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Sample records for long-term dose measurements

  1. Dose measurements and LET-determination in space station MIR during the Russian long term flight RLF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.; Schoener, N.; Fugger, M.; Akatov, Y.; Shurshakov, V.

    1996-01-01

    For determination of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent in complex mixed radiation fields, new methods were developed in the frame of the Austrian-Soviet space mission AUSTROMIR in October 1991. The method utilizes the changes of peak height ratios in thermoluminescence glowcurves. Peak height ratios depend on the linear energy transfer (LET) of absorbed radiation. This effect was calibrated in different radiation fields (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, neutron fields and heavy charged particle beams). The method was approached for dose measurements during several space programs (DOSIMIR, BION-10, PHOTONS). During the Russian long term flight RLF six dosemeter packets were exposed in three different periods. Two positions with different shielding (the working area and the cabin of the board engineer) were chosen for the exposition of the dosemeters during each period in order to measure the variation of absorbed dose as well as the variation of average LET of absorbed radiation within the habitable part of space station MIR. These results will be compared with the results during two former periods of measurements on space station MIR (AUSTROMIR/DOSIMIR) and results obtained inside of biosatellite BION-10 and during the space shuttle mission STS-60. (author)

  2. Characterization of long-term dose stability of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.J.; Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC; Chen, C.H.; Hsieh, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the detailed characteristics, including spatial uniformity, dose distributions, inter-batch variability, reproducibility, and long-term temporal stability, of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeter were investigated. A commercial 10x fast optical computed tomography scanner (OCTOPUS TM -10×, MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT, USA) was used to measure NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter. A cylindrical NIPAM gel phantom that measured 10 cm × 10 cm was irradiated via a single-field treatment plan with a field size of 4 cm × 4 cm. The maximum standard deviation of spatial uniformity for NIPAM gel was less than 0.29 %. The average standard deviation among the three batches of gel dosimeters was less than 1 %. The gamma pass rate could reach as high as 96.76 % when a 3 % dose difference and a 3 mm dose-to-agreement criteria were used. The long-term measurement of irradiated NIPAM gel dosimeter indicated that the dose maps attained a gradually stable value 15 h post-irradiation and remained stable until 72 h post-irradiation. The gamma pass rate could achieve a maximum value between 24 and 72 h post-irradiation. The edge enhancement effect that occurred around the irradiated region was observed 72 h post-irradiation. Thus, the results from this study suggest that NIPAM gel dosimeter should be measured approximately 24 h post-irradiation to reduce the occurrence of the edge enhancement effect. (author)

  3. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  4. Long-term TLD measurements of environmental background radiation in the New York City Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiello, M.

    1994-11-01

    The results of month-long TLD measurements at seven locations within 150 km of New York City are reported for 12 years at a few locations and for up to 18 years at others. At some locations, multiple dosimeters were deployed to acquire concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements. The sites were varied and include an urban high-rise residence, three suburban backyards, a rural hillside, and the wooded outskirts of a nuclear power plant (nonoperational). Long-term mean dose rates in air ranged from 50.8 to 123.1 nGy h -1 (5.8 to 14.1 μR h -1 ) across the area. The typical seasonal dose rate in air variations are presented for two of the sites and are briefly discussed in terms of soil conditions. The data indicate that it is possible to achieve monthly variations from the long-term mean as high as 20 to 40%. One of these locations was monitored for indoor (2 floors) and outdoor air dose rates. This allowed for a time series comparison to be performed illustrating the changing contribution of terrestrial radiation to the total dose rate relative to the steady building material-derived radioactivity. This site also permitted the calculation of indoor/outdoor ratios for two floors. Another suburban location yielded an indoor/outdoor ratio using ground floor dose-rate-in-air measurements. Also presented are mean annual dose rates in air showing a long-term decrease at some locations. A statistical Kendall test was performed to quantify the magnitude of the decrease. A definitive explanation of this trend requires further study

  5. The Erlangen Dose Optimization Trial for radiotherapy of benign painful shoulder syndrome. Long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, O.J.; Hertel, S.; Gaipl, U.S.; Frey, B.; Schmidt, M.; Fietkau, R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of pain reduction by two dose-fractionation schedules for radiotherapy of painful shoulder syndrome. Between February 2006 and February 2010, 312 evaluable patients were recruited for this prospective trial. All patients received low-dose orthovoltage radiotherapy. One course consisted of 6 fractions in 3 weeks. In the case of insufficient pain remission after 6 weeks, a second course was administered. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups to receive single doses of either 0.5 or 1.0 Gy. Endpoint was pain reduction. Pain was measured before radiotherapy, as well as immediately after (early response), 6 weeks after (delayed response) and approximately 3 years after (long-term response) completion of radiotherapy using a questionnaire-based visual analogue scale (VAS) and a comprehensive pain score (CPS). Median follow-up was 35 months (range 11-57). The overall early, delayed and long-term response rates for all patients were 83, 85 and 82%, respectively. The mean VAS scores before treatment and those for early, delayed and long-term response in the 0.5- and 1.0-Gy groups were 56.8±23.7 and 53.2±21.8 (p=0.16); 38.2±36.1 and 34.0±24.5 (p=0.19); 33.0±27.2 and 23.7±22.7 (p=0.04) and 27.9±25.8 and 32.1±26.9 (p=0.25), respectively. The mean CPS values before treatment and those for early, delayed and long-term response were 9.7±3.0 and 9.5±2.7 (p=0.31); 6.1±3.6 and 5.4±3.6 (p=0.10); 5.3±3.7 and 4.1±3.7 (p=0.05) and 4.0±3.9 and 5.3±4.4 (p=0.05), respectively. No significant differences in the quality of the long-term response were found between the 0.5- and 1.0-Gy arms (p=0.28). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the management of benign painful shoulder syndrome. For radiation protection reasons, the dose for a radiotherapy series should not exceed 3.0 Gy. (orig.)

  6. Biologically-equivalent dose and long-term survival time in radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, Marco; Hanin, Leonid

    2007-01-01

    Within the linear-quadratic model the biologically-effective dose (BED)-taken to represent treatments with an equal tumor control probability (TCP)-is commonly (and plausibly) calculated according to BED(D) = -log[S(D)]/α. We ask whether in the presence of cellular proliferation this claim is justified and examine, as a related question, the extent to which BED approximates an isoeffective dose (IED) defined, more sensibly, in terms of an equal long-term survival probability, rather than TCP. We derive, under the assumption that cellular birth and death rates are time homogeneous, exact equations for the isoeffective dose, IED. As well, we give a rigorous definition of effective long-term survival time, T eff . By using several sets of radiobiological parameters, we illustrate potential differences between BED and IED on the one hand and, on the other, between T eff calculated as suggested here or by an earlier recipe. In summary: (a) the equations currently in use for calculating the effective treatment time may underestimate the isoeffective dose and should be avoided. The same is the case for the tumor control probability (TCP), only more so; (b) for permanent implants BED may be a poor substitute for IED; (c) for a fractionated treatment schedule, interpreting the observed probability of cure in terms of a TCP formalism that refers to the end of the treatment (rather than T eff ) may result in a miscalculation (underestimation) of the initial number of clonogens

  7. Effective Treatment of Intestinal Behçet's Disease with Long-Term, Low-Dose Clarithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiya Hakozaki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old man was referred for body weight loss and lower right abdominal pain. Total colonoscopy revealed discrete and round ulceration at the ileocecal valve, and he was diagnosed with intestinal Behçet's disease (BD. By treatment with glucocorticoid, colchicine and salazosulfapyridine, the symptoms and ulceration were improved, but cessation of glucocorticoid resulted in relapse of ulceration at the terminal ileum. Long-term, low-dose treatment with clarithromycin (CAM was implemented for chronic respiratory infections. Furthermore, we expected that this CAM treatment would also be effective in BD. During this long-term, low-dose treatment with CAM, discrete ulceration at the terminal ileum was never revealed by follow-up total colonoscopy once or twice per year for 7 years. No reports have described the effectiveness of this treatment in patients with intestinal BD; however, we confirm that long-term treatment with low-dose CAM might have clinical benefits for patients with intestinal BD.

  8. Effects of long-term low dose radiation. Epstein-Barr virus-specific antibodies in radiological technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Etsuko; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Onomichi, Mitsukazu; Nakamura, Ikuo; Tanoue, Shozo; Tanaka, Ryuji; Kumagai, Takashi; Katsuki, Takato; Sawada, Shozo.

    1988-09-01

    To clarify the long-term effects of occupational exposure to low doses of radiation, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody titers in sera from 104 radiological technologists (R.T.) and 118 controls in Kumamoto prefecture were measured by the immunofluorescence method. Antibody titers to viral capsid antigen (VCA)-IgG increased with the years of experience as R.T., and the prevalence of abnormal antibody titers to both VCA-IgG and early antigen (EA)-IgG were significantly higher in R.T. with over 15 years of experience or 30 rads of cumulative radiation dose than in the controls. However, there was no correlation between exposure and the frequency of abnormal EBV-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibody titers. The EBV-specific antibody titers of 24 Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors were also measured. They were similar to those of the R.T. with over 30 years of experience. The EBV-specific antibody titers of R.T. suggest that there may be an impairment of immunologic competence after continuous long-term exposure to low doses of radiation. Also, the correlation of EBV-specific antibody titers and frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations in 53 R.T. was studied. Some correlations were found between the antibody titers to both of the VCA-IgG and EBNA and the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations.

  9. Long Term assessment of the dose registered by the Sanitary workers of a mutual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anies Escartin, J.; Perramon Llado, A.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of a long time period of time (about 17 years) of the professional exposure to ionising radiation of the workers of an accidents Mutual, that has its own personal Dosimetry Service, allows to establish a relation between the showed global reduction of the registered doses of the people exposed and the circumstances and actions that did it possible. The fact to carry out a dosimetric control is an essential factor directed to accomplish the objective of holding the doses as low as achievable, joined with the fact of passing more strict law. Those factors that fixed a reduction of the doses inherited by the sanitary exposed workers whose relation are demonstrated in this study. The collective dose inherited by the bunch of people exposed is the parameter suitable to measure and assess the time history at medium and long term of the exposure conditions of the workers, and identify the more relevant characteristics of the risk by ionising radiation at workplace. The conclusion of the time history analysis of the quantity shows that the total collective dose for more than a thousand people group, are strongly affected by the doses corresponding to less than a 1,5 % of the users. The number of people that have a value dose higher that the average, and the high value of the dose in some periods because of their activity lead to changes of the value of the collective doses that can be higher than 100%. This great uncertainty in the measured value needs more than ten months of control to guarantee the lowering of doses received. The decreasing doses observed are strongly related with the reduction of this relative short number of cases with incidences in the doses registered. An important part of the work is related to identifying the incidences registered, noticing the evolution and checking the most suitable actions to lower it. (Author) 4 refs

  10. Long-Term Outcomes After High-Dose Postprostatectomy Salvage Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenka, Anuj; Magsanoc, Juan Martin; Pei Xin; Schechter, Michael; Kollmeier, Marisa; Cox, Brett; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the impact of high–dose radiotherapy (RT) in the postprostatectomy salvage setting on long-term biochemical control and distant metastases–free survival, and to identify clinical and pathologic predictors of outcomes. Methods and Materials: During 1988–2007, 285 consecutive patients were treated with salvage RT (SRT) after radical prostatectomy. All patients were treated with either three-dimensional conformal RT or intensity-modulated RT. Two hundred seventy patients (95%) were treated to a dose ≥66 Gy, of whom 205 (72%) received doses ≥70 Gy. Eighty-seven patients (31%) received androgen-deprivation therapy as a component of their salvage treatment. All clinical and pathologic records were reviewed to identify treatment risk factors and response. Results: The median follow-up time after SRT was 60 months. Seven-year actuarial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival and distant metastases–free survival were 37% and 77%, respectively. Independent predictors of biochemical recurrence were vascular invasion (p 0.4 ng/mL (p < 0.01), androgen-deprivation therapy (p = 0.03), Gleason score ≥7 (p = 0.02), and seminal vesicle involvement (p = 0.05). Salvage RT dose ≥70 Gy was not associated with improvement in biochemical control. A doubling time <3 months was the only independent predictor of metastatic disease (p < 0.01). There was a trend suggesting benefit of SRT dose ≥70 Gy in preventing clinical local failure in patients with radiographically visible local disease at time of SRT (7 years: 90% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.07). Conclusion: Salvage RT provides effective long-term biochemical control and freedom from metastasis in selected patients presenting with detectable PSA after prostatectomy. Androgen-deprivation therapy was associated with improvement in biochemical progression-free survival. Clinical local failures were rare but occurred most commonly in patients with greater burden of disease at time of SRT as reflected by

  11. Long-Term Outcomes After High-Dose Postprostatectomy Salvage Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenka, Anuj; Magsanoc, Juan Martin; Pei Xin; Schechter, Michael; Kollmeier, Marisa; Cox, Brett [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A. [Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To review the impact of high-dose radiotherapy (RT) in the postprostatectomy salvage setting on long-term biochemical control and distant metastases-free survival, and to identify clinical and pathologic predictors of outcomes. Methods and Materials: During 1988-2007, 285 consecutive patients were treated with salvage RT (SRT) after radical prostatectomy. All patients were treated with either three-dimensional conformal RT or intensity-modulated RT. Two hundred seventy patients (95%) were treated to a dose {>=}66 Gy, of whom 205 (72%) received doses {>=}70 Gy. Eighty-seven patients (31%) received androgen-deprivation therapy as a component of their salvage treatment. All clinical and pathologic records were reviewed to identify treatment risk factors and response. Results: The median follow-up time after SRT was 60 months. Seven-year actuarial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival and distant metastases-free survival were 37% and 77%, respectively. Independent predictors of biochemical recurrence were vascular invasion (p < 0.01), negative surgical margins (p < 0.01), presalvage PSA level >0.4 ng/mL (p < 0.01), androgen-deprivation therapy (p = 0.03), Gleason score {>=}7 (p = 0.02), and seminal vesicle involvement (p = 0.05). Salvage RT dose {>=}70 Gy was not associated with improvement in biochemical control. A doubling time <3 months was the only independent predictor of metastatic disease (p < 0.01). There was a trend suggesting benefit of SRT dose {>=}70 Gy in preventing clinical local failure in patients with radiographically visible local disease at time of SRT (7 years: 90% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.07). Conclusion: Salvage RT provides effective long-term biochemical control and freedom from metastasis in selected patients presenting with detectable PSA after prostatectomy. Androgen-deprivation therapy was associated with improvement in biochemical progression-free survival. Clinical local failures were rare but occurred most commonly in

  12. Review of Cl-36 behaviour in the biosphere and implications for long-term dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, E.; Smith, G.; Lloyd, P.

    2009-01-01

    Cl-36 is an important contributor to potential radiation doses in the long term, arising from release into the biosphere from radioactive waste disposal facilities. Its special attributes include its long half-life, high mobility in many environmental conditions, and potentially high uptake into plants and hence accumulation in the food-chain. Review has shown very wide ranges of Cl-36 values of parameters commonly employed in models used for long term doses. Accordingly, a workshop was held recently within the aegis of the international collaboration project BIOPROTA, to consider the causes of such variation, and in particular: to provide an open forum for presentation and discussion of environmental processes involved in Cl-36 migration and accumulation, and on how to model them, and to develop recommendations for the direction of continuing research as input to long-term radiological assessment. Participation in the workshop included specialists and contributions from North America, Europe and Japan in environmental behaviour of chlorine, radioecology of Cl-36 and long term dose assessment. This paper will present the output from that workshop in the context of the wider aspects of performance assessment, taking into account information about: waste types for which Cl-36 is a significant component of the total Cl-36 inventory; data requirements for the dose assessment models, notably concerning uptake from soils into food crops which may lead to higher doses than direct consumption of contaminated drinking water; critical data weaknesses which may lead to overly pessimistic dose estimates; time dependent factors within a single growing season which can affect final concentrations in food crops for animals and humans; alternative conceptual models for the behaviour of Cl-36 in the environment, notably models structured as other trace radionuclide dose assessment models as opposed to models which are based specifically on chlorine behaviour which should take

  13. Prospective memory deficits in illicit polydrug users are associated with the average long-term typical dose of ecstasy typically consumed in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Denis T; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine; Robinson, Sarita J; Judge, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that ecstasy-related reductions in SERT densities relate more closely to the number of tablets typically consumed per session rather than estimated total lifetime use. To better understand the basis of drug related deficits in prospective memory (p.m.) we explored the association between p.m. and average long-term typical dose and long-term frequency of use. Study 1: Sixty-five ecstasy/polydrug users and 85 nonecstasy users completed an event-based, a short-term and a long-term time-based p.m. task. Study 2: Study 1 data were merged with outcomes on the same p.m. measures from a previous study creating a combined sample of 103 ecstasy/polydrug users, 38 cannabis-only users, and 65 nonusers of illicit drugs. Study 1: Ecstasy/polydrug users had significant impairments on all p.m. outcomes compared with nonecstasy users. Study 2: Ecstasy/polydrug users were impaired in event-based p.m. compared with both other groups and in long-term time-based p.m. compared with nonillicit drug users. Both drug using groups did worse on the short-term time-based p.m. task compared with nonusers. Higher long-term average typical dose of ecstasy was associated with poorer performance on the event and short-term time-based p.m. tasks and accounted for unique variance in the two p.m. measures over and above the variance associated with cannabis and cocaine use. The typical ecstasy dose consumed in a single session is an important predictor of p.m. impairments with higher doses reflecting increasing tolerance giving rise to greater p.m. impairment.

  14. Growth hormone therapy for children born small for gestational age: height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 3% of children are born small for gestational age (SGA), and approximately 10% of SGA children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life. Among short SGA children, growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner; experience with long-term therapy is limited. To delineate the dose dependency of long-term height gain among short SGA children receiving GH therapy. We performed an epianalysis of the first adult height data for SGA children (n = 28) enrolled in 3 randomized trials comparing the growth-promoting efficacy of 2 continuous GH regimens (33 or 67 microg/kg per day for approximately 10 years, starting at approximately 5 years of age); in addition, we performed a meta-analysis of the adult height results published previously and those presented here. Epianalysis outcomes (n = 28) suggested that adult height increased more with a higher-dose regimen than with a lower-dose regimen. In the meta-analysis (n = 82), the higher-dose regimen was found to elicit a long-term height gain superior to that achieved with the lower-dose regimen by a mean of 0.4 SD (approximately 1 inch). Children who were shorter at the start of therapy experienced more long-term height gain. These findings confirm GH therapy as an effective and safe approach to reduce the adult height deficit that short SGA children otherwise face. In addition, the first meta-analysis indicated that height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term, at least within the dose range explored to date. For SGA children whose stature is not extremely short, current data support the use of a GH dose of approximately 33 microg/kg per day from start to adult height, particularly if treatment starts at a young age; shorter children (for example, height below -3 SD) might benefit from an approach in which short-term catch-up growth is achieved with a higher dose (> or =50 microg/kg per day) and long-term growth

  15. Relationship between short and long term radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Ramirez, D.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this work the radon group of the Faculty of Chemistry at the National University of Mexico presents the results obtained in the establishment of a relation between the short and long term radon measures made with passive electret detectors E-PERM type LLT and HST. The measures were carried out inside single family dwellings (open house condition) located in the southeast of Mexico City (in Xochimilco) during the four seasons of the year 1997. A correlation was established between the short term measures (five days) and those of a long term for every season as well as an annual average, with an equation that relates them. The objective and advantage of this correlation are that with a short term measure it is possible to predict the annual mean radon concentration, that represents a saving of human and economic resources. (author)

  16. Comparative study of short- and long-term indoor radon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Abdalla, Khalid [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-08-15

    Short-term indoor radon measurements are used widely. Therefore, it is interesting to find out a correlation between these measurements and long-term measurements which reflect a better average radon concentration of individual measurement. To find the correlation between the two measurements of indoor radon concentrations at low radon levels, a study was carried out at 34 locations of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia using active and passive methods. In the short-term active method, a radon gas analyzer (AlphaGUARD) was used for a duration of 24 h in each measurement. In the long-term passive method, CR-39 based radon dosimeters were utilized for a period of 6 months, from January 2006 to June 2006. The short-term active measurements showed that the average, minimum and maximum radon concentrations were 19, 8 and 58Bqm{sup -3}, respectively, with a standard deviation of 8.6Bqm{sup -3}. The long-term passive measurements showed that the average, minimum and maximum radon concentrations were 25, 10 and 67Bqm{sup -3}, respectively, with a standard deviation of 12Bqm{sup -3}. The two measurements showed a poor correlation (R{sup 2}=0.38). The long-term measurements showed on the average higher concentrations by a factor of 1.3.

  17. Long term population dose due to radon (Rn-222) released from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.; Lower, L.M.; Stager, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken by the European Commission on the external costs (environmental and social) of various energy production systems is likely to be influential in determining how the European Union will develop its energy supply systems. The estimated costs for nuclear power from the study will be based on the findings of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), with the costs being dominated by the estimated long term (10,000 y) population doses due to radon (Rn-222) released from mill tailings. UNSCEAR developed a central estimate of 150 person-Sv per GW y and a range of 1 to 1,000 person-Sv per GW y. However, the generic data available to and being used by UNSCEAR are dated and are not appropriate for the current and planned future conditions in the uranium production industry, with the result that the estimated external costs of nuclear power (specifically, the doses due to radon emitted from mill tailings) are overestimated. The Uranium Institute sponsored a study to estimate long term population doses based on the most recent 1993 UNSCEAR methodology, but using data that would be more appropriate to the current major uranium production facilities. Site-specific information obtained from the owners/operators and the Uranium Institute included: present and proposed tailings management plans; tailings volumes and areas; ore grades and reserves; measurements and estimates of radon emission rates; and population densities. Tailings at closed facilities that no longer contribute to uranium production were not evaluated since it was assumed that these radon sources need not be considered in evaluating the external costs of current and future nuclear power production. Based on the same approach as UNSCEAR, but using a more sophisticated air dispersion model, and more site-specific data relative to existing sites and proposed tailings management practices, radon emission rates and population densities (that

  18. Reaction of the hematopoietic system under long-term emotional stress developed after preliminary gamma-irradiation with low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Deshevoj, Yu.B.; Lebedev, V.G.; Lyrshchikova, A.V.; Vorotnikova, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    In experiments on rats and mice it was shown that the preliminary protected gamma-irradiation with cumulative dose of 0.9 Gy (dose rate - 0.03 Gy/day) or single short-term gamma-irradiation with dose of 0.9 Gy (dose rate - 1.61 Gy/min) inhibited development of adaptive reactions and compensatory abilities of the hematopoietic system under long-term emotional stress

  19. Immunomodulatory Effects of Macrolide Antibiotics - Part 2 : Advantages and Disadvantages of Long-Term, Low-Dose Macrolide Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, J.; de Graaff, C. S.; van der Werf, T. S.; Boersma, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    The available evidence for long-term, low-dose treatment with 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, COPD, chronic sinusitis, and asthma is reviewed with special attention to possible adverse effects and the emergence of resistance during long-term macrolide

  20. Long-term dose-response studies of inhaled or injected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Miller, S.C.; Bradley, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the scientific progress in, and current status of, life-span studies of the long-term health risks in Beagle dogs of chronic irradiation from internally deposited radionuclides or from an external source. The reporting period for this document is the 2-year period from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1993. Studies that were initiated at three different laboratories (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, ITRI, University of Utah, and Argonne National Laboratory, ANL) are presented here because they are being completed at ITRI. All living dogs in the Utah-initiated studies were transferred to the ITRI facility for the remainder of their life-span observations and measurements in September 1987. This report is the fourth in a series of reports dealing with the current status and progress of both the Utah and ITRI studies. Other life-span studies involving dogs exposed to gamma radiation from an external source were initiated and conducted for many years at ANL. In 1991, the decision was made to discontinue the chronic irradiation of the remaining living dogs and to transfer all remaining dogs to ITRI for care, clinical observations, and pathological observations at death or euthanasia. This report provides the current status of these dogs. Status reports on the Utah and ITRI studies comprise most of this report. The ITRI-related section presents brief statements of project objectives, the general procedures used in these studies, and some study-specific features for each of the 19 studies being conducted with either beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides. Dose- and effect-modifying factors being addressed in these studies include total dose, dose rate, LET, solubility, nonuniformity of dose, species, age, sex, health status, and mode of exposure. Recent additions to experimental protocols for studies in which dogs are still alive involve the collection and analysis of tumor tissues using currently available molecular biology techniques

  1. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  2. Chemical protection against long term effects in mice exposed to supralethal doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisin, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Our results demonstrate that mixtures of radioprotectors increase the degree of protection against the short and the long term effects compared with that obtained with each substance given separately. The most potent mixtures of radioprotectors (AET, MEA, Cyst, GSH, 5-HT) yield for the long term survival a dose reduction factor of 2.1. Pulmonary lesions are most often the cause of death in protected mice irradiated with 13.5 Gy or more. At the time of death signs of sclerosis and atrophy in several tissues are associated with these lung lesions in most mice and increase with dose and time after exposure. The tissues most affected are the kidney, the alimentary tract, the liver and the lymphoid tissues [fr

  3. Long-term Dose Stability of OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: A 19-Year Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Paddle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesAdductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD is a focal dystonia predominantly involving the laryngeal adductor muscles. AdSD is reported to be a largely non-progressive neurological disorder, though fluctuations in symptom severity do occur. Repeated laryngeal onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX-A injections are the primary management for AdSD. A number of studies have demonstrated long-term dose stability as evidence of this long-term disease stability.MethodsA retrospective review was performed on all patients undergoing BTX-A injections for AdSD from April 1994 to September 2013 by a single laryngologist at a tertiary referral laryngology center. Patient demographics, injection doses, use of diazepam and/or lidocaine, and self-reported vocal function were recorded. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed.Results83 patients underwent a total of 1,168 injections over 19 years. The mean starting dose was 2.35 MU (0.79 SD. The mean long-term dose was 2.36 MU (0.79 SD. After adjusting for confounders, the change in the relative dose of BTX-A, with every year elapsed since initial dose was 0.13% (95% confidence interval −0.31 to 0.57%, p = 0.568.ConclusionBTX-A dose is stable over time in our large cohort of patients treated with bilateral thyroarytenoid injections for AdSD.

  4. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  5. Are long-term bisphosphonate users a reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of long-term bisphosphonate use may be low due to low refill compliance and gaps in treatment. An analysis of the prescription history of 58,674 bisphosphonate users in Denmark found that only 2.8 % had received ten dose years of treatment or above. INTRODUCTION: This study aims...... to describe the demographics of present bisphosphonate (BP) users, to determine the prevalence of long-term BP use, and to establish if long-term use (a 10-year history of osteoporosis treatment) translated to ten dose years of bisphosphonate prescriptions filled, given the propensity for treatment gaps...... more than ten dose years of a BP. For any osteoporosis drug, 3.0 % had received ten dose years or more, while 23.2 % had received between 5 and 10 years of treatment. CONCLUSION: Long-term users with ten dose years or more of a BP are rare due to periods of low compliance and gaps, with a discrepancy...

  6. Preoperative High-Dose Steroid Has Long-Term Beneficial Effects for Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuichi Tetsuka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies addressing preoperative steroid treatment have revealed that control of myasthenia gravis (MG with steroids prior to surgery appeared to stabilize postoperative status. The purpose of our study was to clarify the clinical benefits of the preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment on the long-term outcomes of MG patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 171 MG patients who were followed up after undergoing thymectomy in our hospital between 1988 and 2006. One hundred and thirteen patients in the programmed treatment group had received preoperative steroid treatment, while 58 patients received no steroid treatment during the preoperative period. Clinical remission, which was defined as the achievement of the modified pharmacologic remission (PR for at least 1 year, and clinical benefits were compared between the two groups. With regard to the remission after thymectomy, Kaplan-Meier life-table curves for patients in the preoperative steroid treatment group versus those for patients in the no steroid preoperative treatment group revealed a significantly higher probability of the PR in the preoperative steroid treatment group (log-rank test, P<0.01. This study might be the first, as per our knowledge, to indicate that preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment has long-term beneficial effects for MG patients.

  7. Radiotherapy for benign achillodynia. Long-term results of the Erlangen Dose Optimization Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Oliver J.; Jeremias, Carolin; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin; Schmidt, Manfred; Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of two dose-fractionation schedules for radiotherapy of achillodynia. Between February 2006 and February 2010, 112 evaluable patients were recruited for this prospective trial. All patients received orthovoltage radiotherapy. One course consisted of 6 fractions/3 weeks. In the case of insufficient remission of pain after 6 weeks, a second series was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either single doses of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy. The endpoint was pain reduction. Pain was measured before, right after (early response), 6 weeks after (delayed response), and approximately 2 years after radiotherapy (long-term response) with a questionnaire-based visual analogue scale (VAS) and a comprehensive pain score (CPS). The median follow-up was 24 months (range, 11-56). The overall early, delayed, and long-term response rates for all patients were 84 %, 88 %, and 95 %, respectively. The mean VAS values before treatment for early, delayed, and long-term responses for the 0.5-Gy and 1.0-Gy groups were 55.7 ± 21.0 and 58.2 ± 23.5 (p = 0.53), 38.0 ± 23.2 and 30.4 ± 22.6 (p = 0.08), 35.5 ± 25.9 and 30.9 ± 25.4 (p = 0.52), and 11.2 ± 16.4 and 15.3 ± 18.9 (p = 0.16), respectively. The mean CPS values before treatment for early, delayed, and long-term responses were 8.2 ± 3.0 and 8.9 ± 3.3 (p = 0.24), 5.6 ± 3.1 and 5.4 ± 3.3 (p = 0.76), 4.4 ± 2.6 and 5.3 ± 3.8 (p = 0.58), and 2.2 ± 2.9 and 2.8 ± 3.3 (p = 0.51), respectively. No significant differences in long-term response quality between the two arms was found (p = 0.73). Radiotherapy is a very effective treatment for the management of benign achillodynia. For radiation protection, the dose for a radiotherapy series should not exceed 3.0 Gy. (orig.) [German] Ziel war die Untersuchung der Langzeiteffektivitaet zweier Dosisfraktionierungskonzepte bei der Strahlentherapie von Patienten mit Achillodynie. Zwischen 2006 und 2010 wurden 112 auswertbare

  8. Long-term prognostic performance of low-dose coronary computed tomography angiography with prospective electrocardiogram triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, Olivier F.; Kaufmann, Basil P.; Possner, Mathias; Liga, Riccardo; Vontobel, Jan; Mikulicic, Fran; Graeni, Christoph; Benz, Dominik C.; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Stehli, Julia; Pazhenkottil, Aju P.; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Buechel, Ronny R. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    To assess long-term prognosis after low-dose 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using prospective electrocardiogram-triggering. We included 434 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease referred for low-dose CCTA. Patients were classified as normal, with non-obstructive or obstructive lesions, or previously revascularized. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was assessed in 223 patients. Follow-up was obtained regarding major adverse cardiac events (MACE): cardiac death, myocardial infarction and elective revascularization. We performed Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regressions. Mean effective radiation dose was 1.7 ± 0.6 mSv. At baseline, 38% of patients had normal arteries, 21% non-obstructive lesions, 32% obstructive stenosis and 8% were revascularized. Twenty-nine patients (7%) were lost to follow-up. After a median follow-up of 6.1 ± 0.6 years, MACE occurred in 0% of patients with normal arteries, 6% with non-obstructive lesions, 30% with obstructive stenosis and 39% of those revascularized. MACE occurrence increased with increasing CACS (P < 0.001), but 4% of patients with CACS = 0 experienced MACE. Multivariate Cox regression identified obstructive stenosis, lesion burden in CCTA and CACS as independent MACE predictors (P ≤ 0.001). Low-dose CCTA with prospective electrocardiogram-triggering has an excellent long-term prognostic performance with a warranty period >6 years for patients with normal coronary arteries. (orig.)

  9. Long-term prognostic performance of low-dose coronary computed tomography angiography with prospective electrocardiogram triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, Olivier F.; Kaufmann, Basil P.; Possner, Mathias; Liga, Riccardo; Vontobel, Jan; Mikulicic, Fran; Graeni, Christoph; Benz, Dominik C.; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Stehli, Julia; Pazhenkottil, Aju P.; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Buechel, Ronny R.

    2017-01-01

    To assess long-term prognosis after low-dose 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using prospective electrocardiogram-triggering. We included 434 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease referred for low-dose CCTA. Patients were classified as normal, with non-obstructive or obstructive lesions, or previously revascularized. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was assessed in 223 patients. Follow-up was obtained regarding major adverse cardiac events (MACE): cardiac death, myocardial infarction and elective revascularization. We performed Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regressions. Mean effective radiation dose was 1.7 ± 0.6 mSv. At baseline, 38% of patients had normal arteries, 21% non-obstructive lesions, 32% obstructive stenosis and 8% were revascularized. Twenty-nine patients (7%) were lost to follow-up. After a median follow-up of 6.1 ± 0.6 years, MACE occurred in 0% of patients with normal arteries, 6% with non-obstructive lesions, 30% with obstructive stenosis and 39% of those revascularized. MACE occurrence increased with increasing CACS (P < 0.001), but 4% of patients with CACS = 0 experienced MACE. Multivariate Cox regression identified obstructive stenosis, lesion burden in CCTA and CACS as independent MACE predictors (P ≤ 0.001). Low-dose CCTA with prospective electrocardiogram-triggering has an excellent long-term prognostic performance with a warranty period >6 years for patients with normal coronary arteries. (orig.)

  10. Cystic fibrosis in adults. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of the Brody score for lung morphology in low-dose MDCT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K.; Paolini, M.; Schmitz, M.; Coppenrath, E.; Reiser, M.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Fischer, R.; Huber, R. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Medical Hospital V

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The semi-quantitative Brody score measures the severity of cystic fibrosis (CF)-related lung disease. We investigated the short-term (28 - 60 days) and long-term (2 - 7 years) intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of the Brody score in low-dose multidetector row computed tomography examinations performed in inspiration (LDCTs) of adult CF patients. Materials and Methods: Composite Brody scores and respective underlying bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, peribronchial thickening, parenchymal opacity, and hyperinflation subscores were evaluated twice (time interval, 1 - 84 months) by each of 3 independent radiologists (1 - 20 years of professional diagnostic radiology experience) in LDCTs (4 - 64 rows, 120 KVp, 10 - 15 mAs/slice, CTDIw approx. 1.0 mGy, effective dose approx. 0.5 mSv) of 15 adult patients with CF-related lung disease (8 female, 7 male, age, 18 - 50 years, mean, 33 years). Results: The average reproducibility of the Brody score was within +/-7 % (range, 2 - 30 %) between radiologists, and +/-6 % (3 - 12 %) within radiologists (short-term, 28 - 60 days, 4 %, 0 - 12 %, long-term, 2 - 7 years, 12 %, 1 - 36 %). For the different subscores, the reproducibility was within +/-25 % (15 - 41 %) between radiologists and +/-23 % (12 - 46 %) within radiologists. Conclusion: The Brody score shows high average inter-observer reproducibility in LDCTs of adult CF patients. The Brody score also demonstrates high average intra-observer reproducibility if subsequent assessments are made within 28 - 61 days. With time intervals of 2 - 7 years between subsequent evaluations, however, intra-observer reproducibility decreases. Respective subscores each demonstrate lower intra- and inter-observer reproducibility than does the composite Brody score. (orig.)

  11. Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sophie; Mian, Firoz M.; Stanisz, Andrew M.; Bindels, Laure B.; Cambier, Emmanuel; Ben-Amram, Hila; Koren, Omry; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children's health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria. PMID:28375200

  12. Long-Term Results After High-Dose Radiotherapy and Adjuvant Hormones in Prostate Cancer: How Curable Is High-Risk Disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatero, Almudena, E-mail: azapatero.hlpr@salud.madrid.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Vicente, Feliciano [Department of Medical Physics, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Martin de Vidales, Carmen; Cruz Conde, Alfonso; Ibanez, Yamile [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, Inmaculada; Rabadan, Mariano [Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze long-term outcome and prognostic factors for high-risk prostate cancer defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria treated with high-dose radiotherapy and androgen deprivation in a single institution. Methods and Materials: A total of 306 patients treated between 1995 and 2007 in a radiation dose-escalation program fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network high-risk criteria. Median International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements radiation dose was 78 Gy (range, 66.0-84.1 Gy). Long-term androgen deprivation (LTAD) was administered in 231 patients, short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) in 59 patients, and no hormones in 16 patients. The Phoenix (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) consensus definition was used for biochemical control. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent prognostic impact of clinical and treatment factors. Median follow-up time was 64 months (range, 24-171 months). Results: The actuarial overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 95.7% and 89.8%, respectively, and the corresponding biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was 89.5% and 67.2%, respectively. Fourteen patients (4.6%) developed distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that Gleason score >7 (p = 0.001), pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >20 ng/mL (p = 0.037), higher radiation dose (p = 0.005), and the use of adjuvant LTAD vs. STAD (p = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors affecting bDFS in high-risk disease. The 5-year bDFS for patients treated with LTAD plus radiotherapy dose >78 Gy was 97%. Conclusions: For high-risk patients the present series showed that the use of LTAD in conjunction with higher doses (>78 Gy) of radiotherapy was associated with improved biochemical tumor control. We observed that the presence of Gleason sum >7 and pretreatment PSA level >20 ng/mL in the same patient represents a 6.8 times higher risk of PSA failure. These men could be considered for clinical trials with

  13. Cohort Measures of Internal Migration: Understanding Long-Term Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude

    2017-12-01

    Internal migration intensities fluctuate over time, but both migration levels and trends show great diversity. The dynamics underpinning these trends remain poorly understood because they are analyzed almost exclusively by applying period measures to cross-sectional data. This article proposes 10 cohort measures that can be applied to both prospective and retrospective data to systematically examine long-term trends. To demonstrate their benefits, the proposed measures are applied to retrospective survey data for England that provide residential histories from birth to age 50 for cohorts born between 1918 and 1957. The analysis reveals stable lifetime migration for men but increased lifetime migration for women associated with earlier ages at moving in adulthood and a compression of intervals between consecutive moves. The proposed cohort measures provide a more comprehensive picture of migration behavior and should be used to complement period measures in exploring long-term trends. Increasing availability of retrospective and longitudinal survey data means that researchers can now apply the proposed measures to a wide range of countries.

  14. Long-term follow-up of low-dose external pituitary irradiation for Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littley, M.D.; Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.; Ahmed, S.R.; Sutton, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four patients (three male) with Cushing's disease, aged between 11 and 67 years, were treated with low-dose external pituitary irradiation (20 Gy in eight fractions over 10-12 days) and followed for between 13 and 171 months (median 93 months). Eleven patients (46%) went into remission 4-36 months after irradiation, but five subsequently relapsed. In this series, the low incidence of radiation-induced hypopituitarism and absence of other complications attributable to radiotherapy suggest that low-dose pituitary irradiation may be a useful treatment option in selected patients. However, long-term follow-up has demonstrated a high relapse rate and failure to prevent Nelson's syndrome in adrenalectomized patients, indicating that it should not be used as primary treatment in preference to selective adenomectomy. (author)

  15. MODELING THE VARIATIONS OF DOSE RATE MEASURED BY RAD DURING THE FIRST MSL MARTIAN YEAR: 2012–2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jingnan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Heber, Bernd; Köhler, Jan; Appel, Jan K.; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Zeitlin, Cary [Southwest Research Institute, Earth, Oceans and Space Department, Durham, NH (United States); Rafkin, Scot; Hassler, Donald M.; Ehresmann, Bent [Southwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Posner, Arik [NASA Headquarters, Science Mission Directorate, Washington, DC (United States); Brinza, David E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kahanpää, H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Reitz, Günther, E-mail: guo@physik.uni-kiel.de [Aerospace Medicine, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Köln (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board Mars Science Laboratory’s (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the energy spectra of both energetic charged and neutral particles along with the radiation dose rate at the surface of Mars. With these first-ever measurements on the Martian surface, RAD observed several effects influencing the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) induced surface radiation dose concurrently: (a) short-term diurnal variations of the Martian atmospheric pressure caused by daily thermal tides, (b) long-term seasonal pressure changes in the Martian atmosphere, and (c) the modulation of the primary GCR flux by the heliospheric magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activity and the rotation of the Sun. The RAD surface dose measurements, along with the surface pressure data and the solar modulation factor, are analyzed and fitted to empirical models that quantitatively demonstrate how the long-term influences ((b) and (c)) are related to the measured dose rates. Correspondingly, we can estimate dose rate and dose equivalents under different solar modulations and different atmospheric conditions, thus allowing empirical predictions of the Martian surface radiation environment.

  16. Self-report and long-term field measures of MP3 player use: how accurate is self-report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.

  17. Multidetector CT radiation dose optimisation in adults: short- and long-term effects of a clinical audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tack, Denis; Jahnen, Andreas; Kohler, Sarah; Harpes, Nico; Back, Carlo; Maertelaer, Viviane de; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2014-01-01

    To report short- and long-term effects of an audit process intended to optimise the radiation dose from multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). A survey of radiation dose from all eight MDCT departments in the state of Luxembourg performed in 2007 served as baseline, and involved the most frequently imaged regions (head, sinus, cervical spine, thorax, abdomen, and lumbar spine). CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product per acquisition (DLP/acq), and DLP per examination (DLP/exa) were recorded, and their mean, median, 25th and 75th percentiles compared. In 2008, an audit conducted in each department helped to optimise doses. In 2009 and 2010, two further surveys evaluated the audit's impact on the dose delivered. Between 2007 and 2009, DLP/exa significantly decreased by 32-69 % for all regions (P < 0.001) except the lumbar spine (5 %, P = 0.455). Between 2009 and 2010, DLP/exa significantly decreased by 13-18 % for sinus, cervical and lumbar spine (P ranging from 0.016 to less than 0.001). Between 2007 and 2010, DLP/exa significantly decreased for all regions (18-75 %, P < 0.001). Collective dose decreased by 30 % and the 75th percentile (diagnostic reference level, DRL) by 20-78 %. The audit process resulted in long-lasting dose reduction, with DRLs reduced by 20-78 %, mean DLP/examination by 18-75 %, and collective dose by 30 %. (orig.)

  18. Effects of long-term, low dose rate fission neutron irradiation on the peripheral hematological cells in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Dingwen; Lei Chengxiang; Shen Xianrong; Ma Li; Yang Xufang; Peng Wulin; Dai Shourong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term, low dose rate fission neutron irradiation on the peripheral hematological cells in rats. Methods: 96 rats were randomly divided into the control group and the irradiation group with low dose rate fission neutron ( 252 Cf, 0.35 mGy/h) irradiation 20.5 h every day. 8 rats of each group were killed at 14 d, 28 d, 42d, 56d, 70d after irradiation and 35d after the irradiation, and their peripheral hematological cells were tested respectively. Results: Compared with the control group, peripheral blood WBC was reduced significantly at the dose of 0.3Gy and 0.4Gy (P < 0.05), and was reduced remarkably at dose of 0.5Gy (P<0.01) and 35d after stopping irradiation(P<0.01). At dose of 0.2Gy, Peripheral blood RBC was abnormally higher comparing with the control group (P<0.01), accompanying with higher HCT and HGB, which suggests condensed blood. At the other point, RBC tend to become lower, but only at dose 0.5Gy, and the difference is significant comparing with control group(P <0.05). At dose of 0.3Gy, 0.4Gy and 0.5Gy, HCT were significantly lower comparing with control group. Comparing with control group, MCV was higher at 35d after stopping irradiation, and PLT was significantly lower in dose of 0.2Gy. Conclusion: Long-term irradiation with low dose rate fission neutron could significantly reduce peripheral blood WBC, with less effects on RBC and PLT. The reduced WBC could not recover at 35d after stopping irradiation. (authors)

  19. Long distance elementary measurement of the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Lou Benchao; Wu Chunlei; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan

    2009-04-01

    The working principle and the structure and performances of a long distance controllable individual radiation dose ratio instrument are described. The radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is elementarily measured by using this instrument in the neutron generator hall with high neutron yield. When neutron yield arrives to 2 x 10 11 s -1 , the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is 99.9 μSv/h in 1 h after the generator being stopped. The radiation dose ratio is reduced to 24.4 μSv/h in 39 h after the generator being stopped. When neutron yield is 3.2 x 10 10 s -1 , the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is 21.9 μSv/h in 36 min, after the generator being stopped. The measurement results may provide reference for physical experimenters and neutron generator operators. (authors)

  20. The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

  1. Long-term effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that sources of long-term damage from radiation are two-fold. People who have been exposed to doses of radiation from initial early fallout but have recovered from the acute effects may still suffer long-term damage from their exposure. Those who have not been exposed to early fallout may be exposed to delayed fallout, the hazards from which are almost exclusively from ingesting strontium, caesium and carbon isotopes present in food; the damage caused is relatively unimportant compared with that caused by the brief doses from initial radiation and early fallout. A brief discussion is presented of the distribution of delayed long-lived isotope fallout, and an outline is sketched of late biological effects, such as malignant disease, cataracts, retarded development, infertility and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of macrolide antibiotics - part 2: advantages and disadvantages of long-term, low-dose macrolide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, J; de Graaff, C S; van der Werf, T S; Boersma, W G

    2011-01-01

    The available evidence for long-term, low-dose treatment with 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, COPD, chronic sinusitis, and asthma is reviewed with special attention to possible adverse effects and the emergence of resistance during long-term macrolide treatment. Macrolide maintenance therapy has been proven to be of benefit in diffuse panbronchiolitis and CF, presumably due to an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action in addition to its direct antimicrobial effect. Solid evidence to justify this treatment regimen for non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma, or sinusitis is still lacking, although a beneficial effect of long-term macrolide therapy has been found in small clinical trials on these subjects. Data from randomized trials of long-term macrolide treatment in COPD are conflicting. A sufficiently long duration of treatment and the careful selection of patients appears to be crucial. Aside from its beneficial effects, possible side effects of macrolide treatment should be taken into account, the most important of these being gastrointestinal upset and cardiac arrhythmias. Development of macrolide resistance among respiratory pathogens is very common during long-term macrolide treatment. Whether this finding is clinically significant is a matter of debate. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Population pharmacokinetic model of THC integrates oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dosing and characterizes short- and long-term pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Jules A A C; Guan, Zheng; Oyetayo, Olubukayo-Opeyemi; Klumpers, Linda; Morrison, Paul D; Beumer, Tim L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Cohen, Adam F; Freijer, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannobinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of Cannabis, is known to have a long terminal half-life. However, this characteristic is often ignored in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of THC, which may affect the accuracy of predictions in different pharmacologic areas. For therapeutic use for example, it is important to accurately describe the terminal phase of THC to describe accumulation of the drug. In early clinical research, the THC challenge test can be optimized through more accurate predictions of the dosing sequence and the wash-out between occasions in a crossover setting, which is mainly determined by the terminal half-life of the compound. The purpose of this study is to better quantify the long-term pharmacokinetics of THC. A population-based PK model for THC was developed describing the profile up to 48 h after an oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dose of THC in humans. In contrast to earlier models, the current model integrates all three major administration routes and covers the long terminal phase of THC. Results show that THC has a fast initial and intermediate half-life, while the apparent terminal half-life is long (21.5 h), with a clearance of 38.8 L/h. Because the current model characterizes the long-term pharmacokinetics, it can be used to assess the accumulation of THC in a multiple-dose setting and to forecast concentration profiles of the drug under many different dosing regimens or administration routes. Additionally, this model could provide helpful insights into the THC challenge test used for the development of (novel) compounds targeting the cannabinoid system for different therapeutic applications and could improve decision making in future clinical trials.

  4. Combined management of retroperitoneal sarcoma with dose intensification radiotherapy and resection: Long-term results of a prospective trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Myles J F

    2014-01-07

    Late failure is a challenging problem following resection of retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). We investigated the effects of preoperative XRT plus dose escalation with early postoperative brachytherapy (BT) on long-term survival and recurrence in RPS.

  5. Patient Outcomes in Dose Reduction or Discontinuation of Long-Term Opioid Therapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Joseph W; Lovejoy, Travis I; Becker, William C; Morasco, Benjamin J; Koenig, Christopher J; Hoffecker, Lilian; Dischinger, Hannah R; Dobscha, Steven K; Krebs, Erin E

    2017-08-01

    Expert guidelines recommend reducing or discontinuing long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) when risks outweigh benefits, but evidence on the effect of dose reduction on patient outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. To synthesize studies of the effectiveness of strategies to reduce or discontinue LTOT and patient outcomes after dose reduction among adults prescribed LTOT for chronic pain. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception through April 2017; reference lists; and expert contacts. Original research published in English that addressed dose reduction or discontinuation of LTOT for chronic pain. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality using the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force quality rating criteria. All authors assessed evidence quality using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. Prespecified patient outcomes were pain severity, function, quality of life, opioid withdrawal symptoms, substance use, and adverse events. Sixty-seven studies (11 randomized trials and 56 observational studies) examining 8 intervention categories, including interdisciplinary pain programs, buprenorphine-assisted dose reduction, and behavioral interventions, were found. Study quality was good for 3 studies, fair for 13 studies, and poor for 51 studies. Many studies reported dose reduction, but rates of opioid discontinuation ranged widely across interventions and the overall quality of evidence was very low. Among 40 studies examining patient outcomes after dose reduction (very low overall quality of evidence), improvement was reported in pain severity (8 of 8 fair-quality studies), function (5 of 5 fair-quality studies), and quality of life (3 of 3 fair-quality studies). Heterogeneous interventions and outcome measures; poor-quality studies with uncontrolled designs. Very low quality evidence suggests that several types of interventions may be effective to reduce or

  6. Multidetector CT radiation dose optimisation in adults: short- and long-term effects of a clinical audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tack, Denis [EpiCURA Hospital, Clinique Louis Caty, Department of Radiology, Baudour (Belgium); Jahnen, Andreas; Kohler, Sarah [CRP Henri Tudor, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Harpes, Nico; Back, Carlo [Ministry of Health, Department of Radiation Protection, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Maertelaer, Viviane de [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moleculaire and SBIM, Statistical Unit, Brussels (Belgium); Gevenois, Pierre Alain [Hopital Erasme, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-01-15

    To report short- and long-term effects of an audit process intended to optimise the radiation dose from multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). A survey of radiation dose from all eight MDCT departments in the state of Luxembourg performed in 2007 served as baseline, and involved the most frequently imaged regions (head, sinus, cervical spine, thorax, abdomen, and lumbar spine). CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product per acquisition (DLP/acq), and DLP per examination (DLP/exa) were recorded, and their mean, median, 25th and 75th percentiles compared. In 2008, an audit conducted in each department helped to optimise doses. In 2009 and 2010, two further surveys evaluated the audit's impact on the dose delivered. Between 2007 and 2009, DLP/exa significantly decreased by 32-69 % for all regions (P < 0.001) except the lumbar spine (5 %, P = 0.455). Between 2009 and 2010, DLP/exa significantly decreased by 13-18 % for sinus, cervical and lumbar spine (P ranging from 0.016 to less than 0.001). Between 2007 and 2010, DLP/exa significantly decreased for all regions (18-75 %, P < 0.001). Collective dose decreased by 30 % and the 75th percentile (diagnostic reference level, DRL) by 20-78 %. The audit process resulted in long-lasting dose reduction, with DRLs reduced by 20-78 %, mean DLP/examination by 18-75 %, and collective dose by 30 %. (orig.)

  7. Radioimmunotherapy for liver micrometastases in mice. Pharmacokinetics, dose estimation, and long-term effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, Tsuneo; Sakahara, Harumi; Nakamoto, Yuji; Sato, Noriko; Zhao, Songji; Iida, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Junji; Kuroki, Masahide; Endo, Keigo

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic dose of 131 I-labeled antibody and the absorbed dose in liver micrometastases of human colon cancer LS174T in female BALB/c nu/nu mice were investigated, along with the long-term therapeutic effect. Mice with liver micrometastases were given an intravenous injection of 131 I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody F33-104 (8.88 MBq/40 μg). The biodistribution of the antibody was determined 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 days later. The absorbed dose was estimated for three hypothetical tumor diameters; 1,000, 500, and 300 μm. Autoradiography showed a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity in the micrometastases, and a high uptake was maintained until day 6 (24.0% injected dose (ID)/g on day 1 to 17.8% ID/g on day 6), but decreased thereafter. The absorbed doses in the 1,000-, 500-, and 300-μm tumors were calculated to be 19.1, 12.0, and 8.2 Gy, respectively. The intravenous injection of the 131 I-labeled antibody also showed a dose-dependent therapeutic effect (all mice of the nontreated group died, with a mean survival period of 4 weeks; 3 of the 8 mice that received 9.25 MBq survived up to 120 days with no sign of liver metastasis). These data give further evidence that micrometastasis is a good target of radioimmunotherapy, and that an absorbed dose of less than 20 Gy can effectively control small metastatic lesions. (author)

  8. Long term neurocognitive impact of low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Kwok, Ka Ming; Chan, Peggy Hiu Ying; So, Hung Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fok, Tai Fai

    2013-04-01

    International studies suggest that low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure (>29 nmol/L) has long-term adverse neurocognitive effects. There is evidence that the majority of children in Hong Kong exceed this level as a result of high fish consumption of mothers during pregnancy. To study whether there are any associations between low-dose prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in Hong Kong children. All 1057 children from the original birth cohort were eligible for entry into the study, except children with conditions that would affect neurocognitive development, but were unrelated to methylmercury exposure. Subjects were assessed by a wide panel of tests covering a broad range of neurocognitive functions: Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT), Tests of Everyday Attention for Children (TEACH), Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test. 608 subjects were recruited (median age 8.2 years, IQR 7.3, 8.8; 53.9% boys). After correction by confounders including child age and sex, multivariate analysis showed that cord blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with three subtests: Picture Arrangement of HK-WISC (coefficient -0.944, P=0.049) and Short and Long Delay Recall Difference of the HKLLT (coefficient -1.087, P=0.007 and coefficient -1.161, P=0.005, respectively), i.e., performance worsened with increasing prenatal methylmercury exposure in these subtests. Small, but statistically significant adverse associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure and long-term neurocognitive effects (a visual sequencing task and retention ability of verbal memory) were found in our study. These effects are compatible with findings of studies with higher prenatal methylmercury exposure levels and suggest that safe strategies to further reduce exposure levels in Hong Kong are desirable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Postoperative improvement in acoustic rhinometry measurements after septoplasty correlates with long-term satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, N M; Frisch, Thomas; von Buchwald, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Not much is known about long-term satisfaction of septoplasty. Our goal was to compare pre- and postoperative acoustic rhinometry measurements with satisfaction 11 years after surgery.......Not much is known about long-term satisfaction of septoplasty. Our goal was to compare pre- and postoperative acoustic rhinometry measurements with satisfaction 11 years after surgery....

  10. Long-term radiation effects on commercial cable-insulating materials irradiated at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Stolarz, A.

    1983-01-01

    Long-term irradiation damage tests have been carried out on a variety of flexible cable-insulating materials offered to CERN by different European cable manufacturers. Tensile test specimens were exposed for a maximum of three years in high-level radiation areas of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and for comparison at high dose rates in a nuclear reactor. The degradation of mechanical properties after irradiation in air depends not only on the total absorbed dose, but also on the dose rate for most of these polymer compounds. These dose-rate effects vary between material types and for different compounds. The results presented here illustrate the difference in radiation damage between short-term and long-term irradiation conditions in a typical service application for the various materials tested. They also allow safety factors to be estimated for the extrapolation of the limiting exposure in service from accelerated material tests in the range of dose rates covered. A discussion of the available models of the dose-rate effects results in a conservative estimate for extrapolation to low dose rates from measured values at intermediate dose rates of the order of 0.1 Gy/s. Based on short-term irradiation tests only, the safety factors to be applied depend on the end-point criterion used, and may vary between 1 and 10 for the range of dose rates and materials considered here. (orig.)

  11. Medical and Psychiatric Effects of Long-Term Dependence on High Dose of tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadidy, Mohmed Adel; Helaly, Ahmed Mohamed Nabil

    2015-04-01

    Tramadol dependence has been studied recently after large-scale exposure. Although tramadol dependence has increased rapidly in Egypt since 2004, no studies have evaluated the effect of high dose long-term tramadol dependence. To address the chronic sequel of tramadol dependence over at least 5 years duration with a large dose (more than 675 mg/day, three tablets or more, each tablet of 225 mg). The study was aimed to check the physical and psychiatric status during tramadol dependence and 3 months after complete treatment. The present study was applied on 79 patients with single tramadol-dependence dose of 675 mg or more for 5 years or more. We examined the physical and psychological impact of tramadol abuse before and after 3 months of stoppage of the drug. The blood chemistry was nearly within normal parameters, although slight nonsignificant rise in liver enzymes was reported in some cases. Patients during tramadol dependence period were angry, hostile, and aggressive. On the other hand, after treatment the main problem observed was the significant increase in comorbid anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but no increase was found in psychotic symptoms. Tramadol-dependence dose was more important than duration of use in psychiatric illness. Tramadol dependence on high dose could be physically safe to some limit, but psychiatrically it has many side effects.

  12. A long-term risk-benefit analysis of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Chen; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Yu, Fang-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Wu, Tzung-Shiun; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-02-01

    The long-term risk-benefit effect of occasional and regular use of low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg per day) in primary prevention of vascular diseases and cancers was calculated. One representative database of 1 000 000 participants from Taiwan's National Health Insurance scheme in 1997-2000 was used. The potential study subjects were those aged 30-95 years, were found not to have been prescribed aspirin before 1 January 2000, but to have first been prescribed low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg per day) after that date and were followed up to 31 December 2009. Participants prescribed low-dose aspirin risk. A total of 1720 pairs were analysed. During the study period, haemorrhage and ischaemia occurred in 25 (1·45%) and 67 participants (3·90%) in occasional users and 69 (4·01%) and 100 participants (5·81%) in regular users, whereas cancer occurred in 32 participants (1·86%) in occasional users and 26 participants (1·51%) in regular users. The crude and adjusted net clinical risks of low-dose aspirin use between the two frequency of users (≥ 80% vs. prevention against major vascular diseases and cancer. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  13. Long-term Radon Levels and Equilibrium Factor in Some Spanish Workplaces Measured with a Passive Integrating Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baixeras, C.; Amgarou, K.; Font, Ll.; Domingo, C.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of long-term radon levels and equilibrium factor is important to estimate the annual averaged dose due to radon progeny inhalation indoors. According to the European Union directive 96/26/EURATOM it is necessary to control the radon level in workplaces. This paper presents the radon concentration and equilibrium factor values obtained in some workplaces from the Barcelona area with a passive integrating dosemeter exposed for two months. The dosemeter consists of two Makrofol-DE nuclear etched track foils, one within a diffusion chamber and the other one bare, allowing the separated measurement of 222 Rn (C 0 ) and 214 Po (C 4 ) activity concentration respectively. The equilibrium factor is estimated from the disequilibrium degree (k 4 = C 4 /C 0 ). A description of the dosemeter and the methodology used, and an estimation of the annual dose received for the workers at the different workplaces are presented. (author)

  14. On the long-term development of population dose in radioactively contaminated parts of Korma County (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, H.; Pillath, J.; Heuel-Fabianek, B.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than normal background values due to external exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  15. Patient empowerment in long-term conditions: development and preliminary testing of a new measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient empowerment is viewed by policy makers and health care practitioners as a mechanism to help patients with long-term conditions better manage their health and achieve better outcomes. However, assessing the role of empowerment is dependent on effective measures of empowerment. Although many measures of empowerment exist, no measure has been developed specifically for patients with long-term conditions in the primary care setting. This study presents preliminary data on the development and validation of such a measure. Methods We conducted two empirical studies. Study one was an interview study to understand empowerment from the perspective of patients living with long-term conditions. Qualitative analysis identified dimensions of empowerment, and the qualitative data were used to generate items relating to these dimensions. Study two was a cross-sectional postal study involving patients with different types of long-term conditions recruited from general practices. The survey was conducted to test and validate our new measure of empowerment. Factor analysis and regression were performed to test scale structure, internal consistency and construct validity. Results Sixteen predominately elderly patients with different types of long-term conditions described empowerment in terms of 5 dimensions (identity, knowledge and understanding, personal control, personal decision-making, and enabling other patients). One hundred and ninety seven survey responses were received from mainly older white females, with relatively low levels of formal education, with the majority retired from paid work. Almost half of the sample reported cardiovascular, joint or diabetes long-term conditions. Factor analysis identified a three factor solution (positive attitude and sense of control, knowledge and confidence in decision making and enabling others), although the structure lacked clarity. A total empowerment score across all items showed acceptable levels of internal

  16. Effectiveness and tolerance of long-term malaria prophylaxis with mefloquine. Need for a better dosing regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, H O; Bernard, K W; Williams, S L; Hightower, A W; Patchen, L C; Campbell, C C

    1991-01-16

    To measure the effectiveness and tolerance of long-term malaria prophylaxis with mefloquine, the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and of adverse reactions was compared in Peace Corps volunteers in West Africa who took mefloquine every 2 weeks and in volunteers who took chloroquine phosphate weekly. Mefloquine was only 63% more effective than chloroquine; the monthly incidence of P falciparum infections was one case per 100 volunteers who took mefloquine and 2.7 cases per 100 volunteers who took chloroquine. Using daily proguanil (chloroguanide) hydrochloride in addition to chloroquine did not provide additional protection. All mefloquine prophylaxis failures occurred during the second week of the every-2-weeks dosing regimen in volunteers who had used mefloquine for more than 2 months. Blood concentrations of mefloquine were lower during the second week of the alternate-week regimen than during the first week, suggesting that blood levels are too low during the second week to suppress parasitemia. No serious adverse reactions were observed. The results indicate that a dosing regimen of 250 mg of mefloquine weekly should be considered for travelers to areas with chloroquine-resistant P falciparum malaria.

  17. SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM WATER LEVEL PREDICTION AT ONE RIVER MEASUREMENT LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Scitovski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global hydrological cycles mainly depend on climate changes whose occurrence is predominantly triggered by solar and terrestrial influence, and the knowledge of the high water regime is widely applied in hydrology. Regular monitoring and studying of river water level behavior is important from several perspectives. On the basis of the given data, by using modifications of general approaches known from literature, especially from investigation in hydrology, the problem of long- and short-term water level forecast at one river measurement location is considered in the paper. Long-term forecasting is considered as the problem of investigating the periodicity of water level behavior by using linear-trigonometric regression and short-term forecasting is based on the modification of the nearest neighbor method. The proposed methods are tested on data referring to the Drava River level by Donji Miholjac, Croatia, in the period between the beginning of 1900 and the end of 2012.

  18. Long-term Conventionally Dosed Vancomycin Therapy In Patients With Orthopaedic Implant-related Infections Seems As Effective And Safe As Long-term Penicillin Or Clindamycin Therapy. A Retrospective Cohort Study Of 103 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Jacomien; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; van Ogtrop, Marc L; Poolman, Rudolf W; Franssen, Eric J F

    2018-01-01

    Objectives : Antimicrobial therapy is one of the cornerstones of orthopaedic implant-related infections (OIRI) treatment. Infections with Gram-positive bacteria are often treated with vancomycin, penicillin or clindamycin. A recent IDSA guideline suggests increasing the dose of vancomycin to increase the trough vancomycin target serum concentrations. This is deemed necessary because of an observed decrease in vancomycin susceptibility among Gram-positive bacteria. However, elevated vancomycin concentrations are correlated with the risk of nephrotoxicity, especially with prolonged therapy. Compared to most countries, rates of resistance against antibiotics among bacteria in the Netherlands are lower for currently available antibiotics, therefore lower target concentrations of vancomycin are probably efficacious for the treatment of infections. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term conventionally dosed vancomycin therapy, as an initial therapy for OIRI, and compared this with long-term penicillin and clindamycin therapy, as initial therapy, in patients with Gram-positive orthopaedic implant-related infections. Methods : A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 103 adult patients treated for OIRI, with vancomycin, penicillin or clindamycin for at least 10 days. The target trough serum concentration of vancomycin was 10-15 mg/l. Results : 74% of our patients were treated successfully with vancomycin, as initial therapy, (no reinfection within 1 year) versus 55% of our patients treated with either an antibiotic of the penicillin class (mostly flucloxacillin) or clindamycin (p=0.08), as initial therapy. For patients treated with vancomycin we observed a serum creatinine increase of 6 μmol/l, for patients treated with either an antibiotic of the penicillin class or clindamycin the serum creatinine increase was 4 μmol/l (p=0.395). Conclusions : In our population of patients with OIRI long-term treatment with conventionally dosed

  19. Efficacy of modest dose irradiation in combination with long-term endocrinal treatment for high-risk prostate cancer. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomonari; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    Although radiotherapy in combination with endocrinal manipulation has been identified as an effective treatment for patients with high-risk prostate cancer, the optimal dose for locoregional control of prostate cancer in combination with hormonal therapy has not yet been determined. The efficacy of modest doses of irradiation (60-62 Gy) combined with long-term endocrinal treatment for patients with high-risk prostate cancer (defined as a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level greater than 20 ng/ml or a Gleason's score of 8-10 or T3-T4 disease) was analyzed in 60 Japanese patients. The patients included in this study had received radical radiotherapy with long-term endocrinal manipulation in the period between 1993 and 2000. The median age of the patients was 70 years (range, 56-83). Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy with a median duration of 3.9 months was performed prior to radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy was continued until recurrence. A median dose of 61.4 Gy (range, 44-71.4) was delivered to the prostate. Pelvic node irradiation was performed in 49 patients (81.6%). After a median follow-up period of 28.5 months, the overall survival, cause-specific survival and biochemical relapse-free survival at 3 years were 94.4%, 96% and 89.8%, respectively. Local failure was observed in one patient, distant metastases were observed in three patients and a late toxic effect greater than Grade 2 was not observed in any patients. This study, though preliminary due to a short-term follow-up period, reveals the possibility that modest doses of irradiation combined with long-term endocrinal treatment could be an effective means of achieving excellent local control of high-risk prostate cancer. (author)

  20. The six year report: Acidification of surface water in Europe and North America. Dose/response relationships and long-term trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelkvaale, B L; Newell, A D; Raddum, G; Johannessen, M; Hovind, H; Tjomsland, T; Wathne, B M

    1994-12-31

    This report discusses The International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes, which is designed to (1) establish degree and extent of acidification of surface waters, (2) evaluate dose/response relationships and (3) define long-term trends and variations in aquatic chemistry and biota attributable to atmospheric pollution. Data from 200 sites in 14 countries of Europe and North America are available. Dose/response relationships show that the fauna is adapted to different water qualities in different regions, and that critical limits for the fauna must be calculated according to data for the specific region. Long-term trends of water chemistry show decreases in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ca{sup 2+} at many sites. Nitrate shows no consistent trends. 66 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Long-Term Follow-up of Acoustic Schwannoma Radiosurgery With Marginal Tumor Doses of 12 to 13 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Rahul; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade; Flickinger, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To define long-term tumor control and clinical outcomes of radiosurgery with marginal tumor doses of 12 to 13 Gy for unilateral acoustic schwannoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 216 patients with previously untreated unilateral acoustic schwannoma underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery between 1992 and 2000 with marginal tumor doses of 12 to 13 Gy (median, 13 Gy). Median follow-up was 5.7 years (maximum, 12 years; 41 patients with >8 years). Treatment volumes were 0.08-37.5 cm 3 (median, 1.3 cm 3 ). Results: The 10-year actuarial resection-free control rate was 98.3% ± 1.0%. Three patients required tumor resection: 2 for tumor growth and 1 partial resection for an enlarging adjacent subarachnoid cyst. Among 121 hearing patients with >3 years of follow-up, crude hearing preservation rates were 71% for keeping the same Gardner-Robertson hearing level, 74% for serviceable hearing, and 95% for any testable hearing. For 25 of these patients with intracanalicular tumors, the respective rates for preserving the same Gardner-Robertson level, serviceable hearing, and testable hearing were 80%, 88%, and 96%. Ten-year actuarial rates for preserving the same Gardner-Robertson hearing levels, serviceable hearing, any testable hearing, and unchanged facial and trigeminal nerve function were 44.0% ± 11.7%, 44.5% ± 10.5%, 85.3% ± 6.2%, 100%, and 94.9% ± 1.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Acoustic schwannoma radiosurgery with 12 to 13 Gy provides high rates of long-term tumor control and cranial nerve preservation after long-term follow-up

  2. Effect of zinc supplementation of pregnant rats on short-term and long-term memory of their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Ghotbeddin, Z.; Parham, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20 mg/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50, 70,100 mg/kg) zinc chloride for two weeks by gavage. One month after birth, a shuttle box was used to test short-term and long-term memory. Two criteria were considered to behavioral test, including latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the dark chamber. This experiment showed that oral administration of ZnCl/sub 2/ with (20, 30, 50 mg/kg/day) doses after 2 weeks at the stage of pregnancy, can improve the working memory of their offspring (p<0.05). Where as ZnCl/sub 2/ with 30 mg/kg/day dose has been more effective than other doses (p<0.001). But rat which received ZnCl/sub 2/ with 100 mg/kg/day at the stage of pregnancy, has shown significant impairment in working (short-term) memory of their offspring (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory 3 for any of groups. This study has demonstrated that zinc chloride consumption with 30 mg/kg/day dose for two weeks at the stage of pregnancy in rats, has positive effect on short-term memory on their offspring. But consumption of enhanced zinc 100 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats can cause short-term memory impairment. On the other hand, zinc supplementation such as zinc chloride has no effect on long-term memory. (author)

  3. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjae Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  4. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.A.; Reitz, G.; Arkhanguelski, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised

  5. Long-term cortisol levels measured in scalp hair of obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Visser, Jenny A; Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Klessens-Godfroy, Francoise J M; van den Akker, Erica L T; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2014-09-01

    In obese subjects a relatively high cortisol output in urine has been observed compared to nonobese individuals. However, cortisol levels in blood, saliva, and urine in association with obesity have been inconsistent across studies, possibly due to the high variability of systemic cortisol levels. Cortisol levels measured in scalp hair provide a marker for long-term cortisol exposure, and have been associated with cardiovascular disease in an elderly population and to disease course in Cushing's disease. We aimed to compare hair cortisol levels between obese patients and nonobese controls. Hair cortisol levels of 47 obese patients (median BMI 38.8, range 31.1-65.8), 41 overweight, and 87 normal-weight subjects using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were measured. Obese patients had higher hair cortisol levels than overweight and normal weight subjects (respectively 30.8 vs 8.5 and 8.4 pg/mg hair, P cortisol levels was found between normal weight and overweight subjects. Our results suggest a higher long-term cortisol exposure in obese patients, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. Future research will determine whether long-term cortisol levels provide a novel treatment target in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in obesity. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  6. Long-term follow-up study of compensated low-dose 131I therapy for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridama, V.; McCormick, M.; Kaplan, E.L.; Fauchet, R.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    We treated 187 patients who had Graves' disease with low-dose radioactive iodide ( 131 I), using a protocol that included a compensation for thyroid size. The incidence of early hypothyroidism (12 per cent) was acceptably low in the first year after 131 I treatment, but we found a cumulative high incidence (up to 76 per cent) at the end of the 11th year. In contrast, the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism was relatively stable in 166 surgically treated patients, increasing from 19 to 27 per cent at the end of 11 years. Among 122 medically treated patients, only 40 per cent entered remission, and hypothyroidism developed in 2 per cent during the same period of follow-up. The long-term incidence of hypothyroidism in our patients treated with low-dose 131 I therapy was much higher than that found in earlier studies using a comparable dose. Our study suggests that it will be difficult to modify therapy with 131 I alone to produce both early control of thyrotoxicosis and a low incidence of hypothyroidism

  7. Radiation dose and long term risk of cardiac pathology following radiotherapy and anthracyclin for a childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldner, Laurence; Haddy, Nadia; Pein, Francois; Diallo, Ibrahima; Shamsaldin, Akthar; Dahan, Michel; Lebidois, Jerome; Merlet, Pascal; Villain, Elisabeth; Sidi, Daniel; Sakiroglu, Olivia; Hartmann, Olivier; Leftakopoulos, Dimitri; Vathaire, Florent de

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the cardiac status in children 15 years (yrs) or more after a solid tumour treatment. Patients and Methods: Of the 447 patients, 229 were fully studied and 218 were not. The following cardiac evaluation was proposed to all the 447 consecutive patients: (1) cardiac Doppler US by one of two expert cardiologists; (2) cardiac rhythm and conduction abnormalities including 24-h holter ECG; (3) 131 I-mIBG myocardial scintigraphy; (4) serum brain natriuretic peptide levels at rest; (5) an exercise test with VO 2 max measurement. The radiation dose delivered to 7 points in the heart was estimated for all patients who had received radiotherapy. Results: Cardiac disorder was diagnosed in 89 evaluated patients (39%) including 24 heart failures and 65 other asymptomatic cardiac diseases. When adjusting on potential confounders, cardiac disorder and cardiac failure risks were respectively linear (ERR at 1 Gy: 26%) and linear-quadratic (ERR at 1 Gy: 19%) functions of the average radiation dose received to the heart. No interaction between cumulative dose of adriamycin and average radiation dose was evidenced for cardiac disorders, but the ERR/Gy of cardiac failure was higher for patients receiving less than 350 mg/m 2 of Adriamycin. Conclusion: Long term heart pathologies are probably one of the major iatrogenic risks encored by patients who survived a childhood cancer. This study strongly emphasizes the need to limit the heart irradiation during radiotherapy, particularly, for patients who also received or were susceptible to later received adriamycin

  8. Radiation Doses to Structures Within and Adjacent to the Larynx are Correlated With Long-Term Diet- and Speech-Related Quality of Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornfeld, Ken; Simmons, Joel R.; Karnell, Lucy; Karnell, Michael; Funk, Gerry; Yao Min; Wacha, Judith; Zimmerman, Bridget; Buatti, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to key sites in the upper aerodigestive tract is associated with long-term functional outcome after (chemo)radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: This study examined the outcome for 27 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for definitive management of their head-and-neck cancer who were disease free for at least 1 year after treatment. Head-and-neck cancer-specific quality of life (QoL) was assessed before treatment and at 1 year after treatment. Type of diet tolerated, presence of a feeding tube, and degree of weight loss 1 year after treatment were also used as outcome measures. Radiation doses delivered to various points along the upper aerodigestive tract, including base of tongue, lateral pharyngeal walls, and laryngeal structures, were determined from each treatment plan. Radiation doses for each of these points were tested for correlation with outcome measures. Results: Higher doses delivered to the aryepiglottic folds, false vocal cords, and lateral pharyngeal walls near the false cords correlated with a more restrictive diet, and higher doses to the aryepiglottic folds correlated with greater weight loss (p < 0.05) 1 year after therapy. Better posttreatment speech QoL scores were associated with lower doses delivered to structures within and surrounding the larynx. Conclusion: Our data show an inverse relationship between radiation dose delivered to laryngeal structures and speech and diet and QoL outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation treatment. These findings suggest that efforts to deliver lower doses to laryngeal structures may improve outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation therapy

  9. Effects of dose, sex, and long-term abstention from use on toxic effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on brain serotonin neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, L.; Booij, J.; de Bruin, K.; Reitsma, J. B.; de Wolff, F. A.; Gunning, W. B.; den Heeten, G. J.; van den Brink, W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug that has been shown to damage brain serotonin neurons in high doses. However, effects of moderate MDMA use on serotonin neurons have not been studied, and sex differences and the long-term effects of MDMA

  10. Agricultural measures to reduce radiation doses to man caused by severe nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorp, F. van; Eleveld, R.; Frissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural land and products may become contaminated after a severe nuclear accident. If radiation doses to man caused by the ingestion of contaminated agricultural products from such areas will be unacceptably high, measures to reduce this radiation dose will have to be taken. Radiation doses to man can be estimated by using models which describe quantitatively the transfer of radionuclides through the biosphere. The following processes and pathways are described in this study: accidental releases into atmospheric environments and subsequent nearby deposition; contamination of crops by direct deposition and the subsequent short term pathway (e.g. grass-cow-milk-man); contamination of soil and the subsequent long term pathway (e.g. soil-crop-man, soil-grass-cattle-milk/meat-man). Depending on the degree of contamination and on the estimated radiation doses to man, various measures are advised. (Auth.)

  11. Bleeding Risk with Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rodríguez, Luis A.; Martín-Pérez, Mar; Hennekens, Charles H.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Lanas, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin has proven effectiveness in secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but is also associated with an increased risk of major bleeding events. For primary prevention, this absolute risk must be carefully weighed against the benefits of aspirin; such assessments are currently limited by a lack of data from general populations. Methods Systematic searches of Medline and Embase were conducted to identify observational studies published between 1946 and 4 March 2015 that reported the risks of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with long-term, low-dose aspirin (75–325 mg/day). Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) for bleeding events with aspirin versus non-use were calculated using random-effects models, based on reported estimates of RR (including odds ratios, hazard ratios, incidence rate ratios and standardized incidence ratios) in 39 articles. Findings The incidence of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin was 0.48–3.64 cases per 1000 person-years, and the overall pooled estimate of the RR with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–1.7). For upper and lower GI bleeding, the RRs with low-dose aspirin were 2.3 (2.0–2.6) and 1.8 (1.1–3.0), respectively. Neither aspirin dose nor duration of use had consistent effects on RRs for upper GI bleeding. The estimated RR for ICH with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (1.2–1.7) overall. Aspirin was associated with increased bleeding risks when combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, clopidogrel and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with monotherapy. By contrast, concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors decreased upper GI bleeding risks relative to aspirin monotherapy. Conclusions The risks of major bleeding with low-dose aspirin in real-world settings are of a similar magnitude to those reported in randomized trials. These data will help inform clinical judgements regarding the use of low-dose aspirin

  12. Toxicological Effects of Caco-2 Cells Following Short-Term and Long-Term Exposure to Ag Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive utilization increases the exposure of humans to Ag nanoparticles (NPs via the oral pathway. To comprehensively address the action of Ag NPs to the gastrointestinal systems in real situations, i.e., the long-term low-dose exposure, we evaluated and compared the toxicity of three Ag NPs (20–30 nm with different surface coatings to the human intestine cell Caco-2 after 1-day and 21-day exposures, using various biological assays. In both the short- and long-term exposures, the variety of surface coating predominated the toxicity of Ag NPs in a descending order of citrate-coated Ag NP (Ag-CIT, bare Ag NP (Ag-B, and poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-coated Ag NP (Ag-PVP. The short-term exposure induced cell growth inhibition and death. The cell viability loss appeared after cells were exposed to 0.7 μg/mL Ag-CIT, 0.9 μg/mL Ag-B or >1.0 μg/mL Ag-PVP for 24 h. The short-term and higher-dose exposure also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, mitochondrial damage, cell membrane leakage, apoptosis, and inflammation (IL-8 level. The long-term exposure only inhibited the cell proliferation. After 21-day exposure to 0.4 μg/mL Ag-CIT, the cell viability dropped to less than 50%, while cells exposed to 0.5 μg/mL Ag-PVP remained normal as the control. Generally, 0.3 μg/mL is the non-toxic dose for the long-term exposure of Caco-2 cells to Ag NPs in this study. However, cells presented inflammation after exposure to Ag NPs with the non-toxic dose in the long-term exposure.

  13. An optode sensor array for long term in situ Oxygen measurements in soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickelt, Lars F; Jensen, Louise Askær; Walpersdorf, Eva Christine

    2013-01-01

    Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We construc......Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We...... constructed an O2 optode sensor array for long-term in situ measurements in soil and sediment. Th e new device consists of a 1.3-m-long, cylindrical, spear-shaped rod equipped with 10 sensor spots along the shaft . Each spot contains a thermocouple fi xed with a robust fi beroptic O2 optode made...... characteristics of the sensor array system are presented along with a novel approach for temperature compensation of O2 optodes. During in situ application over several months in a peat bog, we used the new device to document pronounced variations in O2 distribution aft er marked shift s in water level. Th e...

  14. Long-term tolerance and outcomes for dose escalation in early salvage post-prostatectomy radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdieh, Joseph; Schwartz, David; Weiner, Joseph; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Madeb, Isaac; Rotman, Marvin; Schreiber, David; Rineer, Justin

    2014-01-01

    To study the long-term outcomes and tolerance in our patients who received dose escalated radiotherapy in the early salvage post-prostatectomy setting. The medical records of 54 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy subsequently followed by salvage radiation therapy (SRT) to the prostate bed between 2003-2010 were analyzed. Patients included were required to have a pre-radiation prostate specific antigen level (PSA) of 2 ng/mL or less. The median SRT dose was 70.2 Gy. Biochemical failure after salvage radiation was defined as a PSA level >0.2 ng/mL. Biochemical control and survival endpoints were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to identify the potential impact of confounding factors on outcomes. The median pre-SRT PSA was 0.45 ng/mL and the median follow-up time was 71 months. The 4- and 7-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 75.7% and 63.2%, respectively. The actuarial 4- and 7-year distant metastasis-free survival was 93.7% and 87.0%, respectively, and the actuarial 7-year prostate cancer specific survival was 94.9%. Grade 3 late genitourinary toxicity developed in 14 patients (25.9%), while grade 4 late genitourinary toxicity developed in 2 patients (3.7%). Grade 3 late gastrointestinal toxicity developed in 1 patient (1.9%), and grade 4 late gastrointestinal toxicity developed in 1 patient (1.9%). In this series with long-term follow-up, early SRT provided outcomes and toxicity profiles similar to those reported from the three major randomized trials studying adjuvant radiation therapy.

  15. Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gases produced by in situ radiolysis of sealed solidified nuclear wastes during long-term storage could conceivably breach containment. Therefore, candidate waste forms (matrices containing simulated nuclear wastes) were irradiated with 60 Co-γ and 244 Cm-α radiation. These forms were: cement containing simulated fission product sludges, vermiculite containing organic liquids, and cellulosics contaminated with α-emitting transuranic isotopes. For cement waste forms exposed to γ-radiolysis, an equilibrium hydrogen pressure was reached that was dose rate dependent. For α-radiolysis, equilibrium was not reached. With organic wastes (n-octane on vermiculite), H 2 and traces of CO 2 and CH 4 were produced, and O 2 was consumed with both radiations. Only energy absorbed by the organic material was effective in producing H 2 . At low dose rates with both α- and γ-irradiations, G(H 2 ) was 4.5 and G(-O 2 ) was 5.0. Also, equilibrium was not obtained. For cellulosic material, H 2 , CO 2 , and CO were produced in the ratio of 1.0:0.7:0.3, and O 2 was consumed. With α-radiolysis, G(gas) was dose dependent; measured values ranged from 2.2 to 0.6 as the dose increased. Implications of all these results on long-term storage of radioactive waste are discussed. Some data from an actual nuclear wasteform are also presented

  16. A study to assess the long-term stability of the ionization chamber reference system in the LNMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade Filho, O. L.; Conceição, D. A.; da Silva, C. J.; Delgado, J. U.; de Oliveira, A. E.; Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.

    2018-03-01

    Ionization chambers are used as secondary standard in order to maintain the calibration factors of radionuclides in the activity measurements in metrology laboratories. Used as radionuclide calibrator in nuclear medicine clinics to control dose in patients, its long-term performance is not evaluated systematically. A methodology for long-term evaluation for its stability is monitored and checked. Historical data produced monthly of 2012 until 2017, by an ionization chamber, electrometer and 226Ra, were analyzed via control chart, aiming to follow the long-term performance. Monitoring systematic errors were consistent within the limits of control, demonstrating the quality of measurements in compliance with ISO17025.

  17. A study to assess the long-term stability of the ionization chamber reference system in the LNMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, Octavio L.T.; Conceição, Dayana A. da; Silva, Carlos J. da; Delgado, José U.; Oliveira, Antônio E. de; Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz, E-mail: octavio@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Ionization chambers are used as secondary standard in order to maintain the calibration factors of radionuclides in the activity measurements in metrology laboratories. Used as radionuclide calibrator in nuclear medicine clinics to control dose in patients, its long-term performance is not evaluated systematically. A methodology for long-term evaluation for its stability is monitored and checked. Historical data were analyzed via control chart, produced between 2012-2017 by an ionization chamber, electrometer and {sup 226}Ra, aiming to follow the long-term performance. The results for monitoring systematic errors were consistent within the limits of control, demonstrating the quality of measurements in compliance with ISO17025. (author)

  18. Long-term course of orthostatic tremor in serial posturographic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, K; Böttcher, N; Guri, F; Krafczyk, S; Schöberl, F; Zwergal, A; Strupp, M

    2015-08-01

    Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) is a rare neurological disease of unknown pathophysiology characterized by a high-frequency tremor mainly of the legs when standing. The aim of this study was to examine its long-term course by subjective estimation and objective recording by serial posturography and to obtain further standardized epidemiological and clinical data on patients with OT. A clinical cohort of 37 patients with the diagnosis of primary OT was screened for this longitudinal follow-up study. Eighteen patients consented to participate. During study visit all patients underwent a standardized neurological examination and completed subjective scales and scores. Posturographic recordings at follow-up were compared to prior clinical posturographic measurements in 15 cases. In our cohort the mean duration of symptoms was 14.1 ± 6.8 years. Subjectively, 78% of patients reported progression of the disease. Posturographic data (5.4 ± 4.0 years) revealed a significant increase of the total sway path (standing on firm ground with eyes open) from 2.4 ± 1.3 to 3.4 ± 1.4 m/min (p = 0.022) and of the total root mean square values from 9.8 ± 4.3 to 12.4 ± 4.8 mm (p = 0.028). None of these observations are explained by aging of the patients. Mean frequency of the tremor did not change over time (14.7 ± 1.9 Hz vs. 14.9 ± 2.0 Hz at follow-up). Clinically, most patients had signs of cerebellar dysfunction and a substantial portion also showed proprioceptive deficits in the long-term course. This long-term follow-up study indicates, that primary OT is a progressive disorder. Furthermore, the clinical observation of cerebellar dysfunction in most OT patients in the long-term course might indicate an important role of the cerebellum in its pathophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincek, Nicolas; Jörg, Ann-Catherine; Brunner, Philippe; Schindler, Christian; Koller, Michael T; Rochlitz, Christoph; Müller-Brand, Jan; Maecke, Helmut R; Briel, Matthias; Walter, Martin A

    2013-01-15

    We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols. Overall, 359 patients were recruited; 60 patients were enrolled for low dose (median: 2.4 GBq/cycle, range 0.9-7.8 GBq/cycle), 77 patients were enrolled for intermediate dose (median: 3.3 GBq/cycle, range: 2.0-7.4 GBq/cycle) and 222 patients were enrolled for high dose (median: 6.7 GBq/cycle, range: 3.7-8.1 GBq/cycle) [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. The incidences of hematotoxicities grade 1-4 were 65.0%, 64.9% and 74.8%; the incidences of grade 4/5 kidney toxicities were 8.4%, 6.5% and 14.0%, and the median survival was 39 (range: 1-158) months, 34 (range: 1-118) months and 29 (range: 1-113) months. The high dose protocol was associated with an increased risk of kidney toxicity (Hazard Ratio: 3.12 (1.13-8.59) vs. intermediate dose, p = 0.03) and a shorter overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.50 (1.08-5.79) vs. low dose, p = 0.03). Increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities may be associated with increasing hematological toxicities. The dose related hematotoxicity profile of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC could facilitate tailoring [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with preexisting hematotoxicities. The results of the long-term outcome suggest that fractionated [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment might allow to reduce renal toxicity and to improve overall survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00978211).

  20. Recovery of the proliferative and functional integrity of mouse bone marrow in long-term cultures established after whole-body irradiation at different doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkens, J.G.; Hendry, J.H.; Testa, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    Injury inflicted upon the bone marrow stroma following whole-body irradiation and its repair over a 1-year period has been assessed in murine long-term bone marrow cultures established at increasing time intervals after irradiation. Different doses at different dose rates (10 Gy at 0.05 cGy/min, 4.5 Gy and 10 Gy at 1.6 cGy/min, and 4 x 4.5 Gy [3 weeks between doses] at 60 cGy/min) were chosen so as to maximize differences in effect in the stroma. The cellularity of the adherent layer in long-term cultures established 1 month after irradiation was reduced by 40%-90% depending on the dose and dose rate. Simultaneous with the poor ability of the marrow to form adherent layers, the cumulative spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) production over a 7-week period was reduced to 0% and 30% of control cultures, respectively. The slow recovery of the adherent layer was paralleled by an increase in the numbers of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant. Cultures established from repeatedly irradiated mice performed poorly over the entire 1-year period. Whereas the regeneration of the stroma was near complete 1 year after irradiation, the CFU-S and GM-CFC levels reached only between 50% and 80% of control cultures, respectively. Also, the concentration of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant remained persistently lower in cultures established from irradiated mice as compared to control cultures. The levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which have been implicated in the establishment of the functional integrity of the microenvironment, were not reduced in the adherent layers at any time after irradiation. These results indicate that the regeneration of the stroma is accompanied by an incomplete recovery of active hemopoiesis in vitro

  1. Introduction of long term cycle of reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyati, M.; Tanaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction of long term cycle of LWR reactor operation at NPP in Japan is considered, and problems of technical, legislative and economical character, increase of power coefficient are discussed. More long term operation period provides decreasing frequency of periodic inspections and reduction of personnel radiation doses. Reliability of fuel, energetic equipment, mechanisms and devices must be taken into account for the decision of technical problems. Consumptions for electric power generation are studied [ru

  2. Questioning short-term memory and its measurement: Why digit span measures long-term associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2015-11-01

    Traditional accounts of verbal short-term memory explain differences in performance for different types of verbal material by reference to inherent characteristics of the verbal items making up memory sequences. The role of previous experience with sequences of different types is ostensibly controlled for either by deliberate exclusion or by presenting multiple trials constructed from different random permutations. We cast doubt on this general approach in a detailed analysis of the basis for the robust finding that short-term memory for digit sequences is superior to that for other sequences of verbal material. Specifically, we show across four experiments that this advantage is not due to inherent characteristics of digits as verbal items, nor are individual digits within sequences better remembered than other types of individual verbal items. Rather, the advantage for digit sequences stems from the increased frequency, compared to other verbal material, with which digits appear in random sequences in natural language, and furthermore, relatively frequent digit sequences support better short-term serial recall than less frequent ones. We also provide corpus-based computational support for the argument that performance in a short-term memory setting is a function of basic associative learning processes operating on the linguistic experience of the rememberer. The experimental and computational results raise questions not only about the role played by measurement of digit span in cognition generally, but also about the way in which long-term memory processes impact on short-term memory functioning. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring client experiences in long-term care in the Netherlands: a pilot study with the Consumer Quality Index Long-term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Rudolf B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to describe the development, testing and optimization of a new standard instrument, the Consumer Quality Index (CQ-index® Long-term Care, for measuring client experiences with long-term care in the Netherlands. Methods Three versions of the CQ-index questionnaires and protocols for study sampling and data collection were developed, designed for interviews with residents of nursing or residential care homes and postal surveys among representatives of psychogeriatric residents and homecare clients. From July to November 2006 a pilot study was conducted among 2,697 clients of 68 nursing or residential care homes, 2,164 representatives of clients in 57 psychogeriatric care institutions, and 1,462 clients of 19 homecare organizations. We performed psychometric analyses and descriptive analyses, and evaluated the pilot study. Results The pilot study showed the feasibility and usability of the instruments, supported the multidimensionality of the questionnaires and showed first findings on client experiences and possibilities for quality improvement. Nine scales applied to all care settings: shared decision making, attitude and courtesy, information, body care, competence and safety of care, activities, autonomy, mental well-being, and availability of personnel. The pilot resulted in three optimized questionnaires and recommendations for nationwide implementation. Conclusions The CQ-index® Long-term Care provides a good basis to investigate the quality of nursing homes, residential care homes and homecare from the clients' perspective. This standardized instrument enables a nationwide comparison of the quality of long-term care for the purpose of transparency and quality assurance.

  4. An Improved Methodology of Monetary Values of the Unit Collective Dose for Intervention Against Long-Term Exposure Following a Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee

    2002-01-01

    A more practice approach for the determination of monetary values of the unit collective dose for intervention against long-term exposure following a nuclear accident was proposed. In addition, the monetary values of the unit collective dose estimated from the proposed approach were compared with those estimated from the previous model, which are derived from assumptions of routine exposure and the same values are applied in a nuclear accident without modification, using Korea economic data. The monetary values based on the proposed approach showed a distinct difference depending on inequity in the distribution of individual doses. The discounting rate was also an important factor in determination of monetary values of the unit collective dose

  5. An Improved Methodology of Monetary Values of the Unit Collective Dose for Intervention Against Long-Term Exposure Following a Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    A more practice approach for the determination of monetary values of the unit collective dose for intervention against long-term exposure following a nuclear accident was proposed. In addition, the monetary values of the unit collective dose estimated from the proposed approach were compared with those estimated from the previous model, which are derived from assumptions of routine exposure and the same values are applied in a nuclear accident without modification, using Korea economic data. The monetary values based on the proposed approach showed a distinct difference depending on inequity in the distribution of individual doses. The discounting rate was also an important factor in determination of monetary values of the unit collective dose.

  6. Long-term heart function after adjuvant epirubicin chemotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Jon M; Zerahn, Bo; Møller, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Newer studies raise concern that adjuvant anthracycline treatment for breast cancer (BC) causes long-term heart damage. We aimed to examine whether heart failure or impairment could be demonstrated several years after low-dose epirubicin-based adjuvant treatment.......Newer studies raise concern that adjuvant anthracycline treatment for breast cancer (BC) causes long-term heart damage. We aimed to examine whether heart failure or impairment could be demonstrated several years after low-dose epirubicin-based adjuvant treatment....

  7. Long-term Aerosol Lidar Measurements At CNR-IMAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, L.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Pandolfi, M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2006-12-01

    Actual estimations of the aerosol effect on the radiation budget are affected by a large uncertainties mainly due to the high inhomogeneity and variability of atmospheric aerosol, in terms of concentration, shape, size distribution, refractive index and vertical distribution. Long-term measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties are needed to reduce these uncertainties. At CNR-IMAA (40° 36'N, 15° 44' E, 760 m above sea level), a lidar system for aerosol study is operative since May 2000 in the framework of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network). Until August 2005, it provided independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter at 355 nm and aerosol backscatter profiles at 532 nm. After an upgrade of the system, it provides independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles at 355 and 532 nm, and of aerosol backscatter profiles at 1064 nm and depolarization ratio at 532 nm. For these measurements, lidar ratio at 355 and 532 nm and Angstrom exponent profiles at 355/532 nm are also obtained. Starting on May 2000, systematic measurements are performed three times per week according to the EARLINET schedule and further measurements are performed in order to investigate particular events, like dust intrusions, volcanic eruptions and forest fires. A climatological study has been carried out in terms of the seasonal behavior of the PBL height and of the aerosol optical properties calculated inside the PBL itself. In the free troposphere, an high occurrences of Saharan dust intrusions (about 1 day of Saharan dust intrusion every 10 days) has been observed at CNR-IMAA because of the short distance from the Sahara region. During 6 years of observations, very peculiar cases of volcanic aerosol emitted by Etna volcano and aerosol released by large forest fires burning occurred in Alaska and Canada have been observed in the free troposphere at our site. Particular attention is devoted to lidar ratio both for the

  8. Challenges and benefits on long-term eddy covariance measurements over lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesala, Timo; Golub, Malgorzata; Desai, Ankur; Heiskanen, Jouni; Provenzale, Maria; Rantakari, Miitta; Ojala, Anne; Mammarella, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) data on carbon dioxide fluxes is presently available on about 30 lakes but the time series are mostly short, order of one year. Longer EC series together with chamber measurements and appropriate auxiliary data on water column allow for more accurate estimates of the aquatic component in terrestrial carbon balance and analysis of the environmental controls. We discuss on challenges for long-term EC measurements over freshwater ecosystems and demonstrate the benefits of EC data for carbon cycle studies via examples from long-term sites EC sites in Finland. We discuss on the auxiliary measurements needed and the general design of the whole measurement set-up to get representative information. We discuss on challenges related to the CO2 flux partitioning for freshwater ecosystems and introduce a new method to estimate the net primary productivity (NPP) on EC data, which is superior to more traditional methods (bottle incubations, 14C technique) with a poor temporal resolution. Finally, we collected and analyzed CO2 fluxes from 19 globally distributed lakes and reservoirs representing six climate zones. The mean flux was c. 0.3 micro mole / m2 s. We applied a simple upscaling to the direct observations and ended up to the estimate which is about half of the current emission estimate for lentic systems.

  9. Conditioning radium needles for long term storage : Sri Lankan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith, H.L.A.; Shantha, T.H.S.; Gunaratne, M.G.J.; De Silva, U.W.K.H.; Perera, H.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Radium the first radioisotope invented by Madame Curie was used for cancer therapy for the intracavitory treatment of cervical cancers and as oral implants etc. Radium needles and other geometries were made in standard strengths and Radium therapy enjoyed a heyday during the 1st half of the 20th century. Radium-226 is a long-lived radioactive material with a half-life of 1600 years. The use of radium was abandoned in the world in 1980s with the invention of short lived radioactive materials offering remote after loading systems which minimise radiation protection and waste disposal problems associated with long lived radioactive materials. This paper reports the conditioning procedure of the spent radium sources for long term storage (less than 20 years) and transport to national/ international stores if needed. The dose received by those involved in this exercise is also discussed in terms of radiation protection. The Ra was contained for long term storage according to international radiation safety regulations with a surface dose of less than 2 mSv per hour in a conditioned package having 17.5 GBq activity and can be transported to national/international stores if needed. The highest dose received during the exercise is well within the recommended dose limits for occupational exposures (20 and 500 mSv per year) for whole body and extremities respectively

  10. In vitro chondrocyte toxicity following long-term, high-dose exposure to Gd-DTPA and a novel cartilage-targeted MR contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midura, Sharon; Midura, Ronald J. [Cleveland Clinic, Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schneider, Erika [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, A21, Cleveland, OH (United States); NitroSci Pharmaceuticals, New Berlin, WI (United States); Rosen, Gerald M. [University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); NitroSci Pharmaceuticals, New Berlin, WI (United States); Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, A21, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To determine the concentrations exhibiting toxicity of a cartilage-targeted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DT-PA) in chondrocyte cultures. A long-term Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocyte-like cell line was exposed for 48 h to 1.0-20 mM concentrations of diaminobutyl-linked nitroxide (DAB4-DLN) citrate, 1.0-20 mM Gd-DTPA, 1.0 μM staurosporine (positive control), or left untreated. Cell appearance, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays of metabolic activity, quantitative PicoGreen assays of DNA content, and calcein-AM viability assays were compared. At 1.0-7.5 mM, minimal decrease in cell proliferation was found for both agents. At all doses of both agents, cell culture appearances were similar after 24 h of treatment. At the higher doses, differences in cell culture appearance were found after 48 h of treatment, with dose-dependent declines in chondrocyte populations for both agents. Concentration-dependent declines in DNA content and calcein fluorescence were found after 48 h of treatment, but beginning at a lower dose of DAB4-DLN citrate than Gd-DTPA. Dose-dependent decreases in MTT staining (cell metabolism) were apparent for both agents, but larger effects were evident at a lower dose for DAB-DLN citrate. Poor MTT staining of cells exposed for 48 h to 20 mM DAB4-DLN citrate probably indicates dead or dying cells. The minimal effect of the long-term exposure of model chondrocyte cell cultures to DAB4-DLN citrate and Gd-DTPA concentrations up to 7.5 mM (3x typical arthrographic administration) is supporting evidence that these doses are acceptable for MR arthrography. The findings are reassuring given that the experimental exposure to the contrast agents at sustained concentrations was much longer than when used clinically. (orig.)

  11. In vitro chondrocyte toxicity following long-term, high-dose exposure to Gd-DTPA and a novel cartilage-targeted MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midura, Sharon; Midura, Ronald J.; Schneider, Erika; Rosen, Gerald M.; Winalski, Carl S.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the concentrations exhibiting toxicity of a cartilage-targeted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent compared with gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DT-PA) in chondrocyte cultures. A long-term Swarm rat chondrosarcoma chondrocyte-like cell line was exposed for 48 h to 1.0-20 mM concentrations of diaminobutyl-linked nitroxide (DAB4-DLN) citrate, 1.0-20 mM Gd-DTPA, 1.0 μM staurosporine (positive control), or left untreated. Cell appearance, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays of metabolic activity, quantitative PicoGreen assays of DNA content, and calcein-AM viability assays were compared. At 1.0-7.5 mM, minimal decrease in cell proliferation was found for both agents. At all doses of both agents, cell culture appearances were similar after 24 h of treatment. At the higher doses, differences in cell culture appearance were found after 48 h of treatment, with dose-dependent declines in chondrocyte populations for both agents. Concentration-dependent declines in DNA content and calcein fluorescence were found after 48 h of treatment, but beginning at a lower dose of DAB4-DLN citrate than Gd-DTPA. Dose-dependent decreases in MTT staining (cell metabolism) were apparent for both agents, but larger effects were evident at a lower dose for DAB-DLN citrate. Poor MTT staining of cells exposed for 48 h to 20 mM DAB4-DLN citrate probably indicates dead or dying cells. The minimal effect of the long-term exposure of model chondrocyte cell cultures to DAB4-DLN citrate and Gd-DTPA concentrations up to 7.5 mM (3x typical arthrographic administration) is supporting evidence that these doses are acceptable for MR arthrography. The findings are reassuring given that the experimental exposure to the contrast agents at sustained concentrations was much longer than when used clinically. (orig.)

  12. Whole-Body Exposure to 28Si-Radiation Dose-Dependently Disrupts Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis and Proliferation in the Short Term and New Neuron Survival and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Long Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoolery, Cody W; Walker, Angela K; Richardson, Devon R; Lucero, Melanie J; Reynolds, Ryan P; Beddow, David H; Clark, K Lyles; Shih, Hung-Ying; LeBlanc, Junie A; Cole, Mara G; Amaral, Wellington Z; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Ahn, Francisca; Bulin, Sarah E; DeCarolis, Nathan A; Rivera, Phillip D; Chen, Benjamin P C; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J

    2017-11-01

    Astronauts traveling to Mars will be exposed to chronic low doses of galactic cosmic space radiation, which contains highly charged, high-energy (HZE) particles. 56 Fe-HZE-particle exposure decreases hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and disrupts hippocampal function in young adult rodents, raising the possibility of impaired astronaut cognition and risk of mission failure. However, far less is known about how exposure to other HZE particles, such as 28 Si, influences hippocampal neurogenesis and function. To compare the influence of 28 Si exposure on indices of neurogenesis and hippocampal function with previous studies on 56 Fe exposure, 9-week-old C57BL/6J and Nestin-GFP mice (NGFP; made and maintained for 10 or more generations on a C57BL/6J background) received whole-body 28 Si-particle-radiation exposure (0, 0.2 and 1 Gy, 300 MeV/n, LET 67 KeV/μ, dose rate 1 Gy/min). For neurogenesis assessment, the NGFP mice were injected with the mitotic marker BrdU at 22 h postirradiation and brains were examined for indices of hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis, including Ki67 + , BrdU + , BrdU + NeuN + and DCX + cell numbers at short- and long-term time points (24 h and 3 months postirradiation, respectively). In the short-term group, stereology revealed fewer Ki67 + , BrdU + and DCX + cells in 1-Gy-irradiated group relative to nonirradiated control mice, fewer Ki67 + and DCX + cells in 0.2 Gy group relative to control group and fewer BrdU + and DCX + cells in 1 Gy group relative to 0.2 Gy group. In contrast to the clearly observed radiation-induced, dose-dependent reductions in the short-term group across all markers, only a few neurogenesis indices were changed in the long-term irradiated groups. Notably, there were fewer surviving BrdU + cells in the 1 Gy group relative to 0- and 0.2-Gy-irradiated mice in the long-term group. When the short- and long-term groups were analyzed by sex, exposure to radiation had a similar effect on neurogenesis indices

  13. Long-term accumulation and microdistribution of uranium in the bone and marrow of beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Neto, J D T; Manso Guevara, M V; Nogueira, G P; Taricano, I D; Saiki, M; Zamboni, C B; Bonamin, L V; Camargo, S P; Cestari, A C; Deppman, A; Garcia, F; Gouveia, A N; Guzman, F; Helene, O A M; Jorge, S A C; Likhachev, V P; Martins, M N; Mesa, J; Rodriguez, O; Vanin, V R

    2004-08-01

    The accumulation and microdistribution of uranium in the bone and marrow of Beagle dogs were determined by both neutron activation and neutron-fission analysis. The experiment started immediately after the weaning period, lasting till maturity. Two animal groups were fed daily with uranyl nitrate at concentrations of 20 and 100 microg g(-1) food. Of the two measuring techniques, uranium accumulated along the marrow as much as in the bone, contrary to the results obtained with single, acute doses. The role played by this finding for the evaluation of radiobiological long-term risks is discussed. It was demonstrated, by means of a biokinetical approach, that the long-term accumulation of uranium in bone and marrow could be described by a piling up of single dose daily incorporation.

  14. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Winkler, R. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m{sup -3} (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m{sup -3} (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  15. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m -3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  16. Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincek Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. Methods In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols. Results Overall, 359 patients were recruited; 60 patients were enrolled for low dose (median: 2.4 GBq/cycle, range 0.9-7.8 GBq/cycle, 77 patients were enrolled for intermediate dose (median: 3.3 GBq/cycle, range: 2.0-7.4 GBq/cycle and 222 patients were enrolled for high dose (median: 6.7 GBq/cycle, range: 3.7-8.1 GBq/cycle [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. The incidences of hematotoxicities grade 1–4 were 65.0%, 64.9% and 74.8%; the incidences of grade 4/5 kidney toxicities were 8.4%, 6.5% and 14.0%, and the median survival was 39 (range: 1–158 months, 34 (range: 1–118 months and 29 (range: 1–113 months. The high dose protocol was associated with an increased risk of kidney toxicity (Hazard Ratio: 3.12 (1.13-8.59 vs. intermediate dose, p = 0.03 and a shorter overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.50 (1.08-5.79 vs. low dose, p = 0.03. Conclusions Increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities may be associated with increasing hematological toxicities. The dose related hematotoxicity profile of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC could facilitate tailoring [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with preexisting hematotoxicities. The results of the long-term outcome suggest that fractionated [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment might allow to reduce renal toxicity and to improve overall survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00978211.

  17. Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. Methods In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols. Results Overall, 359 patients were recruited; 60 patients were enrolled for low dose (median: 2.4 GBq/cycle, range 0.9-7.8 GBq/cycle), 77 patients were enrolled for intermediate dose (median: 3.3 GBq/cycle, range: 2.0-7.4 GBq/cycle) and 222 patients were enrolled for high dose (median: 6.7 GBq/cycle, range: 3.7-8.1 GBq/cycle) [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. The incidences of hematotoxicities grade 1–4 were 65.0%, 64.9% and 74.8%; the incidences of grade 4/5 kidney toxicities were 8.4%, 6.5% and 14.0%, and the median survival was 39 (range: 1–158) months, 34 (range: 1–118) months and 29 (range: 1–113) months. The high dose protocol was associated with an increased risk of kidney toxicity (Hazard Ratio: 3.12 (1.13-8.59) vs. intermediate dose, p = 0.03) and a shorter overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.50 (1.08-5.79) vs. low dose, p = 0.03). Conclusions Increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities may be associated with increasing hematological toxicities. The dose related hematotoxicity profile of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC could facilitate tailoring [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with preexisting hematotoxicities. The results of the long-term outcome suggest that fractionated [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment might allow to reduce renal toxicity and to improve overall survival. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number:NCT00978211 PMID:23320604

  18. Osteomalacia and Fanconi's syndrome caused by long-term low-dose adefovir dipivoxil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B-F; Wang, Y; Wang, B-Y; Sun, F-R; Zhang, D; Chen, Y-S

    2015-06-01

    Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is recommended for patients infected with lamivudine-refractory hepatitis B virus (HBV). We report a case of low-dose ADV-induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia that initially presented as diffuse musculoskeletal pain. A 59-year-old Chinese man reported an 18-month history of severe chest wall pain and multiple bone pain during the previous 4 months with no antecedent trauma. There was no clinical evidence of an infectious, inflammatory or malignant process. Medical history showed that the patient had a history of chronic hepatitis B infection, and receiving lamivudine at a daily dose of 100 mg for 70 months. Lamivudine was changed to adefovir (10 mg/day) for the past 42 months. His serum inorganic phosphorus concentration was significantly low (0·4 mmol/l; 0·81-1·5 mmol/L), and the result of a urine routine test was abnormal. Combined with unbearable bone pain, spontaneous fractures, changes in laboratory markers and the result of ECT and other radiographic findings, the diagnosis of Fanconi's syndrome with osteomalacia was established. Dramatic clinical, laboratory and imaging improvement was observed after ADV discontinuation. This case indicates that Fanconi's syndrome with osteomalacia can be acquired by a chronic hepatitis B patient taking ADV at a conventional dosage of 10 mg/day. Therefore, patients with HBV treated with long-term ADV should be regularly monitored for renal function, serum calcium and serum phosphate. Urine testing for ion concentration should also be undertaken. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Factors impacting short and long-term kidney graft survival: modification by single intra-operative -high-dose induction with ATG-Fresenius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Jürgen; May, Gottfried; Völp, Andreas; Wesslau, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A majority of recipients benefited from the intra-operative single high-dose induction (HDI) with ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) still leaving a group of recipients who did not profit from this kind of induction. Therefore the aim of this retrospective analysis was 1st to identify the risk factors impacting short and long-term graft survival, and 2nd to assess the efficacy of this type of induction in kidney graft recipients with or without these risk factors. A total of 606 recipients receiving two different immunosuppressive treatment regimens (1st: Triple drug therapy [TDT, n=196] consisting mainly of steroids, azathioprine and cyclosporine; 2nd: TDT + 9 mg/kg ATG-F intra-operatively [HDI, n=410]) were included in this analysis and grouped according to their kidney graft survival time (short GST: ≤1 yr, n=100 and long GST: >5 yrs, n=506). The main risk factors associated with a shortened graft survival were pre-transplant sensitization, re-transplantation, rejections (in particular vascular or mixed ones) and the necessity of a long-term anti-rejection therapy. Adding ATG-F single high dose induction to TDT was more efficient in prolonging kidney graft survival than TDT alone not only in recipients without any risk factors (p<0.005) but also in recipients with at least one risk factor (p<0.021). Only in 4.6% of recipients having two or more risk factors this effect could not be demonstrated. The intra-operative single high-dose induction with ATG-F significantly improves the kidney graft survival in recipients with or without risk factors and can therefore be recommended.

  20. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation on gene expression in a zebrafish model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Jaafar

    Full Text Available Understanding how initial radiation injury translates into long-term effects is an important problem in radiation biology. Here, we define a set of changes in the transcription profile that are associated with the long-term response to radiation exposure. The study was performed in vivo using zebrafish, an established radiobiological model organism. To study the long-term response, 24 hour post-fertilization embryos were exposed to 0.1 Gy (low dose or 1.0 Gy (moderate dose of whole-body gamma radiation and allowed to develop for 16 weeks. Liver mRNA profiles were then analyzed using the Affymetrix microarray platform, with validation by quantitative PCR. As a basis for comparison, 16-week old adults were exposed at the same doses and analyzed after 4 hours. Statistical analysis was performed in a way to minimize the effects of multiple comparisons. The responses to these two treatment regimes differed greatly: 360 probe sets were associated primarily with the long-term response, whereas a different 2062 probe sets were associated primarily with the response when adults of the same age were irradiated 4 hours before exposure. Surprisingly, a ten-fold difference in radiation dose (0.1 versus 1.0 Gy had little effect. Analysis at the gene and pathway level indicated that the long-term response includes the induction of cytokine and inflammatory regulators and transcription and growth factors. The acute response includes the induction of p53 target genes and modulation of the hypoxia-induced transcription factor-C/EBP axis. Results help define genes and pathways affected in the long-term, low and moderate dose radiation response and differentiate them from those affected in an acute response in the same tissue.

  1. Long-Term Quality of Life Outcome After Proton Beam Monotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Weyman, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Rodrigues, Anita [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Talcott, James A. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: High-dose external radiation for localized prostate cancer results in favorable clinical outcomes and low toxicity rates. Here, we report long-term quality of life (QOL) outcome for men treated with conformal protons. Methods: QOL questionnaires were sent at specified intervals to 95 men who received proton radiation. Of these, 87 men reported 3- and/or 12-month outcomes, whereas 73 also reported long-term outcomes (minimum 2 years). Symptom scores were calculated at baseline, 3 months, 12 months, and long-term follow-up. Generalized estimating equation models were constructed to assess longitudinal outcomes while accounting for correlation among repeated measures in an individual patient. Men were stratified into functional groups from their baseline questionnaires (normal, intermediate, or poor function) for each symptom domain. Long-term QOL changes were assessed overall and within functional groups using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Statistically significant changes in all four symptom scores were observed in the longitudinal analysis. For the 73 men reporting long-term outcomes, there were significant change scores for incontinence (ID), bowel (BD) and sexual dysfunction (SD), but not obstructive/irritative voiding dysfunction (OID). When stratified by baseline functional category, only men with normal function had increased scores for ID and BD. For SD, there were significant changes in men with both normal and intermediate function, but not poor function. Conclusions: Patient reported outcomes are sensitive indicators of treatment-related morbidity. These results quantitate the long-term consequences of proton monotherapy for prostate cancer. Analysis by baseline functional category provides an individualized prediction of long-term QOL scores. High dose proton radiation was associated with small increases in bowel dysfunction and incontinence, with more pronounced changes in sexual dysfunction.

  2. Infection and immunity in Down syndrome: a trial of long-term low oral doses of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Puterman, M; Godolphin, W; Sheps, S; Tingle, A J; Quigley, G

    1989-05-01

    To determine whether orally administered zinc supplements could correct the abnormal humoral and cell-mediated immunity of Down syndrome, we randomly assigned 64 children with Down syndrome, aged 1 to 19 years and living at home, to receive either zinc gluconate or placebo daily for 6-month periods with crossover from one regimen to another. Control subjects were siblings and age-matched, unrelated children. Serum zinc, copper, and measures of immune system competence were tested at 3- or 6-month intervals. Parents kept daily logs of clinical symptoms such as cough and diarrhea and of physician visits. Mean serum zinc concentrations increased to about 150% of baseline during zinc supplementation, but we found no effect on serum levels of copper, immunoglobulins, or complement; on lymphocyte number or subset distribution; or on in vitro response to mitogens. Children with Down syndrome who were receiving zinc had a trend toward fewer days or episodes of cough and fever but no change in other clinical variables. Long-term, low-dose oral zinc supplementation to improve depressed immune response or to decrease infections in children with Down syndrome cannot be recommended.

  3. Long-term use of metformin and colorectal cancer risk in type II diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardel, Majken; Jensen, S. M.; Pottegård, Anton

    2014-01-01

    of prescriptions for a cumulative dose of 2000 g within 5 years prior to the index date. To control for potential confounders, we used unconditional logistic regression. We generated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between metformin and CRC and performed subanalyses for selected subgroups...... and for the dose-response relation. We identified 2088 cases and 9060 controls during the study period. The association between long-term metformin use and CRC gave an adjusted OR at 0.83 (95% CI 0.68-1.00). A protective effect on CRC with long-term use of metformin was only evident for women (OR 0.66 vs. 0.......99 for men). There was a significant dose-response association of metformin use > 250 defined daily dose (DDD) and for the duration of metformin use > 1 year. We found an indication of a protective effect of long-term metformin use against CRC in type II diabetics, although this effect was only seen in women....

  4. Long-term dose-response studies of inhaled or injected radionuclides. Biennial report, 1 October 1991--30 September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Miller, S.C.; Bradley, P.L. [eds.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the scientific progress in, and current status of, life-span studies of the long-term health risks in Beagle dogs of chronic irradiation from internally deposited radionuclides or from an external source. The reporting period for this document is the 2-year period from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1993. Studies that were initiated at three different laboratories (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, ITRI, University of Utah, and Argonne National Laboratory, ANL) are presented here because they are being completed at ITRI. All living dogs in the Utah-initiated studies were transferred to the ITRI facility for the remainder of their life-span observations and measurements in September 1987. This report is the fourth in a series of reports dealing with the current status and progress of both the Utah and ITRI studies. Other life-span studies involving dogs exposed to gamma radiation from an external source were initiated and conducted for many years at ANL. In 1991, the decision was made to discontinue the chronic irradiation of the remaining living dogs and to transfer all remaining dogs to ITRI for care, clinical observations, and pathological observations at death or euthanasia. This report provides the current status of these dogs. Status reports on the Utah and ITRI studies comprise most of this report. The ITRI-related section presents brief statements of project objectives, the general procedures used in these studies, and some study-specific features for each of the 19 studies being conducted with either beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides. Dose- and effect-modifying factors being addressed in these studies include total dose, dose rate, LET, solubility, nonuniformity of dose, species, age, sex, health status, and mode of exposure. Recent additions to experimental protocols for studies in which dogs are still alive involve the collection and analysis of tumor tissues using currently available molecular biology techniques.

  5. How much radiation dose, to whom? Long-term storage, surveillance, retrieval and long processes cause additional dose to employees; Wie viel Strahlendosis fuer wen? Lange Lagerung, Offenhaltung und ein langer Entsorgungsprozess bedeuten zusaetzliche Dosis fuer Beschaeftigte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Clemens [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz; Riemann, Moritz [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Philosophie und Ethik der Umwelt

    2017-09-01

    In the case of final nuclear waste disposal there are concurrent interests with respect to radiation protection: The realization of a disposal option with minimum required follow-up care needs time causing additional radiation exposure for the employees, also the option of long-term storage, surveillance and retrieval possibilities cause additional dose to employees. The contribution discusses possible consideration of requests for the different options.

  6. A hybrid measure-correlate-predict method for long-term wind condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology with greater accuracy is developed. • Three sets of performance metrics are proposed to evaluate the hybrid MCP method. • Both wind speed and direction are considered in the hybrid MCP method. • The best combination of MCP algorithms is determined. • The developed hybrid MCP method is uniquely helpful for long-term wind resource assessment. - Abstract: This paper develops a hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) strategy to assess long-term wind resource variations at a farm site. The hybrid MCP method uses recorded data from multiple reference stations to estimate long-term wind conditions at a target wind plant site with greater accuracy than is possible with data from a single reference station. The weight of each reference station in the hybrid strategy is determined by the (i) distance and (ii) elevation differences between the target farm site and each reference station. In this case, the wind data is divided into sectors according to the wind direction, and the MCP strategy is implemented for each wind direction sector separately. The applicability of the proposed hybrid strategy is investigated using five MCP methods: (i) the linear regression; (ii) the variance ratio; (iii) the Weibull scale; (iv) the artificial neural networks; and (v) the support vector regression. To implement the hybrid MCP methodology, we use hourly averaged wind data recorded at five stations in the state of Minnesota between 07-01-1996 and 06-30-2004. Three sets of performance metrics are used to evaluate the hybrid MCP method. The first set of metrics analyze the statistical performance, including the mean wind speed, wind speed variance, root mean square error, and mean absolute error. The second set of metrics evaluate the distribution of long-term wind speed; to this end, the Weibull distribution and the Multivariate and Multimodal Wind Distribution models are adopted. The third set of metrics analyze

  7. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Vanessa Manchim; Yonamine, Maurício; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM), fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Manchim Favaro

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show better performance in neuropsychological tests when tested in off-drug condition. This study evaluated the effects of long-term administration of ayahuasca on Morris water maze (MWM, fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM performance in rats. Behavior tests started 48h after the end of treatment. Freeze-dried ayahuasca doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg were used, with water as the control. Long-term administration consisted of a daily oral dose for 30 days by gavage. The behavioral data indicated that long-term ayahuasca administration did not affect the performance of animals in MWM and EPM tasks. However the dose of 120 mg/kg increased the contextual conditioned fear response for both background and foreground fear conditioning. The tone conditioned response was not affected after long-term administration. In addition, the increase in the contextual fear response was maintained during the repeated sessions several weeks after training. Taken together, these data showed that long-term ayahuasca administration in rats can interfere with the contextual association of emotional events, which is in agreement with the fact that the beverage activates brain areas related to these processes.

  9. The long-term effectiveness of generic adult fixed-dose combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Access to pediatric antiretroviral formulations is increasing in resource-limited countries, however adult FDCs are still commonly used by antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs. Objective: To describe long-term effectiveness of using adult FDC of d4T+3TC+NVP (Triomune) in children for HIV treatment. Methods: ...

  10. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2018-02-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.

  11. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Influence of Surface Charge and Dose on Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Di Bona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs are commonly utilized for biomedical, industrial, and commercial applications due to their unique properties and potential biocompatibility. However, little is known about how exposure to iron oxide NPs may affect susceptible populations such as pregnant women and developing fetuses. To examine the influence of NP surface-charge and dose on the developmental toxicity of iron oxide NPs, Crl:CD1(ICR (CD-1 mice were exposed to a single, low (10 mg/kg or high (100 mg/kg dose of positively-charged polyethyleneimine-Fe2O3-NPs (PEI-NPs, or negatively-charged poly(acrylic acid-Fe2O3-NPs (PAA-NPs during critical windows of organogenesis (gestation day (GD 8, 9, or 10. A low dose of NPs, regardless of charge, did not induce toxicity. However, a high exposure led to charge-dependent fetal loss as well as morphological alterations of the uteri (both charges and testes (positive only of surviving offspring. Positively-charged PEI-NPs given later in organogenesis resulted in a combination of short-term fetal loss (42% and long-term alterations in reproduction, including increased fetal loss for second generation matings (mice exposed in utero. Alternatively, negatively-charged PAA-NPs induced fetal loss (22% earlier in organogenesis to a lesser degree than PEI-NPs with only mild alterations in offspring uterine histology observed in the long-term.

  12. A single low dose of Fe ions can cause long-term biological responses in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qianlin; Wang, Jingdong; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying [Medical College of Soochow University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Wei [Soochow University, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2018-03-15

    Space radiation cancer risk may be a potential obstacle for long-duration spaceflight. Among all types of cancer space radiation may induce, lung cancer has been estimated to be the largest potential risk. Although previous animal study has shown that Fe ions, the most important contributor to the total dose equivalent of space radiation, induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis per dose than X-rays, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated long-term biological changes in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to Fe ion or X-ray irradiation. We found that compared with sham control, the progeny of NL20 cells irradiated with 0.1 Gy of Fe ions showed slightly increased micronucleus formation, significantly decreased cell proliferation, disturbed cell cycle distribution, and obviously elevated intracellular ROS levels accompanied by reduced SOD1 and SOD2 expression, but the progeny of NL20 cells irradiated with 0.9 Gy of X-rays did not show any significant changes. More importantly, Fe ion exposure caused much greater soft-agar colony formation than X-rays did in the progeny of irradiated NL20 cells, clearly suggesting higher cell transformation potential of Fe ions compared with X-rays. These data may shed the light on the potential lung tumorigenesis risk from Fe ion exposure. In addition, ATM inhibition by Ku55933 reversed some of the changes in the progeny of Fe ion-irradiated cells but not others such as soft-agar colony formation, suggesting complex processes from DNA damage to carcinogenesis. These data indicate that even a single low dose of Fe ions can induce long-term biological responses such as cell transformation, etc., suggesting unignorable health risk from space radiation to astronauts. (orig.)

  13. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors

  14. GEMS: Underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartini, Ludovica, E-mail: ludovica.sartini@ingv.i [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Genoa University, Genoa (Italy); Simeone, Francesco; Pani, Priscilla [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Lo Bue, Nadia; Marinaro, Giuditta [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Grubich, Andry; Lobko, Alexander [Institute for Nuclear Problems (INP), Belarus State University, Minsk (Belarus); Etiope, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Capone, Antonio [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Favali, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Gasparoni, Francesco; Bruni, Federico [Tecnomare S.p.A., Venice (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework for a development of a submarine telescope for neutrino detection (KM3NeT Design Study Project). The spectrometer is highly sensitive to gamma rays produced by {sup 40}K decays but it can detect other natural (e.g., {sup 238}U,{sup 232}Th) and anthropogenic radio-nuclides (e.g., {sup 137}Cs). GEMS was firstly tested and calibrated in the laboratory using known sources and it was successfully deployed for a long-term (6 months) monitoring at a depth of 3200 m in the Ionian Sea (Capo Passero, offshore Eastern Sicily). The instrument recorded data for the whole deployment period within the expected specifications. This monitoring provided, for the first time, a continuous time-series of radioactivity in deep-sea.

  15. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    OpenAIRE

    Sciare , J.; Oikonomou , K.; Favez , O.; Markaki , Z.; Liakakou , E.; Cachier , H.; Mihalopoulos , N.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Long-term (5-yr) measurements of Black Carbon (BC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island). A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques) was applied for these BC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols have shown to poorly contribute (+17% on a yearly average) to light absorption coefficient (babs) measurements performed by an optical m...

  16. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    OpenAIRE

    Sciare, J.; Oikonomou, K.; Favez, O.; Liakakou, E.; Markaki, Z.; Cachier, H.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term (5-year) measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island). A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques) was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average) to light absorption coefficient (babs) measurements performed by an optical m...

  17. Optimal low-dose radiosurgery combined with and without intervention for unruptured arteriovenous malformations. A long-term follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Naitou, Isao

    2006-01-01

    Treatment indication for unruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain was investigated based on long-term results of low-dose Gamma Knife (GK) surgery. Thirty-nine patients with unruptured AVMs treated with GK surgery were followed more than 7 years. These AVMs were found due to seizure and steal symptoms in 22 and 4 patients, respectively, and incidentally in 13. Embolization was performed in 6 patients before GK surgery. Total obliteration was obtained in 83.3% after initial treatment and 95.8% after additional treatment. Bleeding before total obliteration occurred in 2 patients and adverse effect on the internal capsule in 1. It is concluded that low-dose GK surgery is safe and effective for the treatment of unruptured AVMs, especially symptomatic AVMs in functional areas. (author)

  18. Conformal irradiation of the prostate: estimating long-term rectal bleeding risk using dose-volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, Alan C.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Adams, Judith A.; Urie, Marcia M.; Shipley, William U.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) may be very useful tools for estimating probability of normal tissue complications (NTCP), but there is not yet an agreed upon method for their analysis. This study introduces a statistical method of aggregating and analyzing primary data from DVHs and associated outcomes. It explores the dose-volume relationship for NTCP of the rectum, using long-term data on rectal wall bleeding following prostatic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Previously published data were reviewed and updated on 41 patients with Stages T3 and T4 prostatic carcinoma treated with photons followed by perineal proton boost, including dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of each patient's anterior rectal wall and data on the occurrence of postirradiation rectal bleeding (minimum FU > 4 years). Logistic regression was used to test whether some individual combination of dose and volume irradiated might best separate the DVHs into categories of high or low risk for rectal bleeding. Further analysis explored whether a group of such dose-volume combinations might be superior in predicting complication risk. These results were compared with results of the 'critical volume model', a mathematical model based on assumptions of underlying radiobiological interactions. Results: Ten of the 128 tested dose-volume combinations proved to be 'statistically significant combinations' (SSCs) distinguishing between bleeders (14 out of 41) and nonbleeders (27 out of 41), ranging contiguously between 60 CGE (Cobalt Gray Equivalent) to 70% of the anterior rectal wall and 75 CGE to 30%. Calculated odds ratios for each SSC were not significantly different across the individual SSCs; however, analysis combining SSCs allowed segregation of DVHs into three risk groups: low, moderate, and high. Estimates of probabilities of normal tissue complications (NTCPs) based on these risk groups correlated strongly with observed data (p = 0.003) and with biomathematical model-generated NTCPs

  19. Preclinical rodent toxicity studies for long term use of ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ratti

    2015-01-01

    Ceftriaxone showed rapid absorption with half-life values ranging between 1 and 1.5 h. Additionally, there was no evidence of accumulation and a virtually complete elimination by 16 h after the last dose. Overall there were no toxicologically meaningful drug-related animal findings associated with the long-term administration (6 months of ceftriaxone. These results support safety of long-term use of ceftriaxone in human clinical trials.

  20. Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Pareren; M. Houdijk; M. Jansen (Maarten); M. Reeser; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly

  1. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  2. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P trend =.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P trend =.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P trend =.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

  3. Spatial structure of food contamination with 137Cs and estimation of long-term internal dose loads on population of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53,207 records of 137 Cs contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure by eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different types of geostatical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk could be used in decision making. (author)

  4. Impact of surrounding environment evolution on long-term gas flux measurements in a temperate mixed forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Rixen, Toma; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    With the development of eddy covariance networks like Fluxnet, ICOS or NEON, long-term data series of carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere will become more and more numerous. However, long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good understanding of measurement conditions during the investigated period. Independently of climate drivers, measurements may indeed be influenced by measurement conditions themselves subjected to long-term variability due to vegetation growth or set-up changes. The present research refers to the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) where fluxes of momentum, carbon dioxide, latent and sensible heat have been continuously measured by eddy covariance during twenty years. VTO is an ICOS site installed in a mixed forest (beech, silver fir, Douglas fir, Norway spruce) in the Belgian Ardennes. A multidisciplinary approach was developed in order to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of several site characteristics: -displacement height (d) and relative measurement height (z-d) were determined using a spectral approach that compared observed and theoretical cospectra; -turbulence statistics were analyzed in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory; -tree height during the measurement period was obtained by combining tree height inventories, a LIDAR survey and tree growth models; -measurement footprint was determined by using a footprint model. A good agreement was found between the three first approaches. Results show notably that z-d was subjected to both temporal and spatial evolution. Temporal evolution resulted from continuous tree growth as well as from a tower raise, achieved in 2009. Spatial evolution, due to canopy heterogeneity, was also observed. The impacts of these changes on measurements are investigated. In particular, it was shown that they affect measurement footprint, flux spectral corrections and flux quality. All these effects must be taken into

  5. Long-term oxygen therapy for COPD. Improving longevity and quality of life in hypoxemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weg, J G; Haas, C F

    1998-04-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy can increase life expectancy in hypoxemic patients with COPD. Accurate identification of hypoxemia requires arterial blood gas measurements. Pulse oximetry can be used to measure trends in oxygenation, oxygen needs, and oxygen requirements during exercise and sleep. A detailed oxygen prescription indicates: (1) the oxygen dose (L/min), (2) the number of hours per day that oxygen therapy is required, (3) the dose required during exercise, (4) the oxygen supply system: concentrator, compressed gas cylinder, or liquid oxygen reservoir, and (5) the delivery device: nasal cannula, demand-flow device, reservoir cannula, or transtracheal oxygen catheter.

  6. Long-Term Single-Dose Efficacy of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Andes Virus Vaccine in Syrian Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Prescott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is highly pathogenic in humans and is the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America. Case-fatality rates are as high as 50% and there are no approved vaccines or specific therapies for infection. Our laboratory has recently developed a replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccine that expressed the glycoproteins of Andes virus in place of the native VSV glycoprotein (G. This vaccine is highly efficacious in the Syrian hamster model of HCPS when given 28 days before challenge with ANDV, or when given around the time of challenge (peri-exposure, and even protects when administered post-exposure. Herein, we sought to test the durability of the immune response to a single dose of this vaccine in Syrian hamsters. This vaccine was efficacious in hamsters challenged intranasally with ANDV 6 months after vaccination (p = 0.025, but animals were not significantly protected following 1 year of vaccination (p = 0.090. The decrease in protection correlated with a reduction of measurable neutralizing antibody responses, and suggests that a more robust vaccination schedule might be required to provide long-term immunity.

  7. Short-term treatment with flumazenil restores long-term object memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Damien; Chuluun, Bayarsaikhan; Garner, Craig C; Heller, H Craig

    2017-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABA A receptor (GABA A R) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABA A R antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval. Long-term memory was assessed by the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) testing in Ts65Dn mice after acute or short-term chronic treatment with FLUM. Short-term, low, chronic dose regimens of FLUM elicit long-lasting (>1week) normalization of cognitive function in both young and aged mice. FLUM at low dosages produces long lasting cognitive improvements and has the potential of fulfilling an unmet therapeutic need in DS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J; Benjamin, Linus C; Wu, Bosco; de Campos Silva, Thomaz; McLachlan, Craig S; McKay, Michael J; Last, Andrew J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Dose-escalated (DE) radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) and ADT. Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2.1% and 3.4%, respectively. No grade 3 or 4 late toxicities were reported. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen (P=0.001) and Gleason score (P=0.03) were significant in predicting biochemical failure on multivariate analysis. There is a high probability of tumor control with DE IG-IMRT combined with androgen deprivation, and this is a technique with a low probability of significant late toxicity. Our long term results corroborate the safety and efficacy of treating with IG-IMRT to high doses and compares favorably with published series for

  9. Long-Term Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use Is Associated with Increased Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Male Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akçakoyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of long-term supraphysiologic doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS on atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD in male bodybuilders. We clearly demonstrated that long-term consumption of supraphysiologic doses of AAS is associated with higher values of inter- and intra-AEMD in healthy young bodybuilders.

  10. Results of long-term measurement of 222Rn concentrations in outdoor atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of the authors' long-term measurement of 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere. The measurements started in 1987 and were performed at a height of 1.5 m over a grass-covered ground surface, using till 1991 a Lucas type scintillation chamber and later a large volume scintillation chamber. Graphs are presented and discussed of the course of average monthly radon concentration in 1987-1996 and of annual courses of radon concentration for different time intervals of the day over 1991 to 1995. (A.K.)

  11. Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.M.M.; Mackie, T.R.; Podgorsak, M.B.; Holmes, M.A.; Papanikolaou, N.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Cygler, J.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Bielajew, A.F.; Schmidt, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the electron dose distribution near an inhomogeneity is difficult with traditional dosimeters which themselves perturb the electron field. The authors tested the performance of a new high resolution, water-equivalent plastic scintillation detector which has ideal properties for this application. A plastic scintillation detector with a 1 mm diameter, 3 mm long cylindrical sensitive volume was used to measure the dose distributions behind standard benchmark inhomogeneities in water phantoms. The plastic scintillator material is more water equivalent than polystyrene in terms of its mass collision stopping power and mass scattering power. Measurements were performed for beams of electrons having initial energies of 6 and 18 MeV at depths from 0.2-4.2 cm behind the inhomogeneities. The detector reveals hot and cold spots behind heterogeneities at resolutions equivalent to typical film digitizer spot sizes. Plots of the dose distributions behind air, aluminum, lead, and formulations for cortical and inner bone-equivalent materials are presented. The plastic scintillation detector is suited for measuring the electron dose distribution near an inhomogeneity. 14 refs., 9 figs

  12. Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on different methods of analysis that are currently used by design codes to predict the short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced concrete slab systems and compares the predicted deflections with measured deflections. The experimental work to measure deflections involved the testing of ...

  13. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A'Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey.

  14. Validation of a novel device to objectively measure adherence to long-term oxygen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kai V Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sun-Kai V Lin1, Daniel K Bogen1, Samuel T Kuna2,31Department of Bioengineering; 2Department of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Division, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USARationale: We have developed a novel oxygen adherence monitor that objectively measures patient use of long-term oxygen therapy. The monitor attaches to the oxygen source and detects whether or not the patient is wearing the nasal cannula.Objective: The study’s purpose was to validate the monitor’s performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during wakefulness and sleep.Methods: Ten adult males with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mean ± SD FEV1 37.7 ± 14.9% of predicted on long-term continuous oxygen therapy were tested in a sleep laboratory over a 12–13 hour period that included an overnight polysomnogram.Measurements: The monitor’s measurements were obtained at 4-minute intervals and compared to actual oxygen use determined by review of time-synchronized video recordings.Main results: The monitor made 1504/1888 (79.7% correct detections (unprocessed data across all participants: 957/1,118 (85.6% correct detections during wakefulness and 546/770 (70.9% during sleep. All errors were false negatives, ie, the monitor failed to detect that the participant was actually wearing the cannula. Application of a majority-vote filter to the raw data improved overall detection accuracy to 84.9%.Conclusions: The results demonstrate the monitor’s ability to objectively measure whether or not men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are receiving their oxygen treatment. The ability to objectively measure oxygen delivery, rather than oxygen expended, may help improve the management of patients on long-term oxygen therapy.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary

  15. Microclimatic effects on outdoor radon and its progeny in a long-term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, M.; Keller, G.; Kappel, R.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The dose due to the long term radon exposure is estimated from the radon concentration and from an equilibrium factor that in the literature is reported with a wide uncertainty. Therefore the radon equilibrium factor outdoors and its dependence on climatic effects should be investigated in a long-term study. Both the outdoor concentrations of radon and of its progeny near Ellweiler/Hunsrueck were measured continuously during 12 months and the resulting equilibrium factors were determined. Simultaneously to the every 2 hour's radon data many meterological parameters as temperature and relative to humidity of the air, barometric pressure and duration and amount of rainfall were recorded. At a height of 6 meters above ground and in 10 minute intervals the local wind direction and velocity were registered. By that a set of more than 3000 single measurements of the equilibrium factor and of the corresponding weather conditions was collected

  16. rhEPO Enhances Cellular Anti-oxidant Capacity to Protect Long-Term Cultured Aging Primary Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huqing; Fan, Jiaxin; Chen, Mengyi; Yao, Qingling; Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Guilian; Wu, Haiqin; Yu, Xiaorui

    2017-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) may protect the nervous system of animals against aging damage, making it a potential anti-aging drug for the nervous system. However, experimental evidence from natural aging nerve cell models is lacking, and the efficacy of EPO and underlying mechanism of this effect warrant further study. Thus, the present study used long-term cultured primary nerve cells to successfully mimic the natural aging process of nerve cells. Starting on the 11th day of culture, cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Using double immunofluorescence labeling, we found that rhEPO significantly improved the morphology of long-term cultured primary nerve cells and increased the total number of long-term cultured primary cells. However, rhEPO did not improve the ratio of nerve cells. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure nerve cell activity and showed that rhEPO significantly improved the activity of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Moreover, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double immunofluorescence labeling flow cytometry revealed that rhEPO reduced the apoptotic rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) immunohistochemistry staining showed that rhEPO significantly reduced the aging rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Immunochemistry revealed that rhEPO enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) abundance and reduced the intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In addition, this effect depended on the dose, was maximized at a dose of 100 U/ml and was more pronounced than that of vitamin E. In summary, this study finds that rhEPO protects long-term cultured primary nerve cells from aging in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this effect may be associated with the enhancement of the intracellular anti

  17. Long-term study of the impact of methotrexate on serum cytokines and lymphocyte subsets in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with pharmacokinetic measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Joel M; Lawrence, David A; Hamilton, Robert; McInnes, Iain B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe changes in immune parameters observed during long-term methotrexate (MTX) therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore correlations with simultaneously measured MTX pharmacokinetic (PKC) parameters. Design Prospective, open-label, long-term mechanism of action study. Setting University clinic. Methods MTX was initiated at a single weekly oral dose of 7.5 mg and dose adjusted for efficacy and toxicity for the duration of the study. Standard measures of disease activity were performed at baseline and every 6–36 months. Serum cytokine measurements in blood together with lymphocyte surface immunophenotypes and stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production were assessed at each clinical evaluation. Results Cytokine concentrations exhibited multiple significant correlations with disease activity measures over time. The strongest correlations observed were for interleukin (IL)-6 (r=0.45, p<0.0001 for swollen joints and r=0.32, p=0.002 for tender joints) and IL-8 (r=0.25, p=0.01 for swollen joints). Significant decreases from baseline were observed in serum IL-1B, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations. The most significant changes were observed for IL-6 (p<0.001). Significant increases from baseline were observed in IL-2 release from PBMCs ex vivo (p<0.01). In parallel, multiple statistically significant correlations were observed between MTX PKC measures and immune parameters. The change in swollen joint count correlated inversely with the change in area under the curve (AUC) for MTX (r=−0.63, p=0.007). Conclusions MTX therapy of patients with RA is accompanied by a variety of changes in serum cytokine expression, which in turn correlate strongly with clinical disease activity and MTX pharmacokinetics (PKCs). These data strongly support the notion that MTX mediates profound and functionally relevant effects on the immunological hierarchy in the RA lesion. PMID:27335660

  18. An international intercomparison of absorbed dose measurements for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    Dose intercomparison on an international basis has become an important component of quality assurance measurement i.e. to check the performance of absorbed dose measurements in radiation therapy. The absorbed dose to water measurements for radiation therapy at the SSDL, MINT have been regularly compared through international intercomparison programmes organised by the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria such as IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits and the Intercomparison of therapy level ionisation chamber calibration factors in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors. The results of these intercomparison in terms of percentage deviations for Cobalt 60 gamma radiation and megavoltage x-ray from medical linear accelerators participated by the SSDL-MINT during the year 1985-2001 are within the acceptance limit. (Author)

  19. Long term Suboxone™ emotional reactivity as measured by automatic detection in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Hill

    Full Text Available Addictions to illicit drugs are among the nation's most critical public health and societal problems. The current opioid prescription epidemic and the need for buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone®; SUBX as an opioid maintenance substance, and its growing street diversion provided impetus to determine affective states ("true ground emotionality" in long-term SUBX patients. Toward the goal of effective monitoring, we utilized emotion-detection in speech as a measure of "true" emotionality in 36 SUBX patients compared to 44 individuals from the general population (GP and 33 members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. Other less objective studies have investigated emotional reactivity of heroin, methadone and opioid abstinent patients. These studies indicate that current opioid users have abnormal emotional experience, characterized by heightened response to unpleasant stimuli and blunted response to pleasant stimuli. However, this is the first study to our knowledge to evaluate "true ground" emotionality in long-term buprenorphine/naloxone combination (Suboxone™. We found in long-term SUBX patients a significantly flat affect (p<0.01, and they had less self-awareness of being happy, sad, and anxious compared to both the GP and AA groups. We caution definitive interpretation of these seemingly important results until we compare the emotional reactivity of an opioid abstinent control using automatic detection in speech. These findings encourage continued research strategies in SUBX patients to target the specific brain regions responsible for relapse prevention of opioid addiction.

  20. The interaction of short-term and long-term memory in phonetic category formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsberger, James D.

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the role that short-term memory capacity plays in the relationship between novel stimuli (e.g., non-native speech sounds, native nonsense words) and phonetic categories in long-term memory. Thirty native speakers of American English were administered five tests: categorial AXB discrimination using nasal consonants from Malayalam; categorial identification, also using Malayalam nasals, which measured the influence of phonetic categories in long-term memory; digit span; nonword span, a short-term memory measure mediated by phonetic categories in long-term memory; and paired-associate word learning (word-word and word-nonword pairs). The results showed that almost all measures were significantly correlated with one another. The strongest predictor for the discrimination and word-nonword learning results was nonword (r=+0.62) and digit span (r=+0.51), respectively. When the identification test results were partialed out, only nonword span significantly correlated with discrimination. The results show a strong influence of short-term memory capacity on the encoding of phonetic detail within phonetic categories and suggest that long-term memory representations regulate the capacity of short-term memory to preserve information for subsequent encoding. The results of this study will also be discussed with regards to resolving the tension between episodic and abstract models of phonetic category structure.

  1. The Fukushima nuclear accident and the pale grass blue butterfly: evaluating biological effects of long-term low-dose exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Taira, Wataru; Kinjo, Seira; Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2013-08-12

    On August 9th 2012, we published an original research article in Scientific Reports, concluding that artificial radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant exerted genetically and physiologically adverse effects on the pale grass blue butterfly Zizeeria maha in the Fukushima area. Immediately following publication, many questions and comments were generated from all over the world. Here, we have clarified points made in the original paper and answered questions posed by the readers. The following points were clarified. (1) There are many advantages to using the pale grass blue butterfly as an indicator species. (2) The forewings of the individuals collected in Fukushima were significantly smaller than in the northern and southern localities. (3) We observed growth retardation in the butterflies from the Fukushima area. (4) The aberrant colour patterns in the butterflies obtained in the Fukushima area were different from the colour patterns induced by temperature and sibling crosses but similar to those induced by external and internal exposures to the artificial radionuclides and by a chemical mutagen, suggesting that genetic mutations caused the aberrations. (5) This species of butterfly has been plentiful in Fukushima area for at least half a century. We here present specimens collected from Fukushima Prefecture before the accident. (6) Mutation accumulation was detected by the increase in the abnormality rates from May 2011 to September 2011. (7) The abnormal traits were heritable. (8) Our sampling localities were not affected by the tsunami. (9) We used a high enough number of samples to obtain statistically significant results. (10) The standard rearing method was followed, producing normal adults in the control groups. (11) The exposure experiments successfully reproduced the results of the field work. This species of butterfly is vulnerable to long-term low-dose internal and external exposures; however, insect cells are known to be

  2. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method to...

  3. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D.; Morris, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED 50 ) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  4. Prevalence of Long-Term Opioid Use in Long-Stay Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Chrysanthopoulou, Stavroula A; Ulbricht, Christine M; Hume, Anne L; Tjia, Jennifer; Lapane, Kate L

    2018-01-01

    Overall and long-term opioid use among older adults have increased since 1999. Less is known about opioid use in older adults in nursing homes (NHs). Cross-sectional. U.S. NHs (N = 13,522). Long-stay NH resident Medicare beneficiaries with a Minimum Data Set 3.0 (MDS) assessment between April 1, 2012, and June 30, 2012, and 120 days of follow-up (N = 315,949). We used Medicare Part D claims to measure length of opioid use in the 120 days from the index assessment (short-term: ≤30 days, medium-term: >30-89 days, long-term: ≥90 days), adjuvants (e.g., anticonvulsants), and other pain medications (e.g., corticosteroids). MDS assessments in the follow-up period were used to measure nonpharmacological pain management use. Modified Poisson models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for age, gender, race and ethnicity, cognitive and physical impairment, and long-term opioid use. Of all long-stay residents, 32.4% were prescribed any opioid, and 15.5% were prescribed opioids long-term. Opioid users (versus nonusers) were more commonly prescribed pain adjuvants (32.9% vs 14.9%), other pain medications (25.5% vs 11.0%), and nonpharmacological pain management (24.5% vs 9.3%). Long-term opioid use was higher in women (aPR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.18-1.23) and lower in racial and ethnic minorities (non-Hispanic blacks vs whites: APR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.90-0.94) and those with severe cognitive impairment (vs no or mild impairment, aPR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.79-0.83). One in seven NH residents was prescribed opioids long-term. Recent guidelines on opioid prescribing for pain recommend reducing long-term opioid use, but this is challenging in NHs because residents may not benefit from nonpharmacological and nonopioid interventions. Studies to address concerns about opioid safety and effectiveness (e.g., on pain and functional status) in NHs are needed. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics

  5. Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Braby, L A; Reece, W D

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation exp...

  6. Long-term adherence to a local guideline on postoperative body temperature measurement: mixed methods analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Knops, Anouk M.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Goossens, Astrid; Legemate, Dink A.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Aim To find out whether a successful multifaceted implementation approach of a local evidence-based guideline on postoperative body temperature measurements (BTM) was persistent over time, and which factors influenced long-term adherence. Methods Mixed methods analysis. Patient records were

  7. Long-term performance of double gap resistive plate chambers under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Guarrasi, L.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a dedicated test to study possible long-term aging effects on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs). A double gap detector was operated under gamma irradiation for a period approximately equal to 10 years of LHC in the CMS-barrel region: an integrated dose of about 1.6 Gy and a total charge of about 0.05 C/cm 2 gap were accumulated on the chamber. The results show no relevant aging effect. Also the RPC sensitivity to 60 Co gamma energies is measured

  8. Prosthetists' perceptions and use of outcome measures in clinical practice: Long-term effects of focused continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Brian J; Spaulding, Susan E; Salem, Rana; Morgan, Sara J; Gaunaurd, Ignacio; Gailey, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Continuing education is intended to facilitate clinicians' skills and knowledge in areas of practice, such as administration and interpretation of outcome measures. To evaluate the long-term effect of continuing education on prosthetists' confidence in administering outcome measures and their perceptions of outcomes measurement in clinical practice. Pretest-posttest survey methods. A total of 66 prosthetists were surveyed before, immediately after, and 2 years after outcomes measurement education and training. Prosthetists were grouped as routine or non-routine outcome measures users, based on experience reported prior to training. On average, prosthetists were just as confident administering measures 1-2 years after continuing education as they were immediately after continuing education. In all, 20% of prosthetists, initially classified as non-routine users, were subsequently classified as routine users at follow-up. Routine and non-routine users' opinions differed on whether outcome measures contributed to efficient patient evaluations (79.3% and 32.4%, respectively). Both routine and non-routine users reported challenges integrating outcome measures into normal clinical routines (20.7% and 45.9%, respectively). Continuing education had a long-term impact on prosthetists' confidence in administering outcome measures and may influence their clinical practices. However, remaining barriers to using standardized measures need to be addressed to keep practitioners current with evolving practice expectations. Clinical relevance Continuing education (CE) had a significant long-term impact on prosthetists' confidence in administering outcome measures and influenced their clinical practices. In all, approximately 20% of prosthetists, who previously were non-routine outcome measure users, became routine users after CE. There remains a need to develop strategies to integrate outcome measurement into routine clinical practice.

  9. Long-term experience of plasmapheresis in antibody-mediated rejection in renal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, C M

    2009-11-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) continues to pose a serious challenge in renal transplantation with potentially devastating consequences. Treatment options for this condition include plasmapheresis, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis with low-dose IVIG, and the use of rituximab (anti-CD20 chimeric antibody). We previously reported on the short-term outcome of plasmapheresis as a rescue therapy for AMR in our centre. We now report on the long-term follow up.

  10. Cost tradeoffs in consequence management at nuclear power plants: A risk based approach to setting optimal long-term interdiction limits for regulatory analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubayi, V.

    1995-05-01

    The consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can be limited by various protective actions, including emergency responses and long-term measures, to reduce exposures of affected populations. Each of these protective actions involve costs to society. The costs of the long-term protective actions depend on the criterion adopted for the allowable level of long-term exposure. This criterion, called the ''long term interdiction limit,'' is expressed in terms of the projected dose to an individual over a certain time period from the long-term exposure pathways. The two measures of offsite consequences, latent cancers and costs, are inversely related and the choice of an interdiction limit is, in effect, a trade-off between these two measures. By monetizing the health effects (through ascribing a monetary value to life lost), the costs of the two consequence measures vary with the interdiction limit, the health effect costs increasing as the limit is relaxed and the protective action costs decreasing. The minimum of the total cost curve can be used to calculate an optimal long term interdiction limit. The calculation of such an optimal limit is presented for each of five US nuclear power plants which were analyzed for severe accident risk in the NUREG-1150 program by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  11. Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Micek, Agnieszka; Godos, Justyna; Pajak, Andrzej; Sciacca, Salvatore; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Galvano, Fabio; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-08-17

    To perform a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose-response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.

  12. Long-Term Memory Performance in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodzik, Timo; Holling, Heinz; Pedersen, Anya

    2017-02-01

    Memory problems are a frequently reported symptom in adult ADHD, and it is well-documented that adults with ADHD perform poorly on long-term memory tests. However, the cause of this effect is still controversial. The present meta-analysis examined underlying mechanisms that may lead to long-term memory impairments in adult ADHD. We performed separate meta-analyses of measures of memory acquisition and long-term memory using both verbal and visual memory tests. In addition, the influence of potential moderator variables was examined. Adults with ADHD performed significantly worse than controls on verbal but not on visual long-term memory and memory acquisition subtests. The long-term memory deficit was strongly statistically related to the memory acquisition deficit. In contrast, no retrieval problems were observable. Our results suggest that memory deficits in adult ADHD reflect a learning deficit induced at the stage of encoding. Implications for clinical and research settings are presented.

  13. Immunomodulatory effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on long-term heavy-load exercising mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yali; Cai, Dehua; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Xinshen

    2012-12-01

    Long-term heavy-load exercise can lead to a decrease in the organism's immune response. In this study, we used 100 Kunming (KM) mice to investigate the immune-regulatory effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on long-term heavy-load exercising mice. Peripheral white blood cells (WBC), the absolute value of neutrophils (NEUT), the phagocytic function of macrophages, serum agglutination valence, and the number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) were evaluated 4 weeks after gavaging long-term heavy-load exercising mice with GLP. After exercise, the WBC count in peripheral blood, absolute neutrophil count, macrophage phagocytic index, serum agglutination valence, and the number of plaque-forming cells were significantly reduced in the mice not fed GLP. Both medium and high doses of GLP drastically increased peripheral WBC, absolute neutrophil count, macrophage phagocytic index, serum agglutination valence, and the number of plaque-forming cells in long-term heavy-load exercising mice. High doses of GLP increased peritoneal macrophage phagocytic rate considerably. With this study, we demonstrate that 4 weeks of heavy-load exercise can lead to exercise-induced immunosuppression in mice. A supplement of GLP fed to these mice improves both non-specific and specific immune responses among these mice. The effect for the high-dose GLP treatment is especially significant.

  14. Long term effect of radioactive iodine treatment in nontoxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, B.; Hegedues, L.; Gervil, M.; Hjalgrim Jensen, H.; Soee-Jensen, P.; Moelholm hansen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long term effect of 131 I treatment on thyroid function and size in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. The subjects were 69 consecutive patients with multinodular non-toxic goitre selected for 131 I treatment and followed for a minimum of 12 months. Outcome measures were standard thyroid function variable and ultrasonically determined thyroid volume before and after treatment. Fifty-nine patients were treated with a single dose of 131 I, 12 with tow doses, and one with four doses. In 45 patients treated with one dose who remained euthyroid the median thyroid volume was reduced from 73 (interquartile range 50-106) ml to 29 (interquartile range 23-48) ml at 24 months. The median reuction was 40 (22-48) ml, half of which occurred within three months. Patients treated with two doses as well as those developing hypo- or hyper-thyroidism also had a significant reduction in thyroid volume. Eleven patients develeoped hypothyroidism (cumulative five year risk 22%). Side effects were few. In conclusion we find that 131 I treatment of multinodular non-toxic goitre is an attractive alternative to surgery. (au) (19 refs.)

  15. A study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios for CT scanning without table translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Division of Diagnostic Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Yang, Jie [Pinnacle Health - Fox Chase Regional Cancer Center, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17109 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: For CT scanning in the stationary-table modes, AAPM Task Group 111 proposed to measure the midpoint dose on the central and peripheral axes of sufficiently long phantoms. Currently, a long cylindrical phantom is usually not available in many clinical facilities. The use of a long phantom is also challenging because of the heavy weight. In order to shed light on assessing the midpoint dose in CT scanning without table movement, the authors present a study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios, and perform a cross-comparison of CT dose ratios on different scanner models. Methods: The authors performed Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations with a clinical CT scanner (Somatom Definition dual source CT, Siemens Healthcare), and modeled dosimetry measurements using a 0.6 cm{sup 3} Farmer type chamber and a 10-cm long pencil ion chamber. The short (15 cm) to long (90 cm) phantom dose ratios were computed for two PMMA diameters (16 and 32 cm), two phantom axes (the center and the periphery), and a range of beam apertures (3–25 cm). The results were compared with the published data of previous studies with other multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanners and cone beam CT (CBCT) scanners. Results: The short- to long-phantom dose ratios changed with beam apertures but were insensitive to beam qualities (80–140 kV, the head and body bowtie filters) and MDCT and CBCT scanner models. Conclusions: The short- to long-phantom dose ratios enable medical physicists to make dosimetry measurements using the standard CT dosimetry phantoms and a Farmer chamber or a 10 cm long pencil chamber, and to assess the midpoint dose in long phantoms. This method provides an effective approach for the dosimetry of CBCT scanning in the stationary-table modes, and is useful for perfusion and interventional CT.

  16. A study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios for CT scanning without table translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Yang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: For CT scanning in the stationary-table modes, AAPM Task Group 111 proposed to measure the midpoint dose on the central and peripheral axes of sufficiently long phantoms. Currently, a long cylindrical phantom is usually not available in many clinical facilities. The use of a long phantom is also challenging because of the heavy weight. In order to shed light on assessing the midpoint dose in CT scanning without table movement, the authors present a study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios, and perform a cross-comparison of CT dose ratios on different scanner models. Methods: The authors performed Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations with a clinical CT scanner (Somatom Definition dual source CT, Siemens Healthcare), and modeled dosimetry measurements using a 0.6 cm 3 Farmer type chamber and a 10-cm long pencil ion chamber. The short (15 cm) to long (90 cm) phantom dose ratios were computed for two PMMA diameters (16 and 32 cm), two phantom axes (the center and the periphery), and a range of beam apertures (3–25 cm). The results were compared with the published data of previous studies with other multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanners and cone beam CT (CBCT) scanners. Results: The short- to long-phantom dose ratios changed with beam apertures but were insensitive to beam qualities (80–140 kV, the head and body bowtie filters) and MDCT and CBCT scanner models. Conclusions: The short- to long-phantom dose ratios enable medical physicists to make dosimetry measurements using the standard CT dosimetry phantoms and a Farmer chamber or a 10 cm long pencil chamber, and to assess the midpoint dose in long phantoms. This method provides an effective approach for the dosimetry of CBCT scanning in the stationary-table modes, and is useful for perfusion and interventional CT

  17. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, K.G.; Batandjieva, B.; Cheng, J.-J.; Hwang, W.T.; Kaiser, J.C.; Kamboj, S.; Steiner, M.; Tomas, J.; Trifunovic, D.; Yu, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a radiological dispersal device, with reference surface contamination at selected sites used as the primary input information. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a 'no action' situation (with no remedial measures) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided an opportunity for comparison of three modelling approaches, as well as a comparison of the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures in terms of their short-term and long-term effects on predicted doses to humans.

  18. Assessment of short/long term electric field strength measurements for a pilot district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, Cetin; Yildiz, Dogan; Karagol, Serap

    2018-03-01

    The level of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure increases day by day as natural consequences of technological developments. In recent years, the increasing use of cellular systems has made it necessary to measure and evaluate EMR originating from base stations. In this study, broadband and band selective electric field strength (E) measurements were taken at four different times in order to evaluate the change of short term E in Atakum district of Samsun, Turkey. The measurements were collected from 46 different locations using a SRM 3006 and a PMM 8053 EMR meter in a band from 100 kHz to 3 GHz, and the maximum E (Emax) and the average E (Eavg) were recorded. The highest values have been noticed in these measurements at 9.45 V/m and 17.53 V/m for Eavg and Emax respectively. Apart from these measurements, 24 hour long term E measurements were taken at a location where the highest value was observed and analyzed, to observe the change of Es during a day. At the end of the study, a tentative mathematical model that helps in computing the total E of the medium with 95% accuracy, was obtained.

  19. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  20. A novel high pressure, high temperature vessel used to conduct long-term stability measurements of silicon MEMS pressure transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewiski, David

    2014-03-01

    The need to quantify and to improve long-term stability of pressure transducers is a persistent requirement from the aerospace sector. Specifically, the incorporation of real-time pressure monitoring in aircraft landing gear, as exemplified in Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS), has placed greater demand on the pressure transducer for improved performance and increased reliability which is manifested in low lifecycle cost and minimal maintenance downtime through fuel savings and increased life of the tire. Piezoresistive (PR) silicon MEMS pressure transducers are the primary choice as a transduction method for this measurement owing to their ability to be designed for the harsh environment seen in aircraft landing gear. However, these pressure transducers are only as valuable as the long-term stability they possess to ensure reliable, real-time monitoring over tens of years. The "heart" of the pressure transducer is the silicon MEMS element, and it is at this basic level where the long-term stability is established and needs to be quantified. A novel High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) vessel has been designed and constructed to facilitate this critical measurement of the silicon MEMS element directly through a process of mechanically "floating" the silicon MEMS element while being subjected to the extreme environments of pressure and temperature, simultaneously. Furthermore, the HPHT vessel is scalable to permit up to fifty specimens to be tested at one time to provide a statistically significant data population on which to draw reasonable conclusions on long-term stability. With the knowledge gained on the silicon MEMS element, higher level assembly to the pressure transducer envelope package can also be quantified as to the build-effects contribution to long-term stability in the same HPHT vessel due to its accommodating size. Accordingly, a HPHT vessel offering multiple levels of configurability and robustness in data measurement is presented, along

  1. Understanding the relationship between DOC and nitrate export and dominant rainfall-runoff processes through long-term high frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, stream sampling protocols for hydro-geochemical parameters were often limited by logistical and technological constraints. While long-term monitoring protocols were typically based on weekly sampling intervals, high frequency sampling was commonly limited to a few single events. In our study, we combined high frequency and long-term measurements to understand the DOC and nitrate behaviour and dynamics for different runoff events and seasons. Our study area is the forested Weierbach catchment (0.47 km2) in Luxembourg. The fractured schist bedrock is covered by cambisol soils. The runoff response of the catchment is characterized by a double peak behaviour. A first discharge peak occurs during or right after a rainfall event (triggered by fast near surface runoff generation processes), while a second delayed peak lasts several days (generated by subsurface flow/ shallow groundwater flow). Peaks in DOC concentrations are closely linked to the first discharge peak, whereas nitrate concentrations follow the second peak. Our observations were carried out with the field deployable instrument spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH). This instrument relies on the principles of UV-Vis spectrometry and measures DOC and nitrate concentrations. The measurements were carried out at a high frequency of 15 minutes in situ in the Weierbach creek for more than two years. In addition, a long-term validation was carried out with data obtained from the analysis of water collected with automatic samplers. The long-term, high-frequency measurements allowed us to calculate a complete and detailed balance of DOC and nitrate export over two years. Transport behaviour of the DOC and nitrate showed different dynamics between the first and second hydrograph peaks. DOC is mainly exported during first peaks, while nitrate is mostly exported during the delayed second peaks. In combination with other measurements in the catchment, the long and detailed observations have

  2. Long-term modeling on HPV vaccination: do we really need any more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Livio; Curto, Alessandro; van de Vooren, Katelijne

    2015-04-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely related to cervical cancer. In 2007, the EMA approved two vaccines, a bivalent and a quadrivalent one, launched at three-dose schedules and very high prices worldwide. We describe what happened in the EU and what might change in the near future from an economic perspective. HPV vaccination is now established in most EU countries. The main target group of the programs is girls aged 10-14 years. Many western countries used competitive tendering to purchase the two vaccines, achieving considerable savings. The extension to males has been a hotly debated issue. The sex limitation implies that this vaccination cannot by definition achieve a 'herd immunity' effect. EMA recently approved a two-dose schedule for both vaccines that should lead to savings, although it is hard to predict how the forthcoming nonavalent vaccine will affect the market situation. Several economic evaluations based on long-term models have been published on the HPV vaccination in the recent years, using official list prices as a baseline. Most of these models can be considered mere exercises in long-term forecasting. Recently, further long-term models have been published with two- and three-dose schedules as alternatives, and the nonavalent vaccine. We wonder what added value they give for public policy purposes.

  3. Long-term performance of double gap resistive plate chambers under gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Guarrasi, L; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Altieri, S; Belli, G; Bruno, G; Gianini, G; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Viola, L; Vitulo, P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a dedicated test to study possible long- term aging effects on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs). A double gap detector was operated under gamma irradiation for a period approximately equal to 10 years of LHC in the CMS-barrel region: an integrated dose of about 1.6 Gy and a total charge of about 0.05 C/cm /sup 2/ gap were accumulated on the chamber. The results show no relevant aging effect. Also the RPC sensitivity to /sup 60/Co gamma energies is measured. (9 refs).

  4. Long-term performance of double gap resistive plate chambers under gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Guarrasi, L.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G. E-mail: gabriella.pugliese@ba.infn.it; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P

    2002-01-21

    In this paper, we describe a dedicated test to study possible long-term aging effects on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs). A double gap detector was operated under gamma irradiation for a period approximately equal to 10 years of LHC in the CMS-barrel region: an integrated dose of about 1.6 Gy and a total charge of about 0.05 C/cm{sup 2} gap were accumulated on the chamber. The results show no relevant aging effect. Also the RPC sensitivity to {sup 60}Co gamma energies is measured.

  5. Dose of jogging and long-term mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; O'Keefe, James H; Marott, Jacob L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People who are physically active have at least a 30% lower risk of death during follow-up compared with those who are inactive. However, the ideal dose of exercise for improving longevity is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between joggin...

  6. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  7. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The standard gives the terms and definitions of concepts, dose quantities and units. The radiation field condition 'secondary electron equilibrium', which forms part of the definition of standard ion dose, is given more precisely. The term 'free in air' is used in its original meaning, i.e. characterization of measuring conditions excluding avoidable stray radiation, which deviates from DIN 6814, part 3/06.72. Dosemeters for measurement of standard ion dose of air kerma are calibrated 'free in air', but this calibration condition is not part of the quantity definition. The quantities standard ion dose or air kerma therefore can also be measured in any other material. The qunatitative relationships between standard ion dose and the quantities 'exposure' and air kerma, as given in the ICRU publication 33 'Quantities and Units' (1980), are explained. The standard introduces the SI units Gray (for energy dose), Sievert (for dose equivalent), and Becquerel (for the activity of a radioactive substance). As the change to the SI units conceals the approximated equality of the numerical values of the standrd ion dose of photon radiation in roentgen, of the energy dose for soft tissue in rad, and of the dose equivalent in rem, new definitions are given in accordance with ICRU 33 for the quantities specified dose rate, dose rate constant, and area exposure product. These definitions use the terms 'energy dose' and 'kerma'. The dose concepts applied in the field of radiation protection, especially ambient dose and individual dose, are defined as dose equivalents in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The relevant sections present information on the conversion of standard ion dose values to the corresponding values of kerma, energy dose, or dose equivalent. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  9. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria; Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  10. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica [Department of Radiation Physics, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  11. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilcox SW

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shea W Wilcox,1,4 Noel J Aherne,2,4 Linus C Benjamin,1 Bosco Wu,1 Thomaz de Campos Silva,3 Craig S McLachlan,4 Michael J McKay,3,5 Andrew J Last,1 Thomas P Shakespeare1–4 1North Coast Cancer Institute, Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 2North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia; 3North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, NSW, Australia; 4The University of New South Wales, Rural Clinical School, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Dose-escalated (DE radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT and ADT. Methods and materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Results: Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2

  12. Adherence to blood pressure measurement guidelines in long-term care facilities: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone, Sachiko; Sato, Mikiya; Takayashiki, Ayumi; Sakamoto, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-05-01

    To assess the extent to which long-term care facilities in Japan adhere to blood pressure (BP) measurement guidelines. Cross-sectional, observational survey. Japan (nationwide). Geriatric health service facilities that responded to a questionnaire among 701 facilities that provide short-time daycare rehabilitation services in Japan. A written questionnaire that asked about types of measurement devices, number of measurements used to obtain an average BP, resting time prior to measurement, and measurement methods when patients' arms were covered with thin (eg, a light shirt) or thick sleeves (eg, a sweater) was administered. Proportion of geriatric health service facilities adherent to BP measurement guidelines. The response rate was 63.2% (443/701). Appropriate upper-arm BP measurement devices were used at 302 facilities (68.2%). The number of measurements was appropriate at 7 facilities (1.6%). Pre-measurement resting time was appropriate (≥5 minutes) at 205 facilities (46.3%). Of the 302 facilities that used appropriate BP measurement devices, 4 (1.3%) measured BP on a bare arm if it was covered with a thin sleeve, while 266 (88.1%) measured BP over a thin sleeve. When arms were covered with thick sleeves, BP was measured on a bare arm at 127 facilities (42.1%) and over a sleeve at 78 facilities (25.8%). BP measurement guidelines were not necessarily followed by long-term care service facilities in Japan. Modification of guidelines regarding removing thick sweaters and assessing BP on a visit-to-visit basis might be needed.

  13. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: are their influences cumulative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmore, Suzanne C; Shevell, Steven K

    2011-02-09

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Until now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  15. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  16. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  17. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  18. Clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin after femoro-popliteal stenting. The CLAFS project: 1- and 2-year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter K.; Boos, Irene B.L.; Goettmann, Dieter; Vetter, Sylvia [Department of Imaging, Interventional Radiology, and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissen Hospital, Diakonissenstrasse 28, 76199, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the patency rate after femoro-popliteal stenting followed by oral clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin. In a prospective trial, 31 patients with a total of 33 femoro-popliteal artery lesions (21 stenoses, 12 occlusions; 24 femoral, 9 popliteal) were treated with flexible tantalum stents after unsuccessful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) preceded by local fibrinolysis in 5 of 12 patients with total occlusion. Post-interventionally, oral aspirin 100 mg was started simultaneously for the long term and was combined with an oral loading dose of 300 mg clopidogrel, followed by 75 mg clopidogrel daily for 28 days. Patients were followed for at least 12 months (maximum 34 months) by clinical examination, Doppler pressure measurement, color and duplex sonography, and angiography in case of suspicion of restenosis. In a retrospective analysis, the results were compared with those of historical groups of patients having received aspirin only (41 patients) or a long-term high-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)+aspirin treatment (42 patients). Three small puncture aneurysms were treated successfully by conservative means and were categorized as minor bleeding complication. Cumulative primary patency rate (PPR) was 76{+-}7.5% (1 year), and 70{+-}9.6% (2 years) in the clopidogrel+aspirin group, thus being tendentiously better than in the aspirin-only group showing 75{+-}4.6% (1 year), and 50{+-}8.1% (2 years). Long-term high-dose LMWH+aspirin treatment showed 87{+-}5.8% (1 year), and 72{+-}9.1% (2 years), thus being superior to the other treatment regimes, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the LMWH+aspirin and the aspirin group. Clopidogrel plus aspirin is a safe medication regimen and may be effective in the prevention of early stent thrombosis. Mid- and long-term patency rate seems to be intermediate as compared with other therapeutic regimens. The LMWH+aspirin seems to be superior compared with

  19. Clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin after femoro-popliteal stenting. The CLAFS project: 1- and 2-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter K.; Boos, Irene B.L.; Goettmann, Dieter; Vetter, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the patency rate after femoro-popliteal stenting followed by oral clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin. In a prospective trial, 31 patients with a total of 33 femoro-popliteal artery lesions (21 stenoses, 12 occlusions; 24 femoral, 9 popliteal) were treated with flexible tantalum stents after unsuccessful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) preceded by local fibrinolysis in 5 of 12 patients with total occlusion. Post-interventionally, oral aspirin 100 mg was started simultaneously for the long term and was combined with an oral loading dose of 300 mg clopidogrel, followed by 75 mg clopidogrel daily for 28 days. Patients were followed for at least 12 months (maximum 34 months) by clinical examination, Doppler pressure measurement, color and duplex sonography, and angiography in case of suspicion of restenosis. In a retrospective analysis, the results were compared with those of historical groups of patients having received aspirin only (41 patients) or a long-term high-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)+aspirin treatment (42 patients). Three small puncture aneurysms were treated successfully by conservative means and were categorized as minor bleeding complication. Cumulative primary patency rate (PPR) was 76±7.5% (1 year), and 70±9.6% (2 years) in the clopidogrel+aspirin group, thus being tendentiously better than in the aspirin-only group showing 75±4.6% (1 year), and 50±8.1% (2 years). Long-term high-dose LMWH+aspirin treatment showed 87±5.8% (1 year), and 72±9.1% (2 years), thus being superior to the other treatment regimes, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the LMWH+aspirin and the aspirin group. Clopidogrel plus aspirin is a safe medication regimen and may be effective in the prevention of early stent thrombosis. Mid- and long-term patency rate seems to be intermediate as compared with other therapeutic regimens. The LMWH+aspirin seems to be superior compared with CLAFS

  20. On the long-term evaluation of post-Chernobyl dose burdens in Korma county (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, H.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R.; Hille, R.; Konoplya, E.

    2002-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 the development of environmental contamination and population doses was investigated by several national and international institutions. In 1991 a German three-year measuring campaign was started. The results concerning the ingestion dose by in-vivo monitoring had shown that the international annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a had only been exceeded in less than 2% of all 317,000 measured cases. In following years the expected downward trend of mean annual doses did not occur and internal doses did not continue to decrease or even increased. Therefore, several small follow-up studies were initiated in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. One of these studies is the Korma Project in Belarus, where two municipalities in Korma county were selected for further investigations: Vornovka, a purely agricultural municipality with the villages of Vornovka and Vissokoe, and Volincy, an agricultural and forestal municipality with the inhabited villages of Volincy, Kljapin and Kljapinskaja-Buda. The ground contamination of these two areas was between 300 kBq/m 2 and 630 kBq/m 2 in 1991. In contrast to Vornovka the municipality of Volincy is surrounded by a contaminated forest area and isolated from the main part of Korma county by a highly contaminated evacuation zone along the river Sosch. First results were envisaged in May 2000. The study was finished last year and the results of these measurements are presented here. They are representative for smaller villages where people provide their families with locally produced food, which is in these higher contaminated districts more common than elsewhere. Today prevention measures including food restrictions installed shortly after the accident are increasingly ignored due to the poor economic situation

  1. Long-term effects of radiotherapy on taste and salivary function in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.; Shatzman, A.; Chencharick, J.

    1982-01-01

    The long-term effects of radiotherapy on taste and salivary function were studied in 13 patients treated by radiation 1-7 years previously for tumors of the head and neck. Taste function was studied quantitatively using a standard forced choice, three-stimulus-drop technique for the determination of detection and recognition thresholds and a forced-scaling technique for the determination of taste intensity reponsiveness. Parotid salivary function was quantitatively evaluated by determination of flow rate and protein secretion rate. Nine of the 13 patients studied (69%) had measurable taste loss; every patient who had radiotherapy including the parotid glands had measurable salivary dysfunction. Our results demonstrate that curative courses of radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck may result in long-term changes in taste and salivary function. From the present study, the maximum tolerance doses resulting in a 50% complication rate 5 years after treatment (TD 50/5) are estimated to be 40-65 Gy for xerostomia and 50-65 Gy for taste loss. Therefore, in a standard treatment regimen for tumors of the head and neck, with curative intent, gustatory and salivary gland tissues frequently sustain maximum tolerance injury

  2. Long-term ingestion dose monitoring in a population group with increased 137Cs intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartuskova, M.; Lusnak, J.; Malatova, I.; Pfeiferova, V.; Pospisilova, H.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs amounts and ingestion doses in Czech population have been monitored by whole-body counting since the Chernobyl accident. Indirect estimation of the retention through measurement of 137 Cs excreted with urine in 24 hours has also been performed since 1987. The 137 Cs content in human body can be calculated from the urine data provided that the intake of 137 Cs during the period of interest is constant. In a semi-natural environment, the 137 Cs content in mushrooms, wild berries and game decreases due to its natural decay solely. The 137 Cs content in people who mostly consume venison and have been living in an area with elevated contamination has been monitored, mostly through measurement of 137 Cs in urine. In parallel, measurements with a mobile whole-body counter have also been performed. Currently, annual doses from the ingestion of 137 Cs in the inhabitants are very low (0.001 to 0.002 mSv.year -1 ). In a group of hunters in the Jeseniky Mountains (Northern Moravia) the doses were estimated to 0.10 mSv.year -1 . (orig.)

  3. Long-term prophylaxis in severe factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, S M; Biguzzi, E; Mistretta, C; Garagiola, I; Peyvandi, F

    2015-11-01

    The spectrum of bleeding problems in FVII deficiency is highly variable and FVII levels and causative genetic mutations correlate poorly with the bleeding risk. Long-term prophylaxis is generally initiated in order to prevent subsequent CNS bleeding after a first event or in patients with other major/ life threatening/ frequent bleeding symptoms as gastrointestinal bleeding or hemarthrosis. However few data are available in the literature regarding FVII prophylaxis and clinical decisions cannot be based on evidence. We report the data available in the literature on FVII prophylaxis and our personal experience regarding three patients affected by severe FVII deficiency. Specific papers on long-term prophylaxis in severe FVII deficiency were identified using the database, PUBMED. The most frequent indications for long-term prophylaxis were CNS bleeding (58%), hemartrosis (15%) and GI bleeding (9%). Patients were treated with various dosages and frequency. Prophylactic treatment with 10-30U/kg (pdFVII) or 20-30mcg/kg (rFVIIa) twice or three times/weeks was described to be effective. In the literature and in our experience, prophylaxis can be considered in patients with severe FVII deficiency and severe bleeding phenotype. A dose of 10-30U/kg (pdFVII) or 20-30 microg/kg (rFVIIa) twice or three times/week is usually administrated, but dose and frequency can be tailored based on the clinical follow-up of the patients. Since hemarthrosis is a frequent manifestation, a suggestion to improve the outcomes of patients with severe FVII deficiency is to monitor joint condition in order to identify early arthropathy that could be another indication to start secondary prophylaxis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Radiation Dose Measurement Using Chemical Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Sun; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Han, Bum Soo

    2010-01-01

    The radiation dose can be estimated in various ways. Dose estimates can be obtained by either experiment or theoretical analysis. In experiments, radiation impact is assessed by measuring any change caused by energy deposition to the exposed matter, in terms of energy state (physical change), chemical production (chemical change) or biological abnormality (biological change). The chemical dosimetry is based on the implication that the energy deposited to the matter can be inferred from the consequential change in chemical production. The chemical dosimetry usually works on the sample that is an aqueous solution, a biological matter, or an organic substance. In this study, we estimated absorbed doses by quantitating chemical changes in matter caused by radiation exposure. Two different chemical dosimeters, Fricke and ECB (Ethanol-Chlorobenzene) dosimeter, were compared in several features including efficacy as dose indicator and effective dose range

  5. LONG-TERM TRENDS IN THE SOLAR WIND PROTON MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Heather A.; McComas, David J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); DeForest, Craig E. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We examine the long-term time evolution (1965–2015) of the relationships between solar wind proton temperature ( T {sub p}) and speed ( V {sub p}) and between the proton density ( n {sub p}) and speed using OMNI solar wind observations taken near Earth. We find a long-term decrease in the proton temperature–speed ( T {sub p}– V {sub p}) slope that lasted from 1972 to 2010, but has been trending upward since 2010. Since the solar wind proton density–speed ( n {sub p}– V {sub p}) relationship is not linear like the T {sub p}– V {sub p} relationship, we perform power-law fits for n {sub p}– V {sub p}. The exponent (steepness in the n {sub p}– V {sub p} relationship) is correlated with the solar cycle. This exponent has a stronger correlation with current sheet tilt angle than with sunspot number because the sunspot number maxima vary considerably from cycle to cycle and the tilt angle maxima do not. To understand this finding, we examined the average n {sub p} for different speed ranges, and found that for the slow wind n {sub p} is highly correlated with the sunspot number, with a lag of approximately four years. The fast wind n {sub p} variation was less, but in phase with the cycle. This phase difference may contribute to the n {sub p}– V {sub p} exponent correlation with the solar cycle. These long-term trends are important since empirical formulas based on fits to T {sub p} and V {sub p} data are commonly used to identify interplanetary coronal mass ejections, but these formulas do not include any time dependence. Changes in the solar wind density over a solar cycle will create corresponding changes in the near-Earth space environment and the overall extent of the heliosphere.

  6. Long-term carbimazole pretreatment reduces the efficacy of radioiodine therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Shivaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data from several studies suggest that pretreatment with antithyroid drugs (ATD before 131 I increases the risk of treatment failure. This effect has been demonstrated more consistently with propylthiouracil than with carbimazole (CMZ or methimazole (MMI. Men with Graves′ disease (GD have a lower rate of remission with 131 I compared to women and the impact of long-term ATD pretreatment on the success of 131 I is unknown. The objective of our study was to compare the efficacy of fixed doses of radioiodine between patients with and without long-term CMZ pretreatment. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study on 335 male patients with GD treated with 131 I from 1998 to 2008. 148 patients had been pretreated with CMZ, and the remaining 187 patients received 131 I without pretreatment. We compared the success rate of a single dose of 131 I, between patients with and without long-term CMZ pretreatment. Results: The success rate of a single dose of 131 I was significantly higher in patients without pretreatment than in patients who were pretreated with CMZ (91.4% vs. 82.3%, P = 0.01. The rate of hypothyroidism in the first 6 months after 131 I therapy was significantly higher in patients without pretreatment (55.1% vs. 44.6%, P = 0.05. There was also a trend for higher cumulative rate of hypothyroidism at last follow-up in nonpretreated patients (78.1% vs. 69.7%. Conclusion: Male patients with Graves′ hyperthyroidism pretreated with CMZ have lower efficacy with 131I therapy compared to nonpretreated patients. CMZ pretreatment given for a prolonged period reduces the efficacy of 131 I therapy.

  7. Evaluation of a method to measure long term cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Lamberts, Steven W J; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of cortisol are known to induce various symptoms and diseases, e.g. abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Measuring serum, saliva and urine cortisol is limited to one time point. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a recently developed method to measure long term cortisol levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hair cortisol is a feasible parameter to measure cortisol exposure. We collected hair samples of 195 healthy individuals, 9 hypercortisolemic and one hypocortisolemic patient and measured hair cortisol levels. Cortisol was extracted from scalp hair using methanol and cortisol levels were measured using a salivary ELISA kit. Measurement of waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure was performed in 46 healthy subjects. We found a positive correlation between hair cortisol and both waist circumference (r=0.392, p=0.007) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r=0.425, p=0.003). No correlations were found between hair cortisol levels and BMI, blood pressure or age. There was no decline in cortisol levels in six consecutive hair segments. Hair cortisol levels were elevated in patients with known hypercortisolism (pcortisol was positively correlated with WHR, suggesting that hair cortisol reflects cortisol exposure at tissue level, which was also supported by elevated hair cortisol levels in hypercortisolemic patients and concordance between hair cortisol levels and clinical disease course. Cortisol levels in hair are slightly influenced by hair treatment but not by natural hair colour, use of hair products, gender or age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Life-long diseases need life-long treatment: long-term safety of ciclosporin in canine atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Tim; Reece, Douglas; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica; Novartis Animal Health) has been licensed for canine atopic dermatitis (AD) since 2002. Adverse events (AEs) have been reported in 55 per cent of 759 dogs in 15 clinical trials, but are rare in pharmacovigilance data (71.81 AEs/million capsules sold). Gastrointestinal reactions were most common, but were mild and rarely required intervention. Other AEs were rare (≤1 per cent in clinical trials; metabolism is not clinically significant for normal dogs. Concomitant treatment with most drugs is safe. Effects on cytochrome P450 and MDR1 P-glycoprotein activity may elevate plasma ciclosporin concentrations, but short-term changes are not clinically significant. Monitoring of complete blood counts, urinalysis or ciclosporin levels is not justified except with higher than recommended doses and/or long-term concurrent immunosuppressive drugs. Ciclosporin is not a contraindication for killed (including rabies) vaccines, but the licensed recommendation is that live vaccination is avoided during treatment. In conclusion, ciclosporin has a positive risk-benefit profile for the long-term management of canine AD. PMID:24682696

  9. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  10. The Australian Commonwealth standard of measurement for absorbed radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1990-06-01

    This report documents the absorbed dose standard for photon beams in the range from 1 to 25 MeV. Measurements of absorbed dose in graphite irradiated by a beam of cobalt-60 gamma rays from an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) E1 Dorado 6 teletherapy unit are reported. The measurements were performed using a graphite calorimeter, which is the primary standard for absorbed dose. The measurements are used to calibrate a working standard ion chamber in terms of absorbed dose in graphite. Details of the methods, results and correction factors applied are given in Appendices. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L. A.; Reece, W. D.; Hsu, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation experiments. We have also developed 4.3 mm diameter ion chambers with both tissue equivalent and carbon walls for the purpose of measuring dose mean lineal energy due to all radiations and due to all radiations except neutrons, respectively. By adjusting the gas pressure in the ion chamber, it can be made to simulate tissue volumes from a few nanometers to a few millimeters in diameter. The charge is integrated for 0.1 seconds, and the resulting pulse height is recorded by a multi channel analyzer. The system has been used in a variety of photon and neutron radiation fields, and measured values of dose and dose mean lineal energy are consistent with values extrapolated from measurements made by other techniques at much lower dose rates. It is expected that this technique will prove to be much more reliable than extrapolations from measurements made at low dose rates because these low dose rate exposures generally do not accurately reproduce the attenuation and

  12. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term "working memory") that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1.

  13. Body proportions during long-term growth hormone treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.J. Sas (Theo); W.J. Gerver; R. de Bruin (Rob); Th. Stijnen (Theo); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); T.J. Cole (Trevor); A. van Teunenbroek (Arne); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractTo assess body proportions in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) during long term GH treatment, height, sitting height (SH), hand (Hand) and foot (Foot) lengths, and biacromial (Biac) and biiliacal (Biil) diameters were measured in 68 girls with TS

  14. Long-term stability of TES satellite radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Connor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES Level 2 (L2 retrieval products for the purpose of assessing long term changes in atmospheric trace gas composition requires knowledge of the overall radiometric stability of the Level 1B (L1B radiances. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of the radiometric calibration of the TES instrument by analyzing the difference between measured and calculated brightness temperatures in selected window regions of the spectrum. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO profiles for temperature and water vapor and the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature (RTGSST are used as input to the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS radiative transfer model to calculate the simulated spectra. The TES reference measurements selected cover a 4-year period of time from mid 2005 through mid 2009 with the selection criteria being; observation latitudes greater than −30° and less than 30°, over ocean, Global Survey mode (nadir view and retrieved cloud optical depth of less than or equal to 0.01. The TES cloud optical depth retrievals are used only for screening purposes and no effects of clouds on the radiances are included in the forward model. This initial screening results in over 55 000 potential reference spectra spanning the four year period. Presented is a trend analysis of the time series of the residuals (observation minus calculations in the TES 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 1A1 bands, with the standard deviation of the residuals being approximately equal to 0.6 K for bands 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 0.9 K for band 1A1. The analysis demonstrates that the trend in the residuals is not significantly different from zero over the 4-year period. This is one method used to demonstrate that the relative radiometric calibration is stable over time, which is very important for any longer term analysis of TES retrieved products (L2, particularly well-mixed species such as carbon dioxide and methane.

  15. EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACCUMULATION IN SOIL DUE TO LONG-TERM IRRIGATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wesley Wu

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide accumulation in soil due to long-term irrigation is an important part of the model for predicting radiation dose in a long period of time. The model usually assumes an equilibrium condition in soil with a constant irrigation rate, so that radionuclide concentration in soil does not change with time and can be analytically solved. This method is currently being used for the dose assessment in the Yucca Mountain project, which requires evaluating radiation dose for a period of 10,000 years. There are several issues associated with the method: (1) time required for the equilibrium condition, (2) validity of constant irrigation rate, (3) agricultural land use for a long period of time, and (4) variation of a radionuclide concentration in water. These issues are evaluated using a numerical method with a simple model built in the GoldSim software. Some key radionuclides, Tc-99, Np-237, Pu-239, and Am-241 are selected as representative radionuclides. The results indicate that the equilibrium model is acceptable except for a radionuclide that requires long time to accumulate in soil and that its concentration in water changes dramatically with time (i.e. a sharp peak). Then the calculated dose for that radionuclide could be overestimated using the current equilibrium method

  16. Radiation dose measurements of the insertion devices using radiachromic film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, J.; Semones, E.; Job, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) uses Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific research [1,2]. Earlier investigations have exhibited varying degrees of demagnetization of these magnets [3] due to irradiation from electron beams [4,5,6], 60 Co γ-rays [5], and high-energy neutrons [7,8]. Radiation-induced demagnetization has been observed in the APS insertion devices [9] and was first measured in December of 2001. Partial demagnetization has also been observed in insertion devices at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) [4,6], where Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are also used. Growing concern for the lifetime of APS insertion devices, as well as the permanent magnets that will be used in next-generation, high-power light sources, like the FEL [10,11], resulted from the partial demagnetization observations made at both facilities. This concern in relation to radiation-induced demagnetization spurred a long-term project to measure and analyze the absorbed doses received by the APS insertion devices. The project required a reliable photon high-dose dosimetry technique capable of measuring absorbed doses greater than 10 6 rad, which was not readily available at the APS. Through a collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), one such technique using radiachromic films was considered, tested, and calibrated at the APS. This consequently led to the implementation of radiachromic film dosimetry for measuring the absorbed doses received by the insertion devices for each of the APS runs

  17. Impact peculiarities of long-term gamma-irradiation with low-dose rate on the development of laboratory rats and their sperm production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepko, A.V.; Motrina, O.A.; Vatlyitsova, O.S.; And Others

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were performed on laboratory white rats of 2.5 months in age. Animals were irradiated in gamma-field of 'Ethalon' device in a dose range 0.1-1.0 Gy. Testicles, epididymices, ventral prostate were retrieved from decapitated animal, each organ weight being determined for every exposure dose. Sperm quantities in testicles and epididymices were identified with aid of phase-contrast microscopy after tissue homogenization in saline containing Triton X-100 and NaN_3. Kinetic characteristics of spermatozoa were analyzed by video recording at 37 C. The longterm gamma-irradiation with low dose rate was shown to cause no effect on the dynamics of animal weight and weight of epididymices changes. However the testes weight was noticed to diminish at doses 0.1, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 Gy, the latter dose being stimulative for the ventral prostate growth and weight accumulation. Total sperm quantities in testicles and epididymices along with daily sperm production declined in gamma-irradiated rats compared to control. However curvilinear and straight line spermatozoid velocity as well as the frequency of tail oscillations tended to increase. Long-term gamma-irradiation of the rat whole body with low dose rate just insignificantly affects the development of testes and ventral prostate. Apart from this, radiation effects showed up in sperm production slight suppression, from the on hand, and sperm velocity along with tail oscillations intensification, from the other hand

  18. Long-term dietary supplementation with low-dose nobiletin ameliorates hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and inflammation without altering fat mass in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Je; Choi, Myung-Sook; Woo, Je Tae; Jeong, Mi Ji; Kim, Sang Ryong; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the long-term effect of low-dose nobiletin (NOB), a polymethoxylated flavone, on diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disturbances. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without NOB (0.02%, w/w) for 16 weeks. NOB did not alter food intake or body weight. Despite increases in fatty acid oxidation-related genes expression and enzymes activity in adipose tissue, NOB did not affect adipose tissue weight due to simultaneous increases in lipogenic genes expression and fatty acid synthase activity. However, NOB significantly decreased not only pro-inflammatory genes expression in adipose tissue but also proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma. NOB-supplemented mice also showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, along with decreased levels of plasma insulin, free fatty acids, total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. In addition, NOB caused significant decreases in hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and triglyceride content by activating hepatic fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes. Hepatic proinflammatory TNF-α mRNA expression, collagen accumulation, and plasma levels of aminotransferases, liver damage indicators, were also significantly lower in NOB-supplemented mice. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation with low-dose NOB can protect against HFD-induced inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, without ameliorating adiposity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  20. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  1. Long-term consumption of aspartame and brain antioxidant defense status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Sauganth Paul, M V; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of long-term intake of aspartame, a widely used artificial sweetener, on antioxidant defense status in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-175 g were randomly divided into three groups as follows: The first group was given aspartame at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); the second group was given aspartame at dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w., respectively, in a total volume of 3 mL of water; and the control rats received 3 mL of distilled water. Oral intubations were done in the morning, daily for 180 days. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the brain of rats that had received the dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. of aspartame, whereas only a significant reduction in GSH concentration was observed in the 500-mg/kg b.w. aspartame-treated group. Histopathological examination revealed mild vascular congestion in the 1,000 mg/kg b.w. group of aspartame-treated rats. The results of this experiment indicate that long-term consumption of aspartame leads to an imbalance in the antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in the brain, mainly through the mechanism involving the glutathione-dependent system.

  2. Radiosurgery of craniopharyngiomas. Results of long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshihisa; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Yoshimoto, Masayuki; Koike, Johzi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    Long-term follow-up results of craniopharyngiomas after radiosurgery are reported. Among 125 cases of craniopharyngioma, long-term follow-up more than 6 months is obtained in 108 cases. Majority of the cases have had surgical excision before radiosurgery. The tumors, 19 mm in mean diameter were treated with the mean maximum dose of 22.1 Gy and with the marginal dose of 11.6 Gy. The final radiological outcomes during 63 months of mean follow-up showed 9 complete responses (CRs), 61 partial responses (PRs), 1 minor response (MR), 19 no changes (NCs) and 18 PGs, indicating the response rate of 65% and the control rate of 83% respectively. Neurological and endocrinological signs were improved in 18%, unchanged in 53% and worsened in 15% of cases, meanwhile 8% of the patients were dead. Small and solid tumors were the best indication for radiosurgery due to excellent tumor control as well as no adverse effects. They may have a good chance for complete remission. In conclusion a sufficient tumor resection with microsurgery is required and subsequent radiosurgery is most adequate for treating craniopharyngiomas. (author)

  3. Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of Dexmethylphenidate Extended-Release Capsules in Adult ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; McGough, James J.; Jiang, Hai; Muniz, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates dexmethylphenidate extended release (d-MPH-ER) in adults with ADHD. Method: Following a 5-week, randomized, controlled, fixed-dose study of d-MPH-ER 20 to 40 mg/d, 170 adults entered a 6-month open-label extension (OLE) to assess long-term safety, with flexible dosing of 20 to 40 mg/d. Exploratory effectiveness…

  4. Metabolic interactions between low doses of benzo[a]pyrene and tributyltin in arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus): a long-term in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padros, Jaime; Pelletier, Emilien; Ribeiro, Ciro Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We have previously reported that short-term, single exposure to a high dose of tributyltin (TBT), a widely used antifouling biocide, inhibited both the in vivo metabolism and metabolic activation of the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in fish; (BaP), in turn, stimulated TBT metabolism. Here, we provide further mechanistic evidence of mutual metabolic interactions between BaP and TBT in response to long-term, repeated exposures to low doses. Juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) received 10 separate ip injections (a single injection every 6 days) of BaP (3 mg/kg), TBT (0.3 mg/kg), or both in combination; control fish received corn oil vehicle only. Two days after the 2nd (Day 8), 6 th (Day 32), and 10th dose (Day 56), blood, bile, and liver samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers. HPLC/fluorescence analysis indicated that TBT cotreatment inhibited the formation of (+)-anti-BaP diol-epoxide adducts with plasma albumin (53%, Day 8), hepatic DNA (27%, Day 32), or both albumin and globin (50 and 58%, Day 56) compared to BaP alone. This antagonistic interaction was associated with a time-dependent modulation (inhibition at Day 8, enhancement at Day 32) of both cytochrome P450 (P450)1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and biliary BaP metabolite formation. TBT cotreatment also inhibited (39%) the BaP-mediated induction of hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity observed at Day 8. Treatment with TBT alone increased EROD activity (60%) at Day 32, but decreased both GST activity (70 and 37%) and glutathione content (24% and 16%) at Days 32 and 56, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that, at Day 56, BaP cotreatment increased (200%) the levels of biliary butyltin compounds, including mono- and dibutyltin metabolites. This potentiative interaction was associated with a protective effect of BaP cotreatment against the TBT-mediated decreases in GST activity and glutathione content. The

  5. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  6. Real-time long term measurement using integrated framework for ubiquitous smart monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gwanghee; Lee, Giu; Lee, Woosang; Jeon, Joonryong; Kim, Pil-Joong

    2007-04-01

    Ubiquitous monitoring combining internet technologies and wireless communication is one of the most promising technologies of infrastructure health monitoring against the natural of man-made hazards. In this paper, an integrated framework of the ubiquitous monitoring is developed for real-time long term measurement in internet environment. This framework develops a wireless sensor system based on Bluetooth technology and sends measured acceleration data to the host computer through TCP/IP protocol. And it is also designed to respond to the request of web user on real time basis. In order to verify this system, real time monitoring tests are carried out on a prototype self-anchored suspension bridge. Also, wireless measurement system is analyzed to estimate its sensing capacity and evaluate its performance for monitoring purpose. Based on the evaluation, this paper proposes the effective strategies for integrated framework in order to detect structural deficiencies and to design an early warning system.

  7. Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-01-01

    A recent open-label pilot study (N = 15) found that two to three moderate to high doses (20 and 30 mg/70 kg) of the serotonin 2A receptor agonist, psilocybin, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, resulted in substantially higher 6-month smoking abstinence rates than are typically observed with other medications or CBT alone. To assess long-term effects of a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation program at ≥12 months after psilocybin administration. The present report describes biologically verified smoking abstinence outcomes of the previous pilot study at ≥12 months, and related data on subjective effects of psilocybin. All 15 participants completed a 12-month follow-up, and 12 (80%) returned for a long-term (≥16 months) follow-up, with a mean interval of 30 months (range = 16-57 months) between target-quit date (i.e., first psilocybin session) and long-term follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, 10 participants (67%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At long-term follow-up, nine participants (60%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At 12-month follow-up 13 participants (86.7%) rated their psilocybin experiences among the five most personally meaningful and spiritually significant experiences of their lives. These results suggest that in the context of a structured treatment program, psilocybin holds considerable promise in promoting long-term smoking abstinence. The present study adds to recent and historical evidence suggesting high success rates when using classic psychedelics in the treatment of addiction. Further research investigating psilocybin-facilitated treatment of substance use disorders is warranted.

  8. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

  9. A survey of short-term and long-term stability of tube parameters in a mammography unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praskalo Jovica Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to set up a successful mammography screening program in the Republic of Srpska, a Siemens Mammomat 1000 X-ray machine was selected for analysis as the said mammography system is widely used in clinical practice. The variations in tube parameters (specific air kerma, high-voltage accuracy and reproducibility, linearity between exposure and dose exposure time were monitored over a five-year period, from 2008 to 2012. In addition, due to observed daily fluctuations for chosen parameters, a series of measurements were performed three times a day within a single-month period (mainly October 2012. The goal of such an experimental set up is to assess short-term and long-term stability of tube parameters in the given mammography unit and to make a comparison between them. The present paper shows how an early detection of significant parameter fluctuations can help eliminate irregularities and optimize the performance of mammography systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171007

  10. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident: Possible contribution of historic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar-Nazir, Laila; Shi, Xiaopei; Moller, Anders; Mousseau, Timothy; Byun, Soohyun; Hancock, Samuel; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

    2018-08-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the environment is documented to be greater than expected, with higher mutation rates than expected at the current, chronic low dose rate. In this paper we suggest that the historic acute exposure and resulting non-targeted effects (NTE) such as delayed mutations and genomic instability could account at least in part for currently measured mutation rates and provide an initial test of this concept. Data from Møller and Mousseau on the phenotypic mutation rates of Chernobyl birds 9-11 generations post the Chernobyl accident were used and the reconstructed dose response for mutations was compared with delayed reproductive death dose responses (as a measure of genomic instability) in cell cultures exposed to a similar range of doses. The dose to birds present during the Chernobyl NPP accident was reconstructed through the external pathway due to Cs-137 with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with such reconstruction. The percentage of Chernobyl birds several generations after the accident without mutations followed the general shape of the clonogenic survival percentage of the progeny of irradiated cells, and it plateaued at low doses. This is the expected result if NTE of radiation are involved. We suggest therefore, that NTE induced by the historic dose may play a role in generating mutations in progeny many generations following the initial disaster. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A single measure of FEV1 is associated with risk of asthma attacks in long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitch, BT; Paltiel, AD; Kuntz, KM; Dockery, DW; Schouten, JP; Weiss, ST; Fuhlbrigge, AL

    2004-01-01

    Background: Clinical practice guidelines for asthma care emphasize the use of objective measures of asthma severity, and vet little data exist oil the relationship between FEV1 and asthma outcomes over long-term follow-up. Methods: We explored the association between measures of FEV1 percentage of

  12. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  13. The stability of the international oil trade network from short-term and long-term perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingru; Gao, Xiangyun; Zhong, Weiqiong; Liu, Nairong

    2017-09-01

    To examine the stability of the international oil trade network and explore the influence of countries and trade relationships on the trade stability, we construct weighted and unweighted international oil trade networks based on complex network theory using oil trading data between countries from 1996 to 2014. We analyze the stability of international oil trade network (IOTN) from short-term and long-term aspects. From the short-term perspective, we find that the trade volumes play an important role on the stability. Moreover, the weighted IOTN is stable; however, the unweighted networks can better reflect the actual evolution of IOTN. From the long-term perspective, we identify trade relationships that are maintained during the whole sample period to reveal the situation of the whole international oil trade. We provide a way to quantitatively measure the stability of complex network from short-term and long-term perspectives, which can be applied to measure and analyze trade stability of other goods or services.

  14. Trastuzumab use during pregnancy: long-term survival after locally advanced breast cancer and long-term infant follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jurandyr M de; Brito, Luiz G O; Moises, Elaine C D; Amorim, Andréa C; Rapatoni, Liane; Carrara, Hélio H A; Tiezzi, Daniel G

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe the case of a patient diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer 8 years ago. Her treatment course was neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by mastectomy and then adjuvant radiotherapy and trastuzumab (TTZ). During the use of adjuvant targeted therapy, an incidental pregnancy was diagnosed. Four years later, she developed bone and cerebral metastases, and since then, she has received courses of TTZ, capecitabine, lapatinib, and radiotherapy with intermittent control of the disease. Her 7-year-old son presents a normal physical and long-term neurological developmental curve according to specialized evaluation. This case is unique for several reasons: the patient received the highest dose of TTZ yet described during pregnancy (4400 mg); there has been a long period of disease-free survival after treatment for locally advanced breast cancer and long overall survival despite successive disease progressions during the metastatic phase of the disease (97 months), and there was a monitored pediatric follow-up period (7 years).

  15. Long-term brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive functioning in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy alone or combined with CNS radiotherapy at reduced total dose to 12 Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajac-Spychala, Olga; Pilarczyk, Jakub; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Transplantology, Poznan (Poland); Pawlak, Mikolaj A. [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders, Poznan (Poland); Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neuroradiology, Poznan (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term side effects of central nervous system prophylaxis (high-dose chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy) according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002. Thirty-tree children aged 6.7-19.9 years have been studied. The control group consisted of 12 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between two therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment. Patients treated with chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy had smaller hippocampi than two other subgroups and lower IQ score than patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Both treated groups, whether with chemotherapy only or in combination with CNS radiotherapy, had significantly lower volumes of caudate nucleus and performed significantly worse on measures of verbal fluency in comparison with patients prior to treatment. There were no differences in the mean volumes of total white matter, total gray matter, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala between the studied groups. In all children treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 with high-dose chemotherapy, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment was observed, especially in children who received chemotherapy in combination with reduced dose CNS radiotherapy. In all children treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 with high-dose chemotherapy, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment were observed, especially in children who received chemotherapy in combination with CNS radiotherapy. (orig.)

  16. Long-term brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive functioning in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy alone or combined with CNS radiotherapy at reduced total dose to 12 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac-Spychala, Olga; Pilarczyk, Jakub; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Pawlak, Mikolaj A.; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term side effects of central nervous system prophylaxis (high-dose chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy) according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002. Thirty-tree children aged 6.7-19.9 years have been studied. The control group consisted of 12 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between two therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment. Patients treated with chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy had smaller hippocampi than two other subgroups and lower IQ score than patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Both treated groups, whether with chemotherapy only or in combination with CNS radiotherapy, had significantly lower volumes of caudate nucleus and performed significantly worse on measures of verbal fluency in comparison with patients prior to treatment. There were no differences in the mean volumes of total white matter, total gray matter, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala between the studied groups. In all children treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 with high-dose chemotherapy, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment was observed, especially in children who received chemotherapy in combination with reduced dose CNS radiotherapy. In all children treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 with high-dose chemotherapy, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment were observed, especially in children who received chemotherapy in combination with CNS radiotherapy. (orig.)

  17. Determining the amount of physical activity needed for long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Jackson, A. S.; Rossum, A. C.; Poston, W. S.; Foreyt, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the influence of habitual physical activity on body weight of men and women and to develop a model that defines the role of physical activity on longitudinal weight change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Occupational cohort study conducted for a mean of 5.5 y. SUBJECTS: A total of 496 (341 male and 155 female) NASA/Johnson Space Center employees who completed the 3 month education component of the employee health-related fitness program and remained involved for a minimum of 2 y. MEASUREMENTS: Body weights were measured at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2), and habitual physical activity was obtained from the mean of multiple ratings of the 11-point (0-10) NASA Activity Scale (NAS) recorded quarterly between T1 and T2. Other measures included age, gender, VO(2 max) obtained from maximal treadmill testing, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. RESULTS: Multiple regression demonstrated that mean NAS, T1 weight, aging and gender all influence long-term T2 weight. T1 age was significant for the men only. Independently, each increase in mean NAS significantly (Pmen (b=-0.91 kg; 95% CI:-1.4 to-0.42 kg) and women (b=-2.14 kg; 95% CI:-2.93 to-1.35 kg). Mean NAS had a greater effect on T2 weight as T1 weight increased, and the relationship was dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual physical activity is a significant source of long-term weight change. The use of self-reported activity level is helpful in predicting long-term weight changes and may be used by health care professionals when counseling patients about the value of physical activity for weight control.

  18. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, S J; Keaney , J F; Holbrook, M; Gokce, N; Swerdloff, P L; Frei, B; Vita, J A

    2001-07-10

    Epidemiological studies suggest that tea consumption decreases cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms of benefit remain undefined. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with coronary artery disease and increased oxidative stress. Some antioxidants have been shown to reverse endothelial dysfunction, and tea contains antioxidant flavonoids. Methods and Results-- To test the hypothesis that tea consumption will reverse endothelial dysfunction, we randomized 66 patients with proven coronary artery disease to consume black tea and water in a crossover design. Short-term effects were examined 2 hours after consumption of 450 mL tea or water. Long-term effects were examined after consumption of 900 mL tea or water daily for 4 weeks. Vasomotor function of the brachial artery was examined at baseline and after each intervention with vascular ultrasound. Fifty patients completed the protocol and had technically suitable ultrasound measurements. Both short- and long-term tea consumption improved endothelium- dependent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, whereas consumption of water had no effect (Peffect on endothelium-independent nitroglycerin-induced dilation. An equivalent oral dose of caffeine (200 mg) had no short-term effect on flow-mediated dilation. Plasma flavonoids increased after short- and long-term tea consumption. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. This finding may partly explain the association between tea intake and decreased cardiovascular disease events.

  19. Long-Term Safety and Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Live-Attenuated Dengue Vaccine and Evaluation of a Booster Dose Administered to Healthy Thai Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Simasathien, Sriluck; Mammen, Mammen P; Nisalak, Ananda; Tournay, Elodie; Kerdpanich, Phirangkul; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Putnak, Robert J; Gibbons, Robert V; Yoon, In-Kyu; Jarman, Richard G; De La Barrera, Rafael; Moris, Philippe; Eckels, Kenneth H; Thomas, Stephen J; Innis, Bruce L

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of two doses of a live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine (F17/Pre formulation) and a booster dose in a dengue endemic setting in two studies. Seven children (7- to 8-year-olds) were followed for 1 year after dose 2 and then given a booster dose (F17/Pre formulation), and followed for four more years (Child study). In the Infant study, 49 2-year-olds, vaccinated as infants, were followed for approximately 3.5 years after dose 2 and then given a booster dose (F17) and followed for one additional year. Two clinically notable events were observed, both in dengue vaccine recipients in the Infant study: 1 case of dengue approximately 2.7 years after dose 2 and 1 case of suspected dengue after booster vaccinations. The booster vaccinations had a favorable safety profile in terms of reactogenicity and adverse events reported during the 1-month follow-up periods. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported during the studies. Neutralizing antibodies against dengue viruses 1-4 waned during the 1-3 years before boosting, which elicited a short-lived booster response but did not provide a long-lived, multivalent antibody response in most subjects. Overall, this candidate vaccine did not elicit a durable humoral immune response. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  1. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  2. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  3. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the

  4. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  5. The effects of DHEA, 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane-6,17-dione, and 7-amino-DHEA analogues on short term and long term memory in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Marc-Antoine; El Kihel, Laïla; Boulouard, Michel; Bouët, Valentine; Rault, Sylvain

    2009-11-01

    Neurosteroids have been reported to modulate memory processes in rodents. Three analogues of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), two of them previously described (7beta-aminoDHEA and 7beta-amino-17-ethylenedioxy-DHEA), and a new one (3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane-6,17-dione) were synthesized, and their effects were evaluated on memory. This study examined their effects on long term and short term memory in male (6 weeks old) NMRI mice in comparison with the reference drug. Long term memory was assessed using the passive avoidance task and short term memory (spatial working memory) using the spontaneous alternation task in a Y maze. Moreover, the effects of DHEA and its analogues on spontaneous locomotion were measured. In all tests, DHEA and analogues were injected at three equimolar doses (0.300-1.350-6.075 microM/kg). DHEA and its three analogues administered immediately post-training at the highest doses (6.075 microM/kg, s.c.) improved retention in passive avoidance test. Without effect per se in the spatial working memory task, the four compounds failed to reverse scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p.)-induced deficit in spontaneous alternation. These data suggested an action of DHEA and analogues in consolidation of long term memory particularly when emotional components are implied. Moreover, data indicated that pharmacological modulation of DHEA as performed in this study provides derivatives giving the same mnemonic profile than reference molecule.

  6. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    significantly associated with initiation of L-TOT in individuals with CNCP at baseline. During follow-up, L-TOT in CNCP patients increased the likelihood of negative changes in pain interference with work (OR 9.2; 95% CI 1.9-43.6) and in moderate activities (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.6). The analysis of all......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...... individuals indicated a dose-response relationship between longer treatment duration and the risk of experiencing negative changes. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals on L-TOT seemed not to achieve the key goals of opioid therapy: pain relief, improved quality of life and functional capacity. SIGNIFICANCE: Long...

  7. Driving ability in cancer patients receiving long-term morphine analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, A; Ollila, J; Matikainen, E; Rosenberg, P; Kalso, E

    1995-09-09

    When given in single doses to healthy volunteers, opioid analgesics impair reaction time, muscle coordination, attention, and short-term memory sufficiently to affect driving and other skilled activities. Despite the increasing use of oral morphine daily, little is known about the effect of long-term opioid therapy on psychomotor performance. To examine the effects of continuous morphine medication, psychological and neurological tests originally designed for professional motor vehicle drivers were conducted in two groups of cancer patients who were similar apart from experience of pain. 24 were on continuous morphine (mean 209 mg oral morphine daily) for cancer pain; and 25 were pain-free without regular analgesics. Though the results were a little worse in the patients taking morphine, there were no significant differences between the groups in intelligence, vigilance, concentration, fluency of motor reactions, or division of attention. Of the neural function tests, reaction times (auditory, visual, associative), thermal discrimination, and body sway with eyes open were similar in the two groups; only balancing ability with closed eyes was worse in the morphine group. These results indicate that, in cancer patients receiving long-term morphine treatment with stable doses, morphine has only a slight and selective effect on functions related to driving.

  8. Long-term oceanographic observations in Massachusetts Bay, 1989-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.; Borden, Jonathan; Casso, Michael A.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Hastings, Mary E.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Rendigs, Richard R.; Strahle, William S.

    2009-01-01

    This data report presents long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at long-term site A (LT-A) (42 deg 22.6' N., 70 deg 47.0' W.; nominal water depth 32 meters) from December 1989 through February 2006 and long-term site B (LT-B) (42 deg 9.8' N., 70 deg 38.4' W.; nominal water depth 22 meters) from October 1997 through February 2004 (fig. 1). The observations were collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study designed to understand the transport and long-term fate of sediments and associated contaminants in Massachusetts Bay. The observations include time-series measurements of current, temperature, salinity, light transmission, pressure, oxygen, fluorescence, and sediment-trapping rate. About 160 separate mooring or tripod deployments were made on about 90 research cruises to collect these long-term observations. This report presents a description of the 16-year field program and the instrumentation used to make the measurements, an overview of the data set, more than 2,500 pages of statistics and plots that summarize the data, and the digital data in Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. This research was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority and the U.S. Coast Guard.

  9. Mood disorders and serotonin transporter density in ecstasy users - the influence of long-term abstention, dose, and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Reitsma, Johannes B.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2004-01-01

    Rationale. Neurotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") on the serotonin (5-HT) system have been described in animals and humans, but little is known about long-term effects of ecstasy use on mood. Objectives. To investigate short-term and long-term effects of ecstasy

  10. Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1988-02-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling, and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 80% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium, and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of the radioactive cloud over the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the uppper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. The inhalation doses due to direct cloud exposure were estimated to exceed 10 mGy near the Chernobyl area, to range between 0.1 and 0.001 mGy within most of Europe, and to be generally less than 0.00001 mGy within the US. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents, while the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Long-term results of golimumab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Therapy compliance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Chichasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA is to suppress inflammation, to prevent or delay destructive changes in the joints, and to normalize functions during the longest monitoring of the course of RA. The data of randomized controlled trials and national registries are of great importance to a clinician. The paper reviews the literature data characterizing the long-term results of RA therapy with the tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor golimumab (GLM and patient compliance with the therapy. Treatment with GLM at the registered subcutaneous dose of 50 mg once every 4 weeks gives rise to an effect in the vast majority of patients regardless of the type of previous ineffective therapy, the dose of concurrently administered methotrexate, the number of previous ineffective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and the use and nonuse of glucocorticoids. GLM is characterized by a long-term (as long as 5 years effect with suppressed progression of destruction, functional recovery, and satisfactory tolerability with no additional risk for adverse events as the therapy is continued.

  12. Long-term management of GERD in the elderly with pantoprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Calabrese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Calabrese, Anna Fabbri, Giulio Di FeboDepartment of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, ItalyAbstract: The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD increases with age and elderly are more likely to develop severe disease. Older patients often complain of less severe or frequent heartburn than younger patients and they may present with atypical symptoms such as dysphagia, weight loss, or extraesophageal symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are central in the management of GERD and are unchallenged with regards to their efficacy. They are considered safe and more effective than histamine receptor antagonists for healing esophagitis and for preventing its recurrence using a long term maintenance treatment. PPI have minimal side effects and few slight drug interactions and are considered safe for long term treatment. Pantoprazole is significantly effective both for acute and long-term treatment with excellent control of relapse and symptoms. It is well tolerated even for long-term therapy and its tolerability is optimal. Pantoprazole shows to have minimal interactions with other drugs because of a lower affinity for cytocrome P450 than older PPIs. Although the majority of elderly has concomitant illnesses and receive other drugs, this does not adversely effect the efficacy of pantoprazole because of its pharmacokinetics, which are independent of patient age. Clinical practice suggests that a low dose maintenance of PPIs should be used in older patients with GERD.Keywords: GERD, long-term management, pantoprazole, safety, efficacy, tolerability

  13. Case Reports Showing a Long-Term Effect of Subanesthetic Ketamine Infusion in Reducing L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Sherman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is an FDA-approved drug with a known safety profile. Low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment has led to long-term reduction of treatment-resistant depression and of chronic pain states. We report on low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD patients by 5 case studies and show a long-lasting therapeutic benefit to reduce L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID, improve on time, and reduce depression. Based on the literature we hypothesize that low-dose ketamine may act as a ‘chemical deep brain stimulation', by desynchronizing hypersynchronous oscillatory brain activity, including in the basal ganglia and the motor cortex. The presented PD case reports indicate tolerability, safety and long-term beneficial effects of low-dose ketamine infusion that should be further investigated in a properly controlled prospective clinical trial for treatment of LID, as well as the prevalent nonmotor features pain and depression in PD patients.

  14. Long- and Short-Term Cryptocurrency Volatility Components: A GARCH-MIDAS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Conrad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the GARCH-MIDAS model to extract the long- and short-term volatility components of cryptocurrencies. As potential drivers of Bitcoin volatility, we consider measures of volatility and risk in the US stock market as well as a measure of global economic activity. We find that S&P 500 realized volatility has a negative and highly significant effect on long-term Bitcoin volatility. The finding is atypical for volatility co-movements across financial markets. Moreover, we find that the S&P 500 volatility risk premium has a significantly positive effect on long-term Bitcoin volatility. Finally, we find a strong positive association between the Baltic dry index and long-term Bitcoin volatility. This result shows that Bitcoin volatility is closely linked to global economic activity. Overall, our findings can be used to construct improved forecasts of long-term Bitcoin volatility.

  15. Measuring pacemaker dose: A clinical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studenski, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.studenski@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology at the Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Xiao Ying; Harrison, Amy S. [Department of Radiation Oncology at the Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recently in our clinic, we have seen an increased number of patients presenting with pacemakers and defibrillators. Precautions are taken to develop a treatment plan that minimizes the dose to the pacemaker because of the adverse effects of radiation on the electronics. Here we analyze different dosimeters to determine which is the most accurate in measuring pacemaker or defibrillator dose while at the same time not requiring a significant investment in time to maintain an efficient workflow in the clinic. The dosimeters analyzed here were ion chambers, diodes, metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFETs), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. A simple phantom was used to quantify the angular and energy dependence of each dosimeter. Next, 8 patients plans were delivered to a Rando phantom with all the dosimeters located where the pacemaker would be, and the measurements were compared with the predicted dose. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image was obtained to determine the dosimeter response in the kilovoltage energy range. In terms of the angular and energy dependence of the dosimeters, the ion chamber and diode were the most stable. For the clinical cases, all the dosimeters match relatively well with the predicted dose, although the ideal dosimeter to use is case dependent. The dosimeters, especially the MOSFETS, tend to be less accurate for the plans, with many lateral beams. Because of their efficiency, we recommend using a MOSFET or a diode to measure the dose. If a discrepancy is observed between the measured and expected dose (especially when the pacemaker to field edge is <10 cm), we recommend analyzing the treatment plan to see whether there are many lateral beams. Follow-up with another dosimeter rather than repeating multiple times with the same type of dosimeter. All dosimeters should be placed after the CBCT has been acquired.

  16. Gemcitabine Plus Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Michelle M., E-mail: michekim@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Camelo-Piragua, Sandra [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew; Tao, Yebin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Junck, Larry; Mammoser, Aaron [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Betz, Bryan L. [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kim, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Heth, Jason; Sagher, Oren [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of gemcitabine plus radiation therapy (RT) in this phase 1 study of patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma (HGG). Patients and Methods: Between 2004 and 2012, 29 adults with HGG were enrolled. After any extent of resection, RT (60 Gy over 6 weeks) was given concurrent with escalating doses of weekly gemcitabine. Using a time-to-event continual reassessment method, 5 dose levels were evaluated starting at 500 mg/m{sup 2} during the last 2 weeks of RT and advanced stepwise into earlier weeks. The primary objective was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of gemcitabine plus RT. Secondary objectives included progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and long-term toxicity. Results: Median follow-up was 38.1 months (range, 8.9-117.5 months); 24 patients were evaluable for toxicity. After 2005 when standard practice changed, patients with World Health Organization grade 4 tumors were no longer enrolled. Median progression-free survival for 22 patients with grade 3 tumors was 26.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.6-inestimable), and OS was 48.5 months (95% CI 26.8-inestimable). In 4 IDH mutated, 1p/19q codeleted patients, no failures occurred, with all but 1 alive at time of last follow-up. Seven with IDH mutated, non-codeleted tumors with ATRX loss had intermediate OS of 73.5 months (95% CI 32.8-inestimable). Six nonmutated, non-codeleted patients had a median OS of 26.5 months (95% CI 25.4-inestimable). The recommended phase 2 dose of gemcitabine plus RT was 750 mg/m{sup 2}/wk given the last 4 weeks of RT. Dose reductions were most commonly due to grade 3 neutropenia; no grade 4 or 5 toxicities were seen. Conclusions: Gemcitabine concurrent with RT is well-tolerated and yields promising outcomes, including in patients with adverse molecular features. It is a candidate for further study, particularly for poor-prognosis patient subgroups with HGG.

  17. Dose measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Kallinger, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dose measurements at the mamma during mammography were carried out in the form of direct measurement with thermoluminescent dosimetry. Measurement was done for the in- and outcoming doses at the mamma, the dose exposure of the sternal region and the scattered rays above the symphysis, the latter as parameter for the genetic radiation exposure. As expected, the dose of the smooth radiation used for mammography showed a strong decrease at the outcome point in comparison with the income point. Surprisingly high was the scattered radiation in the sternal region. A corresponding protection by lead plates could be taken into consideration. Extremely low is the scattered radiation above the symphysis. Even measurements with the very sensitive calcium fluoride dosimeters did not reveal any practically important dose in the symphysis region. Most measurement values remained below the determinable dose of 0.3mR. Some maximal values varied in the range of 3-1 mR. (orig.) [de

  18. Colchicine triggered severe rhabdomyolysis after long-term low-dose simvastatin therapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrychowicz, Clara; Pasieka, Bastian; Pierer, Matthias; Mueller, Wolf; Petros, Sirak; Weidhase, Lorenz

    2017-01-04

    Rhabdomyolysis is a widely recognized yet rare complication in statin use. Rhabdomyolysis might be triggered by the prescription of high doses of statins or by statin accumulation due to interactions with concomitant medication. Muscle cell destruction as evidenced by myoglobin elevation can induce potentially life-threatening acute renal failure. We report a case of a 70-year-old obese white man with sudden onset of severe rhabdomyolysis with consecutive renal failure. His medication included low-dose simvastatin, which he had taken for 6 years up until the event. The statin was withdrawn immediately. After 3 days of veno-venous hemofiltration his renal function was completely restored. Clinicians in both primary and special care might be unaware that side effects of statins do occur even after a long uneventful statin medication; they should be advised not to exclude that possibility upfront, even if a patient has tolerated the medication for years.

  19. Long-term consequences of small doses ionizing radiation effect on carbohydrate metabolism indices and their interrelation with incretory function on pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Upon inspection of 100 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences it was established that main pathogenic factors of the damaging effect of small dose ionizing radiation is its indirect action realized through the infringement of hormonal mechanisms of metabolism regulation. Carbohydrates metabolism disorders are considered from viewpoint of the hormonal status fluctuations in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences observed in the form of basal immunoreactive insulin level reduction and simultaneous increase of counter-insular hormones concentration in blood. Potential disorders in the glucose tolerance test have been observed in 32 % of the patients, decrease of immunoreactive insulin in 89 % and also increase of counter-insular hormones concentration in 52,8 %. Interrelation of revealed hormonal and metabolic changes with radiation factor in its long-term period was established. Marked changes are caused in the organism and stress effects of the radiation factor. By means of multifractal dispersion analysis it has been found that the contribution of the radiation factor in the propagation of the described changes constitutes 86,5 %. Sulphate-ion is shown to be able to taking incorporated long-living radionuclides from the organism along with the mitigation of their toxic effect. Application of the method of glucose tolerance test estimation by the generalized criterion allows to specify risk groups of the carbohydrates metabolism disorders propagation among the liquidators followed by the endocrinological observation, hormonal status control and application of preventive measures. (author)

  20. Long-term Studies of Marine Halogen Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschritter, J.; Holla, R.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2009-04-01

    Institute of Enviromental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Long term measurements of atmospheric trace gases using multi-axis DOAS instruments are pursued at the new SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). This research is part of the SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the ANthropocene) project (Fördernummer:03F0462F). Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine- and iodine- containing species play major roles in the chemistry of ozone in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere and thus possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In addition iodine-species emitted from the ocean surface have been shown to be responsible for the production of new atmospheric particles in the marine boundary layer. This may have an effect on cloud formation and radiation transfer on local and global scales. Long term measurements of RHS abundances will help to identify their key regions and processes for formation. A new long term Multi-MAX-DOAS instrument has been installed at the SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). The main focus of these unique measurements is the investigation of reactive halogen chemistry in the subtropical marine boundary layer based on measurements of BrO, IO, and possibly OIO. Because of its wide spectral range also the use for O4-retrievals to gain aerosol profiles is possible. IO has been detected with mixing ratios up to 1.3 ppt. For BrO an upper limit of 2 ppt could be determined.

  1. When palliative treatment achieves more than palliation: Instances of long-term survival after palliative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhup Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Palliative radiotherapy aims at symptom alleviation and improvement of quality of life. It may be effective in conferring a reasonable quantum of local control, as well as possibly prolonging survival on the short term. However, there can be rare instances where long-term survival, or even cure, results from palliative radiotherapy, which mostly uses sub-therapeutic doses. Aim: To categorize and characterize the patients with long-term survival and/or cure after palliative radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of hospital records of patients treated with palliative radiotherapy from 2001 to 2006 at the Regional Cancer Centre, Shimla. Results: Of the analyzed 963 patients who received palliative radiotherapy, 2.4% (n = 23 survived at least 5 years, with a large majority of these surviving patients (73.9%, n = 17 being free of disease. Conclusions: In addition to providing valuable symptom relief, palliative radiotherapy utilizing sub-therapeutic doses may, in a small proportion of patients, bestow long-term survival, and possibly cure. Rationally, such a favorable, but rare outcome cannot be expected with supportive care alone.

  2. Source term assessment using inverse modeling of radiation dose measured with environmental radiation monitors located at different positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Rakesh, P.T.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    Source term is an important input for consequence analysis using Decision Support Systems (DSS) to project radiological impact in the event of nuclear emergencies. A source term model called 'ASTER' is incorporated in the Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) operational at Kalpakkam site for decision making during nuclear emergencies. This computes release rates using inverse method by employing an atmospheric dispersion model and gamma dose rates measured by environmental radiation monitors (ERM) deployed around the nuclear plant. The estimates may depend on the distribution of ERMs around the release location. In this work, data from various gamma monitors located at different radii 0.75 km and 1.5 km is used to assess the accuracy in the source term estimation for stack releases of MAPS-PHWR at Kalpakkam

  3. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  4. Genomic mutation study for long-term cells induced by carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Furusawa, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Hirayama, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Qin, Y.

    2007-01-01

    samples at the HPRT locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine-resistant colonies. Results: The survival fraction of the cells irradiated by carbon ions was lower than sparsely ionizing (low LET) radiation, and it was also lower in high dose rate (∼1.5Gy/min) than in low dose rate (∼0.008Gy/min) irradiated at the same dose. Furthermore, high dose (D10 dose) induced high mutation fraction. Low dose and low dose rate had the low mutation fractions and different dose rate induced different mutation fraction even at the same dose. Mutation fraction had lower value before 6 days, and the higher level between 12 to 24 days after irradiated, then value went down. Conclusion: The results suggest that high LET radiation may cause higher mutation induction dependent with irradiated dose. Different dose rate also may induce different mutation affection. The heavy ion radiation may cause the long-term genomic mutation and instability of cells. HPRT mutant detection system can be application evaluating the carcinogenic effects of space environmental radiation and heavy ion radiation therapy.

  5. Near-Term Actions to Address Long-Term Climate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Addressing climate change requires effective long-term policy making, which occurs when reflecting on potential events decades or more in the future causes policy makers to choose near-term actions different than those they would otherwise pursue. Contrary to some expectations, policy makers do sometimes make such long-term decisions, but not as commonly and successfully as climate change may require. In recent years however, the new capabilities of analytic decision support tools, combined with improved understanding of cognitive and organizational behaviors, has significantly improved the methods available for organizations to manage longer-term climate risks. In particular, these tools allow decision makers to understand what near-term actions consistently contribute to achieving both short- and long-term societal goals, even in the face of deep uncertainty regarding the long-term future. This talk will describe applications of these approaches for infrastructure, water, and flood risk management planning, as well as studies of how near-term choices about policy architectures can affect long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction pathways.

  6. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  7. Comparison of passive and active radon measurement methods for personal occupational dose assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh Elham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the performance of the active short-term and passive long-term radon measurement methods, a study was carried out in several closed spaces, including a uranium mine in Iran. For the passive method, solid-state nuclear track detectors based on Lexan polycarbonate were utilized, for the active method, AlphaGUARD. The study focused on the correlation between the results obtained for estimating the average indoor radon concentrations and consequent personal occupational doses in various working places. The repeatability of each method was investigated, too. In addition, it was shown that the radon concentrations in different stations of the continually ventilated uranium mine were comparable to the ground floor laboratories or storage rooms (without continual ventilation and lower than underground laboratories.

  8. Evolution of collaboration within the US long term ecological research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey C. Johnson; Robert R. Christian; James W. Brunt; Caleb R. Hickman; Robert B. Waide

    2010-01-01

    The US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program began in 1980 with the mission of addressing long-term ecological phenomena through research at individual sites, as well as comparative and synthetic activities among sites. We applied network science measures to assess how the LTER program has achieved its mission using intersite publications as the measure of...

  9. Measurement of long term surface inflation signals at GLISP with two independent tiltmeter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F.W.; Rogers, J.S.; Ertman, M.E.; Thibault, J.

    1989-01-06

    Long-term monitoring at an Alberta oil recovery project was conducted to trace the Earth surface tilt response to the steam injection and related water movement through the formations at the site. Attempts were also made to relate the tilt to the various enhancement process activities in order to improve understanding of the long-term recovery process. Field comparisons were made between biaxial mercury-level borehole tiltmeters and biaxial bubble sensor tiltmeters, and some results are presented. It was generally found that the two types of tiltmeters reported similar tilt responses. Examples are shown of tilt response correlated with process activity and of a long-term tilt migration effect. 6 figs.

  10. Coordination of short-term and long-term mitigation measures of hydro-meteorological risks: the importance of establishing a link between emergency management and spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenger-Berninghoff, Kathrin; Cortes, V. Juliette; Aye, Zar Chi; Sprague, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The management of natural hazards involves, as generally known, the four stages of the risk management cycle: Prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Accordingly, the mitigation of disasters can be performed in terms of short-term and long-term purposes. Whereas emergency management or civil protection helps to strengthen a community's capacity to be better prepared for natural hazards and to better respond in case a disaster strikes, thus addressing the short-term perspective, spatial planning serves long-term planning goals and can therefore implement long-term prevention measures. A purposefully applied risk mitigation strategy requires coordination of short-term and long-term mitigation measures and thus an effective coordination of emergency management and spatial planning. Several actors are involved in risk management and should consequently be linked throughout the whole risk management cycle. However, these actors, partly because of a historically fragmented administrative system, are hardly connected to each other, with spatial planning only having a negligible role compared to other actors1, a problem to which Young (2002) referred to as the "problem of interplay". In contrast, information transfer and decision-taking happen at the same time and are not coordinated among different actors. This applies to the prevention and preparedness phase as well as to the recovery phase, which basically constitutes the prevention phase for the next disaster2. Since investments in both risk prevention and emergency preparedness and response are considered necessary, a better coordination of the two approaches is required. In this regard, Decision Support Systems (DSS) can be useful in order to provide support in the decision-making aspect of risk management. The research work currently undertaken examines the problem of interplay in the four case study areas of the Marie Curie ITN, CHANGES3. The link between different risk management actors will be explored

  11. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Electroacupuncture for tapering off long-term benzodiazepine use: study protocol of randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Chan, Wai-Chi; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Chan, Connie Lai-Wah; Ho, Lai-Ming; Yu, Yee-Man; Lao, Li-Xing

    2017-03-31

    Conventional approaches for benzodiazepine tapering have their limitations. Anecdotal studies have shown that acupuncture is a potential treatment for facilitating successful benzodiazepine tapering. As of today, there was no randomized controlled trial examining its efficacy and safety. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of using electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment to gradual tapering of benzodiazepine doses in complete benzodiazepine cessation in long-term benzodiazepine users. The study protocol of a randomized, assessor- and subject-blinded, controlled trial is presented. One hundred and forty-four patients with histories of using benzodiazepines in ≥50% of days for more than 3 months will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either electroacupuncture or placebo electroacupuncture combined with gradual benzodiazepine tapering schedule. Both experimental and placebo treatments will be delivered twice per week for 4 weeks. Major assessments will be conducted at baseline, week 6 and week 16 post-randomization. Primary outcome is the cessation rate of benzodiazepine use. Secondary outcomes include the percentage change in the doses of benzodiazepine usage and the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced based on the Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire, insomnia as measured by the Insomnia Severity Index, and anxiety and depressive symptoms as evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Adverse events will also be measured at each study visit. Results of this study will provide high quality evidence of the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture as an adjunct treatment for benzodiazepine tapering in long-term users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02475538 .

  13. Influence of the design temperature on long-term safety of a salt dome repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, D.; Brenner, J.; Storck, R.

    1993-03-01

    All studies made so far within the framwork of the mixed concept system analysis proceeded from a design temperature of the mine structure of 200 C. The concept based on a design temperature of 150 C was aimed at studying whether it made sense to maintain lower temperatures, if necessary. Deterministic and probabilistic calculations were made in order to determine the influence of the lower design temperature on long-term safety. The calculations were based on concept A of Joint Borehole and Gallery Storage. Assuming reference values of the input parameters, the deterministic calculations do not produce any radionuclide release from the mine structure. If, however, one assumes a lower rate for rock convergence, radionuclides are released at maximum dose rates of about 3.10 -5 Sv/a. Even a larger volume of limited brine inclusions may lead to radionuclide releases, in that case with dose commitments of the order of magnitude of 1.10 -5 Sv/a. The probabilistic calculations show that a design temperature of 150 C for long-term safety is less favourable than a higher design temperature. The share of simulations in the probabilistic calculations with a radionuclide release, and the expected value of dose commitment, are almost double as high as in the concept based on 200 C design temperature. Thus a higher design temperature is preferable with regard to the long-term safety of a salt repository. The most important parameters concerning dose commitment are the volume of limited brine inclusions, the convergence rate, and the permeability of barriers and backfilling rock. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of radiotherapy CBCT dose in a phantom using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Naonori; McLean, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used widely for the precise and accurate patient set up needed during radiation therapy, notably for hypo fractionated treatments, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic radiation therapy. Reported doses associated with CBCT indicate the potential to approach radiation tolerance levels for some critical organs. However while some manufacturers state the CBCT dose for each standard protocol, currently there are no standard or recognised protocols for CBCT dosimetry. This study has applied wide beam computed tomography dosimetry approaches as reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine to investigate dosimetry for the Varian Trilogy linear accelerator with on-board imager v1.5. Three detection methods were used including (i) the use of both 100 mm and 300 mm pencil ionisation chambers, (ii) a 0.6 cm 3 ionisation chamber and (iii) gafchromic film. Measurements were performed using custom built 45 cm long PMMA phantoms as well as standard 15 cm long phantoms for both head and body simulation. The results showed good agreement between each other detector system (within 3 %). The measured CBCT dose for the above methods showed a large difference to the dose stated by Varian, with the measured dose being 40 % over the stated dose for the standard head protocol. This shows the importance of independently verifying the stated dose given by the vendor for standard procedures.

  16. Long-term electromagnetic field measurement and assessment for a shopping mall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engiz, Begum Korunur; Kurnaz, Cetin

    2017-01-01

    As a result of the dense deployment of wireless devices and base stations, measuring and evaluating the electromagnetic (EM) exposure levels they emit have become important to human health especially if they exceed the limits defined in the standards. Base stations, Wi-Fi equipment and other electronic devices are used heavily, especially in densely crowded places like shopping centers. In this study, electric field strength (E) measurements were conducted at one of the largest shopping malls in Turkey. Broadband E measurements were performed using PMM 8053 EM field strength meter for 24 h a day for the duration of one week while frequency selective measurements were carried out with SRM 3006 EM field strength meter. It is concluded from the measurements that the mean measured total E in the band between 100 kHz and 3 GHz is 0.59 V/m while the maximum E is 7.88 V/m, which are both below the limit determined by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Evolutions show that E can increase by up to 55% during the daytime. Analyses demonstrate that 71.3% of total E is caused by UMTS2100, 16.3% is produced by GSM900, 6.2% by LTE, 3.5% by Wi-Fi, and 2.7% is generated by devices that use the remaining frequency bands. Based on the detailed statistical analysis of long-term E measurement results, it can be concluded that the measured E levels are not in normal distribution and that they are statistically different with respect to days. Furthermore, distribution of E can be best modeled with the non-parametric approach. (authors)

  17. Dienogest in long-term treatment of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindler AE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolf E SchindlerInstitute for Medical Research and Education, Essen, GermanyAbstract: Endometriosis is a chronic disease primarily affecting women of childbearing age, in which endometriotic lesions form outside the uterus, typically leading to painful symptoms, fatigue, and infertility. The symptoms of endometriosis may cause significant impairment in quality of life and represent a substantial economic burden to patients, families, and society. There is no cure for endometriosis; management consists of alleviating pain and other symptoms, reducing endometriotic lesions, and improving quality of life. Recurrence after surgical intervention is common, while the clinical evidence to support the efficacy and safety of many medications currently used in endometriosis is limited. Dienogest is an oral progestin that has been investigated extensively in the treatment of endometriosis in two clinical programs performed in Europe and Japan, including dose-ranging, placebo-controlled, active comparator-controlled, and long-term (up to 65 weeks studies. These studies demonstrated that dienogest 2 mg daily effectively alleviates the painful symptoms of endometriosis, reduces endometriotic lesions, and improves indices of quality of life. Dienogest showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile in these studies, with predictable adverse effects, high rates of patient compliance, and low withdrawal rates. This review article describes the clinical trial evidence that characterizes the efficacy and safety of dienogest in endometriosis, including two studies characterizing dienogest in long-term use. The relevance of these findings to the management of endometriosis in clinical practice is discussed.Keywords: dienogest, endometriosis, progestins, long-term treatment, quality of life, symptoms, pain

  18. Real time source term and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, A.; Mlakar, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Dose Projection Programme is a tool for decision making in case of nuclear emergency. The essential input data for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical pressurised water reactor accident are following: source term, core damage assessment, fission product radioactivity, release source term and critical exposure pathways for an early phase of the release. A reduced number of radio-nuclides and simplified calculations can be used in dose calculation algorithm. Simple expert system personal computer programme has been developed for the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant for dose projection within the radius of few kilometers from the pressurised water reactor in early phase of an accident. The input data are instantaneous data of core activity, core damage indicators, release fractions, reduction factor of the release pathways, spray operation, release timing, and dispersion coefficient. Main dose projection steps are: accurate in-core radioactivity determination using reactor power input; core damage and in-containment source term assessment based on quick indications of instrumentation or on activity analysis data; user defines release pathway for typical PWR accident scenarius; dose calculation is performed only for exposure pathway critical for decision about evacuation or sheltering in early phase of an accident.(author)

  19. Long-term outcomes after disease activity-guided dose reduction of TNF inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis: 3-year data of the DRESS study - a randomised controlled pragmatic non-inferiority strategy trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Chantal Am; van Herwaarden, Noortje; van den Hoogen, Frank Hj; Fransen, Jaap; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Maas, Aatke van der; den Broeder, Alfons A.

    2017-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) are effective in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but disadvantages include adverse events (AEs) and high costs. This can be improved by disease activity-guided dose reduction (DR). We aimed to assess long-term outcomes of TNFi DR in RA by using 3-year data from

  20. Long-term outcomes after disease activity-guided dose reduction of TNF inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis: 3-year data of the DRESS study - a randomised controlled pragmatic non-inferiority strategy trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.A.M.; Herwaarden, N. van; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Fransen, J.; Vollenhoven, R.F. van; Bijlsma, J.W.; Maas, A.V.; Broeder, A.A. den

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) are effective in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but disadvantages include adverse events (AEs) and high costs. This can be improved by disease activity-guided dose reduction (DR). We aimed to assess long-term outcomes of TNFi DR in RA by using 3-year

  1. Acute ethanol has biphasic effects on short- and long-term memory in both foreground and background contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Danielle; Gould, Thomas J

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is a frequently abused, addictive drug that impairs cognitive function. Ethanol may disrupt cognitive processes by altering attention, short-term memory, and/or long-term memory. Interestingly, some research suggests that ethanol may enhance cognitive processes at lower doses. The current research examined the dose-dependent effects of ethanol on contextual and cued fear conditioning. In addition, the present studies assessed the importance of stimulus salience in the effects of ethanol and directly compared the effects of ethanol on short-term and long-term memory. This study employed both foreground and background fear conditioning, which differ in the salience of contextual stimuli, and tested conditioning at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 1 week in order to assess the effects of ethanol on short-term and long-term memory. Foreground conditioning consisted of 2 presentations of a foot shock unconditioned stimulus (US) (2 seconds, 0.57 mA). Background conditioning consisted of 2 auditory conditioned stimulus (30 seconds, 85 dB white noise)-foot shock (US; 2 seconds, 0.57 mA) pairings. For both foreground and background conditioning, ethanol enhanced short-term and long-term memory for contextual and cued conditioning at a low dose (0.25 g/kg) and impaired short-term and long-term memory for contextual and cued conditioning at a high dose (1.0 g/kg). These results suggest that ethanol has long-lasting, biphasic effects on short-term and long-term memory for contextual and cued conditioning. Furthermore, the effects of ethanol on contextual fear conditioning are independent of the salience of the context.

  2. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  3. Sequential measurements of spectrum and dose for cosmic-ray neutrons on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, N.; Nunomiya, T.; Suzuki, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2002-01-01

    The earth is continually bathed in high-energy particles that come from outside the solar system, known as galactic cosmic rays. When these particles penetrate the magnetic fields of the solar system and the Earth and reach the Earth's atmosphere, they collide with atomic nuclei in air and secondary cosmic rays of every kind. On the other hand, levels of accumulation of the semiconductor increase recently, and the soft error that the cosmic-ray neutrons cause has been regarded as questionable. There have been long-term measurements of cosmic-ray neutron fluence at several places in the world, but no systematic study on cosmic-ray neutron spectrum measurements. This study aimed to measure the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum and dose on the ground during the solar maximum period of 2000 to 2002. Measurements have been continuing in a cabin of Tohoku University Kawauchi campus, by using five multi-moderator spectrometers (Bonner sphere), 12.7 cm diam by 12.7 cm long NE213 scintillator, and rem counter. The Bonner sphere uses a 5.08 cm diam spherical 3 He gas proportional counter and the rem counter uses a 12.7 cm diam 3 He gas counter. The neutron spectra were obtained by unfolding from the count rates measured with the Bonner sphere using the SAND code and the pulse height spectra measured with the NE213 scintillator using the FORIST code . The cosmic- ray neutron spectrum and ambient dose rates have been measured sequentially from April 2001. Furthermore, the correlation between ambient dose rate and the atmospheric pressure was investigated with a barometer. We are also very much interested in the variation of neutron spectrum following big solar flares. From the sequential measurements, we found that the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum has two peaks at around 1 MeV and at around 100 MeV, and the higher energy peak increases with a big solar flare

  4. Augmented Reality in Informal Learning Environments: Investigating Short-term and Long-term Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerauer, Peter; Müller, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    field experiment with 24 participants at a mathematics exhibition to measure the effect of AR on acquiring and retaining mathematical knowledge in an informal learning environment, both short-term (i.e., directly after visiting the exhibition) and long-term (i.e., two months after the museum visit). Our...

  5. The long-term trend of carbon-14 level in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikazu Inoue; Tetsuo Iwakura

    1993-01-01

    The long-term trend of the specific activity of 14 C in terms of dpm/gC from 1942 to 1991 in the natural environment in Japan was obtained as baseline data by analyzing plant components so as to evaluate the collective effective dose. It was deduced that the specific activity of 14 C in plants reflected well that of atmospheric 14 CO 2 . Uniform distribution of the specific activity in plant among species as well as the production places was confirmed. The Suess effect was observed clearly for a period of 10 years from the late 1960's. The 14 C level was at about 13.7 dpm/gC due to cosmic ray production in 1940's, and reached a peak of about 24.5 dpm/gC in 1963 due to nuclear weapons testing and decreased to 15.6 dpm/gC in 1991. Fermented alcohol proved to be a convenient indicator for measuring the annual mean specific activity of 14 C in the atmosphere. (3 figs.)

  6. Effect of aromatherapy massage on elderly patients under long-term hospitalization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Tadaaki; Chikama, Mizuki; Chikama, Yoshiko; Hachigo, Masato; Urayama, Haruna; Murakami, Shio; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Koikem, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    To verify the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage on elderly patients under long-term hospitalization. Aromatherapy massage was performed twice a week for a total of eight times. Nursing home. Elderly women under long-term hospitalization. Questionnaire and measurement of stress marker levels (salivary amylase activity) before and after the first, fifth, and eighth aromatherapy massages. Questionnaire (Face scale, General Health Questionnaire-12 [GHQ-12]), measurement of salivary amylase activity. A decrease in stress after aromatherapy massage compared to before each massage was confirmed at all measurement times and with the stress marker. No marked reduction was observed in Face scale or saliva amylase activity as a whole over the long term, although decreasing tendencies were seen. Marked reductions in GHQ-12 were observed over the long term. Aroma massage appears likely to prove effective in reducing psychological stress among elderly patients under long-term hospitalization.

  7. Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Itabashi, Tsukasa; Abe, Sumihisa; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Uemura, Naomi; Hiramatsu, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole has not been established for the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in those receiving long-term low-dose aspirin (LDA) for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection. This study sought to examine the efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole (15 mg once daily) for the secondary prevention of LDA-associated gastric or duodenal ulcers. Patients were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 226) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 235) for 12 months or longer in a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized active-controlled trial, followed by a 6-month follow-up study with open-label lansoprazole treatment. The study utilized 94 sites in Japan and 461 Japanese patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The primary endpoint was the development of gastric or duodenal ulcers. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcers on days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 1.5, 2.1, and 3.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 15.2, 24.0, and 31.7%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk of ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.099 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.042-0.230). Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy.

  8. Smoking and long-term labour market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-07-01

    To examine the long-term effects of smoking on labour market outcomes using twin data matched to register-based individual information on earnings. Twin data for Finnish men born 1945-1957 was used to remove the shared environmental and genetic factors. The results were subjected to extensive robustness testing. Lifetime cigarette consumption was measured by (cumulative) cigarette pack-years in early adulthood. The average of an individual's earnings (and, alternatively, taxable income) was measured over a subsequent 15-year period in later adulthood. Smokers have lower long-term income and earnings. For example, controlling for the shared environmental and genetic factors using the data on genetically identical twins, smoking is negatively associated with lifetime income (p=0.015). The negative association was also robust to the use of various covariates, such as education, health indicators and extraversion. Smoking is negatively related to long-term labour market outcomes. The provision of information about the indirect monetary costs of smoking may thus complement the policy efforts that aim at educating consumers about the health costs of smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Long-Term Impact of Immunosuppressants at Therapeutic Doses on Male Reproductive System in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus are commonly used in renal transplant recipients to prevent rejection. However, information for comparative effects of these agents on the male productive system is extremely limited and controversial. In a physiologically and clinically relevant rat model of unilateral nephrectomy, we demonstrated that long-term oral administration of both cyclosporine and sirolimus at doses equivalent to the therapeutic levels used for postrenal transplant patients significantly affects testicular development and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis accompanied by profound histological changes of testicular structures on both light and electron microscopic examinations. Spermatogenesis was also severely impaired as indicated by low total sperm counts along with reduction of sperm motility and increase in sperm abnormality after treatment with these agents, which may lead to male infertility. On the other hand, treatment with therapeutic dose of tacrolimus only induced mild reduction of sperm count without histological evidence of testicular injury. The current study clearly demonstrates that commonly used immunosuppressants have various impacts on male reproductive system even at therapeutic levels. Our data provide useful information for the assessment of male infertility in renal transplant recipients who wish to father children. Clinical trials to address these issues should be urged.

  10. Long-term injury in B-lymphocyte precursor cells in repeatedly-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.; Clarke, D.; Testa, N.; Kimber, J.

    1984-01-01

    Mice irradiated with 4 doses of 4,5 Gy X-rays at 3-week intervals, demonstrated long-term proliferative defects in B lymphocytes. There was a reduced mitogenic response to bacterial polysaccharide (30%), a lower concentration (35%) of B-lymphocyte colony-forming cells (BL-CFC) in agar with an increased proportion of clusters (x2), and a reduced concentration (30%) of plaque-forming cells. Grafts of thymocytes were able to restore the levels of BL-CFC in the short term, but in the long term large grafts of femoral marrow cells were much better in restoring the numbers of BL-CFC. The reduced mitogenesis (25%) of splenocytes by concanavalin A and the diminished number of plaque-forming cells, may suggest persistent injury in T-B cell cooperation

  11. Long-term outcomes and cost effectiveness of high-dose dexamethasone for cardiac surgery : A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J. M.; de Wit, G. A.; Nierich, A. P.; Rosseel, P. M.; van der Maaten, J. M.; Hofland, J.; Diephuis, J. C.; de Lange, F.; Boer, C.; Neslo, R. E.; Moons, K. G.; van Herwerden, L. A.; Tijssen, J. G.; Kalkman, C. J.; van Dijk, D.

    Prophylactic intra-operative administration of dexamethasone may improve short-term clinical outcomes in cardiac surgical patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness of dexamethasone versus placebo. Patients included in the multicentre,

  12. Long-term outcomes and cost effectiveness of high-dose dexamethasone for cardiac surgery: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J. M.; de Wit, G. A.; Nierich, A. P.; Rosseel, P. M.; van der Maaten, J. M.; Hofland, J.; Diephuis, J. C.; de Lange, F.; Boer, C.; Neslo, R. E.; Moons, K. G.; van Herwerden, L. A.; Tijssen, J. G.; Kalkman, C. J.; van Dijk, D.

    2017-01-01

    Prophylactic intra-operative administration of dexamethasone may improve short-term clinical outcomes in cardiac surgical patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness of dexamethasone versus placebo. Patients included in the multicentre,

  13. The development of the MIBBO : A measure of resident preferences for physical activity in long term care settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melanie Kleynen MSc; Susy M. Braun PhD; Kim van Vijven MSc; Erik van Rossum PhD; Anna J. Beurskens PhD

    2015-01-01

    Offering physical activities matching with the preferences of residents in long-term care facilities could increase compliance and contribute to client-centered care. A measure to investigate meaningful activities by using a photo-interview has been developed (“MIBBO”). In two pilot studies

  14. Appropriate zinc addition management into PWR primary coolant after the plant long-term maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Atsushi; Matsui, Ryo; Imamura, Haruki; Takahashi, Akira; Shimizu, Yuichi; Kogawa, Noritaka; Nagamine, Kunitaka

    2014-01-01

    Zinc addition into the PWR primary coolant is known as an effective method to reduce the radioactivity build up. The reduction effect has been confirmed by actual plant experience of the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 to 4 and the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 to 2 which are operated by Kyushu Electric Power Co. in Japan. Zinc addition is suspended at shut-down, and is resumed after heat up or arrival at full power. In usual maintenance, the period when zinc addition is not applied is short; thus it is considered that suspension of zinc addition does not have practical influence on the corrosion and the radioactivity buildup in the oxide layer of surface for the primary equipment and piping. On the other hand, in case the maintenance period is much longer, the new oxide which does not contain zinc has grown, and then the structure of the oxide layer may be changed. Therefore, it is considered that zinc addition suspension in long-term period has possibilities to deteriorate the dose reduction effect. In order to verify the effect of long-term suspension of zinc addition upon oxide layer, the lab experiment was carried out using TT690 alloy which is the constitution material of the steam generator tubes under the conditions of long-term and the subsequent resuming operations. After the experiment, the specimens were analyzed by IMA and chemical analysis. These measurement results suggest the difference of the oxide layer is little or none between long-term suspension of zinc addition and short-term suspension of zinc suspension. Hence it is considered that influence of long-term maintenance on the oxide layer is small. Furthermore, in this study, in order to evaluate the influence of the suspension of zinc addition in the operation period, specimens of oxide film formed with zinc were carried out the corrosion test in the simulated RCS condition without zinc. These measurement results indicate the effect of reduction of the activity build up will become less

  15. Long-term energy services security: What is it and how can it be measured and valued?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Jaap C.; Seebregts, Ad J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews some recent approaches towards measuring the extent of long-term energy security and security externality valuation. It starts out to discuss the contextual connotations of notions of 'energy security' in medium to long-term time frames and reviews some indicators that have been proposed to quantify it. Special attention is paid to two of these approaches, which the authors helped to develop, i.e. diversity-based indices and the Supply/Demand Index. The paper takes issue with conventional welfare economic approaches that neglect: (i) the scope on the demand side for raising security and (ii) negative feedback mechanisms of socio-political impacts of international rent transfers in fossil fuels exporting countries. The concept of energy services security is proposed with a demand-side focus. This enables application of an integrated approach to gauge the resilience of a society to meet the needs of its population for energy services over longer timescales ahead from various interrelated perspectives. Propositions are made on the attribution of security externalities to the use of fossil fuels, policies, and suggestions for further improvements of measures for energy services security.

  16. Pulmonary function changes in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, Elizabeth M.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Ash, Robert C.; Lipchik, Randolph J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term pulmonary function changes in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), to assess their clinical significance, and to identify factors influencing these changes. Methods and Materials: Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were evaluated before and after BMT in 111 adult patients undergoing BMT between 1985 and 1991. Forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity (DLCO), and total lung capacity (TLC) were evaluated. One hundred and three patients (92.8%) received total body irradiation (TBI) to a total dose of 14 Gy in nine equal fractions. The lung dose was restricted to 1 , FVC, and TLC were lower than pre transplant values (p 1 did not fall significantly in patients without acute or chronic GVHD and recovered earlier than in patients without post transplant pulmonary infection. Recovery of FVC, TLC, and DLCO was also delayed in patients with acute and chronic GVHD and post transplant pulmonary infection. Multiple regression analysis revealed an association between a higher radiation dose to the lungs, and decreased FVC at 2 years (p = 0.01). Progressive obstructive pulmonary disease was not observed. Conclusions: An initial decline in PFTs with subsequent recovery was observed. Factors associated with delayed recovery and incomplete recovery of PFTs were GVHD, post transplant pulmonary infection, and higher radiation dose to the lungs. The conditioning regimen used at Medical College of Wisconsin, including relatively high TBI doses with partial transmission pulmonary shielding, appears to be well tolerated by the lungs in long-term survivors. No progressive decline in PFTs or symptomatic decline in pulmonary function was observed during the time interval studied

  17. Absorption and long term retention of Mn-54 in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederblad, A.; Eriksson, R.; Alpsten, M.; Davidsson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The manganese absorption is found to be ≤ 16% after administration of some infant diets as well as from water solutions of manganese. These absorption figures might in some cases be an underestimation of the true initial absorption due to the rapid initial excretion of Mn-54. This means that both the often quoted figure for manganese absorption in humans, 3.0±0.5% and the value 10% used by ICRP 1979 are underestimations of the fractional absorption of manganese under some circumstances. The long term retention curve obtained, where the ratio between retention day 200 and day 30 had a mean value of 0.19 (range 0.10-0.35), could be compared to the two-component exponential function used by ICRP 1979 based on studies by Mahoney and Small 1968 where the corresponding ratio is 0.045. In the study by Mahoney and Small Mn-54 retention was studied after intravenous administration. We have earlier observed a difference between the metabolic handling of Mn-54 introduced orally and intravenously in man. Another model proposed by Caughtrey and Thorne 1983 consisting of a three component exponential function is in better agreement with our measurements and gives the ratio 0.22. The ICRP model for dose calculations tends to underestimate fractional absorption as well as long term retention of manganese. (orig./HP)

  18. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report II (1998-2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2015 in a region of Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of the village of Volincy (Korma district) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precautions in the course of time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. External exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, internal exposure is only slightly elevated and has no significant negative influence on the health of the inhabitants. In 2013, the internal dose decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/a. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Up to now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and individual advice is available, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former closed areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules.

  19. Long-term measurements of the radiation exposure of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated regions of Belarus. The Korma report II (1998-2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Pillath, Juergen; Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Hill, Peter; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2015 in a region of Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of the village of Volincy (Korma district) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precautions in the course of time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. External exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, internal exposure is only slightly elevated and has no significant negative influence on the health of the inhabitants. In 2013, the internal dose decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/a. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than ''normal'' values due to external exposure. Up to now, we have found no statistically significant signs or symptoms of diseases caused by radiation exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and individual advice is available, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former closed areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules.

  20. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    ICRP introduced the concept of Effective Dose Equivalent H(sub)E and fixed the basic limits of radiation exposure in terms of H(sub)I. As H(sub)E cannot be measured, ICRP stated that with external exposure to penetrating radiation the limitation of the Dose Equivalent Index H(sub)I would afford at least as good a level of protection. However, difficulties arise in measuring H(sub)I and in calibrating instruments in terms of H(sub)I, since the height and location of the dose equivalent maximum in the sphere which is the phantom used in the definition of H(sub)I, depend on the energy and the angular distribution of the incident radiation. That is, H(sub)I is not an additive quantity relative to the partial H(sub)I(sub)i-values of the different energy and angular components. Hence, 1) the distribution of dose equivalent in the sphere must be measured in full for a determination of H(sub)I, and 2) it is not possible to calibrate an instrument which does not exhibit the scattering and absorption properties of the sphere, consistently for arbitrary radiation fields in terms of H(sub)I. Thus the calibration in an unidirectional beam would infer an uncertainty which may amount to a factor of up to 4. This would hardly be tolerable as a base for radiation protection provisions. An alternative is to introduce operational quantities which are additive, e.g. 1) the sum of maxima of the dose equivalent distributions in the sphere produced by different radiation components, and 2) the mean dose equivalent in the sphere. Their relation to H(sub)E for different types of radiation and consequences on secondary limits are discussed. (H.K.)

  1. The nucleic acid metabolism in rat liver after single and long-term administration of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorokhova, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    It was shown that after a single administration of tritiUm oxide in a dose of 22.2 MBq/g body mass the liver mass increased, the concentration of nucleic acids decreased and the biosynthesjs rate increased dUring a one-month observation. By the end of the observation period (the first year) the parameters under study were normalized. The long-term administration of tritium oxide in daily doses of 0.37, 0.925 and 1.85 MBq/g body mass caused changes in the nucleac acid metabolism which were less manifest (at early times), than in the case of a single injection. At the same time, the long-term administration of tritium oxide in the dose of 0.925 MBq/g caused a substantial disturbance of the nucleic acid metabolism at later times (after 2-9 months)

  2. Long-term uvb forecasting on the basis of spectral and broad-band measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Gáspár, S.; Kovács, G.; Rontó, G.

    2003-04-01

    The stratospheric ozone concentration has been investigated by several methods, e.g. determinations of the ozone layer using a network of ground based spectrophotometers, of the Dobson and the Brewer types. These data indicate significant decrease of the ozone layer superimposed by much larger seasonal changes at specific geographical locations. The stratospheric ozone plays an important role in the attenuation of the short-wavelength components of the solar spectrum, thus the consequence of the decreased ozone layer is an increased UVB level. Various pyranometers measuring the biological effect of environmental UV radiation have been constructed with spectral sensitivities close to the erythema action spectrum defined by the CIE. Using these erythemally weighted broad-band instruments to detect the tendency of UVB radiation controversial data have been found. To quantify the biological risk due to environmental UV radiation it is reasonable to weight the solar spectrum by the spectral sensitivity of the DNA damage taking into account the high DNA-sensitivity at the short wavelength range of the solar spectrum. Various biological dosimeters have been developed e.g. polycrystalline uracil thin layer. These are usually simple biological systems or components of them. Their UV sensitivity is a consequence of the DNA-damage. Biological dosimeters applied for long-term monitoring are promising tools for the assessment of the biological hazard. Simultaneous application of uracil dosimeters and Robertson-Berger meters can be useful to predict the increasing tendency of the biological UV exposure more precisely. The ratio of the biologically effective dose obtained by the uracil dosimeter (a predominately UVB effect) and by the Robertson-Berger meter (insensitive to changes below 300 nm) is a sensitive method for establishing changes in UVB irradiance due to changes in ozone layer.

  3. Nucleic acid metabolism in hemopoietic tissues of polycythemic rats during long-term fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushkacheva, G.S.; Murzina, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of long-term fractionated exposure with a daily dose of 50 R on the nucleic acid metabolism in hemopoietic tissues (bone marrow and spleen) of rats with erythropoiesis selectively inhibited by posttransfusion polycythemia. The comparison of present and previously obtained results enables us to conclude that the pathways of changes in the nucleic acid metabolism, which is responsible for hemopoiesis compensation during long-term exposure, are, in the main, similar for both white and red compartments of hemopoiesis

  4. LONG-TERM ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT FOR A SHOPPING MALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engiz, Begum Korunur; Kurnaz, Cetin

    2017-07-01

    As a result of the dense deployment of wireless devices and base stations, measuring and evaluating the electromagnetic (EM) exposure levels they emit have become important to human health especially if they exceed the limits defined in the standards. Base stations, Wi-Fi equipment and other electronic devices are used heavily, especially in densely crowded places like shopping centers. In this study, electric field strength (E) measurements were conducted at one of the largest shopping malls in Turkey. Broadband E measurements were performed using PMM 8053 EM field strength meter for 24 h a day for the duration of one week while frequency selective measurements were carried out with SRM-3006 EM field strength meter. It is concluded from the measurements that the mean measured total E in the band between 100 kHz and 3 GHz is 0.59 V/m while the maximum E is 7.88 V/m, which are both below the limit determined by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Evolutions show that E can increase by up to 55% during the daytime. Analyses demonstrate that 71.3% of total E is caused by UMTS2100, 16.3% is produced by GSM900, 6.2% by LTE, 3.5% by Wi-Fi, and 2.7% is generated by devices that use the remaining frequency bands. Based on the detailed statistical analysis of long-term E measurement results, it can be concluded that the measured E levels are not in normal distribution and that they are statistically different with respect to days. Furthermore, distribution of E can be best modeled with the non-parametric approach. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Long-term effects of 239Pu injection in adult, weanling, newborn and fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.; Carr, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    We have completed biological evaluations comparing long-term effects in rats exposed to 239 Pu citrate as adults, weanlings, newborns, or late fetuses, and statistical analyses have been initiated. In rats exposed postnatally, statistically significant alterations in terminal body weight and in weights of several organs were found at higher doses. Survivorship decreased with increasing dose in the postnatal groups, but not in rats exposed prenatally

  6. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  7. Stability enhancement of an atomic force microscope for long-term force measurement including cantilever modification for whole cell deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, P. P.; McGarry, J. P.; van Es, M. H.; Kilpatrick, J. I.; Ronan, W.; Nolan, D. R.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2012-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in the study of both morphology and mechanical properties of living cells under physiologically relevant conditions. However, quantitative experiments on timescales of minutes to hours are generally limited by thermal drift in the instrument, particularly in the vertical (z) direction. In addition, we demonstrate the necessity to remove all air-liquid interfaces within the system for measurements in liquid environments, which may otherwise result in perturbations in the measured deflection. These effects severely limit the use of AFM as a practical tool for the study of long-term cell behavior, where precise knowledge of the tip-sample distance is a crucial requirement. Here we present a readily implementable, cost effective method of minimizing z-drift and liquid instabilities by utilizing active temperature control combined with a customized fluid cell system. Long-term whole cell mechanical measurements were performed using this stabilized AFM by attaching a large sphere to a cantilever in order to approximate a parallel plate system. An extensive examination of the effects of sphere attachment on AFM data is presented. Profiling of cantilever bending during substrate indentation revealed that the optical lever assumption of free ended cantilevering is inappropriate when sphere constraining occurs, which applies an additional torque to the cantilevers "free" end. Here we present the steps required to accurately determine force-indentation measurements for such a scenario. Combining these readily implementable modifications, we demonstrate the ability to investigate long-term whole cell mechanics by performing strain controlled cyclic deformation of single osteoblasts.

  8. Intercomparison On Depth Dose Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmah, N; Akhadi, M

    1996-01-01

    Intercomparation on personal dose evaluation system has been carried out between CSRSR-NAEA of Indonesia toward Standard Laboratory of JAERI (Japan) and ARL (Australia). The intercomparison was in 10 amm depth dose measurement , Hp (10), from the intercomparison result could be stated that personal depth dose measurement conducted by CSRSR was sufficiently good. Deviation of dose measurement result using personal dosemeter of TLD BG-1 type which were used by CSRSR in the intercomparison and routine photon personal dose monitoring was still in internationally agreed limit. Maximum deviation of reported doses by CSRSR compared to delivered doses for dosemeter irradiation by JAERI was -10.0 percent and by ARL was +29 percent. Maximum deviation permitted in personal dose monitoring is ± 50 percent

  9. Decreasing Trend in the Use and Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähkäpää, Sanna-Mari; Saastamoinen, Leena; Airaksinen, Marja; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Kurko, Terhi

    2018-03-14

    Patterns of benzodiazepine (BZD) use and long-term use among young adults are not well known. Our aim was to study trends in BZD use and long-term use among 18-25-year-old young adults by gender and active substance in a nationwide retrospective longitudinal register-based setting. All Finns aged 18-25 years with reimbursed purchases of BZDs in 2006-2014 recorded to the Finnish Prescription Register were included. Annual prevalence rates of BZD use and long-term use among young adults were reported overall, according to gender, drug group (anxiolytic or hypnotic), and active substance. Long-term use of BZDs was defined as purchasing ≥180 Defined Daily Doses (DDDs) in at least two drug purchases during a calendar year. Overall prevalence of BZD use among young adults decreased from 24.0 to 18.8 users per 1000 inhabitants in 2006-2014. Prevalence of long-term use decreased from 5.5 to 3.3 users per 1000 inhabitants. Overall BZD use was higher among females, whereas long-term use was more common among males. Use of anxiolytics was more common than use of hypnotics. Oxazepam, alprazolam, zopiclone, and zolpidem were the most used BZDs, whereas alprazolam and clonazepam were the substances with most long-term use. The use and long-term use of BZDs have decreased annually since 2008 among Finnish young adults. Further research is needed to investigate the reasons behind the decline.

  10. Resveratrol Based Oral Nutritional Supplement Produces Long-Term Beneficial Effects on Structure and Visual Function in Human Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Richer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Longevinex® (L/RV is a low dose hormetic over-the-counter (OTC oral resveratrol (RV based matrix of red wine solids, vitamin D3 and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 with established bioavailability, safety, and short-term efficacy against the earliest signs of human atherosclerosis, murine cardiac reperfusion injury, clinical retinal neovascularization, and stem cell survival. We previously reported our short-term findings for dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients. Today we report long term (two to three year clinical efficacy. Methods: We treated three patients including a patient with an AMD treatment resistant variant (polypoidal retinal vasculature disease. We evaluated two clinical measures of ocular structure (fundus autofluorescent imaging and spectral domain optical coherence extended depth choroidal imaging and qualitatively appraised changes in macular pigment volume. We further evaluated three clinical measures of visual function (Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare recovery to a cone photo-stress stimulus. Results: We observed broad bilateral improvements in ocular structure and function over a long time period, opposite to what might be expected due to aging and the natural progression of the patient’s pathophysiology. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: These three cases demonstrate that application of epigenetics has long-term efficacy against AMD retinal disease, when the retinal specialist has exhausted other therapeutic modalities.

  11. Long-term visual changes following pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Movsas, Tammy Z.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Okunieff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze possible long-term effects of pituitary irradiation on visual fields and acuity. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients were treated with radiotherapy for pituitary tumors at the National Cancer Institute between 1980 and 1991. Twenty-one patients had baseline preradiation and long-term follow-up visual fields. Eyes were followed with serial Goldmann or Humphrey visual field testing. Neuroradiologic correlation was made with the available brain scans. There were 12 females and 9 males with an median age of 44. Eighteen patients had hormone-secreting tumors and three had chromophobe adenomas. All but one patient with an inoperable invasive macroadenoma were irradiated after one or more transphenoidal resections or a craniotomy. The indications for radiation in the operable patients were: nine patients, partial tumor resection; nine patients, tumor recurrence; and two patients, persistent hormonal elevation after surgery. The median dose delivered was 50 Gy (45-59.4 Gy). The average field size was 6 x 6 cm (5 x 5 cm to 10 x 12.5 cm). Results: With a median follow-up of 48 months (14-128) after radiotherapy, 1 out of 21 patients has recurred (at 8 months) and all patients are alive. Of the 38 sighted eyes, 27 had normal visual fields before and after radiation, 7 eyes showed improvement, and 4 eyes had a stable defect, mostly in the superior temporal region. There were no cases of radiation-induced visual field or acuity deterioration. Six out of 21 patients (29%) had neurologic symptoms in follow-up, most of which appeared vascular in nature. Four patients complained of atypical migranous-like headaches that first began 1.5-3 years following treatment. One patient complained of recurrent vertical diplopia and one patient had a cerebral vascular accident 7 years following therapy. A dose-related association with these neurovascular symptoms approached statistical significance. Only 1 out of 11 (9%) patients who received doses less than or equal

  12. Carbohydrate metabolism during long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response study. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.J. Sas (Theo); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); Th. Stijnen (Theo); H-J. Aanstoot (Henk-Jan); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTo assess possible side-effects of GH treatment with supraphysiological doses on carbohydrate (CH) metabolism in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) during long term GH treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment, the results of oral glucose tolerance

  13. Cancer risk in long-term users of valproate: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Friis, Søren; Bjerrum, Lars

    2009-01-01

    logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the cases and controls, 81 (0.05%) and 260 (0.04%), respectively, were long-term users of valproate. For cancer overall, the crude and adjusted odds ratios were 1.25 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.97-1.60] and 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95-1.56), respectively. Subgroup...... analyses revealed no dose or duration effect for overall cancer incidence, and no specific cancer site was found to be inversely associated with long-term use of valproate. For lung cancer, we found a positive but imprecise association (adjusted odds ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.12-4.79). CONCLUSION: Long...

  14. The effects of increasing doses of 2 preparations of long-acting insulin on short-term plasma profiles of glucose and insulin in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of administering increasing doses of 2 different preparations of long-acting insulin on the 24-h profiles of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in mid lactation dairy cows. The 2 separately analyzed experiments investigated the effects administering either Humulin N (H), a neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin, or insulin glargine (Lantus, L), an insulin analog, at doses of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 IU/kg of body weight in a randomized complete block design. Sixteen cows (237±11 d in milk for H; 213±10 d in milk for L; mean ± SD) were used for each insulin preparation, resulting in n=4 for each dose within insulin preparation. Cows were fitted with a single jugular catheter on the day before the study. On the day of the study, cows were given treatments by subcutaneous injection of either sterile water or the designated insulin type and dose. Blood samples were taken hourly from the jugular catheter. Subcutaneous injection of both H and L resulted in linear decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, increased area under the curve, and decreased nadir for plasma glucose following administration of the insulin preparations. Plasma insulin concentration linearly increased with increasing dose of H. Though elevated concentrations of insulin were measurable in cows treated with H, they were not measurable in cows treated with L. Attempts to measure overall insulin concentrations and metabolites of L by a commercially available ELISA and a commercially available RIA kit were not successful and did not retrieve values that we felt truly represented the amount of insulin activity exhibited during this treatment. Both long-acting insulin preparations elicited insulin-like activity in lactating dairy cows, as evidenced by reduced plasma glucose concentrations. Given these results, the potential exists to use both H and L to study the effects of insulin in mid lactation dairy cows without the confounding

  15. Long-Term Quality of Life Improvement in Subjects with Healed Erosive Esophagitis: Treatment with Lansoprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freston, James W.; Haber, Marian M.; Atkinson, Stuart; Hunt, Barbara; Peura, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic symptomatic condition and may be associated with erosive esophagitis (EE). Considerable data on the long-term maintenance of healing of EE are available, but data on long-term GERD symptom prevention and patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Aims To investigate QOL in subjects with healed EE who received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole or ranitidine, followed by long-term open-label lansoprazole therapy to prevent recurrence of EE. Methods Subjects with healed EE received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole 15 mg once daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily, followed by dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole therapy for up to 82 months. Results During double-blind treatment (n = 206), lansoprazole-treated patients showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater improvements than ranitidine-treated patients in the frequency, severity, and ‘bothersomeness’ of heartburn, the symptom index, problems of activity limitation, eating and drinking problems, symptom problems, health distress, and social functioning. During dose-titrated, open-label treatment (n = 195), all disease-specific QOL scales except sleep improved significantly (P lansoprazole for 12 months in healed EE subjects produced significantly greater improvements in QOL indicators than ranitidine. These improvements were sustained during dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole treatment. PMID:19582579

  16. Sleep Quality, Short-Term and Long-Term CPAP Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiah, Manya; Taxin, Zachary; Keating, Joseph; Mooney, Anne M.; Norman, Robert G.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adherence to CPAP therapy is low in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of measures of sleep architecture and sleep continuity on the CPAP titration study as predictors of both short- and long-term CPAP adherence. Methods: 93 patients with OSAHS (RDI 42.8 ± 34.3/h) underwent in-laboratory diagnostic polysomnography, CPAP titration, and follow-up polysomnography (NPSG) on CPAP. Adherence to CPAP was objectively monitored. Short-term (ST) CPAP adherence was averaged over 14 days immediately following the titration study. Long-term (LT) CPAP adherence was obtained in 56/93 patients after approximately 2 months of CPAP use. Patients were grouped into CPAP adherence groups for ST ( 4 h) and LT adherence ( 4 h). Sleep architecture, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) indices, and daytime outcome variables from the diagnostic and titration NPSGs were compared between CPAP adherence groups. Results: There was a significant relationship between ST and LT CPAP adherence (r = 0.81, p CPAP adherence groups had significantly lower %N2 and greater %REM on the titration NPSG. A model combining change in sleep efficiency and change in sleep continuity between the diagnostic and titration NPSGs predicted 17% of the variance in LT adherence (p = 0.006). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that characteristics of sleep architecture, even on the titration NPSG, may predict some of the variance in CPAP adherence. Better sleep quality on the titration night was related to better CPAP adherence, suggesting that interventions to improve sleep on/prior to the CPAP titration study might be used as a therapeutic intervention to improve CPAP adherence. Citation: Somiah M; Taxin Z; Keating J; Mooney AM; Norman RG; Rapoport DM; Ayappa I. Sleep quality, short-term and long-term CPAP adherence. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):489-500. PMID:23066359

  17. SOIL AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IMPROVEMENT IN LONG TERM FIELD EXPERIMENT WITH FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is studied in long-term field experiments. Researches are carried out in several agricultural research stations, out of which the following have been chosen for the present paper: Albic Luvisol* at Albota; Haplic Phaeozem at Fundulea; Chromic Luvisol at Şimnic; Calcic Chernozem at Secuieni; and Haplic Chernozem at Podu Iloaiei. Long term fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus generally improved the soil agrochemical properties. The evolution of organic matter, nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and potassium, and mobile microelements contents were studied, using the standardized method used in the ICPA laboratories. The organic matter and total nitrogen contents didn’t change significantly under the nitrogen and phosphorus long-term fertilization influence. The mobile phosphorus contents have the tendency to grow very significantly with the growth of phosphorus fertilizers. At the same time, slight depletions of these contents are registered as the high nitrogen doses from fertilizers stimulate plant growth and, obviously, nutritive elements absorption. Mobile potassium contents changes very little, with insignificant differences. Significant depletions are registered only with high fertilizers doses, due to the stimulation of the nutritive elements absorption in plants. Microelements contents don’t change almost at all. They are within the normal content limits and no excess or deficiency was registered, in any of the studied stations. For the agricultural practice, economical studies are recommended, about how high fertilizing expenses are covered by the yield growth. Not the least, production quality study in different variants of mineral fertilization could prove interesting.

  18. Measurement of absorbed doses near interfaces, and dose mapping using gas chromic dosimetry media. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rehim, F; Said, F I.A.; Abdel-Fattah, A A [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Athority, P.O.Box 29 Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Gas chromic dosimetry media is a thin-coated film which has advantages for high-dose radiation dosimetry, and produces high-resolution radiation image for gamma radiation. Therefore, these films were calibrated for the dose range 0.1-50 kGy in terms of increase in absorbance at 600 nm, 400 nm; increase in the area of the absorption spectra in the ranges 395-405 nm and 320-450 nm wave length as a function of absorbed dose in water. The calibrated films were used for measurement of absorbed doses close to metal interface, and dose mapping of the radiation field inside product box during a run for sterilizing surgical gloves at the mega-gamma irradiation facility.7 figs.

  19. Visual working memory buffers information retrieved from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2017-05-16

    Human memory is thought to consist of long-term storage and short-term storage mechanisms, the latter known as working memory. Although it has long been assumed that information retrieved from long-term memory is represented in working memory, we lack neural evidence for this and need neural measures that allow us to watch this retrieval into working memory unfold with high temporal resolution. Here, we show that human electrophysiology can be used to track information as it is brought back into working memory during retrieval from long-term memory. Specifically, we found that the retrieval of information from long-term memory was limited to just a few simple objects' worth of information at once, and elicited a pattern of neurophysiological activity similar to that observed when people encode new information into working memory. Our findings suggest that working memory is where information is buffered when being retrieved from long-term memory and reconcile current theories of memory retrieval with classic notions about the memory mechanisms involved.

  20. Evaluation of short-term and long-term stability of emulsions by centrifugation and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Ivanov, I.; Marinov, R.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of storage time on the coalescence stability and drop size distribution of egg yolk and whey protein concentrate stabilized emulsions is studied. The emulsion stability is evaluated by centrifugation, whereas the drop size distribution is measured by means of NMR and optical microscopy. The experimental results show that there is no general relation between the emulsion stability and the changes in the mean drop diameter upon shelf-storage of protein emulsions. On the other hand, it is shown that the higher short-term stability, measured by centrifugation immediately after emulsion preparation, corresponds to higher long-term stability (after their self-storage up to 60 days) for emulsions stabilized by the same type of emulsifier. In this way, we are able to obtain information for the long-term stability of emulsions in a relatively short period of time.(authors)

  1. Manufacturing of different gel detectors and their calibration for spatial radiation dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.

    2008-05-01

    Three types of gel dosemeter have been made and their most important properties for radiation dosimetry were studied. The comparison between the three categories helps to widen knowledge in each of these detectors and to establish a method for the preparation as well as testing of this radiation sensitive materials. Experiments show the technical application possibility for using these gel detectors to measure the spatial radiation dose distribution in the range of doses given for cancer treatment. The experimental results give some important characteristic for the three gel dosemeter used in comparison to that of the traditional dosimetry systems. It also shows the simplicity of manufacturing the dosemeter from low cost materials and its radiation response to ionizing. The relationships between the dosemeter response and the dose rate as well as the radiation energy were also investigated. Important subjects that have been also taken into consideration are the effects of ambient conditions and storage likelihood of the studied materials. Recommendation was made for the use of these materials in practical applications and for handling as well as their long term storage possibility. (author)

  2. Long-term effects of x-ray irradiation on reproductive function in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, S.V.; Demchenko, V.N.; Chajkovskaya, L.V.; Reznikov, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive function in male rats was studied in 1, 3 and 6 months after x-ray irradiation at doses of 2 and 3 Gy. It was been established that long-term effects of irradiation at a dose of 3 Gy are manifested through decrease in spermatozoa content in the epididymis and reduction of nucleie acid and protein content in the testes. Fertility of male rats under study significantly lowered shortly after irradiation and full recovery of fecundating ability was observed 6 months later. The effect of irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy was less pronounced

  3. Anticonvulsant use in elderly patients in long-term care units.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Timmons, S

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Elderly patients in long-term care units are frailer than their community-dwelling peers and may be more at risk from toxic side-effects of anticonvulsant medication at standard doses. AIM: To examine the prescribing of anticonvulsants to patients in elderly care units. METHODS: Drug prescription sheets and case notes were reviewed. Serum anticonvulsant concentration, renal and liver profiles and albumin level were measured. RESULTS: Anticonvulsants were prescribed to twice as many male as female patients (32 vs 14%; p<0.03) and to 33% of those younger than 80 years of age versus 10% of those aged 80 years or older (p<0.0002). No patient had significant hypoalbuminaemia and routine measurement of serum anticonvulsant concentration did not indicate an alteration of dosage. CONCLUSIONS: Anticonvulsants appear to be well tolerated in these patients. The younger age of those receiving anticonvulsants is inadequately explained by the characteristics of the patient cohort and may reflect a shift towards a younger age in patients requiring anticonvulsants due to increased mortality in this group.

  4. Long-term safety of the maintenance and decommissioning waste of the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nummi, O.; Kylloenen, J.; Eurajoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report, Long-term safety of the maintenance and decommissioning waste of the encapsulation plant, presents the disposal concept for the low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) that is generated during the operation and decommissioning of the encapsulation plant, and assesses the long-term safety of the disposal of the waste. Radioactive waste originates from the spent nuclear fuel transferred and dried in the encapsulation plant. Radioactive waste accumulates also in the maintenance of the components and systems of the encapsulation plant. The waste is collected, exempted from control if possible and treated for final disposal if necessary. The waste is disposed of in the L/ILW hall which is currently planned to be located at a depth of -180 meters along the access tunnel to the repository for spent fuel. The main engineered barrier in the L/ILW hall is a concrete basin that encases the dried liquid waste. The safety concept of L/ILW disposal is based on the slow release of radioactivity from the L/ILW hall and its limited transport through the bedrock into biosphere. The release and transport of the radioactivity is described by the assessment scenarios, which include expected evolution and unlikely events affecting the long-term safety. The scenarios act as guidelines according to which the conceptual and mathematical models are formed. The long-term safety of the L/ILW hall is assessed using deterministic and probabilistic modeling. Special issues such as human intrusion and radiation effects on other biota are also assessed. The most significant contributor to the dose rates is the short-lived radionuclide 90 Sr followed by long-lived nuclides 129 I and 108 mAg. The annual doses to the public, and release rates of radioactive substances stay below the regulatory constraints in all analyzed scenarios. (orig.)

  5. Long-term outcome of lobar ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC): a comparative study with patients of completion thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Amburanjan; Maharjan, S.; Bal, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Completion thyroidectomy (CT) is usually recommended after partial surgery in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine lobar ablation (RAILA) is an easy alternative and avoids complications that might be associated with re-surgery. But its effectiveness in terms of long-term outcome and recurrence free survival is yet to be established. This study was aimed to compare long term outcome of RAILA with that of completion thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done from the case records of patients treated in our thyroid clinic for last 25 years. Records of all patients of RAILA (364) and CT (372) were analyzed. Complete ablation rate, cumulative dose needed for complete ablation, Recurrence rate and recurrence free survival was estimated in each group. Comparison was made between two groups by statistical method. Results: There was 73% ablation rate at 1st dose of RAILA itself. Second dose in LA and first dose of remnant ablation after CT is comparable (92% and 93% respectively). Cumulative dose to achieve 100% ablation rate is more for RAILA group. Seven patients developed recurrence in RAILA group, compared to 14 in CT group. No statistically significant difference was noted between recurrence rate and recurrence free survival between two groups. Conclusion: Radioiodine Lobar ablation is a safe, effective and less costly alternative to completion thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with comparable long term outcome like recurrence rate and recurrence free survival

  6. Universal Preschool Programs and Long-Term Child Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Kristiansen, Ida Lykke; Viinholt Nielsen, Bjørn Christian

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review included 25 studies using natural experiments to estimate the effects of universal preschool programs for children aged 0-6 years on child outcomes measured from third grade to adulthood. Studies comparing preschool with parental, family, or other informal modes of care...... alternative types of universal preschool programs in terms of long-term outcomes....

  7. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  8. Short- and long-term reproducibility of radioisotopic examination of gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonderko, K. (Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1990-01-01

    Reproducibility of gastric emptying (GE) of a radiolabelled solid meal was assessed. The short-term reproducibility was evaluated on the basis of 12 paired GE examinations performed 1-3 days apart. Twelve paired GE examinations taken 3-8 months apart enabled long-term reproducibility assessment. Reproducibility of GE parameters was expressed in terms of the coefficient of variation, CV. No significant between-day variation of solid GE was found either regarding the short-term or the long-term reproducibility. Although slightly higher CV values characterized the long-term reproducibility of the GE parameters considered, the variations of the differences between repeated GE examinations did not differ significantly between short- and long-term GE reproducibility. The results obtained justify the use of radioisotopic GE measurement for the assessment of early and late results of pharmacologic or surgical management. (author).

  9. Long-term management of chronic spontaneous urticaria with omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Gouveia, M; Gameiro, A; Pinho, A; Gonçalo, M

    2017-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown the efficacy of omalizumabs efficacy in refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU), but real-life management strategies are lacking. To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of omalizumab, and to identify predictive factors and optimum dosage regimens. This was a prospective study of 13 patients (11 women, 2 men) with severe CSU [weekly urticaria activity score (UAS7) > 28] resistant to anti-H1 antihistamines. Patients were started on omalizumab 150 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks. Dose and interval between administrations were adjusted according to clinical response (189 administrations; treatment duration range 2-38 months). Mean UAS7 was 36.3 ± 5.4. Of the 13 patients, all had experienced angio-oedema, while in addition, 7 had delayed pressure urticaria (DPU) and 1 had solar urticaria (SU). After omalizumab treatment, 4 (30.8%) of the 13 patients had complete response (CR), and the remaining 8 (61.5%) had partial response. CR was achieved with a dose of 150 mg every 4 (n = 2 patients) or 5 (n = 2) weeks. One of these patients remained disease-free after stopping treatment. Partial responses were achieved with 150 mg every 4 weeks (n = 4) and with 300 mg (n = 4) at intervals of 5 weeks (n = 1), 4 weeks (n = 2) or 3 weeks (n = 1). Only one patient (7.7%) did not show significant improvement, despite a dose of 300 mg every 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data between the different response groups. Only two adverse events were observed: one was mild headache and the other was severe angio-oedema and aggravation of urticaria within 6 h of omalizumab administration. Omalizumab dose and interval between administrations could be individualized for long-term management of CSU. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Effects by daily long term provision of ghrelin to unselected weight-losing cancer patients: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Kent; Gunnebo, Lena; Körner, Ulla; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Engström, Cecilia; Hyltander, Anders; Smedh, Ulrika; Bosaeus, Ingvar

    2010-04-15

    The short-term provision of ghrelin to patients with cancer indicates that there may be benefits from long-term provision of ghrelin for the palliative treatment of weight-losing cancer patients. This hypothesis was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, phase 2 study. Weight-losing cancer patients with solid gastrointestinal tumors were randomized to receive either high-dose ghrelin treatment (13 microg/kg daily; n = 17 patients) or low-dose ghrelin treatment (0.7 microg/kg daily; n = 14 patients) for 8 weeks as a once-daily, subcutaneous injections. Appetite was scored on a visual analog scale; and food intake, resting energy expenditure, and body composition (dual x-ray absorpitometry) were measured before the start of treatment and during follow-up. Serum levels of ghrelin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, growth hormone (GH), triglycerides, free fatty acids, and glucose were measured. Health-related quality of life, anxiety, and depression were assessed by using standardized methods (the 36-item Short Form Health Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Physical activity, rest, and sleep were measured by using a multisensor body monitor. Treatment groups were comparable at inclusion. Appetite scores were increased significantly by high-dose ghrelin analyzed both on an intent-to-treat basis and according to the protocol. High-dose ghrelin reduced the loss of whole body fat (P losing cancer patients with solid tumors supports host metabolism, improves appetite, and attenuates catabolism. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  11. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations in rat myelocaryocytes during long-term repeated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryadnitskaya, T.I.; Sukhodoev, V.V.; Muksinova, K.N.

    1977-01-01

    In the course of a long-term daily irradiation of rats (50R/day), the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the bone marrow cells increased disproportionally to a total radiation dose which was due to the reduced frequency of chromosome damage at the intervals between daily exposures. The rate of this reduction was mainly determined by myelocaryocyte proliferation

  12. Long-term efficacy of a mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques in invasive cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuon, E.; Empen, K.; Hummel, A.; Doerr, M.; Reffelmann, T.; Felix, S.B.; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W.; Staudt, A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To validate the long-term efficacy of a 90-min. educational mini-course in less-irradiating cardiac interventional techniques. Materials and Methods: Before, two months after, and two years after the mini-course (periods I, II, and III), we analyzed the following radiation dose parameters for ten coronary angiographies (CA), performed by each of 7 cardiologists: total dose-area product (DAP), radiographic and fluoroscopic DAP fractions, number of radiographic frames and runs, and fluoroscopy time. Results: The median patient DAP for periods I, II and III was 31.4, 15.8 and 8.5 Gy x cm 2 , respectively. The long-term effect was related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 172, and 120 s), shorter (57, 52, and 45) and fewer (12, 12, and 10) radiographic runs, consistent collimation and restriction to an adequate image quality. Both radiographic DAP/frame (28.7, 17.0, and 18.4 mGy x cm 2 ) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (45.7, 24.2, and 10.0 mGy x cm 2 ) decreased significantly. The multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed the increasing efficacy of the mini-course itself (-44.6 and -60.7 %), and revealed a decreasing influence of the interventionalist's experience (-8.6 % and -4.9 % per 1,000 CAs, lifelong performed until the mini-course). The number of CAs performed after the mini-course did not influence the long-term DAP results. Conclusion: The presented educational mini-course allows a significant, long-lasting, and apparently ongoing reduction of patient radiation exposure due to CA. A self-surveillant documentation of relevant radiation parameters is well suited to monitor and improve each operator's individual long-term radiation-reducing efforts. (orig.)

  13. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term outcome and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Jung AE; Kim, Chul Yong [Korea University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To evaluate long-term local control rate and toxicity in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for pituitary adenomas. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 patients treated with EBRT for pituitary adenoma at Korea University Medical Center from 1996 and 2006. Thirty-fi ve patients had hormone secreting tumors, 25 patients had non-secreting tumors. Fifty-seven patients had received postoperative radiotherapy (RT), and 3 had received RT alone. Median total dose was 54 Gy (range, 36 to 61.2 Gy). The definition of tumor progression were as follows: evidence of tumor progression on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, worsening of clinical sign requiring additional operation or others, rising serum hormone level against a previously stable or falling value, and failure of controlling serum hormone level so that the hormone level had been far from optimal range until last follow-up. Age, sex, hormone secretion, tumor extension, tumor size, and radiation dose were analyzed for prognostic significance in tumor control. Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 2 to 14.4 years). The 10-year actuarial local control rates for non-secreting and secreting adenomas were 96% and 66%, respectively. In univariate analysis, hormone secretion was significant prognostic factor (p = 0.042) and cavernous sinus extension was marginally significant factor (p = 0.054) for adverse local control. All other factors were not significant. In multivariate analysis, hormone secretion and gender were significant. Fifty-three patients had mass-effect symptoms (headache, dizziness, visual disturbance, hypopituitarism, loss of consciousness, and cranial nerve palsy). A total of 17 of 23 patients with headache and 27 of 34 patients with visual impairment were improved. Twenty-seven patients experienced symptoms of endocrine hypersecretion (galactorrhea, amenorrhea, irregular menstruation, decreased libido, gynecomastia, acromegaly, and Cushing

  15. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term outcome and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Jung AE; Kim, Chul Yong

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate long-term local control rate and toxicity in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for pituitary adenomas. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 patients treated with EBRT for pituitary adenoma at Korea University Medical Center from 1996 and 2006. Thirty-fi ve patients had hormone secreting tumors, 25 patients had non-secreting tumors. Fifty-seven patients had received postoperative radiotherapy (RT), and 3 had received RT alone. Median total dose was 54 Gy (range, 36 to 61.2 Gy). The definition of tumor progression were as follows: evidence of tumor progression on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, worsening of clinical sign requiring additional operation or others, rising serum hormone level against a previously stable or falling value, and failure of controlling serum hormone level so that the hormone level had been far from optimal range until last follow-up. Age, sex, hormone secretion, tumor extension, tumor size, and radiation dose were analyzed for prognostic significance in tumor control. Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 2 to 14.4 years). The 10-year actuarial local control rates for non-secreting and secreting adenomas were 96% and 66%, respectively. In univariate analysis, hormone secretion was significant prognostic factor (p = 0.042) and cavernous sinus extension was marginally significant factor (p = 0.054) for adverse local control. All other factors were not significant. In multivariate analysis, hormone secretion and gender were significant. Fifty-three patients had mass-effect symptoms (headache, dizziness, visual disturbance, hypopituitarism, loss of consciousness, and cranial nerve palsy). A total of 17 of 23 patients with headache and 27 of 34 patients with visual impairment were improved. Twenty-seven patients experienced symptoms of endocrine hypersecretion (galactorrhea, amenorrhea, irregular menstruation, decreased libido, gynecomastia, acromegaly, and Cushing's disease

  16. Long-term follow-up of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) receiving intraocular ciliary neurotrophic factor implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David G.; Bennett, Lea D.; Duncan, Jacque L.; Weleber, Richard G.; Pennesi, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term efficacy of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered via an intraocular encapsulated cell implant for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Design Long-term follow up of a multicenter, sham-controlled study. Methods Thirty-six patients at three CNTF4 sites were randomly assigned to receive a high- or low- dose implant in one eye and sham surgery in the fellow eye. The primary endpoint (change in visual field sensitivity at 12 months) has been reported previously.1 Here we report long-term visual acuity, visual field and optical coherence tomography (OCT) outcomes in 24 patients either retaining or explanting the device at 24 months relative to sham-treated eyes. Results Eyes retaining the implant showed significantly greater visual field loss from baseline than either explanted eyes or sham eyes through 42 months. By 60 months and continuing through 96 months, visual field loss was comparable among sham-treated eyes, eyes retaining the implant and explanted eyes, as was visual acuity and OCT macular volume. Conclusions Over the short term, ciliary neurotrophic factor released continuously from an intra-vitreal implant lead to loss of total visual field sensitivity that was greater than the natural progression in the sham-treated eye. This additional loss of sensitivity related to the active implant was reversible when the implant was removed. Over the long term (60 – 96 months), there was no evidence of efficacy for visual acuity, visual field sensitivity or OCT measures of retinal structure. PMID:27457255

  17. Measuring brain activity cycling (BAC) in long term EEG monitoring of preterm babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Nathan J; Palmu, Kirsi; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Measuring fluctuation of vigilance states in early preterm infants undergoing long term intensive care holds promise for monitoring their neurological well-being. There is currently, however, neither objective nor quantitative methods available for this purpose in a research or clinical environment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to develop quantitative measures of the fluctuation in vigilance states or brain activity cycling (BAC) in early preterm infants. The proposed measures of BAC were summary statistics computed on a frequency domain representation of the proportional duration of spontaneous activity transients (SAT%) calculated from electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings. Eighteen combinations of three statistics and six frequency domain representations were compared to a visual interpretation of cycling in the SAT% signal. Three high performing measures (band energy/periodogram: R = 0.809, relative band energy/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.711, g-statistic/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.638) were then compared to a grading of sleep wake cycling based on the visual interpretation of the amplitude-integrated EEG trend. These measures of BAC are conceptually straightforward, correlate well with the visual scores of BAC and sleep wake cycling, are robust enough to cope with the technically compromised monitoring data available in intensive care units, and are recommended for further validation in prospective studies. (paper)

  18. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.

  19. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

  20. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  1. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer

  2. Long-term variations of the UV-B radiation over Central Europe as derived from the reconstructed UV time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Krzyscin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The daily doses of the erythemally weighted UV radiation are reconstructed for three sites in Central Europe: Belsk-Poland (1966–2001, Hradec Kralove-Czech Republic (1964–2001, and Tõravere-Estonia (1967–2001 to discuss the UV climatology and the long-term changes of the UV-B radiation since the mid 1960s. Various reconstruction models are examined: a purely statistical model based on the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS methodology, and a hybrid model combining radiative transfer model calculations with empirical estimates of the cloud effects on the UV radiation. Modeled long-term variations of the surface UV doses appear to be in a reasonable agreement with the observed ones. A simple quality control procedure is proposed to check the homogeneity of the biometer and pyranometer data. The models are verified using the results of UV observations carried out at Belsk since 1976. MARS provides the best estimates of the UV doses, giving a mean difference between the modeled and observed monthly means equal to 0.6±2.5%. The basic findings are: similar climatological forcing by clouds for all considered stations (~30% reduction in the surface UV, long-term variations in UV monthly doses having the same temporal pattern for all stations with extreme low monthly values (~5% below overall mean level at the end of the 1970s and extreme high monthly values (~5% above overall mean level in the mid 1990s, regional peculiarities in the cloud long-term forcing sometimes leading to extended periods with elevated UV doses, recent stabilization of the ozone induced UV long-term changes being a response to a trendless tendency of total ozone since the mid 1990s. In the case of the slowdown of the total ozone trend over Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes it seems that clouds will appear as the most important modulator of the UV radiation both in long- and short-time scales over next decades. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure

  3. Long-term variations of the UV-B radiation over Central Europe as derived from the reconstructed UV time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Krzyscin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The daily doses of the erythemally weighted UV radiation are reconstructed for three sites in Central Europe: Belsk-Poland (1966–2001, Hradec Kralove-Czech Republic (1964–2001, and Tõravere-Estonia (1967–2001 to discuss the UV climatology and the long-term changes of the UV-B radiation since the mid 1960s. Various reconstruction models are examined: a purely statistical model based on the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS methodology, and a hybrid model combining radiative transfer model calculations with empirical estimates of the cloud effects on the UV radiation. Modeled long-term variations of the surface UV doses appear to be in a reasonable agreement with the observed ones. A simple quality control procedure is proposed to check the homogeneity of the biometer and pyranometer data. The models are verified using the results of UV observations carried out at Belsk since 1976. MARS provides the best estimates of the UV doses, giving a mean difference between the modeled and observed monthly means equal to 0.6±2.5%. The basic findings are: similar climatological forcing by clouds for all considered stations (~30% reduction in the surface UV, long-term variations in UV monthly doses having the same temporal pattern for all stations with extreme low monthly values (~5% below overall mean level at the end of the 1970s and extreme high monthly values (~5% above overall mean level in the mid 1990s, regional peculiarities in the cloud long-term forcing sometimes leading to extended periods with elevated UV doses, recent stabilization of the ozone induced UV long-term changes being a response to a trendless tendency of total ozone since the mid 1990s. In the case of the slowdown of the total ozone trend over Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes it seems that clouds will appear as the most important modulator of the UV radiation both in long- and short-time scales over next decades.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and

  4. Monitoring long-term oral corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Lewis; Lindemann, Roberta; Douglas, James

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are synthetic analogues of human hormones normally produced by the adrenal cortex. They have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. The glucocortoid components are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and vasoconstrictive. They influence the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, in addition to playing a key role in the body's stress response. Mineralocorticoid's main significance is in the balance of salt and water concentrations. Due to the combination of these effects, corticosteroids can cause many adverse effects. Oral corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and are therefore more likely to cause adverse effects than topical or inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, it is assumed that greater duration of treatment will lead to a greater number of adverse effects, and therefore the most at risk group are those taking high dose, long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC). High dose is defined as a prescription of >5 mg oral prednisolone and long term as duration of treatment >1 month (based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for patient's 'at risk' of systemic side effects). Parameters to be monitored in primary care include weight, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and urea and electrolytes. From clinical experience within the general practice setting, the authors propose that these patients do not receive adequate baseline monitoring before starting corticosteroids nor are these markers monitored consistently thereafter. This project intended to evidence this claim, evaluate the adverse effect profile and improve monitoring in this patient group. The initial audit of 22 patients, within a single general practice, detected at least one documented adverse effect in 64% of patients, while 41% reported more than one adverse effect. 45% had recorded weight gain, 18% had recorded osteoporosis, 18% had at least one recorded cataract, 14% had recorded Hypertension, 14% had recorded

  5. On the long-term development of population dose in radioactively contaminated parts of Korma County (Belarus); Langzeitentwicklung der Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung in radioaktiv kontaminierten Gebieten des Kreises Korma (Belarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, H.; Pillath, J.; Heuel-Fabianek, B.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2009-07-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than normal background values due to external exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  6. Groundwater modeling for the long-term safety assessment of uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium tailings ponds contain naturally occurring long lived radionuclides such as 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th and 226 Ra as sources which are the parents of a very long radionuclide decay chain. Uranium tailings ponds by the virtue of the longevity of its contents may pose as a long-term radiological hazard if not designed and monitored properly. The principal radiation risks from uranium tailings are gamma radiation: windblown radioactive dust dispersion; and radon gas and its progenies. Uranium tailings ponds are also a major source of surface and groundwater contamination due to leaching of radioactive and other toxic elements. In many countries, the tailings ponds are designed to control the radiological hazards for up to 1000 years, to the extent achievable, and in any case for at least 200 years. Stringent regulations stipulations exist worldwide for the safe design, operation and closure of uranium tailings ponds. The long- term radiological impact assessment of uranium tailings ponds, hence, is an extremely important exercise in uranium mining industry. The simulations conducted for uranium over a period of 1000 years indicate that contaminant fronts from the source with a paste permeability of 1x10 -4 m/day would migrate a probable distance of less than 50 m. The maximum computed distance for this case is less than 300 m. Indian studies show that the total annual effective dose to members of the public at 1.0 km from the centre of the tailings pond is trivial up to a period of 4000 y. The estimated dose is 0.01 mSv/y after 10,000 years and it is 10 times lower than 0.1 mSv/y, which is considered as a safe dose limit for drinking water pathway. (author)

  7. Long-term hematopoietic stem cell damage after external irradiation with X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, M.T.; Varas, F.; Bueren, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the functionality of the lympho-hematopoietic stem cells long-term (9 months) after the irradiation (X rays) of mice at different stages of development, by means of a competitive bone marrow repopulation assay. Our data revealed that a dose of 1 Gy was only capable of inducing significant long-term failures in the functionality of the primitive repopulating cells in mice irradiated at the young-adult stage (12 week-old), but not in mice irradiated at the late stages of foetus development (17 day-old fetuses) nor at the early development of the embryo (4 day-old embryos). The differential generation of long-term stem cell defects as a function of the age was confirmed in mice irradiated with 3 Gy. While no significant effects in the long-term repopulating cells were observed in 4 day-old embryos, significant repopulation deficiencies were observed in this population when mice were irradiated at the 17 day of foetus development, and more markedly at the adult stage of growth. These data offer new evidence about the influence of the developmental stage of the animal on the generation of residual hematopoietic dysfunctions by external irradiation, with particular relevance to the very primitive lympho-hematopoietic stem cells. (author)

  8. Responses and damages during long-term continuous irradiation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshito

    2011-01-01

    Effects of long-term continuous irradiation are relevant to studies in radiation ecotoxicology. To investigate plants biological responses to continuous irradiation, we performed metabolome and transcriptome analysis in a model plant, arabidopsis. Comprehensive analysis of primary metabolites using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry revealed extensive metabolic changes at early onset of growth inhibition in plants exposed to gamma rays at the dose rate of 20 Gy/day. The changes included elevated levels of B vitamins and second metabolites, commonly responsive to many abiotic and biotic stresses. Responses at early onset of growth inhibition were also observed in the transcriptome analysis using microarray, which showed up-regulation of 55 genes in plants exposed to gamma rays at 20 Gy/day. Although about a half of the up-regulated genes were also responsive just after acute irradiation, the other half was responsive only during long-term continuous irradiation. Database analyses showed that the specifically up-regulated genes to long-term continuous irradiation included genes relating to general stress responses and protein metabolism. The results of these analyses appear to reflect plants responses to progressive radiation damages, from radiation-specific responses, which repair primary DNA damage, to more general stress responses, which maintain homoeostasis against secondary damages. (author)

  9. Long-term biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.; Harte, J.; Harwell, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Subfreezing temperatures, low light levels, and high doses of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation extending for many months after a large-scale nuclear war could destroy the biological support systems of civilization, at least in the Northern Hemisphere. Productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems could be severely restricted for a year or more. Postwar survivors would face starvation as well as freezing conditions in the dark and be exposed to near-lethal doses of radiation. If, as now seems possible, the Southern Hemisphere were affected also, global disruption of the biosphere could ensue, In any event, there would be severe consequences, even in the areas not affected directly, because of the interdependence of the world economy. In either case the extinction of a large fraction of the Earth's animals, plants, and microorganisms seems possible. The population size of Homo sapiens conceivably could be reduced to prehistoric levels or below and extinction of the human species itself cannot be excluded. These conclusions are the concensus from the meeting on Long-Term Worldwide Biological Consequences of Nuclear War

  10. Association of High-Dose Ibuprofen Use, Lung Function Decline, and Long-Term Survival in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstan, Michael W; VanDevanter, Donald R; Sawicki, Gregory S; Pasta, David J; Foreman, Aimee J; Neiman, Evgueni A; Morgan, Wayne J

    2018-04-01

    .04) during the corresponding 2-year period, a 37.5% slower decline among users compared with nonusers (95% confidence interval; 0.4%, 71.3%; P = 0.046). The users had better subsequent survival (P cystic fibrosis, we observed an association between high-dose ibuprofen use and both slower lung function decline and improved long-term survival. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that treatment-associated reduction of lung function decline in children with cystic fibrosis leads to improved survival.

  11. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  12. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  13. Impact of short-term severe accident management actions in a long-term perspective. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The present systems for severe accident management are focused on mitigating the consequences of special severe accident phenomena and to reach a safe plant state. However, in the development of strategies and procedures for severe accident management, it is also important to consider the long-term perspective of accident management and especially to secure the safe state of the plant. The main reason for this is that certain short-term actions have an impact on the long-term scenario. Both positive and negative effects from short-term actions on the accident management in the long-term perspective have been included in this paper. Short-term actions are accident management measures taken within about 24 hours after the initiating event. The purpose of short-term actions is to reach a stable status of the plant. The main goal in the long-term perspective is to maintain the reactor in a stable state and prevent uncontrolled releases of activity. The purpose of this short Technical Note, deliberately limited in scope, is to draw attention to potential long-term problems, important to utilities and regulatory authorities, arising from the way a severe accident would be managed during the first hours. Its objective is to encourage discussions on the safest - and maybe also most economical - way to manage a severe accident in the long term by not making the situation worse through inappropriate short-term actions, and on the identification of short-term actions likely to make long-term management easier and safer. The Note is intended as a contribution to the knowledge base put at the disposal of Member countries through international collaboration. The scope of the work has been limited to a literature search. Useful further activities have been identified. However, there is no proposal, at this stage, for more detailed work to be undertaken under the auspices of the CSNI. Plant-specific applications would need to be developed by utilities

  14. The Barrier code for predicting long-term concrete performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.; Rogers, V.C.; Shaw, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    There are numerous features incorporated into a LLW disposal facility that deal directly with critical safety objectives required by the NRC in 10 CFR 61. Engineered barriers or structures incorporating concrete are commonly being considered for waste disposal facilities. The Barrier computer code calculates the long-term degradation of concrete structures in LLW disposal facilities. It couples this degradation with water infiltration into the facility, nuclide leaching from the waste, contaminated water release from the facility, and associated doses to members of the critical population group. The concrete degradation methodology of Barrier is described

  15. Anticipatory eye movements and long-term memory in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Kee-You, Audrey M B; Adler, Scott A

    2016-11-01

    Advances in our understanding of long-term memory in early infancy have been made possible by studies that have used the Rovee-Collier's mobile conjugate reinforcement paradigm and its variants. One function that has been attributed to long-term memory is the formation of expectations (Rovee-Collier & Hayne, 1987); consequently, a long-term memory representation should be established during expectation formation. To examine this prediction and potentially open the door on a new paradigm for exploring infants' long-term memory, using the Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988), 3-month-old infants were trained to form an expectation for predictable color and spatial information of picture events and emit anticipatory eye movements to those events. One day later, infants' anticipatory eye movements decreased in number relative to the end of training when the predictable colors were changed but not when the spatial location of the predictable color events was changed. These findings confirm that information encoded during expectation formation are stored in long-term memory, as hypothesized by Rovee-Collier and colleagues. Further, this research suggests that eye movements are potentially viable measures of long-term memory in infancy, providing confirmatory evidence for early mnemonic processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Long-term monitoring FBG-based cable load sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    Stay cables are the main load-bearing components of stayed-cable bridges. The cables stress status is an important factor to the stayed-cable bridge structure safety evaluation. So it's very important not only to the bridge construction, but also to the long-term safety evaluation for the bridge structure in-service. The accurate measurement for cable load depends on an effective sensor, especially to meet the long time durability and measurement demand. FBG, for its great advantage of corrosion resistance, absolute measurement, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on, is the most promising sensor, which can cater for the cable force monitoring. In this paper, a load sensor has been developed, which is made up of a bushing elastic supporting body, 4 FBGs uniformly-spaced attached outside of the bushing supporting body, and a temperature compensation FBG for other four FBGs, moreover a cover for protection of FBGs. Firstly, the sensor measuring principle is analyzed, and relationship equation of FBG wavelength shifts and extrinsic load has also been gotten. And then the sensor calibration experiments of a steel cable stretching test with the FBG load sensor and a reference electric pressure sensor is finished, and the results shows excellent linearity of extrinsic load and FBG wavelength shifts, and good repeatability, which indicates that such kind of FBG-based load sensor is suitable for load measurement, especially for long-term, real time monitoring of stay-cables.

  17. Measurement of spatial dose-rate distribution using a position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Torii, T.; Nozaki, T.; Ando, H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the radiation detectors using plastic scintillation fibers (PSF) have been developed to measure the positions exposed to radiation such as neutrons and high energy charged particles. In particular, the time of flight (TOF) method for measuring the difference of time that two directional signals of scintillation light reach both ends of a PSF is a rather simple method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of fast neutron fluence rate. It is possible to use the PSF in nuclear facility working areas because of its flexibility, small diameter and long length. In order to apply TOF method to measure spatial gamma dose rate distribution, the characteristic tests of a detector using PSFs were carried out. First, the resolution of irradiated positions and the counting efficiency were measured with collimated gamma ray. The sensitivity to unit dose rate was also obtained. The measurement of spatial dose rate distribution was also carried out. The sensor is made of ten bundled PSFs, and the experimental setup is described. The experiment and the results are reported. It was found that the PSF detector has the good performance to measure spatial gamma dose rate distribution. (K.I.)

  18. Measurement system for depth dose distribution in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Hirotsugu; Tsutaka, Yoshikazu; Ikeda, Ikuo

    1999-01-01

    An accurate estimation of an absorbed dose distribution in human tissue is indispensable to efficiently perform radiotherapy in humans. Previously, various methods for such estimation have been developed, however, there is some problem in those methods, it takes too long times (3-4 hours) to determine the absorbed dose distribution through scanning by ionization chamber in water phantom. So, a determination system of depth dose was developed with an aim to determine the absorbed dose of X-ray or electron beam in materials similar to human body. This system was composed of a detector including scintillation fibers which allows emission due to radio-interaction, CCD camera for determination of light distribution of the emission and personal computer for data processing. Though the accuracy of this system was ±2% similar to that of the conventional measuring method, measuring time was reduced to almost 5 min, markedly shorter than that of the conventional water phantom (3-4 hours). The efficacy of works including the adjustment of irradiation system, planning, etc. would be improved by application of this system. (M.N.)

  19. Trace Element Status (Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Iron, Manganese) in Patients with Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastych, Milan; Šenkyřík, Michal; Dastych, Milan; Novák, František; Wohl, Petr; Maňák, Jan; Kohout, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) in blood plasma and manganese (Mn) in the whole blood in patients with long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in comparison to the control group. We examined 68 patients (16 men and 52 women) aged from 28 to 68 years on a long-term HPN lasting from 4 to 96 months. The short bowel syndrome was an indication for HPN. The daily doses of Zn, Cu, Fe, Se and Mn in the last 3 months were determined. No significant differences in blood plasma were found for Zn, Cu and Fe in patients with HPN and in the control group (p > 0.05). The concentration of Mn in whole blood was significantly increased in HPN patients (p < 0.0001), while Se concentration in these patients was significantly decreased (p < 0.005). The concentration of Mn in the whole blood of 16 patients with cholestasis was significantly increased compared to the patients without cholestasis (p < 0.001). The Cu concentration was increased with no statistical significance. In long-term HPN, the status of trace elements in the patients has to be continually monitored and the daily substitution doses of these elements have to be flexibly adjusted. Dosing schedule needs to be adjusted especially in cases of cholestatic hepatopathy. A discussion about the optimal daily dose of Mn in patients on HPN is appropriate. For clinical practice, the availability of a substitution mixture of trace elements lacking Mn would be advantageous. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Reforming Long-Term Care Funding in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, R Trafford; Repin, Nadya; Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Like many provinces across Canada, Alberta is facing growing demand for long-term care. Issues with the mixed funding model used to pay long-term care providers had Alberta Health Services concerned that it was not efficiently meeting the demand for long-term care. Consequently, in 2010, Alberta Health Services introduced the patient/care-based funding (PCBF) model. PCBF is similar to activity-based funding in that it directly ties the complexity and care needs of long-term care residents to the payment received by long-term care providers. This review describes PCBF and discusses some of its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, this review is intended to inform other provinces faced with similar long-term care challenges and contemplating their own funding reforms.

  1. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term (5-year measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC and Organic Carbon (OC in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island. A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average to light absorption coefficient (babs measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer. Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March–April and July–September. The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis, although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and interannual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45±0.12, suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A.D.<1.5μm showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26±5%.

  2. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciare, J.; Oikonomou, K.; Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Liakakou, E.; Markaki, Z.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term (5-year) measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island). A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques) was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average) to light absorption coefficient (b(abs)) measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer). Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March-April and July-September). The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis), although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and inter annual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC) have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/ OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45 ± 0.12), suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A. D.≤ 1.5 μm) showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM) was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26 ± 5%). (authors)

  3. Long-term wave measurements in a climate change perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaro, Angela; Bertotti, Luciana; Cavaleri, Luigi; Lionello, Piero; Portilla-Yandun, Jesus

    2017-04-01

    At present multi-decadal time series of wave data needed for climate studies are generally provided by long term model simulations (hindcasts) covering the area of interest. Examples, among many, at different scales are wave hindcasts adopting the wind fields of the ERA-Interim reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, Reading, U.K.) at the global level and by regional re-analysis as for the Mediterranean Sea (Lionello and Sanna, 2006). Valuable as they are, these estimates are necessarily affected by the approximations involved, the more so because of the problems encountered within modelling processes in small basins using coarse resolution wind fields (Cavaleri and Bertotti, 2004). On the contrary, multi-decadal observed time series are rare. They have the evident advantage of somehow representing the real evolution of the waves, without the shortcomings associated with the limitation of models in reproducing the actual processes and the real variability within the wave fields. Obviously, observed wave time series are not exempt of problems. They represent a very local information, hence their use to describe the wave evolution at large scale is sometimes arguable and, in general, it needs the support of model simulations assessing to which extent the local value is representative of a large scale evolution. Local effects may prevent the identification of trends that are indeed present at large scale. Moreover, a regular maintenance, accurate monitoring and metadata information are crucial issues when considering the reliability of a time series for climate applications. Of course, where available, especially if for several decades, measured data are of great value for a number of reasons and can be valuable clues to delve further into the physics of the processes of interest, especially if considering that waves, as an integrated product of the local climate, if available in an area sensitive to even limited changes of the

  4. Yield gap analysis in long-term experiments with intensive rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureles, E.V.; Correa, T. Jr.; Buresh, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term continuous cropping experiment at IRRI is cultivated with three rice crops in a year, making it the world's most intensively cropped long-term rice experiment. The availability of comprehensive rice production records, compiled weather data, and tested crop models provides a means to evaluate long-term trends in measured and potential yields and yield gaps in this rice production system. Yield trends were assessed using the highest yielding cultivar in each cropping season from 1979 to 2005. Potential yield of the highest yielding cultivar in each season was determined using three rice models (ORYZA, TERM, and CERES) run with the actual transplanting and harvest dates for the cultivar. The yield gap was determined from the difference between the simulated potential grain yield and the measured grain yield. Measured and potential yields and the yield gap varied across seasons and years. Measured yields were higher in the dry season than in the early and late wet seasons. The yield gap tended to be higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Climatic parameters, particularly solar radiation, influenced the performance of rice cultivars. The relatively larger yield gaps in the late wet season than in the dry season were associated with increased spikelet sterility. The cumulative measured yield for the three annual rice crop was near 80 percent of the annual yield potential in years with best practices for fertilizer N and crop management. The long term trends suggest that effective timing and rates of N fertilization and effective control of diseases were critical in achieving 80 percent of the annual yield potential

  5. NUMO's approach for long-term safety assessment - 59404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Takeshi; Kaku, Kenichi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    One of NUMO's policies for ensuring safety is staged and flexible project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents NUMO's basic strategies for long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. NUMO's approach considering Japanese boundary conditions is demonstrated as a starting-point for evaluating the long-term safety of an actual site. In Japan, the Act on Final Disposal of Specified Radioactive Waste states that the siting process shall consist of three stages. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) is responsible for geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste and some types of TRU waste. NUMO has chosen to implement a volunteer approach to siting. NUMO decided to prepare the so-called 2010 technical report, which sets out three safety policies, one of which is staged project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. Based on this policy, NUMO will gradually integrate relevant interdisciplinary knowledge to build a safety case when a formal volunteer application is received that would allow site investigations to be initiated. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; one of a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents the basic strategies for NUMO's long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. In concrete terms, the common procedures involved in safety assessment are applied in a stepwise manner, based on integration of knowledge obtained from site investigations/evaluations and engineered measures. The results of the safety assessment are then reflected in the planning of site investigations and engineered

  6. Safety and performance indicators for the assessment of long-term safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.; Schneider, J.W.; Dorp, F. van; Zuidema, P.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of the ability to isolate radioactive waste and the assessment of the long-term safety of a deep geological repository is usually done in terms of the calculated dose and/or risk for an average individual of the population which is potentially most affected by the potential impacts of the repository. At present, various countries and international organisations are developing so-called complementary indicators to supplement such calculations. These indicators are called ''safety indicators'' if they refer to the safety of the whole repository system; if they address the isolation capability of individual system components or the whole system from a more technical perspective, they are called ''performance indicators''. The need for complementary indicators follows from the long time frames which characterise the safety assessment of a geological repository, and the corresponding uncertainty of the calculated radiation dose. The main reason for these uncertainties is associated with the uncertain long-term prognosis of the surface environment and the related human behaviour. (orig.)

  7. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  8. The long-term use of cyproterone acetate in pedophilia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Cernovsky, Z; Magnus, R V

    1992-01-01

    This investigation reports the long-term use of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) in a pedophile, who was studied continuously over 38 months. Measures of sexual arousal, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels were significantly reduced by the drug as compared with placebo and no treatment; prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Some workers have observed that long-term administration of CPA (more than one year, which was then discontinued) produced enduring (in some cases apparently permanent) anti-libidinal effects; however, in the case described, within three weeks of stopping the drug, all measures had returned to pretrial levels. The importance of continuous long-term monitoring in sex offenders receiving an antiandrogen is discussed.

  9. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term...

  10. Long-term efficacy of a mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques in invasive cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie; Empen, K.; Hummel, A.; Doerr, M.; Reffelmann, T.; Felix, S.B. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Abt. fuer Innere Medizin B; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. fuer Versorgungsmedizin; Staudt, A. [Helios Kliniken, Schwerin (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie und Angiologie

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To validate the long-term efficacy of a 90-min. educational mini-course in less-irradiating cardiac interventional techniques. Materials and Methods: Before, two months after, and two years after the mini-course (periods I, II, and III), we analyzed the following radiation dose parameters for ten coronary angiographies (CA), performed by each of 7 cardiologists: total dose-area product (DAP), radiographic and fluoroscopic DAP fractions, number of radiographic frames and runs, and fluoroscopy time. Results: The median patient DAP for periods I, II and III was 31.4, 15.8 and 8.5 Gy x cm{sup 2}, respectively. The long-term effect was related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 172, and 120 s), shorter (57, 52, and 45) and fewer (12, 12, and 10) radiographic runs, consistent collimation and restriction to an adequate image quality. Both radiographic DAP/frame (28.7, 17.0, and 18.4 mGy x cm{sup 2}) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (45.7, 24.2, and 10.0 mGy x cm{sup 2}) decreased significantly. The multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed the increasing efficacy of the mini-course itself (-44.6 and -60.7 %), and revealed a decreasing influence of the interventionalist's experience (-8.6 % and -4.9 % per 1,000 CAs, lifelong performed until the mini-course). The number of CAs performed after the mini-course did not influence the long-term DAP results. Conclusion: The presented educational mini-course allows a significant, long-lasting, and apparently ongoing reduction of patient radiation exposure due to CA. A self-surveillant documentation of relevant radiation parameters is well suited to monitor and improve each operator's individual long-term radiation-reducing efforts. (orig.)

  11. Long-term measurement with calorimetric probes at unit 1 of V-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.; Szasz, Z.; Jirousek, V.; Teren, S.

    1989-01-01

    Two calorimetric probes were tested at the first unit of the Bohunice V-1 nuclear power plant in long-term operation, i.e., during one whole reactor duty time. Each probe consisted of five fission calorimeters and one compensation calorimeter with a tungsten body. The actual calorimeters were provided with jacketed thermocouples 0.5 mm indiameter and 19 m in length. A detailed description is presented of the measuring chains and measurement techniques. Also described is the method of the disposal of the irradiated probes. The method is presented of the evaluation of measured data and the results are discussed of the analysis of these data. The measurements, including measurements during reactor shut-down and the results of the analysis of the measured data proved good viability and stability of the used calorimetres. The method of measuring the thermocouple signals is simple and the in-service evaluation of required data is quick. In order to increase measurement efficiency it would be appropriate to complete the measuring chain and to automate it. Reliability is a affected merely by protecting the thermocouples against mechanical damage during measurement probe handling and on the reactor. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 5 tabs., 5 refs

  12. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155...... were also unchanged, as were potassium clearance, urine flow and body weight. 3. In the long-term study, lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate, sodium clearance, potassium clearance, urine flow and body fluid volumes were measured after a 4 weeks placebo period and after 6 and 12 weeks....../101 (20.6/13.5) +/- 11/4 (1.5/0.5) to 139/88 (18.5/11.7) +/- 16/9 (2.1/1.2) mmHg (kPa) (means +/- SD; P less than 0.01). Lithium clearance, glomerular filtration rate and sodium clearance did not change. Therefore the calculated values of absolute proximal and absolute distal sodium reabsorption rates...

  13. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effect of zinc supplementation of lactating rats on short-term and long-term memory of their male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mohammad; Ehsanivostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats' offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (Plong-term) memory of all groups. Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  15. Long term exposure to low dose neurotoxic pesticides affects hatching, viability and cholinesterase activity of Artemia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Nichino, Daniela; Iacometti, Camillo; Ferrando, Sara; Falugi, Carla; Faimali, Marco

    2018-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia was used as a model organism to test toxicity of several neuroactive pesticides (chlorpyrifos (CLP), chlorpyrifos oxon (CLP ox), diazinon (DZN), carbaryl (CBR)) following exposure to far below than lethal doses. Cysts were exposed to the pesticides in order to test a scenario similar to actual coastal environment contamination, by analyzing different responses. Cysts were rehydrated in water containing the pesticides at concentrations ranging from 10 -11 to 10 -5  M, for 72, 96 and 192 h, respectively. For these exposure times, morpho-functional and biochemical parameters, such as hatching speed and viability were investigated in the larvae together with cholinesterase (ChE) activity quantification and histochemical localization. Finally, ChE inhibition was also compared with conventional selective ChE inhibitors. Results showed that CLP ox and CBR caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in hatching speed, followed by high percentages of larval death, while CLP and DZN were responsible for irregular hatching patterns. In addition, the pesticides mostly caused larval death some days post-hatching, whereas this effect was negligible for the specific ChE inhibitors, suggesting that part of pesticide toxicity may be due to molecules other than the primary target. ChE activity was observed in the protocerebrum lobes, linked to the development of pair eyes. Such activity was inhibited in larvae exposed to all pesticides. When compared to conventional selective inhibitors of ChE activities, this inhibition demonstrated that the selected pesticides mainly affect acetylcholinesterase and, to a lesser extent, pseudocholinesterases. In conclusion, the brine shrimp is a good model to test the environmental toxicity of long term exposure to cholinergic pesticides, since changes in hatching speed, viability and ChE activity were observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Near-term and late biological effects of acute and low-dose-rate continuous gamma-ray exposure in dogs and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.

    1979-07-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (inury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with gamma rays at 35 r/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injry remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50%) and monkeys (8%) died from injury incurred during conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response (in terms of lethality) of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what we would expect from a single acute dose. The mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approx. 1400 h). Thus, the hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35-R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater (significant in dogs but not in monkeys) than for their control counterparts. Thus, long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than 4 times the acute LD 50 30 in dogs and approximately 2 times that in monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 Rat/day

  17. Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term perspective on microfinance starts with a discussion of three central issues: first, views and policies, with two opposing views: "credit for target group" and "pushing the financial frontier"; second, the performance of microfinance institutions measured via two objectives: outreach

  18. A prediction method for long-term behavior of prestressed concrete containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, M.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kato, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamamoto, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results of studies on the long-term behavior of PCCVs at Taruga Unit No 2 and Ohi Unit No 3/4 power stations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the measured strain in the concrete and reduction force in the tendons, and to establish the prediction methods for long-term PCCVs behavior. Comparing the measured strains with those calculated due to creep and shrinkage of the concrete, those in contrast were investigated. Furthermore, the reduced tendon forces are calculated considering losses in elasticity, relaxation, creep and shrinkage. The measured reduction in the tendon forces is compared with the calculated. Considering changes in temperature and humidity, the measured strains and tendon forces were in good agreement with those calculated. From the above results, it was confirmed that the residual pre stresses in the PCCVs maintain the predicted values at the design stage, and that the prediction method of long-term behaviors has sufficient reliability. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Accelerated long-term forgetting in children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Michael B; Barton, Belinda; Webster, Richard; Gill, Deepak; Antony, Jayne; Lah, Suncica Sunny

    2012-12-01

    The rapid forgetting of information over long (but not short) delays (accelerated long-term forgetting [ALF]) has been associated with temporal lobe epilepsy but not idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Long-term memory formation (consolidation) is thought to demand an interaction between medial temporal and neocortical networks, which could be disrupted by epilepsy/seizures themselves. The present study investigates whether ALF is present in children with IGE and whether it relates to epilepsy severity. Sixty-one children (20 with IGE and 41 healthy controls [HC]) of comparable age, sex, and parental socioeconomic status completed neuropsychological tests, including a measure of verbal learning and recall after, short (30-min) and long (7-day) delays, and recognition. Epilepsy severity was rated by treating neurologists. A two-way repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found a significant Group x Delay interaction; the children with IGE recalled (and recognized) significantly fewer words after a long, but not short (2- and 30-min) delay relative to the HC children. Moreover, greater epilepsy severity was associated with poorer recognition. This study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, that children with IGE present with ALF, which is related to epilepsy severity. These findings support the notion that epilepsy/seizures themselves may disrupt long-term memory consolidation, which interferes with day-to-day functioning of children with IGE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Long-term bioventing performance in low-permeability soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.B.; Stanin, F.T.; Downey, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Short-term and long-term bioventing treatability testing has shown that in situ air injection and extraction is a practical method for sustaining increased oxygen levels and enhancing aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in low-permeability soils. At several test sites, initial physical parameter analysis of soils and air permeability tests indicated that impacted soils (fine sandy silts and clays) had low air permeabilities. Measurements of depleted soil-gas oxygen levels and increased soil-gas carbon dioxide levels indicated that the natural process of aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was oxygen-limited. Initial treatability testing consisted of air permeability tests to measure the permeability of the soils to air and in situ respiration tests to measure the rates at which native microorganisms could biodegrade the contaminants when provided with sufficient oxygen. During the long-term treatment period, active air injection or extraction systems were operated for 1 year or longer. Soil gas was periodically monitored within the treatment zone to evaluate the success of the bioventing systems in increasing soil-gas oxygen levels in the low-permeability soils. Follow-up respiration tests and soil and soil-gas sampling were conducted to evaluate changes in respiration rates and contaminant concentrations with time

  1. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  2. Life after Kyoto? Exploration of long term strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    The current international climate negotiations (including CoP-6,recently held in The Hague, Netherlands) are mainly concerned with short term actions and barriers, and are experiencing considerable difficulties, as was once again revealed in The Hague. But we should not forget that keeping climate risks under control also demands a long term perspective. Such a perspective demands an estimate of both possible consequences and risks of climate change, and the possible solutions, in terms of strategies, policy measures, consequences and costs. 2 refs

  3. A water extract of Mucuna pruriens provides long-term amelioration of parkinsonism with reduced risk for dyskinesias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Christopher A; Kunselman, Allen R; Manyam, Bala V; Venkiteswaran, Kala; Subramanian, Thyagarajan

    2010-08-01

    Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide anti-parkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water extract of M. pruriens seed powder (MPE) alone without any additives, MPE combined with the peripheral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) benserazide (MPE+BZ), LD+BZ and LD alone without BZ in the hemiparkinsonian rat model of PD. A battery of behavioral tests assessed by blinded investigators served as outcome measures in these randomized trials. In experiment 1, animals that received LD+BZ or MPE+BZ at high (6mg/kg) and medium (4mg/kg) equivalent doses demonstrated significant alleviation of parkinsonism, but, developed severe dose-dependent DID. LD+BZ at low doses (2mg/kg) did not provide significant alleviation of parkinsonism. In contrast, MPE+BZ at an equivalent low dose significantly ameliorated parkinsonism. In experiment 2, MPE without any additives (12mg/kg and 20mg/kg LD equivalent dose) alleviated parkinsonism with significantly less DID compared to LD+BZ or MPE+BZ. In experiment 3, MPE without additives administered chronically provided long-term anti-parkinsonian benefits without causing DID. In experiment 4, MPE alone provided significantly more behavioral benefit when compared to the equivalent dose of synthetic LD alone without BZ. In experiment 5, MPE alone reduced the severity of DID in animals initially primed with LD+BZ. These findings suggest that M. pruriens contains water-soluble ingredients that either have an intrinsic DDCI-like activity or mitigate the need for an add-on DDCI to ameliorate parkinsonism. These unique long-term anti-parkinsonian effects of a parenterally administered water extract of M. pruriens seed powder may provide a platform for future drug

  4. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  5. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  6. A study on measurement on artificial radiation dose rate using the response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidachi, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Konno, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    We examined accuracy and stability of estimated artificial dose contribution which is distinguished from natural background gamma-ray dose rate using Response Matrix method. Irradiation experiments using artificial gamma-ray sources indicated that there was a linear relationship between observed dose rate and estimated artificial dose contribution, when irradiated artificial gamma-ray dose rate was higher than about 2 nGy/h. Statistical and time-series analyses of long term data made it clear that estimated artificial contribution showed almost constant values under no artificial influence from the nuclear power plants. However, variations of estimated artificial dose contribution were infrequently observed due to of rainfall, detector maintenance operation and occurrence of calibration error. Some considerations on the factors to these variations were made. (author)

  7. Long-term repair of salivary function after radiotherapy for head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, M.; Shirato, H.; Nishiyama, N.; Nishioka, T.; Kitahara, T.; Oomori, K.; Arimoto, T.; Miyasaka, K.; Nakamura, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the late repair of salivary function after irradiation of whole parotid glands, long-term follow-up of salivary function has been performed by using radioisotope (RI) sialography. Methods and Material: RI sialography using 99m Tc-pertechnetate was performed more than two times in 26 patients with a nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal tumor in whom bilateral whole parotid glands were included in the irradiation field. The average dose to the parotid gland was estimated using the dose-volume-histogram reduction method. The parotid gland function was estimated using the secretion ratio (SR) of RI after acid stimulation. SR was measured before and 2 months to 5 years after the radiotherapy sequentially in the same patients. Results: In nine patients with a dose to the parotid gland between 55 and 70 Gy, or time-dose-factor (TDF), between 88 and 126, SR measured more than two months after radiotherapy was less than 10% and no recovery was seen. In 13 out of 17 patients with a dose to the parotid gland between 30 and 52 Gy, or TDF value between 46 and 80, SR was less than 10% in the first 6 months. Then it recovered to be more than 15% one to two years later. Duration between the start of radiotherapy and the SR recovery was between 7 and 18 months. Symptomatic recovery of xerostomia significantly correlated with the sialographic recovery. Conclusion: Parotid function decreased in the first 6 months after irradiation of the whole glands more than 30 Gy with no exception. However, when the total dose to the parotid glands is less than 52 Gy, or the TDF value is less than 80, partial recovery of parotid function may occur one to two years after the irradiation. This suggests that, even for the treatment where the whole parotid gland must be in the radiation field, reduction of dose to the parotid glands using 3-D treatment planning may be beneficial to reduce xerostomia

  8. The Long-Term Multicenter Observational Study of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, S. J.; Wallentin, L.; Ezekowitz, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    . There is a need for longer-term follow-up of patients on dabigatran and for further data comparing the 2 dabigatran doses. Methods and Results Patients randomly assigned to dabigatran in RE-LY were eligible for the Long-term Multicenter Extension of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (RELY...

  9. Measurement of mean cardiac dose for various breast irradiation techniques and corresponding risk of major cardiovascular event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Rodrigo Merino Lara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available After breast conserving surgery, early stage breast cancer patients are currently treated with a wide range of radiation techniques including whole breast irradiation (WBI, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using high dose rate (HDR brachytherapy, or 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT. This study compares the mean heart’s doses for a left breast irradiated with different breast techniques.An anthropomorphic Rando phantom was modified with gelatin-based breast of different sizes and tumors located medially or laterally. The breasts were treated with WBI, 3D-CRT or HDR APBI. The heart’s mean doses were measured with Gafchromic films and controlled with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs. Following the model reported by Darby (16, major cardiac were estimated assuming a linear risk increase with the mean dose to the heart of 7.4% per gray.Whole breast irradiation lead to the highest mean heart dose (2.99 Gy compared to 3D-CRT APBI, (0.51 Gy, multicatheter (1.58 Gy and balloon HDR (2.17 Gy for a medially located tumor. This translated into long-term coronary event increases of 22%, 3.8%, 11.7%, and 16% respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the tumor location had almost no effect on the mean heart dose for 3D-CRT APBI and a minimal impact for HDR APBI. For WBI large breast size and set-up errors lead to sharp increases of the mean heart dose. Its value reached 10.79 Gy for women with large breast and a set-up error of 1.5 cm. Such a high value could increase the risk of having long-term coronary events by 80%.Comparison among different irradiation techniques demonstrates that 3D-CRT APBI appears the safest one with less probability of having cardiovascular events in the future. A sensitivity analysis showed that WBI is the most challenging technique for patients with large breasts or when significant set-up errors are anticipated. In those cases additional heart shielding techniques are required.

  10. Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Adriaan; Lemaigre, Valentine; Salhi, Bihiyga; Van Gucht, Dinska; Tibboel, Helen; Van Bockstaele, Bram; De Houwer, Jan; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; Nackaerts, Kristiaan

    2015-07-01

    It has previously been argued that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues drive addictive behavior. Nevertheless, it remains an open question whether behavioral markers of implicit attitude activation can be used to predict long-term relapse. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues and long-term relapse in abstaining smokers. Implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues were assessed by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the evaluative priming task (EPT). Both measures were completed by a group of smokers who volunteered to quit smoking (patient group) and a group of nonsmokers (control group). Participants in the patient group completed these measures twice: once prior to smoking cessation and once after smoking cessation. Relapse was assessed by means of short telephone survey, 6 months after completion of the second test session. EPT scores obtained prior to smoking cessation were related to long-term relapse and correlated with self-reported nicotine dependence as well as daily cigarette consumption. In contrast, none of the behavioral outcome measures were found to correlate with the IAT scores. These findings corroborate the idea that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues are critically involved in long-term relapse. A potential explanation for the divergent findings obtained with the IAT and EPT is provided.

  11. Work package 1B.2 under the European Commission: Integrated wind turbine design (UPWIND): Specification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Cutululis, N.; Soerensen, Poul

    2007-02-15

    The present report is the 12 month intermediate report of the UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion. It describes the developed measurement technique for long-term load measurement technique, presents the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. (au)

  12. Dose rate measuring device and dose rate measuring method using the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumu; Matsushita, Takashi; Hanazawa, Sadao; Konno, Takahiro; Chiba, Yoshinori; Yumitate, Tadahiro

    1998-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a scintillation fiber scope having a shape elongated in the direction of the height of a pressure vessel and emitting light by incident of radiation to detect radiation, a radioactivity measuring device for measuring a dose rate based on the detection of the fiber scope and a reel means for dispensing and taking up the fiber scope, and it constituted such that the dose rate of the pressure vessel and that of a shroud are determined independently. Then, when the taken out shroud is contained in an container, excessive shielding is not necessary, in addition, this device can reliably be inserted to or withdrawn from complicated places between the pressure vessel and the shroud, and further, the dose rate of the pressure vessel and that of the shroud can be measured approximately accurately even when the thickness of them is different greatly. (N.H.)

  13. Dose rate measuring device and dose rate measuring method using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Megumu; Matsushita, Takashi; Hanazawa, Sadao; Konno, Takahiro; Chiba, Yoshinori; Yumitate, Tadahiro

    1998-11-13

    The device of the present invention comprises a scintillation fiber scope having a shape elongated in the direction of the height of a pressure vessel and emitting light by incident of radiation to detect radiation, a radioactivity measuring device for measuring a dose rate based on the detection of the fiber scope and a reel means for dispensing and taking up the fiber scope, and it constituted such that the dose rate of the pressure vessel and that of a shroud are determined independently. Then, when the taken out shroud is contained in an container, excessive shielding is not necessary, in addition, this device can reliably be inserted to or withdrawn from complicated places between the pressure vessel and the shroud, and further, the dose rate of the pressure vessel and that of the shroud can be measured approximately accurately even when the thickness of them is different greatly. (N.H.)

  14. Assessment of the long-term safety of repositories. Scientific basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk; Fahrenholz, Christine

    2008-12-01

    The project contributed to increase the scientific knowledge on the long-term safety assessment and the safety cases of a radioactive waste repository. International guidelines and more recent safety cases from other countries were evaluated. The feasibility study of the three safety indicators ''individual dose rate'', ''radiotoxicity concentration in the biosphere water'' and ''radiotoxicity flux from the geosphere'' showed that due to the independently derived corresponding reference values these indicators describe three different safety statements. The combination of the three values can give a stronger argument for the safety of the repository system. Another important methodological aspect of the safety cases is the definition and selection of scenarios, one of these the human intrusion scenario. Various human intrusion scenarios are considered in the different nations, which differ significantly with respect to type and time scale, the exposition type and exposition pathway. Further progress has been achieved in how to treat human intrusion scenarios in a German post-closure safety case. Another port of the project dealt with the impact of specific geochemical processes on the long-term safety of the repository. The impact of climate changes on the long-term safety of a radioactive waste repository in rock salt was investigated with respect to processes in the overburden and the biosphere where highest impact is expected. Sofa simplified models and only discrete climate estates have been considered

  15. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-05-17

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice.

  16. Long-term sealing of openings in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Stockmann, N.; Yaramanci, U.; Laurens, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in those potential pathways to prevent radioactive release to the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made of compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built from salt bricks will be ductile. The permeability of the salt bricks is assumed to be in the order of 2*10 -15 m 2 . Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. The permeability of the mortar decreases with its salt content to approx. 2*10 -14 m 2 . Moistened saliferous clay may show temporary swelling. Sealing experiments will be carried out in the Asse salt mine. Long-term seals will be built into holes of 1 m diameter. The contact and merging of the brick-wall with the surrounding rock salt will be investigated in long-term tests. Within the in situ sealing program a number of geophysical methods are applied. Acoustic emission measurements are used to study the effects of high pressure gas injection and a geoelectrical observation program is aiming to estimate the permeability in and around the long-term seal. High frequency electromagnetic methods contribute to the knowledge of the petrophysical rock properties. 11 refs., 12 figs

  17. Eye lens dosimetry in interventional cardiology: Results of staff dose measurements and link to patient dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, V.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Rehani, M.; Aleksandric, S.; Arandjic, D.; Ostojic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Workers involved in interventional cardiology procedures receive high eye lens dose if protection is not used. Currently, there is no suitable method for routine use for the measurement of eye dose. Since most angiography machines are equipped with suitable patient dosemeters, deriving factors linking staff eye doses to the patient doses can be helpful. In this study the patient kerma-area product, cumulative dose at an interventional reference point and eye dose in terms of Hp(3) of the cardiologists, nurses and radiographers for interventional cardiology procedures have been measured. Correlations between the patient dose and the staff eye dose were obtained. The mean eye dose was 121 mSv for the first operator, 33 mSv for the second operator/nurse and 12 mSv for radiographer. Normalised eye lens doses per unit kerma-area product were 0.94 mSv Gy -1 cm -2 for the first operator, 0.33 mSv Gy -1 cm -2 for the second operator/nurse and 0.16 mSv Gy -1 cm -2 for radiographers. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a weak but significant (p < 0.01) correlation between the eye dose and the kerma-area product for all three staff categories. These values are based on a local practice and may provide useful reference for other studies for validation and for wider utilisation in assessing the eye dose using patient dose values. (authors)

  18. A two isocenter IMRT technique with a controlled junction dose for long volume targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, G G; Heaton, R K; Catton, C N; Chung, P W; O'Sullivan, B; Lau, M; Parent, A; Jaffray, D A

    2007-01-01

    Most IMRT techniques have been designed to treat targets smaller than the field size of conventional linac accelerators. In order to overcome the field size restrictions in applying IMRT, we developed a two isocenter IMRT technique to treat long volume targets. The technique exploits an extended dose gradient throughout a junction region of 4-6 cm to minimize the impact of field match errors on a junction dose and manipulates the inverse planning and IMRT segments to fill in the dose gradient and achieve dose uniformity. Techniques for abutting both conventional fields with IMRT ('Static + IMRT') and IMRT fields ('IMRT + IMRT') using two separate isocenters have been developed. Five long volume sarcoma cases have been planned in Pinnacle (Philips, Madison, USA) using Elekta Synergy and Varian 2100EX linacs; two of the cases were clinically treated with this technique. Advantages were demonstrated with well-controlled junction target uniformity and tolerance to setup uncertainties. The junction target dose heterogeneity was controlled at a level of ±5%; for 3 mm setup errors at the field edges, the junction target dose changed less than 5% and the dose sparing to organs at risk (OARs) was maintained. Film measurements confirmed the treatment planning results

  19. Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Huesmann, L Rowell

    2006-04-01

    To test whether the results of the accumulated studies on media violence and aggressive behavior are consistent with the theories that have evolved to explain the effects. We tested for the existence of both short-term and long-term effects for aggressive behavior. We also tested the theory-driven hypothesis that short-term effects should be greater for adults and long-term effects should be greater for children. Meta-analysis. Children younger than 18 years and adults. Violent media, including TV, movies, video games, music, and comic books. Measures of aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal (eg, heart rate, blood pressure), and helping behavior. Effect size estimates were combined using meta-analytic procedures. As expected, the short-term effects of violent media were greater for adults than for children whereas the long-term effects were greater for children than for adults. The results also showed that there were overall modest but significant effect sizes for exposure to media violence on aggressive behaviors, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, arousal levels, and helping behavior. The results are consistent with the theory that short-term effects are mostly due to the priming of existing well-encoded scripts, schemas, or beliefs, which adults have had more time to encode. In contrast, long-term effects require the learning (encoding) of scripts, schemas, or beliefs. Children can encode new scripts, schemas, and beliefs via observational learning with less interference and effort than adults.

  20. Single thrombopoietin dose alleviates hematopoietic stem cells intrinsic short- and long-term ionizing radiation damage. In vivo identification of anatomical cell expansion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronik-Le Roux, Diana; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Vaigot, Pierre; Nurden, Paquita

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are essential for maintaining the integrity of complex and long-lived organisms. HSC, which are self-renewing, reconstitute the hematopoietic system through out life and facilitate long-term repopulation of myeloablated recipients. We have previously demonstrated that when mice are exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, subsets of the stem/progenitor compartment are affected. In this study we examine the role of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the regenerative capacities of HSC after irradiation and report the first demonstration of efficacy of a single injection of TPO shortly after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation for reducing HSC injury and improving their functional outcome. Our results demonstrate that TPO treatment not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells but also induced a significant modification of their intrinsic characteristics. These findings were supported by transplantation assays with long-term HSC that were irradiated or unirradiated, TPO treated or untreated, in CD45.1/CD45.2 systems and by using luciferase-labeled HSC for direct bioluminescence imaging in living animals. Of particular importance, our data demonstrate the skull to be a highly favorable site for the TPO-induced emergence of hematopoietic cells after irradiation, suggesting a TPO-mediated relationship of primitive hematopoietic cells to an anatomical component. Together, the data presented here: provide novel findings about aspects of TPO action on stem cells, open new areas of investigation for therapeutic options in patients who are treated with radiation therapy, and show that early administration of a clinically suitable TPO-agonist counteracts the previously observed adverse effects.

  1. Successful Treatment of Sudden Hepatitis Induced by Long-Term Nivolumab Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Imafuku

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint inhibitors have drastically changed in the treatment of many kinds of malignancies, especially malignant melanoma. The focus of the recent experiments has not only been on their efficacy but also immune-related adverse events (irAEs. We report a case of fulminant hepatitis due to nivolumab. In this case, the patient had undergone long-term nivolumab therapy. He did not complain of any symptoms but his liver enzyme levels were extremely elevated (grade 4. We promptly decided to start oral corticosteroids in the patient. His liver function rapidly improved. The dose of corticosteroids was gradually reduced. Our case demonstrates that sudden onset fulminant hepatitis can occur despite the safe use of long-term nivolumab therapy. The irAE can improve rapidly with proper corticosteroid treatment. This report will be useful for the physicians who always use immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  2. Long-term Effects of Dexamethasone on Reproductive Parameters in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jalogoden Gouyandeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The adverse effect of chemical drugs such as dexamethasone as anti-inflammatory -steroidal drugs on different body systems and infertility and reproductive efficiency is of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of dexamethasone on the reproductive system in male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, fifty matured male mice were divided into five groups including control, placebo and three treatment groups. Control group had no injections, placebo group only received normal saline and treatments groups received dexamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg which was injected in peritoneum every other day for a period of twenty days. Their Testosterone was measured by ELISA and testes were dissected for histological examination. The data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: Significant increases were shown in FSH level in all three groups treated with dexamethasone. LH in treatment group of 0.1 mg/kg decreased, but at dose of 1 mg/kg increased significantly.Testosterone levels in a dose of 1 mg/kg significantly increased compared with the control group (p<0.05. However, testis weight, the rate of testicular germ cells, primary spermatocytes, epididymal sperm and fertility significantly increased in all three groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Dexamethasone had a negative effect on reproduction therefore, the use of this medication at different doses and time periods considers the possible complications beforehand. Keywords: .

  3. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-07-28

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method.

  4. Long-term visual health risks from solar ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxler, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ocular exposure to the ultraviolet radiation (UV) contained in sunlight may result in long-term visual health problems. UV plays a role in the etiology of cataracts and possibly in the etiology of visual impairments associated with solar retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, ocular aging, cystoid macular edema, retinitis pigmentosa, and senile macular degeneration. The exact does relationships between known UV bioeffects and these ocular problems is, however, uncertain. Thus, there are questions about the extent to which protective measures should be taken to reduce UV exposure of the eye. This paper identifies the long-term visual health problems potentially associated with ocular exposure to solar UV; proposes worst-case assumptions for the role of solar UV in these visual problems; and recommends protective measures based on damage thresholds and worst-case assumptions

  5. Mechanism underlying the effect of long-term exposure to low dose of pesticides on DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Renata; Manzella, Nicola; Gaetani, Simona; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Bracci, Massimo; Ciarapica, Veronica; Monaco, Federica; Borghi, Battista; Amati, Monica; Ferretti, Gianna; Tomasetti, Marco

    2018-04-01

    Pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, are widely used in intensive agriculture. Recently, the long-term effects of pesticide exposure were found to be associated with many diseases. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effect of low-level exposure to a mixture of pesticides on DNA damage response (DDR) in relation to individual detoxifying variability. A residential population chronically exposed to pesticides was enrolled, biological/environmental pesticide levels; paroxonase 1 (PON-1) activity and 192 Q/R polymorphism and DDR were evaluated at three different periods of pesticide exposure. OGG1-dependent DNA repair activity was decreased in relation to pesticide exposure. The increase of DNA lesions and pesticide levels in the intensive pesticide-spraying period was independent on PON-1 activity. Next, human bronchial epithelial and neuronal cells were used as a model for in vitro evaluation of the mechanistic effect of pesticides. Pesticides induced mitochondrial dysfunction leading to ROS formation. ROS from mitochondria induced DNA damage, which in turn induced OGG1-dependent DNA repair activity through 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) expression and activation. Even though OGG1 was overexpressed, an inhibition of its activity, associated with DNA lesion accumulation, was found at prolonged pesticide-exposure. A post-translational regulation of OGG1 by pesticide may be postulated. Taken together, long-term exposure to low-levels of pesticides affects DDR resulting in accumulation of DNA lesions that eventually may lead to cancer or neurological disorders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  7. Differences in health status between long-term and short-term benzodiazepine users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, S.M.; Furer, J.W.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Bor, J.H.J.; Zitman, F.G.; Weel, C. van

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite generally accepted advice to keep treatment short, benzodiazepines are often prescibed for more than six months. Prevention of long-term benzodiazepine use could be facilitated by the utilisation of risk indicators for long-term use. However, the characteristics of long-term

  8. Short- and long-term effects of real-time medication monitoring with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on the refill adherence of people with Type 2 diabetes: evidence from a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloet, M.; Dijk, L. van; Bakker, D.H. de; Souverein, P.C.; Santen-Reestman, J.; Vlijmen, B. van; Aarle, M.C.W. van; Hoek, L.S. van der; Bouvy, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To investigate short- and long-term effects of real-time monitoring medication use combined with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on refill adherence to oral anti-diabetic medication. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with two intervention groups and one control

  9. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with 252 Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from 252 Cf and 7000 rad from 226 Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for 252 Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from 252 Cf and 5000 rad from 226 Ra

  10. Long-Term Effects of School Size on Students' Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Smith, Nina

    We estimate the effect of school size on students' long-term outcomes such as high school completion, being out of the labor market, and earnings at the age of 30. We use rich register data on the entire population of Danish children attending grade 9 in the period 1986-2004. This allows us...... school size and alternative measures of long-term success in the educational system and the labor market. The positive impact of school size seems mainly to be driven by boys, students from families with a low educational level and students attending schools in urban areas....

  11. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  12. Long-term wave climate at DanWEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetu, Amélie; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    andthe current network of sensors are also presented. The numerical model used toobtain the 35 years hindcast data is introduced together with its validation againstbuoy-measured data and with the description of the dataset utilised for thelong-term climate definition. The recommendations from [IEC 62600...... buoys are continuously recorded and the data is analysed on a quarterly basis. The directional wave measuring buoys were first installed in March 2015. As two years is not sufficient for long-term wave climate definition, modelled data was more appropriate for the task. Thelong-term wave climate around...... Hanstholm is defined in the present report using the hindcast data from the MIKE 21 Spectral Wave model provided by DHI, one of the partners of the project. Before the actual wave climate definition, a description of the site includinglocation and bathymetry is included. The historical wave data of the area...

  13. Fiber optical dose rate measurement based on the luminescence of beryllium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a fiber optical dose rate measurement system based on the radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence of beryllium oxide. The system consists of a small, radiation sensitive probe which is coupled to a light detection unit with a long and flexible light guide. Exposing the beryllium oxide probe to ionizing radiation results in the emission of light with an intensity which is proportional to the dose rate. Additionally, optically stimulated luminescence can be used to obtain dose and dose rate information during irradiation or retrospectively. The system is capable of real time dose rate measurements in fields of high dose rates and dose rate gradients and in complex, narrow geometries. This enables the application for radiation protection measurements as well as for quality control in radiotherapy. One inherent drawback of fiber optical dosimetry systems is the generation of Cherenkov radiation and luminescence in the light guide itself when it is exposed to ionizing radiation. This so called “stem” effect leads to an additional signal which introduces a deviation in the dose rate measurement and reduces the spatial resolution of the system, hence it has to be removed. The current system uses temporal discrimination of the effect for radioluminescence measurements in pulsed radiation fields and modulated optically stimulated luminescence for continuous irradiation conditions. This work gives an overview of the major results and discusses new-found obstacles of the applied methods of stem discrimination.

  14. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T; Bruus, Henrik; Laurell, Thomas

    2011-12-21

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method to determine optimal μPIV-settings for obtaining high-quality results of the spatially inhomogeneous acoustophoretic velocity fields of large dynamical range is presented. In particular we study the dependence of the results on the μPIV interrogation window size and the number of repeated experiments. The μPIV-method was further verified by comparing it with our previously published particle tracking method. Using the μPIV platform we present a series of high-resolution measurements of the acoustophoretic velocity field as a function of the driving frequency, the driving voltage, and the resonator temperature. Finally, we establish a direct and consistent connection between the obtained acoustophoretic velocity fields, and continuous flow mode acoustophoresis, commonly used in applications.

  15. Undertaking high impact strategies: The role of national efficiency measures in long-term energy and emission reduction in steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tengfang; Karali, Nihan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluate long-term effects of national energy efficiency in steel making. • Use bottom-up optimization for projection in China, India and the U.S. • The effects include changes in steel production, energy use, emissions, and costs. • Three emission targets induce different structural changes and investments. • Projected energy and CO 2 intensity declines in each country from 2010 to 2050. - Abstract: In this paper, we applied bottom-up linear optimization modeling to analyze long-term national impacts of implementing energy efficiency measures on energy savings, CO 2 -emission reduction, production, and costs of steel making in China, India, and the U.S. We first established two base scenarios representing business-as-usual steel production for each country from 2010 to 2050; Base scenario (in which no efficiency measure is available) and Base-E scenario (in which efficiency measures are available), and model scenarios representing various emission-reduction targets that affects production, annual energy use and costs with the goal of cost minimization. A higher emission-reduction target generally induces larger structural changes and increased investments in nation-wide efficiency measures, in addition to autonomous improvement expected in the Base scenario. Given the same emission-reduction target compared to the base scenario, intensity of annual energy use and emissions exhibits declining trends in each country from year 2010 to 2050. While a higher emission-reduction target result in more energy reduction from the base scenario, such reduction can become more expensive to achieve. The results advance our understanding of long-term effects of national energy efficiency applications under different sets of emission-reduction targets for steel sectors in the three major economies, and provide useful implications for high impact strategies to manage production structures, production costs, energy use, and emission reduction in steel making

  16. Patient dose measurement and dose reduction in East Anglia (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, J.P.; Goldstone, K.E.; Dendy, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of 1990 a programme of patient dose measurements was introduced as part of the quality assurance service already provided for X ray departments throughout the East Anglian Health Region (UK). Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were used to measure over 1200 skin entrance surface doses for four common radiographic views in 33 hospitals in both the NHS and private sector. The four views were chosen to cover a wide range of equipment and techniques. The data collected have enabled Regional reference doses to be set which, for all views considered, fall below the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) Reference levels. In departments which exceeded reference levels, techniques were reviewed, improvements suggested and doses re-measured, in accordance with the recommended procedure for patient dose audit. A significant finding was that, given appropriate controls, X ray departments in the private sector could achieve the same acceptably low doses as NHS departments. (Author)

  17. Long-term use of mizoribine in rheumatoid arthritis patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, K; Kurosawa, O; Fukanoki, T; Hanafusa, A; Tajima, N

    2001-06-01

    Abstract Small doses of mizoribine (MZR) were administered to five rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients on hemodialysis (HD). A maintenance dose of 25 mg or less was administered either once per day or once following HD. The Lansbury activity index improved in all patients. The blood concentrations of MZR before and after HD were 0.33-1.79 μg/ml and 0-0.93 μg/ml, respectively. Hence, the rate of elimination by HD ranged from 50.3% to 83.4%. As far as side effects were concerned, alopecia was seen in two patients, and one patient developed shingles. However, the severity of these symptoms was mild and, after discontinuing or reducing the dose of MZR for a certain period of time, we were able to continue its administration. These findings suggest that the long-term administration of MZR is a useful treatment for RA patients on HD.

  18. Long term results of 125I for treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, W.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Greig, W.R.; Ratcliffe, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    125 I emits very low energy conversion and Auger electrons. This radionuclide has been used in place of 131 I with the hope of reducing the incidence of post treatment hypothyroidism. 303 of 360 patients treated have been reviewed. Originally very large doses of 125 I were prescribed (751-1,600 μCi/g) but 9 out of 15 patients (60%) became hypothyroid, therefore 4 smaller therapeutic regimes were employed. (1) 55 patients received doses of 200 μCi or less/g thyroid, 69% are euthyroid and 24% hypothyroid after an average of 33 months from treatment. (2) 87 patients received doses of 201-350 μCi/g thyroid, 67% are euthyroid and 21% hypothyroid after an average follow up of 30 months. (3) 70 patients received doses of 351-500 μCi/g thyroid, 77% are euthyroid and 18% hypothyroid 36 months after treatment and (4) 76 patients received doses of 501-750 μCi/g, 41% are euthyroid and 56% hypothyroid 49 months after therapy. No long term complications such as thyroid cancer or leukaemia have occurred but because 125 I does not eliminate or reduce the incidence of post treatment hypothyroidism it probably should not be used in preference to 131 I for the routine treatment of hyperthyroidism

  19. New Developments in Long-Term Downhole Monitoring Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kück

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term observation of active geological processes is a major research goal in an increasing number of scientific drilling projects. An extended monitoring phase within a potentially hostile environment (e.g., temperature, pressure, salinity requires new long-lasting and robust instrumentation currently unavailable from either industry or academia. Extended exposure of instrument packages to extreme conditions will typically cause seals to weaken and fail,electronic parts to break under permanent load, and sensors to degrade or develop strong drift. In the framework of scientific exploration, there are currently several major research projects targeting fault zone drilling and in situ measurements to monitor physical and chemical conditions before, during, and after seismic events. Planning has now begun for tool development, testing, and continuous long-term monitoring for the San Andreas Fault Zone Observatory at Depth, SAFOD (Parkfi eld, Calif., U.S.A.; See article on page 32..

  20. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  1. Ways how to express the Value of Long-term Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Tomášková, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the current methods of expression the Value of Long-term Assets. The captures are in such order that after the explanation of basic terms there is application of the Measurment methods to different types of Assets, like tangible or intangible assets.

  2. [Long-term follow-up of patients with suprasellar germinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauditz, Juergen; Lochs, Herbert; Ventz, Manfred

    2007-10-15

    Suprasellar germinomas are rare intracranial neoplasms, which mainly occur in children and adolescents and manifest with endocrine symptoms and/or compression syndromes. The clinical, hormonal and morphological findings as well as treatment and complications were investigated in seven patients (six male, one female) with germinomas. Mean age at diagnosis was 19.7 years (range 15-32 years). First disease-related symptoms were diabetes insipidus (three patients), loss of libido (two patients), pseudopubertas praecox (one patient), and dwarfism (one patient). However, decisive symptoms leading to final diagnosis were visual disturbances (five patients), pubertas tarda (one patient), and hypogonadism (one patient). All patients were treated by transcranial radiation with a dose of 40-54 Gy. One patient received additional chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (PEI). Patients were followed up for 14.6 years (range 7-27 years). Intracranial and pulmonary relapses were observed in two patients. Panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus were seen in all patients after treatment. Two patients suffered from loss of vision, two further patients from unilateral amaurosis. One patient developed epilepsy and persistent cognitive impairment. Long-term follow-up shows that two patients died from recurrent disease and decompensated liver cirrhosis, respectively. The other patients are long-term survivors. Full social integration with employment was possible in one case. Suprasellar germinomas cause endocrine symptoms during early tumor stages, however, diagnosis is generally established when ocular symptoms related to tumor compression are already present. Long-term survival is characterized by panhypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and, partly, ocular or cerebral defects.

  3. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  4. Selenium homeostasis and induction of thioredoxin reductase during long term selenite supplementation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkhembayar, Suvd; Mollbrink, Annelie; Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    -dependent increase in blood and liver selenium levels, with plateaus at 6 and 8weeks, respectively. These plateaus were reached at the same level of selenium regardless of dose, and no further accumulation was observed. A selenium-dependent increase in the activity of TrxR1 in parallel with the increase in liver...... selenium levels was also seen, and the induction of TrxR1 mRNA was seen only during the first three days of treatment, when the levels of selenium in the liver were increasing. Sodium selenite at 1 and 5μg/mL did not affect body weight or relative liver mass. We concluded that long-term treatment...... with selenite did not cause accumulation of selenium and that the activity of TrxR1 in the liver rose with the selenium levels. We therefore suggest that sodium selenite at doses up to 5μg/mL could be used for long-term tumour prevention....

  5. The basic approaches to evaluation of effects of the long-therm radiation exposure in a range of 'low' doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhauov, R.M.; Karpov, A.B.; Litvyakov, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    The previously performed research allowed forming the main concepts about deterministic effects of radiation impact and defining the main postulates of radiation medicine with respect to average and high levels of exposure. At the same time the research performed to evaluate stochastic effects caused by 'low' doses of ionizing radiation influence failed to find a single-valued answer relating both to dose impact inducing the effect development and to the spectrum of recorded pathologic processes or diseases. In this connection on our opinion the most prospective decision of present problem are studies in follow directions: 1. The evaluation of radiation productions personal and residents of nearby territories mortality and morbidity structure and dynamics. 2. The estimation of risk main diseases development with long-term radiation exposure and analysis of radiation factor role in its pathogenesis. 3. The study of genetic disturbances of persons and their descendants exposed long-term ionizing radiation in 'low' doses. 4. The study of individual radio sensitivity genetic markers. 5. The evaluation of structural and functional homeostasis disturbances inducing the radiation exposure in 'low' doses. The object of study is the Close administrative territorial formation Seversk population and mainly Siberian Group Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personal - the largest complex productions of atomic industry in the world. The Regional Medico-Dosimetric Register (RMDR), creating since 2001 is the basis for epidemiological studies. The register database contain the information concerning to about 66 000 SGCE workers (it is a whole number of workers in all years of SGCE existence from 1950 to now day). The 35 000 from 66 000 workers are the workers of so-called main productions. About 96% workers exposed external radiation has cumulative dose less 500 mSv. On the base of laboratory of genomic medicine it was created and constantly enriched the bank DNA and biological material

  6. Enhancement of long-term spatial memory in adult rats by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and neramexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Schaefer, Daniela; Danysz, Wojciech; Diamond, David M

    2006-10-01

    Memantine and neramexane are noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists which have been investigated for their promising effects in aiding memory in people with dementia. Memantine is approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and neramexane is currently under development for this indication. Therefore, the present study provided a comparative assessment of the effects of equimolar doses of memantine and neramexane on spatial (hippocampus-dependent) memory. Adult male rats were given only 3 training trials to learn the location of a hidden platform in a water maze. In control (vehicle-injected) rats, this minimal amount of training produced intact short-term (15 min), but poor long-term (24 h), memory. Pre-training administration of memantine or neramexane produced a dose-dependent enhancement of long-term memory. Pharmacokinetic experiments with equimolar doses of both agents indicated that lower plasma levels of neramexane were more effective than memantine at enhancing memory. The effective doses of both agents in the current study produced plasma levels (and extrapolated brain CSF levels) within a range of activity at NMDA receptors and plasma levels seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease. These findings provide support for the use of neramexane as a pharmacological intervention in the treatment of dementia.

  7. SOURCE TERM ESTIMATION BASED on PLANT STATUS and on GAMMA DOSE RATES Measured by an ON-line environmental Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubna, M.; Bujan, A.; Duranova, T.

    1997-01-01

    A number of severe accident analyses for reactor unit with WWER-440 (213) has been performed in order to evaluate the source term and radiological consequences. As a tool for these analyses the WWER modified version of Source Term Code Package and Real Time Accident Release Consequences codes have been used. A set of emergency procedures - manuals for quick estimation of the source term and countermeasures introduction during early -pre-release phase of severe accident progression has been developed at Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava, Inc. These manuals are subdivided into three groups: 1.) evaluation of the barriers integrity, 2.) source term estimation and 3.) estimation of the distances for the countermeasures introduction. A methodology and computer module for interpretation of environmental data - source term assessment during post-release phase from on-line environmental network has been developed at Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava, Inc. The method is based on the conversion of measured dose rates to the source term,i.e. airborne radioactivity release rate, taking into account real meteorological data and location of the measure points. The bootstrap method for the estimation of the mean value of source term Q as integral value of the release and confidence interval of Q has been selected. The methodology of Q distribution into fission product groups according to code Real Time Accident Release Consequences needs is based on known plant status, i.e. on the results of pre calculated accident sequences. The paper describes the methodologies introduced above and the way of their application

  8. Competitive short-term and long-term memory processes in spatial habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, David J; Bannerman, David M

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to a spatial location leads to habituation of exploration such that, in a novelty preference test, rodents subsequently prefer exploring a novel location to the familiar location. According to Wagner's (1981) theory of memory, short-term and long-term habituation are caused by separate and sometimes opponent processes. In the present study, this dual-process account of memory was tested. Mice received a series of exposure training trials to a location before receiving a novelty preference test. The novelty preference was greater when tested after a short, rather than a long, interval. In contrast, the novelty preference was weaker when exposure training trials were separated by a short, rather than a long interval. Furthermore, it was found that long-term habituation was determined by the independent effects of the amount of exposure training and the number of exposure training trials when factors such as the intertrial interval and the cumulative intertrial interval were controlled. A final experiment demonstrated that a long-term reduction of exploration could be caused by a negative priming effect due to associations formed during exploration. These results provide evidence against a single-process account of habituation and suggest that spatial habituation is determined by both short-term, recency-based memory and long-term, incrementally strengthened memory.

  9. Long-term reliability of the visual EEG Poffenberger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan

    2017-07-14

    The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Marijuana effects on long-term memory assessment and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, C F; Tinklenberg, J R; Roth, W T; Vernon, S; Kopell, B S

    1977-05-09

    The ability of 16 college-educated male subjects to recall from long-term memory a series of common facts was tested during intoxication with marijuana extract calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and during placebo conditions. The subjects' ability to assess their memory capabilities was then determined by measuring how certain they were about the accuracy of their recall performance and by having them predict their performance on a subsequent recognition test involving the same recall items. Marijuana had no effect on recall or recognition performance. These results do not support the view that marijuana provides access to facts in long-term storage which are inaccessible during non-intoxication. During both marijuana and placebo conditions, subjects could accurately predict their recognition memory performance. Hence, marijuana did not alter the subjects' ability to accurately assess what information resides in long-term memory even though they did not have complete access to that information.

  11. Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling accumulation in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2018-02-02

    Biofouling studies addressing biofouling control are mostly executed in short-term studies. It is unclear whether data collected from these experiments are representative for long-term biofouling as occurring in full-scale membrane systems. This study investigated whether short-term biofouling studies accelerated by biodegradable nutrient dosage to feed water were predictive for long-term biofouling development without nutrient dosage. Since the presence of a feed spacer has an strong effect on the degree of biofouling, this study employed six geometrically different feed spacers. Membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) were operated with the same (i) membrane, (ii) feed flow and (iii) feed water, but with feed spacers varying in geometry. For the short-term experiment, biofilm formation was enhanced by nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water, whereas no nutrient dosage was applied in the long-term experiment. Pressure drop development was monitored to characterize the extent of biofouling, while the accumulated viable biomass content at the end of the experimental run was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements. Impact of feed spacer geometry on biofouling was compared for the short-term and long-term biofouling study. The results of the study revealed that the feed spacers exhibited the same biofouling behavior for (i) the short-term (9-d) study with nutrient dosage and (ii) the long-term (96-d) study without nutrient dosage. For the six different feed spacers, the accumulated viable biomass content (pg ATP.cm) was roughly the same, but the biofouling impact in terms of pressure drop increase in time was significantly different. The biofouling impact ranking of the six feed spacers was the same for the short-term and long-term biofouling studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term accelerated biofouling studies in MFSs are a representative and suitable approach for the prediction of biofouling in membrane filtration systems after long-term

  12. Labeling of hepatic glycogen after short- and long-term stimulation of glycogen synthesis in rats injected with 3H-galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, J.E.; Garfield, S.A.; Hung, J.T.; Cardell, R.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of short- and long-term stimulation of glycogen synthesis elicited by dexamethasone were studied by light (LM) and electron (EM) microscopic radioautography (RAG) and biochemical analysis. Adrenalectomized rats were fasted overnight and pretreated for short- (3 hr) or long-term (14 hr) periods with dexamethasone prior to intravenous injection of tracer doses of 3H-galactose. Analysis of LM-RAGs from short-term rats revealed that about equal percentages (44%) of hepatocytes became heavily or lightly labeled 1 hr after labeling. The percentage of heavily labeled cells increased slightly 6 hr after labeling, and unlabeled glycogen became apparent in some hepatocytes. The percentage of heavily labeled cells had decreased somewhat 12 hr after labeling, and more unlabeled glycogen was evident. In the long-term rats 1 hr after labeling, a higher percentage of heavily labeled cells (76%) was observed compared to short-term rats, and most glycogen was labeled. In spite of the high amount of labeling seen initially, the percentage of heavily labeled hepatocytes had decreased considerably to 55% by 12 hr after injection; and sparsely labeled and unlabeled glycogen was prevalent. The EM-RAGs of both short- and long-term rats were similar. Silver grains were associated with glycogen patches 1 hr after labeling; 12 hr after labeling, the glycogen patches had enlarged; and label, where present, was dispersed over the enlarged glycogen clumps. Analysis of DPM/mg tissue corroborated the observed decrease in label 12 hr after administration in the long-term animals. The loss of label observed 12 hr after injection in the long-term pretreated rats suggests that turnover of glycogen occurred during this interval despite the net accumulation of glycogen that was visible morphologically and evident from biochemical measurement

  13. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  14. Entrance and peripheral dose measurements during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Kappas, K.; Theodorou, K.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry of entrance dose was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in order to evaluate the clinical application of the build up caps in patient dose measurements and for different treatment techniques. Peripheral dose (thyroid and skin) was measured for patients during breast radiotherapy to evaluate the probability of secondary cancer induction. TLD-100 chips were used with different Copper build up caps (for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams from two linear accelerators. Entrance doses were measured for patients during radiotherapy course for breast, head and neck, abdomen and pelvis malignancies. The measured entrance dose for the different patients for 6 MV beams is found to be within the ±2.6% compared to the dose derived from theoretical estimation (normalized dose at D max ). The same measurements for 15 MV beams are found to be ±3 %. The perturbation value can reach up to 20% of the D max , which acts as a limitation for entrance dose measurements. An average thyroid skin dose of 3.7% of the prescribed dose was measured per treatment session while the mean skin dose breast treatment session is estimated to be 42% of D max , for both internal and external fields. These results are comparable in those of the in vivo of reported in literature. The risk of fatality due to thyroid cancer per treatment course is 3x10 -3

  15. The requirement for enhanced CREB1 expression in consolidation of long-term synaptic facilitation and long-term excitability in sensory neurons of Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the transcriptional activator CREB1 is important for serotonin (5-HT)-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) of the sensorimotor synapse in Aplysia. Moreover, creb1 is among the genes activated by CREB1, suggesting a role for this protein beyond the induction phase of LTF. The time course of the requirement for CREB1 synthesis in the consolidation of long-term facilitation was examined using RNA interference (RNAi) techniques in sensorimotor co-cultures. Injection of CREB1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) immediately or 10 h after 5-HT treatment blocked LTF when measured at 24 h and 48 h after treatment. In contrast, CREB1 siRNA did not block LTF when injected 16 h after 5-HT treatment. These results demonstrate that creb1 expression must be sustained for a relatively long time in order to support the consolidation of LTF. In addition, LTF is also accompanied by a long-term increase in the excitability (LTE) of sensory neurons (SNs). Because LTE was observed in the isolated SN after 5-HT treatment, this long-term change was intrinsic to that element of the circuit. LTE was blocked when CREB1 siRNA was injected into isolated SNs immediately after 5-HT treatment. These data suggest that 5-HT-induced CREB1 synthesis is required for consolidation of both LTF and LTE. PMID:21543617

  16. Long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The atomic energy utilization and development in Japan have progressed remarkably, and already nuclear power generation has borne an important part in electric power supply, while radiation has been utilized in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine and so on. Now, atomic energy is indispensable for national life and industrial activity. The former long term plan was decided in September, 1978, and the new long term plan should be established since the situation has changed largely. The energy substituting for petroleum has been demanded, and the expectation to nuclear power generation has heightened because it enables stable and economical power supply. The independently developed technology related to atomic energy must be put in practical use. The peaceful utilization of atomic energy must be promoted, while contributing to the nuclear non-proliferation policy. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan decided the new long term plan to clearly show the outline of the important measures related to atomic energy development and utilization in 10 years hereafter, and the method of its promotion. The basic concept of atomic energy development and utilization, the long term prospect and the concept on the promotion, the method of promoting the development and utilization, and the problems of funds, engineers and location are described. (kako, I.)

  17. The Long-Term Operating Performance of European Mergers and Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Oosting, S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the long-term profitability of corporate takeovers of which both the acquiring and target companies are from Continental Europe or the UK.We employ four different measures of operating performance that allow us to overcome a number of measurement limitations of the previous

  18. Cosmic Radiation Dose Measurements from the RaD-X Flight Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Hayes, Bryan M.; Lusby, Terry C.; Straume, Tore; Tobiska, W. Kent; Hands, Alex; Ryden, Keith; Benton, Eric; hide

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission obtained measurements for improving the understanding of cosmic radiation transport in the atmosphere and human exposure to this ionizing radiation field in the aircraft environment. The value of dosimetric measurements from the balloon platform is that they can be used to characterize cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. The RaD-X balloon was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 degrees North, 104.2 degrees West) on 25 September 2015. Over 18 hours of flight data were obtained from each of the four different science instruments at altitudes above 20 kilometers. The RaD-X balloon flight was supplemented by contemporaneous aircraft measurements. Flight-averaged dosimetric quantities are reported at seven altitudes to provide benchmark measurements for improving aviation radiation models. The altitude range of the flight data extends from commercial aircraft altitudes to above the Pfotzer maximum where the dosimetric quantities are influenced by cosmic ray primaries. The RaD-X balloon flight observed an absence of the Pfotzer maximum in the measurements of dose equivalent rate.

  19. LINAC-radiosurgery for nonsecreting pituitary adenomas. Long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, M.J.R.; Maarouf, M.; Hunsche, S.; Ruge, M.I.; El Majdoub, F.; Treuer, H.; Sturm, V. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery; Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Voges, J. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Stereotactic Neurosurgery

    2012-04-15

    Stereotactic linear accelerator-based radiosurgery (LINAC-RS) is increasingly used for microsurgically inaccessible or recurrent pituitary adenomas. This single-center study evaluates the long-term follow-up after LINAC-RS of nonsecreting pituitary adenomas (NSA). Patients and methods: Between 1992 and August 2008, 65 patients with NSA were treated. Patient treatment and follow-up were conducted according to a prospective protocol. Indications for LINAC-RS were (1) tumor recurrence or (2) residual tumor. Three patients were treated primarily. For analysis of prognostic factors, patients were grouped according to epidemiological or treatment-associated characteristics. Results: A total of 61 patients with a follow-up {>=} 12 months (median 83 months, range 15-186 months, longest follow-up of published radiosurgery series) were evaluated with regard to their clinical, radiological, and endocrinological course. The median tumor volume was 3.5 ml ({+-} 4.3 ml, range 0.3-17.3 ml) treated with a median surface and maximum dose of 13.0 Gy and 29.7 Gy, respectively. Local tumor control was achieved in 98%. One patient died of unrelated cause after 36 months and 1 patient developed a radiation-induced seizure disorder. Visual complications did not occur. In 37 of 41 patients (90.2%), pituitary function remained stable. Maximum dose to the pituitary {<=} 16 Gy and female gender were positive prognostic factors for the preservation of pituitary function. Conclusion: LINAC-RS is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective treatment for recurrent NSA or microsurgically inaccessible residual tumor. LINAC-RS yielded a high rate of local long-term tumor control with a small number of radiation-induced side effects. (orig.)

  20. LINAC-radiosurgery for nonsecreting pituitary adenomas. Long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, M.J.R.; Maarouf, M.; Hunsche, S.; Ruge, M.I.; El Majdoub, F.; Treuer, H.; Sturm, V.; Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.P.; Voges, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic linear accelerator-based radiosurgery (LINAC-RS) is increasingly used for microsurgically inaccessible or recurrent pituitary adenomas. This single-center study evaluates the long-term follow-up after LINAC-RS of nonsecreting pituitary adenomas (NSA). Patients and methods: Between 1992 and August 2008, 65 patients with NSA were treated. Patient treatment and follow-up were conducted according to a prospective protocol. Indications for LINAC-RS were (1) tumor recurrence or (2) residual tumor. Three patients were treated primarily. For analysis of prognostic factors, patients were grouped according to epidemiological or treatment-associated characteristics. Results: A total of 61 patients with a follow-up ≥ 12 months (median 83 months, range 15-186 months, longest follow-up of published radiosurgery series) were evaluated with regard to their clinical, radiological, and endocrinological course. The median tumor volume was 3.5 ml (± 4.3 ml, range 0.3-17.3 ml) treated with a median surface and maximum dose of 13.0 Gy and 29.7 Gy, respectively. Local tumor control was achieved in 98%. One patient died of unrelated cause after 36 months and 1 patient developed a radiation-induced seizure disorder. Visual complications did not occur. In 37 of 41 patients (90.2%), pituitary function remained stable. Maximum dose to the pituitary ≤ 16 Gy and female gender were positive prognostic factors for the preservation of pituitary function. Conclusion: LINAC-RS is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective treatment for recurrent NSA or microsurgically inaccessible residual tumor. LINAC-RS yielded a high rate of local long-term tumor control with a small number of radiation-induced side effects. (orig.)

  1. Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Haugaard, S B; Jensen, Frank Krieger

    2010-01-01

    , glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral...... between 1 and 3 pm for 40 weeks. Endpoints included changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), limb fat mass, percentage of limb fat, plasma lipids, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. RESULTS: VAT and trunk fat mass decreased significantly in the GH group compared...

  2. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels during long-term IGF-I treatment of children and adults with primary GH resistance (Laron syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Klinger, B; Silbergeld, A

    1999-01-01

    Serum IGF-I levels were measured in 14 patients (9 children and 5 adults) with Laron syndrome (LS) during long-term treatment by IGF-I. Recombinant IGF-I (FK-780, Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Japan) was administered once daily subcutaneously before breakfast for 3-5 years to the children and for 9 months to the adults. The initial daily dose was 150 micrograms/kg for children and 120 micrograms/kg for adults. Before initiation of treatment the mean overnight fasting levels of serum IGF-I in the children was 3.2 +/- 0.8 nmol/l (mean +/- SEM), rising to 10 +/- 1.7 nmol/l during long-term treatment even on a dose of 120 micrograms/kg/day. The serum IGF-I levels 4 hours after injection rose from 31.2 +/- 3.5 to 48 +/- 2 nmol/l. In the adult patients, the initial basal IGF-I was 4.1 +/- 0.7 nmol/l, rising to 16.1 +/- 3.84 nmol/l after 8-9 months treatment. Serum IGF-I levels at 4 hours after injection rose in the adult patients from 24.1 +/- 5.8 up to 66.8 +/- 15.4 nmol/l. A progressively increasing half-life during long term exogenous administration of IGF-I to patients with Laron syndrome was demonstrated by following serum IGF-I dynamics after injection. Based on the fact that no antibodies to IGF-I were detected and on findings in previous studies, it is speculated that the increasing serum IGF-I levels during long-term IGF-I treatment are caused by an increase in serum IGFBP-3 induced by chronic IGF-I administration. It is concluded that treatment with IGF-I necessitates regular monitoring of serum IGF-I levels; in patients in whom the age adjusted maximal levels are exceeded, a reduction of the daily IGF-I dose is indicated to avoid undesirable effects.

  3. Soil-plant-relationships and ecological forecast of human internal doses from long-lived radionuclides. Dose 'cost' of the transformation of radionuclides bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.P.; Grodzinsky, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil pathway of radionuclides pollution of agricultural production becomes the main one at the recovery stage of postaccidental period. For this stage dynamics of the human foodstuffs cleaning and rate of internal dose due to consumption are results , of the interaction of three main factors, namely, the rate of the decrease of soil contamination, structure of soil use and transformations of bioavailability of radionuclides. Representation of these ideas in quantitative form, documentation and analysis of the main ecological causes that determine the intensity of the radionuclides mobility in the biological cycle is essential increase the accuracy of the long-term forecast of human dose formation and promote the development of adequate strategies for countermeasures. General formal model and practical method of the ecological forecast of human internal doses has been proposed and used for estimation. Refs. 5 (author)

  4. Mechanisms of long-term concrete degradation in LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Most low-level waste (LLW) disposal alternatives, except shallow land burial and improved shallow land burial, involve the use of concrete as an extra barrier for containment. Because concrete is a porous-type material, its moisture retention and transport properties can be characterized with parameters that are also used to characterize the geohydrologic properties of soils. Several processes can occur with the concrete to degrade it and to increase both the movement of water and contaminants through the disposal facility. The effect of these processes must be quantified in designing and estimating the long-term performance of disposal facilities. Modeling the long-term performance of LLW disposal technologies involves, first, estimating the degradation rate of the concrete in a particular facility configuration and environmental setting; second, calculating the water flow through the facility as a function of time; third, calculating the contaminant leaching usually by diffusion or dissolution mechanisms, and then coupling the facility water and contaminant outflow to a hydrogeological and environmental uptake model for environmental releases or doses

  5. Legal, administrative and financial aspects of the long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.; Reyners, P.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the principal features of a study undertaken by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency on the institutional problems raised by the long-term management of radioactive waste. The purpose of this study is to provide the competent national authorities with a common approach based on experience. All management operations which may extend over periods of more than 50 years are covered by the study, which analyses the control measures or other institutional measures that must be taken with regard to such operations. It distinguishes between ''active'' and ''passive'' control measures and describes their application ''before closure'' and ''after closure'' of the disposal or storage sites. An attempt is made to evaluate the lifetime of such institutional control measures and it is proposed, on this basis, that a period of several centuries, at most 300 years, should be considered reasonable in view of the need to avoid imposing an excessive burden on future generations. The study also provides a description of relations between governments and industry, stressing the increased responsibility of governments in the context of long-term management of radioactive waste. Specific questions of financing and responsibility for civil nuclear activities which relate to long-term management are also analysed. The general conclusion arrived at is that a long-term management strategy must be based on a viable combination of technological methods and institutional measures. (author)

  6. Mixed field dose equivalent measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; McDonald, J.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Quam, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, separate instruments have been used to monitor dose equivalent from neutrons and gamma rays. It has been demonstrated that it is now possible to measure simultaneously neutron and gamma dose with a single instrument, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). With appropriate algorithms dose equivalent can also be determined from the TEPC. A simple ''pocket rem meter'' for measuring neutron dose equivalent has already been developed. Improved algorithms for determining dose equivalent for mixed fields are presented. (author)

  7. Consistency of the single calculus chain for climatological studies using long-term measurements from thessaloniki lidar station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Nikolaos; Voudouri, Kalliopi A.; Filioglou, Maria; Giannakaki, Eleni; Amiridis, Vasilis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Balis, Dimitris S.

    2018-04-01

    The long term analysis of 15 years of lidar data derived from a Raman lidar at Thessaloniki is presented here. All measurements have been processed with the latest version 4 of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain algorithm and are compared with the results from the current operational retrieval algorithm. In this paper we investigate the consistency between the EARLINET database and SCC for the case of Thessaloniki and we identify the issues to be considered when switching from current operations to SCC.

  8. Measuring forgetting: a critical review of accelerated long-term forgetting studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Gemma; Isaac, Claire L; Muhlert, Nils

    2014-05-01

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) refers to abnormal forgetting over hours to weeks despite normal acquisition or initial consolidation. Since standardised assessments of memory typically only test at delays of up to 40-minutes, ALF may go undetected in clinical practice. The memory difficulties associated with ALF can however cause considerable distress to patients. It is important therefore that clinicians are aware that ALF may represent a distinct phenomenon that will require additional and careful assessment to aid patients' understanding of the condition and assist in developing strategies to address its effects. At the same time, ALF may also provide insight into long-term memory processes. Studies of ALF in patients with epilepsy have so far demonstrated mixed results, which may reflect differences in methodology. This review explores the methodological issues that can affect forgetting, such as the effects of age, general cognitive function, test sensitivity and initial learning. It then evaluates the extent to which existing studies have considered these key issues. We outline the points to consider when designing ALF studies that can be used to help improve their validity. These issues can also help to explain some of the mixed findings in studies of ALF and inform the design of standardised tests for assessing ALF in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term follow-up reveals low toxicity of radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, Isabelle; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Seidel, Laurence; Kotolenko, Snezana; Collignon, Jacques; Kaschten, Bruno; Albert, Adelin; Martin, Didier; Deneufbourg, Jean-Marie; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Stevenaert, Achille

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The long-term effects of radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas were investigated in a group of consecutively treated patients. Methods and materials: Between 1995 and 2001, 26 patients (median age: 67, range: 30-82) with a vestibular schwannoma were treated by Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The median follow-up was 49 months (16-85 months). Only progressive tumours were treated. The median size of tumours was 18 mm (range 9-30 mm). Before SRS, 11 patients had a useful hearing (Gardner-Robertson classes 1 and 2). Single doses of 10-14 Gy were prescribed at the 80% isodose at the tumour margin. The follow-up consisted of regular imaging with MRI the first 3-6 months after the intervention, followed by additional yearly MRIs, a hearing test and a neurological examination. Result: The 5-year-probability of tumour control (defined as stabilization or decrease in size) was 95%. Five-year-probability of preservation of hearing and facial nerve function was 96% and 100%, respectively. Hearing was preserved in 10 out of 11 patients who had a normal or useful hearing at the time of treatment. Mild and transient trigeminal toxicity occurred in 2 (8%) patients. It appeared to be significantly correlated to the dose used (p = 0.044). However, only a tendency to significance could be demonstrated in the relationship between the two factors when using the Cox analysis (hazard ratio = 1.7; 95% CI: 0.7-3.9; p = 0.23). Conclusions: With the doses used, our study demonstrates that SRS provides an equivalent tumour control rate when compared to surgery, as well as on a long-term basis, an excellent preservation of the facial and the acoustic nerves. Although no permanent trigeminal toxicity was observed, our data confirm that doses below 14 Gy can avoid transient dysesthesias

  10. Long-term contracts vs. short-term trade of natural gas - a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Hirschhausen, Christian von

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the economics of long-term gas contracts under changing institutional conditions, mainly gas sector liberalisation. The paper is motivated by the increasingly tense debate in continental Europe, UK and the US on the security of long-term gas supply. We discuss the main issues regarding long-term contracts, i.e. the changing role of the flexibility clause, the effect of abandoning the destination clause, and the strategic behaviour of producers between long-term sales and spot-sales. The literature suggests consumers and producers benefit from risk hedging through long-term contracts. Furthermore long-term contracts may reduce exercise of market power. Our analysis adds an additional benefit if the long-run demand elasticity is significantly lower than the short-run elasticity, both strategic producers and consumers benefit from lower prices and larger market volume. Some policy implications of the findings are also discussed. (Author)

  11. The uranium industry: long-term planning for short-term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.; Georges Capus, G.

    2001-01-01

    Long term planning for short term competition Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. Firstly, the risk of investing in new mining projects in western countries is growing because, on the one hand, of very erratic market conditions and, on the other hand, of increasingly lengthy, complex and unpredictable regulatory conditions. Secondly, the supply of other sources of uranium (uranium derived from nuclear weapons, uranium produced in CIS countries, ...) involve other risks, mainly related to politics and commercial restrictions. Consequently, competitive uranium supply requires not only technical competence but also financial strength and good marketing capabilities in order to anticipate long-term market trends, in terms of both demand and supply. It also requires taking into account new parameters such as politics, environment, regulations, etc. Today, a supplier dedicated to the sustainable production of nuclear electricity must manage a broad range of long-term risks inherent to the procurement of uranium. Taking into account all these parameters in a context of short-term, fast-changing market is a great challenge for the future generation. World Uranium Civilian Supply and Demand. (authors)

  12. Long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Hermansen, M.N.; Loland, L.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term exposure to air pollution is suspected to cause recurrent wheeze in infants. The few previous studies have had ambiguous results. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of measured long-term exposure to indoor air pollution on wheezing symptoms in infants. We monitored......-point 'any symptom-day' (yes/no) and by standard linear regression with the end-point 'number of symptom-days'. The results showed no systematic association between risk for wheezing symptoms and the levels of these air pollutants with various indoor and outdoor sources. In conclusion, we found no evidence...... of an association between long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants, suggesting that indoor air pollution is not causally related to the underlying disease. Practical Implications Nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde and fine particles were measured in the air in infants' bedrooms...

  13. The Long-Term Operating Performance of European Mergers and Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Oosting, S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate the long-term profitability of corporate takeovers of which both the acquiring and target companies are from Continental Europe or the UK. We employ four different measures of operating performance that allow us to overcome a number of measurement limitations of the previous

  14. Decoupling the short- and long-term behavior of stochastic volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko

    behavior) from long memory and persistence (long-term behavior) in a simple and parsimonious way, which allows us to successfully model volatility at all intraday time scales. Our prime model is based on the so-called Brownian semistationary process and we derive a number of theoretical properties...... measures of close to two thousand individual US equities, we find that both roughness and persistence appear to be universal properties of volatility. Inspired by the empirical findings, we introduce a new class of continuous-time stochastic volatility models, capable of decoupling roughness (short-term...

  15. Long-term outcomes of unilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad H; Hariri, Sanaz

    2009-06-01

    the long-term outcomes of wartime transtibial amputations have not been well documented. The purpose of this case series is to present the long-term functional, social, and psychological outcomes of modern-day military unilateral transtibial amputees. the Iranian Veterans Administration of the Khorasan province invited their Iranian military amputees from the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) to its medical center for evaluation. The patients filled out a detailed questionnaire and were interviewed and examined by each team member. two hundred (77%) of the 260 invited amputees were willing and able to come back for follow-up. Ninety-six of these patients (48%) were unilateral transtibial amputation. The average follow-up was 17.4 years (range 15-22 years). Land mines were the leading cause of war injury necessitating a transtibial amputation (68%). The most common symptoms about their amputated limbs were phantom sensations (54%), phantom pain (17%), and stump pain (42%). Lower back pain, contralateral (nonamputated limb) knee pain, and ipsilateral (amputated limb) knee pain were reported by 44%, 38%, and 13% of subjects, respectively. Sixty-five percent of patients were employed or had been employed for multiple years after their war injury. All patients were married, and 97% had children. Fifty-four percent of amputees reported psychological problems; 26% were currently utilizing psychological support services. at long-term follow-up, most military transtibial amputees experienced phantom sensation or some type of stump pain. More than half had persistent psychiatric problems, but only about half of these patients were receiving psychological treatment. Although this case series reports the status of these amputees, the next step would be to prospectively follow modern wartime amputees using standardized, validated outcome measures. With the goal of optimizing long-term amputee outcomes, researchers should correlate outcomes with demographics, injury characteristics, and

  16. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  17. Insulin requirement profiles of short-term intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its association with long-term glycemic remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liehua; Ke, Weijian; Wan, Xuesi; Zhang, Pengyuan; Cao, Xiaopei; Deng, Wanping; Li, Yanbing

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the insulin requirement profiles during short-term intensive continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its relationship with long-term glycemic remission. CSII was applied in 104 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Daily insulin doses were titrated and recorded to achieve and maintain euglycemia for 2 weeks. Measurements of blood glucose, lipid profiles as well as intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after the therapy. Afterwards, patients were followed up for 1 year. Total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 56.6±16.1IU at the first day when euglycemia was achieved (TDD-1). Thereafter, TDD progressively decreased at a rate of 1.4±1.0IU/day to 36.2±16.5IU at the end of the therapy. TDD-1 could be estimated with body weight, FPG, triglyceride and waist circumference in a multiple linear regression model. Decrement of TDD after euglycemia was achieved (ΔTDD) was associated with reduction of HOMA-IR (r=0.27, P=0.008) but not with improvement in β cell function. Patients in the lower tertile of ΔTDD had a significantly higher risk of hyperglycemia relapse than those in the upper tertile within 1 year (HR 3.4, 95%CI [1.4, 8.4], P=0.008). There is a steady decline of TDD after euglycemia is achieved in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes treated with CSII, and ΔTDD is associated with a better long-term glycemic outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  19. Short-term memory and long-term memory are still different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    A commonly expressed view is that short-term memory (STM) is nothing more than activated long-term memory. If true, this would overturn a central tenet of cognitive psychology-the idea that there are functionally and neurobiologically distinct short- and long-term stores. Here I present an updated case for a separation between short- and long-term stores, focusing on the computational demands placed on any STM system. STM must support memory for previously unencountered information, the storage of multiple tokens of the same type, and variable binding. None of these can be achieved simply by activating long-term memory. For example, even a simple sequence of digits such as "1, 3, 1" where there are 2 tokens of the digit "1" cannot be stored in the correct order simply by activating the representations of the digits "1" and "3" in LTM. I also review recent neuroimaging data that has been presented as evidence that STM is activated LTM and show that these data are exactly what one would expect to see based on a conventional 2-store view. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Dispositional optimism as predictor of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Erkki; Heiskanen, Tiia; Lindfors, Olavi; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Knekt, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Dispositional optimism predicts various beneficial outcomes in somatic health and treatment, but has been little studied in psychotherapy. This study investigated whether an optimistic disposition differentially predicts patients' ability to benefit from short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. A total of 326 adult outpatients with mood and/or anxiety disorder were randomized into short-term (solution-focused or short-term psychodynamic) or long-term psychodynamic therapy and followed up for 3 years. Dispositional optimism was assessed by patients at baseline with the self-rated Life Orientation Test (LOT) questionnaire. Outcome was assessed at baseline and seven times during the follow-up, in terms of depressive (BDI, HDRS), anxiety (SCL-90-ANX, HARS), and general psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90-GSI), all seven follow-up points including patients' self-reports and three including interview-based measures. Lower dispositional optimism predicted faster symptom reduction in short-term than in long-term psychotherapy. Higher optimism predicted equally rapid and eventually greater benefits in long-term, as compared to short-term, psychotherapy. Weaker optimism appeared to predict sustenance of problems early in long-term therapy. Stronger optimism seems to best facilitate engaging in and benefiting from a long-term therapy process. Closer research might clarify the psychological processes responsible for these effects and help fine-tune both briefer and longer interventions to optimize treatment effectiveness for particular patients and their psychological qualities. Weaker dispositional optimism does not appear to inhibit brief therapy from effecting symptomatic recovery. Patients with weaker optimism do not seem to gain added benefits from long-term therapy, but instead may be susceptible to prolonged psychiatric symptoms in the early stages of long-term therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  2. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-01

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these 'legacy' sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  3. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-08

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these "legacy" sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  4. Perspectives for hydropower stations in Switzerland: long-term competitiveness and possibilities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Banfi, S.; Luchsinger, C.; Wild, J.; Balmer, M.; Grand, D.; Henkels, L.; Semadeni, M.; Gnansounou, E.

    2001-01-01

    This first general study - which has the character of a preliminary study - examines the questions if the liberalisation of the electricity market will have a negative effect on the competitiveness of hydropower in the long-term and what measures can be taken against such effects. Long-term competitiveness is defined as the ability of a business in this sector to make investments in renewal in the long-term, i.e. after its concessions have expired. The three main aims of the study are: 1. Assessment of the long-term competitiveness of the sector and identification of the factors which could either have a negative effect on it or improve it, 2. Analysis of cost structures and presentation of measures through which the long-term competitiveness of the sector can be reinforced, 3. Presentation of possible political measures to be taken in this business area in order to improve the long-term competitiveness of hydropower stations. The study identifies the most important factors that determine future competitiveness as being the market prices for electricity and capital costs (depreciation and interest on own and borrowed capital). Further, water fees, taxes and regulations concerning residual water flow can be of great importance for investment decisions, in particular for those enterprises that operate close to their profitability limits. The results of the analysis indicate that, in the future, a considerable number of enterprises must be reckoned with that will refrain from renewing their plant. Such outcomes depend, of course, on developments in electricity market prices, specific investment costs, rates of interest and other economic, political, and legal conditions. Making a prognosis about the development of such parameters is linked with a high degree of uncertainty. By means of sensitivity calculations and the definition of various scenarios, attempts are made to take these uncertainties into account . Finally, the study makes reference to the fact that

  5. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Manos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce

  6. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Thanos; Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS) robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate) is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS) turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce long-term

  7. The Value of Median Nerve Sonography as a Predictor for Short- and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Marschall

    Full Text Available To investigate the prognostic value of B-mode and Power Doppler (PD ultrasound of the median nerve for the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Prospective study of 135 patients with suspected CTS seen 3 times: at baseline, then at short-term (3 months and long-term (15-36 months follow-up. At baseline, the cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve was measured with ultrasound at 4 levels on the forearm and wrist. PD signals were graded semi-quantitatively (0-3. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at each visit with the Boston Questionnaire (BQ and the DASH Questionnaire, as well as visual analogue scales for the patient's assessment of pain (painVAS and physician's global assessment (physVAS. The predictive values of baseline CSA and PD f