortic dysfunction rates were 91.7%±8.0%, 41.7%±14.2%, and 25.0%±12.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Homografts had the advantages of a good hemodynamic profile and low risk of thromboembolic events, and with good outcomes in cases of aortitis.

  10. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.

    2015-10-22

    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  11. What makes the hedonic experience of a meal in a top restaurant special and retrievable in the long term? Meal-related, social and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Francisco; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Schacht, Annekathrin; Stürmer, Birgit; Bröcker, Felix; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Sommer, Werner

    2018-06-01

    Knowing what makes a top gastronomy experience unique and retrievable in the long term is of interest for scientific and economic reasons. Recent attempts to isolate predictors of the hedonic evaluation of food have afforded several factors, such as individual and social attributes, or liking/disliking profiles. However, in these studies relevant variables have been examined in isolation without an integrative perspective. Here we investigated 80 guests enjoying a 23-course meal in a top gastronomy restaurant, in groups of four. Our main question concerned the factors driving the overall evaluation of the meal at its conclusion and after three months. To this aim we administered the Big Five Personality Inventory before the meal, dish-by-dish hedonic ratings, and a multi-dimensional Meal Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) at the end of the meal. Hedonic evaluations of the meal were collected immediately after the meal and three months later. Better immediate overall evaluations were predicted by both the number of peaks in dish-by-dish ratings and by positive ratings of the final dish. Both factors and the number of troughs were also critical for the long-term evaluation after three months. The MEQ dimensions overall interest, valence and distraction predicted immediate evaluations, while the long-term evaluations were determined by interest and high scores on the personality traits agreeableness and conscientiousness. High consistency of the hedonic ratings within quartets indicated the relevance of commensality for the meal experience. The present findings highlight the simultaneous relevance of food- and personality-related factors and commensality for a top gastronomy meal experience in the short and long-run. The uncovered relationships are of theoretical interest and for those involved in designing meals for consumers in various settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic factors and long-term outcomes of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A single-institution experience in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Jie; Mao, Hui; Shrestha, Anuj; Tan, Yong-Qiong; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Wang, Jun-Ke; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in a large series of patients in a single institution. METHODS: Eight hundred and fourteen patients with a diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma that were evaluated and treated between 1990 and 2014, of which 381 patients underwent curative surgery, were included in this study. Potential factors associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Curative surgery provided the best long-term survival with a median OS of 26.3 mo. The median DFS was 18.1 mo. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with tumor size > 3 cm [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.482, 95%CI: 1.127-1.949; P = 0.005], positive nodal disease (HR = 1.701, 95%CI: 1.346-2.149; P < 0.001), poor differentiation (HR = 2.535, 95%CI: 1.839-3.493; P < 0.001), vascular invasion (HR = 1.542, 95%CI: 1.082-2.197; P = 0.017), and positive margins (HR = 1.798, 95%CI: 1.314-2.461; P < 0.001) had poor OS outcome. The independent factors for DFS were positive nodal disease (HR = 3.383, 95%CI: 2.633-4.348; P < 0.001), poor differentiation (HR = 2.774, 95%CI: 2.012-3.823; P < 0.001), vascular invasion (HR = 2.136, 95%CI: 1.658-3.236; P < 0.001), and positive margins (HR = 1.835, 95%CI: 1.256-2.679; P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that caudate lobectomy [odds ratio (OR) = 9.771, 95%CI: 4.672-20.433; P < 0.001], tumor diameter (OR = 3.772, 95%CI: 1.914-7.434; P < 0.001), surgical procedures (OR = 10.236, 95%CI: 4.738-22.116; P < 0.001), American Joint Committee On Cancer T stage (OR = 2.010, 95%CI: 1.043-3.870; P = 0.037), and vascular invasion (OR = 2.278, 95%CI: 0.997-5.207; P = 0.051) were independently associated with tumor-free margin, and surgical procedures could indirectly affect survival outcome by influencing the tumor resection margin. CONCLUSION: Tumor margin, tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, and lymph node status were independent

  13. Impact assessment of climate change on tourism in the Pacific small islands based on the database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Utsumi, N.; Take, M.; Iida, A.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to develop a new approach to assess the impact of climate change on the small oceanic islands in the Pacific. In the new approach, the change of the probabilities of various situations was projected with considering the spread of projection derived from ensemble simulations, instead of projecting the most probable situation. The database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF) is a database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments, which has the results of 100 ensemble simulations. We utilized the database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF), which was (a long-term and high-resolution database) composed of results of 100 ensemble experiments. A new methodology, Multi Threshold Ensemble Assessment (MTEA), was developed using the d4PDF in order to assess the impact of climate change. We focused on the impact of climate change on tourism because it has played an important role in the economy of the Pacific Islands. The Yaeyama Region, one of the tourist destinations in Okinawa, Japan, was selected as the case study site. Two kinds of impact were assessed: change in probability of extreme climate phenomena and tourist satisfaction associated with weather. The database of long-term high-resolution climate ensemble experiments and the questionnaire survey conducted by a local government were used for the assessment. The result indicated that the strength of extreme events would be increased, whereas the probability of occurrence would be decreased. This change should result in increase of the number of clear days and it could contribute to improve the tourist satisfaction.

  14. 'The challenge to take charge of life with long-term illness': nurses' experiences of supporting patients' learning with the didactic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Susanne; Svanström, Rune; Ek, Kristina; Rosén, Helena; Berglund, Mia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this implementation study is to describe nurses' experiences of supporting patient learning using the model called 'The challenge to take charge of life with long-term illness'. Supporting patient learning for those suffering from a long-term illness is a complex art in nursing. Genuine learning occurs at a deep and existential level. If the patient's resistance to illness can be challenged and reflected upon, the patient may take charge of his/her life. The project lasted for 2 years and was initiated by a former patient on an assisted haemodialysis ward and involved 14 registered nurses. The project began with a session to review patients' learning and the didactic model. Monthly reflective meetings and group supervisions were held that focused on the nurses' experiences of supporting patient learning. Notes were written during these reflective meetings and group sessions. Data collected from interviews, notes and written stories were subjected to phenomenological analysis. Three aspects of nurses' experiences of the learning support approach were assessed: To have the courage to listen sincerely, a movement from providing information to supporting learning, and to let the patient indicate the direction. The approach resulted in an increased focus on genuine dialogue and the courage to encourage patients to take charge of their health process. The changes in nurses' approach to learning support reveal that they shift from providing information on the disease, illness and treatment to strengthening and supporting the patient in making decisions and taking responsibility. For nurses, the change entails accepting the patient's goals and regarding their own role as supportive rather than controlling. The didactic model and involved supervision contributed to the change in the nurses' approach. The didactic model might be useful in caring for persons with long-term illness, making the care more person-centred and enhancing the patient's self-care ability.

  15. Simulating trends in crop yield and soil carbon in a long-term experiment - effects of rising CO2, N deposition and improved cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of crop yield and soil carbon in the Bad Lauchstädt long-term fertiliser experiment were analysed with the FASSET model. The model satisfactorily predicted yield and soil carbon development in four treatments: no fertiliser, mineral fertiliser, farmyard manure and farmyard manure plus...... was the use of new crop varieties and/or pesticides, while the increase in atmospheris CO2 and changes in local N deposition were of lesser importance. The rise in CO2 thus only explained 9-37% of the yield increase. The observed and simulated developments in soil carbon were quite different in the four...

  16. Surface protection of inner shells of cooling towers. Positive long-term experience with coating systems.; Oberflaechenschutz von Kuehlturminnenschalen. Positive Langzeiterfahrungen mit Beschichtungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, Peer [MC-Bauchemie Mueller GmbH und Co.KG, Bottrop (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Natural-draught cooling tower are modern power plant components with great importance for safe and reliable power supply. Due to the complex effects of operating and environmental conditions especially on the inner shell, the concrete must be protected by special resin-based surface coating systems. Parallel to the development of the power plant technology, also the coating systems are under constant improvement in order to ensure reliable and permanent protection. The positive long-term experience suggests that power plant operators may rely on a high level of safety here. (orig.)

  17. Long-Term Effects of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation after Pediatric Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis of Life Experiences and Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Lahaye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT improves the survival rate of children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant conditions; however, the physical, psychological and social burden of such a procedure is considerable both during and after treatment. The present qualitative study investigated the long-term effects of HSCT after pediatric cancer. Thirty adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors (Mage = 23.61 years, SD = 5.21 participated in individual interviews and were invited to speak about their life experiences following their treatment and strategies they use to deal with their past medical experiences and the long-term sequelae. Our results showed the presence of ongoing physical and psychosocial consequences of their past illness and its treatments with wide ranging psychosocial impacts, such as affected self-image, social withdrawal, sense of lack of choice, and need for specific attention. Different strategies were reported to overcome these consequences, such as talking about illness, giving a sense to their past medical experiences, and developing meaningful social relationships. Clinical and research implications are also discussed.

  18. Memory of childbirth in the second year: the long-term effect of a negative birth experience and its modulation by the perceived intranatal relationship with caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlmayr, W; Amsler, F; Lemola, S; Stein, S; Alt, M; Bürgin, D; Surbek, D; Bitzer, J

    2006-12-01

    To assess the memory of various subdimensions of the birth experience in the second year postpartum, and to identify women in the first weeks postpartum at risk of developing a long-term negative memory. DESIGN, METHOD, OUTCOME MEASURES: New mothers' birth experience (BE) was assessed 48-96 hours postpartum (T1) by means of the SIL-Ger and the BBCI (perception of intranatal relationships); early postnatal adjustment (week 3 pp: T1(bis)) was also assessed. Then, four subgroups of women were defined by means of a cluster-analysis, integrating the T1/T1(bis) variables. To evaluate the memory of the BE, the SIL-Ger was again applied in the second year after childbirth (T2). First, the ratings of the SIL-Ger dimensions of T1 were compared to those at T2 in the whole sample. Then, the four subgroups were compared with respect to their ratings of the birth experience at T2 (correlations, ANOVAs and t-tests). In general, fulfillment, emotional adaptation, physical discomfort, and anxiety improve spontaneously over the first year postpartum, whereas in negative emotional experience, control, and time-going-slowly no shift over time is observed. However, women with a negative overall birth experience and a low level of perceived intranatal relationship at T1 run a high risk of retaining a negative memory in all of the seven subdimensions of the birth experience. Women at risk of developing a negative long-term memory of the BE can be identified at the time of early postpartum, when the overall birth experience and the perceived intranatal relationship are taken into account.

  19. Challenging terrestrial biosphere models with data from the long-term multifactor Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Walker, Anthony P; Zaehle, Sönke; Asao, Shinichi; Guenet, Bertrand; Harper, Anna B; Hickler, Thomas; Jain, Atul K; Luo, Yiqi; Lu, Xingjie; Luus, Kristina; Parton, William J; Shu, Shijie; Wang, Ying-Ping; Werner, Christian; Xia, Jianyang; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A; Ryan, Edmund M; Carrillo, Yolima; Dijkstra, Feike A; Zelikova, Tamara J; Norby, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    Multifactor experiments are often advocated as important for advancing terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), yet to date, such models have only been tested against single-factor experiments. We applied 10 TBMs to the multifactor Prairie Heating and CO 2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in Wyoming, USA. Our goals were to investigate how multifactor experiments can be used to constrain models and to identify a road map for model improvement. We found models performed poorly in ambient conditions; there was a wide spread in simulated above-ground net primary productivity (range: 31-390 g C m -2  yr -1 ). Comparison with data highlighted model failures particularly with respect to carbon allocation, phenology, and the impact of water stress on phenology. Performance against the observations from single-factors treatments was also relatively poor. In addition, similar responses were predicted for different reasons across models: there were large differences among models in sensitivity to water stress and, among the N cycle models, N availability during the experiment. Models were also unable to capture observed treatment effects on phenology: they overestimated the effect of warming on leaf onset and did not allow CO 2 -induced water savings to extend the growing season length. Observed interactive (CO 2  × warming) treatment effects were subtle and contingent on water stress, phenology, and species composition. As the models did not correctly represent these processes under ambient and single-factor conditions, little extra information was gained by comparing model predictions against interactive responses. We outline a series of key areas in which this and future experiments could be used to improve model predictions of grassland responses to global change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Linking Soil Physical Parameters Along a Density Gradient in a Loess-Soil Long-Term Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Marie; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the impact of texture and organic carbon (OC) on soil structure development. Only few studies investigated this for silt-dominated soils. In this study, soil physical properties were determined on samples from a controlled experiment (Static Fertilization Experiment...... hydraulic conductivity. The management resulted in a distinct gradient in OC. A bulk density gradient developed from differences in amount of clay not complexed with OC. This gradient in bulk density mainly affected content of pores larger than 3 [mu]m. The air-connected porosity measured by a pycnometer...

  1. Effects of Formica ants on soil fauna-results from a short-term exclusion and a long-term natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Lisette; Bengtsson, Jan; Persson, Tryggve

    2003-02-01

    Wood ants (Formica spp.) were hypothesised to affect the composition and greatly reduce the abundance of large-sized soil fauna by predation. This was tested in two ways. Firstly, a 4-year-long experimental study was carried out in a mixed forest. Five ant-free 1.3-m(2) plots were created by fenced exclosures within an ant territory. Five nearby plots had fences with entrances for the ants. In addition, five non-fenced control plots were selected. Soil fauna (e.g. Coleoptera, Diptera larvae, Collembola and Araneae) was sampled during the summers of 1997-2000. The soil fauna was affected by the exclosures but there was no detectable effect of ants on the soil fauna. Secondly, soil fauna was studied within a large-scale natural experiment in which the long-term (30 years) effects of red wood ants could be assessed inside and outside ant territories. This long-term natural experiment revealed no significant effects of ants on the abundance or composition of soil fauna. The results from the two studies indicate that the effects of wood ants on soil fauna are fairly small. The hypothesis that wood ants are key-stone predators on soil fauna could, thus, not be supported.

  2. "It was an education in portion size". Experience of eating a healthy diet and barriers to long term dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, J I; Loe, J; Kyle, J; McNeill, G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the expectations and experience of actually eating a healthy diet and using this experience to identify barriers to healthy eating and sustainable dietary change. Fifty participants (19-63 yrs) were provided with a healthy diet (i.e. complied with dietary recommendations) for three consecutive days. Afterwards a semi-structured interview was carried out to explore expectations, experience and barriers to healthy eating. Using a thematic analysis approach eight dominant themes emerged from the interviews. Four related to expectations and experience of healthy eating; realisation of what are appropriate portion sizes, an expectation to feel hungry, surprise that healthy diets comprised normal food, the desire for sweet snacks (e.g. chocolate). This demonstrated there are some misconception about healthy eating and distorted views of portion size. Four more themes emerged relating to barriers to healthy eating; competing priorities, social, peer and time pressure, importance of value for money, a lack of desire to cook. Poor knowledge of healthy eating or a lack of cooking skills were the least common barrier, suggesting that future interventions and policy to improve dietary intakes need to focus on social, cultural and economic issues rather than on lack of knowledge or skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve

    2014-01-01

    -reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain......Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment...... and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46...

  4. Long-term fecal diverting device for the prevention of sepsis in case of colorectal anastomotic leakage: an animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hwang; Jung, Sang Hun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Park, Se-ll; Kim, Dae-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Background A new fecal diverting device (FDD) was fabricated for fecal diversion from the proximal colon above the anastomosis to outside the anus for protecting the rectal anastomosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the FDD. Methods After a pilot study, a prospective observational trial was performed in 34 mongrel dogs. The experiment comprised of segmental resection and anastomosis of the colon, fixation of the FDD, and observation for 3?weeks (n?=?15) a...

  5. Indication of Electron Neutrino Appearance in the T2K experiment and its long-term implications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment primarily searching for oscillations of muon neutrinos into electron neutrinos. T2K will also make precise measurements of the atmospheric oscillation parameters via muon neutrino disappearance. The experiment uses 30 GeV protons from the new J-PARC Main Ring accelerator, located in Tokai, Japan, to generate a conventional neutrino beam to the Super-Kamiokande far detector. The hadron production measurements of the NA61 experiment at CERN were used to predict the neutrino fluxes at the near and far detectors. The T2K oscillation analysis compares the rates of observed and predicted muon and electron neutrino candidates in the far detector. We present first results based on data accumulated from January 2010 to March 2011. Six electron neutrino events pass the selection criteria for electron appearance at Super-Kamiokande, whereas the expected number of background events is 1.5±0.3. The probability of a fluctuation of the back...

  6. Long term field evaluation of phosphate rock and superphosphate in acid soils of Hungary; Incubation and pot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, T.; Osztoics, E.; Csatho, P.; Radimszky, L.; Baczo, G.Y.

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to compare the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock (from Algeria) and of single superphosphate (from Russia, Kola) on a moderately acidic pseudogley brown forest soil (Szentgyoergyvoelgy) and on a slightly acidic chernozem brown forest soil (Kompolt). Dynamics of water-soluble and ammonium lactate-soluble P-contents (AL-P) and soil pH-H 2 O changes were studied in a half-year long incubation experiment. A follow-up pot experiment with the same soils was carried out with winter rape as test plants. Both experiments were set up with similar P fertilizer sources and P rates (100, 200, and 400 mg mineral acid soluble P 2 O 5 per kg soil). At the beginning of incubation experiment, the water-soluble P content of the pseudogley brown forest soil was influenced by both the sources of P and the experimental conditions. The water-soluble P content decreased with time. After the 15 th to 20 th day of incubation, when the fast binding process of the water-soluble P ended, the effects of the P forms decreased. In this stage, the effects of environmental conditions depended on the form of the P fertilizer. The water-soluble P content of the phosphate rock-treated samples was affected to a great extent by soil water content, while the incubation temperature had a greater effect in soils treated with superphosphate. The AL-P content of soils was increased similarly by addition of equal rates of phosphate rock and super-phosphate at the beginning of incubation. The AL-P content of phosphate rock-treated soils was higher throughout the incubation period than of the superphosphate-treated soils -treated. Temperature had a greater effect on the AL-P content of soils than soil water content. As the AL-extraction may dissolve a substantial amount of the undecomposed phosphate rock, this method is not applicable to soil testing of available P forms from phosphate rock-treated soils. Initial soil pH decreased on average by 0.5 units in the

  7. Design, construction, commissioning and long term operational experience with the D0 Uranium/Liquid Argon calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Schamberger, Dean

    2014-01-01

    The D0 experiment was designed in the mid 1980s and ran at the Fermilab pp collider from 1992 through 2011. I describe the uranium-liquid argon calorimeter and its readout electronic which was upgraded in the late 1990s to handle the higher luminosity of the upgraded Tevatron during its second running period from 2001-2011. I summarize maintaining the calorimeter for 20 years of data taking. I further describe a few issues that arose during that time, including different types of noise and th...

  8. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  9. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  10. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  11. Positive experiences of a vocational rehabilitation intervention for individuals on long-term sick leave, the Dirigo project: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersén, Åsa; Ståhl, Christian; Anderzén, Ingrid; Kristiansson, Per; Larsson, Kjerstin

    2017-10-10

    The process of returning to work after long-term sick leave can sometimes be complex. Many factors, (e.g. cooperation between different authorities and the individual as well as individual factors such as health, emotional well-being and self-efficacy) may have an impact on an individual's ability to work. The aim of this study was to investigate clients' experiences with an individually tailored vocational rehabilitation, the Dirigo project, and encounters with professionals working on it. The Dirigo project was based on collaboration between rehabilitation authorities, individually tailored interventions and a motivational interviewing approach. A descriptive qualitative design was used with data collected through interviews. Fourteen individuals on long-term sick leave took part in individual semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. The analysis showed overall positive experience of methods and encounters with professionals in a vocational rehabilitation project. The positive experiences were based on four key factors: 1. Opportunities for receiving various dimensions of support. 2. Good overall treatment by the professionals. 3. Satisfaction with the working methods of the project, and 4. Opportunities for personal development. The main result showed that the clients had an overall positive experience of a vocational rehabilitation project and encounters with professionals who used motivational interviewing as a communication method. The overall positive experience indicated that their interactions with the different professionals may have affected their self-efficacy in general and in relation to transition to work. The knowledge is essential for the professionals working in the area of vocational rehabilitation. However, vocational rehabilitation interventions also need a societal approach to be able to offer clients opportunities for job training and real jobs.

  12. Positive experiences of a vocational rehabilitation intervention for individuals on long-term sick leave, the Dirigo project: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Andersén

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of returning to work after long-term sick leave can sometimes be complex. Many factors, (e.g. cooperation between different authorities and the individual as well as individual factors such as health, emotional well-being and self-efficacy may have an impact on an individual’s ability to work. The aim of this study was to investigate clients’ experiences with an individually tailored vocational rehabilitation, the Dirigo project, and encounters with professionals working on it. The Dirigo project was based on collaboration between rehabilitation authorities, individually tailored interventions and a motivational interviewing approach. Methods A descriptive qualitative design was used with data collected through interviews. Fourteen individuals on long-term sick leave took part in individual semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results The analysis showed overall positive experience of methods and encounters with professionals in a vocational rehabilitation project. The positive experiences were based on four key factors: 1. Opportunities for receiving various dimensions of support. 2. Good overall treatment by the professionals. 3. Satisfaction with the working methods of the project, and 4. Opportunities for personal development. Conclusions The main result showed that the clients had an overall positive experience of a vocational rehabilitation project and encounters with professionals who used motivational interviewing as a communication method. The overall positive experience indicated that their interactions with the different professionals may have affected their self-efficacy in general and in relation to transition to work. The knowledge is essential for the professionals working in the area of vocational rehabilitation. However, vocational rehabilitation interventions also need a societal approach to be able to offer clients opportunities for job training

  13. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  14. Experience of long-term use of non-invasive ventilation in motor neuron disease: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hikari; Chakrabarti, Biswajit; Angus, Robert M; Cousins, Rosanna; Thornton, Everard W; Young, Carolyn A

    2014-03-01

    Although non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can promote quality of life in motor neuron disease (MND), previous studies have disregarded the impact of progression of illness. This study explored how patients' perceptions of NIV treatment evolve over time and how this was reflected in their adherence to NIV. Five patients with MND (male=4, mean age=59 years), from a bigger cohort who were prospectively followed, had multiple post-NIV semistructured interviews, covering more than 12 months, along with ventilator interaction data. The transcribed phenomenological data were analysed using qualitative methodology. Three themes emerged: experience of NIV, influence on attitudes and perceived impact of NIV on prognosis. The ventilator interaction data identified regular use of NIV by four participants who each gave positive account of their experience of NIV treatment, and irregular use by one participant who at interview revealed a negative attitude to NIV treatment and in whom MND induced feelings of hopelessness. This exploratory study suggests that a positive coping style, adaptation and hope are key factors for psychological well-being and better adherence to NIV. More studies are needed to determine these relationships.

  15. The long-term experiences of surrogates: relationships and contact with surrogacy families in genetic and gestational surrogacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrie, Susan; Jadva, Vasanti

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the contact arrangements and relationships between surrogates and surrogacy families and whether these outcomes differed according to the type of surrogacy undertaken. Surrogates' motivations for carrying out multiple surrogacy arrangements were also examined, and surrogates' psychological health was assessed. Semi-structured interviews were administered to 34 women who had given birth to a child conceived through surrogacy approximately 7 years prior to interview. Some surrogates had carried out multiple surrogacy arrangements, and data were collected on the frequency, type of contact, and surrogate's feelings about the level of contact in each surrogacy arrangement, the surrogate's relationship with each child and parent, and her experience of, and motivation for, each surrogacy. Questionnaire measures of psychological health were administered. Surrogates had completed a total of 102 surrogacy arrangements and remained in contact with the majority of families, and reported positive relationships in most cases. Surrogates were happy with their level of contact in the majority of arrangements and most were viewed as positive experiences. Few differences were found according to surrogacy type. The primary motivation given for multiple surrogacy arrangements was to help couples have a sibling for an existing child. Most surrogates showed no psychological health problems at the time of data collection. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Auction approaches of long-term contracts to ensure generation investment in electricity markets: Lessons from the Brazilian and Chilean experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, R.; Barroso, L.A.; Rudnick, H.; Mocarquer, S.; Bezerra, B.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of auctions of long-term electricity contracts is arising as an alternative to ensure generation investment and therefore achieve a reliable electricity supply. The aim is to reconcile generation adequacy with efficient energy purchase, correct risk allocation among investors and consumers, and the politico-economic environment of the country. In this paper, a generic proposal for a long-term electricity contracts approach is made, including practical design concepts for implementation. This proposal is empirically derived from the auctions implemented in Brazil and Chile during the last 6 years. The study is focused on practices and lessons which are especially useful for regulators and policy makers that want to facilitate the financing of new desirable power plants in risky environments and also efficiently allocate supply contracts among investors at competitive prices. Although this mechanism is generally seen as a significant improvement in market regulation, there are questions and concerns on auction performance that require careful design and which are identified in this paper. In addition, the experiences and proposal described can serve to derive further mechanisms in order to promote the entrance of particular generation technologies, e.g. renewables, in the developed world and therefore achieve a clean electricity supply.

  17. Long-term development of nursing mixtures of Sitka spruce and larch species in an experiment in northern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: An experiment was established in 1966 to compare the growth and development of 50: 50 mixtures of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis with either Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi or tamarack (L. laricina with that found in pure plots of Sitka spruce. The site was one of moderate nitrogen availability where the presence of heather (Calluna vulgaris could be expected to limit the growth ofSitka spruce.Area of the study: North-east Scotland.Material and methods: There were different patterns of spruce growth in the pure plots and in the mixtures, with faster spruce growth in mixture in the years approaching and immediately following canopy closure (i.e. ages 15-25. Foliage analysis suggested that this was linked with improved nitrogen status of spruce trees in the mixed compared to the pure plots.Main results: At years 20 and 25 there were significant differences in height, diameter, and basal area between treatments, with the largest basal area being found in the Japanese larch/Sitka spruce mixtures, indicative of overyielding in the mixed plots. However, when the experiment was clearfelled at 41 years of age, all treatments had self-thinned to produce spruce dominated stands of similar height with only an occasional larch tree surviving in plots that were originally 50:50 mixtures.Research highlights: There were no differences between treatments in basal area, harvested volume or sawlog outturn after 41 years. These results can be interpreted as showing facilitation between the larch and the spruce during the establishment phase followed by competition for light once canopy closure had occurred.Keywords: Mixed stand dynamics; facilitation; nitrogen status; product outturn.

  18. The Effect of Dining Room Physical Environmental Renovations on Person-Centered Care Practice and Residents' Dining Experiences in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Lillian; Chaudhury, Habib; Rust, Tiana

    2016-12-01

    This qualitative study evaluated the effect of dining room physical environmental changes on staff practices and residents' mealtime experiences in two units of a long-term care facility in Edmonton, Canada. Focus groups with staff (n = 12) and individual interviews with unit managers (n = 2) were conducted. We also developed and used the Dining Environment Assessment Protocol (DEAP) to conduct a systematic physical environmental evaluation of the dining rooms. Four themes emerged on the key influences of the renovations: (a) supporting independence and autonomy, (b) creating familiarity and enjoyment, (c) providing a place for social experience, and (d) challenges in supporting change. Feedback from the staff and managers provided evidence on the importance of physical environmental features, as well as the integral nature of the role of the physical environment and organizational support to provide person-centered care for residents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Pre-learning stress differentially affects long-term memory for emotional words, depending on temporal proximity to the learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Clark, Brianne; Warnecke, Ashlee; Smith, Lindsay; Tabar, Jennifer; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2011-07-06

    Stress exerts a profound, yet complex, influence on learning and memory and can enhance, impair or have no effect on these processes. Here, we have examined how the administration of stress at different times before learning affects long-term (24-hr) memory for neutral and emotional information. Participants submerged their dominant hand into a bath of ice cold water (Stress) or into a bath of warm water (No stress) for 3 min. Either immediately (Exp. 1) or 30 min (Exp. 2) after the water bath manipulation, participants were presented with a list of 30 words varying in emotional valence. The next day, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. In both experiments, stressed participants exhibited greater blood pressure, salivary cortisol levels, and subjective pain and stress ratings than non-stressed participants in response to the water bath manipulation. Stress applied immediately prior to learning (Exp. 1) enhanced the recognition of positive words, while stress applied 30 min prior to learning (Exp. 2) impaired free recall of negative words. Participants' recognition of positive words in Experiment 1 was positively associated with their heart rate responses to the water bath manipulation, while participants' free recall of negative words in Experiment 2 was negatively associated with their blood pressure and cortisol responses to the water bath manipulation. These findings indicate that the differential effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory may depend on the temporal proximity of the stressor to the learning experience and the emotional nature of the to-be-learned information. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Long-term monitoring of growth in the Eastern Elliptio, Elliptio complanata (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Rhode Island: A transplant experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, D.H.; Newton, T.J.; Green, L.

    2007-01-01

    The lengths of marked specimens of the freshwater mussel, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata [Lightfoot 1786]), were monitored annually in 3 lakes in Rhode Island, USA, from 1991 to 2005. Mussels growing in Worden Pond showed a change in mean shell length of only 4.3 mm over 14 y, whereas mussel growth in 2 nearby lakes was 3 to 8x greater than growth in Worden Pond over the same time period. L???, the length at which shell growth stops, was significantly different (p < 0.001) among lakes and ranged from 60.5 to 87.4 mm. Transplant experiments revealed that mussels moved to Worden Pond stopped growing, whereas mussels moved from Worden Pond to the 2 other lakes grew at rates similar to the rates observed for resident mussels in the 2 lakes. Standard water-quality measures did not explain the observed growth cessation and lower condition indices of mussels in Worden Pond. Our growth data are consistent with food limitation. The consistent slow growth of E. complanata in Worden Pond, without high mortality, and its ability to increase growth when placed in environments more favorable than Worden Pond, suggests both growth plasticity and longevity in these animals. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  1. Modeling long-term leaching experiments of full scale cemented wastes: effect of solution composition on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkel, C.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    The code PHREECQ V3.1 has been used to simulate leaching experiments performed with cemented simulated waste products in tap water for more than 30 years. In this work the main focus is related with the leaching of Cs explained by diffusion processes. A simplifying model using the code PHREECQ V3.1 was used to investigate the influence of different parameters on the release of Cs from the cement solid to the leaching solution. The model setup bases on four main assumptions: a) the solid as well as the distribution of Cs is homogeneous and of isotropic texture, b) there is no preferential direction regarding cement degradation or water intrusion into the solid, c) the pore space is entirely connected and d) Cs adsorption to the cement or container is negligible. In the modeling the constraint of charge balance was stressed. Effective diffusion coefficients (D e ) were obtained analytically and from modeling the diffusive release of Cs from cemented waste simulates. The obtained values D e for Cs leaching are in perfect agreement with the values published in literature. Contradictory results to diffusive release were obtained from XRD analysis of the solids, suggesting that water may not have penetrated the cement monoliths entirely, but only to some centimeters depth. XRD analysis have been done to determine the solid phases present in cement and are used to help outlining strength and weaknesses of the different models

  2. Continuous Microfluidics (Ecology-on-a-Chip) Experiments for Long Term Observation of Bacteria at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Michael; White, Andrew; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2017-11-01

    A microfluidic bioassay incorporating a peristaltic pump and chemostat capable of continuously culturing a bacterial suspension through a microchannel for an extended period of time relevant to ecological processes is presented. A single crude oil droplet is dispensed on-chip and subsequently pinned to the top and bottom surfaces of the microchannel to establish a vertical curved oil-water interface to observe bacteria without boundary interference. The accumulation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), microbial film formation, and aggregation is provided by DIC microscopy with an EMCCD camera at an interval of 30 sec. Cell-interface interactions such as cell translational and angular motilities as well as encountering, attachment, detachment to the interface are obtained by a high speed camera at 1000 fps with a sampling interval of 10 min. Experiments on Pseudomonas sp. (P62) and isolated EPS suspensions from Sagitulla Stelleta and Roseobacter show rapid formation of bacterial aggregates including EPS streamers stretching tens of drop diameters long. These results provide crucial insights into environmentally relevant processes such as the initiation of marine oil snow, an alternative mode of biodegradation to conventional bioconsumption. Funded by GoMRI, NSF, ARO.

  3. Long-term fecal diverting device for the prevention of sepsis in case of colorectal anastomotic leakage: an animal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwang; Jung, Sang Hun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Park, Se-Ll; Kim, Dae-Hwan

    2013-04-01

    A new fecal diverting device (FDD) was fabricated for fecal diversion from the proximal colon above the anastomosis to outside the anus for protecting the rectal anastomosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the FDD. After a pilot study, a prospective observational trial was performed in 34 mongrel dogs. The experiment comprised of segmental resection and anastomosis of the colon, fixation of the FDD, and observation for 3 weeks (n = 15) and more than 3 weeks (n = 19) without initiation of parenteral nutrition. Four cases of perioperative death unrelated to the FDD were excluded. Twenty-six (87 %) of the 30 dogs survived. Sixteen (53 %) dogs were able to retain the FDD for more than 3 weeks until 82 days. The autopsy findings revealed that four (15 %) dogs showed colonic wall erosions and mucosal scarring respectively at the band fixation area without evidence of serious septic complications. The surviving dogs retained the FDD for more than 6 days. Mortality occurred in four of the five dogs that expelled the FDD within three postoperative days. A closed abscess cavity as the evidence of anastomotic leakage was noted in seven (23 %) of the surviving dogs. The newly designed fecal diverting device can be retained for more than 3 weeks until 82 days without any serious complications. The FDD may prevent sepsis in case of anastomotic leakage if it is retained for more than 6 days.

  4. Reactivation of a cryptobiotic stream ecosystem in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A long-term geomorphological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Tate, C.M.; Andrews, E.D.; Niyogi, D.K.; Cozzetto, K.; Welch, K.; Lyons, W.B.; Capone, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica contain many glacial meltwater streams that flow for 6 to 12??weeks during the austral summer and link the glaciers to the lakes on the valley floors. Dry valley streams gain solutes longitudinally through weathering reactions and microbial processes occurring in the hyporheic zone. Some streams have thriving cyanobacterial mats. In streams with regular summer flow, the mats are freeze-dried through the winter and begin photosynthesizing with the onset of flow. To evaluate the longer term persistence of cyanobacterial mats, we diverted flow to an abandoned channel, which had not received substantial flow for approximately two decades. Monitoring of specific conductance showed that for the first 3??years after the diversion, the solute concentrations were greater in the reactivated channel than in most other dry valley streams. We observed that cyanobacterial mats became abundant in the reactivated channel within a week, indicating that the mats had been preserved in a cryptobiotic state in the channel. Over the next several years, these mats had high rates of productivity and nitrogen fixation compared to mats from other streams. Experiments in which mats from the reactivated channel and another stream were incubated in water from both of the streams indicated that the greater solute concentrations in the reactivated channel stimulated net primary productivity of mats from both streams. These stream-scale experimental results indicate that the cryptobiotic preservation of cyanobacterial mats in abandoned channels in the dry valleys allows for rapid response of these stream ecosystems to climatic and geomorphological change, similar to other arid zone stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  6. Bird-community responses to habitat creation in a long-term, large-scale natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whytock, Robin C; Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Watts, Kevin; Barbosa De Andrade, Patanjaly; Whytock, Rory T; French, Paul; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Park, Kirsty J

    2018-04-01

    Ecosystem function and resilience are compromised when habitats become fragmented due to land-use change. This has led to national and international conservation strategies aimed at restoring habitat extent and improving functional connectivity (i.e., maintaining dispersal processes). However, biodiversity responses to landscape-scale habitat creation and the relative importance of spatial and temporal scales are poorly understood, and there is disagreement over which conservation strategies should be prioritized. We used 160 years of historic post-agricultural woodland creation as a natural experiment to evaluate biodiversity responses to habitat creation in a landscape context. Birds were surveyed in 101 secondary, broadleaf woodlands aged 10-160 years with ≥80% canopy cover and in landscapes with 0-17% broadleaf woodland cover within 3000 m. We used piecewise structural equation modeling to examine the direct and indirect relationships between bird abundance and diversity, ecological continuity, patch characteristics, and landscape structure and quantified the relative conservation value of local and landscape scales for bird communities. Ecological continuity indirectly affected overall bird abundance and species richness through its effects on stand structure, but had a weaker influence (effect size near 0) on the abundance and diversity of species most closely associated with woodland habitats. This was probably because woodlands were rapidly colonized by woodland generalists in ≤10 years (minimum patch age) but were on average too young (median 50 years) to be colonized by woodland specialists. Local patch characteristics were relatively more important than landscape characteristics for bird communities. Based on our results, biodiversity responses to habitat creation depended on local- and landscape-scale factors that interacted across time and space. We suggest that there is a need for further studies that focus on habitat creation in a landscape

  7. The Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a long-term test of the role of tree diversity in restoring tropical forest structure and functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Andy; Philipson, Christopher; Saner, Philippe; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; O'Brien, Michael; Snaddon, Jake L.; Ulok, Philip; Weilenmann, Maja; Reynolds, Glen; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively, little is known about the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in forests, especially in the tropics. We describe the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a large-scale, long-term field study on the island of Borneo. The project aims at understanding the relationship between tree species diversity and the functioning of lowland dipterocarp rainforest during restoration following selective logging. The experiment is planned to run for several decades (from seed to adult tree), so here we focus on introducing the project and its experimental design and on assessing initial conditions and the potential for restoration of the structure and functioning of the study system, the Malua Forest Reserve. We estimate residual impacts 22 years after selective logging by comparison with an appropriate neighbouring area of primary forest in Danum Valley of similar conditions. There was no difference in the alpha or beta species diversity of transect plots in the two forest types, probably owing to the selective nature of the logging and potential effects of competitive release. However, despite equal total stem density, forest structure differed as expected with a deficit of large trees and a surfeit of saplings in selectively logged areas. These impacts on structure have the potential to influence ecosystem functioning. In particular, above-ground biomass and carbon pools in selectively logged areas were only 60 per cent of those in the primary forest even after 22 years of recovery. Our results establish the initial conditions for the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment and confirm the potential to accelerate restoration by using enrichment planting of dipterocarps to overcome recruitment limitation. What role dipterocarp diversity plays in restoration only will become clear with long-term results. PMID:22006970

  8. Long-Term Effect of a Leonardite Iron Humate Improving Fe Nutrition As Revealed in Silico, in Vivo, and in Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieschi, María T; Caballero-Molada, Marcos; Menéndez, Nieves; Naranjo, Miguel A; Lucena, Juan J

    2017-08-09

    Novel, cheap and ecofriendly fertilizers that solve the usual iron deficiency problem in calcareous soil are needed. The aim of this work is to study the long-term effect of an iron leonardite fertilizer on citrus nutrition taking into account a properly characterization, kinetic response with a ligand competition experiment, efficiency assessment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and finally, in field conditions with citrus as test plants. Its efficiency was compared with the synthetic iron chelate FeEDDHA. Leonardite iron humate (LIH) is mainly humic acid with a high-condensed structure where iron is present as ferrihydrite and Fe 3+ polynuclear compounds stabilized by organic matter. Iron and humic acids form aggregates that decrease the iron release from these kinds of fertilizers. Furthermore, LIH repressed almost 50% of the expression of FET3, FTR1, SIT1, and TIS11 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, indicating increasing iron provided in cells and improved iron nutrition in citrus.

  9. Living and managing with the long-term implications of neonatal chronic lung disease: The experiences and perspectives of children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lucy; Shaw, Nigel J; Snodin, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate children's perspectives of living with chronic lung disease (CLD) and their parents' long-term experiences of caring for them. CLD caused by prematurity of birth is associated with continuing respiratory, neuro-developmental and psychosocial issues. 10 children (6-15 years old) with CLD and 12 parents were involved in semi-structured qualitative interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. CLD was described as 'getting easier over time' and that you 'learnt to live with it.' Expertise was acquired in controlling symptoms and recognizing the onset of illness, despite expressed uncertainty of the nature of the condition. Children experienced difficulties engaging in peer activities and encountered cases of teasing and isolation at school. CLD was reported as becoming easier over time to live with. Despite this, children experienced challenges engaging in peer activities and families described difficulties interacting with health and education services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiences of long-term home care as an informal caregiver to a spouse: gendered meanings in everyday life for female carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Henrik; Sandberg, Jonas; Hellström, Ingrid

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we explore the gender aspects of long-term caregiving from the perspective of women providing home care for a spouse suffering from dementia. One of the most common circumstances in which a woman gradually steps into a long-term caregiver role at home involves caring for a spouse suffering from dementia. Little attention has been paid to examining the experiences and motivations of such caregivers from a feminist perspective. Twelve women, all of whom were informal caregivers to a partner suffering from dementia, were interviewed on the following themes: the home, their partner's disease, everyday life, their relationship and autonomy. The results of these interviews were analysed in relation to gender identity and social power structures using a feminist perspective. The findings of this study show that the informants frequently reflected on their caregiving activities in terms of both general and heteronormative expectations. The results suggest that the process of heteropolarisation in these cases can be an understood as a consequence of both the spouse's illness and the resulting caring duties. Also, the results suggest that the act of caring leads to introspections concerning perceived 'shortcomings' as a caregiver. Finally, the results indicate that it is important to recognise when the need for support in day-to-day caring is downplayed. Women view their caregiving role and responsibilities as paramount; their other duties, including caring for themselves, are deemed less important. We stress that the intense commitment and responsibilities that women experience in their day-to-day caring must be acknowledged and that it is important for healthcare professionals to find mechanisms for providing choices for female caregivers without neglecting their moral concerns. Female carers face difficulties in always living up to gendered standards and this need to be considered when evaluating policies and practices for family carers. © 2012 Blackwell

  11. Exploring physiotherapists' experiences of implementing a cognitive behavioural approach for managing low back pain and identifying barriers to long-term implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Helen; Hall, Amanda M; Hansen, Zara; Williamson, Esther; Davies, David; Lamb, Sarah E

    2018-03-01

    Our objectives were two-fold: (i) to describe physiotherapists' experiences of implementing a cognitive behavioural approach (CBA) for managing low back pain (LBP) after completing an extensive online training course (iBeST), and (ii) to identify how iBeST could be enhanced to support long-term implementation before scale up for widespread use. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 physiotherapists from six National Health Service departments in the Midlands, Oxfordshire and Derbyshire. Questions centred on (i) using iBeST to support implementation, (ii) what barriers they encountered to implementation and (iii) what of information or resources they required to support sustained implementation. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using NVivo. Themes were categorised using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Evidence-based techniques were identified using the behaviour change technique taxonomy to target relevant TDF domains. Three themes emerged from interviews: anxieties about using a CBA, experiences of implementing a CBA, and sustainability for future implementation of a CBA. Themes crossed multiple TDF domains and indicated concerns with knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and consequences, social and professional roles, social influences, emotion, and environmental context and resources. We identified evidence-based strategies that may support sustainable implementation of a CBA for LBP in a physiotherapy setting. This study highlighted potential challenges for physiotherapists in the provision of evidence-based LBP care within the current UK NHS. Using the TDF provided the foundation to develop a tailored, evidence-based, implementation intervention to support long term use of a CBA by physiotherapists managing LBP within UK NHS outpatient departments. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  13. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  14. Combining short-term manipulative experiments with long-term palaeoecological investigations at high resolution to assess the response of Sphagnum peatlands to drought, fire and warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lamentowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Northern hemisphere peatlands are substantial carbon stores. However, recent climate change and human impacts (e.g., drainage and atmospheric nutrient deposition may trigger the emission of their stored carbon to the atmosphere. Biodiversity losses are also an important consequence of those changes. Therefore, there is a need to recognise these processes in space and time. Global change experiments are often conducted to improve our understanding of the potential responses of various ecosystems to global warming and drought. Most of the experiments carried out in peatlands are focused on carbon balance and nitrogen deposition. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how fast peatlands respond to temperature changes and water-table lowering in the continental climate setting. This is important because continental regions account for a significant proportion of all northern hemisphere peatlands. A combination of short-term and long-term approaches in a single research project is especially helpful because it facilitates the correct interpretation of experimental data. Here we describe the CLIMPEAT project - a manipulative field experiment in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland supported by a high-resolution multi-proxy palaeoecological study. The design of the field experiment (e.g., treatments, methodology and biogeographical setting are presented. We suggest it is beneficial to support field experiments with an investigation of past environmental changes in the studied ecosystem, as human impacts during the past 300 years have already caused substantial changes in ecosystem functioning which may condition the response in experimental studies.

  15. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  16. Abandoned to the strains of daily life: a qualitative study of the long-term experiences in partners to persons after a mild to moderate stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterberg, Charlotte; von Koch, Lena; Erikson, Anette

    2017-11-13

    To describe the experiences of everyday life over 6 years after stroke, from the perspectives of partners to persons after stroke. Semi structured individual interviews were conducted with seven partners to persons who had had stroke. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed verbatim. The participants comprised two men and five women aged 60-82 years. The data were collected and analysed using a grounded theory approach. One core category Living in strained everyday circumstances and three categories Feelings of anxiety, Living a demanding day to day life, and Adjusting to a changed role emerged from the analysis. The participants had developed strategies and new ways to boost their energy level in order to find the strength needed for their everyday life. This study shows that the everyday lives of partners to people who have had a stroke are characterised by feelings of strain and anxiety and that they need possibilities for different kinds of long-term support. Our findings may contribute to increased knowledge among health workers and increased readiness to offer support or referral to other meeting places such as peer support groups. Implications for rehabilitation The everyday lives of partners to people who have had a stroke are characterised by feelings of strain and anxiety. Partners to people who have had a stroke need possibilities for different kinds of long-term support. Possibilities for relief among partners to persons after stroke may be organised for example within the municipality or by patient organisations and other voluntary networks such as peer support groups.

  17. Increase in soil stable carbon isotope ratio relates to loss of organic carbon: results from five long-term bare fallow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, Lorenzo; Houot, Sabine; van Oort, Folkert; Kätterer, Thomas; Christensen, Bent T; Chenu, Claire; Barré, Pierre; Vasilyeva, Nadezda A; Ekblad, Alf

    2015-03-01

    Changes in the (12)C/(13)C ratio (expressed as δ(13)C) of soil organic C (SOC) has been observed over long time scales and with depth in soil profiles. The changes are ascribed to the different reaction kinetics of (12)C and (13)C isotopes and the different isotopic composition of various SOC pool components. However, experimental verification of the subtle isotopic shifts associated with SOC turnover under field conditions is scarce. We determined δ(13)C and SOC in soil sampled during 1929-2009 in the Ap-horizon of five European long-term bare fallow experiments kept without C inputs for 27-80 years and covering a latitudinal range of 11°. The bare fallow soils lost 33-65% of their initial SOC content and showed a mean annual δ(13)C increase of 0.008-0.024‰. The (13)C enrichment could be related empirically to SOC losses by a Rayleigh distillation equation. A more complex mechanistic relationship was also examined. The overall estimate of the fractionation coefficient (ε) was -1.2 ± 0.3‰. This coefficient represents an important input to studies of long-term SOC dynamics in agricultural soils that are based on variations in (13)C natural abundance. The variance of ε may be ascribed to site characteristics not disclosed in our study, but the very similar kinetics measured across our five experimental sites suggest that overall site-specific factors (including climate) had a marginal influence and that it may be possible to isolate a general mechanism causing the enrichment, although pre-fallow land use may have some impact on isotope abundance and fractionation.

  18. Evaluating long term forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, George M. [Department of Economics, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), and its predecessor organizations, has published projections of U.S. energy production, consumption, distribution and prices annually for over 30 years. A natural issue to raise in evaluating the projections is an assessment of their accuracy compared to eventual outcomes. A related issue is the determination of the sources of 'error' in the projections that are due to differences between the actual versus realized values of the associated assumptions. One way to do this would be to run the computer-based model from which the projections are derived at the time the projected values are realized, using actual rather than assumed values for model assumptions; and, compare these results to the original projections. For long term forecasts, this approach would require that the model's software and hardware configuration be archived and available for many years, possibly decades, into the future. Such archival creates many practical problems; and, in general, it is not being done. This paper reports on an alternative approach for evaluating the projections. In the alternative approach, the model is run many times for cases in which important assumptions are changed individually and in combinations. A database is assembled from the solutions and a regression analysis is conducted for each important projected variable with the associated assumptions chosen as exogenous variables. When actual data are eventually available, the regression results are then used to estimate the sources of the differences in the projections of the endogenous variables compared to their eventual outcomes. The results presented here are for residential and commercial sector natural gas and electricity consumption. (author)

  19. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  20. The long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation: results from leach experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Fays, J.; Iseghem, P. van

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has carried out a number of studies to evaluate the long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation. Static leach experiments in synthetic clay water were performed on active samples of cemented research reactor waste. The leach experiments were carried out under anaerobic conditions at two testing temperatures (23 and 85 o C). Leach rates of seven radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 154 Eu and 241 Am) were measured. Most investigated radionuclides are well retained within the cement matrix over a 280 days testing period. Results on the source term of radionuclides were complemented with data on the leaching behaviour of cement matrix constituents as Ca, Si, Al, Na, K, Mg and SO 4 as well as with data from performance assessment calculations and in situ tests. Despite limitations inherent to short-term experiments, combined results from these investigations indicate only limited interactions of disposed research reactor waste with the near field of a geological repository in clay. (author)

  1. Positive and negative early life experiences differentially modulate long term survival and amyloid protein levels in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuis, Sylvie L; Maurin, Herve; Borghgraef, Peter; Lucassen, Paul J; Van Leuven, Fred; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-06-28

    Stress has been implicated as a risk factor for the severity and progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early life experiences determine stress responsivity in later life, and modulate age-dependent cognitive decline. Therefore, we examined whether early life experiences influence AD outcome in a bigenic mouse model which progressively develops combined tau and amyloid pathology (biAT mice).Mice were subjected to either early life stress (ELS) or to 'positive' early handling (EH) postnatally (from day 2 to 9). In biAT mice, ELS significantly compromised long term survival, in contrast to EH which increased life expectancy. In 4 month old mice, ELS-reared biAT mice displayed increased hippocampal Aβ levels, while these levels were reduced in EH-reared biAT mice. No effects of ELS or EH were observed on the brain levels of APP, protein tau, or PSD-95. Dendritic morphology was moderately affected after ELS and EH in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, while object recognition memory and open field performance were not affected. We conclude that despite the strong transgenic background, early life experiences significantly modulate the life expectancy of biAT mice. Parallel changes in hippocampal Aβ levels were evident, without affecting cognition of young adult biAT mice.

  2. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  3. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  4. A Quantitative Method for Long-Term Water Erosion Impacts on Productivity with a Lack of Field Experiments: A Case Study in Huaihe Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water erosion causes reduced farmland productivity, and with a longer period of cultivation, agricultural productivity becomes increasingly vulnerable. The vulnerability of farmland productivity needs assessment due to long-term water erosion. The key to quantitative assessment is to propose a quantitative method with water loss scenarios to calculate productivity losses due to long-term water erosion. This study uses the agricultural policy environmental extender (APEX model and the global hydrological watershed unit and selects the Huaihe River watershed as a case study to describe the methodology. An erosion-variable control method considering soil and water conservation measure scenarios was used to study the relationship between long-term erosion and productivity losses and to fit with 3D surface (to come up with three elements, which are time, the cumulative amount of water erosion and productivity losses to measure long-term water erosion. Results showed that: (1 the 3D surfaces fit significantly well; fitting by the 3D surface can more accurately reflect the impact of long-term water erosion on productivity than fitting by the 2D curve (to come up with two elements, which are water erosion and productivity losses; (2 the cumulative loss surface can reflect differences in productivity loss caused by long-term water erosion.

  5. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  6. A Smart Cage With Uniform Wireless Power Distribution in 3D for Enabling Long-Term Experiments With Freely Moving Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Bahrami, Hadi; Sawan, Mohamad; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental chamber with uniform wireless power distribution in 3D for enabling long-term biomedical experiments with small freely moving animal subjects. The implemented power transmission chamber prototype is based on arrays of parallel resonators and multicoil inductive links, to form a novel and highly efficient wireless power transmission system. The power transmitter unit includes several identical resonators enclosed in a scalable array of overlapping square coils which are connected in parallel to provide uniform power distribution along x and y. Moreover, the proposed chamber uses two arrays of primary resonators, facing each other, and connected in parallel to achieve uniform power distribution along the z axis. Each surface includes 9 overlapped coils connected in parallel and implemented into two layers of FR4 printed circuit board. The chamber features a natural power localization mechanism, which simplifies its implementation and ease its operation by avoiding the need for active detection and control mechanisms. A single power surface based on the proposed approach can provide a power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 69% and a power delivered to the load (PDL) of 120 mW, for a separation distance of 4 cm, whereas the complete chamber prototype provides a uniform PTE of 59% and a PDL of 100 mW in 3D, everywhere inside the chamber with a size of 27×27×16 cm(3).

  7. Long-term outcomes of liver transplant patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and end-stage-liver-disease: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernadakis S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Orthotopic-liver-transplantation (OLT in patients with Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus infection (HIV and end-stage-liver-disease (ESDL is rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to describe our institutional experience on OLT for HIV positive patients. Material and methods This is a retrospective study of all HIV-infected patients who underwent OLT at the University Hospital of Essen, from January 1996 to December 2009. Age, sex, HIV transmission-way, CDC-stage, etiology of ESDL, concomitant liver disease, last CD4cell count and HIV-viral load prior to OLT were collected and analysed. Standard calcineurin-inhibitors-based immunosuppression was applied. All patients received anti-fungal and anti-pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis post-OLT. Results Eight transplanted HIV-infected patients with a median age of 46 years (range 35-61 years were included. OLT indications were HCV (n = 5, HBV (n = 2, HCV/HBV/HDV-related cirrhosis (n = 1 and acute liver-failure (n = 1. At OLT, CD4 cell-counts ranged from 113-621 cells/μl, and HIV viral-loads from Conclusions OLT in HIV-infected patients and ESLD is an acceptable therapeutic option in selected patients. Long-term survival can be achieved without HIV disease-progression under antiretroviral therapy and management of the viral hepatitis co-infection.

  8. Effect of phosphorus availability on the selection of species with different ploidy levels and genome sizes in a long-term grassland fertilization experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmarda, Petr; Hejcman, Michal; Březinová, Alexandra; Horová, Lucie; Steigerová, Helena; Zedek, František; Bureš, Petr; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    Polyploidy and increased genome size are hypothesized to increase organismal nutrient demands, namely of phosphorus (P), which is an essential and abundant component of nucleic acids. Therefore, polyploids and plants with larger genomes are expected to be selectively disadvantaged in P-limited environments. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally tested. We measured the somatic DNA content and ploidy level in 74 vascular plant species in a long-term fertilization experiment. The differences between the fertilizer treatments regarding the DNA content and ploidy level of the established species were tested using phylogeny-based statistics. The percentage and biomass of polyploid species clearly increased with soil P in particular fertilizer treatments, and a similar but weaker trend was observed for the DNA content. These increases were associated with the dominance of competitive life strategy (particularly advantageous in the P-treated plots) in polyploids and the enhanced competitive ability of dominant polyploid grasses at high soil P concentrations, indicating their increased P limitation. Our results verify the hypothesized effect of P availability on the selection of polyploids and plants with increased genome sizes, although the relative contribution of increased P demands vs increased competitiveness as causes of the observed pattern requires further evaluation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Identification of Gene Candidates for Rapid Evolution of Soil Al Tolerance in Anthoxanthum odoratum at the Long-Term Park Grass Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie; McCouch, Susan; Geber, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Studies of adaptation in the wild grass Anthoxanthum odoratum at the Park Grass Experiment (PGE) provided one of the earliest examples of rapid evolution in plants. Anthoxanthum has become locally adapted to differences in soil Al toxicity, which have developed there due to soil acidification from long-term experimental fertilizer treatments. In this study, we used transcriptome sequencing to identify Al stress responsive genes in Anthoxanhum and identify candidates among them for further molecular study of rapid Al tolerance evolution at the PGE. We examined the Al content of Anthoxanthum tissues and conducted RNA-sequencing of root tips, the primary site of Al induced damage. We found that despite its high tolerance Anthoxanthum is not an Al accumulating species. Genes similar to those involved in organic acid exudation (TaALMT1, ZmMATE), cell wall modification (OsSTAR1), and internal Al detoxification (OsNRAT1) in cultivated grasses were responsive to Al exposure. Expression of a large suite of novel loci was also triggered by early exposure to Al stress in roots. Three-hundred forty five transcripts were significantly more up- or down-regulated in tolerant vs. sensitive Anthoxanthum genotypes, providing important targets for future study of rapid evolution at the PGE.

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Identification of Gene Candidates for Rapid Evolution of Soil Al Tolerance in Anthoxanthum odoratum at the Long-Term Park Grass Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie Gould

    Full Text Available Studies of adaptation in the wild grass Anthoxanthum odoratum at the Park Grass Experiment (PGE provided one of the earliest examples of rapid evolution in plants. Anthoxanthum has become locally adapted to differences in soil Al toxicity, which have developed there due to soil acidification from long-term experimental fertilizer treatments. In this study, we used transcriptome sequencing to identify Al stress responsive genes in Anthoxanhum and identify candidates among them for further molecular study of rapid Al tolerance evolution at the PGE. We examined the Al content of Anthoxanthum tissues and conducted RNA-sequencing of root tips, the primary site of Al induced damage. We found that despite its high tolerance Anthoxanthum is not an Al accumulating species. Genes similar to those involved in organic acid exudation (TaALMT1, ZmMATE, cell wall modification (OsSTAR1, and internal Al detoxification (OsNRAT1 in cultivated grasses were responsive to Al exposure. Expression of a large suite of novel loci was also triggered by early exposure to Al stress in roots. Three-hundred forty five transcripts were significantly more up- or down-regulated in tolerant vs. sensitive Anthoxanthum genotypes, providing important targets for future study of rapid evolution at the PGE.

  11. Living on the edge: adaptive and plastic responses of the tree Nothofagus pumilio to a long-term transplant experiment predict rear-edge upward expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Current climate change affects the competitive ability and reproductive success of many species, leading to local extinctions, adjustment to novel local conditions by phenotypic plasticity or rapid adaptation, or tracking their optima through range shifts. However, many species have limited ability to expand to suitable areas. Altitudinal gradients, with abrupt changes in abiotic conditions over short distances, represent "natural experiments" for the evaluation of ecological and evolutionary responses under scenarios of climate change. Nothofagus pumilio is the tree species which dominates as pure stands the montane forests of Patagonia. We evaluated the adaptive value of variation in quantitative traits of N. pumilio under contrasting conditions of the altitudinal gradient with a long-term reciprocal transplant experimental design. While high-elevation plants show little response in plant, leaf, and phenological traits to the experimental trials, low-elevation ones show greater plasticity in their responses to changing environments, particularly at high elevation. Our results suggest a relatively reduced potential for evolutionary adaptation of high-elevation genotypes, and a greater evolutionary potential of low-elevation ones. Under global warming scenarios of forest upslope migration, high-elevation variants may be outperformed by low-elevation ones during this process, leading to the local extinction and/or replacement of these genotypes. These results challenge previous models and predictions expected under global warming for altitudinal gradients, on which the leading edge is considered to be the upper treeline forests.

  12. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution.

  13. Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The MD Anderson Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhiqin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Yang Kunyu [Cancer Centre, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhuang Yan; Martel, Mary K.; Vedam, Sastray; Balter, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhu Guangying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University School of Oncology, Beiijng Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing (China); Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Charles [Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Liao Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In 2007, we published our initial experience in treating inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The current report is an update of that experience with long-term follow-up. Methods and Materials: Patients in this retrospective review were 165 patients who began definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, for newly diagnosed, pathologically confirmed NSCLC to a dose of {>=}60 Gy from 2005 to 2006. Early and late toxicities assessed included treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP), pulmonary fibrosis, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture, scored mainly according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Other variables monitored were radiation-associated dermatitis and changes in body weight and Karnofsky performance status. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute survival and freedom from radiation-related acute and late toxicities as a function of time. Results: Most patients (89%) had Stage III to IV disease. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy given in 33 fractions (range, 60-76 Gy, 1.8-2.3 Gy per fraction). Median overall survival time was 1.8 years; the 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 46% and 30%. Rates of Grade {>=}3 maximum TRP (TRP{sub max}) were 11% at 6 months and 14% at 12 months. At 18 months, 86% of patients had developed Grade {>=}1 maximum pulmonary fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}) and 7% Grade {>=}2 pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}. The median times to maximum esophagitis (esophagitis{sub max}) were 3 weeks (range, 1-13 weeks) for Grade 2 and 6 weeks (range, 3-13 weeks) for Grade 3. A higher percentage of patients who experienced Grade 3 esophagitis{sub max} later developed Grade 2 to 3 esophageal stricture. Conclusions: In our experience, using IMRT to treat NSCLC leads to low rates of pulmonary and esophageal toxicity, and favorable clinical outcomes in terms of survival.

  14. HOW DO WORK HIERARCHIES AND STRICT DIVISIONS OF LABOUR IMPACT CARE WORKERS' EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY? CASE STUDIESOF LONG TERM CARE IN TORONTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, I; Daly, T; Armstrong, P; Lowndes, R; Chadoin, M; Naidoo, V

    2016-01-01

    According to the Canadian Health Care Association (1), there are 2,577 long-term care ("LTC") facilities across Canada, with the largest proportion (33.4%) located in Ontario. Most studies focus on residents' health, with less attention paid to the health and safety experiences of staff. Given that the work performed in Ontario LTC facilities is very gendered, increasingly racialized, task-oriented, and with strict divisions of labour, this paper explores in what ways some of these factors impact workers' experiences of health and safety. The study objectives included the following research question: How are work hierarchies and task orientation experienced by staff? This paper draws on data from rapid team-based ethnographies of the shifting division of labour in LTC due to use of informal carers in six non-profit LTC facilities located in Toronto, Ontario. Our method involved conducting observations and key informant interviews (N=167) with registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers, dietary aides, recreation therapists, families, privately paid companions, students, and volunteers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. For observations, researchers were paired and covered shifts between 7 a.m. and 11 p.m., as well as into the late night over six days, at each of the six sites. Detailed ethnographic field notes were written during and immediately following observational fieldwork. Our results indicate that employee stress is linked to the experiences of care work hierarchies, task orientation, and strict divisions of labour between and among various staff designations. Findings from this project confirm and extend current research that demonstrates there are challenging working conditions in LTC, which can result in occupational health and safety problems, as well as stress for individual workers.

  15. Long-term medical outcomes in survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Sklar, Charles A; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Kernan, Nancy A; Khakoo, Yasmin; Marr, Brian P; Wolden, Suzanne L; Abramson, David H; Dunkel, Ira J

    2013-04-01

    Data on long-term outcomes of survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma are lacking. The authors sought to provide the first report characterizing long-term outcomes among survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective analysis of long-term medical outcomes in 19 survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma treated between 1992 and 2009. Severity of outcomes was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. All patients received intensive multimodality therapy for their extra-ocular disease after management of their primary intra-ocular disease, including conventional chemotherapy (n = 19, 100%), radiotherapy (n = 15, 69%), and/or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (n = 17, 89%). The median follow-up was 7.8 years from diagnosis of extra-ocular retinoblastoma (range 2-17.8 years). The most common long-term non-visual outcomes were hearing loss (n = 15, 79%), short stature (n = 7, 37%), and secondary malignancies [SMN] (n = 6, 31%). Sixty-eight percent of survivors exhibited ≥2 non-visual long-term outcomes of any grade. Except short stature, which was not graded for severity, Grade 3-4 outcomes were limited to: ototoxicity (n = 8; n = 4 require hearing aids), SMNs (n = 6), and unequal limb length (n = 1). Five patients who developed SMNs carried a known RB1 mutation. SMNs developed at a median of 11.1 years after initial diagnosis; two patients died of their SMN. Long-term cardiac, pulmonary, hepatobiliary, or renal conditions were not identified in any survivors. Long-term outcomes are commonly seen in extra-ocular retinoblastoma survivors but the majority are mild-moderate in their severity. Longer comprehensive follow-up is needed to fully assess treatment-related outcomes but the information collected to date may affect management decisions for children with extra-ocular disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Data-handling system for the Fly's Eye experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, H.E.; Cassiday, G.L.; Cooper, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Fly's Eye air scintillation experiment presents severe data-handling requirements for two reasons. First, nearly 1,000 photomultipliers each produce outputs at rates from 100 Khz to 20 Mhz. Second, much of the signal arrives before a trigger is formed. A data handling system which will deal with this problem is described. (orig.) [de

  17. Two-Stage System Based on a Software-Defined Radio for Stabilizing of Optical Frequency Combs in Long-Term Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Čížek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A passive optical resonator is a special sensor used for measurement of lengths on the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale. A stabilized optical frequency comb can provide an ultimate reference for measuring the wavelength of a tunable laser locked to the optical resonator. If we lock the repetition and offset frequencies of the comb to a high-grade radiofrequency (RF oscillator its relative frequency stability is transferred from the RF to the optical frequency domain. Experiments in the field of precise length metrology of low-expansion materials are usually of long-term nature so it is required that the optical frequency comb stay in operation for an extended period of time. The optoelectronic closed-loop systems used for stabilization of combs are usually based on traditional analog electronic circuits processing signals from photodetectors. From an experimental point of view, these setups are very complicated and sensitive to ambient conditions, especially in the optical part, therefore maintaining long-time operation is not easy. The research presented in this paper deals with a novel approach based on digital signal processing and a software-defined radio. We describe digital signal processing algorithms intended for keeping the femtosecond optical comb in a long-time stable operation. This need arose during specialized experiments involving measurements of optical frequencies of tunable continuous-wave lasers. The resulting system is capable of keeping the comb in lock for an extensive period of time (8 days or more with the relative stability better than 1.6 × 10−11.

  18. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Menges

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of an imperiled plant species may require augmentation of existing populations or creation of new ones. Hundreds of such projects have been conducted over the last few decades, but there is a bias in the literature favoring successes over failures. In this paper, we evaluate a series of introductions that experimentally manipulated microhabitat and fire in an adaptive introduction framework. Between 2002 and 2012, we (and our collaborators carried out ten introductions and augmentations of Florida ziziphus Pseudoziziphus (Condalia, Ziziphus celata, a clonal shrub limited to very small populations and narrowly endemic to pyrogenic central Florida sandhills. Six of the introductions were designed as experiments to test hypotheses about how demographic performance was affected by microhabitat, fire, and propagule type. Introduced transplants had high survival (<90% annually, inconsistent growth, and little transition to reproduction, while introduced seeds had low germination and survival. Transplants were more efficient than seeds as translocation propagules. Shaded (vs. open sites supported generally higher transplant and seedling survival and seed germination percentages, but growth responses varied among experiments. Supplemental irrigation increased transplant survival and seed germination, but otherwise seedling and plant survival and growth were not significantly affected. Contrary to expectations based on wild populations, introduced propagules have not been more successful in unshaded sites, suggesting that Florida ziziphus has broader microhabitat preferences than hypothesized. Compared to wild plants, introduced plants had similar survival and responses to fire, slower growth, and more delayed flowering. Introduced plants had no clonal spread. While no introduced population has demonstrated a capacity for long-term viability, one augmented population has flowered and produced viable fruits. Given that Florida ziziphus genets are

  19. 14C-labeled organic amendments: Characterization in different particle size fractions and humic acids in a long-term field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatzber, Michael; Stemmer, Michael; Spiegel, Heide; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H

    2012-05-01

    Knowledge about the stabilization of organic matter input to soil is essential for understanding the influence of different agricultural practices on turnover characteristics in agricultural soil systems. In this study, soil samples from a long-term field experiment were separated into silt- and clay-sized particles. In 1967, 14 C labeled farmyard manure was applied to three different cropping systems: crop rotation, monoculture and permanent bare fallow. Humic acids (HAs) were extracted from silt- and clay-sized fractions and characterized using photometry, mid-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Remaining 14 C was determined in size fractions as well as in their extracted HAs. Yields of carbon and remaining 14 C in HAs from silt-sized particles and C org in clay-sized particles decreased significantly in the order: crop rotation > monoculture ≫ bare fallow. Thus, crop rotation not only had the largest overall C-pool in the experiment, but it also best stabilized the added manure. Mid-infrared spectroscopy could distinguish between HAs from different particle size soil fractions. With spectroscopic methods significant differences between the cropping systems were detectable in fewer cases compared to quantitative results of HAs (yields, 14 C, C org and N t ). The trends, however, pointed towards increased humification of HAs from bare fallow systems compared to crop rotation and monoculture as well as of HAs from clay-sized particles compared to silt-sized particles. Our study clearly shows that the largest differences were observed between bare fallow on one hand and monoculture and crop rotation on the other.

  20. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  1. Out of sight - Profiling soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial communities affected by organic amendments down to one meter in a long-term maize cultivation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide

    2016-04-01

    Soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial activity in the deeper soil layers are topics not of-ten covered in agricultural studies since the main interest lies within the most active topsoils and deep soils are more time-consuming to sample. Studies have shown that deep soil does matter, although biogeochemical cycles are not fully understood yet. The main aim of this study is to investigate the soil organic matter dynamics, nutrients and microbial community composition in the first meter of the soil profiles in the long-term maize cropping system ex-periment Tetto Frati, in the vicinity of the Po River in Northern Italy. The trial site lies on a deep, calcareous, free-draining soil with a loamy texture. The following treatments have been applied since 1992: 1) maize for silage with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue removal, CRR), 2) maize for grain with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue incorporation, CRI), 3) maize for silage with 250 kg bovine slurry N ha-1 (SLU), 4) maize for silage with 250 kg farm yard manure N ha-1 (FYM). Soil characteristics (pH, carbonate content, soil organic carbon (SOC), aggregate stability (WSA)), and nutrients (total nitrogen (Nt), CAL-extractable phos-phorous (P) and potassium (K), potential N mineralisation) were investigated. Bacteri-al community composition was investigated with Ion PGM high-throughput sequencing at the depth of 8000 sequences per sample. Soil pH was moderately alkaline in all soil samples, in-creasing with increasing soil depth, as the carbonate content increased. SOC was significantly higher in the treatments with organic amendments (CRI, SLU and FYM) compared to CRR in 0-25 cm (11.1, 11.6, 14.7 vs. 9.8 g kg-1, respectively), but not in the deeper soil. At 50-75 cm soil depth FYM treatment revealed higher WSA compared to CRR, as well as higher CAL-extractable K (25 and 15 mg kg-1, respectively) and potential N mineralisation (11.30 and 8.78 mg N kg-1 7d-1, respectively). At 75-100 cm soil depth, SLU and

  2. Major limitations to achieving "4 per 1000" increases in soil organic carbon stock in temperate regions: Evidence from long-term experiments at Rothamsted Research, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Paul; Johnston, Johnny; Macdonald, Andy; White, Rodger; Powlson, David

    2018-01-21

    We evaluated the "4 per 1000" initiative for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) by analysing rates of SOC increase in treatments in 16 long-term experiments in southeast United Kingdom. The initiative sets a goal for SOC stock to increase by 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm soil depth, continued over 20 years. Our experiments, on three soil types, provided 114 treatment comparisons over 7-157 years. Treatments included organic additions (incorporated by inversion ploughing), N fertilizers, introducing pasture leys into continuous arable systems, and converting arable land to woodland. In 65% of cases, SOC increases occurred at >7‰ per year in the 0-23 cm depth, approximately equivalent to 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm depth. In the two longest running experiments (>150 years), annual farmyard manure (FYM) applications at 35 t fresh material per hectare (equivalent to approx. 3.2 t organic C/ha/year) gave SOC increases of 18‰ and 43‰ per year in the 23 cm depth during the first 20 years. Increases exceeding 7‰ per year continued for 40-60 years. In other experiments, with FYM applied at lower rates or not every year, there were increases of 3‰-8‰ per year over several decades. Other treatments gave increases between zero and 19‰ per year over various periods. We conclude that there are severe limitations to achieving the "4 per 1000" goal in practical agriculture over large areas. The reasons include (1) farmers not having the necessary resources (e.g. insufficient manure); (2) some, though not all, practices favouring SOC already widely adopted; (3) practices uneconomic for farmers-potentially overcome by changes in regulations or subsidies; (4) practices undesirable for global food security. We suggest it is more realistic to promote practices for increasing SOC based on improving soil quality and functioning as small increases can have disproportionately large beneficial impacts, though not necessarily translating into increased crop yield

  3. Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of productive characteristics and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta; Bonari, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Arundo donax L. (giant reed) are two perennial crops which have been received particular attention during the last decade as bioenergy crops. The main aim of the present study was to compare the above-ground biomass production and the energy balance of these perennial rhizomatous grasses in a long-term field experiment. The crops were cultivated from 1992 to 2003 in the temperate climate of Central Italy with 20,000 plants ha -1 , 100-100-100 kg N, P 2 O 5 , K 2 O per hectare, and without irrigation supply. For each year of trial, biomass was harvested in autumn to estimate biometric characteristics and productive parameters. Besides, energy analysis of biomass production was carried out determining energy output, energy input, energy efficiency (output/input) and net energy yield (output-input). Results showed high above-ground biomass yields over a period of 10 years for both species, with better productive performances in giant reed than in miscanthus (37.7 t DM ha -1 year -1 vs 28.7 t DM ha -1 year -1 averaged from 2 to 12 years of growth). Such high yields resulted positively correlated to number of stalks (miscanthus), plant height and stalk diameter (giant reed). Moreover, these perennial species are characterised by a favourable energy balance with a net energy yield of 467 and 637 GJ ha -1 (1-12 year mean) for miscanthus and giant reed respectively. With such characteristics, both grasses could be proposed as biomass energy crops in Southern Europe with a significant and environmentally compatible contribution to energy needs

  4. Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of productive characteristics and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agroecosistema, Via S. Michele degli Scalzi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Bonari, Enrico [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Piazza Martiri della Liberta, 33, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Arundo donax L. (giant reed) are two perennial crops which have been received particular attention during the last decade as bioenergy crops. The main aim of the present study was to compare the above-ground biomass production and the energy balance of these perennial rhizomatous grasses in a long-term field experiment. The crops were cultivated from 1992 to 2003 in the temperate climate of Central Italy with 20,000 plants ha{sup -1}, 100-100-100 kg N, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O per hectare, and without irrigation supply. For each year of trial, biomass was harvested in autumn to estimate biometric characteristics and productive parameters. Besides, energy analysis of biomass production was carried out determining energy output, energy input, energy efficiency (output/input) and net energy yield (output-input). Results showed high above-ground biomass yields over a period of 10 years for both species, with better productive performances in giant reed than in miscanthus (37.7 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}vs 28.7 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} averaged from 2 to 12 years of growth). Such high yields resulted positively correlated to number of stalks (miscanthus), plant height and stalk diameter (giant reed). Moreover, these perennial species are characterised by a favourable energy balance with a net energy yield of 467 and 637 GJ ha{sup -1} (1-12 year mean) for miscanthus and giant reed respectively. With such characteristics, both grasses could be proposed as biomass energy crops in Southern Europe with a significant and environmentally compatible contribution to energy needs. (author)

  5. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance.

  6. Impact of Local Management on Long-Term Outcomes in Ewing Tumors of the Pelvis and Sacral Bones: University of Florida Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Shi Wenyin; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective analysis describes our 35-year experience with respect to disease control and functional status. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients with localized Ewing tumors of the pelvis and sacral bones were treated from 1970 to 2005. Twenty-six patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT), and 9 patients were treated with combined local therapy in the form of surgery + RT. The median RT dose was 55.2 Gy. The patients who received RT alone were more likely to be older men with larger tumors exhibiting soft-tissue extension. Patients in the definitive RT group were more likely to receive etoposide and ifosfamide or undergo bone marrow transplant. Median potential follow-up was 19.4 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial cause-specific survival, freedom from relapse rate, and local control rates were 26% vs. 76% (p = 0.016), 28% vs. 78% (p = 0.015), and 64% vs. 100% (p = 0.087), respectively, for patients treated with definitive RT and combined therapy. Overall, tumors <8 cm had significantly better cause-specific survival, but this was unrelated to local control. The median Toronto Extremity Salvage Score for the definitive RT and combined therapy groups were 99 and 94, respectively (p = 0.19). Seven definitive RT patients (27%) had serious complications. Conclusion: Combined modality local therapy should be considered if pelvic Ewing tumors are resectable. However, because of the extent of local disease, most patients have unresectable or partially resectable tumors and therefore require RT in some capacity. For this reason, innovative RT strategies are needed to improve long-term disease outcomes and minimize side effects while maintaining an acceptable functional result

  7. Soil organic carbon dynamics in wheat-maize cropping systems of north China: application of isotope approach to long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Xu, M.; Zhang, W.

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) in agro-ecosystem is largely influencedby agricultural practices such as croppingand fertilization. However, quantifying the contributions of various crops has been lacking. Here, we applied isotopic approachto study SOC dynamics under wheat-maize rotation with variousfertilization treatments atthree long-term experiment sites innorth China. Three treatments were chosen: no fertilizer (control), chemical nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) and NPK plus straw (NPKS).Soil samples were collected from0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100cm after 13 and 20 years of treatment, and SOC and its stable 13C compositions were determined. Generally, SOC content significantly decreased with depths, from 8.2 ×1.4 g kg-1 (in 0-20 cm) to 3.3×1.0 g kg-1 (in 80-100 cm) across all treatments and sites. Soil δ13C values at all depths, treatments and sites ranged from -24.2‰ to -21.6‰, averaged -22.8‰, indicating that ~70% of SOC was derived from wheat and previous C3 plant, and ~30% from maize and previous C4 plant.Both SOC and soil δ13C were significantly affected by fertilization managements, especiallyin 0-40 cm where linear relationship occurred between SOC and estimated C input. Overall, the slop of the linear equation, i.e., conversion efficiency, was four times greater for wheat-derived C relative to that for maize residue C. Our study indicated that maize-derived C contributed less to C sequestration in wheat-maize rotation system of north China. Figure 1. Relationships between SOC stock (0-40 cm) and accumulated C input for wheat (C3), maize (C4) and total. Significance is marked with one (P < 0.05), two (P < 0.01) and three (P < 0.001) asterisks.

  8. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a long-term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Tilman, David; Reich, Peter B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of global environmental changes on soil nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes have consequences for ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and N retention. In a 13-year grassland experiment, we evaluated how elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), N fertilization, and plant species richness alter soil N cycling. We focused on soil inorganic N pools, including ammonium and nitrate, and two N fluxes, net N mineralization and net nitrification. In contrast with existing hypotheses, such as progressive N limitation, and with observations from other, often shorter, studies, elevated CO2 had relatively static and small, or insignificant, effects on soil inorganic N pools and fluxes. Nitrogen fertilization had inconsistent effects on soil N transformations, but increased soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations. Plant species richness had increasingly positive effects on soil N transformations over time, likely because in diverse subplots the concentrations of N in roots increased over time. Species richness also had increasingly positive effects on concentrations of ammonium in soil, perhaps because more carbon accumulated in soils of diverse subplots, providing exchange sites for ammonium. By contrast, subplots planted with 16 species had lower soil nitrate concentrations than less diverse subplots, especially when fertilized, probably due to greater N uptake capacity of subplots with 16 species. Monocultures of different plant functional types had distinct effects on N transformations and nitrate concentrations, such that not all monocultures differed from diverse subplots in the same manner. The first few years of data would not have adequately forecast the effects of N fertilization and diversity on soil N cycling in later years; therefore, the dearth of long-term manipulations of plant species richness and N inputs is a hindrance to forecasting the state of the soil N cycle and ecosystem functions in extant plant communities. © 2012 Blackwell

  9. Long-term usability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, M.

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of the usability of a computer based system for process control has been performed. The whole life-cycle of one system has been of interest, as the problems are varying over time. Repeated measurements of the operators' experiences of this system have been made during 15 years. Of main interest have been the advantages/ disadvantages of computer based system for process control compared with conventional instrumentation. The results showed among other things that (1) computer based systems made it easier to control the process and increased security (2) age differences could be explained by other factors (3 ) expectations before the installation may influence the attitudes and use of equipment for quite some time In some questions the attitudes changed over time while in others they were quite stable, for example, in questions concerning preference for type of equipment. What do operators appreciate in a computer based system for process control? About 300 operators were asked about that. The main factor seems to include a reliable system with valid information that functions during disturbances. Hopefully new systems are designed with that in mind. (author)

  10. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  11. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  12. Could the long term cover change of three Mediterranean shrubs be explained by their photosynthetic responses to drought in a rainfall exclusion experiment ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Dario; De Dato, Giovanbattista; Guidolotti, Gabriele; De Angelis, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In the Mediterranean climates water stress is considered to be the main environmental factor limiting plant growth. In front of water limitations plants have developed a wide diversity of adaptation mechanism, and co-occurring species often display different physiological, functional, and life history strategies. In the contest of a rainfall exclusion experiment (project INCREASE), the present work is aimed to assess if the seasonal response of photosynthesis to the water stress (based on gas exchange data collected during 2010) can explain the long term change in the cover degree (assessed by seven pin point survey carried out from 2001 to 2012) of the three main species present in the Italian experimental site, Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop. (Fabaceae) and Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman (Asteraceae) From 2001 to 2012, in the untreated plots, the cover degree increased in C. monspeliensis (+ 0.34% per year), did not show any significant trend in D. pentaphyllum and decreased in H. italicum (- 1.54% per year). In the same period the rainfall exclusion system has worked during Spring and Autumn, mainly reducing the soil water content of the drought plots in Autumn: this treatment did not affect the cover trend of D. pentaphyllum and H. italicum, whereas C. monspeliensis displayed in the drought plots an opposite dynamic (- 1.23% per year) compared to the natural conditions. During 2010 all monitored species reached the maximum photosynthesis rates in spring, with a depression during summer drought and a recovery after the first Autumn rainfalls. The recovery of the spring rates was almost complete in C. monspeliensis and D. pentaphyllum, while in H. italicum did not exceed the 30% of the spring value. The rainfall exclusion reduced the photosynthesis rates in C. monspeliensis and H. italicum in Autumn. In the control plots the opposite cover trend observed in C. monspeliensis and H.italicum could be

  13. Free Radical Pathology of the Body in the Long-Term Period under Combined Exposure to Gamma Radiation and Emotional Stress in the Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilderbayeva, Gulzhan O.; Suleymeneva, Dametken M.; Ilderbayev, ?ralbek Z.; Argynbekova, Ainur S.; Berekenova, Gulnar A.; Syzdykaeva, Sayrangul M.; Kabdykanov, Symbat K.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the intensity of free radical and antioxidant processes in organs (liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes of the small intestine, and adrenal glands) and cells (lymphocytes) in the long-term period after combined exposure to a sublethal dose of ?-radiation (6 Gy) and emotional stress. Combined exposure was followed by accumulation of…

  14. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric S.Menges; Stacy A.Smith; Carl W.Weekley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of an imperiled plant species may require augmentation of existing populations or creation of new ones.Hundreds of such projects have been conducted over the last few decades,but there is a bias in the literature favoring successes over failures.In this paper,we evaluate a series of introductions that experimentally manipulated microhabitat and fire in an adaptive introduction framework.Between 2002 and 2012,we (and our collaborators) carried out ten introductions and augmentations of Florida ziziphus Pseudoziziphus (Condalia,Ziziphus) celata,a clonal shrub limited to very small populations and narrowly endemic to pyrogenic central Florida sandhills.Six of the introductions were designed as experiments to test hypotheses about how demographic performance was affected by microhabitat,fire,and propagule type.Introduced transplants had high survival (<90% annually),inconsistent growth,and little transition to reproduction,while introduced seeds had low germination and survival.Transplants were more efficient than seeds as translocation propagules.Shaded (vs.open) sites supported generally higher transplant and seedling survival and seed germination percentages,but growth responses varied among experiments.Supplemental irrigation increased transplant survival and seed germination,but otherwise seedling and plant survival and growth were not significantly affected.Contrary to expectations based on wild populations,introduced propagules have not been more successful in unshaded sites,suggesting that Florida ziziphus has broader microhabitat preferences than hypothesized.Compared to wild plants,introduced plants had similar survival and responses to fire,slower growth,and more delayed flowering.Introduced plants had no clonal spread.While no introduced population has demonstrated a capacity for long-term viability,one augmented population has flowered and produced viable fruits.Given that Florida ziziphus genets are long-lived,low levels of sexual

  15. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  16. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change of Hungary was initiated about of 1850. Nowadays among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods were experienced in the early eighties as well as today have drawn renewed attention to the analysis of this problem. The potato is demanding indicator crop of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nutrient status. Has a particularly high requirement for quantity of precipitation and for supply of soil potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium. This paper reports the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North- Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotype: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depth: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and technological powdered magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to 1979. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. The experiment years (1962-1963, 1964-1965, 1966-1967, 1968-1969, 1970-1971, 1972-1973, 1974-1975, 1976

  17. Uncertainty functions of modelled soil organic carbon changes in response to crop management derived from a French long term experiments dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimassi, Bassem; Guenet, Bertrand; Mary, Bruno; Trochard, Robert; Bouthier, Alain; Duparque, Annie; Sagot, Stéphanie; Houot, Sabine; Morel, Christian; Martin, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities and crop management (CM) in Europe could be an important carbon sink through soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. Recently, the (EU decision 529/2013) requires European Union's member states to assess modalities to include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals resulting from activities relating to LULUCF and CM into the Union's (GHG) emissions reduction commitment and their national inventories reports (NIR). Tier 1, the commonly used method to estimate emissions for NIR, provides a framework for measuring SOC stocks changes. However, estimations have high uncertainty, especially in response to crop management at regional and specific national contexts. Understanding and quantifying this uncertainty with accurate confidence interval is crucial for reliably reporting and support decision-making and policies that aims to mitigate greenhouse gases through soil C storage. Here, we used the Tier 3 method, consisting of process-based modelling, to address the issue of uncertainty quantification at national scale in France. Specifically, we used 20 Long-term croplands experiments (LTE) in France with more than 100 treatments taking into account different agricultural practices such as tillage, organic amendment, inorganic fertilization, cover crops, etc. These LTE were carefully selected because they are well characterized with periodic SOC stocks monitoring overtime and covered a wide range of pedo-climatic conditions. We applied linear mixed effect model to statistically model, as a function of soil, climate and cropping system characteristics, the uncertainty resulting from applying this Tier 3 approach. The model was fitted on the dataset yielded by comparing the simulated (with the Century model V 4.5) to the observed SOC changes on the LTE at hand. This mixed effect model will then be used to derive uncertainty related to the simulation of SOC stocks changes of the French Soil Monitoring

  18. Shifting the Arctic Carbon Balance: Effects of a Long-Term Fertilization Experiment and Anomalously Warm Temperatures on Net Ecosystem Exchange in the Alaskan Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S.; Natali, S.; Rastetter, E. B.; Shaver, G. R.; Graham, L. M.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The arctic is warming at an accelerated rate relative to the globe. Among the predicted consequences of warming temperatures in the arctic are increased gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and nutrient availability. The net effect of these changes on the carbon (C) cycle and resulting C balance and feedback to climate change remain unclear. Historically the Arctic has been a C sink, but evidence from recent years suggests some regions in the Arctic are becoming C sources. To predict the role of the Arctic in global C cycling, the mechanisms affecting arctic C balances need to be better resolved. We measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a long-term, multi-level, fertilization experiment at Toolik Lake, AK during an anomalously warm summer. We modeled NEE, ER, and GPP using a Bayesian network model. The best-fit model included Q10 temperature functions and linear fertilization functions for both ER and GPP. ER was more strongly affected by temperature and GPP was driven more by fertilization level. As a result, fertilization increased the C sink capacity, but only at moderate and low temperatures. At high temperatures (>28 °C) the NEE modeled for the highest level of fertilization was not significantly different from zero. In contrast, at ambient nutrient levels modeled NEE was significantly below zero (net uptake) until 35 °C, when it becomes neutral. Regardless of the level of fertilization, NEE never decreased with warming. Temperature in low ranges (5-15°C) had no net effect on NEE, whereas NEE began to increase exponentially with temperature after a threshold of 15°C until becoming a net source to the atmosphere at 37°C. Our results indicate that the C sink strength of tundra ecosystems can be increased with small increases in nutrient availability, but that large increase in nutrient availability can switch tundra ecosystems into C sources under warm conditions. Warming temperatures in tundra ecosystems will only decrease C

  19. Carbon sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in a long-term experiment on a vertisol in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Keke; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Guo, Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982-2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate  = 0.16 Cinput -0.10, R = 0.95, Psequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols.

  20. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  1. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  2. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  3. Perspectives of the use of experience of preparation of reserve in cyclic disciplines in the system of the long-term training in team games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimenko I.G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work to define approaches to the construction of long-term preparation of reserve in cyclic disciplines. Also to ground perspective directions of their use in a training process in the playing types of sport. Questioning, conversations and questionnaires of leading specialists (17 trainers and sportsmen is conducted (80 athletes. It is marked that one of lacks of the traditional system of preparation of sportsmen is the insufficient providing of training process information technologies. It is set that in the cyclic types of sport the sharp is enough there is a problem of planning of loadings in macrocycle of training of young sportsmen. It is rotined that to the features of construction of training process in cyclic kinds it is necessary to take application of individual approach. The possible ways of decision of problem of optimization of long-term training of reserve are presented in sporting games. Attention is accented on the necessity of realization in practice of theoretical positions which are related to all of the stages of the long-term training.

  4. DART-bid for loco-regionally advanced NSCLC. Summary of acute and late toxicity with long-term follow-up; experiences with pulmonary dose constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurstbauer, Karl [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Zehentmayr, Franz; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Landeskrankenhaus, Salzburg (Austria); Dagn, Karin; Exeli, Ann-Katrin; Kopp, Peter [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Landeskrankenhaus, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Maurer, Birgit; Studnicka, Michael [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Departement of Pneumology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To report acute and late toxicity with long-term follow-up, and to describe our experiences with pulmonary dose constraints. Between 2002 and 2009, 150 patients with 155 histologically/cytologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; tumor stages II, IIIA, IIIB in 6, 55 and 39%, respectively) received the following median doses: primary tumors 79.2 Gy (range 72.0-90.0 Gy), lymph node metastases 59.4 Gy (54.0-73.8 Gy), nodes electively 45 Gy; with fractional doses of 1.8 Gy twice daily (bid). In all, 86% of patients received 2 cycles of chemotherapy previously. Five treatment-related deaths occurred: pneumonitis, n = 1; progressive pulmonary fibrosis in patients with pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis, n = 2; haemorrhage, n = 2. In all, 8% of patients experienced grade 3 and 1.3% grade 4 pneumonitis; 11% showed late fibrotic alterations grade 2 in lung parenchyma. Clinically relevant acute esophagitis (grade 2 and 3) was seen in 33.3% of patients, 2 patients developed late esophageal stenosis (G3). Patients with upper lobe, middle lobe and central lower lobe tumours (n = 130) were treated with V20 (total lung) up to 50% and patients with peripheral lower lobe tumours (n = 14, basal lateral tumours excluded) up to 42%, without observing acute or late pulmonary toxicity >grade 3. Only patients with basal lateral lower lobe tumours (n = 5) experienced grade 4/5 pulmonary toxicity; V20 for this latter group ranged between 30 and 53%. The mean lung dose was below the QUANTEC recommendation of 20-23 Gy in all patients. The median follow-up time of all patients is 26.3 months (range 2.9-149.4) and of patients alive 80.2 months (range 63.9-149.4.). The median overall survival time of all patients is 26.3 months; the 2-, 5- and 8-year survival rates of 54, 21 and 15%, respectively. The local tumour control rate at 2 and 5 years is 70 and 64%, the regional control rate 90 and 88%, respectively. Grade 4 or 5 toxicity occurred in 7/150 patients (4.7%), which can be

  5. Long-term baited lander experiments at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaleye, Marc; Duineveld, Gerard; Bergman, Magda; van den Beld, Inge

    2017-11-01

    A long-term lander employing a baited camera system was developed to study temporal variation in the presence of scavenging fish and invertebrates at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic). The camera system was tested during two successful long-term deployments for periods of 6 and 12 months respectively. The baited system, consisting of two separate video cameras with infrared lights and a bait dispenser with 24 bait positions, recorded more than 15,500 clips of 17 s, regularly spread over both periods. New bait, consisting of sardines in oil, was offered at regular time intervals, and attracted scavengers over the whole period of deployment, and especially the crab Chaceon affinis did still eat from it till the end of the deployments. However, the attractiveness for some scavengers, i.e. amphipods, diminished quite quickly. In addition to invertebrate scavengers, namely C. affinis, two other crab species, amphipods, a shrimp and a starfish, also 7 species of fish were recorded near the bait, of which Lepidion eques was by far the most common. Though there was no concrete evidence for seasonal patterns, the observations showed substantial temporal variation in the abundance of several species, especially the crabs C. affinis and Bathynectes maravigna and the fish Phycis blennoides. It is concluded that long-term deployments of such a baited camera system can produce novel data. For instance such a system could be employed for monitoring impacts of disturbances on the deep-sea floor (e.g. mining), as we infer that mobile scavengers will be among the first organisms to show a visible reaction to any chemically and physically (noise, vibrations) alteration of the environment similar to a mine canary.

  6. Successful peroral endoscopic myotomy performed in Endoscopy Department as a radical, long-term treatment for esophageal achalasia – the Greek experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheriadis N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nikolas Eleftheriadis,1,2 Eleni Damianos Eleftheriadou2 1Endoscopy Department, Gastroenterology Unit, Metropolitan Hospital Athens, 2Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece Introduction: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM has been considered as a minimal-invasive, innovative technique for long-term treatment of all types of esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders.Patients and methods: We report on 20 consecutive Greek patients with manometrically proved esophageal achalasia (14 patients with type I, 4 with type II, 2 with type III, and 4 with sigmoid esophagus, with an age range of 32–92 years, mean age 59 years, 12 males, successfully treated by POEM from 2013 to 2015. The Eckardt score was 7–12 (type III. Seventeen (85% POEM procedures were performed in the Endoscopy Department, according to a previous study. During POEM, CO2 insufflation was mandatory, while the Triangle Tip knife was the only knife used in all procedures. Eckardt score, esophagogram and manometry before and after performing POEM were used for evaluation of our results. The follow-up period was 6 months to 3 years.Results: Selective circular myotomy, 10–13 cm in length, was successfully completed in all patients without severe acute or late complications. Three patients (15% showed moderate pneumomediastinum and pneumoperitoneum, which was successfully managed by abdominal needle drainage during the procedure. One patient showed mild pleural collection, and in one patient the clip–endoloop technique was used to successfully close the mucosal entry after the completion of POEM. The outcome was uneventful without any further clinical consequences. No other short- or long-term serious complications were reported. Patients were discharged after 1–3 days of hospitalization. Six months to 3 years after the POEM procedure, all patients were alive; the majority (90% had complete clinical improvement, while two patients

  7. Successful peroral endoscopic myotomy performed in Endoscopy Department as a radical, long-term treatment for esophageal achalasia - the Greek experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolas; Eleftheriadou, Eleni Damianos

    2017-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been considered as a minimal-invasive, innovative technique for long-term treatment of all types of esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders. We report on 20 consecutive Greek patients with manometrically proved esophageal achalasia (14 patients with type I, 4 with type II, 2 with type III, and 4 with sigmoid esophagus), with an age range of 32-92 years, mean age 59 years, 12 males, successfully treated by POEM from 2013 to 2015. The Eckardt score was 7-12 (type III). Seventeen (85%) POEM procedures were performed in the Endoscopy Department, according to a previous study. During POEM, CO 2 insufflation was mandatory, while the Triangle Tip knife was the only knife used in all procedures. Eckardt score, esophagogram and manometry before and after performing POEM were used for evaluation of our results. The follow-up period was 6 months to 3 years. Selective circular myotomy, 10-13 cm in length, was successfully completed in all patients without severe acute or late complications. Three patients (15%) showed moderate pneumomediastinum and pneumoperitoneum, which was successfully managed by abdominal needle drainage during the procedure. One patient showed mild pleural collection, and in one patient the clip-endoloop technique was used to successfully close the mucosal entry after the completion of POEM. The outcome was uneventful without any further clinical consequences. No other short- or long-term serious complications were reported. Patients were discharged after 1-3 days of hospitalization. Six months to 3 years after the POEM procedure, all patients were alive; the majority (90%) had complete clinical improvement, while two patients with sigmoid-type achalasia showed moderate-to-significant clinical improvement. Erosive esophagitis was reported in 15%. Our results are in accordance with international data, and proved the safety and efficacy of the POEM technique for radical long-term treatment of all

  8. Long-term outcomes of left bundle branch block in high-risk survivors of acute myocardial infarction: the VALIANT experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Kent; Skali, Hicham; McMurray, John J V

    2006-01-01

    was to determine if new LBBB is an independent predictor of long-term fatal and nonfatal outcomes in high-risk survivors of MI by reviewing data from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial. METHODS: In VALIANT, 14,703 patients with LV systolic dysfunction and/or HF were randomized...... to valsartan, captopril, or both a mean of 5 days after MI. Baseline ECG data were available from 14,259 patients. We assessed the predictive value of new LBBB for death and major cardiovascular outcomes after 3 years, adjusting for multiple baseline covariates including LV ejection fraction. RESULTS...

  9. Two-Stage System Based on a Software-Defined Radio for Stabilizing of Optical Frequency Combs in Long-Term Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Hrabina, Jan; Šmíd, Radek; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2014), s. 1757-1770 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P819; GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical frequency combs * digital signal processing * software-defined radio * beat note * stabilization * long-term operation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2014

  10. Long-term functional side-effects of stimulants and sedatives in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Matsagas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Small invertebrate animals, such as nematodes and fruit flies, are increasingly being used to test candidate drugs both for specific therapeutic purposes and for long-term health effects. Some of the protocols used in these experiments feature such experimental design features as lifelong virginity and very low densities. By contrast, the ability of both fruit flies and nematodes to resist stress is frequently correlated with their longevity and other functional measures, suggesting that low-stress assays are not necessarily the only useful protocol for testing the long-term effects of drugs.Here we report an alternative protocol for fruit fly drug-testing that maximizes reproductive opportunities and other types of interaction, with moderately high population densities. We validate this protocol using two types of experimental tests: 1. We show that this protocol detects previously well-established genetic differences between outbred fruit fly populations. 2. We show that this protocol is able to distinguish among the long-term effects of similar types of drugs within two broad categories, stimulants and tranquilizers.Large-scale fly drug testing can be conducted using mixed-sex high-density cage assays. We find that the commonly-used stimulants caffeine and theobromine differ dramatically in their chronic functional effects, theobromine being more benign. Likewise, we find that two generic pharmaceutical tranquilizers, lithium carbonate and valproic acid, differ dramatically in their chronic effects, lithium being more benign. However, these findings do not necessarily apply to human subjects, and we thus do not recommend the use of any one substance over any other.

  11. Long-term functional side-effects of stimulants and sedatives in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsagas, Kennedy; Lim, David B; Horwitz, Marc; Rizza, Cristina L; Mueller, Laurence D; Villeponteau, Bryant; Rose, Michael R

    2009-08-11

    Small invertebrate animals, such as nematodes and fruit flies, are increasingly being used to test candidate drugs both for specific therapeutic purposes and for long-term health effects. Some of the protocols used in these experiments feature such experimental design features as lifelong virginity and very low densities. By contrast, the ability of both fruit flies and nematodes to resist stress is frequently correlated with their longevity and other functional measures, suggesting that low-stress assays are not necessarily the only useful protocol for testing the long-term effects of drugs. Here we report an alternative protocol for fruit fly drug-testing that maximizes reproductive opportunities and other types of interaction, with moderately high population densities. We validate this protocol using two types of experimental tests: 1. We show that this protocol detects previously well-established genetic differences between outbred fruit fly populations. 2. We show that this protocol is able to distinguish among the long-term effects of similar types of drugs within two broad categories, stimulants and tranquilizers. Large-scale fly drug testing can be conducted using mixed-sex high-density cage assays. We find that the commonly-used stimulants caffeine and theobromine differ dramatically in their chronic functional effects, theobromine being more benign. Likewise, we find that two generic pharmaceutical tranquilizers, lithium carbonate and valproic acid, differ dramatically in their chronic effects, lithium being more benign. However, these findings do not necessarily apply to human subjects, and we thus do not recommend the use of any one substance over any other.

  12. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  13. Results of a Seven-Year, Single-Centre Experience of the Long-Term Outcomes of Bovine Ureter Grafts Used as Novel Conduits for Haemodialysis Fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Neelan; Bratby, Mark J.; Shrivastava, Vivek; Cornall, Alison J.; Darby, Christopher R.; Boardman, Philip; Anthony, Susan; Uberoi, Raman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcomes of bovine ureter grafts as novel conduits for haemodialysis fistulas. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent placement of a total of 40 SynerGraft 100 (SG100; CryoLife Europa ® , Guildford, UK) bovine ureter grafts between April 2002 and February 2009. Prospective data were collected on all patients, including active surveillance with blood flow studies and 6-monthly duplex ultrasound studies. Main outcome measures were primary and secondary patency rates. Results: Mean follow-up time was 97 weeks (range 4–270). Thirteen patients died from unrelated causes during the study period; 12 of these patients had a functioning graft at the time of death. Five patients underwent transplantation, and all had a functioning graft at transplantation. Twelve patients had a functioning graft at the end of the study period. One hundred and ten stenoses were detected, and 97 venoplasty procedures were performed. Of the stenoses, 41.8% were located at the venous anastomosis, 12.7% within the graft, 17.3% in the outflow veins, and 28.1% in central veins. No arterial stenoses were detected. Primary patency rates were 53% at 6 months and 14% at 1 year. Secondary patency rates were 81% at 6 months, 75% at 1 year, and 56% at 2 years. Conclusions: Active surveillance and intervention was able to achieve satisfactory long-term secondary patency for these novel conduits compared with those made of PTFE seen in other studies.

  14. Long-Term Patency of Lymphovenous Anastomoses: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    With advancements in technology and microsurgical techniques, lymphovenous anastomosis has become a popular reconstructive procedure in the treatment of chronic lymphedema. However, the long-term patency of these anastomoses is not clear in the literature. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to assess the reported long-term patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. A total of eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooled data from four similar experiments in normal dogs showed an average long-term (≥5 months) patency of 52 percent. The only experiment in dogs with chronic lymphedema failed to show any long-term patency. The creation of peripheral lymphovenous anastomoses with a moderate long-term patency rate has become technically possible. However, the long-term results in chronic lymphedema are limited.

  15. The NHV rehabilitation services program improves long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: a longitudinal quasi experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term disability following natural disasters significantly burdens survivors and the impacted society. Nevertheless, medical rehabilitation programming has been historically neglected in disaster relief planning. 'NHV' is a rehabilitation services program comprised of non-governmental organizations (NGOs (N, local health departments (H, and professional rehabilitation volunteers (V which aims to improve long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the NHV program. METHODS/FINDINGS: 510 of 591 enrolled earthquake survivors participated in this longitudinal quasi-experimental study (86.3%. The early intervention group (NHV-E consisted of 298 survivors who received institutional-based rehabilitation (IBR followed by community-based rehabilitation (CBR; the late intervention group (NHV-L was comprised of 101 survivors who began rehabilitation one year later. The control group of 111 earthquake survivors did not receive IBR/CBR. Physical functioning was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI. Data were analyzed with a mixed-effects Tobit regression model. Physical functioning was significantly increased in the NHV-E and NHV-L groups at follow-up but not in the control group after adjustment for gender, age, type of injury, and time to measurement. We found significant effects of both NHV (11.14, 95% CI 9.0-13.3 and sponaneaous recovery (5.03; 95% CI 1.73-8.34. The effect of NHV-E (11.3, 95% CI 9.0-13.7 was marginally greater than that of NHV-L (10.7, 95% CI 7.9-13.6. It could, however, not be determined whether specific IBR or CBR program components were effective since individual component exposures were not evaluated. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that the NHV improved the long-term physical functioning of Sichuan earthquake survivors with disabling injuries. The comprehensive rehabilitation program benefitted the individual and society, rehabilitation services

  16. Long-term outcomes of clinical transplantation of pancreatic islets with uncontrolled donors after cardiac death: a multicenter experience in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, T; Saito, T; Goto, M; Kenmochi, T; Uemoto, S; Itoh, T; Yasunami, Y; Kenjo, A; Kimura, T; Ise, K; Tsuchiya, T; Gotoh, M

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has emerged as an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus, but its use is limited due to an insufficient supply of cadaveric pancreata. In Japan, uncontrolled donors after cardiac death (DCD) are not deemed to be suitable for whole-organ pancreatic transplantation, and can provide a source of pancreas for islet transplantation. However, the long-term outcomes and utility of uncontrolled DCD in the clinical setting remain controversial. Here, we summarize the long-term outcomes of islet transplantation employing uncontrolled DCD as reported to the Japan Islet Transplantation Registry. Sixty-four isolations and 34 transplantations of pancreatic islets were conducted in 18 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus under the cover of immunosuppression with basiliximab, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. All donors were uncontrolled DCD at the time of harvesting. The mean follow-up time was 76 months. Of the 18 recipients, 8, 4, and 6 recipients received 1, 2, and 3 islet infusions, respectively. Overall graft survivals (defined as a C-peptide level ≥0.3 ng/mL) were 72.2%, 44.4%, and 22.2% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively, whereas the corresponding graft survivals after multiple infusions were 90.0%, 70.0%, and 30.0%, respectively. Three of these recipients achieved insulin independence in 14, 79, and 215 days. HbA1c levels and the requirement of exogenous insulin were improved before loss of graft function. All recipients became free of severe hypoglycemia unawareness, however, at least 5 of 14 patients who had graft failure experienced recurrence of severe hypoglycemia after the loss of graft function. Islet transplantation from DCD can relieve glucose instability and problems with hypoglycemia when the graft is functioning. However, islets from uncontrolled DCD may be associated with reduced long-term graft survival. Further improvements in the clinical outcome by modification of islet isolation/transplantation protocols are

  17. The NHV rehabilitation services program improves long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: a longitudinal quasi experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Reinhardt, Jan D; Gosney, James E; Li, Jianan

    2013-01-01

    Long-term disability following natural disasters significantly burdens survivors and the impacted society. Nevertheless, medical rehabilitation programming has been historically neglected in disaster relief planning. 'NHV' is a rehabilitation services program comprised of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (N), local health departments (H), and professional rehabilitation volunteers (V) which aims to improve long-term physical functioning in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the NHV program. 510 of 591 enrolled earthquake survivors participated in this longitudinal quasi-experimental study (86.3%). The early intervention group (NHV-E) consisted of 298 survivors who received institutional-based rehabilitation (IBR) followed by community-based rehabilitation (CBR); the late intervention group (NHV-L) was comprised of 101 survivors who began rehabilitation one year later. The control group of 111 earthquake survivors did not receive IBR/CBR. Physical functioning was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI). Data were analyzed with a mixed-effects Tobit regression model. Physical functioning was significantly increased in the NHV-E and NHV-L groups at follow-up but not in the control group after adjustment for gender, age, type of injury, and time to measurement. We found significant effects of both NHV (11.14, 95% CI 9.0-13.3) and sponaneaous recovery (5.03; 95% CI 1.73-8.34). The effect of NHV-E (11.3, 95% CI 9.0-13.7) was marginally greater than that of NHV-L (10.7, 95% CI 7.9-13.6). It could, however, not be determined whether specific IBR or CBR program components were effective since individual component exposures were not evaluated. Our analysis shows that the NHV improved the long-term physical functioning of Sichuan earthquake survivors with disabling injuries. The comprehensive rehabilitation program benefitted the individual and society, rehabilitation services in China, and international rehabilitation

  18. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, Leslie L.

    2009-01-01

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  19. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2009-02-15

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  20. Increase in soil stable carbon isotope ratio relates to loss of organic carbon: results from five long-term bare fallow experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menichetti, Lorenzo; Houot, Sabine; van Oort, Folkert

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the 12C/13C ratio (expressed as δ13C) of soil organic C (SOC) has been observed over long time scales and with depth in soil profiles. The changes are ascribed to the different reaction kinetics of 12C and 13C isotopes and the different isotopic composition of various SOC pool components...... examined. The overall estimate of the fractionation coefficient (ε) was −1.2 ± 0.3 ‰. This coefficient represents an important input to studies of long-term SOC dynamics in agricultural soils that are based on variations in 13C natural abundance. The variance of ε may be ascribed to site characteristics...... some impact on isotope abundance and fractionation....

  1. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  2. [Directions for reoperation of patients with Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valve prosthesis, based on long-term experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, F; Nakano, K; Endo, M; Hashimoto, A; Koyanagi, H

    1994-02-01

    Although a high incidence of strut fracture of the Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (C-C) valve prosthesis has been reported, it is still controversial whether the prosthesis functioning normally should be replaced electively. To clarify our policy for this issue, we reviewed 28 patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement with a C-C valve prosthesis, and evaluated long-term results according to STS guidelines. The incidence of valve-related complications expressed as % patient-year were; structural deterioration 0.30, nonstructural dysfunction 0.30, thromboembolism 1.20. There were no thrombosed valves, anticoagulant-related hemorrhage or prosthetic valve endocarditis. The actuarial free rate after valve replacement with the C-C at 10 years, constructed by the Kaplan-Meier method, were compared with those with St. Jude Medical (SJM) valve prosthesis. (1) Actuarial survival: 77.9 vs 87.3 (NS), (2) Reoperation-free: 91.6 vs 98.0 (p valve-related complications: 71.2 vs 77.7 (NS). The long-term results with the C-C were compatible to those with a SJM valve prosthesis. However, if a strut fracture occurs, it is very difficult to save the patient's life. The hospital mortality of re-replacement of valve prosthesis during the last 10 years, at our institute, was 2.6%, which is almost equal to the cumulative risk of strut fracture of the C-C valve after 10 years (3.0%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The use of long term agreements to improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Overview of the European experiences and proposal for a common framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, P.

    1999-01-01

    In the European Union efficiency improvements in the industrial sector are regarded as a key element of Member States' strategies to meet their Kyoto target. Besides the traditional policy instruments, such as fiscal and financial aids, minimum efficiency standards, R and D and technology programs, there is an increasing interest by both public authorities and industry for voluntary approaches to improve industrial energy efficiency. In the European context the term voluntary approach is often used to describe a wide range of industry actions including, inter alia: industry covenants, negotiated agreements, long term agreements, self regulations, codes of conduct, benchmarking and monitoring schemes. These voluntary approaches differ in relation to their form, legal status, provisions and enforceability. The paper provides an up-to-date overview of the present status of the different voluntary approaches for the industrial sector in several Member States (the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and the United Kingdom). The paper will focus on the particular type of voluntary approach implemented in the Netherlands and commonly called Long Term Agreements (LTA). The paper analyses the opportunities and advantages for creating a common EU framework for the conclusion and implementation of LTAs, based on the successful Dutch model. In doing so, the paper intends also to contribute to the approximation of the LTA's essential elements throughout the Community in order to reduce possible distortions of the internal market and of the competitive position of national industries, thus enlarging the acceptability of this instrument by public authorities and industry. For some industrial sectors, which are quite homogeneous throughout the Community and represent a limited number of companies, the paper analyses the advantages of having European LTAs and recommends their implementation. The paper presents the achievable results at EU level in terms of

  4. Evaluation of long term health-related quality of life in extensive burns: a 12-year experience in a burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Xiao, Shi-chu; Zhu, Shi-hui; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2012-05-01

    We sought to evaluate the long term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients survived severely extensive burn and identify their clinical predicting factors correlated with HRQOL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 patients survived more than 2 years with extensive burn involving ≥70% total body surface area (TBSA) between 1997 and 2009 in a burn center in Shanghai. Short Form-36 Medical Outcomes Survey (SF-36), Brief Version of Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS-B) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) were used for the present evaluation. SF-36 scores were compared with a healthy Chinese population, and linear correlation analysis was performed to screen the clinical relating factors predicting physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores from SF-36. HRQOL scores from SF-36 were significantly lower in the domains of physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, pain, social functioning and role limitations due to emotional problems compared with population norms. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that only return to work (RTW) predicted improved PCS. While age at injury, facial burns, skin grafting and length of hospital stay were correlated with MCS. Work, body image and heat sensitivity obtained the lowest BSHS-B scores in all 9 domains. Improvements of HRQOL could still be seen in BSHS-B scores in domains of simple abilities, hand function, work and affect even after a quite long interval between burns and testing. Hand function of extensive burn patients obtained relatively poor MHQ scores, especially in those without RTW. Patients with extensive burns have a poorer quality of life compared with that of general population. Relatively poor physical and psychological problems still exist even after a long period. Meanwhile, a trend of gradual improvements was noted. This information will aid clinicians in decision-making of comprehensive systematic regimens for long term rehabilitation

  5. Long-term safety and outcome of a temporary self-expanding metallic stent for achalasia: a prospective study with a 13-year single-center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jun-Gong; Li, Yong-Dong; Li, Ming-Hua; Shang, Ke-Zhong; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Chen, Ni-Wei; Chen, Wei-Xiong

    2009-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of a newly designed self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in the treatment of patients with achalasia. Seventy-five patients with achalasia were treated with a temporary SEMS with a 30-mm diameter. The SEMSs were placed under fluoroscopic guidance and removed by gastroscopy 4-5 days after stent placement. Follow-up data focused on dysphagia score, technique and clinical success, clinical remissions and failures, and complications and was performed at 6 months, 1 year, and within 3 to 5 years, 5 to 8 years, 8 to 10 years, and >10 years postoperatively. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients. Complications included stent migration (n=4, 5.33%), chest pain (n=28, 38.7%), reflux (n=15, 20%), and bleeding (n=9, 12%). No perforation or 30-day mortality occurred. Clinical success was achieved in all patients 1 month after stent removal. The overall remission rates at 6 months, 1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-8, 8-10, and >10 year follow-up periods were 100%, 96%, 93.9%, 90.9%, 100%, 100%, and 83.3%, respectively. Stent treatment failed in six patients, and the overall remission rate in our series was 92%. The median and mean primary patencies were 2.8 ± 0.28 years (95% CI: 2.25-3.35) and 4.28 ± 0.40 years (95% CI: 3.51-5.05), respectively. The use of temporary SEMSs with 30-mm diameter proved to be a safe and effective approach for managing achalasia with a long-term satisfactory clinical remission rate. (orig.)

  6. Long-term safety and outcome of a temporary self-expanding metallic stent for achalasia: a prospective study with a 13-year single-center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun-Gong; Li, Yong-Dong; Li, Ming-Hua; Shang, Ke-Zhong [Shanghai Tong Ji University, Department of Radiology, Tenth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Cheng, Ying-Sheng [Shanghai Tong Ji University, Department of Radiology, Tenth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Sixth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China); Chen, Ni-Wei; Chen, Wei-Xiong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Gastroenterology, Sixth Affiliated People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    To prospectively evaluate the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of a newly designed self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in the treatment of patients with achalasia. Seventy-five patients with achalasia were treated with a temporary SEMS with a 30-mm diameter. The SEMSs were placed under fluoroscopic guidance and removed by gastroscopy 4-5 days after stent placement. Follow-up data focused on dysphagia score, technique and clinical success, clinical remissions and failures, and complications and was performed at 6 months, 1 year, and within 3 to 5 years, 5 to 8 years, 8 to 10 years, and >10 years postoperatively. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients. Complications included stent migration (n=4, 5.33%), chest pain (n=28, 38.7%), reflux (n=15, 20%), and bleeding (n=9, 12%). No perforation or 30-day mortality occurred. Clinical success was achieved in all patients 1 month after stent removal. The overall remission rates at 6 months, 1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-8, 8-10, and >10 year follow-up periods were 100%, 96%, 93.9%, 90.9%, 100%, 100%, and 83.3%, respectively. Stent treatment failed in six patients, and the overall remission rate in our series was 92%. The median and mean primary patencies were 2.8 {+-} 0.28 years (95% CI: 2.25-3.35) and 4.28 {+-} 0.40 years (95% CI: 3.51-5.05), respectively. The use of temporary SEMSs with 30-mm diameter proved to be a safe and effective approach for managing achalasia with a long-term satisfactory clinical remission rate. (orig.)

  7. A 12-year-experience with tracheostomy for neonates and infants in northern Taiwan: Indications, hospital courses, and long-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tracheostomy is a valuable procedure in infants and neonates with chronic respiratory failure or severe airway obstruction. The aim of this study is to identify the indication, hospital course, and long-term outcome in a cohort of infants who required tracheostomy in a neonatal and pediatric tertiary care center in northern Taiwan. Methods: Medical records of infants, who underwent tracheostomy between January 2002 and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, indication for tracheostomy, hospital course, discharge disposition, further hospitalization and surgery, and long-term outcome data were collected. Results: Fifty-six patients were enrolled. The median gestational age was 38.0 weeks, and median birth weight was 2770 g. he median age at tracheostomy was 104.5 days. The primary indications for tracheostomy were airway obstruction in 35 patients (62.5%, craniofacial anomalies in 7 (12.5%, neuromuscular disorder in 7 (12.5%, cardiopulmonary disorder in 5 (8.9%, and brain injury-related problem in 2 (3.6%. Twenty-two patients (39.3% were decannulated successfully, and the median time from tracheostomy to decannulation was 2.1 years. Overall mortality rate was 3.6%, but no death was related to tracheostomy. Forty-nine patients underwent regular follow-up at our hospital, and 46 patients (93.9% required further hospitalization, and 30 (61.2% underwent further surgery related to a respiratory problem or tracheostomy. Ratio of delayed growth at the time of tracheostomy (28.6% did not have significant difference at 1 year of age (21.4% and 2 years of age (25.0%. Conclusion: In this study, the most common indication for tracheostomy in neonates and infants was airway obstruction. Excluding patients with neuromuscular diseases, a successful decannulation rate of >50% can be achieved. Key Words: decannulation, indication, infant, outcome, tracheostomy

  8. Minimally Invasive Placement of Spinal Cord Stimulator Paddle Electrodes Is Associated With Improved Perioperative and Long-Term Experience Among Neuropathic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamji, Mohammed F; Paul, Darcia; Mednikov, Alina

    2018-03-01

    Prospective, observational cohort study. This study compared in-hospital and long-term outcomes among spinal cord stimulation (SCS) patients undergoing paddle insertion by open or minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approaches. Patients with treatment-refractory extremity neuropathic pain may benefit from SCS. Conventional placement of surgical paddles for an external neurostimulation trial is through open laminectomy, but MIS techniques may offer advantages. Twenty SCS patients were prospectively assessed. Open patients underwent caudal thoracic laminectomy for multicolumnar electrode paddle placement. MIS patients underwent paddle placement through interlaminar flavectomy using tubular retractors. Demographic data included age, sex, underlying diagnosis, and preoperative visual analog scale (VAS) extremity scores. Intraoperative data included operative duration, blood loss, and number of device passages to achieve final position. Perioperative data included VAS back pain scores; trial data included time-to-trial and time-to-decision. Postoperative data included 1 month VAS back pain scores and 1 year follow-up device complications. No demographic differences were observed among surgical cohorts. MIS procedures had shorter operative duration (P = 0.03), less blood loss (P patients reported less perioperative surgical back pain (P patients who also made sooner decision whether to implant the SCS device (2.8 ± 1.4 vs 4.3 ± 1.0 days, P = 0.013). Similar 1 month back pain scores were reported between surgical cohorts (P = 0.08). MIS techniques for SCS surgical paddle implantation is associated with less perioperative morbidity and surgical site back pain, shorter external neurostimulator trial duration, and long-term device stability benefits. 2.

  9. Use of the Impella Device for Acute Coronary Syndrome Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock - Experience From a Single Heart Center With Analysis of Long-term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco Robin; Köhler, Herdis; Wachter, Astrid; Bleckmann, Annalen; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Schillinger, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Impella is a microaxial rotary pump that is placed across the aortic valve to expel aspirated blood from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta; it can be used in cardiogenic shock. While previous studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of the Impella device, more clinically relevant data are necessary, especially with regard to outcomes. We screened our database of Impella patients in our heart center and found 68 consecutive patients who underwent Impella implantation due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) complicated by cardiogenic shock. Data were evaluated with regard to baseline and procedural characteristics and also included an assessment of the short-term and long-term outcomes. The majority of patients (74%) suffered from an ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and 59% of patients received the Impella device during the initial coronary angiography. In the remaining cases, Impella implantation was performed at a later time, most commonly after IABP implantation. Patient characteristics were not significantly different between both groups. The predominantly implanted device was an Impella 2.5. Mortality in the severely ill patient population remained high, but univariate/multivariate analyses identified significant risk factors. Interestingly, delayed initiation of Impella support was an independent predictor of higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.157; P=.04) within the Impella patient cohort. This large series of patients with ACS complicated by cardiogenic shock who underwent Impella implantation provides information on the relevant risk factors for mortality. Early (compared with delayed) initiation of Impella support was a predictor of improved survival in this population of patients.

  10. Validation of the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) and the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) as measures of stress in epidemiological population-based cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmalen, J G M; Bos, E H; de Jonge, P

    2012-12-01

    Stress questionnaires are included in many epidemiological cohort studies but the psychometric characteristics of these questionnaires are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to describe these characteristics for two short questionnaires measuring the lifetime and past year occurrence of stress: the List of Threatening Events (LTE) as a measure of acute stress and the Long-term Difficulties Inventory (LDI) as a measure of chronic stress. This study was performed in a general population cohort consisting of 588 females (53.7%) and 506 males (46.3%), with a mean age of 53.5 years (s.d.=11.3 years). Respondents completed the LTE and the LDI for the past year, and for the age categories of 0-12, 13-18, 19-39, 40-60, and >60 years. They also completed questionnaires on perceived stress, psychological distress (the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12), anxiety and depression (the Symptom Checklist, SCL-8) and neuroticism (the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised Short Scale, EPQ-RSS-N). Approximately 2 years later, 976 respondents (89%) completed these questionnaires for a second time. The stability of the retrospective reporting of long-term difficulties and life events was satisfactory: 0.7 for the lifetime LDI and 0.6 for the lifetime LTE scores. The construct validity of these lists is indicated by their positive associations with psychological distress, mental health problems and neuroticism. This study in a large population-based sample shows that the LDI and LTE have sufficient validity and stability to include them in major epidemiological cohort studies.

  11. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations......What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...

  12. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Some trace elements are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in they environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster han they are broken down (metabolize) or extreted. Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed today. NPKCaMg fertilization effects were estimated on trace element bioavailability by Triticale in a long-term field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol (acidic sandy brown forest soil) at Nyírlugos in East-Hungary in 1998. Soil geochemical parameters were as follow: humus 0.6%, pH (H2O) 5.8, pH (KCl) 4.6, total N 32.8 mg . kg-1, AL (ammonium lactate soluble)- P2O5 43 mg . kg-1, AL-K2O 52 mg . kg-1. The experiments involved 32 NPKCaMg treatments and their combinations in 4 replications giving a total of 128 plots from 1980. N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, P2O5 and K2O 0, 60, 120, 180 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, CaCO3 0, 250, 500, 1000 kg . ha-1 . yr-1 and MgCO3 doses were 0, 140, 280 kg . ha-1 . yr-1. Plot brutto size was 50 m2. The main results were as follows. Main soil chemical parameters depend on NPKCaMg treatments. Soil pH (H2O) and pH (KCl) values ranged from 4.6 to 6.3 and from 3.5 to 5.8 indicating wide range from extremely acidic to slightly acidic. Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Al element concentrations shown a large variability too in interaction with fertilization doses and pH values (Ca 36-594 mg . kg-1, Fe 61-90 mg . kg-1, Mg 5-42 mg . kg-1, Mn 16-36 mg . kg-1, Al 79-118 mg . kg-1). The better soil pH (H2O), pH (KCl) and Ca parameters resulted by NPKCaMg combinations

  13. Accounting of Long-Term Biological Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Mossakovskyy; Vasyl Korytnyy

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to generalization of experience in valuation of long-term biological assets of plant-growing and animal-breeding, and preparation of suggestions concerning improvement of accounting in this field. Recommendations concerning accounting of such assets are given based on the study of accounting practice at specific agricultural company during long period of time. Authors believe that fair value is applicable only if price level for agricultural products is fixed by the gov...

  14. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  15. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl(2), and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl(2) decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al(2)O(3).CaCl(2)) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl(2). Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl(2). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term outcomes of the Ross procedure in adults with severe aortic stenosis: single-centre experience with 20 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfa, David; Mohammadi, Siamak; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Kharroubi, Mounir; Doyle, Daniel; Marzouk, Mohamed; Metras, Jacques; Perron, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The optimal prosthesis option for aortic valve replacement in adult patientsreplacement (n=190; 86%) or the subcoronary technique (n=31; 14%). There were 169 patients with bicuspid valves and 33 redo operations including previous aortic valve repair (n=6) and replacement (n=9) for severe AS. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative and longitudinal clinical and echocardiographic data were collected prospectively. The median and mean follow-up were 11.4 years (range: 1-20.1 years) and 10.1±5.9 years, respectively. The follow-up was complete in all patients. Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival analysis was performed to assess long-term survival, freedom from reoperation for autograft and/or homograft failure and freedom from autograft valve insufficiency. Cox regression risk analysis was performed to identify factors associated with autograft or homograft reoperations. The perioperative mortality rate was 0.9% (n=2). The incidence rate of early reoperation for bleeding was 5.9%. The actuarial survival rate at 10 and 15 years following surgery was 92.1 and 90.5%, respectively. Ross-related reoperations occurred in 21 patients during follow-up: autograft dysfunction (n=9), homograft dysfunction (n=6) and both (n=6). The rate of freedom from Ross-related reoperation was 94.7 and 87.7% at 10 and 15 years, respectively. The rate of freedom from reoperation for autograft failure was 97.6 and 91.5%, the rate of freedom from reoperation for homograft failure was 95.7 and 90.8%, and the rate of freedom from moderate or severe autograft regurgitation was 94.1 and 85.6% at 10 and 15 years, respectively. Compared with available aortic bioprosthetic alternatives in young adults with severe AS, the Ross procedure provides an excellent long-term option for patients with predominant severe AS who seek a durable operation without anticoagulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights

  17. Long-term results of the implantation of the AMS 800 artificial sphincter for post-prostatectomy incontinence: a single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ricetto Sacomani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives Report the long-term outcomes of the AMS 800 artificial sphincer (AS for the treatment post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI in a single center in Brazil. Materials and Methods Clinical data from patients who underwent the procedure were retrieved from the medical records of individuals with more than 1 year of follow-up from May 2001 to January 2016. Continence status (number of pads that was used, complications (erosion or extrusion, urethral atrophy, and infection, malfunctions, and need for secondary implantation were evaluated. The relationship between complications and prior or subsequent radiation therapy (RT was also examined. Results From May 2001 to January 2016, 121 consecutive patients underwent AS implantation for PPI at an oncological referral center in Brazil. At the last visit, the AS remained implanted in 106 patients (87.6%, who reported adequate continence status (maximum of 1 pad/day. Eight-two subjects (67.8% claimed not to be using pads on a regular basis at the final visit (completely dry. Revision occurred in 24 patients (19.8%. Radiation therapy (RT for prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy was used in 47 patients before or after AS placement. Twelve patients with a history of RT had urethral erosion compared with 3 men without RT (p=0.004. Conclusion Considering our outcomes, we conclude that AS implantation yields satisfactory results for the treatment of PPI and should remain the standard procedure for these patients. Radiation therapy is a risk factor for complication.

  18. Participation in water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery: Experiences of significant factors for continuing exercising as a part of cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblom, A; Lindquist, H; Bergmark, K

    2018-01-01

    Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n = 29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0.8, IQR 0.73-1.0) and quality of life EQ health barometer (md 80, IQR 64-95). We performed qualitative focus-group interviews regarding the women's views (n = 24). The women had participated in water-exercising 1-46 semesters, md 8 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) semesters. Nearly all, 97%, participated in the water-exercising group every week, and 21 (72%) had participated in the water-exercising group at least half of the time since their breast cancer surgery, without complications. The women experienced that factors of significance to continue with water-exercising were the convenience of easily modified weightless exercising in the water, social interaction, and access to a private dressing room. These factors would be important to consider to encourage continuing in exercising. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose : The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods : Between January 1990 and ...

  20. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  1. Relation between soil P test values and mobilization of dissolved and particulate P from the plough layer of typical Danish soils from a long-term field experiment with applied P fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaesner, N.; Kjaergaard, C.; Rubaek, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural topsoils can contribute to leaching of P which may cause eutrophication of surface waters. An understanding of P mobilization processes in the plough layer is needed to improve agricultural management strategies. We compare leaching of total dissolved...... and particulate P through the plough layer of a typical Danish sandy loam soil subjected to three different P fertilizer regimes in a long-term field experiment established in 1975. The leaching experiment used intact soil columns (20cm diameter, 20cm high) during unsaturated conditions. The three soils had small...

  2. Working Fluid Stability in Large-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle-Units Using Siloxanes—Long-Term Experiences and Fluid Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias G. Erhart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The results in this work show the influence of long-term operation on the decomposition of working fluids in eight different organic rankine cycle (ORC power plants (both heat-led and electricity-led in a range of 900 kW el to 2 MW el . All case study plants are using octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM as a working fluid; the facilities are between six to 12 years old. Detailed analyses, including the fluid distribution throughout the cycle, are conducted on one system. All presented fluid samples are analyzed via head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS. Besides the siloxane composition, the influence of contaminants, such as mineral oil-based lubricants (and their components, is examined. In most cases, the original working fluid degrades to fractions of siloxanes with a lower boiling point (low boilers and fractions with a higher boiling point (high boilers. As a consequence of the analyses, a new fluid recycling and management system was designed and tested in one case study plant (Case Study #8. Pre-post comparisons of fluid samples prove the effectiveness of the applied methods. The results show that the recovery of used working fluid offers an alternative to the purchase of fresh fluid, since operating costs can be significantly reduced. For large facilities, the prices for new fluid range from € 15 per liter (in 2006 to € 22 per liter (in 2013, which is a large reinvestment, especially in light of filling volumes of 4000 liters to 7000 liters per unit. Using the aforementioned method, a price of € 8 per liter of recovered MDM can be achieved.

  3. Primary Infrarenal Aortic Stenting With or Without Iliac Stenting for Isolated and Aortoiliac Stenoses: Single-Centre Experience With Long-Term Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, C. R.; Ahmed, M.; Scott, P. M.; Lakshminarayan, R.; Robinson, G. J.; Ettles, D. F.; Shrivastava, V., E-mail: vivek.shrivastava@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical success, complications, long-term clinical outcome, and patency after primary infrarenal aortic stenting for aortic and aortoiliac stenosis. Between January 1999 and January 2006, 22 consecutive patients underwent endovascular treatment because of infrarenal aortic stenosis with and without common iliac stenosis (10 men; mean age 64 {+-} 14 years). Eleven (11 of 22) patients had an isolated aortic stenosis, whereas 11 of 22 had aortic stenosis that extended into the common iliac arteries (CIAs). Thirteen patients were Rutherford classification type 3, and 9 patients were type 4. Statistical analysis included paired Student t test and Kaplan-Meier life table analysis; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Technical and initial clinical success was achieved in all patients. There were three (14 %) procedure-related complications, which included two access-point pseudoaneurysms and one non-flow-limiting left external iliac dissection. Patients were followed-up for a mean period of 88 months (range 60-132). Mean preprocedure ankle brachial pressure indexes (ABPI) were 0.60 {+-} -0.15 (right) and 0.61 {+-} -0.16 (left). After the procedure they were 0.86 {+-} -0.07 (right) and 0.90 {+-} -0.09 (left). The increase in ABPI was significant (p < 0.05), and this continued throughout follow-up. Four (18 %) patients had recurrence of symptoms during follow-up. These occurred at 36, 48, 48, and 50 months after the original procedure. All four patients were successfully treated with repeat angioplasty procedures. There was a significant difference in primary patency between isolated aortic stenosis (100 %) and aortoiliac stenosis (60 %) (p = 0.031). Cumulative follow-up was 1920 months yielding a reintervention rate of 0.025/events/year. Primary stenting of infrarenal stenosis is safe and successful with a low reintervention rate. It should be considered as first-line treatment for patients with infrarenal aortic stenotic

  4. Analysing the Air: Experiences and Results of Long Term Air Pollution Monitoring in the Asia-Pacific Region Using Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanacio, Armand J.

    2015-01-01

    Particles present in the air we breathe are now recognized as a major cause of disease and premature death globally. In fact, a World Health Organization (WHO) report recently ranked ambient air pollution as one of the top 10 causes of death in the world, directly contributing annually to around 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide 65% of which occurred in the Asian region alone. Airborne particulate matter (PM) can be generated from natural sources such as windblown soil or coastal sea-spray; as well as anthropogenic sources such as power stations, industry, vehicles and domestic biomass burning. At low concentration these fine pollution particles are too small to be seen by eye, but penetrate deep into our lungs and even our blood stream as our nose and throat are inefficient at filtering them out. At large concentrations, they can also have wider regional effects including reduced visibility, acid rain and even climate variability. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2000, recognizing air pollution as a significant local, national and global challenge, initiated a collaborative air pollution study involving 14 countries across the greater Asia-pacific region from 2000 to 2015. This has amassed a database containing more than 14,000 data lines of PM mass concentration and the concentration of up to 40 elements using nuclear analytical techniques. It represents the most comprehensive and long-term airborne PM data set compiled to date for the Asia-Pacific region and as will be discussed, can be used to statistically resolve individual source fingerprints and their contributions to total air pollution using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This sort of data necessary for implementing or reviewing the effectiveness of policy level changes aimed at targeted air pollution reduction. (author)

  5. Identifying and overcoming implementation challenges: Experience of 59 noninstitutional long-term services and support pilot programs in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jennifer L; Adjognon, Omonyêlé L; Engle, Ryann L; Shin, Marlena H; Afable, Melissa K; Rudin, Whitney; White, Bert; Shay, Kenneth; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen

    From 2010 to 2013, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) funded a large pilot initiative to implement noninstitutional long-term services and supports (LTSS) programs to support aging Veterans. Our team evaluated implementation of 59 VA noninstitutional LTSS programs. The specific objectives of this study are to (a) examine the challenges influencing program implementation comparing active sites that remained open and inactive sites that closed during the funding period and (b) identify ways that active sites overcame the challenges they experienced. Key informant semistructured interviews occurred between 2011 and 2013. We conducted 217 telephone interviews over four time points. Content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. The study team met regularly to define each challenge, review all codes, and discuss discrepancies. For each follow-up interview with the sites, the list of established challenges was used as a priori themes. Emergent data were also coded. The challenges affecting implementation included human resources and staffing issues, infrastructure, resources allocation and geography, referrals and marketing, leadership support, and team dynamics and processes. Programs were able to overcome challenges by communicating with team members and other areas in the organization, utilizing information technology solutions, creative use of staff and flexible schedules, and obtaining additional resources. This study highlights several common challenges programs can address during the program implementation. The most often mentioned strategy was effective communication. Strategies also targeted several components of the organization including organizational functions and processes (e.g., importance of coordination within a team and across disciplines to provide good care), infrastructure (e.g., information technology and human resources), and program fit with priorities in the organization (e.g., leadership support). Anticipating potential pitfalls of

  6. Enucleation of pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm: Short-term and long-term outcomes from a 7-year large single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Chen, Yong-Hua; Tan, Chun-Lu; Zhang, Hao; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Chen, Hong-Yu; Ke, Neng-Wen; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2018-05-01

    Enucleation is increasingly used for pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) to preserve function of the pancreas. The data was limited due to rarity of this low-grade neoplasm. We sought to describe the indications, operative technique, short and long-term outcomes after enucleation with largest series of enucleated SPNs. Data collected retrospectively from 110 patients with SPN who underwent pancreatectomy between 2009 and 2016 in our institution were reviewed. Thirty-one patients underwent enucleation were identified for analysis, and compared with the 70 patients underwent conventional pancreatic resection. Of the 31 patients, 27 (87.1%) were women, and the mean age was 29.8 years (range, 11-49 years). Enucleated SPNs were mostly located in the head/uncinate process of the pancreas (38.7%). Overall morbidity was 25.8%, mainly due to POPF (19.4%), and severe morbidity was only 6.5% with no death. Compared with conventional pancreatic resection, enucleation had a shorter duration of surgery (P insufficiency (P = 0.033) and comparable morbidity (P = 1), with no increased risk of tumor recurrence (P = 1). The rate of endocrine insufficiency after enucleation seemed lower (Nil vs. 4.5%, P = 0.55). Enucleation of SPN of the pancreas appears to be feasible and safe for preserving exocrine and endocrine function of the gland. Enucleation with negative surgical margin seems adequate with no increased risk of tumor recurrence. Enucleation could be seriously considered as an alternative to conventional resection for this frequently young population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Long-term outcomes of renal transplants from spousal and living-related and other living-unrelated donors: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; Shah, Pankaj R; Vanikar, Aruna V; Gumber, Manoj R; Goplani, Kamal R; Patel, Himanshu V; Munjappa, Bipin C; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R

    2012-07-01

    Deceased donor organ shortage has made living donors (LD) major source for renal transplantation (RTx) in India. Spouses represent an important source of allograft. We carried out a retrospective study of spousal RTx vs. other LDRTx to compare long-term results. This retrospective single-center study was undertaken to evaluate demographic, patient survival, graft survival, function vis-à-vis serum creatinine (SCr) and rejection episodes in 1523 living donor renal allograft recipients from 1998 to 2009. It included spouse donors (n=337) (group 1), living related donors (LRD) (n=969) (group 2), and living unrelated donors (LUD) (n=217) (group 3). Mean recipient age (years +/- SD)) was 41.48 +/- 8.87, 30.49 +/- 10.61, and 37.13 +/- 13.25, respectively for the three groups who were followed for 4.47 +/- 3.03, 4.47 +/- 3.0 and 5.15 +/- 3.28 years respectively. Female donors were 92.6%, 66.4%, and 41%, mean HLA match was 1.15 +/- 0.93, 3 +/- 1.05 and 1.30 +/- 1.08 respectively. One, 5 and 12 year graft survivals among group 1 were 91.39%, 75.49%, and 73.13%; 90.98%, 74.10% and 64.57% in group 2 and 94.92%, 82.86% and 70.31% in group 3. Patient survival for 1, 5 and 12 years were 89.31%, 72.55% and 66.58% in group 1, 93.57%, 82.25% and 72.23% in group 2, and 92.62%, 79.76% and 66.79% in group 3. Acute rejections were noted in 16.6%, 15.8% and 17% respectively. In circumstances of organ shortage andunavailability of well developed ABO incompatible transplants, spousal donation is viable option.

  8. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in the management of benign cavernous sinus meningiomas. Long-term experience and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milker-Zabel, S.; Zabel-du Bois, A.; Debus, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Huber, P. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Schlegel, W. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze own long-term results with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with benign meningiomas of the cavernous sinus and to review the literature on these rare lesions. Patients and Methods: 57 patients were treated with FSRT for benign meningiomas of the cavernous sinus between 01/1990 and 12/2003 at the authors' institution. Histology was WHO grade I in 28/57 lesions, and undetermined in 29/57 lesions. 29 patients received radiotherapy as primary treatment, ten following surgery, and 18 patients were irradiated for recurrent disease. Median target volume was 35.2 cm{sup 3}. Median total dose was 57.6 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction. 51/57 patients showed clinical symptoms before radiotherapy like reduced vision (n=19), diplopia (n=25), or trigeminal hyp-/dysesthesia (n=17). Results: Median follow-up period was 6.5 years. 50/57 patients were followed for >36 months. Overall local tumor control was 100%. 39/57 patients had stable disease based on CT/MRI, while 18/57 had a partial remission of tumor volume. Overall survival for patients with WHO grade I meningiomas was 95.5% after 5 and 10 years. Two patients died 2.8 and 4.1 years after radiotherapy due to cardiac failure. In 11/57 patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. There was one patient with recurrent hyperlacrimation of one eye on the side of the irradiated meningioma. Three patients complained about subjective visual deterioration after FSRT without any objective findings in an ophthalmologic examination. No late toxicity RTOG{>=} III was seen. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that FSRT is an effective and safe treatment modality for local control of benign cavernous sinus meningiomas with a minimal risk of significant late toxicity. (orig.)

  9. Long-term follow-up in patients treated with larynx preservation approach using sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy: the Memorial Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, Fernando; Sherman, Eric J.; Bosl, George J.; Pfister, David G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Medicine. Div. of Solid Tumor Oncology; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States).Dept. of Surgery. Head and Neck Service; Zelefsky, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology]. E-mail: pfisterd@mskcc.org

    2000-06-01

    While many combined modality, organ preservation programs are reported in the literature, few provide long-term follow-up with functional outcomes. The goal of this report is to provide this outcome data for patients treated with a sequential chemotherapy/radiotherapy (CT/RT) approach - the only strategy successfully compared to surgery and RT in randomized trials to date - treated at our institution with a median follow-up of over 10 years. Eligible patients had advanced, resectable, histologically-confirmed squamous cell carcinomas of larynx or pharynx for which standard surgical management would have jeopardized the larynx. Treatment occurred as part of three consecutive larynx preservation protocols and consisted of three cycles of induction, cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed, if the primary site had a major response, by definitive dose radiation therapy (65-70 Gy to sites of initial disease bulk) via conventional fractionation (1.8-2 Gy fraction). If the tumor did not respond to the induction chemotherapy or persisted after radiation therapy, appropriate locoregional treatment was pursued. Response to induction chemotherapy, initial rendered disease-free rate, local control with a functional larynx (without any surgery except biopsy to the primary site, permanent tracheostomy or gastrostomy - LCLP), and actuarial survival rates were calculated. A multivariate assessment of prognostic variables was performed using Cox-proportional hazards model to evaluate for predictors of successful larynx preservation. One hundred and ten patients (109 evaluable) with cancer of the larynx (40%), hypopharynx (29%), and oropharynx (30%) were enrolled from 1983 to 1990. The median age was 60 years With a median Karnofsky Performance Status of 80%. The stage of the patients consisted of 33% T4, 74% node positive, and 69% stage IV. The major response rate at the primary site to induction chemotherapy was 74% (complete response in 36%). Seventy-eight percent were rendered

  10. Soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in rice paddies under long-term agro-ecosystem experiments in southern China - VI. Changes in microbial community structure and respiratory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.; Pan, G.; Crowley, D.; Tippkötter, R.

    2011-02-01

    Biological stabilization within accumulated soil organic carbon (SOC) has not been well understood, while its role in physical and chemical protection as well as of chemical recalcitrance had been addressed in Chinese rice paddies. In this study, topsoil samples were collected and respiratory activity measured in situ following rice harvest under different fertilization treatments of three long-term experimental sites across southern China in 2009. The SOC contents, microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) were analysed using chemical digestion and microbial community structure assessment via clony dilute plate counting methods. While SOC contents were consistently higher under compound chemical fertilization (Comp-Fert) or combined organic and inorganic fertilization (Comb-Fert) compared to N fertilization only (N-Fert), there was significantly higher fungal-bacterial ratio under Comb-Fert than under N-Fert and Comp-Fert. When subtracting the background effect under no fertilization treatment (Non-Fert), the increase both in SMBC and SMBN under fertilization treatment was found very significantly correlated to the increase in SOC over controls across the sites. Also, the ratio of culturable fungal to bacterial population numbers (F/B ratio) was well correlated with soil organic carbon contents in all samples across the sites studied. SOC accumulation favoured a build-up the microbial community with increasing fungal dominance in the rice paddies under fertilization treatments. While soil respiration rates were high under Comb-Fert as a result of enhanced microbial community build-up, the specific soil respiratory activity based on microbial biomass carbon was found in a significantly negatively correlation with the SOC contents for overall samples. Thus, a fungal-dominated microbial community seemed to slow SOC turnover, thereby favouring SOC accumulation under Comp-Fert or under Comb-Fert in the rice paddies. Therefore, the biological stabilization

  11. Long-term follow-up in patients treated with larynx preservation approach using sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy: the Memorial Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluf, Fernando; Sherman, Eric J.; Bosl, George J.; Pfister, David G.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    While many combined modality, organ preservation programs are reported in the literature, few provide long-term follow-up with functional outcomes. The goal of this report is to provide this outcome data for patients treated with a sequential chemotherapy/radiotherapy (CT/RT) approach - the only strategy successfully compared to surgery and RT in randomized trials to date - treated at our institution with a median follow-up of over 10 years. Eligible patients had advanced, resectable, histologically-confirmed squamous cell carcinomas of larynx or pharynx for which standard surgical management would have jeopardized the larynx. Treatment occurred as part of three consecutive larynx preservation protocols and consisted of three cycles of induction, cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed, if the primary site had a major response, by definitive dose radiation therapy (65-70 Gy to sites of initial disease bulk) via conventional fractionation (1.8-2 Gy fraction). If the tumor did not respond to the induction chemotherapy or persisted after radiation therapy, appropriate locoregional treatment was pursued. Response to induction chemotherapy, initial rendered disease-free rate, local control with a functional larynx (without any surgery except biopsy to the primary site, permanent tracheostomy or gastrostomy - LCLP), and actuarial survival rates were calculated. A multivariate assessment of prognostic variables was performed using Cox-proportional hazards model to evaluate for predictors of successful larynx preservation. One hundred and ten patients (109 evaluable) with cancer of the larynx (40%), hypopharynx (29%), and oropharynx (30%) were enrolled from 1983 to 1990. The median age was 60 years With a median Karnofsky Performance Status of 80%. The stage of the patients consisted of 33% T4, 74% node positive, and 69% stage IV. The major response rate at the primary site to induction chemotherapy was 74% (complete response in 36%). Seventy-eight percent were rendered

  12. Long-Term Warming Shifts the Composition of Bacterial Communities in the Phyllosphere of Galium album in a Permanent Grassland Field-Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru L. Aydogan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is currently a much discussed topic with as yet largely unexplored consequences for agro-ecosystems. Little is known about the warming effect on the bacterial microbiota inhabiting the plant surface (phyllosphere, which can have a strong impact on plant growth and health, as well as on plant diseases and colonization by human pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate surface warming on the diversity and composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota of the herbaceous plant Galium album. Leaves were collected from four control and four surface warmed (+2°C plots located at the field site of the Environmental Monitoring and Climate Impact Research Station Linden in Germany over a 6-year period. Warming had no effect on the concentration of total number of cells attached to the leaf surface as counted by Sybr Green I staining after detachment, but changes in the diversity and phylogenetic composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon sequencing were observed. The bacterial phyllosphere microbiota were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Warming caused a significant higher relative abundance of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, and a lower relative abundance of members of the Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Plant beneficial bacteria like Sphingomonas spp. and Rhizobium spp. occurred in significantly lower relative abundance in leaf samples of warmed plots. In contrast, several members of the Enterobacteriaceae, especially Enterobacter and Erwinia, and other potential plant or human pathogenic genera such as Acinetobacter and insect-associated Buchnera and Wolbachia spp. occurred in higher relative abundances in the phyllosphere samples from warmed plots. This study showed for the first time the long-term impact of moderate (+2°C surface warming on the phyllosphere microbiota on

  13. Primary Infrarenal Aortic Stenting With or Without Iliac Stenting for Isolated and Aortoiliac Stenoses: Single-Centre Experience With Long-Term Follow-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, C. R.; Ahmed, M.; Scott, P. M.; Lakshminarayan, R.; Robinson, G. J.; Ettles, D. F.; Shrivastava, V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical success, complications, long-term clinical outcome, and patency after primary infrarenal aortic stenting for aortic and aortoiliac stenosis. Between January 1999 and January 2006, 22 consecutive patients underwent endovascular treatment because of infrarenal aortic stenosis with and without common iliac stenosis (10 men; mean age 64 ± 14 years). Eleven (11 of 22) patients had an isolated aortic stenosis, whereas 11 of 22 had aortic stenosis that extended into the common iliac arteries (CIAs). Thirteen patients were Rutherford classification type 3, and 9 patients were type 4. Statistical analysis included paired Student t test and Kaplan–Meier life table analysis; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Technical and initial clinical success was achieved in all patients. There were three (14 %) procedure-related complications, which included two access-point pseudoaneurysms and one non–flow-limiting left external iliac dissection. Patients were followed-up for a mean period of 88 months (range 60–132). Mean preprocedure ankle brachial pressure indexes (ABPI) were 0.60 ± −0.15 (right) and 0.61 ± −0.16 (left). After the procedure they were 0.86 ± −0.07 (right) and 0.90 ± −0.09 (left). The increase in ABPI was significant (p < 0.05), and this continued throughout follow-up. Four (18 %) patients had recurrence of symptoms during follow-up. These occurred at 36, 48, 48, and 50 months after the original procedure. All four patients were successfully treated with repeat angioplasty procedures. There was a significant difference in primary patency between isolated aortic stenosis (100 %) and aortoiliac stenosis (60 %) (p = 0.031). Cumulative follow-up was 1920 months yielding a reintervention rate of 0.025/events/year. Primary stenting of infrarenal stenosis is safe and successful with a low reintervention rate. It should be considered as first-line treatment for patients with infrarenal aortic

  14. Disease course and long-term outcome of juvenile localized scleroderma: Experience from a single pediatric rheumatology Centre and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Giorgia; Fadanelli, Gloria; Agazzi, Anna; Vittadello, Fabio; Meneghel, Alessandra; Zulian, Francesco

    2018-05-03

    Juvenile Localized Scleroderma (JLS) is a rare disorder that may cause severe aesthetic sequelae and functional disability. To date, data on natural history and long-term outcome are discordant and difficult to compare due to the heterogeneity of clinical subtypes, treatments and methods to evaluate activity and outcome in previous studies. A retrospective and cross-sectional study including 133 patients followed between January 1991 and December 2016 was conducted at our Pediatric Rheumatology Centre. Disease course was drawn by retrospective analysis of patients' clinical features, treatment, disease course and outcome at the last evaluation. Disease activity and severity of tissue damage were assessed by using parameters derived from the Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT) and thermography. Most patients achieved complete remission, as only 12.5%, all with the linear subtype, had still active disease after over 10 years of follow-up. At least one disease relapse occurred in 22.2% of patients and first flare was observed 20 months after first treatment discontinuation. Mild tissue damage was observed in more than half of patients, in 25.4% was moderate and in 23.0% severe; 19.8% presented a functional limitation. The entity of skin and subcutaneous fat loss established at the early stages of the disease as 27.8% of patients with shorter disease duration had severe damage and the rates remained constant in patients with longer follow-up. The delay in start of systemic treatment was associated with longer disease activity and higher relapse rate. Patients with linear scleroderma (LS), pansclerotic morphea (PM) and mixed subtype (MS) presented more severe aesthetic and functional damage but did not differ from other subtypes as for rate of complete remission. JLS in some patients can be a very aggressive disease with persistent activity after >10 years and/or several disease relapses. As tissue damage establishes early in disease course a

  15. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  16. Collagenase injections for the treatment of single cords in cases of Dupuytren’s contracture – a prospective intervention study of long-term experience with Xiapex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Lisa Maria

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The gold standard in the treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture is surgical therapy. Alternatives are percutaneous needle fasciotomy and radiation in exceptional cases. Injection treatments with Xiapex (Pfizer are a new therapy option. This collagenase, extracted from clostridium histolyticum, is used to break down the affected tissue cords. The objective of this study is to examine the effect and long-term success of treatment with Xiapex.Methods: In this study, Xiapex treatment was conducted on a sample group of 19 patients with Dupuytren’s contracture. The injection was placed either on the cord at the level of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint (n=17 or of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint (n=7. Break-up of the cord occurred 24 hours after the injection. The neutral zero method was used to assess the extent of movement. The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ was selected for evaluation of the general hand function in 16 patients. The WHO-5 and the EQ-5D VAS Score were used as a measure of the patients’ satisfaction and their state of health. All values were collected both pre-injection as well as 1 year post-injection.Results: Out of 19 patients in our sample group, 16 patients (≈84% benefitted in terms of improvement in mobility. Overall, the range of movement increased by Ø 26° in the affected finger. A separate assessment demonstrated that:The range of movement increased by 77% in the MCP joint. The extent of movement pre-injection was Ø (0-28-78 and post-injection it was Ø (0-9-81 with an improvement of Ø 22°. In the PIP joint, only slight improvement was observed (Ø pre (0-27-93; post (0-24-95.The MHQ increased from Ø 76% (R: 32–97% to 81% (R: 39–100%.The painfulness decreased from Ø 19% (R: 0–55% to Ø11% (R: 0–55%, corresponding to Ø 43%. Satisfaction increased in 72% of patients by Ø 21%.According to WHO-5, patient satisfaction pre-injection was Ø 20 (R: 11–25, and 1 year after

  17. Positive and negative early life experiences differentially modulate long term survival and amyloid protein levels in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesuis, S.L.; Maurin, H.; Borghgraef, P.; Lucassen, P.J.; Van Leuven, F.; Krugers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a risk factor for the severity and progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early life experiences determine stress responsivity in later life, and modulate age-dependent cognitive decline. Therefore, we examined whether early life experiences influence AD

  18. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  19. Cotton as an entry point for soil fertility maintenance and food crop productivity in savannah agroecosystems - Evidence from a long-term experiment in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripoche, A.; Crétenet, M.; Corbeels, M.; Affholder, F.; Naudin, K.; Sissoko, F.; Douzet, J.M.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the scarcity of manure and the limited land available for fallowing, cotton cultivation with its input credit schemes is often the main entry point for nutrients in cropping systems of West Africa. In an experiment carried out during 25 years in southern Mali, the crop and soil responses to

  20. Behavior and reproduction of invertebrate animals during and after a long-term microgravity: space experiments using an Autonomous Biological System (ABS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, K; Mizuno, R; Narita, T; Ohmura, T; Ishikawa, Y; Yamashita, M; Anderson, G; Poynter, J; MacCallum, T

    1998-12-01

    Aquatic invertebrate animals such as Amphipods, Gastropods (pond snails), Ostracods and Daphnia (water flea) were placed in water-filled cylindrical vessels together with water plant (hornwort). The vessels were sealed completely and illuminated with a fluorescent lamp to activate the photosynthesis of the plant for providing oxygen within the vessels. Such ecosystem vessels, specially termed as Autonomous Biological System or ABS units, were exposed to microgravity conditions, and the behavior of the animals and their reproduction capacity were studied. Three space experiments were carried out. The first experiment used a Space shuttle only and it was a 10-day flight. The other two space experiments were carried out in the Space station Mir (Shuttle/Mir mission), and the flight units had been kept in microgravity for 4 months. Daphnia produced their offspring during a 10-day Shuttle flight. In the first Mir experiment, no Daphnia were detected when recovered to the ground. However, they were alive in the second Mir experiment. Daphnia were the most fragile species among the invertebrate animals employed in the present experiments. All the animals, i.e., Amphipods, pond snails, Ostracods and Daphnia had survived for 4 months in space, i.e., they had produced their offspring or repeated their life-cycles under microgravity. For the two Mir experiments, in both the flight and ground control ecosystem units, an inverse relationship was noted between the number of Amphipods and pond snails in each unit. Amphipods at 10 hours after the recovery to the ground frequently exhibited a movement of dropping straight-downward to the bottom of the units. Several Amphipods had their legs bent abnormally, which probably resulted from some physiological alterations during their embryonic development under microgravity. From the analysis of the video tape recorded in space, for Ostracods and Daphnia, a half of their population were looping under microgravity. Such looping animals

  1. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  2. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  3. Uranium ... long-term confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Half way through 1983 the outlook for the world's uranium producers was far from bright if one takes a short term view. The readily accessible facts present a gloomy picture. The spot prices of uranium over the past few years decreased from a high of $42-$43/lb to a low of $17 in 1982. It now hovers between $23 and $24. the contract prices negotiated between producers and consumers are not so accessible but they do not reflect the spot price. The reasons why contractual uranium prices do not follow the usual dictates of supply and demand are related to the position in which uranium and associated power industries find themselves. There is public reaction with strong emotional overtones as well as much reduced expectations about the electric power needs of the world. Furthermore the supply of uranium is not guaranteed despite present over production. However the people in the industry, taking the medium- and long-term view, are not despondent

  4. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  5. Determination of Silver Ions Toxicity in Short-Term and Long-Term Experiments Using a Luminescent Recombinant Strain of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Yudina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of silver ions on the luminescent recombinant strain of Escherichia coli carrying luxCDABE operon of Vibrio fischeri were investigated. The toxicity of silver ions was determined in 30 minutes and in chronic 24 hours experiments. Changes in the luminescence intensity and in the growth rate of bacteria were considered as a measure of silver ions toxicity within the range of concentrations applied. The effect of silver ions was demonstrated to be strongly dependent on the concentration of bacteria and on the medium composition. EC50 values were 0.018 mg/l after 30 min exposure and 0.014 mg/l after 10 hours of bacterial growth. Comparison of two modifications of the experiment showed that silver ions have a strong non-specific toxicity, as well as a specific effect on bacterial cells

  6. The reaction of glass during gamma irradiation in a saturated tuff environment: Part 3, long-term experiments at 1 x 10{sup 4}rad/hour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Ebert, W.L.

    1988-02-01

    Savannah River Laboratory 165 type glass was leached with equilibrated J-13 groundwater at 90{degree}C for times up to 182 days. These experiments were performed as part of an effort by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project to assess the importance of radiation effects on repository performance and waste glass corrosion. The gamma radiation field used in this work was 1. 0 +- 0.2 x 10{sup 4} rad/h. Glass dissolution is notably incongruent throughout the entire experimental periods and normalized releases follow the sequence Li {ge} Na {ge} B {approx_equal} U {ge} Si. The normalized leach rates of these elements, as well as the measured growth rates of the reaction layers, decreased with time. The only significant variation observed in the abundance of anions is the systematic decrease in NO{sub 3}/sup {minus}//NO{sub 2}/sup {minus}/ ratio from the starting EJ-13 groundwater to the EJ-13 blank experiments to the tuff- and glass-containing experiments. A leaching model that is consistent with the observed solution data and depth profiles is presented. The applicability and limitation of the present results in predicting the actual interactions that may occur in the NNWSI repository are discussed. 35 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Predictable weathering of puparial hydrocarbons of necrophagous flies for determining the postmortem interval: a field experiment using Chrysomya rufifacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-Hui; Jia, Zheng-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Ku-Sheng; Chen, Lu-Shi; Lv, Jun-Yao; Eric Benbow, M

    2017-05-01

    Preadult development of necrophagous flies is commonly recognized as an accurate method for estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). However, once the PMImin exceeds the duration of preadult development, the method is less accurate. Recently, fly puparial hydrocarbons were found to significantly change with weathering time in the field, indicating their potential use for PMImin estimates. However, additional studies are required to demonstrate how the weathering varies among species. In this study, the puparia of Chrysomya rufifacies were placed in the field to experience natural weathering to characterize hydrocarbon composition change over time. We found that weathering of the puparial hydrocarbons was regular and highly predictable in the field. For most of the hydrocarbons, the abundance decreased significantly and could be modeled using a modified exponent function. In addition, the weathering rate was significantly correlated with the hydrocarbon classes. The weathering rate of 2-methyl alkanes was significantly lower than that of alkenes and internal methyl alkanes, and alkenes were higher than the other two classes. For mono-methyl alkanes, the rate was significantly and positively associated with carbon chain length and branch position. These results indicate that puparial hydrocarbon weathering is highly predictable and can be used for estimating long-term PMImin.

  8. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Stability of Zircon and Its Isotopic Ratios in High-Temperature Fluids: Long-Term (4 months Isotope Exchange Experiment at 850°C and 50 MPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya N. Bindeman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stability of zircon in hydrothermal fluids and vanishingly slow rates of diffusion identify zircon as a reliable recorder of its formation conditions in recent and ancient rocks. Debate, however, persists on how rapidly oxygen and key trace elements (e.g., Li, B, Pb diffuse when zircon is exposed to silicate melt or hot aqueous fluids. Here, we report results of a nano- to micrometer-scale investigation of isotopic exchange using natural zircon from Mesa Falls Tuff (Yellowstone treated with quartz-saturated, isotopically (18O, D, 7Li, and 11B labeled water with a nominal δ18O value of +450%0 over 4 months at 850°C and 50 MPa. Frontside (crystal rim inwards δ18O depth profiling of zircon by magnetic sector SIMS shows initially high but decreasing 18O/16O over a ~130 nm non-Fickian profile, with a decay length comparable to the signal from surficial Au coating deposited onto zircon. In contrast, backside (crystal interior outwards depth profiling on a 2-3 μm thick wafer cut and thinned from treated zircon by focused ion beam (FIB milling lacks any significant increase in 18O/16O during penetration of the original surface layer. Near-surface time-of-flight (TOF-SIMS frontside profiles of uncoated zircon from 4-month and 1-day-long experiments as well as untreated zircons display similar enrichments of 18O over a distance of ~20 nm. All frontside 18O profiles are here interpreted as transient surface signals from nm-thick surface enrichment or contamination unrelated to diffusion. Likewise, frontside depth profiling of H, Li, and B isotopes are similar for long- and short-duration experiments. Additionally, surface U-Pb dating of zircon from the 4-month experiment returned U-Pb ages by depth profiling with ~1 μm penetration that were identical to untreated samples. Frontside and backside depth-profiling thus demonstrate that diffusive 18O enrichment in the presence of H2O is much slower than predicted from experiments in Watson and Cherniak

  10. Telemetry and Telestimulation via Implanted Devices Necessary in Long-Term Experiments Using Conscious Untethered Animals for the Development of New Medical Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori

    Effective countermeasures against explosive increase in healthcare expenditures are urgently needed. A paradigm shift in healthcare is called for, and academics and governments worldwide are working hard on the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a feasible and effective measure for reducing medical cost. The more prevalent the disease and the easier disease outcome can be improved, the more efficient is medical ICT in reducing healthcare cost. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are such examples. Chronic heart failure is another disease in which patients may benefit from ICT-based medical practice. It is conceivable that daily monitoring of hemodynamics together with appropriate treatments may obviate the expensive hospitalization. ICT potentially permit continuous monitoring with wearable or implantable medical devices. ICT may also help accelerate the development of new therapeutic devices. Traditionally effectiveness of treatments is sequentially examined by sacrificing a number of animals at a given time point. These inefficient and inaccurate methods can be replaced by applying ICT to the devices used in chronic animal experiments. These devices allow researchers to obtain biosignals and images from live animals without killing them. They include implantable telemetric devices, implantable telestimulation devices, and imaging devices. Implanted rather than wired monitoring and stimulation devices permit experiments to be conducted under even more physiological conditions, i.e., untethered, free-moving states. Wireless communication and ICT are indispensible technologies for the development of such telemetric and telestimulation devices.

  11. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories.

  12. Experience-Based and Description-Based Perceptions of Long-Term Risk. Why Global Warming does not Scare us (Yet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.U.

    2006-01-01

    It should come as no surprise that the governments and citizenries of many countries show little concern about climate change and its consequences. Behavioral decision research over the last 30 years provides a series of lessons about the importance of affect in perceptions of risk and in decisions to take actions that reduce or manage perceived risks. Evidence from a range of domains suggests that worry drives risk management decisions. When people fail to be alarmed about a risk or hazard, they do not take precautions. Recent personal experience strongly influences the evaluation of a risky option. Low-probability events generate less concern than their probability warrants on average, but more concern than they deserve in those rare instances when they do occur. Personal experience with noticeable and serious consequences of global warming is still rare in many regions of the world. When people base their decisions on statistical descriptions about a hazard provided by others, characteristics of the hazard identified as psychological risk dimensions predict differences in alarm or worry across different classes of risk. The time-delayed, abstract, and often statistical nature of the risks of global warming does not evoke strong visceral reactions. These results suggest that we should find ways to evoke visceral reactions towards the risk of global warming, perhaps by simulations of its concrete future consequences for people's home or other regions they visit or value. Increased concern about global warming needs to solicited carefully, however, to prevent a decrease in concern about other relevant risks. The generation of worry or concern about global warming may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for desirable or appropriate protective or mitigating behavior on part of the general public

  13. Characterization of the Long-term Subsurface Warming Observed at the Apollo 15 and 17 Sites Utilizing the Newly Restored Heat Flow Experiment Data from 1975 to 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Kiefer, W. S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Krell, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Apollo Heat Flow Experiment (HFE) was conducted at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) program. At each site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The probes monitored surface and subsurface temperatures. The Apollo 15 probes operated from July 1971 to January 1977. The Apollo 17 probes operated from December 1972 to September 1977. For both sites, only data from the beginning to December 1974 were archived previously. We have restored major portions of the 1975-1977 HFE data for both sites from two sets of sources recently recovered. One was the original ALSEP archival data tapes, from which raw HFE data were extracted and processed according to the procedure and the calibration data specified by the original investigators. The other was the ALSEP Performance Summary Reports, which included weekly logs of temperature readings from the deepest sensor of each of the probes. The original HFE investigators noted that temperature of the regolith well below the thermal skin depth ( 1 m) rose gradually through December 1974 at both sites. Possible causes of the warming have been debated since. The restored 1975-1977 HFE data allow more detailed characterization of this phenomenon, especially for the Apollo 17 site, for which the duration of data availability has more than doubled. For both sites, the subsurface warming continued till the end of observations. Simultaneously, thermal gradient decreased. Such behavior is consistent with one of the hypotheses proposed by the original investigators; temperature of the lunar surface around the probe increased by 2 to 4 K at the time of deployment. Consequently, the subsurface thermal regime gradually adjusted to the new boundary condition. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images taken over the Apollo landing sites suggest that astronaut-induced surface disturbance resulted in lower albedo, and that should have raised average

  14. Access to HIV Care and Resilience in a Long-Term Conflict Setting: A Qualitative Assessment of the Experiences of Living with Diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu, Somali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulane, Asli; Owuor, John O A; Sematimba, Douglas; Abdulahi, Sacdia Abdisamad; Yusuf, Hamdi Moalim; Mohamed, Lul M

    2017-07-05

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people, with the worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region are often unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu, and their resilience in access to care and social support. Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Banadir Hospital. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. These were tape-recorded, transcribed, and translated for content analysis. Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouses or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgeable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements, and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However, the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainty of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants' coping mechanisms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. The people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with a diagnosed HIV infection, and the efficacy of HIV treatment. Our small sample

  15. Access to HIV Care and Resilience in a Long-Term Conflict Setting: A Qualitative Assessment of the Experiences of Living with Diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu, Somali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulane, Asli; Owuor, John O. A.; Abdulahi, Sacdia Abdisamad; Yusuf, Hamdi Moalim; Mohamed, Lul M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people, with the worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region are often unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu, and their resilience in access to care and social support. Methods: Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Banadir Hospital. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. These were tape-recorded, transcribed, and translated for content analysis. Results: Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouses or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgeable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements, and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However, the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainty of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants’ coping mechanisms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. Conclusions: The people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with a diagnosed HIV infection, and the

  16. Long-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Denton, John; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    An increased number of police enquiries involving human remains buried with lime have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effects of lime on the decay of human remains in laboratory conditions and 6 months of field experiments. Six pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were buried without lime with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy-loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 17 and 42 months of burial. Analysis of the soil, lime and carcasses included entomology, pH, moisture content, microbial activity, histology and lime carbonation. The results of this study demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, the extent of decomposition is slowed down by burial with both hydrated lime and quicklime. The more advanced the decay process, the more similar the degree of liquefaction between the limed and unlimed remains. The end result for each mode of burial will ultimately result in skeletonisation. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials, for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials and potentially for the interpretation of mass graves and management of mass disasters by humanitarian organisation and DVI teams. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Program and performance characteristics of the environmental chambers during a long-term experiment with Norway spruce trees exposed to ozone, acid mist, and frost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, H D; Blank, L W; Eisenmann, T; Runkel, K H; Bosch, C

    1986-09-01

    This paper describes the climatic and pollutant conditions simulated in the new environmental chambers of the GSF (Payer et al. 1986) during the course of the first (five-month) experiment. This so-called 'pilot-project' was also used to assess the technical performance of this new research facility during realistic experimental conditions. The factorial design with 16 groups analyzed the effects of i) normal winter temperatures vs. an episode of severe frost, ii) low vs. raised ozone concentrations, iii) misting with water of pH 5.6 vs. water of pH 3.0, and iiii) fertilized vs. unfertilized soil. The climatic conditions and ozone levels applied were based on longterm field measurements from the higher regions of the Bavarian forest in order to simulate realistic diurnal and seasonal variations as observed at a site affected by severe forest decline. The main characteristics of this exposure program are outlined, and an assessment of the technical performance of the environmental chambers is given in this paper.

  18. In-Hospital and Long-Term Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery; 19-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag M. Mitrovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To present a 19-year experience of the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and prior coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS, 748 patients with AMI after prior CABS (postbypass group and a control group of 1080 patients with AMI, but without prior CABS, were analyzed. All indexes of infarct size were lower in the postbypass group. There was more ventricular fibrillation in the postbypass group. In-hospital mortality was similar (p = 0.3675. In the follow-up period, postbypass patients had more heart failure, recurrent CABS, reinfarction, and unstable angina than did control patients. Cumulative survival was better in the control group than in the postbypass group (p = 0.0403. Multiple logistic regression model showed that previous angina (p = 0.0005, diabetes (p = 0.0058, and age (p = 0.0102 were independent predictor factors for survival. Use of digitalis and diuretics, together with previous angina, also influenced survival (p = 0.0092, as well as male gender, older patients, and diabetes together (p = 0.0420. Patients with AMI after prior CABS had smaller infarct, but more reinfarction, reoperation, heart failure, and angina. Previous angina, diabetes, and age, independently, as well as use of digitalis and diuretics together with angina, and male gender, older patients, and diabetes together, influenced a worse survival rate in these patients.

  19. Concomitant anterior and posterior urethral valves in pediatrics: A single center experience over 12 years and long-term follow up after endoscopic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Hosseini Sharifi, Seyed Hossein; Keihani, Sorena; Soltani, Mohammad Hossein; Tajali, Afshin; Salavati, Alborz; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad

    2015-05-01

    To report our 12-year experience with endoscopic management of patients with concomitant anterior and posterior urethral valves. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients referred to us for management of urethral valves from 2000 to 2012 to find cases with concomitant anterior and posterior valves. The diagnosis of valves was first suspected on voiding cystourethrography and confirmed by urethrocystoscopy. We collected available data on patients' age at diagnosis, clinical presentations, ultrasound and urodynamic findings, and surgical treatments. The final outcome at last follow up was also recorded. From 38 cases with anterior urethral valve, six (15.8%) presented concomitant anterior and posterior valves. The age at diagnosis in these patients ranged from antenatal diagnosis to 13 years. Initial presenting symptoms were recurrent urinary tract infection, incontinence, urosepsis and poor urinary stream. All valves were ablated by transurethral fulguration/resection using small-sized urethrocystoscopes. Among those with concomitant anterior and posterior valves, four patients had vesicoureteral reflux at presentation that resolved in two patients after valve ablation. One patient progressed to renal failure and required dialysis. Bladder hypercontractility and detrusor overactivity were the main urodynamic patterns in these patients. Concomitant anterior and posterior valves seem to be more prevalent than previously assumed, and might be missed on initial assessment. Oblique view voiding cystourethrography with full-length delineation of the urethra is of paramount diagnostic importance when obstruction is suspected. A meticulous urethrocystoscopy should follow for confirming the diagnosis and endoscopic ablation/resection of the valves. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  1. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  2. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  3. Improved long-term survival after intra-operative single high-dose ATG-Fresenius induction in renal transplantation: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Jürgen; May, Gottfried; Völp, Andreas; Wesslau, Claus

    2009-01-01

    In organ grafts donor-specific sensitization is initiated immediately after revascularization. Therefore, in 1990 we introduced the intra-operative single high-dose ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) induction in addition to standard triple drug therapy (TDT) consisting of steroids, azathioprine and cyclosporin. A total of 778 first renal transplantations from deceased donors, performed between 1987 and 1998, were included in this evaluation. This retrospective analysis of clinic records and electronic databases presents data of all recipients of first kidney grafts who received two different ATG-F inductions (1(st) group: 9 mg/kg body weight as single high-dose intra-operatively, n=484; 2(nd) group: 3 mg/kg body weight on 7 or 8 consecutive days as multiple-dose starting also intra-operatively, n=78) and standard TDT alone (3(rd) group: TDT alone, n=216). The 10-year patient survival rates were 72.6+/-2.6% (TDT + ATG-F single high-dose), 79.5+/-5.1% (TDT + ATG-F multiple-dose) and 67.2+/-3.7%% (TDT alone; Kaplan-Meier estimates with standard errors; ATG-F vs TDT alone, p=0.001). The 10-year graft survival rates with censoring of patients that died with a functioning graft were 73.8+/-2.4%, 57.7+/-5.8% and 58.4+/-3.6% (Kaplan-Meier estimates with standard errors; 1(st) vs 2(nd )and 3(rd) group, respectively, p<0.001) and the 10-year graft survival rates with patient death counted as graft failure were 58.3+/-2.7%, 55.7+/-5.8% and 48.2+/-3.5% (Kaplan-Meier estimates with standard errors; ATG-F single high-dose vs TDT, p=0.023). In pre-sensitized recipients there were also significant differences in favour of ATG-F, more notably in the single high-dose ATG-F induction. A total of 69% of the patients in the two cohorts receiving ATG-F did not experience any transplant rejections compared to 56% in patients undergoing TDT alone (p=0.018). The incidence of infectious complications was comparable across all groups. According to evidence obtained from the routine documentation of 778

  4. The new Mediterranean background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica: A long term Observatory component of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) is a French initiative supported by the MISTRALS program (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales, http://www.mistrals-home.org). It aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The major stake is an understanding of the future of the Mediterranean region in a context of strong regional anthropogenic and climatic pressures. The target of ChArMEx is short-lived particulate and gaseous tropospheric trace species which are the cause of poor air quality events, have two-way interactions with climate, or impact the marine biogeochemistry. In order to fulfill these objectives, important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, a key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly air masses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The observations at this station began in June 2012 (in the context of the EMEP / ACTRIS / PEGASOS / ChArMEx campaigns). A broad spectrum of aerosol properties is also measured at the station, from the chemical composition (off-line daily filter sampling in PM2.5/PM10, on-line Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor), ground optical properties (extinction/absorption/light scattering coeff. with 1-? CAPS PMex monitor, 7-? Aethalometer, 3-? Nephelometer), integrated and vertically resolved optical properties (4-? Cimel sunphotometer and LIDAR, respective), size distribution properties (N-AIS, SMPS, APS, and OPS instruments), mass (PM1/PM10 by TEOM/TEOM-FDMS), hygroscopicity (CCN), as well as total insoluble deposition. So far, real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), and off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges) are also

  5. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Supporting laboratory program - Sorption diffusion experiments and rock material characterisation. With supplement of adsorption studies on intact rock samples from the Forsmark and Laxemar site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Selnert, Eva; Skaalberg, Mats; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aims at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. In this report, performance and results of laboratory sorption and diffusion experiments and porosity investigations using site-specific crushed and intact rock materials are presented, including a geological and mineralogical characterization of the samples. A synthetic groundwater and a part of the radionuclide tracer cocktail that was used for the in situ experiment were used also in the laboratory experiments. 13 radionuclide tracers were analysed in the laboratory experiments. The method descriptions from SKB Site Investigations were applied in order to enable comparisons with Site Investigations data. The water saturation porosity of 10 unaltered matrix rock samples from KA3065A02 and A03 is 0.26 +- 0.08% and two fracture material samples show porosities of 2.4% and 5.2% respectively. 14C-methylmethacrylate impregnation (the PMMA-method) show that the unaltered rock matrix porosity is relatively homogeneous with grain boundary porosity, while the porosity of fracture samples is heterogeneous and have increased porosity up to more than 10% in some parts. Through-diffusion experiments using tritiated water (H3HO) give a matrix diffusivity in the range from 2.7centre dot10-14 to 6.5centre dot10-14 m2/s in four samples from KA3065A02 and A03. The results of the porosity and diffusion measurements are coherent in ranges with earlier LTDE-SD measurements and are also in line with the SKB Site Investigations results. In the batch sorption experiments using crushed rock material, two matrix rock samples of Aevroe granodiorite, one red-stained altered Aevroe granodiorite sample and two chlorite-calcite dominated fracture samples were analysed for three different size fractions as a function of time up to 186 days contact time. The

  6. Long-term microparticle flux variability indicated by comparison of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) timed impacts for LDEF's first year in orbit with impact data for the entire 5.77-year orbital lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Charles G.; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Cooke, William J.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic sensors of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) recorded precise impact times and approximate directions for submicron to approximately 100 micron size particles on all six primary sides of the spacecraft for the first 346 days of the LDEF orbital mission. Previously-reported analyses of the timed impact data have established their spatio-temporal features, including the demonstration that a preponderance of the particles in this regime are orbital debris and that a large fraction of the debris particles are encountered in megameter-size clouds. Short-term fluxes within such clouds can rise several orders of magnitude above the long-term average. These unexpectedly large short-term variations in debris flux raise the question of how representative an indication of the multi-year average flux is given by the nearly one year of timed data. One of the goals of the IDE was to conduct an optical survey of impact sites on detectors that remained active during the entire LDEF mission, to obtain full-mission fluxes. We present here the comparisons and contrasts among the new IDE optical survey impact data, the IDE first-year timed impact data, and impact data from other LDEF micrometeoroid and debris experiments. The following observations are reported: (1) the 5.77 year long-term integrated microparticle impact fluxes recorded by IDE detectors matched the integrated impact fluxes measured by other LDEF investigators for the same period; (2) IDE integrated microparticle impact fluxes varied by factors from 0.5 to 8.3 for LDEF days 1-346, 347-2106 and 1-2106 (5.77 years) on rows 3 (trailing edge, or West), 6 (South side), 12 (North side), and the Earth and Space ends; and (3) IDE integrated microparticle impact fluxes varied less than 3 percent for LDEF days 1-346, 347-2106 and 1-2106 (5.77 years) on row 9 (leading edge, or East). These results give further evidence of the accuracy and internal consistency of the recorded IDE impact data. This leads to

  7. The discovery of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2003-04-29

    This paper describes circumstances around the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP). In 1966, I had just begun independent work for the degree of Dr medicinae (PhD) in Per Andersen's laboratory in Oslo after an eighteen-month apprenticeship with him. Studying the effects of activating the perforant path to dentate granule cells in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rabbits, I observed that brief trains of stimuli resulted in increased efficiency of transmission at the perforant path-granule cell synapses that could last for hours. In 1968, Tim Bliss came to Per Andersen's laboratory to learn about the hippocampus and field potential recording for studies of possible memory mechanisms. The two of us then followed up my preliminary results from 1966 and did the experiments that resulted in a paper that is now properly considered to be the basic reference for the discovery of LTP.

  8. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  9. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    estuaries below by removing all incoming freshwater. At Toolik Lake, long-term experiments of removing top predators from the good web of lakes showed dramatic alterations of lake populations of small fish and zooplankton. In New Mexico, LTER research on small mammal populations is successfully predicting rodent increases and the potential for increased zoonotic diseases such as Hantavirus and bubonic plague. This ability to forecast based on El Nino prediction is being used to increase scientific awareness and public health awareness through media based communication with the public. In Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER program has had long, strong links with natural resource policy and management. Basic understanding of forest-stream interactions, characteristics of old-growth forests, roles of woody debris in temperate forest ecosystems, invertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function have been incorporated in management guidelines, plans and regulations for public and private lands throughout the Pacific Northwest. Other examples of the values of long-term research and monitoring will be presented.

  10. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...

  11. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  12. Dissimilar response of plant and soil biota communities to long-term nutrient adition in grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.; Geerts, R.H.E.M.; Korevaar, H.; Schouten, A.J.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, C.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effect of fertilizers on plant diversity and productivity is well known, but long-term effects on soil biota communities have received relatively little attention. Here, we used an exceptional long-lasting (>40 years) grassland fertilization experiment to investigate the long-term

  13. Fruit-flies in low-dose exposure experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnullin, V.G.; Moskalev, A.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.V.; Sheptyakova, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    In vivo exposure of fruit-flies of Drosophila melanogaster line to low doses provided new data indicating that mechanisms of induced genetic instability are involved in radiation-induced alteration of genotype. It is true for increase of genetic variance due to change in transposition number, for change in adaptation capabilities due to modification of gene expression, and for mutability-associated reparation and apoptosis. (author)

  14. The relationship between manual handling performance and recent flying experience in air transport pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney

    2010-02-01

    Modern jet transport aircraft are typically flown using the on-board automation by the pilot programming commands into the auto-flight systems. Anecdotal evidence exists suggesting that pilots of highly automated aircraft experience manual flying skills decay as a result of a lack of opportunity to practise hand-flying during line operations. The ability of a pilot to revert to basic manual control is essential, for example, in cases where the aircraft's automatic capability is diminished or when reconfiguring the automatics is an ineffective use of crew capacity. However, there is a paucity of objective data to substantiate this perceived threat to flight safety. Furthermore, traditional performance measurement techniques may lack the ability to identify subtle but significant differences in pilots' manual handling ability in large transport aircraft. This study examines the relationship between pilot manual handling performance and their recent flying experience using both traditional flight path tracking measures and frequency-based control strategy measures. Significant relationships are identified between pilots' very recent flying experience and their manual control strategy. Statement of Relevance: The study demonstrates a novel application of frequency analysis, which produces a broader and more sensitive analysis of pilot performance than has been offered in previous research. Additionally, the relationships that are found to exist between recent flying experience and manual flying performance will help to guide future pilot assessment and training.

  15. Influence of a step-change in metal exposure (Cd, Cu, Zn) on metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning in a freshwater bivalve, Pyganodon grandis: A long-term transplantation experiment between lakes with contrasting ambient metal levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Sophie [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bonneris, Emmanuelle [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Bayer S.A.S., Bayer CropScience, 16 Rue Jean-Marie Leclair, CP 90106, F 69266 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Michaud, Annick [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada) and Direction des Évaluations environnementales, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 675, boul. René-Lévesque Est, 6e étage, Québec, QC G1R 5V7 (Canada); Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette [Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement, Université du Québec, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We transferred freshwater bivalves from a reference lake to a Cd and Zn contaminated lake. ? Changes in metal accumulation and subcellular partitioning were followed over time (up to 860 d). ? Metal detoxification strategies differed between target organs (gills vs. digestive gland). ? The ability to handle Cd is inherent in P. grandis, not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation. -- Abstract: The objective of the present field experiment was to identify detoxification responses in the gills and digestive gland of a freshwater unionid bivalve, Pyganodon grandis, subjected to a step-change in metal exposure. Adult bivalves were transferred from a reference site (Lake Opasatica) and a metal-contaminated lake (Lake Héva) to a second contaminated lake (Lake Vaudray) in northwestern Quebec, Canada. Changes in organ metal concentrations, in the subcellular distribution of metals and in metallothionein concentrations were followed over time (t = 0, 132, (400) and 860 days). At each collection time and for each bivalve, the gills and digestive gland were excised and gently homogenized; six sub-cellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation and analyzed for their Cd, Cu and Zn content, and metallothionein was quantified independently. Metal detoxification strategies were shown to differ between target organs: in the gills, incoming metals were sequestered largely in the granules, whereas in the digestive gland the same metals primarily accumulated in the cytosol, in the metallothionein-like protein fraction. These metal-handling strategies, as employed by the metal-naïve bivalves originating in the reference lake, closely resemble those identified in free-living P. grandis chronically exposed in the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that the ability to handle incoming metals (Cd in particular) is inherent in P. grandis and is not a trait acquired after long-term adaptation of the bivalve to metal-contaminated environments. The

  16. Expression of human PQBP-1 in Drosophila impairs long-term memory and induces abnormal courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Natsue; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Masao; Saitoe, Minoru; Qi, Mei-Ling; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2006-04-17

    Frame shift mutations of the polyglutamine binding protein-1 (PQBP1) gene lead to total or partial truncation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) and cause mental retardation in human patients. Interestingly, normal Drosophila homologue of PQBP-1 lacks CTD. As a model to analyze the molecular network of PQBP-1 affecting intelligence, we generated transgenic flies expressing human PQBP-1 with CTD. Pavlovian olfactory conditioning revealed that the transgenic flies showed disturbance of long-term memory. In addition, they showed abnormal courtship that male flies follow male flies. Abnormal functions of PQBP-1 or its binding partner might be linked to these symptoms.

  17. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  18. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a job, a volunteer commitment, or even a hobby can take a toll on long-term survivors ... people find solace in meditation, faith, humor, writing, hobbies and more. Find an outlet that you enjoy ...

  19. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  20. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  1. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  2. [Perioperative management of long-term medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel Kahmann, I; Ruppen, W; Lurati Buse, G; Tsakiris, D A; Bruggisser, M

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesiologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with patients who are under long-term medication. Some of these drugs can interact with anaesthetics or anaesthesia and/or surgical interventions. As a result, patients may experience complications such as bleeding, ischemia, infection or severe circulatory reactions. On the other hand, perioperative discontinuation of medication is often more dangerous. The proportion of outpatient operations has increased dramatically in recent years and will probably continue to increase. Since the implementation of DRGs (pending in Switzerland, introduced in Germany for some time), the patient enters the hospital the day before operation. This means that the referring physician as well as anesthesiologists and surgeons at an early stage must deal with issues of perioperative pharmacotherapy. This review article is about the management of the major drug classes during the perioperative period. In addition to cardiac and centrally acting drugs and drugs that act on hemostasis and the endocrine system, special cases such as immunosuppressants and herbal remedies are mentioned.

  3. Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N L

    2011-06-01

    When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a grayscale version of a known traffic sign. On each trial, a distractor sign was drawn in full color. This color could either be related or unrelated to the target sign. Distractors interfered more with search when their color was related (e.g. red when the target was a stop sign), implying that long-term color associations resulted in inadvertent attentional guidance, even though color was irrelevant to the task. The results add to the growing body of evidence that long-term memory representations automatically affect attentional orienting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The long-term concerns post cochlear implantation as experienced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Cochlear implantation aims to provide an effective means of spoken communication for prelingually deaf children. However, studies in this field are mostly clinically orientated, with little focus on the experiences and long-term concerns of families post cochlear implantation (CI). Objective. To describe the ...

  5. Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

  6. Universal Preschool Programs and Long-Term Child Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Kristiansen, Ida Lykke; Viinholt Nielsen, Bjørn Christian

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review included 25 studies using natural experiments to estimate the effects of universal preschool programs for children aged 0-6 years on child outcomes measured from third grade to adulthood. Studies comparing preschool with parental, family, or other informal modes of care...... alternative types of universal preschool programs in terms of long-term outcomes....

  7. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  8. Dynamics of deposited fly-ash and fine grained magnetite in sandy material of different porosity (column experiments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Ales; Kodesova, Radka; Petrovsky, Eduard; Grison, Hana

    2010-05-01

    Several studies confirm that soil magnetometry can serve as proxy of industrial immisions as well as heavy-metal contamination. The important assumption for magnetic mapping of contaminated soils is that atmospherically deposited particulate matter, including the ferrimagnetic phase, accumulates in the top soil horizons and remains there over long period. Only if this is true, large areas can be reliably mapped using soil magnetometry, and, moreover, this method can be used also for long-term monitoring. However, in soil types such as sandy soils with different porosity or soils with substantial variability of water regime, translocation of the deposited anthropogenic particles may result in biased (underestimated) values of the measured topsoil magnetic susceptibility. From the physical point of view, this process may be considered as colloid transport through porous medium. In our column experiments in laboratory we used three technical sands with different particle sizes (0,63 - 1.25mm, 0,315-0,80mm, 0,10-0,63mm). Sands in cylinders were contaminated on the surface by fly-ashes from coal-burning power plant (mean grain size 10μm) and fine grained Fe3O4 (grain size < 20 μm). Soil moisture sensors were used to monitor water regime within the sand columns after controlled rain simulation and temperature distribution in sand column was measured as well. Vertical migration of ferrimagnetic particles-tracers presented in the fly-ash was measured by SM 400 Kappameter. By means of magnetic susceptibility distribution we studied two parameters: gradual shift of peak concentration of contaminants (relative to surface layer) and maximum penetration depth. Results indicated that after rain simulation (pulls infiltration of defined water volume) the positions of peak values moved downwards compared to the initial state and gradual decrease of susceptibility peak values were detected in all studied sand formations. Fly-ash migrated more or less freely in coarse sand

  9. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  10. Effects of enhancing soil organic carbon sequestration in the topsoil by fertilization on crop productivity and stability: Evidence from long-term experiments with wheat-maize cropping systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo; Sun, Nan; Wu, Lianhai; Xu, Minggang; Bingham, Ian J; Li, Zhongfang

    2016-08-15

    Although organic carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has been recommended as a 'win-win strategy' for mitigating climate change and ensuring food security, great uncertainty still remains in identifying the relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and crop productivity. Using data from 17 long-term experiments in China we determined the effects of fertilization strategies on SOC stocks at 0-20cm depth in the North, North East, North West and South. The impacts of changes in topsoil SOC stocks on the yield and yield stability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) were determined. Results showed that application of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) plus animal manure over 20-30years significantly increased SOC stocks to 20-cm depth by 32-87% whilst NPK plus wheat/maize straw application increased it by 26-38% compared to controls. The efficiency of SOC sequestration differed between regions with 7.4-13.1% of annual C input into the topsoil being retained as SOC over the study periods. In the northern regions, application of manure had little additional effect on yield compared to NPK over a wide range of topsoil SOC stocks (18->50MgCha(-1)). In the South, average yield from manure applied treatments was 2.5 times greater than that from NPK treatments. Moreover, the yield with NPK plus manure increased until SOC stocks (20-cm depth) increased to ~35MgCha(-1). In the northern regions, yield stability was not increased by application of NPK plus manure compared to NPK, whereas in the South there was a significant improvement. We conclude that manure application and straw incorporation could potentially lead to SOC sequestration in topsoil in China, but beneficial effects of this increase in SOC stocks to 20-cm depth on crop yield and yield stability may only be achieved in the South. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P heel...... regardless of symptoms and had no impact on prognosis, and neither did the presence of a heel spur. Only 24% of asymptomatic patients had a normal fascia on US at long-term follow-up. A US-guided corticosteroid injection did not cause atrophy of the heel fat pad. Our observational study did not allow us...

  12. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  13. Monitoring long-term oral corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Lewis; Lindemann, Roberta; Douglas, James

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are synthetic analogues of human hormones normally produced by the adrenal cortex. They have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. The glucocortoid components are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and vasoconstrictive. They influence the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, in addition to playing a key role in the body's stress response. Mineralocorticoid's main significance is in the balance of salt and water concentrations. Due to the combination of these effects, corticosteroids can cause many adverse effects. Oral corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and are therefore more likely to cause adverse effects than topical or inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, it is assumed that greater duration of treatment will lead to a greater number of adverse effects, and therefore the most at risk group are those taking high dose, long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC). High dose is defined as a prescription of >5 mg oral prednisolone and long term as duration of treatment >1 month (based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for patient's 'at risk' of systemic side effects). Parameters to be monitored in primary care include weight, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and urea and electrolytes. From clinical experience within the general practice setting, the authors propose that these patients do not receive adequate baseline monitoring before starting corticosteroids nor are these markers monitored consistently thereafter. This project intended to evidence this claim, evaluate the adverse effect profile and improve monitoring in this patient group. The initial audit of 22 patients, within a single general practice, detected at least one documented adverse effect in 64% of patients, while 41% reported more than one adverse effect. 45% had recorded weight gain, 18% had recorded osteoporosis, 18% had at least one recorded cataract, 14% had recorded Hypertension, 14% had recorded

  14. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  15. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  16. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  17. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  18. Long-Term Orientation in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trust does not work in the same way across cultures. This paper presents an agent model of behavior in trade across Hofstedes cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term orientation. The situation is based on a gaming simulation, the Trust and Tracing game. The paper investigates the

  19. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been publishe...... to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment....

  20. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsey, B.H.; Hoddinott, J; Alderman, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify

  1. Financial Incentives in Long-Term Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.H. Bakx (Pieter)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Long-term care (ltc) aims to help individuals to cope with their impairments. In my thesis, I describe ltc financing alternatives and their consequences for the allocation of ltc. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, I investigate how alternative ways

  2. Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Werkman, D.M.; Barnaart, L.F.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the long-term survival of patellofemoral arthroplasty with primary diagnosis, age, sex, and body mass index. One hundred eighty-five consecutive Richards type II patellofemoral arthroplasties were performed in 161 patients with isolated patellofemoral

  3. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  4. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  5. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  6. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  7. Rebalancing for Long-Term Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; Kuiper, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this study we show that the rebalance frequency of a multi-asset portfolio has only limited impact on the utility of a long-term passive investor. Although continuous rebalancing is optimal, the loss of a suboptimal strategy corresponds to up to only 30 basis points of the initial wealth of the

  8. PSA modeling of long-term accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois; Lanore, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the extension of PSA scope to include external hazards, in France, both operator (EDF) and IRSN work for the improvement of methods to better take into account in the PSA the accident sequences induced by initiators which affect a whole site containing several nuclear units (reactors, fuel pools,...). These methodological improvements represent an essential prerequisite for the development of external hazards PSA. However, it has to be noted that in French PSA, even before Fukushima, long term accident sequences were taken into account: many insight were therefore used, as complementary information, to enhance the safety level of the plants. IRSN proposed an external events PSA development program. One of the first steps of the program is the development of methods to model in the PSA the long term accident sequences, based on the experience gained. At short term IRSN intends to enhance the modeling of the 'long term' accident sequences induced by the loss of the heat sink or/and the loss of external power supply. The experience gained by IRSN and EDF from the development of several probabilistic studies treating long term accident sequences shows that the simple extension of the mission time of the mitigation systems from 24 hours to longer times is not sufficient to realistically quantify the risk and to obtain a correct ranking of the risk contributions and that treatment of recoveries is also necessary. IRSN intends to develop a generic study which can be used as a general methodology for the assessment of the long term accident sequences, mainly generated by external hazards and their combinations. This first attempt to develop this generic study allowed identifying some aspects, which may be hazard (or combinations of hazards) or related to initial boundary conditions, which should be taken into account for further developments. (authors)

  9. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  10. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  11. Wnt Signaling Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult nervous system, suggesting a potential role in behavioral processes. Here, we probed the requirement for Wnt signaling during olfactory memory formation in Drosophila using an inducible RNAi approach. Interfering with β-catenin expression in adult mushroom body neurons specifically impaired long-term memory (LTM without altering short-term memory. The impairment was reversible, being rescued by expression of a wild-type β-catenin transgene, and correlated with disruption of a cellular LTM trace. Inhibition of wingless, a Wnt ligand, and arrow, a Wnt coreceptor, also impaired LTM. Wingless expression in wild-type flies was transiently elevated in the brain after LTM conditioning. Thus, inhibiting three key components of the Wnt signaling pathway in adult mushroom bodies impairs LTM, indicating that this pathway mechanistically underlies this specific form of memory.

  12. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L.; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.

    2015-01-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently…

  13. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2007-01-15

    This article is the second in a 2-part series examining the impacts of the labour shortage in the energy industry. Most oil and gas companies are implementing long-term strategies in order to deal with the anticipated labour crisis. Labour, material, services and other factors are taken into consideration when developing business plans, and industry will adjust projects accordingly to accommodate labour constraints and uneconomic cost environments. Companies are collecting and analyzing data in order to define strategies to address retirement and longer-term workforce planning issues. EnCana is supporting a heavy equipment operator training program jointly with the government of British Columbia to help recruit aboriginal communities. EnCana is also recognizing the value of new immigrant professionals and has identified the group as an emerging recruitment talent pool. Shell Canada's long term plans for recruiting experienced staff include dedicating significant resources to a campus recruitment campaign, and connecting with Royal Dutch Shell to extend their recruitment reach. Shell Canada is also strengthening its on-boarding program for both new permanent full-time and part-time employees. The company recently announced its largest single community investment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology's Building on Demand campaign. The $3 million will be used to create the Shell Manufacturing Centre, as well as to provide bursaries for students pursuing apprenticeships and technical training. Petro-Canada's long-term recruitment strategy includes continually identifying and bringing in talented employees to meet the company's business goals. Devon Canada is also focusing on career path development and has established significant budgets for training and professional development. It was concluded that employers in the oil and gas industry must develop effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain critical talent for the short and

  14. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    2007-01-01

    This article is the second in a 2-part series examining the impacts of the labour shortage in the energy industry. Most oil and gas companies are implementing long-term strategies in order to deal with the anticipated labour crisis. Labour, material, services and other factors are taken into consideration when developing business plans, and industry will adjust projects accordingly to accommodate labour constraints and uneconomic cost environments. Companies are collecting and analyzing data in order to define strategies to address retirement and longer-term workforce planning issues. EnCana is supporting a heavy equipment operator training program jointly with the government of British Columbia to help recruit aboriginal communities. EnCana is also recognizing the value of new immigrant professionals and has identified the group as an emerging recruitment talent pool. Shell Canada's long term plans for recruiting experienced staff include dedicating significant resources to a campus recruitment campaign, and connecting with Royal Dutch Shell to extend their recruitment reach. Shell Canada is also strengthening its on-boarding program for both new permanent full-time and part-time employees. The company recently announced its largest single community investment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology's Building on Demand campaign. The $3 million will be used to create the Shell Manufacturing Centre, as well as to provide bursaries for students pursuing apprenticeships and technical training. Petro-Canada's long-term recruitment strategy includes continually identifying and bringing in talented employees to meet the company's business goals. Devon Canada is also focusing on career path development and has established significant budgets for training and professional development. It was concluded that employers in the oil and gas industry must develop effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain critical talent for the short and long term, and not

  15. Long-term experiences in the use of rapeseed oil fuel in tractors of the emissions levels I and II; Langzeiterfahrungen zum Einsatz von Rapsoelkraftstoff in Traktoren der Abgasstufe I und II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2013-06-01

    The operational behavior as well as the emission behavior should be clarified in long-term use by means of tractors which are powered by rapeseed oil fuel. This is based on the following measures: review of the quality of rapeseed oil fuel used; testing of the quality of the engine oil on a random basis; documentation of failures, maintenance and repair work; measurement of performance and fuel economy; measurement of exhaust emissions; diagnosis of engines.

  16. Patient reported outcomes in view of symptom experience of late effects and self-management of adult long-term survivors after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation - a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Even years after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, recipients face a continuing risk of developing serious late effects. Previous studies have focused on the pathophysiological understanding of late effects, as well as on treatment and disease-related prediction of long-term post-transplant complications. In recent years, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have been recognized as an invaluable source of information on the evolution of patients’ conditions. To date, however, few studies have...

  17. The droso4schools project: Long-term scientist-teacher collaborations to promote science communication and education in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjai; DeMaine, Sophie; Heafield, Joshua; Bianchi, Lynne; Prokop, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Science communication is becoming an increasingly important part of a scientist's remit, and engaging with primary and secondary schools is one frequently chosen strategy. Here we argue that science communication in schools will be more effective if based on good understanding of the realities of school life, which can be achieved through structured participation and/or collaboration with teachers. For example, the Manchester Fly Facility advocates the use of the fruit fly Drosophila as an important research strategy for the discovery processes in the biomedical sciences. To communicate this concept also in schools, we developed the 'droso4schools' project as a refined form of scientist-teacher collaboration that embraces the expertise and interests of teachers. Within this project, we place university students as teaching assistants in university partner schools to collaborate with teachers and develop biology lessons with adjunct support materials. These lessons teach curriculum-relevant biology topics by making use of the profound conceptual understanding existing in Drosophila combined with parallel examples taken from human biology. By performing easy to implement experiments with flies, we bring living organisms into these lessons, thus endeavouring to further enhance the pupil's learning experience. In this way, we do not talk about flies but rather work with flies as powerful teaching tools to convey mainstream curriculum biology content, whilst also bringing across the relevance of Drosophila research. Through making these lessons freely available online, they have the potential to reach out to teachers and scientists worldwide. In this paper, we share our experiences and strategies to provide ideas for scientists engaging with schools, including the application of the droso4schools project as a paradigm for long-term school engagement which can be adapted also to other areas of science. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  18. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2002-03-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays a essential role for their long-term behavior. For elucidating long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) observation of joint surfaces of granite and Fourier analysis, 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, 3) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by LSM under uniaxial compression, and 4) a viscoelastic homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. Rock image processing and analysis become a fundamental procedure to determine rock surface discontinuities. But the complexity of rock surface discontinuities seems beyond the manual image processing method. In Chapter 2 a Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope that can acquire three-dimensional images is introduced to observe the rock roughness of a discontinuity. Then, scanning three-dimensional images are changed its data form in order to adapt various image analysis programs, and granitic rock roughness of discontinuities are displayed by graphic images. For example, these datas are analyzed by Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) program and Inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation (IDFT) program. Microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock. In Chapter 3 a progressive development of cracking in granite is revealed by using stereoscopic microscope under triaxial compression condition and by using LSM under uniaxial compression condition. With a viscoelastic theory applied in homogenization method, we can calculate macro behavior of medium influenced by its micro structure by analyse the long-term time-dependent behavior of granite under the same condition to the relaxation experiment. (author)

  19. Long-term sealing of openings in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Stockmann, N.; Yaramanci, U.; Laurens, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in those potential pathways to prevent radioactive release to the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made of compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built from salt bricks will be ductile. The permeability of the salt bricks is assumed to be in the order of 2*10 -15 m 2 . Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. The permeability of the mortar decreases with its salt content to approx. 2*10 -14 m 2 . Moistened saliferous clay may show temporary swelling. Sealing experiments will be carried out in the Asse salt mine. Long-term seals will be built into holes of 1 m diameter. The contact and merging of the brick-wall with the surrounding rock salt will be investigated in long-term tests. Within the in situ sealing program a number of geophysical methods are applied. Acoustic emission measurements are used to study the effects of high pressure gas injection and a geoelectrical observation program is aiming to estimate the permeability in and around the long-term seal. High frequency electromagnetic methods contribute to the knowledge of the petrophysical rock properties. 11 refs., 12 figs

  20. Long-term ecophysiological responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Plant physiology is affected by climate change. Acclimations of photosynthetic processes are induced by short-term changes in climatic conditions. Further acclimation can be caused by longterm adjustments to climate change due to ecosystem-feedbacks. The aim of this PhD was to investigate plant...... term responses of plant physiology to the climate change factors were investigated. In the CLIMAITE-experiment it has been shown that 2 years of treatment altered physiological responses in Deschampsiaand Calluna. In the work of this PhD similar responses were observed after 6 years of treatment...... physiological responses to climate change in a seasonal and long-term perspective. The effects of elevated CO2, passive night time warming and periodic summer drought as single factor and in combination, on plant physiology were investigated in the long-term multifactorial field experiment CLIMAITE in a Danish...

  1. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  2. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  4. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  5. Long-term effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that sources of long-term damage from radiation are two-fold. People who have been exposed to doses of radiation from initial early fallout but have recovered from the acute effects may still suffer long-term damage from their exposure. Those who have not been exposed to early fallout may be exposed to delayed fallout, the hazards from which are almost exclusively from ingesting strontium, caesium and carbon isotopes present in food; the damage caused is relatively unimportant compared with that caused by the brief doses from initial radiation and early fallout. A brief discussion is presented of the distribution of delayed long-lived isotope fallout, and an outline is sketched of late biological effects, such as malignant disease, cataracts, retarded development, infertility and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  6. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  7. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  8. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  9. Long-term economic outlook. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This review provides economic growth forecast tables for Ontario, Canada, the US, Western Europe, and Japan. Economic growth, government policy, the long-term prospects for inflation, interest rates and foreign exchange rates, trends in the Canadian dollar, and energy markets and prices are also reviewed. Data generally cover 1965-2025. Appendices give a summary of historical and forecast data. 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  11. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  12. Optimal long-term contracting with learning

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhiguo; Wei, Bin; Yu, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We introduce uncertainty into Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) to study optimal long-term contracting with learning. In a dynamic relationship, the agent's shirking not only reduces current performance but also increases the agent's information rent due to the persistent belief manipulation effect. We characterize the optimal contract using the dynamic programming technique in which information rent is the unique state variable. In the optimal contract, the optimal effort is front-loaded and decr...

  13. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  14. Inflation Hedging for Long-Term Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun K. Roache; Alexander P. Attie

    2009-01-01

    Long-term investors face a common problem-how to maintain the purchasing power of their assets over time and achieve a level of real returns consistent with their investment objectives. While inflation-linked bonds and derivatives have been developed to hedge the effects of inflation, their limited supply and liquidity lead many investors to continue to rely on the indirect hedging properties of traditional asset classes. In this paper, we assess these properties over different time horizons,...

  15. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  16. Long-Term Care Services for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    includes but is not limited to home physical , occupational, or speech therapy ; wound care; and intravenous (IV) care. A VA physician determines that a...restoring/rehabilitating the veteran’s health, such as skilled nursing care, physical therapy , occupational therapy , and IV therapy Same as HBPC... geriatric evaluation,  palliative care,  adult day health care,  homemaker/home health aide care,  respite care, Long-Term Care Services for

  17. Long term adequacy of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the adequacy of world economic uranium resources to meet requirements in the very long term, that is until at least 2025 and beyond. It does so by analysing current requirements forecasts, existing and potential production centre supply capability schedules and national resource estimates. It takes into account lead times from resource discovery to production and production rate limitations. The institutional and political issues surrounding the question of adequacy are reviewed. (author)

  18. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  19. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  20. Nurses' Experiences of End-of-life Care in Long-term Care Hospitals in Japan: Balancing Improving the Quality of Life and Sustaining the Lives of Patients Dying at Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Odachi, RN, MA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: In Japan, about 80% of deaths occur in hospitals, especially long-term care beds. The purpose of this study was to clarify the nursing practices used for such older patients at the end-of-life stage in long-termcare wards via the modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA. Methods: Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews of nineteen nurses working in cooperating long-term care wards, acute care wards, or hospice services (to allow for constant comparison between these types of wards in western Japan in 2014. We analyzed the transcribed data using M-GTA. Results: The core category that emerged from the analysis was “Balancing enhancement of patients' daily life quality and life-sustaining care in the face of uncertainty about the patients' character.” Eleven categories emerged, such as Seeking older patients' character with their family, Supporting families' decision making, Rebuilding patients' daily life in the ward, and Sustaining patients' life span through medical care. Conclusions: Nurses experienced uncertainty about the care needs of older patients, the ethical problems of Enhancing the patients' QOL by using risky care, and the evaluation criteria used to judge their own nursing care after the patients' death. All nurses had the goal of ensuring a natural death for all patients. Nurses' acceptance and evaluation of their own care was critically influenced by the patient's family's responses to their care after patients' death. Further research is necessary to develop evaluation criteria and educational programs for end-of-life nursing care of older adults. Keywords: terminal care, aged, long-term care, qualitative research

  1. Long-term monitoring for closed special sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed special radioactive waste disposal sites. The steps in the method involve collection of the available background information on the site history, site and area characteristics, waste inventory, pathway analysis, prior monitoring programs, applicable standards, and the legal/regulatory requirements. This information is coupled with factors such as experience, half-life, radionuclide migration rates, and potential hazard to develop a monitoring program. As an example, a site-specific long-term monitoring program is described for the AMAX site using the available information. Sampling techniques and practices for the monitoring program are discussed and techniques and practices expected to be available in the future are considered. 7 references, 2 tables

  2. Being a long-term user of nicotine replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Tønnesen, Philip

    Background During recent years a gradual shift in the application of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has taken place from NRT-products only being recommended to achieve smoking cessation, to now including smoking reduction, and long-term substitution of tobacco with NRT has taken place. This has...... been promoted as a way of achieving harm-reduction in highly nicotine dependent smokers who are unwilling or incapable of quitting all nicotine products, as continued use of NRT is widely accepted as being far less hazardous than continued smoking. To our knowledge no previous research has been done...... of feeling addicted, cost of NRT products and fear of adverse health consequences. Aim of study • To get a thorough understanding of the lived experiences of nicotine dependent long-term NRT users. • To investigate what motivates or discourages quitting NRT. Method Semi-structured interviews with long...

  3. Long-term effects of acoustic reafference training (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra; Hohmann, Tanja; Streese, Lukas; Habbig, Anja; Raab, Markus

    2017-11-01

    In sport visual feedback is often used to enhance performance, mostly neglecting the auditory modality. However, athletes produce natural sounds when they move (acoustic reafferences) which they perceive and use to control their movements. We examined the short- and long-term effects of a training intervention on a complex movement by using acoustic reafferences. Natural step sounds produced during hurdling were recorded and played back to the participants immediately before each trial, with an increase (fast group), decrease (slow group), or no manipulation (control group) in the tempo. All groups increased their hurdling performance regarding overall running time, with the slow group showing the best performance development. After a 10-week retention, the fast and slow group further increased performance, whereas the control group declined. The repeated experience with acoustic information associated with the rhythmic pattern of hurdling may have helped developing a cognitive representation of that movement, especially regarding long-term effects.

  4. Safety of Long-term Interim Storage Facilities - Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to discuss and review current national activities, plans and regulatory approaches for the safety of long term interim storage facilities dedicated to spent nuclear fuel (SF), high level waste (HLW) and other radioactive materials with prolonged storage regimes. It was also intended to discuss results of experiments and to identify necessary R and D to confirm safety of fuel and cask during the long-term storage. Safety authorities and their Technical Support Organisation (TSO), Fuel Cycle Facilities (FCF) operating organisations and international organisations were invited to share information on their approaches, practices and current developments. The workshop was organised in an opening session, three technical sessions, and a conclusion session. The technical sessions were focused on: - National approaches for long term interim storage facilities; - Safety requirements, regulatory framework and implementation issues; - Technical issues and operational experience, needs for R and D. Each session consisted of a number of presentations followed by a panel discussion moderated by the session Chairs. A summary of each session and subsequent discussion that ensued are provided as well as a summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  5. Reconsolidation of long-term memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Chen, Shanping; Glanzman, David L

    2012-10-09

    When an animal is reminded of a prior experience and shortly afterward treated with a protein synthesis inhibitor, the consolidated memory for the experience can be disrupted; by contrast, protein synthesis inhibition without prior reminding commonly does not disrupt long-term memory [1-3]. Such results imply that the reminding triggers reconsolidation of the memory. Here, we asked whether the behavioral and synaptic changes associated with the memory for long-term sensitization (LTS) of the siphon-withdrawal reflex in the marine snail Aplysia californica [4, 5] could undergo reconsolidation. In support of this idea, we found that when sensitized animals were given abbreviated reminder sensitization training 48-96 hr after the original sensitization training, followed by treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, LTS was disrupted. We also found that long-term (≥ 24 hr) facilitation (LTF) [6], which can be induced in the monosynaptic connection between Aplysia sensory and motor neurons in dissociated cell culture by multiple spaced pulses of the endogenous facilitatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) [7, 8], could be eliminated by treating the synapses with one reminder pulse of 5-HT, followed by anisomycin, at 48 hr after the original training. Our results provide a simple model system for understanding the synaptic basis of reconsolidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidental biasing of attention from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-06-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past but is no longer present or relevant to the task also guides attention. We examined this by associating multiple unique features with novel shapes in visual long-term memory (VLTM), and subsequently testing how memories for these objects biased the deployment of attention. In Experiment 1, VLTM for associated features guided visual search for the shapes, even when these features had never been task-relevant. In Experiment 2, associated features captured attention when presented in isolation during a secondary task that was completely unrelated to the shapes. These findings suggest that long-term memory enables a durable and automatic type of memory-based attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Long-term ecological research in a human-dominated world

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Philip Robertson; Scott L. Collins; David R. Foster; Nicholas Brokaw; Hugh W. Ducklow; Ted L. Gragson; Corinna Gries; Stephen K. Hamilton; A. David McGuire; John C. Moore; Emily H. Stanley; Robert B. Waide; Mark W. Williams

    2012-01-01

    The US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network enters its fourth decade with a distinguished record of achievement in ecological science. The value of long-term observations and experiments has never been more important for testing ecological theory and for addressing today’s most difficult environmental challenges. The network’s potential for tackling emergent...

  8. Memory Reactivation Enables Long-Term Prevention of Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herszage, Jasmine; Censor, Nitzan

    2017-05-22

    The ability of the human brain to successively learn or perform two competing tasks constitutes a major challenge in daily function. Indeed, exposing the brain to two different competing memories within a short temporal offset can induce interference, resulting in deteriorated performance in at least one of the learned memories [1-4]. Although previous studies have investigated online interference and its effects on performance [5-13], whether the human brain can enable long-term prevention of future interference is unknown. To address this question, we utilized the memory reactivation-reconsolidation framework [2, 12] stemming from studies at the synaptic level [14-17], according to which reactivation of a memory enables its update. In a set of experiments, using the motor sequence learning task [18] we report that a unique pairing of reactivating the original memory (right hand) in synchrony with novel memory trials (left hand) prevented future interference between the two memories. Strikingly, these effects were long-term and observed a month following reactivation. Further experiments showed that preventing future interference was not due to practice per se, but rather specifically depended on a limited time window induced by reactivation of the original memory. These results suggest a mechanism according to which memory reactivation enables long-term prevention of interference, possibly by creating an updated memory trace integrating original and novel memories during the reconsolidation time window. The opportunity to induce a long-term preventive effect on memories may enable the utilization of strategies optimizing normal human learning, as well as recovery following neurological insults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term EEG in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  11. Long-term energy futures: the critical role of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the results of a 5-year study conducted by IIASA jointly with the World Energy Council (WEC) on long term-energy perspectives. After summarizing the study's main findings, the paper addresses the crucial role of technological change in the evolution of long-term energy futures and in responding to key long-term uncertainties in the domains of energy demand growth, economics, as well as environmental protection. Based on most recent empirical and methodological findings, long-term dynamics of technological change portray a number of distinct features that need to be taken account of in technology and energy policy. First, success of innovation efforts and ultimate outcomes of technological are uncertain. Second, new, improved technologies are not a free good, but require continued dedicated efforts. Third, technological knowledge (as resulting from R and D and accumulation of experience, i.e. technological learning) exhibits characteristics of (uncertain) increasing returns. Forth, due to innovation - diffusion lags, technological interdependence, and infrastructure needs (network externalities), rates of change in large-scale energy systems are necessarily slow. This implies acting sooner rather than later as a contigency policy to respond to long-term social, economic and environmental uncertainties, most notably possible climate change. Rather than picking technological 'winners' the results of the IIASA-WEC scenario studies are seen most appropriate to guide technology and R and D portfolio analysis. Nonetheless, robust persistent patterns of technological change invariably occur across all scenarios. Examples of primising groups of technologies are given. The crucial importance of meeting long-energy demand in developing countries, assuring large-scale infrastructure investments, maintaining a strong and diversified R AND D protfolio, as well as to dvise new institutional mechnisms for technology development and diffusion for instance

  12. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  13. Long term aspects of uranium tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    1980-05-01

    This paper sets out the background issues which lead to the development of interim close-out criteria for uranium mill tailings. It places the current state-of-the-art for tailings management into both a national and international perspective and shows why such interim criteria are needed now. There are seven specific criteria proposed dealing with the need to have: passive barriers, limits on surface water recharge, durable systems, long term performance guarantees, limits to access, controls on water and airborne releases and finally to have a knowledge of exposure pathways. This paper is intended to serve as a focus for subsequent discussions with all concerned parties. (auth)

  14. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  15. Optimal Long-Term Financial Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. DeMarzo; Michael J. Fishman

    2007-01-01

    We develop an agency model of financial contracting. We derive long-term debt, a line of credit, and equity as optimal securities, capturing the debt coupon and maturity; the interest rate and limits on the credit line; inside versus outside equity; dividend policy; and capital structure dynamics. The optimal debt-equity ratio is history dependent, but debt and credit line terms are independent of the amount financed and, in some cases, the severity of the agency problem. In our model, the ag...

  16. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; T